Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit: A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Metatarsal Bones: The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Frontal Bone: The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.Growth Plate: The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Dwarfism: A genetic or pathological condition that is characterized by short stature and undersize. Abnormal skeletal growth usually results in an adult who is significantly below the average height.Bone Diseases, MetabolicOsteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Brachydactyly: Congenital anomaly of abnormally short fingers or toes.Chondrogenesis: The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.Epiphyses: The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.Bone Diseases, DevelopmentalBone Morphogenetic Protein 3: A bone morphogenetic protein that is found at high concentrations in a purified osteoinductive protein fraction from BONE. Bone morphogenetic protein 3 is referred to as osteogenin, however it may play a role in variety of developmental processes.Osteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Hyperostosis: Increase in the mass of bone per unit volume.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Synostosis: A union between adjacent bones or parts of a single bone formed by osseous material, such as ossified connecting cartilage or fibrous tissue. (Dorland, 27th ed)Cranial Sutures: A type of fibrous joint between bones of the head.Periosteum: Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein: A ubiquitously expressed, secreted protein with bone resorption and renal calcium reabsorption activities that are similar to PARATHYROID HORMONE. It does not circulate in appreciable amounts in normal subjects, but rather exerts its biological actions locally. Overexpression of parathyroid hormone-related protein by tumor cells results in humoral calcemia of malignancy.Osteochondrodysplasias: Abnormal development of cartilage and bone.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Ribs: A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.IowaIn Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein: A highly glycosylated and sulfated phosphoprotein that is found almost exclusively in mineralized connective tissues. It is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to hydroxyapatite through polyglutamic acid sequences and mediates cell attachment through an RGD sequence.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Receptor, Parathyroid Hormone, Type 1: A parathyroid hormone receptor subtype that recognizes both PARATHYROID HORMONE and PARATHYROID HORMONE-RELATED PROTEIN. It is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is expressed at high levels in BONE and in KIDNEY.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Collagen Type II: A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Collagen Type X: A non-fibrillar collagen found primarily in terminally differentiated hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES. It is a homotrimer of three identical alpha1(X) subunits.Cleidocranial Dysplasia: Autosomal dominant syndrome in which there is delayed closing of the CRANIAL FONTANELLES; complete or partial absence of the collarbones (CLAVICLES); wide PUBIC SYMPHYSIS; short middle phalanges of the fifth fingers; and dental and vertebral anomalies.Mice, Inbred C57BLParathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Hedgehog Proteins: A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Matrix Metalloproteinase 13: A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that plays a physiological role in the degradation of extracellular matrix found in skeletal tissues. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is activated by the proteolytic cleavage of its N-terminal propeptide.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Twist Transcription Factor: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that was originally identified in DROSOPHILA as essential for proper gastrulation and MESODERM formation. It plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MUSCLE CELLS, and is found in a wide variety of organisms.RANK Ligand: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.Parietal Bone: One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.SOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Receptors, Parathyroid Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind PARATHYROID HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Parathyroid hormone receptors on BONE; KIDNEY; and gastrointestinal cells mediate the hormone's role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis.Alveolar Bone Loss: Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3: A fibroblast growth factor receptor that regulates CHONDROCYTE growth and CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Mutations in the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 have been associated with ACHONDROPLASIA; THANATOPHORIC DYSPLASIA and NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Bone Cysts: Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7: A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.Bone Marrow DiseasesImmunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Collagenases: Enzymes that catalyze the degradation of collagen by acting on the peptide bonds.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Leg Bones: The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the FEMUR; PATELLA; TIBIA; and FIBULA.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Bone Marrow Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.Bone Marrow Examination: Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Pelvic Bones: Bones that constitute each half of the pelvic girdle in VERTEBRATES, formed by fusion of the ILIUM; ISCHIUM; and PUBIC BONE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Metacarpal Bones: The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Tarsal Bones: The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Diphosphonates: Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Bone Demineralization Technique: Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.Foot Bones: The TARSAL BONES; METATARSAL BONES; and PHALANGES OF TOES. The tarsal bones consists of seven bones: CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid; navicular; internal; middle; and external cuneiform bones. The five metatarsal bones are numbered one through five, running medial to lateral. There are 14 phalanges in each foot, the great toe has two while the other toes have three each.Ilium: The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Radius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal: Fibrous blood-filled cyst in the bone. Although benign it can be destructive causing deformity and fractures.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Technetium Tc 99m Medronate: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.

The development and structure of the chimpanzee mandible. (1/1613)

The sites of growth and remodeling, and the associated changes in cortical bone structure, have been studied in the chimpanzee mandible and compared with those previously reported in the human and macaque mandibles. The location of the principal sites of growth, and the distribution of the areas of deposition and resorption in the ramus, were found to be similar in all three species. In the chimpanzee, unlike Man, the bone being deposited at the condyle, posterior border of the ramus and coronoid process was plexiform in nature, indicating very rapid growth. The pattern of remodeling in the mandibular body, on the other hand, showed marked species differences at the chin and on the submandibular lingual surface, which account for the contrasts seen in the adult morphology of these regions. Although the pattern of distribution of cortical densities differed from that of surface remodeling, the information they give is complementary in analysing bone growth. The densest regions were found to coincide with sites of consistent lamellar deposition, while the least dense regions were those where plexiform bone was formed. Areas where remodeling led to the greatest reorientation of bone tissue within the cortex showed the greatest disparity between the two patterns.  (+info)

Expression of the paired-box genes Pax-1 and Pax-9 in limb skeleton development. (2/1613)

Vertebrate Pax genes encode a family of transcription factors that play important roles in embryonic patterning and morphogenesis. Two closely related Pax genes, Pax-1 and Pax-9, are associated with early axial and limb skeleton development. To investigate the role of these genes in cartilage formation we have examined the expression profiles of Pax-1 and Pax-9 in developing chick limb mesenchyme in vivo and in vitro. Both transcripts are detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Northern blotting throughout chick limb development, from the early bud stages (Hamburger-Hamilton 20-23) to fully patterned appendages (stage 30). Whole-mount in situ hybridization reveals complex, nonoverlapping expression domains of these two genes. Pax-1 transcripts first appear at the anterior proximal margin of the limb buds, while Pax-9 is expressed more distally at what will be the junction of the autopod and the zeugopod. In situ hybridization to serial sections of the girdles reveals that in the pectoral region Pax-1 is expressed proximally in condensed mesenchyme surrounding the junction of the developing scapula, humerus, and coracoid. In the pelvis, Pax-1 is expressed between the femur and the developing acetabulum and along the ventral edge of the ischium; this transcript was also found in the distal hindlimb along the posterior edge of the fibula. Pax-9 transcripts were not detected in the pectoral girdle at any stage, and only weakly in the pelvis along the ventral ischial margin. In the distal parts of both wings and legs, however, Pax-9 is strongly expressed between the anterior embryonic cartilages (e.g., distal radius or tibia) and the anterior ectodermal ridge. The expression of both genes was strongest in undifferentiated cells of precartilage condensations or at the margins of differentiated cartilages, and was absent from cartilage itself. In micromass cultures of chondrifying limb bud mesenchyme expression of Pax-1 and Pax-9 is maintained for up to 3 days in vitro, most strongly at the end of the culture period during chondrogenic differentiation. As seen in vivo, transcripts are found in loose mesenchyme cells at the outer margins of developing cartilage nodules, and are absent from differentiated chondrocytes at the nodule center. Taken together, these investigations extend previous studies of Pax-1 and Pax-9 expression in embryonic limb development while validating limb bud mesenchyme culture as an accessible experimental system for the study of Pax gene function and regulation. Our in vivo and in vitro observations are discussed with reference to 1) the relationship between somitic and limb expression of these two Pax genes, 2) what regulates this expression in different regions of the embryo, and 3) the putative cellular functions of Pax-1 and Pax-9 in embryonic skeletogenesis.  (+info)

An endocytic pathway essential for renal uptake and activation of the steroid 25-(OH) vitamin D3. (3/1613)

Steroid hormones may enter cells by diffusion through the plasma membrane. However, we demonstrate here that some steroid hormones are taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis of steroid-carrier complexes. We show that 25-(OH) vitamin D3 in complex with its plasma carrier, the vitamin D-binding protein, is filtered through the glomerulus and reabsorbed in the proximal tubules by the endocytic receptor megalin. Endocytosis is required to preserve 25-(OH) vitamin D3 and to deliver to the cells the precursor for generation of 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D3, a regulator of the calcium metabolism. Megalin-/- mice are unable to retrieve the steroid from the glomerular filtrate and develop vitamin D deficiency and bone disease.  (+info)

Pleiotropic skeletal and ocular phenotypes of the mouse mutation congenital hydrocephalus (ch/Mf1) arise from a winged helix/forkhead transcriptionfactor gene. (4/1613)

Congenital hydrocephalus is an etiologically diverse, poorly understood, but relatively common birth defect. Most human cases are sporadic with familial forms showing considerable phenotypic and etiologic heterogeneity. We have studied the autosomal recessive mouse mutation congenital hydrocephalus ( ch ) to identify candidate human hydrocephalus genes and their modifiers. ch mice have a congenital, lethal hydrocephalus in association with multiple developmental defects, notably skeletal defects, in tissues derived from the cephalic neural crest. We utilized positional cloning methods to map ch in the vicinity of D13Mit294 and confirm that the ch phenotype is caused by homozygosity for a nonsense mutation in a gene encoding a winged helix/forkhead transcription factor ( Mf1 ). Based on linked genetic markers, we performed detailed phenotypic characterization of mutant homozygotes and heterozygotes to demonstrate the pleiotropic effects of the mutant gene. Surprisingly, ch heterozygotes have the glaucoma-related distinct phenotype of multiple anterior segment defects resembling Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly. We also localized a second member of this gene family ( Hfh1 ), a candidate for other developmental defects, approximately 470 kb proximal to Mf1.  (+info)

Growth factors in bone. (5/1613)

Bone contains several growth factors, including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and basic and acidic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF and aFGF). Spatial and temporal variations in the expression and secretion of the various growth factors have been demonstrated in osteoblastic cultures and in various experimental and clinical in vivo models, including fracture healing in humans. Local application of various growth factors influences proliferation, differentiation and protein synthesis in osteoblastic cultures and bone formation in different animal models, including experimental fractures and skeletal defects. The BMPs are the only growth factors known to provoke bone formation heterotopically by making undifferentiated mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteoblasts (osteoinduction). BMPs and other growth factors, soon to become commercially available for clinical use, need a delivery system for their sustained release, as the factors are otherwise rapidly absorbed. Some existing systems inhibit bone formation by inducing chronic inflammation or physically by unresorbed carrier obstructing bone formation. New delivery systems are being investigated.  (+info)

Tumor necrosis factor receptor family member RANK mediates osteoclast differentiation and activation induced by osteoprotegerin ligand. (6/1613)

A receptor that mediates osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and activation has been identified via genomic analysis of a primary osteoclast precursor cell cDNA library and is identical to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family member RANK. The RANK mRNA was highly expressed by isolated bone marrow-derived osteoclast progenitors and by mature osteoclasts in vivo. Recombinant OPGL binds specifically to RANK expressed by transfected cell lines and purified osteoclast progenitors. Transgenic mice expressing a soluble RANK-Fc fusion protein have severe osteopetrosis because of a reduction in osteoclasts, similar to OPG transgenic mice. Recombinant RANK-Fc binds with high affinity to OPGL in vitro and blocks osteoclast differentiation and activation in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, polyclonal Ab against the RANK extracellular domain promotes osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow cultures suggesting that RANK activation mediates the effects of OPGL on the osteoclast pathway. These data indicate that OPGL-induced osteoclastogenesis is directly mediated through RANK on osteoclast precursor cells.  (+info)

Retardation of bone growth in triamcinolone-treated mice. (7/1613)

Immature mice were treated for up to 8 weeks with daily doses of triamcinolone diacetate. The epiphyseal cartilage plate and its surrounding bone from the humeral head were studied histologically at regular intervals. Concomitantly, roentgenographic measurements were performed on the humeri in toto. By the tenth injection significant morphological changes were noted in the cartilaginous plate, followed by complete cessation of bone growth. Severe triglyceride accumulation appeared in the experimental livers and humeral bone marrow. Osteoporosis also occurred and became severe from the fifth week of triamcinolone administration. Possible explanations for the above findings are discussed.  (+info)

Quantitative histology of the human growth plate. (8/1613)

This paper describes a study in the human femur of the relationship between cell division in growth cartilage and overall bone growth. Growth rates for the distal femur from birth to eighteen years were determined from serial radiographs available from the Harpenden Growth Study; An average of 1-4 cm/year was found for the ages of five to eight years. The development of the growth plate is illustrated in a series of photomicrographs of femur sections. These sections were also used for quantitative histology; The length of the proliferation zone was estimated from cell counts to be twenty-four cells per column. On the basis of this value and the measured growth rate, an approximate mean cycle time of twenty days was found for the proliferating cells of the human growth plate. Since the corresponding cycle time is two days for rodent growth plates, which also have a different structure, it is unwise to extrapolate the findings in this tissue from mouse to man.  (+info)

*Osteoblast

This form of bone development is more complex; it follows the formation of a first skeleton of cartilage made by chondrocytes, ... "Osteopontin deficiency increases bone fragility but preserves bone mass". Bone. 46: 1564-73. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2010.02.014 ... In the hollow within bones are many other cell types of the bone marrow. Components that are essential for osteoblast bone ... The functional part of bone, the bone matrix, is entirely extracellular. The bone matrix consists of protein and mineral. The ...

*Weissenbacher-Zweymüller syndrome

Collagen is found in bone. It is also found in cartilage that makes up most of the skeleton during early development. The ... After the period of growth deficiency the individual makes improvements in bone growth leading to a normal physical development ... The malfunctioning collagen weakens the connective tissue causing impaired bone development. COL11A2 is also associated with ... The thigh and upper arm bones are wider than usual resulting in a dumbbell-shape while the bones of the vertebrae may be ...

*Twist transcription factor

"Human Dermo-1 has attributes similar to twist in early bone development". Bone. 27 (5): 591-602. doi:10.1016/S8756-3282(00) ... In addition, Twist is responsible for the maintenance of cancer stem cells and the development of chemotherapy resistance. ... Development. 13 (17): 2207-17. doi:10.1101/gad.13.17.2207. PMC 317004 . PMID 10485844. El Ghouzzi V, Legeai-Mallet L, Aresta S ...

*Epiphyseal plate

Normal bones at GetTheDiagnosis.org, showing the development of epiphyseal plates for different ages and bones.. ... It is the part of a long bone where new bone growth takes place; that is, the whole bone is alive, with maintenance remodeling ... "Skeletal System / Bone Development and Growth". Archived from the original on 2008-07-09. Retrieved 2008-07-10. Ovalle, William ... Endochondral ossification is responsible for the initial bone development from cartilage in utero and infants and the ...

*Phosphorus

Anderson, John J. B. (1996). "Calcium, Phosphorus and Human Bone Development". Journal of Nutrition. 126 (4 Suppl.): 1153S- ... Bone ash was the major source of phosphorus until the 1840s. The method started by roasting bones, then employed the use of ... This used bone ash for a phosphate source, as described above. The bone-ash process became obsolete when the submerged-arc ... before the development of mineral-based extractions, white phosphorus was isolated on an industrial scale from bone ash. In ...

*Metaphyseal dysplasia

Pyle, Edwin (Oct 1, 1931). "A Case of unusual bone development". Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. Needham, Massachusetts. 13 ... Mental development, physical development, and height are usually normal. Pyle disease may be confused with craniometaphyseal ... Bones can sometimes be fragile, but fracturing is usually not common. Patients may present with dental caries, mandibular ... and Bakwin-Krida syndrome is a rare disease in which the outer part of the shafts of long bones is thinner than normal and ...

*TWIST2

2000). "Human Dermo-1 has attributes similar to twist in early bone development". Bone. 27 (5): 591-602. doi:10.1016/S8756-3282 ... It is thought that during osteoblast development this protein may inhibit osteoblast maturation and maintain cells in a ...

*Roberts syndrome

"Roberts syndrome: Inherited Disorder Causes Abnormal Bone Development." About.com: Rare Diseases. About. 23 April 2005. Downer ... "Roberts syndrome: Inherited Disorder Causes Abnormal Bone Development." About.com: Rare Diseases. Published 23 April 2005. ... the incomplete development of a tissue or organ; less drastic than aplasia, which is no development at all Oligodactyly- fewer ... leading to malformation of the bones in the skull, face, arms, and legs. Roberts syndrome is also known by many other names, ...

*Raine syndrome

... is an important molecule in bone development. Studies in mice have demonstrated its importance in the mineralization of bones ... highlighting a crucial molecule in bone development. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 81(5), 906-912. Simpson, M. A., ... Kan, A. E., & Kozlowski, K. (1992). New distinct lethal osteosclerotic bone dysplasia (Raine syndrome). American Journal of ... The current research describes Raine Syndrome as a neonatal osteosclerotic bone dysplasia, indicated by its osteosclerotic ...

*Mir-34 microRNA precursor family

miR-34c has also been associated to bone development and bone cancer. Lim LP, Glasner ME, Yekta S, Burge CB, Bartel DP (Mar ... "miRNA-34c regulates Notch signaling during bone development". Human Molecular Genetics. 21 (13): 2991-3000. doi:10.1093/hmg/ ... it is hypothesized that miR-34 dysregulation is involved in the development of some cancers. In mammals, three miR-34 ... to be maternally inherited in Drosophila and zebrafish and the loss of miR-34 resulted in defects in hindbrain development in ...

*Crouzon syndrome

FGFR3 is expressed more in the frontal bones during embryonic development, guiding cranial bone development. A point mutation ... What occurs is that an infant's skull and facial bones, while in development, fuse early or are unable to expand. Thus, normal ... During normal development, the ears "travel" upward on the head; however, in Crouzon patients, this pattern of development is ... Breaking down the name, "craniofacial" refers to the skull and face, and "dysostosis" refers to malformation of bone. Now known ...

*CTGF

Kubota S, Takigawa M (August 2011). "The role of CCN2 in cartilage and bone development". J Cell Commun Signal. 5 (3): 209-17. ... CTGF is also important for pancreatic beta cell development, and is critical for normal ovarian follicle development and ... "Connective tissue growth factor coordinates chondrogenesis and angiogenesis during skeletal development". Development. 130 (12 ... skeletal development, and tissue wound repair, and is critically involved in fibrotic disease and several forms of cancers. ...

*Osteoderm development

This process includes pre-existing and fully developed tissue becoming bone. This suggests that the bone development of these ... There is a pattern of development and modification through fusion, deletions, and sinking bones. This pattern is determined by ... Osteodermic bone develops via the transformation of the preexisting irregular, connective tissue. This mode of bone formation ... They have a deep layer of lamellar bone, and a more apparent layer of woven fibered bone. Over time these osteoderms become ...

*Skeleton

There are 206 bones in the adult human body and 270 in an infant. During embryogenesis the precursor to bone development is ... There are 206 bones in the adult human skeleton, although this number depends on whether the pelvic bones (the hip bones on ... Fused bones include those of the pelvis and the cranium. Not all bones are interconnected directly: There are three bones in ... whether the coccyx or tail bone is counted as one or four separate bones, and does not count the variable wormian bones between ...

*Craniosynostosis

These last two are both important factors influencing bone development. Environmental factors refer for example to maternal ... Most of the bones that together form the cranial vault - i.e. the frontal, the parietal and the occipital bones - are removed ... Replacement of the bones provides a possibility for the correction of the hypotelorism at the same time. A bone graft is placed ... Reshaping of the cranial vault most commonly means excision of the bones and adjustment of the shape. Replacement of the bones ...

*CMKLR1

... novel G protein-coupled receptor with homology to neuropeptide and chemoattractant receptors expressed during bone development ... "Adipokine Chemerin Bridges Metabolic Dyslipidemia and Alveolar Bone Loss in Mice". Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. doi: ... Development was terminated after a Phase I clinical trial in 2012. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000174600 - Ensembl, May ...

*Perlecan

Bone development, i.e. mineralization of cartilaginous tissue, correlates with loss of perlecan and heparan sulfate at the ... Cartilage and bone development have proven to be dependent upon perlecan expression. The protein becomes visible by ... Later embryonic development is just as precisely regulated as pre-implantation development, and is more complicated due to ... defective cephalic and long bone development and achondroplasia. The knockout strategy employed for the first perlecan knockout ...

*Panner disease

... is part of a family of bone development diseases known as osteochondrosis. In osteochondrosis, the blood supply ... The bone's growth plate is defined as the area at the end of a developing bone where cartilage cells change into bone cells. ... The humerus is the long bone that runs from the shoulder to the elbow, and the ulna and radius are the two bones that make up ... The areas where bone breakdown has occurred can also be visualized on the radiograph. When the patient undergoes a MRI scan any ...

*Fruit and vegetables for kids

As a child the body requires iodine for brain and bone development. Fruit and vegetables grown in iodine rich soils provide the ... Foundation for strong healthy bones and teeth - majority of the calcium consumed as a child is deposited onto collagen bone ... Development of chronic disease has become closely related to the consumption of fruits and vegetables throughout childhood ( ... Vitamin A ensures sufficient collagen is produced to build strong healthy bones and other connecting tissues (Deen & Hark, 2007 ...

*Atelosteogenesis, type II

The protein made by this gene is essential for the normal development of cartilage and for its conversion to bone. Mutations in ... Atelosteogenesis, type II is a severe disorder of cartilage and bone development. It is rare, and infants with the disorder are ... the SLC26A2 gene disrupt the structure of developing cartilage, preventing bones from forming properly and resulting in the ...

*Fibromodulin

"Fibromodulin is expressed by both chondrocytes and osteoblasts during fetal bone development". Journal of Cellular Biochemistry ...

*Tibial dyschondroplasia

... and deformed bone development. It is the leading cause of lameness, mortality, and carcass condemnations in commercial poultry ... The tibial cartilage does not mature enough to ossify (turn into bone).[citation needed] This leaves the growth plate prone to ... Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is a metabolic disease of young poultry that affects the growth of bone and cartilage. Often ...

*Bone decalcification

This process also occurs naturally during bone development and growth, and when uninhibited, can cause diseases such as ... Bone seeker Howe, Percy (1922). "Decalcification of teeth and bones,and regeneration of bone through diet". Journal of the ... Bone decalcification is the softening of bones due to the removal of calcium ions, and can be performed as a histological ... For example, bone decalcification has been used to examine cartilage and magnesium levels in order to understand bone decay. ...

*FAM20C

... highlighting a crucial molecule in bone development". American Journal of Human Genetics. 81 (5): 906-12. doi:10.1086/522240. ... FAM20C is a secretory kinase, responsible for the phosphorylation of all secreted proteins, from milk to bone proteins. ... Phosphorylation by Fam20C in the secretory pathway is essential for proper biomineralization of bone. The substrate specificity ... "Mutations in FAM20C also identified in non-lethal osteosclerotic bone dysplasia". Clinical Genetics. 75 (3): 271-6. doi:10.1111 ...

*DLX5

The encoded protein may play a role in bone development and fracture healing. Current research holds that the homeobox gene ... and appendicular skeletal development". Genes & Development. 16 (9): 1089-101. doi:10.1101/gad.988402. PMC 186247 . PMID ... SHFM is a heterogenous limb defect in which the development of the central digital rays is hindered, leading to missing central ... In mice, the targeted disruption of DLX1, DLX2, DLX1/2, or DLX5 orthologs yields craniofacial, bone, and vestibular defects. If ...

*Atrioventricular node

BMPs) are multifunctional signaling molecules critical for the development of AV node. BMP influences AV node development ... BMP (Bone morphogenetic protein) cell signaling plays a key role in diverse aspects of cardiac differentiation and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of methotrexate and folinic acid on skeletal growth in mice. AU - Iqbal, M. P.. AU - Ahmed, M.. AU - Umer, M.. AU - Mehboobali, N.. AU - Qureshi, A. A.. PY - 2003/12. Y1 - 2003/12. N2 - Aim: To investigate whether chronic administration of medium doses of methotrexate (MTX) causes suppression of skeletal growth in young mice and to determine whether folinic acid supplementation could reverse this effect. Methods: Four equal groups of Balb/c young male mice (6 animals in each group; mean body weight 11.9 ± 0.25 g, in their rapid growth phase) were subjected to the following drug treatment for a period of 3 wk. Group 1 was given intraperitoneal MTX (3.5 mg kg-1 body weight) every second day. Group 2 received folinic acid (7.0 mg kg-1 body weight) intraperitoneally every second day. Group 3 was given both drugs (MTX every second day and folinic acid 8 h post-MTX injection). Group 4 was injected with physiological saline every other day to serve as a control group. Total body ...
Staines, K A and Poulet, B and Farquharson, C and Pitsillides, A A (2013) STABILISING CARTILAGE TO INNATELY PROTECT AGAINST OSTEOARTHRITIS: LESSONS FROM LONG BONE DEVELOPMENT. In: UNSPECIFIED. Full text not available from this repository ...
During the last decade a greater appreciation has developed for determining factors that influence bone accretion in healthy children. Nutritional factors that may contribute to bone accretion in infants and toddlers include maternal nutritional stat
J:104933 Hilton MJ, Gutierrez L, Martinez DA, Wells DE, EXT1 regulates chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation during endochondral bone development. Bone. 2005 Mar;36(3):379-86 ...
Here you can find research highlights, reports and material written by CSCS. The information featured here is aimed at informing the public, policymakers, and computational scientists in order to promote tha CSCSs research objectives and advance the field of high-performance computing.
J:135374 Patra D, Xing X, Davies S, Bryan J, Franz C, Hunziker EB, Sandell LJ, Site-1 protease is essential for endochondral bone formation in mice. J Cell Biol. 2007 Nov 19;179(4):687-700 ...
Protein, consisting of 22 amino acids, happens to be the basic building component for the muscles, skin, nails and hair. Intake of protein is essential for hormone and enzyme formation. Carbohydrate acts as the principal source of energy for the proper functioning of the body and muscles. It modulates fat and protein metabolism. Minerals aid in keeping up the water balance of the body. It also helps in bone development and hormone production. Water assists in maintaining a static temperature of the body ...
Researchers from the Universities of Birmingham and Oxford, funded by the NC3Rs, have developed a new self-structuring model of bone tissue in vitro that can be used instead of experiments on live animals to study bone formation and maturation (ossification). The model is described in a publication in Advanced Biosystems. Cells at the surface of constructs imaged using scanned electron microscopy. (Iordachescu et al. 2017) The process of ossification is studied to understand normal bone development and repair as well as bone disorders. Current animal models of ossification often involve the use of genetically altered mice that are prone to pathological mineralisation. Depending on the experiment, bone fractures may have to be introduced. Differences in bone metabolism and volumes of bone formation between species can mean that mouse models generally provide a limited approximation of ossification in humans. In addition, differences in protocols and inducing agents (such as osteogenic factors or
The potential effects of introducing bone regeneration strategies into environments of disease and damage are often overlooked, despite the fact that many of the signalling pathways in inflammation have effects on bone development and healing. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are increasingly being used to develop models of disease and have potential in osteogenic-cell based therapies. Osteogenic differentiation strategies for ESCs are well established, but the response of these cells to tissue damage and inflammation has not yet been investigated, particularly in comparison to primary osteoblasts. Here, proinflammatory cytokines were used as part of an in vitro model to mimic elements of skeletal disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis and non-union fractures. The response of osteogenically differentiated mouse embryonic stem cells (osteo-mESCs) to the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1-β (IL-1β), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), was compared to that of primary ...
Our adult skeleton forms from a larger number of developmental elements that are replaced and fuse. In development there are 2 separate signaling pathways for pattern formation and the formation of bone itself. Furthermore bone formation can be divided into 2 specific forms that occur in anatomically different regions. This practical class will describe the development and structure of bone and finish with a study of abnormalities associated with bone. The image shown to the left shows a histological section through the developing lower limb at the level of a developing joint (knee), surrounding the developing bone is cartilage, skeletal muscles and connective tissue of the limb. Lecture - Musculoskeletal Development and notes on Bone Development. ...
[email protected] Supervsiors: Peter Bisschop, Anita Boelen, Andries Kalsbeek & Eric Fliers. Thyroid hormone is essential for normal bone development and maintenance of bone mass in adulthood. Hypothyroidism during childhood causes growth retardation, delayed bone age and short stature, whereas hyperthyroidism accelerates skeletal development and also results in short stature due to premature closure of the growth plates. In adults, hyperthyroidism increases bone resorption and bone formation leading to high bone turnover osteoporosis and associated increased fracture risk.. Apart from the classic Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Thyroid gland (HPT) axis pathway for the effects of thyroid hormone on bone, in the literature there is also evidence of regulation of bone metabolism via the autonomic nervous system, especially its sympathetic branch. Previous work in our group has shown that triiodothyronine (T3) in the brain can modulate glucose production through a sympathetic pathway. Accordingly, we ...
Information on the child bone disorder called osteochondrodysplasias, a disorder that affects bone growth and normal bone development. Learn the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment from St. Louis Childrens Hospital.
Growth plate and bone radioprotection and radiorecovery. Our laboratory has been funded continuously by the NIH since 2000 for our work evaluating the mechanisms of damaging effects of irradiation on bone growth. Most recently, the focus has been on selective stimulation of radiorecovery pathways. This work involves in vitro and in vivo work with histomorphometric, immunohistochemical, and molecular evaluation at the RNA and protein level. This area of research is relevant to children being treated for bone and soft-tissue sarcomas.. Osteosarcomas. Utilizing both in vitro and in vivo work including an orthotopic intraosseous osteosarcoma injection model, differential expression of genes and pathways related to metastatic potential are being evaluated. Chemotherapy related osteoporosis. Our laboratory has established the high prevalence of premature low bone mineral density in young adults following chemotherapy for pediatric malignancies, including bone and soft-tissue sarcomas. However, the ...
Long, short, and irregular bones develop by endochondral ossification, where cartilage is replaced by bone. Flat bones develop by intramembranous ossification, where bone develops within sheets of connective tissue. Compact cortical bone, representing about 80 percent of the mature skeleton, supports the body, and features extra thickness at the midpoint in long bones to prevent the bones from bending. Cancellous bone, whose porous structure with small cavities resembles sponge, predominates in the pelvis and the 33 vertebrae from the neck to the tailbone. Bone growth is more complicated than simple elongation or simple enlargement. Most long bones add width on the outside by a process referred to as subperiosteal apposition (layers added to those already existing), while losing bone on the inside by endosteal resorption (breaking down and reabsorbing material at the center of a mass). At the same time, long bones gain in length by adding to the epiphyseal plate (the surface at the end of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The unfolded protein response in skeletal development and homeostasis. AU - Horiuchi, Keisuke. AU - Tohmonda, Takahide. AU - Morioka, Hideo. PY - 2016/3/22. Y1 - 2016/3/22. N2 - Osteoblasts and chondrocytes produce a large number of extracellular matrix proteins to generate and maintain the skeletal system. To cope with their functions as secretory cells, these cells must acquire a considerable capacity for protein synthesis and also the machinery for the quality-control and transport of newly synthesized secreted proteins. The unfolded protein response (UPR) plays a crucial role during the differentiation of these cells to achieve this goal. Unexpectedly, however, studies in the past several years have revealed that the UPR has more extensive functions in skeletal development than was initially assumed, and the UPR critically orchestrates many facets of skeletal development and homeostasis. This review focuses on recent findings on the functions of the UPR in the differentiation ...
Browse our extensive catalog of new & used Bone Growth Stimulator Equipment for sale or auction. Find any required new, refurbished or used Bone Growth Stimulator Equipment or device.
Browse our extensive catalog of new & used Bone Growth Stimulator Equipment for sale or auction. Find any required new, refurbished or used Bone Growth Stimulator Equipment or device.
Musculoskeletal disorders affecting the bones and joints are a growing health problem. Osteoporosis affects over 10 million people in the United States. In addi...
The Skeletal System Know the Skeletal Anatomy Axial Skeleton Axial Skeleton Appendicular Skeleton Appendicular Skeleton Surface Anatomy of the bone Surface Anatomy of the bone By x-ray or diagram By x-ray or diagram Structure/function of joints, muscle and ligament attachments Structure/function of joints, muscle and ligament attachments Including range of motion Including range of motion
I do hope that issues with bone development were looked into. However... I have a feeling that they were not. We have seen cases of abuse that were not abuse. Weve seen families torn apart and even suicides from these cases. Hopefully the family is able to get those things ruled out. The older comments on this article are from family/friends. The story they tell makes more sense to me than the way the article tells it. http://www.ksl.com/?nid=148&sid=35602238
When pregnant (whether youre eating healthy or not) your foetus is drawing whatever nutrients it needs from your body stores. You both share a similar blood environment. So you cant eat whatever you want including health damaging foods and expect a healthy baby. Not only will you suffer from nutrient deficiencies, your baby will have to adjust to a nutritionally substandard rather than a nutrient - rich environment which may have unwanted consequences too like inferior brain and bone development. ...
mouse CORS26 protein: a secretory protein possibly involved in skeletal development; a C1q family member and growth factor; RefSeq NM_030888
Epiphyseal closure is the stoppage of bone growth, which generally occurs between the ages of 18 and 25. Before epiphyseal closure...
Protein deficiency was produced by freely feeding young rats a 1% lactalbumin diet for 12 weeks in order to study the effects of protein-calorie malnutrition on skeletal development. During the...
This study presents unique longitudinal data on skeletal maturation in adolescents from a middle-income country. Moreover, the study provides mean growth curves for RUS bone scores which permit the analysis of sex and ethnic differences in patterns of skeletal maturation. The results show that black boys mature later than white boys whereas black as well as white girls mature at the same age. A longitudinal analysis clarifies how this pattern emerges; skeletal maturation in black girls starts to accelerate later than in white girls, but develops faster, whereas in black boys, skeletal maturation starts to accelerate later and then develops at a similar rate.. The differing patterns of skeletal maturity in the two ethnic groups by sex are intriguing. In all populations, girls are more skeletally mature than boys from birth onwards and reach adult bone maturity, on average, 2 years earlier than boys (1.9 years here).2 Similarly, lower socioeconomic status is generally associated with delayed bone ...
The study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Biofield Energy Treated vitamin D|sub|3|/sub| and DMEM medium on bone health parameters such as ALP, collagen, and bone mineralization in human bone osteosarcoma cells (MG-63). The test items (TI), were divided into two parts. One part of each sample received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment by Haddon Norman Salt and those samples were labeled as the Biofield Energy Treated (BT) samples, while the other parts of each sample were denoted as the untreated test items (UT). The cell viability by MTT assay data showed that the test samples were found as safe in the tested concentrations. The level of ALP was significantly increased by 73.24% and 85.41% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test TI and BT-DMEM + BT-TI, respectively at 10 µg/mL compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-TI group. Further, ALP level was significantly elevated by 76.71% in the BT-DMEM + UT-TI group at 0.1 µg/mL compared to the untreated. Collagen was significantly increased by 77%, 113.53%, and 98.00%
We saw a decrease in the level of sclerostin in both of these exercise interventions in men, Hinton said. When sclerostin is expressed at high levels, it has a negative impact on bone formation. In both resistance and jump training, the level of sclerostin in the bone goes down, which triggers bone formation.. The other significant change Hinton observed was an increase in the hormone IGF-1. Unlike sclerostin, IGF-1 triggers bone growth. The decrease of harmful sclerostin levels and the increase in beneficial IGF-1 levels confirmed Hintons prior research that found both resistance training and jump training have beneficial effects on bone growth.. To increase bone mass and prevent osteoporosis, Hinton recommends exercising specifically to target bone health. While exercises such as swimming and cycling are beneficial to overall health, these activities do not strengthen the skeleton. Hinton suggests also doing exercise targeted for bone health, such as resistance training and jump ...
Postnatal bone growth involves a dramatic increase in length and girth. Intriguingly, this period of growth is independent of growth hormone and the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Recently, an IGF2 mutation was identified in humans with early postnatal growth restriction. Here, we show that IGF2 is essential for longitudinal and appositional murine postnatal bone development, which involves proper timing of chondrocyte maturation and perichondrial cell differentiation and survival. Importantly, the Igf2 null mouse model does not represent a simple delay of growth but instead uncoordinated growth plate development. Furthermore, biochemical and two-photon imaging analyses identified elevated and imbalanced glucose metabolism in the Igf2 null mouse. Attenuation of glycolysis rescued the mutant phenotype of premature cartilage maturation, thereby indicating that IGF2 controls bone growth by regulating glucose metabolism in chondrocytes. This work links glucose metabolism with cartilage ...
Question: My child doesnt drink as much milk as he used to. Do you think hes still getting enough vitamin D?. Answer: This is a really common question for children about a year or two of age and older. Some will go from breastfeeding frequently or drinking up to 32 ounces a day of vitamin-enriched formula to drinking virtually no milk at all-sometimes within days or weeks. While the loss of protein and calcium supply is of concern in these kids, its really the loss of nutritional vitamin D supply that worries me most. There are other ways to get protein and calories-and even calcium-but vitamin D deficiency is epidemic among children and hard to find in other food sources.. Whats so important about vitamin D? In addition to its impact on bone development and growth, this crucial nutrient has important immune- regulating and neurological roles. Children deficient in vitamin D are more likely to suffer from respiratory ailments like asthma and may be at increased risk for certain types of ...
Newton PT, Li L, Zhou B, Schweingruber C, Hovorakova M, Xie M, Sun X, Sandhow L, Artemov AV, Ivashkin E, Suter S, Dyachuk V, El Shahawy M, Gritli-Linde A, Bouderlique T, Petersen J, Mollbrink A, Lundeberg J, Enikolopov G, Qian H, Fried K, Kasper M, Hedlund E, Adameyko I, Sävendahl L, Chagin AS Nature 567 (7747) 234-238 [2019-03-00; online 2019-02-27] Longitudinal bone growth in children is sustained by growth plates, narrow discs of cartilage that provide a continuous supply of chondrocytes for endochondral ossification 1. However, it remains unknown how this supply is maintained throughout childhood growth. Chondroprogenitors in the resting zone are thought to be gradually consumed as they supply cells for longitudinal growth1,2, but this model has never been proved. Here, using clonal genetic tracing with multicolour reporters and functional perturbations, we demonstrate that longitudinal growth during the fetal and neonatal periods involves depletion of chondroprogenitors, whereas later in ...
ABSTRACTPurposeThis study aimed to examine the tracking of physical activity (PA) during a 10-yr period and to investigate whether sex differences in PA trajectories are altered after aligning by maturity instead of age.MethodsThe Iowa Bone Development Study collected accelerometer data on a cohort
THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON Text Reference: CHAPTER 8 The appendicular skeleton (Chapter 8) consists of the bones of the PECTORAL GIRDLES (shoulder girdles
[109 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global Bone Growth Stimulation Devices Market Professional Survey Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. This report studies Bone Growth Stimulation Devices in Global market,...
The growth plate, which is also known by the name of epiphyseal plate, is an area of growing tissues along the end of the long bones in a child. The growth plate determines how the length and shape of the bone will be once the child attains puberty. Normally, the growth plate closes once the child has attained puberty. Thus for females, the normal age at which time the growth plate should close is between 12-14 years and for males it is between 14-16 years.
As of 2015, reputed suppliers of bone growth stimulators in the United States include Biomet, manufacturer of EBI Bone Healing System Model 2001; Orthofix, manufacturer of Spinal-Stim and...
The Skeletal System. Your Bones. Functions of the Skeletal System. Protection & Support Your heart and lungs are protected by ribs, your spinal cord is protected by vertebrae, and your brain is protected by the skull. Storage Slideshow 2668055 by jenaya
An implantable material for promoting bone growth has a microporous structure exhibiting an average pore size of at least 30 Å. The porous biomaterial is capable of retaining macromolecules having a molecular weight of at least 15,000 and up to 500,000.
Did you know that babies have more bones than adults or that one bone in the body is not connected to any other bone? Here are 11 surprising facts about the skeletal system.
The rate of success in each of the two groups, evaluated using an X-ray of the left hand and wrist. Success is defined as a difference in the rate of progression of bone maturation of at least 9 months after 18 months of treatment ...
Researchers have long known that the shape, or geometry, of cells influences what goes on inside a cell. The wrong shape can prevent proteins from being produced, promote cell death (apoptosis), or lead to tumors. In the new study, Kevin E. Healy, of the University of California, Berkeley, and colleagues refine this concept. They show that certain changes in gene and protein expression are related not only to cell shape but, more precisely, to the shape of the cell nucleus. The researchers arrayed rat cells derived from bone tissue on glass slides containing 12,000 binding domains or islands. Each cell adopts the shape of a binding island, a process that also affects the shape of the nucleus. The researchers then manipulated the cells, creating a range of geometric shapes and sizes, and monitored the development of the cells over time. Different nuclear shapes were associated with significant changes in the expression of certain genes related to bone development, according to findings ...
Your Skeletal System is all the different shapes and sizes of bones in your body. There are three main jobs that the skeleton is responsible for. ...
The skeletal system gives the body its basic framework, providing structure, protection, and movement. The 206 bones in the body also produce blood cells, store important minerals, and release hormones necessary for bodily functions.
A mouse was developed that errs on the side of making bone rather than fat, which could eventually lead to better drugs to treat inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.
A bone age study can help evaluate how a childs skeleton is maturing, which can help doctors diagnose conditions that delay or accelerate growth.
A bone age study can help evaluate how a childs skeleton is maturing, which can help doctors diagnose conditions that delay or accelerate growth.
Hello Friends! Hope everyone is having a pretty good day---think of you all so oftern just wanted to share that I saw my neurosurgeon yesterday for m...
The PI3K pathway has been shown to affect numerous cellular processes in a tissue-specific fashion; for example, it is required for survival in different cell types such as cardiomyocytes [34], cellular differentiation in the case of osteoclasts and keratinocytes [35, 36], and proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts [35]. It also stimulates differentiation of CD4+ T-cells [37] and development and proliferation of B cells [38, 39]. We hypothesized that the PI3K pathway has similar effects in the growth plate, promoting endochondral bone growth by increasing proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes and by suppressing apoptosis.. We found that inhibition of PI3K with LY294002 results in decreased differentiation, in both primary chondrocytes (micromass cultures) and organ cultures. Markers of both early chondrocyte differentiation such as collagen II and glycosaminoglycans and of late hypertrophic differentiation such as collagen X, p57, Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium ...
Regulation of Bone Marrow Angiogenesis by Osteoblasts during Bone Development and Homeostasiss profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
Human Skeletal System Structure - human body skeletal structure, human skeletal system structure, human skeletal system structure and function, internal structure of the human skeletal system, structure and function of human skeletal system, structure of a human skeletal system, structure of human skeletal system, structure of the human skeletal system
Get a PDF Sample of Bone Growth Stimulators Sales Market Research Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/request-sample/10376751. Analysis of Price, Cost, Gross Margin for Major Regions:. This particular section of the Bone Growth Stimulators Sales market report includes analysis of gross margin, cost and price. The Bone Growth Stimulators Sales Market is divided into the following segments based on geography:. • USA. • China. • Europe. • Japan. • India. • Southeast Asia. No. of Report Pages: 128. Price of Report (Single User Licence): $ 4000. Ask for Discount on Report Purchase at: http://www.absolutereports.com/purchase/10376751. In this Bone Growth Stimulators Sales Market report analysis, traders and distributors analysis is given along with contact details. For material and equipment suppliers also, contact details are given. Production plants, their capacities, global production and revenue are studied. Also, the Bone Growth Stimulators Sales Market growth in various ...
Get a PDF Sample of Bone Growth Stimulators Sales Market Research Report at: http://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/request-sample/10376751. Analysis of Price, Cost, Gross Margin for Major Regions:. This particular section of the Bone Growth Stimulators Sales market report includes analysis of gross margin, cost and price. The Bone Growth Stimulators Sales Market is divided into the following segments based on geography:. • USA. • China. • Europe. • Japan. • India. • Southeast Asia. No. of Report Pages: 128. Price of Report (Single User Licence): $ 4000. Ask for Discount on Report Purchase at: http://www.absolutereports.com/purchase/10376751. In this Bone Growth Stimulators Sales Market report analysis, traders and distributors analysis is given along with contact details. For material and equipment suppliers also, contact details are given. Production plants, their capacities, global production and revenue are studied. Also, the Bone Growth Stimulators Sales Market growth in various ...
In a new study presented at RSNA 2011, growth hormone replacement for six months was found to increase bone formation in abdominally obese women.
Plays a role in the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins including fibrillar collagen, fibronectin, TNC and ACAN. Cleaves triple helical collagens, including type I, type II and type III collagen, but has the highest activity with soluble type II collagen. Can also degrade collagen type IV, type XIV and type X. May also function by activating or degrading key regulatory proteins, such as TGFB1 and CTGF. Plays a role in wound healing, tissue remodeling, cartilage degradation, bone development, bone mineralization and ossification. Required for normal embryonic bone development and ossification. Plays a role in the healing of bone fractures via endochondral ossification. Plays a role in wound healing, probably by a mechanism that involves proteolytic activation of TGFB1 and degradation of CTGF. Plays a role in keratinocyte migration during wound healing. May play a role in cell migration and in tumor cell invasion. ...
The human Skeletal System is the bony framework of the body. It forms cavities and fossa that protect some structures, forms the joints and given attachment to muscles. parts of the skeletal system is described in two skeletal system parts axial and appendicular. Human skeletal system parts and functions & bone name described in this artical. ..
HGH treatments can reverse conditions which lead to weight loss, stronger muscles, and denser bones. Contact a doctor to learn more about treatment options.
Find and save ideas about Skeletal system activities on Pinterest. | See more ideas about Skeletal system, Skeleton for kids and Human skeleton for kids.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Chapter 6 The Skeletal System:Bone Tissue. Dynamic and ever-changing throughout life Skeleton composed of many different tissues cartilage, bone tissue, epithelium, nerve, blood forming tissue, adipose, and dense connective tissue. Functions of Bone. Supporting & protecting soft tissues Slideshow 792082 by emanuele
There hasnt been a gold standard for how orthopaedic spine surgeons promote new bone growth in patients, but now Northwestern University scientists have designed a bioactive nanomaterial that is so good at stimulating bone regeneration it could become the method surgeons prefer.
Researchers are questioning the opinion that dairy products provide the necessary dietary calcium required for bone growth. In a study conducted
This volume, the sixth in the series Topics in Bone Biology, presents the current knowledge of bone development, from growth to mineralization. Like
... is comprised of all the bones in the body as well as their associated cartilage and joints. This excerpt focuses on the primary or major bones in the body associated with gross movements.
Discover why calcium and phosphorus for your dog are vital to their metabolism and to bone development for puppies. Find out more about dogs health here.
We review genetic diseases with identified molecular bases that include abnormal, reduced (hypoplasia), or absent (aplasia) patellae as a significant aspect of the phenotype. The known causal genes can be broadly organized according to three major developmental and cellular processes, although some genes may act in more than one of these: limb specification and pattern formation; DNA replication and chromatin structure; bone development and differentiation. There are also several genes whose phenotypes in mice indicate relevance to patellar development, for which human equivalent syndromes have not been reported. Developmental studies in mouse and chick embryos, as well as patellar involvement in human diseases with decreased mobility, document the additional importance of local environmental factors in patellar ontogenesis. Patellar anomalies found in humans can be an important clue to a clinical genetic diagnosis, and a better knowledge of the genetics of patellar anomalies will improve our ...
Study Flashcards On Skeletal System at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Watch video lessons, and learn about the different aspects of the skeletal system. These lessons include quiz quizzes you can use to gauge your...
... Klinisches W rterbuch von Otto Dornbl th. Definition und Bedeutung im historischen Lexikon der medizinischen Begriffe
Daily News Thousands of Mutations Accumulate in the Human Brain Over a Lifetime Single-cell genome analyses reveal the amount of mutations a human brain cell will collect from its fetal beginnings until death.. ...
Daily News How Gaining and Losing Weight Affects the Body Millions of measurements from 23 people who consumed extra calories every day for a month reveal changes in proteins, metabolites, and gut microbiota that accompany shifts in body mass.. ...
Dr. Bolesta responded: Perhaps. The basic science shows effectiveness, but its use in people has produced conflicting results. It may be useful if you are at risk for not healing a |a href="/topics/fusion" track_data="{
Bone, or osseous tissue, is a hard, dense connective tissue that forms most of the adult skeleton, the support structure of the body. In the areas of the skeleton where bones move (for example, the …
Compare and save on New Chapter Bone Strength Take Care using PricePlow - We check deals at dozens of stores so that you dont have to!
Two dogs are pulling on opposite ends of a bone. One dog pulls to the right with a force of 50 N while the other pulls to the left with a force of 40 N. Are the forces on the bone balanced or unbalanced ...
Skeleton Supports the body Protects internal organs Provides for movement Stores mineral reserves Provides site for blood cell formation
Skeleton: Skeleton, the supportive framework of an animal body. The skeleton of invertebrates, which may be either external or internal, is composed of a variety of hard nonbony substances. The more complex skeletal system of vertebrates is internal and is composed of several different types of tissues that
It is used to ensure an adequate intake of calcium during important periods of bone growth such as in childhood, during pregnancy and while breast-feeding. ...
Sens. Max Baucus, D-Mont., and Chuck Grassley, R-Iowa, told Medtronic Inc. on Tuesday to produce records related to its bone growth product Infuse, citing concerns that researchers tied to the health giant failed to report serious side effects, including sterility.
This course builds on the concepts introduced In Pathophysiology I. Alterations in the integrity of the skeletal system are examined, The systems
Claw horn disruption lesions (CHDL; sole hemorrhage, sole ulcer, and white line disease) cause a large proportion of lameness in dairy cattle, yet their etiopathogenesis remains poorly understood. Untreated CHDL may be associated with damage to the internal anatomy of the foot, including to the caudal aspect of the distal phalanx upon which bone developments have been reported with age and with sole ulcers at slaughter. The primary aim of this study was to assess whether bone development was associated with poor locomotion and occurrence of CHDL during a cows life. A retrospective cohort study imaged 282 hind claws from 72 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows culled from a research herd using X-ray micro-computed tomography (μ-CT; resolution: 0.11 mm). Four measures of bone development were taken from the caudal aspect of each distal phalanx, in caudal, ventral, and dorsal directions, and combined within each claw. Cow-level variables were constructed to quantify the average bone development on all ...
Although peptides are safe and useful as therapeutics, they are often easily degraded or metabolized. Dampening the clearance system for peptide ligands is a promising strategy for increasing the efficacy of peptide therapies. Natriuretic peptide receptor B (NPR-B) and its naturally occurring ligand, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), are potent stimulators of endochondral bone growth, and activating the CNP/NPR-B system is expected to be a powerful strategy for treating impaired skeletal growth. CNP is cleared by natriuretic peptide clearance receptor (NPR-C); therefore, we investigated the effect of reducing the rate of CNP clearance on skeletal growth by limiting the interaction between CNP and NPR-C. Specifically, we generated transgenic mice with increased circulating levels of osteocrin (OSTN) protein, a natural NPR-C ligand without natriuretic activity, and observed a dose-dependent skeletal overgrowth phenotype in these animals. Skeletal overgrowth in OSTN-transgenic mice was diminished ...
Receptor activator of Nfkb ligand (RANKL) activates, while osteoprotegerin (OPG) inhibits, osteoclastogenesis. In turn a neutralizing Ab against RANKL, denosumab improves bone strength in osteoporosis. OPG also improves muscle strength in mouse models of Duchennes muscular dystrophy (mdx) and denervation-induce atrophy, but its role and mechanisms of action on muscle weakness in other conditions remains to be investigated. We investigated the effects of RANKL inhibitors on muscle in osteoporotic women and mice that either overexpress RANKL (HuRANKL-Tg+), or lack Pparb and concomitantly develop sarcopenia (Pparb-/-). In women, denosumab over 3 years improved appendicular lean mass and handgrip strength compared to no treatment, whereas bisphosphonate did not. HuRANKL-Tg+ mice displayed lower limb force and maximal speed, while their leg muscle mass was diminished, with a lower number of type I and II fibers. Both OPG and denosumab increased limb force proportionally to the increase in muscle ...
Although peptides are safe and useful as therapeutics, they are often easily degraded or metabolized. Dampening the clearance system for peptide ligands is a promising strategy for increasing the efficacy of peptide therapies. Natriuretic peptide receptor B (NPR-B) and its naturally occurring ligand, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), are potent stimulators of endochondral bone growth, and activating the CNP/NPR-B system is expected to be a powerful strategy for treating impaired skeletal growth. CNP is cleared by natriuretic peptide clearance receptor (NPR-C); therefore, we investigated the effect of reducing the rate of CNP clearance on skeletal growth by limiting the interaction between CNP and NPR-C. Specifically, we generated transgenic mice with increased circulating levels of osteocrin (OSTN) protein, a natural NPR-C ligand without natriuretic activity, and observed a dose-dependent skeletal overgrowth phenotype in these animals. Skeletal overgrowth in OSTN-transgenic mice was diminished ...
Although peptides are safe and useful as therapeutics, they are often easily degraded or metabolized. Dampening the clearance system for peptide ligands is a promising strategy for increasing the efficacy of peptide therapies. Natriuretic peptide receptor B (NPR-B) and its naturally occurring ligand, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), are potent stimulators of endochondral bone growth, and activating the CNP/NPR-B system is expected to be a powerful strategy for treating impaired skeletal growth. CNP is cleared by natriuretic peptide clearance receptor (NPR-C); therefore, we investigated the effect of reducing the rate of CNP clearance on skeletal growth by limiting the interaction between CNP and NPR-C. Specifically, we generated transgenic mice with increased circulating levels of osteocrin (OSTN) protein, a natural NPR-C ligand without natriuretic activity, and observed a dose-dependent skeletal overgrowth phenotype in these animals. Skeletal overgrowth in OSTN-transgenic mice was diminished ...
Although peptides are safe and useful as therapeutics, they are often easily degraded or metabolized. Dampening the clearance system for peptide ligands is a promising strategy for increasing the efficacy of peptide therapies. Natriuretic peptide receptor B (NPR-B) and its naturally occurring ligand, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), are potent stimulators of endochondral bone growth, and activating the CNP/NPR-B system is expected to be a powerful strategy for treating impaired skeletal growth. CNP is cleared by natriuretic peptide clearance receptor (NPR-C); therefore, we investigated the effect of reducing the rate of CNP clearance on skeletal growth by limiting the interaction between CNP and NPR-C. Specifically, we generated transgenic mice with increased circulating levels of osteocrin (OSTN) protein, a natural NPR-C ligand without natriuretic activity, and observed a dose-dependent skeletal overgrowth phenotype in these animals. Skeletal overgrowth in OSTN-transgenic mice was diminished ...
Although peptides are safe and useful as therapeutics, they are often easily degraded or metabolized. Dampening the clearance system for peptide ligands is a promising strategy for increasing the efficacy of peptide therapies. Natriuretic peptide receptor B (NPR-B) and its naturally occurring ligand, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), are potent stimulators of endochondral bone growth, and activating the CNP/NPR-B system is expected to be a powerful strategy for treating impaired skeletal growth. CNP is cleared by natriuretic peptide clearance receptor (NPR-C); therefore, we investigated the effect of reducing the rate of CNP clearance on skeletal growth by limiting the interaction between CNP and NPR-C. Specifically, we generated transgenic mice with increased circulating levels of osteocrin (OSTN) protein, a natural NPR-C ligand without natriuretic activity, and observed a dose-dependent skeletal overgrowth phenotype in these animals. Skeletal overgrowth in OSTN-transgenic mice was diminished ...
Although peptides are safe and useful as therapeutics, they are often easily degraded or metabolized. Dampening the clearance system for peptide ligands is a promising strategy for increasing the efficacy of peptide therapies. Natriuretic peptide receptor B (NPR-B) and its naturally occurring ligand, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), are potent stimulators of endochondral bone growth, and activating the CNP/NPR-B system is expected to be a powerful strategy for treating impaired skeletal growth. CNP is cleared by natriuretic peptide clearance receptor (NPR-C); therefore, we investigated the effect of reducing the rate of CNP clearance on skeletal growth by limiting the interaction between CNP and NPR-C. Specifically, we generated transgenic mice with increased circulating levels of osteocrin (OSTN) protein, a natural NPR-C ligand without natriuretic activity, and observed a dose-dependent skeletal overgrowth phenotype in these animals. Skeletal overgrowth in OSTN-transgenic mice was diminished ...
Although peptides are safe and useful as therapeutics, they are often easily degraded or metabolized. Dampening the clearance system for peptide ligands is a promising strategy for increasing the efficacy of peptide therapies. Natriuretic peptide receptor B (NPR-B) and its naturally occurring ligand, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), are potent stimulators of endochondral bone growth, and activating the CNP/NPR-B system is expected to be a powerful strategy for treating impaired skeletal growth. CNP is cleared by natriuretic peptide clearance receptor (NPR-C); therefore, we investigated the effect of reducing the rate of CNP clearance on skeletal growth by limiting the interaction between CNP and NPR-C. Specifically, we generated transgenic mice with increased circulating levels of osteocrin (OSTN) protein, a natural NPR-C ligand without natriuretic activity, and observed a dose-dependent skeletal overgrowth phenotype in these animals. Skeletal overgrowth in OSTN-transgenic mice was diminished ...
Although peptides are safe and useful as therapeutics, they are often easily degraded or metabolized. Dampening the clearance system for peptide ligands is a promising strategy for increasing the efficacy of peptide therapies. Natriuretic peptide receptor B (NPR-B) and its naturally occurring ligand, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), are potent stimulators of endochondral bone growth, and activating the CNP/NPR-B system is expected to be a powerful strategy for treating impaired skeletal growth. CNP is cleared by natriuretic peptide clearance receptor (NPR-C); therefore, we investigated the effect of reducing the rate of CNP clearance on skeletal growth by limiting the interaction between CNP and NPR-C. Specifically, we generated transgenic mice with increased circulating levels of osteocrin (OSTN) protein, a natural NPR-C ligand without natriuretic activity, and observed a dose-dependent skeletal overgrowth phenotype in these animals. Skeletal overgrowth in OSTN-transgenic mice was diminished ...
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is axiomatically necessary for proper skeletal development and function. We need not look further than the studies that have been done to date utilizing mice genetically engineered to lack CTGF production. These CTGF null or knockout (KO) mice fail to form a normal murine skeleton and instead yield one littered with bony dysmorphisms, including incompetent craniofacial development, kinked limb bones, and misshapen ribs that are not conducive to proper respiratory function. As a result, the global lack of CTGF is incompatible with postnatal life. A closer look at several sites demonstrated defects in physiologic processes necessary for bone formation - angiogenesis, chondrogenesis, and osteogenesis. Therefore, the dogma in the CCN protein field to date has been that systemic ablation of CTGF production in vivo results in global defects in bone development. We believe this dogma is an oversimplification of the role of CTGF on skeletal development. Our ...
We have previously shown that targeted expression of a dominant-negative truncated form of N-cadherin (Cdh2) delays acquisition of peak bone mass in mice and retards osteoblast differentiation; whereas deletion of cadherin 11 (Cdh11), another osteoblast cadherin, leads to only modest osteopenia. To determine the specific roles of these two cadherins in the adult skeleton, we generated mice with an osteoblast/osteocyte specific Cdh2 ablation (cKO) and double Cdh2+/−;Cdh11−/− germline mutant mice. Age-dependent osteopenia and smaller diaphyses with decreased bone strength characterize cKO bones. By contrast, Cdh2+/−;Cdh11−/− exhibit severely reduced trabecular bone mass, decreased in vivo bone formation rate, smaller diaphyses and impaired bone strength relative to single Cdh11 null mice. The number of bone marrow immature precursors and osteoprogenitor cells is reduced in both cKO and Cdh2+/−;Cdh11−/− mice, suggesting that N-cadherin is involved in maintenance of the stromal ...
Exogenous bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmp) are well known to induce ectopic bone formation, but the physiological effect of Bmp signaling on normal bone is not completely understood. By deleting the receptor Bmpr1a in osteoblast-lineage cells with Dmp1-Cre, we observed a dramatic increase in trabecular bone mass in postnatal mice, due to a marked increase in osteoblast number likely driven by hyperproliferation of Sp7+ preosteoblasts. Similarly, inducible deletion of Bmpr1a in Sp7-positive cells specifically in postnatal mice increased trabecular bone mass. However, deletion of Smad4 by the same approaches had only a minor effect, indicating that Bmpr1a signaling suppresses trabecular bone formation through effectors beyond Smad4. Besides increasing osteoblast number in the trabecular bone, deletion of Bmpr1a by Dmp1-Cre also notably reduced osteoblast activity, resulting in attenuation of periosteal growth. The impairment in osteoblast activity correlated with reduced mTORC1 signaling in vivo, ...
Bone age is the degree of maturation of a childs bones. As a person grows from fetal life through childhood, puberty, and finishes growth as a young adult, the bones of the skeleton change in size and shape. These changes can be seen by x-ray. The "bone age" of a child is the average age at which children reach this stage of bone maturation. A childs current height and bone age can be used to predict adult height. For most people, their bone age is the same as their biological age but for some individuals, their bone age is a couple of years older or younger. Those with advanced bone ages typically hit a growth spurt early on but stop growing sooner, while those with delayed bone ages hit their growth spurt later than normal. Children who are below average height do not necessarily have a delayed bone age; in fact their bone age could actually be advanced which if left untreated, will stunt their growth. At birth, only the metaphyses of the "long bones" are present. The long bones are those ...
Juvenile Animal Data In studies in juvenile rats, clonidine hydrochloride alone or in combination with methylphenidate had an effect on bone growth at clinically relevant doses and produced a slight delay in sexual maturation in males at 3 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) for clonidine and methylphenidate.. In a study where juvenile rats were treated orally with clonidine hydrochloride from day 21 of age to adulthood, a slight delay in onset of preputial separation (delayed sexual maturation) was seen in males treated with 300 mcg/kg/day, which is approximately 3 times the MRHD of 0.4 mg/day on a mg/m2 basis. The no-effect dose was 100 mcg/kg/day, which is approximately equal to the MRHD. There was no drug effects on fertility or on other measures of sexual or neurobehavioral development.. In a study where juvenile rats were treated with clonidine alone (300 mcg/kg/day) or in combination with methylphenidate (10 mg/kg/day in females and 50/30 mg/kg/day in males; the dose was ...
View Notes - Chap7[1] from CBIO 2200 at UGA. Tissues and Organs of the Skeletal System Osteology- study of bone Skeletal system: bones, cartilage, and ligaments Functions of the Skeleton 1. Support
Why does my whole body skeletal system hurts and burns - How does gout affect the skeletal system? Pain, inflammation. Gout is a type of arthritis. It can effect the joints of your skeletal system. With recurring flairs you can develop deposition of tophi within the joint, the bone around the joint can erode. A typical presentation is pain, redness, and swelling of a great toe joint that lasts 2-14 days. This is triggered by a food or drink. Avoid what causes the flair and your skeletal system wont be effected.
This human anatomy ClipArt gallery offers 825 illustrations of the human skeletal system, including images of both the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. The human axial skeleton includes 80 bones formed by the vertebral column (spine), the thoracic cage (e.g., ribs, sternum), and the skull. The axial skeleton is responsible for the upright position of the body. The human appendicular skeleton is composed of 126 bones formed by the pectoral girdles, the upper and lower limbs, and the pelvic girdle. These bones function in locomotion as well as protection of vital organs.. ...
Bottom line: if you are one of those who equates "starting" with "riding", then I guess you better not start your horse until hes four. That would be the old, traditional, worldwide view: introduce the horse to equipment (all kinds of equipment and situations) when hes two, crawl on and off of him at three, saddle him to begin riding him and teaching him to guide at four, start teaching him maneuvers or the basics of whatever job hes going to do - cavalletti or stops or something beyond trailing cattle - at five, and hes on the payroll at six. The old Spanish way of bitting reflected this also, because the horses teeth arent mature (the tushes havent come in, nor all of the permanent cheek teeth either) until hes six.= This is what Id do if it were my own horse. Im at liberty to do that because Im not on anybody elses schedule except my horses own schedule. Im not a participant in futurities or planning to be. Are you? If you are, well, thats your business. But most horse owners ...
Two weeks of voluntary wheel running induces higher expression of irisin-a fat-burning hormone that is released during exercise-in bone tissue in mice. In addition, systemic administration of irisin increased bone formation and thickness, mimicking the effects of exercise on the mouse skeletal system. The findings demonstrate a potential new mechanism for the regulation of bone metabolism.. The study was led by scientists from Tufts University School of Dental Medicine (TUSDM) and published in Bone Research.. "Our results provide insight into the complex regulatory interplay of muscle, bone and fat tissues. Increased irisin levels in circulation upon systemic administration can recapitulate part of the beneficial effects of exercise in the skeletal system," said senior study author Jake Chen, D.M.D., M.D.S., Ph.D., professor and biological sciences researcher at TUSDM. "Further experimentation will be needed to evaluate the involvement of irisin and other factors increased by exercise and ...
The growth plates are much softer than other regions of the bones, therefore are more prone to injury. Since most of the longitudinal growth of bones occurs up to eight months of age, growth plate injuries that occur after this point are not as devastating. A portion of the damaged growth plate may remain functional (open) and thus the bone and limb becomes twisted. Surgery is generally done as soon as possible after this type of injury occurs. Anatomy. ...
This volume highlights new insights into the mechanisms of bone development, including cellular and mechanical factors, receptors, and signaling pathways and their role in both normative and pathologic states of bone.. The second of two volumes, this volume comprises three sections: (1) new insights on the interaction of blood vessels and bone, particularly the role of angiogenic signals and hypoxia in osteogenesis and bone repair, as well as the dysregulation of transcription factors causing arterial calcification; (2) a new theme-integrating the evolving role of immune cells, infection, and inflammation in causing bone loss seen, for example, in various forms of arthritides; and (3) the clinical and therapeutic challenges in bone, stone, and joint diseases, and areas such as identification of high-risk patients, advent of novel therapeutic targets, genetic aberrations causing bone disease, and issues surrounding bone loss in malignancy, hyperparathyroidism, and adrenal disorders.. NOTE: Annals ...
Author Summary Mice with homozygous deletion of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) mimic the syndrome of neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT) in humans with very high circulating parathyroid hormone (PTH) and severe life-threatening hypercalcemia. To determine effects of CaR deficiency on skeletal development and interactions between CaR and 1,25(OH)2D3 or PTH on calcium and skeletal homeostasis, we compared the skeletal phenotypes of homozygous CaR-deficient mice to those of double homozygous CaR- and 1,25(OH)2D3-deficient mice or those of double homozygous CaR- and PTH-deficient mice. CaR-deficient mice had hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, hyperparathyroidism, severe skeletal growth retardation, and abnormalities; and most died within 2 weeks of age. Deletion of 1,25(OH)2D3 in CaR-deficient mice resulted in a longer lifespan, normocalcemia, lower serum phosphorus, greater elevation in PTH, and slight improvement in skeletal growth. Deletion of PTH in CaR-deficient mice resulted in rescue of
Henry M. Kronenberg is Chief of the Endocrine Unit at the Massachusetts General Hospital and Professor of Medicine at the Harvard Medical School. There he leads a research group that studies the actions of parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related protein, with a particular emphasis on bone development, bone biology, calcium homeostasis, and the roles of osteoblast-lineage cells in hematopoiesis. Dr. Kronenbergs laboratory in recent years has used a number of genetically altered strains of mice to establish the role of signaling by the PTH/PTHrP receptor in bone. Dr. Kronenberg has a small practice in Endocrine Associates.. Dr. Kronenberg received his BA from Harvard University, his MD from Columbia University, his medical house officer training at the Massachusetts General Hospital, and post-doctoral training at NIH, MIT, and the MGH.Dr. Kronenberg has served as President of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research and as a member of the Board of Directors of the ...
The aim here was to explore a new graft material that excludes the need to harvest autogenous bone from patients. Forty-two critical-size (10 x 15 mm) defects were created in rabbit mandibles bilaterally. Five groups of six defects each were grafted with autogenous endochondral (EC) bone, autogenous intramembranous (IM) bone, fresh-frozen allogeneic IM bone only, fresh-frozen allogeneic IM bone and demineralized bone matrix powder prepared from intramembranous bone (DBM IM) only, and fresh-frozen allogeneic IM bone and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) mixed with DBM IM powder. The remaining defects were used as controls. Three weeks after surgery, the defects were retrieved for histological analysis. The amount of new bone formation was quantified by image analysis. No bone formed across the defect in the controls; 224% more new bone formed in defects grafted with composite allogeneic IM bone/DBM IM than in those grafted with allogeneic IM bone alone (p < 0.001); 550% more new bone was ...
Background: Pituitary hormones play an important role in bone growth, modeling, and remodeling. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of hypophysectomy (HX) on tibial cortical bone with histomorphometry.. Methods: Forty-Five female Sprague-Dawiey rats, at 3 months of age, were hypophysectomized or served as intact controls. They were sacrificed at 0, 2, and 5 weeks after the surgery. Cortical bone histomorphometry was performed on double-fluorescent-labeled 30-mcm-thick sections of the tibial shaft.. Results: The dry weight and density of tibial diaphysis and the cortical bone area of the tibial shaft in the HX rats were significantly lower (P,0.05) than that of the age-matched intact rats, but did not differ between the HX and basal control rats. The dynamic data show that the bone formation parameters (labeled surface, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate) were profoundly decreased (P,0.01) on both the periosteal and endocortical surfaces in the HX rats as compared ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of the Ellis-van Creveld (Evc) gene in the rat tibial growth plate. AU - Tsuji, Takehito. AU - Nakamura, Hiroaki. AU - Hirata, Azumi. AU - Yamamoto, Toshio. PY - 2004/8. Y1 - 2004/8. N2 - Ellis-van Creveld (EvC) syndrome is an autosomal recessive chondrodysplasia characterized by short limbs, postaxial polydactyly, natal teeth, and dysplastic nails. The Ellis-van Creveld (EVC) gene, which is mutated in patients with EvC syndrome, has been identified by positional cloning. However, the physiological roles of the EVC gene have not been elucidated. Histopathological analyses of EvC syndrome have shown disturbed chondrocytic phenotypes during cartilage development. We therefore postulated that the EVC gene is a critical factor for chondrocytes during endochondral ossification. The present study focuses on the relationship between the Evc gene and chondrocytes, and examines Evc gene expression in the rat tibial growth plate at the mRNA and protein levels. Evc mRNA in tibial ...

Ten-Year Objective Physical Activity Tracking: Iowa Bone Development StudyTen-Year Objective Physical Activity Tracking: Iowa Bone Development Study

... sex differences in PA trajectories are altered after aligning by maturity instead of age.MethodsThe Iowa Bone Development Study ... Using additional Iowa Bone Development participants at ages 9, 11, 13, and 15 yr (N = 482, 457, 416, and 316, respectively), we ... MethodsThe Iowa Bone Development Study collected accelerometer data on a cohort of 140 girls and 128 boys at ages 5, 9, 11, 13 ...
more infohttps://insights.ovid.com/medicine-science-sports-exercise/mespex/2013/08/000/ten-year-objective-physical-activity-tracking-iowa/11/00005768

Frontal Bone - Human SkullFrontal Bone - Human Skull

This frontal suture is indicative of the frontal bones prenatal development from two individual fetal bones. ... The frontal bone is classified as a flat bone due to its relatively thin and flat shape. Like all flat bones, the frontal bone ... The frontal bone is a bone of the skull found in the forehead region. It is one of eight bones that form the cranium, or brain ... The frontal bone is a bowl-shaped bone in the frontal (forehead) region of the skull. It is located superior to the nasal bones ...
more infohttps://www.innerbody.com/image_skel01/skel40_new_skull.html

OPUS Würzburg | SearchOPUS Würzburg | Search

... study assembles another part of the molecular puzzle of how loss and gain of function mutations in GDF5 affect bone development ... Growth and Differentiation Factor 5 (GDF5) is a secreted growth factor that belongs to the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) ... family and plays a pivotal role during limb development. GDF5 is a susceptibility gene for osteoarthritis (OA) and mutations in ...
more infohttps://opus.bibliothek.uni-wuerzburg.de/solrsearch/index/search/searchtype/authorsearch/author/%22Hecht%2C+Jacqueline+T.%22/rows/10/start/0/subjectfq/signal+tranduction

Cscs: Mechanical stimulus crucial for bone developmentCscs: Mechanical stimulus crucial for bone development

Mechanical stimulus crucial for bone development. Researchers from ETH Zurich have successfully demonstrated, for the first ... encourages bone formation. However, it has remained unclear how exactly the bone-forming cells in the bone marrow respond to ... Moreover, bone resorption appears to be controlled mechanically to a considerably higher degree than bone formation, especially ... The resulting lack of oestrogen has a negative impact on bone formation and leads to bone resorption - presumably one of the ...
more infohttp://www.cscs.ch/index.php?id=1049

Capping off sesamoid bone development | DevelopmentCapping off sesamoid bone development | Development

Sesamoid bones are small, flat bones that are embedded within tendons. To date, it has been thought that these bones develop ... Your Name) has sent you a message from Development Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Development web ... The authors further demonstrate that, similar to bone eminences - superstructures that mediate bone-tendon attachment - the ... Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Development.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person ...
more infohttp://dev.biologists.org/content/142/10/e1001

Puberty and Bone Development - PubMedPuberty and Bone Development - PubMed

The main determinants of pubertal gain of bone mass are the sex steroids, growth hormone and insulin-like growth factors (by ... their effects on bone and muscle mass), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (by … ... Puberty has a key role for bone development. Skeletal mass approximately doubles at the end of adolescence. ... Puberty and Bone Development Giuseppe Saggese et al. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Mar. . ...
more infohttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11987898/

IJMS | Free Full-Text | MicroRNAs Regulate Bone Development and RegenerationIJMS | Free Full-Text | MicroRNAs Regulate Bone Development and Regeneration

... which have been reported to play a crucial role in maintaining bone development and metabolism. Osteogenesis originates from ... with diverse osteo-related genes and endeavor to sketch the contours of potential manipulations of miRNA-modulated bone repair. ... mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiating into mature osteoblasts and each period of bone formation is inseparable from the ... circuit between miRNAs and osteogenic homeostasis is of great value for artificial skeletal regeneration for severe bone ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/16/4/8227

TRM Calphormin Growth & Bone Development Supplement for 🐴 HorsesTRM Calphormin Growth & Bone Development Supplement for 🐴 Horses

Bone Development Supplement for Horses is available online with fast delivery from VioVet, the trusted supplier of veterinary ... However Calcium is not the only mineral integral to bone development. Calphormin contains other essential minerals to aid bone ... that combine to promote the optimal development of the skeleton, focusing on bone integrity. Ideal for pregnant mares and live ... I currently add limestone flour to the feed to aid bone formation and density. We are on clay with a high pH. How much better ...
more infohttps://www.viovet.co.uk/TRM_Calphormin_for_Horses/c9453/

Bone Development | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard CatalystBone Development | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst

"Bone Development" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Bone Development" was a major or minor topic of ... The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length ... "Bone Development" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Bone Development" by people in Profiles. ...
more infohttps://connects.catalyst.harvard.edu/Profiles/display/Concept/Bone%20Development

Cellular Insights Into Bone DevelopmentCellular Insights Into Bone Development

Researchers from Washington University looked within collagen fiber to investigate how new teeth and bones are formed to find ... Majority of the population will go day to day in their routines without thinking twice about their teeth and bones until there ... Majority of the population will go day to day in their routines without thinking twice about their teeth and bones until there ... new insights into faster bone healing and biomaterials. ... Bone and Dental Minerals Cellular Insights Into Bone ...
more infohttps://www.worldhealth.net/news/cellular-insights-bone-development/

Nutrition influences bone development from infancy through toddler years.Nutrition influences bone development from infancy through toddler years.

Nutritional factors that may contribute to bone accretion in infants and toddlers include maternal nutritional stat ... During the last decade a greater appreciation has developed for determining factors that influence bone accretion in healthy ... Bone Development / physiology*. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant Food. Infant Nutritional Physiological ... 14988469 - Nutrition influences bone development from infancy through toddler years.. 10569229 - Dietary nucleotides: effects ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Nutrition-influences-bone-development-from/14988469.html

Frontiers | A review of hedgehog signaling in cranial bone development | PhysiologyFrontiers | A review of hedgehog signaling in cranial bone development | Physiology

IHH expression is mainly found on the osteogenic fronts of the calvarial bones, and functions to induce cell proliferation and ... IHH expression is mainly found on the osteogenic fronts of the calvarial bones, and functions to induce cell proliferation and ... Nevertheless, SHH and IHH ligands are integral to cranial suture development and regulation of calvarial ossification. When HH ... the resultant suite of morphologic abnormalities highlights the important roles of HH signaling in cranial development. ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2013.00061/full

Fish oil supplement in pregnancy improves childs muscle and bone developmentFish oil supplement in pregnancy improves child's muscle and bone development

Fish oil supplement in pregnancy improves childs muscle and bone development. GETTY/ISTOCK ... Children whose mothers take fish oil supplements during pregnancy have more muscle and stronger bones in early childhood, a new ... and higher bone density than the children whose mothers took an olive oil placebo pill instead. ... bone, and fat mass suggesting a general growth stimulating effect." ...
more infohttp://www.iran-daily.com/News/230843.html

BONE DEVELOPMENT - SKELETAL SUPPORT - SUPPLEMENTS - HORSE CAREBONE DEVELOPMENT - SKELETAL SUPPORT - SUPPLEMENTS - HORSE CARE

Central Kentuckys largest supplier of horse, barn, and stable products for over 25 years. Offering free local delivery and over 4,000 horse, barn and stable products, KBC is a reliable, easy to find resource for the region or online.
more infohttps://www.kbchorsesupplies.com/horse-care/supplements/skeletal-support/bone-development.html

Bone Development in Young People |  International Osteoporosis FoundationBone Development in Young People | International Osteoporosis Foundation

During growth the gain in bone mineral mass is mainly due to an increase in bone size with very little change in bone density, ... life styles and genetics affect bone development in young people.. Body weight and bone health. The pursuit of a waif-like body ... in the amount of bone tissue within the bones. Just because a child is growing tall, this does not mean that his or her bone ... During growth, undernutrition, including insufficient caloric and protein intake, can severely impair bone development. ...
more infohttps://www.iofbonehealth.org/bone-development-young-people-0

The os priapiA study in bone development.The os priapiA study in bone development.

Several stages of development from the first appearance of the a d a g e of the bone t o its development into the defintive ... as the precursor of bone formation. Shipley ( 28) says, coricerniiig membrane bone, the development occurs in coniiective ... The os priapiA study in bone development.. код для вставки. код для вставки на сайт или в блог. Ширина: (. aвто. ). ... Jacob?; ( 24) describes the bone found in man as a fascia bone occurring in the fibrous tissue of the tunica albuginea. It ...
more infohttps://www.docme.ru/doc/2181783/the-os-priapia-study-in-bone-development

preventive-bone-development-study | College of Dentistry and Dental Clinicspreventive-bone-development-study | College of Dentistry and Dental Clinics

Preventive & Community Dentistry Research: Iowa Bone Development Study. The Iowa Bone Development Study (IBDS) was initiated in ... Assessments of bone development were made at ages 5, 9, 11, 13, 15 and 17. The study is currently completing bone assessments ... The study is assessing childrens bone development over time through special, low radiation x-ray type procedures and relating ... years of bone development is yielding valuable information to help determine which factors are or are not contributing to bone ...
more infohttps://www.dentistry.uiowa.edu/node/237

Role of TCF/LEF Transcription Factors in Bone Development and OsteogenesisRole of TCF/LEF Transcription Factors in Bone Development and Osteogenesis

... such as aberrant bone mass homeostasis. Development of novel therapies to normalize bone mass and correct developmental defects ... Li Z, Xu Z, Duan C, Liu W, Sun J, Han B. Role of TCF/LEF Transcription Factors in Bone Development and Osteogenesis. Int J Med ... J Bone Miner Metab. 2011;29:291-9 56. Hoeppner LH, Secreto F, Jensen ED, Li X, Kahler RA, Westendorf JJ. Runx2 and bone ... Komori T. Signaling networks in RUNX2-dependent bone development. J Cell Biochem. 2011;112:750-5 ...
more infohttp://www.medsci.org/v15p1415.htm

Visualizing normal and defective bone development in zebrafish embryos using the fluorescent chromophore calcein.  - PubMed -...Visualizing normal and defective bone development in zebrafish embryos using the fluorescent chromophore calcein. - PubMed -...

... and analyzed the effect of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) on axial skeleton development. We found the development of the ... Visualizing normal and defective bone development in zebrafish embryos using the fluorescent chromophore calcein.. Du SJ1, ... To determine whether calcein staining could also be used to detect abnormal bone development, we ectopically expressed BMP2 in ... By using this method, we followed the development of the skeletal structures in zebrafish embryos from day 1 to day 21 ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11784007?dopt=Abstract

Bone development Flashcards by Jamie Baugh | BrainscapeBone development Flashcards by Jamie Baugh | Brainscape

These cells build up the matrix of the bone structure and also play a role in the mineralization of the bone matrix. Bone is ... Cells that dissolve bone mineral and matrix. Can absorb 8xthe amount of bone produced by an osteoblast. ... Long bones grow _______ by producing subperiosteal new bone and _______ by mineralizing cartilage at centers of ossification. ... The area where wider metaphyseal cancellous bone is actively remodeling to thinner diaphyseal cortical bone is called? ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/bone-development-4989832/packs/6997848

Effects of Maternal Hypoxia during Pregnancy on Bone Development in Offspring: A Guinea Pig ModelEffects of Maternal Hypoxia during Pregnancy on Bone Development in Offspring: A Guinea Pig Model

E. Araldi and E. Schipani, "Hypoxia, HIFs and bone development," Bone, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 190-196, 2010. View at Publisher · ... Both VEGF and MMP-9 have been shown to play a central role in embryonic bone development and bone remodelling. The lack of ... We hypothesised that MH would result in decreased bone development in the fetus and thus reduced bone mass in adolescence. The ... When the bone volume was adjusted for body weight (bone volume/body weight), the relative bone volume was higher in MH compared ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2014/916918/

JCI -
Salt-inducible kinases dictate parathyroid hormone 1 receptor action in bone development and remodelingJCI - Salt-inducible kinases dictate parathyroid hormone 1 receptor action in bone development and remodeling

Taken together, our findings establish that SIK inhibition is central to PTH1R action in bone development and remodeling. ... Salt-inducible kinases dictate parathyroid hormone 1 receptor action in bone development and remodeling. ... Salt-inducible kinases dictate parathyroid hormone 1 receptor action in bone development and remodeling. ... Bone formation is severely affected in the Sik3. and Pthrp. double-KO mouse and the Sik3. -cKO mouse: secondary ossification ...
more infohttps://jci.org/articles/view/130126/figure/1

JCI -
Salt-inducible kinases dictate parathyroid hormone 1 receptor action in bone development and remodelingJCI - Salt-inducible kinases dictate parathyroid hormone 1 receptor action in bone development and remodeling

Taken together, our findings establish that SIK inhibition is central to PTH1R action in bone development and remodeling. ... Salt-inducible kinases dictate parathyroid hormone 1 receptor action in bone development and remodeling. ... Salt-inducible kinases dictate parathyroid hormone 1 receptor action in bone development and remodeling. ... Combined deletion of Sik2 and Sik3 in osteoblasts and osteocytes led to a dramatic increase in bone mass that closely resembled ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/130126/pdf

Why chronic disease harms kids bone development - and what to do about it - ScopeWhy chronic disease harms kids' bone development - and what to do about it - Scope

Why chronic disease harms kids bone development - and what to do about it. Author Kathy ZonanaPublished on October 19, 2015. ... "Kids with arthritis are fracturing more than you would expect." Ditto those with congenital heart disease, organ or bone marrow ... We believe that once you go through puberty, youre not getting that bone back. I feel like weve described and described the ... We just want to make sure they go into adulthood with the best, strongest skeleton possible - with bones to last a lifetime. ...
more infohttps://scopeblog.stanford.edu/2015/10/19/why-chronic-disease-harms-kids-bone-development-and-what-to-do-about-it/

The Effects of Elk Velvet Antler Dietary Supplementation on Physical Growth and Bone Development in Growing RatsThe Effects of Elk Velvet Antler Dietary Supplementation on Physical Growth and Bone Development in Growing Rats

The bone mineral density (BMD) is used to evaluate the bone mineral content (BMC) for a given bone volume and its measurement ... bone development parameters (including measurements of femur bone geometric and densitometric properties, dry matter content ... prevents bone loss and increases new bone formation in ovariectomized rats," Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 14, no ... As a whole, the observed positive effect of EVA on bone development in the present study is consistent with some of the account ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/819520/
  • Methods The Iowa Bone Development Study collected accelerometer data on a cohort of 140 girls and 128 boys at ages 5, 9, 11, 13, and 15 yr. (ovid.com)
  • However, it has remained unclear how exactly the bone-forming cells in the bone marrow respond to mechanical stimuli - or how their bone-resorbing counterparts respond in the absence of strain. (cscs.ch)
  • Osteoblasts are cells which originate in the bone marrow and contribute to the production of new bone. (brainscape.com)
  • MH decreased fetal birth weight but did not affect osteogenic potential pools in the fetal bone marrow. (hindawi.com)
  • Ditto those with congenital heart disease , organ or bone marrow transplants , inflammatory bowel disease , cerebral palsy , muscular dystrophy or a history of cancer . (stanford.edu)
  • Osterix-positive osteoprogenitors (marked by green nuclear staining) associate with EMCN-immunostained (red) type H capillaries found in the metaphysis (left panel) and with endosteal type H vessels found in the proximity of compact bone in the diaphysis (right panel) but not with diaphyseal type L vessels found in the bone marrow cavity (right panel). (biologists.org)
  • In the hollow within bones are many other cell types of the bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • The embryonic development of the cranium and cranial suture complex begins as far back as neural crest cell migration, a process starting on murine embryonic day 8 (E8) and completed within 2 days ( Slavkin, 1979 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Izquierdo MS, Scolamacchia M, Betancor M, Roo J, Caballero MJ, Terova G & Witten PE (2013) Effects of dietary DHA and α-tocopherol on bone development, early mineralisation and oxidative stress in Sparus aurata (Linnaeus, 1758) larvae. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Saleh R, Betancor M, Roo J, Benitez-Santana T, Zamorano MJ & Izquierdo MS (2015) Biomarkers of bone development and oxidative stress in gilthead seabream larvae fed microdiets with several levels of polar lipids and α-tocopherol. (stir.ac.uk)
  • A simple but effective pelleted product, TRM Calphormin contains a comprehensive blend of macro-minerals, trace minerals, amino acids and Sodium Zeolite (highly bioavailable silicon compound) that combine to promote the optimal development of the skeleton, focusing on bone integrity. (viovet.co.uk)
  • We demonstrated that ectopic expression of BMP2 in notochord cells inhibited the development of the axial skeleton. (nih.gov)
  • They show that that, in mice, the patella initially develops as a bony process that is part of the adjacent femur bone. (biologists.org)
  • Measurements included weekly body weights, blood chemistry and kidney and testis/ovary indices (sacrificed at 5, 9, or 16 weeks of age), and bone traits of the femur bones by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). (hindawi.com)
  • Maternal vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is associated with disturbances in neonatal calcium homeostasis, and maternal calcium deficiency leads to reduced neonatal bone mineral content (BMC). (biomedsearch.com)
  • It functions by binding to specific DNA sequence that yields tractable developmental and pattern abnormalities during embryogenesis, such as aberrant bone mass homeostasis. (medsci.org)
  • The main determinants of pubertal gain of bone mass are the sex steroids, growth hormone and insulin-like growth factors (by their effects on bone and muscle mass), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (by stimulating calcium absorption and retention) and muscle mass (by regulating modelling/remodelling thresholds). (nih.gov)
  • Several lifestyle factors, particularly nutrition, physical activity, and safe sun exposure can substantially influence the gain of bone mass during childhood and adolescence. (iofbonehealth.org)
  • Craniofacial morphogenesis, an intricate developmental process, begins with the synchronized development of head primordia, which involves several organizing centers located in the neural ectoderm, axial mesendoderm, and the cranial neural crest. (frontiersin.org)
  • MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small noncoding ~22-nt RNAs, which have been reported to play a crucial role in maintaining bone development and metabolism. (mdpi.com)
  • The current study investigated the effects of fetal growth restriction induced by MH during the last half of gestation on bone structure and volume in the offspring of the fetus near term and the pup in adolescence. (hindawi.com)
  • Bone mass and bone size increase throughout childhood, reaching their peak at the end of adolescence, when growth plates are closed [ 2 , 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • And the likely consequence of emerging from adolescence with inadequate bone mass is early osteoporosis . (stanford.edu)
  • Associations between blood vessels in the bone and osteoprogenitors. (biologists.org)
  • Perivascular cells associated with blood vessels in the bone. (biologists.org)
  • Blood vessels then extend within the growing bone and grow towards the epiphysis in both directions at P1. (biologists.org)
  • There was increased mRNA expression of adipogenesis-related gene (FABP4) in bone from the MH postnatal offspring. (hindawi.com)
  • However, MH reduced expression of bone formation marker (collagen-1) and increased expression of fat formation marker (FABP4) in postnatal offspring bone. (hindawi.com)
  • Relationship between bone mineral content and bone turnover markers, sex hormones and calciotropic hormones in pre- and early pubertal children. (nih.gov)
  • Studies have shown that birth weight is associated with bone mass, and low birth weight is related to a low bone mineral content in adults and increased fracture risks later in life [ 17 - 19 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The spermophile 0s priapi, as well as less elaborate types of this bone may be for stimulation of the vagina or the cerrix uteri, but here again we find that more knowledge is required concerning the physiology of reproduction in the forms concerned. (docme.ru)
  • IHH expression is mainly found on the osteogenic fronts of the calvarial bones, and functions to induce cell proliferation and differentiation. (frontiersin.org)
  • A major focus of the lab is understanding how the transcriptional co-activators YAP and TAZ mediate progenitor cell mechanosensation, motility, and differentiation during development and regeneration. (biologists.com)
  • The pursuit of a waif-like body-image idealized in fashion magazines can have a devastating effect on bone health. (iofbonehealth.org)
  • however, little evidence for its effect on bone development is available. (hindawi.com)
  • Bone Development" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • Read the International Osteoporosis Foundation report Invest in Your Bones: How diet, life styles and genetics affect bone development in young people . (iofbonehealth.org)
  • Nucleation of minerals in teeth and bones is not fully understood, but it is known that bone materials form inside collagen which is the main protein found in skin and connective tissues. (worldhealth.net)
  • Covering a diverse and current range of topics, including the genetic and epigenetic aspects of bone development, cell signaling in growth plate and bone development, evolution of bone proteins and the interrelationship between bone and other tissues, this volume provides a thorough look at bone development biology. (springer.com)
  • The effects of a high calcium dairy food on bone health in pre-pubertal children in New Zealand. (nih.gov)
  • Lotinun S, Suwanwela J, Poolthong S, Baron R. Kit W-sh Mutation Prevents Cancellous Bone Loss during Calcium Deprivation. (harvard.edu)
  • Nutritional factors that may contribute to bone accretion in infants and toddlers include maternal nutritional status during pregnancy, type of infant feeding, calcium and phosphorus content of infant formula, introduction of weaning foods, and diet during the toddler and preschool years. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In addition to calcium , protein plays a key role in bone mass acquisition. (iofbonehealth.org)
  • In addition, this growth factor stimulates the intestinal absorption of the bone mineral elements, calcium and phosphate, via an increase in the renal production of calcitriol, the hormonal form of vitamin D. (iofbonehealth.org)
  • The study is assessing children's bone development over time through special, low radiation x-ray type procedures and relating the findings to detailed assessments of genetic, dietary (including fluoride and calcium), physical activity, anthropometric (height, weight, etc.), demographic, and parental factors. (uiowa.edu)
  • Fang S, Deng Y, Gu P, Fan X. MicroRNAs Regulate Bone Development and Regeneration. (mdpi.com)
  • Children whose mothers take fish oil supplements during pregnancy have more muscle and stronger bones in early childhood, a new trial has found. (iran-daily.com)
  • Childhood is a person's peak bone producing years, so it's vitally important young people know how to build strong bones. (iofbonehealth.org)
  • X-ray scans revealed these children weren't simply carrying more unhealthy fat as they also had more lean muscle, and higher bone density than the children whose mothers took an olive oil placebo pill instead. (iran-daily.com)
  • Low birth weight is associated with reduced bone mass and density in adult life. (hindawi.com)
  • When HH signaling goes awry, the resultant suite of morphologic abnormalities highlights the important roles of HH signaling in cranial development. (frontiersin.org)
  • During growth, undernutrition, including insufficient caloric and protein intake, can severely impair bone development. (iofbonehealth.org)
  • The objective of this study was to determine the combined effect of graded levels of -tocopherol with different levels and sources of krill phospholipids (KPL) and soybean lecithin (SBL) on growth, survival, resistance to stress, oxidative status, bone metabolism-related genes expression and biochemical composition of sea bream larvae. (stir.ac.uk)
  • If the chemistry can be manipulated to send signals to form bone minerals more quickly or stronger it may have important implications to the medical field. (worldhealth.net)
  • Young children who engage in 40 minutes of normal vigorous activity each day have significantly stronger bones than their less active peers. (iofbonehealth.org)
  • These molecules act as autocrine signals that promote the survival of bone cells but also stimulate angiogenesis in a paracrine fashion. (biologists.org)
  • Additionally, deregulated angiogenesis contributes to numerous diseases, stimulating extensive research in the field of (pathological) angiogenesis and development of therapeutic strategies at a rapidly increasing pace. (valorebooks.com)
  • Christa Maes is the author of 'Angiogenesis & Bone: The Role Of The Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Family In Bone Development And Repair (Acta Biomedica Lovaniensia)', published 2004 under ISBN 9789058673763 and ISBN 9058673766. (valorebooks.com)
  • The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. (harvard.edu)
  • Continuing to study the same young adults from birth through the critical teenage and early adult years of bone development is yielding valuable information to help determine which factors are or are not contributing to bone health, ultimately allowing for improved public health recommendations. (uiowa.edu)
  • Through these simulations, the researchers were able to study the link between local mechanical stress and its impact on the bone at the cellular level. (cscs.ch)
  • The authors further demonstrate that, similar to bone eminences - superstructures that mediate bone-tendon attachment - the patella arises from progenitors that express the chondrocyte marker Sox9 and the tendon marker scleraxis (Scx) and that are regulated by TGFβ/BMP signalling. (biologists.org)
  • During the last decade a greater appreciation has developed for determining factors that influence bone accretion in healthy children. (biomedsearch.com)
  • There are a range of endocrine and paracrine factors that regulate bone growth [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Cells of the outer perichondrium layer differentiate into osteoblasts, invade the hypertrophic zone and produce bone-specific matrix. (lifemapsc.com)