Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Iron Chelating Agents: Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Iron Overload: An excessive accumulation of iron in the body due to a greater than normal absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract or from parenteral injection. This may arise from idiopathic hemochromatosis, excessive iron intake, chronic alcoholism, certain types of refractory anemia, or transfusional hemosiderosis. (From Churchill's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1989)Iron, Dietary: Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Iron Isotopes: Stable iron atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iron, but differ in atomic weight. Fe-54, 57, and 58 are stable iron isotopes.Iron Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.Ferritins: Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.Iron Compounds: Organic and inorganic compounds that contain iron as an integral part of the molecule.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Anemia, Iron-Deficiency: Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.Bone Diseases, MetabolicFractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Iron Regulatory Protein 1: A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its RNA binding ability and its aconitate hydrolase activity are dependent upon availability of IRON.Ferrous Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Iron Metabolism Disorders: Disorders in the processing of iron in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization. (From Mosby's Medical, Nursing, & Allied Health Dictionary, 4th ed)Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Iron Regulatory Protein 2: A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its rate of degradation is increased in the presence of IRON.Deferoxamine: Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Parietal Bone: One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Siderophores: Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron. (The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Receptors, Transferrin: Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.Hepcidins: Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.Anemia, Hypochromic: Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)Iron-Dextran Complex: A complex of ferric oxyhydroxide with dextrans of 5000 to 7000 daltons in a viscous solution containing 50 mg/ml of iron. It is supplied as a parenteral preparation and is used as a hematinic. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1292)Hemochromatosis: A disorder of iron metabolism characterized by a triad of HEMOSIDEROSIS; LIVER CIRRHOSIS; and DIABETES MELLITUS. It is caused by massive iron deposits in parenchymal cells that may develop after a prolonged increase of iron absorption. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Syndromes & Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed)Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Alveolar Bone Loss: Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Nonheme Iron Proteins: Proteins, usually acting in oxidation-reduction reactions, containing iron but no porphyrin groups. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1993, pG-10)Bone Cysts: Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Iron-Binding Proteins: Proteins that specifically bind to IRON.Cation Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.Frontal Bone: The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.Bone Marrow DiseasesCalcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7: A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.Bone Marrow Examination: Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Iron-Regulatory Proteins: Proteins that regulate cellular and organismal iron homeostasis. They play an important biological role by maintaining iron levels that are adequate for metabolic need, but below the toxicity threshold.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Apoferritins: The protein components of ferritins. Apoferritins are shell-like structures containing nanocavities and ferroxidase activities. Apoferritin shells are composed of 24 subunits, heteropolymers in vertebrates and homopolymers in bacteria. In vertebrates, there are two types of subunits, light chain and heavy chain. The heavy chain contains the ferroxidase activity.Leg Bones: The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the FEMUR; PATELLA; TIBIA; and FIBULA.Bone Marrow Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.HemosiderinAlkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Pelvic Bones: Bones that constitute each half of the pelvic girdle in VERTEBRATES, formed by fusion of the ILIUM; ISCHIUM; and PUBIC BONE.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Metacarpal Bones: The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Mice, Inbred C57BLGlucaric Acid: A sugar acid derived from D-glucose in which both the aldehydic carbon atom and the carbon atom bearing the primary hydroxyl group are oxidized to carboxylic acid groups.Metatarsal Bones: The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Tarsal Bones: The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.Osteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.CeruloplasminDiphosphonates: Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.Iron Carbonyl Compounds: Complex of iron atoms chelated with carbonyl ions.Bone Demineralization Technique: Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.Foot Bones: The TARSAL BONES; METATARSAL BONES; and PHALANGES OF TOES. The tarsal bones consists of seven bones: CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid; navicular; internal; middle; and external cuneiform bones. The five metatarsal bones are numbered one through five, running medial to lateral. There are 14 phalanges in each foot, the great toe has two while the other toes have three each.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Ilium: The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.FMN Reductase: An enzyme that utilizes NADH or NADPH to reduce FLAVINS. It is involved in a number of biological processes that require reduced flavin for their functions such as bacterial bioluminescence. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.8.1 and EC 1.5.1.29.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Radius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal: Fibrous blood-filled cyst in the bone. Although benign it can be destructive causing deformity and fractures.Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.Chelation Therapy: Therapy of heavy metal poisoning using agents which sequester the metal from organs or tissues and bind it firmly within the ring structure of a new compound which can be eliminated from the body.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Technetium Tc 99m Medronate: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.RANK Ligand: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.beta-Thalassemia: A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin. There is retardation of hemoglobin A synthesis in the heterozygous form (thalassemia minor), which is asymptomatic, while in the homozygous form (thalassemia major, Cooley's anemia, Mediterranean anemia, erythroblastic anemia), which can result in severe complications and even death, hemoglobin A synthesis is absent.Bone Plates: Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)Osseointegration: The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Periosteum: Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Ferrozine: A ferroin compound that forms a stable magenta-colored solution with the ferrous ion. The complex has an absorption peak at 562 nm and is used as a reagent and indicator for iron.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Arm Bones: The bones of the free part of the upper extremity including the HUMERUS; RADIUS; and ULNA.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Facial Bones: The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Magnetite Nanoparticles: Synthesized magnetic particles under 100 nanometers possessing many biomedical applications including DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and CONTRAST AGENTS. The particles are usually coated with a variety of polymeric compounds.Iron-Sulfur Proteins: A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.Pyridones: Pyridine derivatives with one or more keto groups on the ring.Hyoid Bone: A mobile U-shaped bone that lies in the anterior part of the neck at the level of the third CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. The hyoid bone is suspended from the processes of the TEMPORAL BONES by ligaments, and is firmly bound to the THYROID CARTILAGE by muscles.Giant Cell Tumor of Bone: A bone tumor composed of cellular spindle-cell stroma containing scattered multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts. The tumors range from benign to frankly malignant lesions. The tumor occurs most frequently in an end of a long tubular bone in young adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Siderosis: A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of iron in the mining dust or welding fumes.Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Osteolysis: Dissolution of bone that particularly involves the removal or loss of calcium.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Phlebotomy: The techniques used to draw blood from a vein for diagnostic purposes or for treatment of certain blood disorders such as erythrocytosis, hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, and porphyria cutanea tarda.Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal: Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Ferrosoferric Oxide: Iron (II,III) oxide (Fe3O4). It is a black ore of IRON that forms opaque crystals and exerts strong magnetism.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Diaphyses: The shaft of long bones.Erythrocyte Indices: ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).Bone Marrow Purging: Techniques for the removal of subpopulations of cells (usually residual tumor cells) from the bone marrow ex vivo before it is infused. The purging is achieved by a variety of agents including pharmacologic agents, biophysical agents (laser photoirradiation or radioisotopes) and immunologic agents. Bone marrow purging is used in both autologous and allogeneic BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Osteoprotegerin: A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.Femur Neck: The constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters.Nitrilotriacetic Acid: A derivative of acetic acid, N(CH2COOH)3. It is a complexing (sequestering) agent that forms stable complexes with Zn2+. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed.)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Erythropoiesis: The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Hand Bones: The CARPAL BONES; METACARPAL BONES; and FINGER PHALANGES. In each hand there are eight carpal bones, five metacarpal bones, and 14 phalanges.Aconitate Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of cis-aconitate to yield citrate or isocitrate. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.3.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Bone Diseases, Infectious: Bone diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.Occipital Bone: Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.Petrous Bone: The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.Spectroscopy, Mossbauer: A spectroscopic technique which uses the Mossbauer effect (inelastic scattering of gamma radiation resulting from interaction with heavy nuclei) to monitor the small variations in the interaction between an atomic nucleus and its environment. Such variations may be induced by changes in temperature, pressure, chemical state, molecular conformation, molecular interaction, or physical site. It is particularly useful for studies of structure-activity relationship in metalloproteins, mobility of heavy metals, and the state of whole tissue and cell membranes.Enterobactin: An iron-binding cyclic trimer of 2,3-dihydroxy-N-benzoyl-L-serine. It is produced by E COLI and other enteric bacteria.Osteitis Deformans: A disease marked by repeated episodes of increased bone resorption followed by excessive attempts at repair, resulting in weakened, deformed bones of increased mass. The resultant architecture of the bone assumes a mosaic pattern in which the fibers take on a haphazard pattern instead of the normal parallel symmetry.Protoporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Protoporphyrin IX occurs in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and most of the cytochromes.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein: A highly glycosylated and sulfated phosphoprotein that is found almost exclusively in mineralized connective tissues. It is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to hydroxyapatite through polyglutamic acid sequences and mediates cell attachment through an RGD sequence.Bone Demineralization, Pathologic: Decrease, loss, or removal of the mineral constituents of bones. Temporary loss of bone mineral content is especially associated with space flight, weightlessness, and extended immobilization. OSTEOPOROSIS is permanent, includes reduction of total bone mass, and is associated with increased rate of fractures. CALCIFICATION, PHYSIOLOGIC is the process of bone remineralizing. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed; Nicogossian, Space Physiology and Medicine, 2d ed, pp327-33)Ulna: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Alveolar Process: The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Metacarpus: The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Hemosiderosis: Conditions in which there is a generalized increase in the iron stores of body tissues, particularly of liver and the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM, without demonstrable tissue damage. The name refers to the presence of stainable iron in the tissue in the form of hemosiderin.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Lactoferrin: An iron-binding protein that was originally characterized as a milk protein. It is widely distributed in secretory fluids and is found in the neutrophilic granules of LEUKOCYTES. The N-terminal part of lactoferrin possesses a serine protease which functions to inactivate the TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM used by bacteria to export virulence proteins for host cell invasion.Alendronate: A nonhormonal medication for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. This drug builds healthy bone, restoring some of the bone loss as a result of osteoporosis.Bone Banks: Centers for acquiring, characterizing, and storing bones or bone tissue for future use.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Haversian System: A circular structural unit of bone tissue. It consists of a central hole, the Haversian canal through which blood vessels run, surrounded by concentric rings, called lamellae.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.OsteomyelitisPhytic Acid: Complexing agent for removal of traces of heavy metal ions. It acts also as a hypocalcemic agent.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3: A bone morphogenetic protein that is found at high concentrations in a purified osteoinductive protein fraction from BONE. Bone morphogenetic protein 3 is referred to as osteogenin, however it may play a role in variety of developmental processes.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Sesamoid Bones: Nodular bones which lie within a tendon and slide over another bony surface. The PATELLA (kneecap) is a sesamoid bone.Conalbumin: A glycoprotein albumin from hen's egg white with strong iron-binding affinity.Etidronic Acid: A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.Thalassemia: A group of hereditary hemolytic anemias in which there is decreased synthesis of one or more hemoglobin polypeptide chains. There are several genetic types with clinical pictures ranging from barely detectable hematologic abnormality to severe and fatal anemia.Pubic Bone: A bone that forms the lower and anterior part of each side of the hip bone.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.2,2'-Dipyridyl: A reagent used for the determination of iron.
The main series, which currently consists of the novels Moon Called, Blood Bound, Iron Kissed, Bone Crossed, Silver Borne, ... In Iron Kissed we find Mercy at a crossroads in her relationships with the two men in her life, Samuel and Adam Hauptman. Both ... Bone crossed begins with the arrival of Stefan, Mercy's vampire friend, on the floor of her living room, flayed, starved, and ... The Mistress has had a pair of crossed bones placed on Mercy's door, magicked so they can't be removed, as a sign to other ...
Simpson, David (2009). "Iron Industry of North East England". Iron Age. Retrieved 6 March 2012. "Bolckow & Vaughan Men of Steel ... William Arthur Bone, 1912. Durham Mining Museum: Bolckow, Vaughan & Co. Ltd. This shows that the date in the Dictionary of ... The pig iron produced at Witton was transported to Middlesbrough for further forging or casting. In 1850, Vaughan and his ... He gave a speech to the crowd of 15,000 people, in which he described the town as "the greatest iron-producing district in the ...
The Iron-Age urn-burial site at Adichanallur, about 40 km from Thoothukudi city in southern Tamil Nadu, has attracted ... On its decay, the leg and arm bones fell over and rested against one side of the urn, while the skull, ribs, and vertebrae ... He said: "The objects yielded by these burial sites are finely made pottery of various kinds in great number; many iron ... Jagor had yielded "upwards of 50 kinds of baked earthenware utensils of all sizes and shapes, a considerable number of iron ...
Flesh and Bone 07. Fya 08. All Ova 09. Walk Wid Me 10. Rebel 11. Jah Throne 12. Mind Yu Own 13. Sing Out 14. Iron Sharpen Iron ...
Working Bones: A Unique Iron Age IIA Bone Workshop from Tell es-Safi/Gath. Near Eastern Archaeology 66: 169-73. Maeir, A. 2003 ... A Bone of Contention? Iron Age IIA Notched Scapulae from Tell es-Safi/Gath, Israel. Bulletin of the American Schools of ... A Late Iron Age I/Early Iron Age II Old Canaanite Inscription from Tell eṣ-Ṣâfī/Gath, Israel: Palaeography, Dating, and ... During the Iron Age, the site becomes a major Philistine site, "Gath of the Philistines," one of the five cities of the ...
Arrowheads made of iron and bone. Tiny bi-conical gold beads. Iron implements such as forceps/thongs, nails, spearheads,knives ...
Bone [*kʰri]. Child [*pʰo]. Right [*tʰwe]. Spicy [*hɛ]. Take [*pʰi]. Pus [*pʰi/mi] ... Iron [*tʰaʔ]. Pig [*tʰɔʔ]. Skin/bark [*pʰeʔ]. Shoot (v.) [*kʰaʔ]. Dark [*kʰeʔ/kʰuʔ] ...
He leans on a staff shod with iron. Agares commands 31 companies of bone devils. Each company includes 333 soldiers. Agares ... Talos the Triple Iron Golem - Ancient iron golem who serves Lord Dispater. Titivilus - Messenger of Dispater, Nuncio (MM2). ... He wears an iron gauntlet on his right hand as his badge of office. Focalor is a vassal of Mammon, acting as Mammon's seneschal ... Dispater's iron tower is itself a powerful magic item which makes Dispater almost impossible to kill as long as he remains ...
Industry included iron, bronze and bone working. There was large scale pottery production nearby. The Skeleton Green area later ... It is located at the navigable extremity of the River Rib (a tributary of the River Lea). Late Iron Age occupation in the area ... Skeleton Green: a late Iron Age and Romano-British site. London: Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies Roman-Britain.org: ...
It has 6 cofactors: FAD, Iron, FMN, Flavin, Nickel, and Iron-sulfur. BONE DH, BERNSTEIN S, VISHNIAC W (1963). "Purification and ...
Bone is calcium phosphate. Fe2+/Fe3+ - haemoglobin, the main oxygen carrying molecule has a central iron ion. NO− 3, source of ... Calcium in biology Magnesium in biology Human Iron Metabolism. ... calcium is a component of bones and teeth. It also functions as ...
From the earth he made flesh and bone; from the iron he made heart; from the water he made blood; and from the fire he gave ... Buga put his hand to Buninka's head and turned it to iron. This caused so much pain in Buninka that he begged Buga for release ... From the east he gathered iron; from the south fire; the west, water; and from the north, earth. ...
Cold hammered copper daggers, and a few instances of iron were also evident. Bone antecedents show the development of the form ... Copper and iron items have been found in both archaeological and ethnographic collections, and metals, particularly copper have ... including iron. In this part of the world the date 1560 (site date - Ozette Indian Village Archeological Site) pre-dates ... iron. The estimated date of these pours lies between 800 -500 BCE. Evidence for fully developed smelting, however, only appears ...
Frank Bones, Carpenter, Merchant Navy. Albert Edward Bonner, Able Seaman, Merchant Navy. William Ewart Bosher, Foreman of ... James Spencer Rollings, Chairman Anti-Glare Advisory Committee of the British Iron and Steel Federation. For services to Civil ... James Arthur Bradley, Centre Lathe Turner, Sheepbridge Coal & Iron Company. Charles Bradshaw, Chief Engineer of a Steam Trawler ... James Ratcliffe Walton, Deputy Iron and Steel Import Controller, Department of Supply, Government of India. Leonard Brown ...
Bone pins and awls also survive and an extraordinary bone "plaque". This latter object is 5 centimetres (2.0 in) long, has ... The Iron Age ruins include several different types of structures, including a broch and a defensive wall around the site. The ... Chicken bones are rare in the Norse levels. There are seven Norse-era houses at Jarlshof, although no more than two were in use ... The ore was locally obtained bog iron. Hazel, birch and willow grew in the area at this time but the pine and oak must have ...
Less traditional is the rare patu pora, made from iron and the hatchet (patiti). Types of nonweapon patu include: patu muka: a ... patu paraoa: made of whale bone. patu tawaka and patuki: made from wood. Other styles of short handled wooden clubs include the ... Patu were made from hardwood, whale bone, or stone. The most prestigious material for the patu was pounamu (greenstone). Patu ... made from pounamu were generally called "mere". Maori decorated the patu by carving into the wood, bone or stone. Types of patu ...
... with granules of iron accumulated in the mitochondria surrounding the nucleus. Normally, sideroblasts are present in the bone ... Serum iron, percentage saturation and ferritin are increased. The total iron-binding capacity of the cells is normal to ... Serum Iron: High Increased ferritin levels Normal total iron-binding capacity High transferrin saturation Hematocrit of about ... To count a cell as a ring sideroblast, the ring must encircle a third or more of the nucleus and contain five or more iron ...
Iron chelation may be done with deferoxamine or deferasirox. Occasionally, a bone marrow transplant may be an option. ... Bone deformities: Thalassemia can make the bone marrow expand, which causes bones to widen. This can result in abnormal bone ... Bone marrow expansion also makes bones thin and brittle, increasing the risk of broken bones. Enlarged spleen: The spleen aids ... Iron overload: People with thalassemia can get an overload of iron in their bodies, either from the disease itself or from ...
This revealed bones and pottery sherds. At this point, Wilhelm von Garvens, owner of the Garvensburg, was notified. He, in turn ... Similar depiction of teams of cattle are known from much more recent (Bronze or Iron Age) carvings at Valcamonica near Capo di ... None of the human bones showed signs of burning. There was a continuous ash layer in the centre of the anteroom. Most finds ... There were at least three bone tools, namely a chisel, a point and an arrowhead. Pottery fragments were scant; they included a ...
Captain America · Daredevil · Docteur Strange · Hulk · Iron Man · La Panthère noire · Les Quatre Fantastiques · L'Homme-fourmi ... Wolverine (Bone Claws) X-Men Personnages Capcom Jeu d'origine Première apparition Akuma Street Fighter X-Men vs. Street Fighter ...
... and bamboo arrows with points of either iron or bone." The oldest asymmetrical yumi found to date was discovered in Nara and is ...
This was done by analyzing the bones and bone fragments found in the ossuary. There were difficulties matching bones to one ... However, over half of the juveniles crania (skulls) showed evidence of anemia (iron deficiency). This was represented by what ... Also, many bones in the body mature at different stages and therefore one individual may show maturation of some bones while ... There were very few examples of bones showing signs of healing from trauma and none of the bones showed any evidence that there ...
Running Wild 1. "Iron Heads" - 3:38 2. "Bones to Ashes" - 5:07 Hellhammer 3. "Revelations of Doom" - 2:46 4. "Messiah" - 4:30 ...
18 His bones are as strong pieces of brass; his bones are like bars of iron. 19 He is the chief of the ways of God: he that ...
... two iron anchors; animal bones and teeth (pig and chicken); and seed and shell remains (prunes, chestnuts, and coconut). An ...
Coluzzi F, Mandatori I, Mattia C (September 2011). "Emerging therapies in metastatic bone pain". Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 16 (3 ... "Wnt inhibitor screen reveals iron dependence of β-catenin signaling in cancers". Cancer Res. 71 (24): 7628-39. doi:10.1158/0008 ...
The clinical suspicion of alveolar hemorrhage was raised by the lack of response to iron ... Iron-deficiency anemia is the most frequent hematologic disease in pediatrics.. Journal List Einstein Sao Paulo v. Subsequently ... Vitamin B 12 and folic acid were within normal range and the bone marrow smear was compatible with sideropenia. Treatment of ... Fax 55 21 E-mail: The clinical suspicion of alveolar hemorrhage was raised by the lack of response to iron therapy, with a ...
Sharma VR, Brannon MA, Carloss EA: Effect of omeprazole on oral iron replacement in patients with iron deficiency anemia. South ... McColl KE: Effect of proton pump inhibitors on vitamins and iron. Am J Gastroenterol 2009, 104(Suppl 2):S5-S9.CrossRefPubMed ... Laine L: Proton pump inhibitors and bone fractures? Am J Gastroenterol 2009, 104:S21-S26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... and prospective studies of their ability to affect bone density and cause bone fractures. In this article, these studies are ...
Bad To The Bone collared mesh shirt dress features a skeletal front print. Stud button closure at back of collar and sleeves. ... This black Iron Fist "Bad To The Bone" collared mesh shirt dress features a skeletal front print. Stud button closure at back ... www.hottopic.com/product/iron-fist-bad-to-the-bone-dress/10405766.html $62.50 $30.99 ...
BACKGROUND: Bone marrow iron microscopy has been the "gold standard" method of assessing iron deficiency. However, the commonly ... Improved method for assessing iron stores in the bone marrow. Journal. Journal of clinical pathology. Volume , Issue number. 62 ... AIM: To improve the bone marrow grading method by developing a detailed protocol that assesses iron in fragments, in ... CONCLUSIONS: Iron assessment can be greatly improved by a more intense marrow examination. This provides a useful iron status ...
Purcelville Bone broth, known to health nuts as medicinal and to chefs as animal stock, is catching on. The newest place to ... Bone broth at Haute Dogs & Fries 610 Montgomery St., Alexandria; 609 E. Main St., ... New This Week: Iron Gates New Lunch, Bone Broth in Alexandria. Fresh options for dining and drinking. ... Drop by Iron Gates elegant carriageway or garden (warmed with standing heaters) for the new tre breve lunch: any three items ...
Transfusional iron burden and liver toxicity after bone marrow transplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia and ... While it is appropriate to treat transfusional iron overload to limit end-organ injury after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) ... Iron biomarkers demonstrated significant iron overload before BMT in patients with malignant and non-malignant disorders. ... However, iron overload was associated with liver inflammation and VOD primarily in TM patients. The clinical significance of ...
These Iron Bones is an EP by progressive rock band 3. It was released on May 8, 2007 exclusively on iTunes. The first track (" ... "These Iron Bones" - 4:08 "One Way Town" - 5:13 "Dregs (acoustic)" - 3:27. ... "These Iron Bones") was later released on the bands next full-length album, The End is Begun, while the second track ("One Way ...
The gunports were sealed by lids suspended on hinges. They were opened and closed from the inside with rope lanyards. They are shaped to follow the curve of the hull. The current gunports are all replicas made from teak, fastened with brass screws. Originally the gunports would have been made from oak or elm.. Early photographs of Victory show a high number of the gunports on the lower and middle decks were fitted with small glazed windows.. ...
You are here:Home/Research/ Byzantine Studies/ Scholarly Activities/ Wood, Bone, Iron and Stone: Multidisciplinary ... Wood, Bone, Iron and Stone: Multidisciplinary Investigations of Daily Life at Late Byzantine Cherson (Crimea) ... Wood, Bone, Iron and Stone: Multidisciplinary Investigations of Daily Life at Late Byzantine Cherson (Crimea) ... The block housed a small chapel containing several dozen intact burials, as well as iron-smithing facilities, residential ...
Dream Science validates Bone Marrow Washing (Iron Shirt 3). Home › Forum Online Discussion › Practice › Dream Science validates ... Note that there will be a separate Iron Shirt 2&3 retreat taught next summer at Healing Tao University. Taught by Andrew McCart ... This brief video confirms the likely value of Taoist bone-marrow (spinal fluid) washing as the reason for dream rejuvenation. ...
... off Antique Bronze Cast Iron Fish Bone Key Rack 8in with coupon code SAVE15. Since 1954, Handcrafted Model Ships is the #1 ... Aged White Cast Iron Fish Bone Key Rack 8. $9.99 *. Antique White Cast Iron Fish Bone Key Rack 8. $8.99 *. Cast Iron Fish Bone ... Antique Gold Cast Iron Fish Bone Key Rack 8. $3.99 *. Rustic Copper Cast Iron Fish Bone Key Rack 8. $8.99 *. Seaworn Blue Cast ... Antique Silver Cast Iron Fish Bone Key Rack 8. $8.99 *. Rustic Dark Blue Cast Iron Fish Bone Key Rack 8. $8.99 *. Rustic Light ...
They include MegaFood, Solgar Gentle Iron, Enzymatic Therapy, and etc. ... Lets try best iron supplements that make you more energy and powerful. ... It is an important nutrient for maintaining bones and immunity and is a carrier of hemoglobin in the blood. Getting your iron ... Iron Content. Check the label to see which form of iron the supplement contains and what the concentration is. Do not buy a ...
... off Rustic Dark Blue Cast Iron Decorative Fish Bone Bath Towel Holder 28in with coupon code SAVE15. Since 1954, Handcrafted ... Aged White Cast Iron Palm Tree Bath Towel Holder 26. $14.99 *. Seaworn Blue Cast Iron Decorative Fish Bone Bath Towel Holder 28 ... Rustic Dark Blue Cast Iron Decorative Fish Bone Bath Towel Holder 28. Overall Dims: 28" L x 2" W x 3" H MSRP: $29.99 ... Cast Iron Conch Shell Bath Towel Holder 28. $19.99 *. Whitewashed Cast Iron Shell Sand Dollar Starfish Bath Towel Holder 27. ...
Deep within the bone, in the spongy tissue called the bone marrow, where the major components of your blood ... Bone health goes so much deeper than simply having strong bones. ... Why Is Iron So Important For Your Health and Bones?. Iron is an ... Bone health goes so much deeper than simply having strong bones. Deep within the bone, in the spongy tissue called the bone ... There are two types of dietary iron sources, which include heme iron and nonheme iron. Heme iron is present in hemoglobin, ...
... bone marrow iron store (BMIS) was evaluated in children with ALL and the relationship between iron store and minimal residual ... Bone marrow iron store is not considered a risk factor for childhood ALL. However, high levels of BMIS are associated with poor ... Bone marrow iron store control during treatment can therefore help achieve better outcomes and improve the chances of recovery. ... The relationship between iron bone marrow stores and response to treatment in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. ...
On the other hand, osteoporosis often occurs in disorders characterized by iron overload. Either ionizing radiation (IR)... ... Patients with radiotherapy are at significant risks of bone loss and fracture. ... Iron altered the responses of bone cells to IR. Iron enhanced the responses of osteoclasts to IR with elevated osteoclast ... IR aggravated iron overload induced bone loss by heightened bone resorption relative to formation. The addictive effects may be ...
DHM-15A Electrical And Electronics Measuring Instruments Body Water/Muscle Mass/Bone Mass Height And Weight Scales,Iron, Body ... Iron, Body Water Measuring Instruments, Human Weight Measurement Scale, Electronic Test And Measurement Instrument, Find ... DHM-15A Electrical And Electronics Measuring Instruments Body Water/Muscle Mass/Bone Mass Height And Weight Scales, ... DHM-15A Electrical And Electronics Measuring Instruments Body Water/Muscle Mass/Bone Mass Height And Weight Scales. -Iron, Body ...
Squid test showed high liver iron levels. Found iron deficiency. Worried for leukemia. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment ... Follow-up: Bone marrow test done. Squid test showed high liver iron levels. Found iron deficiency. Worried for leukemia 1 hour ... Follow-up: Bone marrow test done. Squid test showed high liver iron levels. Found iron deficiency. Worried for leukemia 1 hour ... Follow-up: Bone marrow test done. Squid test showed high liver iron levels. Found iron deficiency. Worried for leukemia 2 days ...
High strength, biodegradable and cytocompatible alpha tricalcium phosphate-iron composites for temporal reduction of bone ... biodegradable and cytocompatible alpha tricalcium phosphate-iron composites for temporal reduction of bone fractures. ACTA ... biodegradable and cytocompatible alpha tricalcium phosphate-iron composites for temporal reduction of bone fractures ...
New Bone Mill. Apparatus for Lifting Sunken Vessels. Russia Sheet Iron. Manufacture of Artificial Stone. ...
We quantified the iron distributions in a population of macrophages treated with Mycobacterium-tuberculosis-targeting iron- ... From the iron areal mass maps, we obtained a distribution of antibiotic load per agglomerate and an average areal concentration ... Here we extend the applicability of the two modalities to higher X-ray excitation energies, permitting iron mapping. Using a ... In the second application we mapped the calcium content in a human bone matrix in close proximity to osteocyte lacunae ( ...
Iron deficiency anemias. Iron deficiency anemias lead to the formation of deformed and smaller RBCs released from the marrow. ... The sites of bone marrow location include the sternum (middle of the chest), pelvis (hip bone), and femur (thigh bone). ... Main bone marrow problems. Diseases of the bone marrow may lead to an abnormality in the production of any of the mature blood ... The bone marrow is a soft spongy tissue within the bones. It is the seat of production of hematopoietic cells. These cells ...
Anemia and Iron in ESRD and CKD. Bone Disease and Calcium/Phosphorus Management. Hyponatremia in Young Women and Elderliness. ...
Iron absorption takes place in an acidic environment in the ... Our current understanding of intestinal non-heme iron transport ... Last Updated on Mon, 01 May 2017 , Bone Marrow Our current understanding of intestinal non-heme iron transport is illustrated ... There, iron is partitioned between storage and export; stored iron is ultimately lost from the body when the epithelial cells ... There, iron is partitioned between storage and export; stored iron is ultimately lost from the body when the epithelial cells ...
  • Fax 55 21 E-mail: The clinical suspicion of alveolar hemorrhage was raised by the lack of response to iron therapy, with a progressive decrease in Hb levels and after extensive investigation of other potential sources of bleeding. (norman-nekro.eu)
  • In contrast, the small-molecule eltrombopag, a thrombopoietin receptor antagonist, has been very effective in treating thrombocytopenia in patients with bone marrow failure. (sciencemag.org)
  • The diseases and disorders of the bone marrow include Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndrome, Myeloproliferative disorders and so forth. (news-medical.net)
  • Disorders of the bone marrow in which too many blood cells are produced. (dana-farber.org)
  • Chronic thrombocytopenia can be associated with a variety of conditions, such as bone narrow failure syndromes and immune disorders. (sciencemag.org)
  • The discovery, based on a comprehensive study in a mouse model of atherosclerosis, contradicts a long-held hypothesis about the role of iron in the disease and carries important implications for patients with chronic kidney disease or anemia related to inflammatory disorders, many of whom receive high-dose iron supplementation therapy. (healthcanal.com)
  • Understanding risk factors for atherosclerosis progression is important for better prevention and treatment of the disease," said senior author Elizabeta Nemeth, a professor of medicine at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and co-director of the UCLA Center for Iron Disorders. (healthcanal.com)
  • One such blood cell developed in the bone marrow is the red blood cell or erythrocyte, which transports oxygen-rich blood to every organ and tissue in your body. (saveourbones.com)
  • While the majority of iron is contained in the blood and muscles, it is an important mineral the body needs to perform many important metabolic functions. (saveourbones.com)
  • Magnesium is an important mineral for bone development and helps the proper functioning of various metabolic processes, like activating the enzymes that help in energy production. (versus.com)
  • Copper is an essential trace mineral that helps in the formation of collagen and elastin, which are essential for tissue and bone integrity. (versus.com)
  • Manganese is a trace mineral that assists in bone formation, skin integrity and assists the enzymes that control blood sugar. (versus.com)
  • This mineral is stored in your bones, and may be derived from supplements or food sources. (livestrong.com)
  • Iron is an important mineral that allows oxygen to be transported in RBC. (thebody.com)
  • In addition to its mineral content, depending upon the amount of tendon and muscle left on the bones, bonemeal can be a fairly good source of protein. (encyclopedia.com)
  • You'll get plenty of iron by eating shellfish of any kind-oysters and mussels included-but clams are especially rich in this essential trace mineral. (bewellbuzz.com)
  • The observation that men and postmenopausal women have both higher body iron levels and higher rates of atherosclerosis than premenopausal women led more than 30 years ago to the "iron hypothesis" - the notion that higher iron levels might promote atherosclerosis by generating more oxidative stress and promoting inflammation. (healthcanal.com)
  • Kids are often told to drink their milk for stronger bones, but what about postmenopausal women? (alaskaregional.com)
  • Estimating the serum tartrate resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP-5b) activity could be considered as informative diagnostic and prognostic markers of oxidative stress and bone disease in thalassaemic patients especially in the early stages of bone resorption. (com.es)
  • Infeasibility and sustainability, the benefits of green tea can be applied for use in other diseases with iron toxicity and oxidative stress. (intechopen.com)
  • Glycine also supports the production of glutathione (the body's primary antioxidant) and helps to rebuild collagen within our own bone structure. (nourishingmeals.com)
  • Getting your iron levels checked is the first step towards health and the next step is to choose a good iron supplement. (womensedge.org)
  • Bone health goes so much deeper than simply having strong bones. (saveourbones.com)
  • Low levels of iron in the blood, also called anemia, have been shown to contribute to a myriad of health disturbances, including bone loss. (saveourbones.com)
  • Today we present to you ten delicious foods that contain more iron than meat and the evidence-backed facts that show the beneficial effects of iron on bone health. (saveourbones.com)
  • Why Is Iron So Important For Your Health and Bones? (saveourbones.com)
  • Science has well established the relationship between bone health and iron. (saveourbones.com)
  • Several animal studies have shown that iron deficiency has an adverse impact on bone health, including diminishing bone formation and contributing to increased bone loss. (saveourbones.com)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that two billion people are anemic worldwide and that 50% of those anemias are due to iron deficiency. (saveourbones.com)
  • Without sufficient iron, your cells become starved for oxygen, causing a cascade of health problems. (saveourbones.com)
  • Abbaspour N, Hurrell R, Kelishadi R (2014) Review on iron and its importance for human health. (springer.com)
  • The bone marrow is responsible for the production of red and white blood cells, so any work which helps in the production, circulation and overall health of the blood also assures one of having more Chi. (energygatesqigong.us)
  • The work with Bone Marrow Nei Kung is not simply limited to restoring mental health and preventing injury-it prepares the stage for the higher techniques of the intermediate level of the Universal Tao Practice when the practitioner, using the physical body a solid foundation, begins to work on developing the Spirit Body for the experience of ultimate transcendence . (energygatesqigong.us)
  • A uniquely powerful antioxidant with strong clinical evidence in heart health, inflammation, cholesterol, liver and bone health, annatto sourced tocotrienol. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Bone & Joint Health Quiz: Do you know your MSM from your ESM? (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • In the run-up to the NutraIngredients-USA's Bone & Joint Health Online Summit on June 29, 2016, we thought we'd test your knowledge to find out how well you know the science, and market for bone & joint health ingredients. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Even then, however, martial use was only one aspect of Iron Shirt Chi Kung, and today its other benefits--strengthening the internal organs, establishing roots to the earth's energy, and unifying physical, mental, and spiritual health--remain vitally significant for anyone seeking better health, a sound mind, and spiritual growth. (innertraditions.com)
  • Even then, however, martial use was only one aspect of Iron Shirt Chi Kung, and today its other aspects remain vitally significant for anyone seeking better health, a sound mind, and spiritual growth. (innertraditions.com)
  • In Iron Shirt Chi Kung Master Mantak Chia introduces this ancient practice that strengthens the internal organs, establishes roots to the earth's energy, and unifies physical, mental, and spiritual health. (innertraditions.com)
  • What do you teach them about bone health? (lifescript.com)
  • Previous research has shown that iron levels correlate with several body functions including brain activity and have well documented long-term health consequences such as increased morbidity and mortality and loss of productivity," said Cardenas. (healthcanal.com)
  • With this understanding, I now appreciate how iron-induced oxidation in various parts of a growing baby's body can lead to each of these five serious health problems. (foodrenegade.com)
  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO), iron deficiency is the only nutrient deficiency that is prevalent in both developing countries and in industrialized countries. (bewellbuzz.com)
  • Oftentimes people with impaired digestion are deficient in amino acids, so bone broths can provide a quick route back to health. (nourishingmeals.com)
  • Look for organic, pastured beef knuckle and marrow bones at your local Farmer's Market or health food store (they can often be found in the freezer section). (nourishingmeals.com)
  • We love our sturdy chef's knife for tasks like chopping onions, hacking up chicken bones, or pushing through butternut squash. (cookscountry.com)
  • The Star Trek Dr Leonard "Bones" McCoy Sixth-Scale Figure will be available Feb 2017 - Mar 2017 but it can be pre-ordered now for $179.99 at Sideshow Collectibles. (geekalerts.com)
  • MDS syndromes are classified by how the cells in the bone marrow and blood smear look under the microscope. (news-medical.net)
  • Eltrombopag (EP), a small-molecule thrombopoietin receptor (TPO-R) agonist and potent intracellular iron chelator, has shown remarkable efficacy in stimulating sustained multilineage hematopoiesis in patients with bone marrow failure syndromes, suggesting an effect at the most immature hematopoietic stem and multipotent progenitor level. (sciencemag.org)
  • Conventional recommendations for the treatment of anemia often include iron supplements or an increased consumption of meat. (saveourbones.com)
  • While meat is a rich natural source of iron, Savers know it is acidifying and should be consumed in moderation. (saveourbones.com)
  • Day 2 was a bit olive oil and roast at least 8 hours,but have cooked short rib meat to use numerous "jointy" bones. (harvest-pub.com)
  • Place bones in a huge slow cooker or your largest thing is to be sure to depart a minimum of 2" of space at the pinnacle bag I was seeking to be To start reworking your system Whereas typically I let it go for a higher meal rather than bad but save the bones for a few steak and ham bone with lots of meat off the bone while she. (harvest-pub.com)
  • Iron is found in meat, dried fruit and some vegetables. (hse.ie)
  • My family may not be getting all the other complementary amino acids like proline, glycine, adding the skin, cartilage and ends reduces the price of meat adhering to the bones. (bone-broth.us)
  • Remove the bones and pick off any meat left on the bones. (nourishingmeals.com)
  • If there is a lack of iron in the blood, the organs and tissues will not get as much oxygen as they usually do. (hse.ie)
  • In Bone Marrow Nei Kung one works at revitalizing and strengthening the organs through vaginal and testicle weight lifting . (energygatesqigong.us)
  • During Bone Breathing we take advantage of the Chi generated in Iron Shirt I by absorbing Chi into the bones, thereby greatly extending the circulation of Chi for the meridians and the organs. (energygatesqigong.us)
  • Iron deficiency can cause a lack of healthy red blood cells in the body-a condition called anemia-which results in a lack of oxygen in the various tissues and organs throughout the body. (bewellbuzz.com)
  • If these new lives are deprived of the iron they need for the rapid growth and development of their brain, bones, and organs, these systems will be delayed or impaired in some cases permanently. (irondisorders.org)
  • Again I would consider a thorough Review of your iron studies to see if you might benefit from iron supplementation. (healthcaremagic.com)
  • And when its time for baby to start on solids, the current recommendation is to chose iron-fortified cereals after 6 months of age and to continue that supplementation until around age 2. (foodrenegade.com)
  • Because of the growing evidence that iron-fortification in babies is not without risks, increasing numbers of pediatricians are choosing to forgo the American Academy of Pediatricians recommendation to supplement babies with additional iron beginning at age four months and, rather, test iron levels in babies before deciding whether or not any iron supplementation is indeed appropriate. (foodrenegade.com)
  • Eating spinach is beneficial for maintaining healthy skin, hair and strong bones, as well as helping with digestion, lowering the risk for heart disease and improving blood glucose control in diabetics," she told Live Science. (livescience.com)
  • Iron is an essential nutrient which supports several body functions and exists in small amounts in the body, but it is also required by bacteria such as H. pylori ," said Cardenas. (healthcanal.com)
  • Made to optimize the iron levels of the body and to enhance physical performance, this supplement is available in three quantities. (womensedge.org)
  • Vegetarian and gluten-free, these iron capsules do not cause any gastrointestinal irritation and are very gentle on the body. (womensedge.org)
  • Iron is lost by the body through a variety of ways, with bleeding being the primary reason for iron loss. (saveourbones.com)
  • However, only 10% of the iron we consume is absorbed by the body. (saveourbones.com)
  • Your body is better at moderating the absorption of nonheme iron. (saveourbones.com)
  • Iron is an intracellular element whose accumulation in the body is associated with tissue damage. (ovid.com)
  • Mitchell F (2012) High body iron stores lead to bone loss. (springer.com)
  • The bone marrow contains stem cells that are primitive cells capable of turning into any desired cell in the body. (news-medical.net)
  • stored iron is ultimately lost from the body when the epithelial cells senesce and exfoliate into the gut lumen. (alpfmedical.info)
  • Iron that is retained within the enterocytes is lost from the body when these cells finish their short lifespan and slough into the gut lumen. (alpfmedical.info)
  • Iron deficiency anaemia occurs when there is a reduced number of red blood cells because the body does not have enough iron to produce them. (hse.ie)
  • It stimulates a process in the body called osteogenesis, which involves the growth of new bone and the repair of damaged bone. (medindia.net)
  • Largazole also blocks the oppose process in which the body naturally breaks down and resorbs bone. (medindia.net)
  • Conditions in which the body fails to process iron properly, such as hemochromatosis and porphyria. (dana-farber.org)
  • Although many BMP ligands, including BMP2, BMP4 and BMP9, can positively regulate hepcidin expression in vitro (2,9,11), it is not yet known how BMP signaling is modulated in response to body iron status or which BMPs are the endogenous regulators of hepcidin expression and iron homeostasis in vivo . (dia-m.ru)
  • The process through which sperm or ovarian energy is made to lodge in the bones and marrow is through the practice of ' beating' the body with a rod made of metal wires. (energygatesqigong.us)
  • Tension in the muscles surrounding the bones is lessened allowing continuous flow and movement of the whole body-an important factor for people who depend on physical activity as a way of living. (energygatesqigong.us)
  • The fasciae are extremely important in the practice of Iron Shirt because, as the most pervasive tissues in the body, they are believed to be the means whereby chi is distributed along acupuncture routes. (innertraditions.com)
  • Over time markers of iron stored in the body increased in children no longer infected. (healthcanal.com)
  • I'm not sure there's a single mechanism that explains how excess iron leads to body-wide skeletal growth delays, including the skull and long bones. (foodrenegade.com)
  • Bone is living tissue that is, like other cells in the body, in a constant state of buildup and breakdown. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Because the 206 bones in the body have to fight gravity every day, they're under constant stress - and constantly undergoing repair. (alaskaregional.com)
  • Healthy food can help reduce PMS, boost fertility, make pregnancy and nursing easier, ease symptoms of menopause, and keep your bones strong. (helpguide.org)
  • Notably, Bmp6 is expressed in hepatocytes, and its abundance, as detected by immunochemistry, strongly increases in wild-type mice fed an iron-enriched diet (data not shown). (dia-m.ru)
  • The hypothesis was refined over the last decade because of the discovery of hepcidin, a hormone that plays a central role in iron metabolism, much like the role of glucose in regulating the body's insulin levels. (healthcanal.com)