The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
Diseases of BONES.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.
Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.
The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A genetic or pathological condition that is characterized by short stature and undersize. Abnormal skeletal growth usually results in an adult who is significantly below the average height.
Metabolic bone diseases are a group of disorders that affect the bones' structure and strength, caused by disturbances in the normal metabolic processes involved in bone formation, resorption, or mineralization, including conditions like osteoporosis, osteomalacia, Paget's disease, and renal osteodystrophy.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
Congenital anomaly of abnormally short fingers or toes.
The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.
The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.
Developmental bone diseases are a category of skeletal disorders that arise from disturbances in the normal growth and development of bones, including abnormalities in size, shape, structure, or composition, which can lead to various musculoskeletal impairments and deformities.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is found at high concentrations in a purified osteoinductive protein fraction from BONE. Bone morphogenetic protein 3 is referred to as osteogenin, however it may play a role in variety of developmental processes.
Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.
Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Increase in the mass of bone per unit volume.
The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A union between adjacent bones or parts of a single bone formed by osseous material, such as ossified connecting cartilage or fibrous tissue. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A type of fibrous joint between bones of the head.
Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.
A ubiquitously expressed, secreted protein with bone resorption and renal calcium reabsorption activities that are similar to PARATHYROID HORMONE. It does not circulate in appreciable amounts in normal subjects, but rather exerts its biological actions locally. Overexpression of parathyroid hormone-related protein by tumor cells results in humoral calcemia of malignancy.
Abnormal development of cartilage and bone.
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Iowa" is a state located in the Midwestern United States and does not have a medical definition.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
Breaks in bones.
A highly glycosylated and sulfated phosphoprotein that is found almost exclusively in mineralized connective tissues. It is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to hydroxyapatite through polyglutamic acid sequences and mediates cell attachment through an RGD sequence.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
A parathyroid hormone receptor subtype that recognizes both PARATHYROID HORMONE and PARATHYROID HORMONE-RELATED PROTEIN. It is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is expressed at high levels in BONE and in KIDNEY.
The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
A non-fibrillar collagen found primarily in terminally differentiated hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES. It is a homotrimer of three identical alpha1(X) subunits.
Autosomal dominant syndrome in which there is delayed closing of the CRANIAL FONTANELLES; complete or partial absence of the collarbones (CLAVICLES); wide PUBIC SYMPHYSIS; short middle phalanges of the fifth fingers; and dental and vertebral anomalies.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that plays a physiological role in the degradation of extracellular matrix found in skeletal tissues. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is activated by the proteolytic cleavage of its N-terminal propeptide.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that was originally identified in DROSOPHILA as essential for proper gastrulation and MESODERM formation. It plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MUSCLE CELLS, and is found in a wide variety of organisms.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.
One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
Cell surface proteins that bind PARATHYROID HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Parathyroid hormone receptors on BONE; KIDNEY; and gastrointestinal cells mediate the hormone's role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis.
Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.
Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.
A fibroblast growth factor receptor that regulates CHONDROCYTE growth and CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Mutations in the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 have been associated with ACHONDROPLASIA; THANATOPHORIC DYSPLASIA and NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.
Bone marrow diseases, also known as hematologic or blood disorders, refer to conditions that affect the production and function of blood cells within the bone marrow, such as leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma, and aplastic anemia, potentially leading to complications like anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and increased susceptibility to infections or bleeding.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Enzymes that catalyze the degradation of collagen by acting on the peptide bonds.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the FEMUR; PATELLA; TIBIA; and FIBULA.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.
Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Bones that constitute each half of the pelvic girdle in VERTEBRATES, formed by fusion of the ILIUM; ISCHIUM; and PUBIC BONE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.
The TARSAL BONES; METATARSAL BONES; and PHALANGES OF TOES. The tarsal bones consists of seven bones: CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid; navicular; internal; middle; and external cuneiform bones. The five metatarsal bones are numbered one through five, running medial to lateral. There are 14 phalanges in each foot, the great toe has two while the other toes have three each.
The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.
Fibrous blood-filled cyst in the bone. Although benign it can be destructive causing deformity and fractures.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.

The development and structure of the chimpanzee mandible. (1/1613)

The sites of growth and remodeling, and the associated changes in cortical bone structure, have been studied in the chimpanzee mandible and compared with those previously reported in the human and macaque mandibles. The location of the principal sites of growth, and the distribution of the areas of deposition and resorption in the ramus, were found to be similar in all three species. In the chimpanzee, unlike Man, the bone being deposited at the condyle, posterior border of the ramus and coronoid process was plexiform in nature, indicating very rapid growth. The pattern of remodeling in the mandibular body, on the other hand, showed marked species differences at the chin and on the submandibular lingual surface, which account for the contrasts seen in the adult morphology of these regions. Although the pattern of distribution of cortical densities differed from that of surface remodeling, the information they give is complementary in analysing bone growth. The densest regions were found to coincide with sites of consistent lamellar deposition, while the least dense regions were those where plexiform bone was formed. Areas where remodeling led to the greatest reorientation of bone tissue within the cortex showed the greatest disparity between the two patterns.  (+info)

Expression of the paired-box genes Pax-1 and Pax-9 in limb skeleton development. (2/1613)

Vertebrate Pax genes encode a family of transcription factors that play important roles in embryonic patterning and morphogenesis. Two closely related Pax genes, Pax-1 and Pax-9, are associated with early axial and limb skeleton development. To investigate the role of these genes in cartilage formation we have examined the expression profiles of Pax-1 and Pax-9 in developing chick limb mesenchyme in vivo and in vitro. Both transcripts are detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Northern blotting throughout chick limb development, from the early bud stages (Hamburger-Hamilton 20-23) to fully patterned appendages (stage 30). Whole-mount in situ hybridization reveals complex, nonoverlapping expression domains of these two genes. Pax-1 transcripts first appear at the anterior proximal margin of the limb buds, while Pax-9 is expressed more distally at what will be the junction of the autopod and the zeugopod. In situ hybridization to serial sections of the girdles reveals that in the pectoral region Pax-1 is expressed proximally in condensed mesenchyme surrounding the junction of the developing scapula, humerus, and coracoid. In the pelvis, Pax-1 is expressed between the femur and the developing acetabulum and along the ventral edge of the ischium; this transcript was also found in the distal hindlimb along the posterior edge of the fibula. Pax-9 transcripts were not detected in the pectoral girdle at any stage, and only weakly in the pelvis along the ventral ischial margin. In the distal parts of both wings and legs, however, Pax-9 is strongly expressed between the anterior embryonic cartilages (e.g., distal radius or tibia) and the anterior ectodermal ridge. The expression of both genes was strongest in undifferentiated cells of precartilage condensations or at the margins of differentiated cartilages, and was absent from cartilage itself. In micromass cultures of chondrifying limb bud mesenchyme expression of Pax-1 and Pax-9 is maintained for up to 3 days in vitro, most strongly at the end of the culture period during chondrogenic differentiation. As seen in vivo, transcripts are found in loose mesenchyme cells at the outer margins of developing cartilage nodules, and are absent from differentiated chondrocytes at the nodule center. Taken together, these investigations extend previous studies of Pax-1 and Pax-9 expression in embryonic limb development while validating limb bud mesenchyme culture as an accessible experimental system for the study of Pax gene function and regulation. Our in vivo and in vitro observations are discussed with reference to 1) the relationship between somitic and limb expression of these two Pax genes, 2) what regulates this expression in different regions of the embryo, and 3) the putative cellular functions of Pax-1 and Pax-9 in embryonic skeletogenesis.  (+info)

An endocytic pathway essential for renal uptake and activation of the steroid 25-(OH) vitamin D3. (3/1613)

Steroid hormones may enter cells by diffusion through the plasma membrane. However, we demonstrate here that some steroid hormones are taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis of steroid-carrier complexes. We show that 25-(OH) vitamin D3 in complex with its plasma carrier, the vitamin D-binding protein, is filtered through the glomerulus and reabsorbed in the proximal tubules by the endocytic receptor megalin. Endocytosis is required to preserve 25-(OH) vitamin D3 and to deliver to the cells the precursor for generation of 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D3, a regulator of the calcium metabolism. Megalin-/- mice are unable to retrieve the steroid from the glomerular filtrate and develop vitamin D deficiency and bone disease.  (+info)

Pleiotropic skeletal and ocular phenotypes of the mouse mutation congenital hydrocephalus (ch/Mf1) arise from a winged helix/forkhead transcriptionfactor gene. (4/1613)

Congenital hydrocephalus is an etiologically diverse, poorly understood, but relatively common birth defect. Most human cases are sporadic with familial forms showing considerable phenotypic and etiologic heterogeneity. We have studied the autosomal recessive mouse mutation congenital hydrocephalus ( ch ) to identify candidate human hydrocephalus genes and their modifiers. ch mice have a congenital, lethal hydrocephalus in association with multiple developmental defects, notably skeletal defects, in tissues derived from the cephalic neural crest. We utilized positional cloning methods to map ch in the vicinity of D13Mit294 and confirm that the ch phenotype is caused by homozygosity for a nonsense mutation in a gene encoding a winged helix/forkhead transcription factor ( Mf1 ). Based on linked genetic markers, we performed detailed phenotypic characterization of mutant homozygotes and heterozygotes to demonstrate the pleiotropic effects of the mutant gene. Surprisingly, ch heterozygotes have the glaucoma-related distinct phenotype of multiple anterior segment defects resembling Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly. We also localized a second member of this gene family ( Hfh1 ), a candidate for other developmental defects, approximately 470 kb proximal to Mf1.  (+info)

Growth factors in bone. (5/1613)

Bone contains several growth factors, including bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and basic and acidic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF and aFGF). Spatial and temporal variations in the expression and secretion of the various growth factors have been demonstrated in osteoblastic cultures and in various experimental and clinical in vivo models, including fracture healing in humans. Local application of various growth factors influences proliferation, differentiation and protein synthesis in osteoblastic cultures and bone formation in different animal models, including experimental fractures and skeletal defects. The BMPs are the only growth factors known to provoke bone formation heterotopically by making undifferentiated mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteoblasts (osteoinduction). BMPs and other growth factors, soon to become commercially available for clinical use, need a delivery system for their sustained release, as the factors are otherwise rapidly absorbed. Some existing systems inhibit bone formation by inducing chronic inflammation or physically by unresorbed carrier obstructing bone formation. New delivery systems are being investigated.  (+info)

Tumor necrosis factor receptor family member RANK mediates osteoclast differentiation and activation induced by osteoprotegerin ligand. (6/1613)

A receptor that mediates osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and activation has been identified via genomic analysis of a primary osteoclast precursor cell cDNA library and is identical to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family member RANK. The RANK mRNA was highly expressed by isolated bone marrow-derived osteoclast progenitors and by mature osteoclasts in vivo. Recombinant OPGL binds specifically to RANK expressed by transfected cell lines and purified osteoclast progenitors. Transgenic mice expressing a soluble RANK-Fc fusion protein have severe osteopetrosis because of a reduction in osteoclasts, similar to OPG transgenic mice. Recombinant RANK-Fc binds with high affinity to OPGL in vitro and blocks osteoclast differentiation and activation in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, polyclonal Ab against the RANK extracellular domain promotes osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow cultures suggesting that RANK activation mediates the effects of OPGL on the osteoclast pathway. These data indicate that OPGL-induced osteoclastogenesis is directly mediated through RANK on osteoclast precursor cells.  (+info)

Retardation of bone growth in triamcinolone-treated mice. (7/1613)

Immature mice were treated for up to 8 weeks with daily doses of triamcinolone diacetate. The epiphyseal cartilage plate and its surrounding bone from the humeral head were studied histologically at regular intervals. Concomitantly, roentgenographic measurements were performed on the humeri in toto. By the tenth injection significant morphological changes were noted in the cartilaginous plate, followed by complete cessation of bone growth. Severe triglyceride accumulation appeared in the experimental livers and humeral bone marrow. Osteoporosis also occurred and became severe from the fifth week of triamcinolone administration. Possible explanations for the above findings are discussed.  (+info)

Quantitative histology of the human growth plate. (8/1613)

This paper describes a study in the human femur of the relationship between cell division in growth cartilage and overall bone growth. Growth rates for the distal femur from birth to eighteen years were determined from serial radiographs available from the Harpenden Growth Study; An average of 1-4 cm/year was found for the ages of five to eight years. The development of the growth plate is illustrated in a series of photomicrographs of femur sections. These sections were also used for quantitative histology; The length of the proliferation zone was estimated from cell counts to be twenty-four cells per column. On the basis of this value and the measured growth rate, an approximate mean cycle time of twenty days was found for the proliferating cells of the human growth plate. Since the corresponding cycle time is two days for rodent growth plates, which also have a different structure, it is unwise to extrapolate the findings in this tissue from mouse to man.  (+info)

Bone development, also known as ossification, is the process by which bone tissue is formed and grows. This complex process involves several different types of cells, including osteoblasts, which produce new bone matrix, and osteoclasts, which break down and resorb existing bone tissue.

There are two main types of bone development: intramembranous and endochondral ossification. Intramembranous ossification occurs when bone tissue forms directly from connective tissue, while endochondral ossification involves the formation of a cartilage model that is later replaced by bone.

During fetal development, most bones develop through endochondral ossification, starting as a cartilage template that is gradually replaced by bone tissue. However, some bones, such as those in the skull and clavicles, develop through intramembranous ossification.

Bone development continues after birth, with new bone tissue being laid down and existing tissue being remodeled throughout life. This ongoing process helps to maintain the strength and integrity of the skeleton, allowing it to adapt to changing mechanical forces and repair any damage that may occur.

"Bone" is the hard, dense connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrate animals. It provides support and protection for the body's internal organs, and serves as a attachment site for muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Bone is composed of cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone formation and resorption, respectively, and an extracellular matrix made up of collagen fibers and mineral crystals.

Bones can be classified into two main types: compact bone and spongy bone. Compact bone is dense and hard, and makes up the outer layer of all bones and the shafts of long bones. Spongy bone is less dense and contains large spaces, and makes up the ends of long bones and the interior of flat and irregular bones.

The human body has 206 bones in total. They can be further classified into five categories based on their shape: long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and sesamoid bones.

Bone remodeling is the normal and continuous process by which bone tissue is removed from the skeleton (a process called resorption) and new bone tissue is formed (a process called formation). This ongoing cycle allows bones to repair microdamage, adjust their size and shape in response to mechanical stress, and maintain mineral homeostasis. The cells responsible for bone resorption are osteoclasts, while the cells responsible for bone formation are osteoblasts. These two cell types work together to maintain the structural integrity and health of bones throughout an individual's life.

During bone remodeling, the process can be divided into several stages:

1. Activation: The initiation of bone remodeling is triggered by various factors such as microdamage, hormonal changes, or mechanical stress. This leads to the recruitment and activation of osteoclast precursor cells.
2. Resorption: Osteoclasts attach to the bone surface and create a sealed compartment called a resorption lacuna. They then secrete acid and enzymes that dissolve and digest the mineralized matrix, creating pits or cavities on the bone surface. This process helps remove old or damaged bone tissue and releases calcium and phosphate ions into the bloodstream.
3. Reversal: After resorption is complete, the osteoclasts undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death), and mononuclear cells called reversal cells appear on the resorbed surface. These cells prepare the bone surface for the next stage by cleaning up debris and releasing signals that attract osteoblast precursors.
4. Formation: Osteoblasts, derived from mesenchymal stem cells, migrate to the resorbed surface and begin producing a new organic matrix called osteoid. As the osteoid mineralizes, it forms a hard, calcified structure that gradually replaces the resorbed bone tissue. The osteoblasts may become embedded within this newly formed bone as they differentiate into osteocytes, which are mature bone cells responsible for maintaining bone homeostasis and responding to mechanical stress.
5. Mineralization: Over time, the newly formed bone continues to mineralize, becoming stronger and more dense. This process helps maintain the structural integrity of the skeleton and ensures adequate calcium storage.

Throughout this continuous cycle of bone remodeling, hormones, growth factors, and mechanical stress play crucial roles in regulating the balance between resorption and formation. Disruptions to this delicate equilibrium can lead to various bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, where excessive resorption results in weakened bones and increased fracture risk.

Bone density refers to the amount of bone mineral content (usually measured in grams) in a given volume of bone (usually measured in cubic centimeters). It is often used as an indicator of bone strength and fracture risk. Bone density is typically measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, which provide a T-score that compares the patient's bone density to that of a young adult reference population. A T-score of -1 or above is considered normal, while a T-score between -1 and -2.5 indicates osteopenia (low bone mass), and a T-score below -2.5 indicates osteoporosis (porous bones). Regular exercise, adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, and medication (if necessary) can help maintain or improve bone density and prevent fractures.

Osteogenesis is the process of bone formation or development. It involves the differentiation and maturation of osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells that synthesize and deposit the organic matrix of bone tissue, composed mainly of type I collagen. This organic matrix later mineralizes to form the inorganic crystalline component of bone, primarily hydroxyapatite.

There are two primary types of osteogenesis: intramembranous and endochondral. Intramembranous osteogenesis occurs directly within connective tissue, where mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into osteoblasts and form bone tissue without an intervening cartilage template. This process is responsible for the formation of flat bones like the skull and clavicles.

Endochondral osteogenesis, on the other hand, involves the initial development of a cartilaginous model or template, which is later replaced by bone tissue. This process forms long bones, such as those in the limbs, and occurs through several stages involving chondrocyte proliferation, hypertrophy, and calcification, followed by invasion of blood vessels and osteoblasts to replace the cartilage with bone tissue.

Abnormalities in osteogenesis can lead to various skeletal disorders and diseases, such as osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease), achondroplasia (a form of dwarfism), and cleidocranial dysplasia (a disorder affecting skull and collarbone development).

Osteoblasts are specialized bone-forming cells that are derived from mesenchymal stem cells. They play a crucial role in the process of bone formation and remodeling. Osteoblasts synthesize, secrete, and mineralize the organic matrix of bones, which is mainly composed of type I collagen.

These cells have receptors for various hormones and growth factors that regulate their activity, such as parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, and transforming growth factor-beta. When osteoblasts are not actively producing bone matrix, they can become trapped within the matrix they produce, where they differentiate into osteocytes, which are mature bone cells that play a role in maintaining bone structure and responding to mechanical stress.

Abnormalities in osteoblast function can lead to various bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, and Paget's disease of bone.

Bone resorption is the process by which bone tissue is broken down and absorbed into the body. It is a normal part of bone remodeling, in which old or damaged bone tissue is removed and new tissue is formed. However, excessive bone resorption can lead to conditions such as osteoporosis, in which bones become weak and fragile due to a loss of density. This process is carried out by cells called osteoclasts, which break down the bone tissue and release minerals such as calcium into the bloodstream.

Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit, also known as CBF-A1 or RUNX1, is a protein that plays a crucial role in hematopoiesis, which is the process of blood cell development. It is a member of the core binding factor (CBF) complex, which regulates gene transcription and is essential for the differentiation and maturation of hematopoietic stem cells into mature blood cells.

The CBF complex consists of three subunits: CBF-A, CBF-B, and a histone deacetylase (HDAC). The CBF-A subunit can have several isoforms, including CBF-A1, which is encoded by the RUNX1 gene. Mutations in the RUNX1 gene have been associated with various hematological disorders, such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML), familial platelet disorder with propensity to develop AML, and thrombocytopenia with absent radii syndrome.

CBF-A1/RUNX1 functions as a transcription factor that binds to DNA at specific sequences called core binding factors, thereby regulating the expression of target genes involved in hematopoiesis. Proper regulation of these genes is essential for normal blood cell development and homeostasis.

The metatarsal bones are a group of five long bones in the foot that connect the tarsal bones in the hindfoot to the phalanges in the forefoot. They are located between the tarsal and phalangeal bones and are responsible for forming the arch of the foot and transmitting weight-bearing forces during walking and running. The metatarsal bones are numbered 1 to 5, with the first metatarsal being the shortest and thickest, and the fifth metatarsal being the longest and thinnest. Each metatarsal bone has a base, shaft, and head, and they articulate with each other and with the surrounding bones through joints. Any injury or disorder affecting the metatarsal bones can cause pain and difficulty in walking or standing.

The skull is the bony structure that encloses and protects the brain, the eyes, and the ears. It is composed of two main parts: the cranium, which contains the brain, and the facial bones. The cranium is made up of several fused flat bones, while the facial bones include the upper jaw (maxilla), lower jaw (mandible), cheekbones, nose bones, and eye sockets (orbits).

The skull also provides attachment points for various muscles that control chewing, moving the head, and facial expressions. Additionally, it contains openings for blood vessels, nerves, and the spinal cord to pass through. The skull's primary function is to protect the delicate and vital structures within it from injury and trauma.

Bone matrix refers to the non-cellular component of bone that provides structural support and functions as a reservoir for minerals, such as calcium and phosphate. It is made up of organic and inorganic components. The organic component consists mainly of type I collagen fibers, which provide flexibility and tensile strength to the bone. The inorganic component is primarily composed of hydroxyapatite crystals, which give bone its hardness and compressive strength. Bone matrix also contains other proteins, growth factors, and signaling molecules that regulate bone formation, remodeling, and repair.

Bone diseases is a broad term that refers to various medical conditions that affect the bones. These conditions can be categorized into several groups, including:

1. Developmental and congenital bone diseases: These are conditions that affect bone growth and development before or at birth. Examples include osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease), achondroplasia (dwarfism), and cleidocranial dysostosis.
2. Metabolic bone diseases: These are conditions that affect the body's ability to maintain healthy bones. They are often caused by hormonal imbalances, vitamin deficiencies, or problems with mineral metabolism. Examples include osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and Paget's disease of bone.
3. Inflammatory bone diseases: These are conditions that cause inflammation in the bones. They can be caused by infections, autoimmune disorders, or other medical conditions. Examples include osteomyelitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
4. Degenerative bone diseases: These are conditions that cause the bones to break down over time. They can be caused by aging, injury, or disease. Examples include osteoarthritis, avascular necrosis, and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH).
5. Tumors and cancers of the bone: These are conditions that involve abnormal growths in the bones. They can be benign or malignant. Examples include osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and Ewing sarcoma.
6. Fractures and injuries: While not strictly a "disease," fractures and injuries are common conditions that affect the bones. They can result from trauma, overuse, or weakened bones. Examples include stress fractures, compound fractures, and dislocations.

Overall, bone diseases can cause a wide range of symptoms, including pain, stiffness, deformity, and decreased mobility. Treatment for these conditions varies depending on the specific diagnosis but may include medication, surgery, physical therapy, or lifestyle changes.

Cartilage is a type of connective tissue that is found throughout the body in various forms. It is made up of specialized cells called chondrocytes, which are embedded in a firm, flexible matrix composed of collagen fibers and proteoglycans. This unique structure gives cartilage its characteristic properties of being both strong and flexible.

There are three main types of cartilage in the human body: hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage.

1. Hyaline cartilage is the most common type and is found in areas such as the articular surfaces of bones (where they meet to form joints), the nose, trachea, and larynx. It has a smooth, glassy appearance and provides a smooth, lubricated surface for joint movement.
2. Elastic cartilage contains more elastin fibers than hyaline cartilage, which gives it greater flexibility and resilience. It is found in structures such as the external ear and parts of the larynx and epiglottis.
3. Fibrocartilage has a higher proportion of collagen fibers and fewer chondrocytes than hyaline or elastic cartilage. It is found in areas that require high tensile strength, such as the intervertebral discs, menisci (found in joints like the knee), and the pubic symphysis.

Cartilage plays a crucial role in supporting and protecting various structures within the body, allowing for smooth movement and providing a cushion between bones to absorb shock and prevent wear and tear. However, cartilage has limited capacity for self-repair and regeneration, making damage or degeneration of cartilage tissue a significant concern in conditions such as osteoarthritis.

The frontal bone is the bone that forms the forehead and the upper part of the eye sockets (orbits) in the skull. It is a single, flat bone that has a prominent ridge in the middle called the superior sagittal sinus, which contains venous blood. The frontal bone articulates with several other bones, including the parietal bones at the sides and back, the nasal bones in the center of the face, and the zygomatic (cheek) bones at the lower sides of the orbits.

Chondrocytes are the specialized cells that produce and maintain the extracellular matrix of cartilage tissue. They are responsible for synthesizing and secreting the collagen fibers, proteoglycans, and other components that give cartilage its unique properties, such as elasticity, resiliency, and resistance to compression. Chondrocytes are located within lacunae, or small cavities, in the cartilage matrix, and they receive nutrients and oxygen through diffusion from the surrounding tissue fluid. They are capable of adapting to changes in mechanical stress by modulating the production and organization of the extracellular matrix, which allows cartilage to withstand various loads and maintain its structural integrity. Chondrocytes play a crucial role in the development, maintenance, and repair of cartilaginous tissues throughout the body, including articular cartilage, costal cartilage, and growth plate cartilage.

A growth plate, also known as an epiphyseal plate or physis, is a layer of cartilaginous tissue found near the ends of long bones in children and adolescents. This region is responsible for the longitudinal growth of bones during development. The growth plate contains actively dividing cells that differentiate into chondrocytes, which produce and deposit new matrix, leading to bone elongation. Once growth is complete, usually in late adolescence or early adulthood, the growth plates ossify (harden) and are replaced by solid bone, transforming into the epiphyseal line.

Physiologic calcification is the normal deposit of calcium salts in body tissues and organs. It is a natural process that occurs as part of the growth and development of the human body, as well as during the repair and remodeling of tissues.

Calcium is an essential mineral that plays a critical role in many bodily functions, including bone formation, muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and blood clotting. In order to maintain proper levels of calcium in the body, excess calcium that is not needed for these functions may be deposited in various tissues as a normal part of the aging process.

Physiologic calcification typically occurs in areas such as the walls of blood vessels, the lungs, and the heart valves. While these calcifications are generally harmless, they can sometimes lead to complications, particularly if they occur in large amounts or in sensitive areas. For example, calcification of the coronary arteries can increase the risk of heart disease, while calcification of the lung tissue can cause respiratory symptoms.

It is important to note that pathologic calcification, on the other hand, refers to the abnormal deposit of calcium salts in tissues and organs, which can be caused by various medical conditions such as chronic kidney disease, hyperparathyroidism, and certain infections. Pathologic calcification is not a normal process and can lead to serious health complications if left untreated.

Bone marrow is the spongy tissue found inside certain bones in the body, such as the hips, thighs, and vertebrae. It is responsible for producing blood-forming cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. There are two types of bone marrow: red marrow, which is involved in blood cell production, and yellow marrow, which contains fatty tissue.

Red bone marrow contains hematopoietic stem cells, which can differentiate into various types of blood cells. These stem cells continuously divide and mature to produce new blood cells that are released into the circulation. Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body, white blood cells help fight infections, and platelets play a crucial role in blood clotting.

Bone marrow also serves as a site for immune cell development and maturation. It contains various types of immune cells, such as lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, which help protect the body against infections and diseases.

Abnormalities in bone marrow function can lead to several medical conditions, including anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and various types of cancer, such as leukemia and multiple myeloma. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy are common diagnostic procedures used to evaluate bone marrow health and function.

Bone regeneration is the biological process of new bone formation that occurs after an injury or removal of a portion of bone. This complex process involves several stages, including inflammation, migration and proliferation of cells, matrix deposition, and mineralization, leading to the restoration of the bone's structure and function.

The main cells involved in bone regeneration are osteoblasts, which produce new bone matrix, and osteoclasts, which resorb damaged or old bone tissue. The process is tightly regulated by various growth factors, hormones, and signaling molecules that promote the recruitment, differentiation, and activity of these cells.

Bone regeneration can occur naturally in response to injury or surgical intervention, such as fracture repair or dental implant placement. However, in some cases, bone regeneration may be impaired due to factors such as age, disease, or trauma, leading to delayed healing or non-union of the bone. In these situations, various strategies and techniques, including the use of bone grafts, scaffolds, and growth factors, can be employed to enhance and support the bone regeneration process.

Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (BMP-2) is a growth factor that belongs to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily. It plays a crucial role in bone and cartilage formation, as well as in the regulation of wound healing and embryonic development. BMP-2 stimulates the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts, which are cells responsible for bone formation.

BMP-2 has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a medical device to promote bone growth in certain spinal fusion surgeries and in the treatment of open fractures that have not healed properly. It is usually administered in the form of a collagen sponge soaked with recombinant human BMP-2 protein, which is a laboratory-produced version of the natural protein.

While BMP-2 has shown promising results in some clinical applications, its use is not without risks and controversies. Some studies have reported adverse effects such as inflammation, ectopic bone formation, and increased rates of cancer, which have raised concerns about its safety and efficacy. Therefore, it is essential to weigh the benefits and risks of BMP-2 therapy on a case-by-case basis and under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional.

Bone neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the bone. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign bone neoplasms do not spread to other parts of the body and are rarely a threat to life, although they may cause problems if they grow large enough to press on surrounding tissues or cause fractures. Malignant bone neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade and destroy nearby tissue and may spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.

There are many different types of bone neoplasms, including:

1. Osteochondroma - a benign tumor that develops from cartilage and bone
2. Enchondroma - a benign tumor that forms in the cartilage that lines the inside of the bones
3. Chondrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from cartilage
4. Osteosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from bone cells
5. Ewing sarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops in the bones or soft tissues around the bones
6. Giant cell tumor of bone - a benign or occasionally malignant tumor that develops from bone tissue
7. Fibrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from fibrous tissue in the bone

The symptoms of bone neoplasms vary depending on the type, size, and location of the tumor. They may include pain, swelling, stiffness, fractures, or limited mobility. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the tumor but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

Bone marrow cells are the types of cells found within the bone marrow, which is the spongy tissue inside certain bones in the body. The main function of bone marrow is to produce blood cells. There are two types of bone marrow: red and yellow. Red bone marrow is where most blood cell production takes place, while yellow bone marrow serves as a fat storage site.

The three main types of bone marrow cells are:

1. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs): These are immature cells that can differentiate into any type of blood cell, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. They have the ability to self-renew, meaning they can divide and create more hematopoietic stem cells.
2. Red blood cell progenitors: These are immature cells that will develop into mature red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes. Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide back to the lungs.
3. Myeloid and lymphoid white blood cell progenitors: These are immature cells that will develop into various types of white blood cells, which play a crucial role in the body's immune system by fighting infections and diseases. Myeloid progenitors give rise to granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils), monocytes, and megakaryocytes (which eventually become platelets). Lymphoid progenitors differentiate into B cells, T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells.

Bone marrow cells are essential for maintaining a healthy blood cell count and immune system function. Abnormalities in bone marrow cells can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, leukopenia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, or thrombocytosis, depending on the specific type of blood cell affected. Additionally, bone marrow cells are often used in transplantation procedures to treat patients with certain types of cancer, such as leukemia and lymphoma, or other hematologic disorders.

Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) are a group of growth factors that play crucial roles in the development, growth, and repair of bones and other tissues. They belong to the Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily and were first discovered when researchers found that certain proteins extracted from demineralized bone matrix had the ability to induce new bone formation.

BMPs stimulate the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts, which are the cells responsible for bone formation. They also promote the recruitment and proliferation of these cells, enhancing the overall process of bone regeneration. In addition to their role in bone biology, BMPs have been implicated in various other biological processes, including embryonic development, wound healing, and the regulation of fat metabolism.

There are several types of BMPs (BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-7, etc.) that exhibit distinct functions and expression patterns. Due to their ability to stimulate bone formation, recombinant human BMPs have been used in clinical applications, such as spinal fusion surgery and non-healing fracture treatment. However, the use of BMPs in medicine has been associated with certain risks and complications, including uncontrolled bone growth, inflammation, and cancer development, which necessitates further research to optimize their therapeutic potential.

X-ray microtomography, often referred to as micro-CT, is a non-destructive imaging technique used to visualize and analyze the internal structure of objects with high spatial resolution. It is based on the principles of computed tomography (CT), where multiple X-ray images are acquired at different angles and then reconstructed into cross-sectional slices using specialized software. These slices can be further processed to create 3D visualizations, allowing researchers and clinicians to examine the internal structure and composition of samples in great detail. Micro-CT is widely used in materials science, biology, medicine, and engineering for various applications such as material characterization, bone analysis, and defect inspection.

The femur is the medical term for the thigh bone, which is the longest and strongest bone in the human body. It connects the hip bone to the knee joint and plays a crucial role in supporting the weight of the body and allowing movement during activities such as walking, running, and jumping. The femur is composed of a rounded head, a long shaft, and two condyles at the lower end that articulate with the tibia and patella to form the knee joint.

The tibia, also known as the shin bone, is the larger of the two bones in the lower leg and part of the knee joint. It supports most of the body's weight and is a major insertion point for muscles that flex the foot and bend the leg. The tibia articulates with the femur at the knee joint and with the fibula and talus bone at the ankle joint. Injuries to the tibia, such as fractures, are common in sports and other activities that put stress on the lower leg.

Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell, or stem cell, becomes a more specialized cell type with specific functions and structures. This process involves changes in gene expression, which are regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors. Differentiation results in the development of distinct cell types that make up tissues and organs in multicellular organisms. It is a crucial aspect of embryonic development, tissue repair, and maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

Dwarfism is a medical condition that is characterized by short stature, typically with an adult height of 4 feet 10 inches (147 centimeters) or less. It is caused by a variety of genetic and medical conditions that affect bone growth, including skeletal dysplasias, hormonal deficiencies, and chromosomal abnormalities.

Skeletal dysplasias are the most common cause of dwarfism and are characterized by abnormalities in the development and growth of bones and cartilage. Achondroplasia is the most common form of skeletal dysplasia, accounting for about 70% of all cases of dwarfism. It is caused by a mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene and results in short limbs, a large head, and a prominent forehead.

Hormonal deficiencies, such as growth hormone deficiency or hypothyroidism, can also cause dwarfism if they are not diagnosed and treated early. Chromosomal abnormalities, such as Turner syndrome (monosomy X) or Down syndrome (trisomy 21), can also result in short stature and other features of dwarfism.

It is important to note that people with dwarfism are not "dwarves" - the term "dwarf" is a medical and sociological term used to describe individuals with this condition, while "dwarves" is a term often used in fantasy literature and media to refer to mythical beings. The use of the term "dwarf" can be considered disrespectful or offensive to some people with dwarfism, so it is important to use respectful language when referring to individuals with this condition.

Metabolic bone diseases are a group of conditions that affect the bones and are caused by disorders in the body's metabolism. These disorders can result in changes to the bone structure, density, and strength, leading to an increased risk of fractures and other complications. Some common examples of metabolic bone diseases include:

1. Osteoporosis: a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones that are more likely to break, often as a result of age-related bone loss or hormonal changes.
2. Paget's disease of bone: a chronic disorder that causes abnormal bone growth and deformities, leading to fragile and enlarged bones.
3. Osteomalacia: a condition caused by a lack of vitamin D or problems with the body's ability to absorb it, resulting in weak and soft bones.
4. Hyperparathyroidism: a hormonal disorder that causes too much parathyroid hormone to be produced, leading to bone loss and other complications.
5. Hypoparathyroidism: a hormonal disorder that results in low levels of parathyroid hormone, causing weak and brittle bones.
6. Renal osteodystrophy: a group of bone disorders that occur as a result of chronic kidney disease, including osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and high turnover bone disease.

Treatment for metabolic bone diseases may include medications to improve bone density and strength, dietary changes, exercise, and lifestyle modifications. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct bone deformities or fractures.

Osteoclasts are large, multinucleated cells that are primarily responsible for bone resorption, a process in which they break down and dissolve the mineralized matrix of bones. They are derived from monocyte-macrophage precursor cells of hematopoietic origin and play a crucial role in maintaining bone homeostasis by balancing bone formation and bone resorption.

Osteoclasts adhere to the bone surface and create an isolated microenvironment, called the "resorption lacuna," between their cell membrane and the bone surface. Here, they release hydrogen ions into the lacuna through a process called proton pumping, which lowers the pH and dissolves the mineral component of the bone matrix. Additionally, osteoclasts secrete proteolytic enzymes, such as cathepsin K, that degrade the organic components, like collagen, in the bone matrix.

An imbalance in osteoclast activity can lead to various bone diseases, including osteoporosis and Paget's disease, where excessive bone resorption results in weakened and fragile bones.

Brachydactyly is a medical term that describes a condition where the digits (fingers or toes) are abnormally short in length. This condition can affect one or more digits and can be present at birth or develop later in life. Brachydactyly can occur as an isolated trait or as part of a genetic syndrome, such as Apert syndrome or Down syndrome.

The term "brachydactyly" comes from two Greek words: "brachys," which means short, and "daktylos," which means finger or toe. There are several types of brachydactyly, each classified based on the specific bones affected and the pattern of inheritance.

For example, Brachydactyly type A is characterized by shortening of the distal phalanges (the bone at the end of the finger or toe), while Brachydactyly type D involves shortening of the middle phalanges. In some cases, brachydactyly may also be associated with other symptoms such as joint stiffness, nail abnormalities, or curvature of the fingers or toes (clinodactyly).

It is important to note that while brachydactyly can be noticeable and affect the appearance of the hands or feet, it is generally a mild condition that does not typically cause significant functional impairment. However, if you have concerns about brachydactyly or any other medical condition, it is always best to consult with a healthcare professional for further evaluation and guidance.

Chondrogenesis is the process of cartilage formation during embryonic development and in the healing of certain types of injuries. It involves the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into chondrocytes, which are the specialized cells that produce and maintain the extracellular matrix of cartilage.

During chondrogenesis, the mesenchymal stem cells condense and form a template for the future cartilaginous tissue. These cells then differentiate into chondrocytes, which begin to produce and deposit collagen type II, proteoglycans, and other extracellular matrix components that give cartilage its unique biochemical and mechanical properties.

Chondrogenesis is a critical process for the development of various structures in the body, including the skeletal system, where it plays a role in the formation of articular cartilage, growth plates, and other types of cartilage. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate chondrogenesis is important for developing therapies to treat cartilage injuries and degenerative diseases such as osteoarthritis.

The epiphyses are the rounded ends of long bones in the body, which articulate with other bones to form joints. They are separated from the main shaft of the bone (diaphysis) by a growth plate called the physis or epiphyseal plate. The epiphyses are made up of spongy bone and covered with articular cartilage, which allows for smooth movement between bones. During growth, the epiphyseal plates produce new bone cells that cause the bone to lengthen until they eventually fuse during adulthood, at which point growth stops.

Developmental bone diseases are a group of medical conditions that affect the growth and development of bones. These diseases are present at birth or develop during childhood and adolescence, when bones are growing rapidly. They can result from genetic mutations, hormonal imbalances, or environmental factors such as poor nutrition.

Some examples of developmental bone diseases include:

1. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI): Also known as brittle bone disease, OI is a genetic disorder that affects the body's production of collagen, a protein necessary for healthy bones. People with OI have fragile bones that break easily and may also experience other symptoms such as blue sclerae (whites of the eyes), hearing loss, and joint laxity.
2. Achondroplasia: This is the most common form of dwarfism, caused by a genetic mutation that affects bone growth. People with achondroplasia have short limbs and a large head relative to their body size.
3. Rickets: A condition caused by vitamin D deficiency or an inability to absorb or use vitamin D properly. This leads to weak, soft bones that can bow or bend easily, particularly in children.
4. Fibrous dysplasia: A rare bone disorder where normal bone is replaced with fibrous tissue, leading to weakened bones and deformities.
5. Scoliosis: An abnormal curvature of the spine that can develop during childhood or adolescence. While not strictly a developmental bone disease, scoliosis can be caused by various underlying conditions such as cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, or spina bifida.

Treatment for developmental bone diseases varies depending on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment may include medication, physical therapy, bracing, or surgery to correct deformities and improve function. Regular follow-up with a healthcare provider is essential to monitor growth, manage symptoms, and prevent complications.

Bone Morphogenetic Protein 3 (BMP-3) is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily of proteins. It plays crucial roles in regulating bone and cartilage development, as well as homeostasis. BMP-3 inhibits the differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts (cells responsible for bone formation), while promoting the differentiation of chondrocytes (cells responsible for cartilage formation). Additionally, BMP-3 has been implicated in wound healing, tissue regeneration, and cancer progression. Genetic variations in the BMP-3 gene have been associated with several skeletal disorders, including osteoporosis and scoliosis.

Osteocytes are the most abundant cell type in mature bone tissue. They are star-shaped cells that are located inside the mineralized matrix of bones, with their processes extending into small spaces called lacunae and canaliculi. Osteocytes are derived from osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells that become trapped within the matrix they produce.

Osteocytes play a crucial role in maintaining bone homeostasis by regulating bone remodeling, sensing mechanical stress, and modulating mineralization. They communicate with each other and with osteoblasts and osteoclasts (bone-resorbing cells) through a network of interconnected processes and via the release of signaling molecules. Osteocytes can also respond to changes in their environment, such as hormonal signals or mechanical loading, by altering their gene expression and releasing factors that regulate bone metabolism.

Dysfunction of osteocytes has been implicated in various bone diseases, including osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, and Paget's disease of bone.

The humerus is the long bone in the upper arm that extends from the shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint) to the elbow joint. It articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula to form the shoulder joint and with the radius and ulna bones at the elbow joint. The proximal end of the humerus has a rounded head that provides for movement in multiple planes, making it one of the most mobile joints in the body. The greater and lesser tubercles are bony prominences on the humeral head that serve as attachment sites for muscles that move the shoulder and arm. The narrow shaft of the humerus provides stability and strength for weight-bearing activities, while the distal end forms two articulations: one with the ulna (trochlea) and one with the radius (capitulum). Together, these structures allow for a wide range of motion in the shoulder and elbow joints.

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a medical procedure in which damaged or destroyed bone marrow is replaced with healthy bone marrow from a donor. Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside bones that produces blood cells. The main types of BMT are autologous, allogeneic, and umbilical cord blood transplantation.

In autologous BMT, the patient's own bone marrow is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with lymphoma or multiple myeloma who have undergone high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to destroy their cancerous bone marrow.

In allogeneic BMT, bone marrow from a genetically matched donor is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with leukemia, lymphoma, or other blood disorders who have failed other treatments.

Umbilical cord blood transplantation involves using stem cells from umbilical cord blood as a source of healthy bone marrow. This type of BMT is often used in children and adults who do not have a matched donor for allogeneic BMT.

The process of BMT typically involves several steps, including harvesting the bone marrow or stem cells from the donor, conditioning the patient's body to receive the new bone marrow or stem cells, transplanting the new bone marrow or stem cells into the patient's body, and monitoring the patient for signs of engraftment and complications.

BMT is a complex and potentially risky procedure that requires careful planning, preparation, and follow-up care. However, it can be a life-saving treatment for many patients with blood disorders or cancer.

Hyperostosis is a medical term that refers to an excessive growth or abnormal thickening of bone tissue. It can occur as a result of various conditions, such as inflammation, injury, or genetic disorders. The extra bone growth can cause pain, stiffness, and limited mobility in the affected area. In some cases, hyperostosis can also lead to deformities and other complications.

There are several types of hyperostosis, including:

1. Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH): This is a condition that affects the spine, causing calcification and stiffening of the ligaments and bone spurs to form along the edges of the vertebrae. It is often asymptomatic but can cause pain and stiffness in some cases.
2. Flat bone hyperostosis: This type of hyperostosis affects the flat bones of the body, such as the skull, ribs, and pelvis. It can be caused by various conditions, including Paget's disease, fibrous dysplasia, and certain types of cancer.
3. Focal hyperostosis: This refers to localized areas of bone overgrowth that can occur in response to injury, infection, or inflammation. Examples include heterotopic ossification (the formation of bone in soft tissues) and Freiberg's infarction (a condition that affects the joint surface of the metatarsal bones in the foot).
4. Hyperostosis frontalis interna: This is a benign condition that causes thickening of the inner table of the frontal bone in the skull. It is more common in women and often asymptomatic but can cause headaches and other symptoms in some cases.

Treatment for hyperostosis depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, no treatment may be necessary. However, if the condition causes pain or limits mobility, various treatments may be recommended, such as medication, physical therapy, or surgery.

Bone transplantation, also known as bone grafting, is a surgical procedure in which bone or bone-like material is transferred from one part of the body to another or from one person to another. The graft may be composed of cortical (hard outer portion) bone, cancellous (spongy inner portion) bone, or a combination of both. It can be taken from different sites in the same individual (autograft), from another individual of the same species (allograft), or from an animal source (xenograft). The purpose of bone transplantation is to replace missing bone, provide structural support, and stimulate new bone growth. This procedure is commonly used in orthopedic, dental, and maxillofacial surgeries to repair bone defects caused by trauma, tumors, or congenital conditions.

Developmental gene expression regulation refers to the processes that control the activation or repression of specific genes during embryonic and fetal development. These regulatory mechanisms ensure that genes are expressed at the right time, in the right cells, and at appropriate levels to guide proper growth, differentiation, and morphogenesis of an organism.

Developmental gene expression regulation is a complex and dynamic process involving various molecular players, such as transcription factors, chromatin modifiers, non-coding RNAs, and signaling molecules. These regulators can interact with cis-regulatory elements, like enhancers and promoters, to fine-tune the spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development.

Dysregulation of developmental gene expression can lead to various congenital disorders and developmental abnormalities. Therefore, understanding the principles and mechanisms governing developmental gene expression regulation is crucial for uncovering the etiology of developmental diseases and devising potential therapeutic strategies.

Synostosis is a medical term that refers to the abnormal or physiological fusion of adjacent bones. It's derived from two Greek words, "syn" meaning together and "osteon" meaning bone. In a normal physiological process, synostosis occurs during growth and development, where the growth of certain bones is stopped by the fusion of neighboring bones at specific sites known as sutures or fontanelles.

However, abnormal synostosis can occur due to various reasons such as injuries, infections, or genetic conditions. This can lead to restricted movement and growth disturbances in the affected area. Common examples include craniosynostosis, where the skull bones fuse prematurely, and syndactyly, where fingers or toes are fused together. Treatment for abnormal synostosis may involve surgery to correct the fusion and prevent further complications.

Cranial sutures are the fibrous joints that connect and hold together the bones of the skull (cranium) in humans and other animals. These sutures provide flexibility for the skull during childbirth and growth, allowing the skull to expand as the brain grows in size, especially during infancy and early childhood.

There are several cranial sutures in the human skull, including:

1. The sagittal suture, which runs along the midline of the skull, connecting the two parietal bones.
2. The coronal suture, which connects the frontal bone to the two parietal bones.
3. The lambdoid suture, which connects the occipital bone to the two parietal bones.
4. The squamosal suture, which connects the temporal bone to the parietal bone.
5. The frontosphenoidal and sphenoethmoidal sutures, which connect the frontal bone, sphenoid bone, and ethmoid bone in the anterior cranial fossa.

These sutures are typically made up of a specialized type of connective tissue called Sharpey's fibers, which interdigitate with each other to form a strong yet flexible joint. Over time, as the skull bones fully fuse together, these sutures become less prominent and eventually ossify (turn into bone). In some cases, abnormalities in cranial suture development or fusion can lead to medical conditions such as craniosynostosis.

The periosteum is a highly vascularized and innervated tissue that surrounds the outer surface of bones, except at the articular surfaces. It consists of two layers: an outer fibrous layer containing blood vessels, nerves, and fibroblasts; and an inner cellular layer called the cambium or osteogenic layer, which contains progenitor cells capable of bone formation and repair.

The periosteum plays a crucial role in bone growth, remodeling, and healing by providing a source of osteoprogenitor cells and blood supply. It also contributes to the sensation of pain in response to injury or inflammation of the bone. Additionally, the periosteum can respond to mechanical stress by activating bone formation, making it an essential component in orthopedic treatments such as distraction osteogenesis.

Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein (PTHrP) is a protein that is encoded by the PTHLH gene in humans. It is structurally similar to parathyroid hormone (PTH) and was initially identified due to its role in humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy, a condition characterized by high levels of calcium in the blood caused by certain types of cancer.

PTHrP has a variety of functions in the body, including regulation of calcium and phosphate homeostasis, cell growth and differentiation, and bone metabolism. It acts through a specific G protein-coupled receptor called the PTH/PTHrP receptor, which is found in many tissues throughout the body, including bone, kidney, and cartilage.

In contrast to PTH, which is primarily produced by the parathyroid glands and regulates calcium levels in the blood, PTHrP is produced by many different types of cells throughout the body. Its expression is regulated in a tissue-specific manner, and its functions can vary depending on the context in which it is produced.

Overall, PTHrP plays important roles in normal physiology as well as in various disease states, including cancer, bone disorders, and developmental abnormalities.

Osteochondrodysplasias are a group of genetic disorders that affect the development of bones and cartilage. These conditions can result in dwarfism or short stature, as well as other skeletal abnormalities. Osteochondrodysplasias can be caused by mutations in genes that regulate bone and cartilage growth, and they are often characterized by abnormalities in the shape, size, and/or structure of the bones and cartilage.

There are many different types of osteochondrodysplasias, each with its own specific symptoms and patterns of inheritance. Some common examples include achondroplasia, thanatophoric dysplasia, and spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia. These conditions can vary in severity, and some may be associated with other health problems, such as respiratory difficulties or neurological issues.

Treatment for osteochondrodysplasias typically focuses on managing the symptoms and addressing any related health concerns. This may involve physical therapy, bracing or surgery to correct skeletal abnormalities, and treatment for any associated medical conditions. In some cases, genetic counseling may also be recommended for individuals with osteochondrodysplasias and their families.

Bone substitutes are materials that are used to replace missing or damaged bone in the body. They can be made from a variety of materials, including natural bone from other parts of the body or from animals, synthetic materials, or a combination of both. The goal of using bone substitutes is to provide structural support and promote the growth of new bone tissue.

Bone substitutes are often used in dental, orthopedic, and craniofacial surgery to help repair defects caused by trauma, tumors, or congenital abnormalities. They can also be used to augment bone volume in procedures such as spinal fusion or joint replacement.

There are several types of bone substitutes available, including:

1. Autografts: Bone taken from another part of the patient's body, such as the hip or pelvis.
2. Allografts: Bone taken from a deceased donor and processed to remove any cells and infectious materials.
3. Xenografts: Bone from an animal source, typically bovine or porcine, that has been processed to remove any cells and infectious materials.
4. Synthetic bone substitutes: Materials such as calcium phosphate ceramics, bioactive glass, and polymer-based materials that are designed to mimic the properties of natural bone.

The choice of bone substitute material depends on several factors, including the size and location of the defect, the patient's medical history, and the surgeon's preference. It is important to note that while bone substitutes can provide structural support and promote new bone growth, they may not have the same strength or durability as natural bone. Therefore, they may not be suitable for all applications, particularly those that require high load-bearing capacity.

In medical terms, ribs are the long, curved bones that make up the ribcage in the human body. They articulate with the thoracic vertebrae posteriorly and connect to the sternum anteriorly via costal cartilages. There are 12 pairs of ribs in total, and they play a crucial role in protecting the lungs and heart, allowing room for expansion and contraction during breathing. Ribs also provide attachment points for various muscles involved in respiration and posture.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

I'm not aware of any recognized medical definition for the term "Iowa." Iowa is actually a state located in the Midwestern United States. It is known for its agricultural production, particularly corn and soybeans, and it is home to various cities such as Des Moines, Cedar Rapids, and Davenport. If you have any medical or health-related question, I would be happy to help with that instead.

In situ hybridization (ISH) is a molecular biology technique used to detect and localize specific nucleic acid sequences, such as DNA or RNA, within cells or tissues. This technique involves the use of a labeled probe that is complementary to the target nucleic acid sequence. The probe can be labeled with various types of markers, including radioisotopes, fluorescent dyes, or enzymes.

During the ISH procedure, the labeled probe is hybridized to the target nucleic acid sequence in situ, meaning that the hybridization occurs within the intact cells or tissues. After washing away unbound probe, the location of the labeled probe can be visualized using various methods depending on the type of label used.

In situ hybridization has a wide range of applications in both research and diagnostic settings, including the detection of gene expression patterns, identification of viral infections, and diagnosis of genetic disorders.

Osteocalcin is a protein that is produced by osteoblasts, which are the cells responsible for bone formation. It is one of the most abundant non-collagenous proteins found in bones and plays a crucial role in the regulation of bone metabolism. Osteocalcin contains a high affinity for calcium ions, making it essential for the mineralization of the bone matrix.

Once synthesized, osteocalcin is secreted into the extracellular matrix, where it binds to hydroxyapatite crystals, helping to regulate their growth and contributing to the overall strength and integrity of the bones. Osteocalcin also has been found to play a role in other physiological processes outside of bone metabolism, such as modulating insulin sensitivity, energy metabolism, and male fertility.

In summary, osteocalcin is a protein produced by osteoblasts that plays a critical role in bone formation, mineralization, and turnover, and has been implicated in various other physiological processes.

A bone fracture is a medical condition in which there is a partial or complete break in the continuity of a bone due to external or internal forces. Fractures can occur in any bone in the body and can vary in severity from a small crack to a shattered bone. The symptoms of a bone fracture typically include pain, swelling, bruising, deformity, and difficulty moving the affected limb. Treatment for a bone fracture may involve immobilization with a cast or splint, surgery to realign and stabilize the bone, or medication to manage pain and prevent infection. The specific treatment approach will depend on the location, type, and severity of the fracture.

Integrin-binding sialoprotein (IBSP) is a non-collagenous protein found in bones and teeth. It is also known as bone sialoprotein II or acidic glycoprotein 34. IBSP plays a role in the regulation of biomineralization, which is the process by which minerals are deposited in biological tissues.

IBSP contains several functional domains that allow it to interact with other proteins and molecules. One such domain is an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motif, which can bind to integrin receptors on the surface of cells. This interaction helps regulate the attachment and behavior of cells in bone tissue.

IBSP also contains a large number of sialic acid residues, which give it its name and contribute to its negative charge. These residues may play a role in protecting the protein from degradation and helping it interact with other molecules in the extracellular matrix.

Overall, IBSP is an important component of bone tissue and plays a key role in regulating the formation and maintenance of bones and teeth.

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme found in various body tissues, including the liver, bile ducts, digestive system, bones, and kidneys. It plays a role in breaking down proteins and minerals, such as phosphate, in the body.

The medical definition of alkaline phosphatase refers to its function as a hydrolase enzyme that removes phosphate groups from molecules at an alkaline pH level. In clinical settings, ALP is often measured through blood tests as a biomarker for various health conditions.

Elevated levels of ALP in the blood may indicate liver or bone diseases, such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, bone fractures, or cancer. Therefore, physicians may order an alkaline phosphatase test to help diagnose and monitor these conditions. However, it is essential to interpret ALP results in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical findings for accurate diagnosis and treatment.

Parathyroid Hormone Receptor Type 1 (PTH1R) is a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds to parathyroid hormone (PTH) and parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP). It is primarily found in bone and kidney cells.

The activation of PTH1R by PTH or PTHrP leads to a series of intracellular signaling events that regulate calcium homeostasis, bone metabolism, and renal function. In the bone, PTH1R stimulates the release of calcium from bone matrix into the bloodstream, while in the kidney, it increases the reabsorption of calcium in the distal tubule and inhibits phosphate reabsorption.

Mutations in the gene encoding PTH1R can lead to several genetic disorders, such as Blomstrand chondrodysplasia, Jansen metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, and hypoparathyroidism type 1B. These conditions are characterized by abnormalities in bone development, growth, and mineralization.

Fracture healing is the natural process by which a broken bone repairs itself. When a fracture occurs, the body responds by initiating a series of biological and cellular events aimed at restoring the structural integrity of the bone. This process involves the formation of a hematoma (a collection of blood) around the fracture site, followed by the activation of inflammatory cells that help to clean up debris and prepare the area for repair.

Over time, specialized cells called osteoblasts begin to lay down new bone matrix, or osteoid, along the edges of the broken bone ends. This osteoid eventually hardens into new bone tissue, forming a bridge between the fracture fragments. As this process continues, the callus (a mass of newly formed bone and connective tissue) gradually becomes stronger and more compact, eventually remodeling itself into a solid, unbroken bone.

The entire process of fracture healing can take several weeks to several months, depending on factors such as the severity of the injury, the patient's age and overall health, and the location of the fracture. In some cases, medical intervention may be necessary to help promote healing or ensure proper alignment of the bone fragments. This may include the use of casts, braces, or surgical implants such as plates, screws, or rods.

Photon Absorptiometry is a medical technique used to measure the absorption of photons (light particles) by tissues or materials. In clinical practice, it is often used as a non-invasive method for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). This technique uses a low-energy X-ray beam or gamma ray to penetrate the tissue and then measures the amount of radiation absorbed by the bone. The amount of absorption is related to the density and thickness of the bone, allowing for an assessment of BMD. It can be used to diagnose osteoporosis and monitor treatment response in patients with bone diseases. There are two types of photon absorptiometry: single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA). SPA uses one energy level, while DPA uses two different energy levels to measure BMD, providing more precise measurements.

Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a medical condition where bone tissue forms outside the skeleton, in locations where it does not typically exist. This process can occur in various soft tissues, such as muscles, tendons, ligaments, or even inside joint capsules. The abnormal bone growth can lead to pain, stiffness, limited range of motion, and, in some cases, loss of function in the affected area.

There are several types of heterotopic ossification, including:

1. Myositis ossificans - This form is often associated with trauma or injury, such as muscle damage from a fracture, surgery, or direct blow. It typically affects young, active individuals and usually resolves on its own within months to a few years.
2. Neurogenic heterotopic ossification (NHO) - Also known as "traumatic heterotopic ossification," this form is often linked to spinal cord injuries, brain injuries, or central nervous system damage. NHO can cause significant impairment and may require surgical intervention in some cases.
3. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) - This rare, genetic disorder causes progressive heterotopic ossification throughout the body, starting in early childhood. The condition significantly impacts mobility and quality of life, with no known cure.

The exact mechanisms behind heterotopic ossification are not fully understood, but it is believed that a combination of factors, including inflammation, tissue injury, and genetic predisposition, contribute to its development. Treatment options may include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), radiation therapy, physical therapy, or surgical removal of the abnormal bone growth, depending on the severity and location of the HO.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Transgenic mice are genetically modified rodents that have incorporated foreign DNA (exogenous DNA) into their own genome. This is typically done through the use of recombinant DNA technology, where a specific gene or genetic sequence of interest is isolated and then introduced into the mouse embryo. The resulting transgenic mice can then express the protein encoded by the foreign gene, allowing researchers to study its function in a living organism.

The process of creating transgenic mice usually involves microinjecting the exogenous DNA into the pronucleus of a fertilized egg, which is then implanted into a surrogate mother. The offspring that result from this procedure are screened for the presence of the foreign DNA, and those that carry the desired genetic modification are used to establish a transgenic mouse line.

Transgenic mice have been widely used in biomedical research to model human diseases, study gene function, and test new therapies. They provide a valuable tool for understanding complex biological processes and developing new treatments for a variety of medical conditions.

Collagen Type II is a specific type of collagen that is a major component of the extracellular matrix in articular cartilage, which is the connective tissue that covers and protects the ends of bones in joints. It is also found in other tissues such as the vitreous humor of the eye and the inner ear.

Collagen Type II is a triple helix molecule composed of three polypeptide chains that contain a high proportion of the amino acids proline and hydroxyproline. This type of collagen provides structural support and elasticity to tissues, and it also plays a role in the regulation of cell behavior and signaling.

Collagen Type II is a target for autoimmune responses in conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, where the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own collagen, leading to joint inflammation and damage. It is also a common component of various dietary supplements and therapies used to support joint health and treat osteoarthritis.

Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) are a type of adult stem cells found in various tissues, including bone marrow, adipose tissue, and umbilical cord blood. They have the ability to differentiate into multiple cell types, such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes, under specific conditions. MSCs also possess immunomodulatory properties, making them a promising tool in regenerative medicine and therapeutic strategies for various diseases, including autoimmune disorders and tissue injuries. It is important to note that the term "Mesenchymal Stem Cells" has been replaced by "Mesenchymal Stromal Cells" in the scientific community to better reflect their biological characteristics and potential functions.

Collagen type X is a specific type of collagen that is primarily found in the hypertrophic zone of mature cartilage, which is located near the site of bone formation during endochondral ossification. It plays a crucial role in the mineralization process of the cartilage matrix and is essential for the formation of healthy bones. Collagen type X is composed of three identical alpha chains that form a triple helix structure, and it is synthesized by chondrocytes, which are the specialized cells found in cartilage tissue. Mutations in the gene that encodes collagen type X have been associated with certain skeletal disorders, such as Schmid metaphyseal chondrodysplasia.

Cleidocranial dysplasia is a genetic skeletal disorder that affects the development of bones and teeth. The condition is characterized by the underdevelopment or absence of the collarbones (clavicles), which can result in shoulder joints that are abnormally close together. This may allow the person to bring their shoulders around to touch or even overlap in front of their body.

People with cleidocranial dysplasia also often have a delayed closure of the fontanels (soft spots) on the skull, as well as an abnormal shape and size of the head. The facial bones may be underdeveloped, leading to a sunken appearance in the middle of the face and a prominent forehead. Dental abnormalities are also common, such as missing or delayed eruption of teeth, extra teeth, and misaligned teeth.

Cleidocranial dysplasia is caused by mutations in the CBFA1/RUNX2 gene and is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, meaning that a child has a 50% chance of inheriting the condition if one of their parents is affected. However, many cases result from new mutations in the gene and occur in people with no family history of the disorder. Treatment typically involves surgical procedures to correct skeletal abnormalities and dental issues, as well as orthodontic treatment to align teeth.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a polypeptide hormone that plays a crucial role in the regulation of calcium and phosphate levels in the body. It is produced and secreted by the parathyroid glands, which are four small endocrine glands located on the back surface of the thyroid gland.

The primary function of PTH is to maintain normal calcium levels in the blood by increasing calcium absorption from the gut, mobilizing calcium from bones, and decreasing calcium excretion by the kidneys. PTH also increases phosphate excretion by the kidneys, which helps to lower serum phosphate levels.

In addition to its role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis, PTH has been shown to have anabolic effects on bone tissue, stimulating bone formation and preventing bone loss. However, chronic elevations in PTH levels can lead to excessive bone resorption and osteoporosis.

Overall, Parathyroid Hormone is a critical hormone that helps maintain mineral homeostasis and supports healthy bone metabolism.

Cell proliferation is the process by which cells increase in number, typically through the process of cell division. In the context of biology and medicine, it refers to the reproduction of cells that makes up living tissue, allowing growth, maintenance, and repair. It involves several stages including the transition from a phase of quiescence (G0 phase) to an active phase (G1 phase), DNA replication in the S phase, and mitosis or M phase, where the cell divides into two daughter cells.

Abnormal or uncontrolled cell proliferation is a characteristic feature of many diseases, including cancer, where deregulated cell cycle control leads to excessive and unregulated growth of cells, forming tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and metastasize to distant sites in the body.

The temporal bone is a paired bone that is located on each side of the skull, forming part of the lateral and inferior walls of the cranial cavity. It is one of the most complex bones in the human body and has several important structures associated with it. The main functions of the temporal bone include protecting the middle and inner ear, providing attachment for various muscles of the head and neck, and forming part of the base of the skull.

The temporal bone is divided into several parts, including the squamous part, the petrous part, the tympanic part, and the styloid process. The squamous part forms the lateral portion of the temporal bone and articulates with the parietal bone. The petrous part is the most medial and superior portion of the temporal bone and contains the inner ear and the semicircular canals. The tympanic part forms the lower and anterior portions of the temporal bone and includes the external auditory meatus or ear canal. The styloid process is a long, slender projection that extends downward from the inferior aspect of the temporal bone and serves as an attachment site for various muscles and ligaments.

The temporal bone plays a crucial role in hearing and balance, as it contains the structures of the middle and inner ear, including the oval window, round window, cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals. The stapes bone, one of the three bones in the middle ear, is entirely encased within the petrous portion of the temporal bone. Additionally, the temporal bone contains important structures for facial expression and sensation, including the facial nerve, which exits the skull through the stylomastoid foramen, a small opening in the temporal bone.

Hedgehog proteins are a group of signaling molecules that play crucial roles in the development and regulation of various biological processes in animals. They are named after the hedgehog mutant fruit flies, which have spiky bristles due to defects in this pathway. These proteins are involved in cell growth, differentiation, and tissue regeneration. They exert their effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, leading to a cascade of intracellular signaling events that ultimately influence gene expression and cell behavior.

There are three main types of Hedgehog proteins in mammals: Sonic hedgehog (Shh), Indian hedgehog (Ihh), and Desert hedgehog (Dhh). These protecules undergo post-translational modifications, including cleavage and lipid modification, which are essential for their activity. Dysregulation of Hedgehog signaling has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, developmental abnormalities, and degenerative disorders.

Hypertrophy, in the context of physiology and pathology, refers to an increase in the size of an organ or tissue due to an enlargement of its constituent cells. It is often used to describe the growth of muscle cells (myocytes) in response to increased workload or hormonal stimulation, resulting in an increase in muscle mass. However, hypertrophy can also occur in other organs such as the heart (cardiac hypertrophy) in response to high blood pressure or valvular heart disease.

It is important to note that while hypertrophy involves an increase in cell size, hyperplasia refers to an increase in cell number. In some cases, both hypertrophy and hyperplasia can occur together, leading to a significant increase in the overall size and function of the organ or tissue.

Medical Definition:

Matrix Metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13), also known as collagenase 3, is an enzyme belonging to the family of Matrix Metalloproteinases. These enzymes are involved in the degradation of extracellular matrix components, playing crucial roles in various physiological and pathological processes such as tissue remodeling, wound healing, and cancer progression.

MMP-13 has a specific affinity for cleaving type II collagen, one of the major structural proteins found in articular cartilage. It is also capable of degrading other extracellular matrix components like proteoglycans, elastin, and gelatin. This enzyme is primarily produced by chondrocytes, synovial fibroblasts, and osteoblasts.

Increased expression and activity of MMP-13 have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, most notably osteoarthritis (OA) and cancer. In OA, overexpression of MMP-13 leads to excessive degradation of articular cartilage, contributing to joint damage and degeneration. In cancer, MMP-13 facilitates tumor cell invasion and metastasis by breaking down the surrounding extracellular matrix.

Regulation of MMP-13 activity is essential for maintaining tissue homeostasis and preventing disease progression. Various therapeutic strategies aiming to inhibit MMP-13 activity are being explored as potential treatments for osteoarthritis and cancer.

A mammalian embryo is the developing offspring of a mammal, from the time of implantation of the fertilized egg (blastocyst) in the uterus until the end of the eighth week of gestation. During this period, the embryo undergoes rapid cell division and organ differentiation to form a complex structure with all the major organs and systems in place. This stage is followed by fetal development, which continues until birth. The study of mammalian embryos is important for understanding human development, evolution, and reproductive biology.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

A Twist Transcription Factor is a family of proteins that regulate gene expression through the process of transcription. The name "Twist" comes from the Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) gene, which was first identified due to its role in causing twisted or spiral patterns during embryonic development.

The Twist protein is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that binds to specific DNA sequences and regulates the expression of target genes. It forms homodimers or heterodimers with other bHLH proteins, which then recognize and bind to E-box motifs in the promoter regions of target genes.

Twist proteins have been shown to play critical roles in various biological processes, including cell differentiation, proliferation, migration, and survival. In particular, they have been implicated in cancer progression and metastasis, as they can promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key step in tumor invasion and dissemination.

Abnormal expression or mutations of Twist transcription factors have been associated with several human diseases, including various types of cancer, developmental disorders, and neurological conditions.

REceptor Activator of NF-kB (RANK) Ligand is a type of protein that plays a crucial role in the immune system and bone metabolism. It belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily and is primarily produced by osteoblasts, which are cells responsible for bone formation.

RANK Ligand binds to its receptor RANK, which is found on the surface of osteoclasts, a type of cell involved in bone resorption or breakdown. The binding of RANK Ligand to RANK activates signaling pathways that promote the differentiation, activation, and survival of osteoclasts, thereby increasing bone resorption.

Abnormalities in the RANKL-RANK signaling pathway have been implicated in various bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and certain types of cancer that metastasize to bones. Therefore, targeting this pathway with therapeutic agents has emerged as a promising approach for the treatment of these conditions.

The parietal bone is one of the four flat bones that form the skull's cranial vault, which protects the brain. There are two parietal bones in the skull, one on each side, located posterior to the frontal bone and temporal bone, and anterior to the occipital bone. Each parietal bone has a squamous part, which forms the roof and sides of the skull, and a smaller, wing-like portion called the mastoid process. The parietal bones contribute to the formation of the coronal and lambdoid sutures, which are fibrous joints that connect the bones in the skull.

Collagen Type I is the most abundant form of collagen in the human body, found in various connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, skin, and bones. It is a structural protein that provides strength and integrity to these tissues. Collagen Type I is composed of three alpha chains, two alpha-1(I) chains, and one alpha-2(I) chain, arranged in a triple helix structure. This type of collagen is often used in medical research and clinical applications, such as tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, due to its excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

SOX9 (SRY-related HMG-box gene 9) is a transcription factor that belongs to the SOX family of proteins, which are characterized by a high mobility group (HMG) box DNA-binding domain. SOX9 plays crucial roles in various developmental processes, including sex determination, chondrogenesis, and neurogenesis.

As a transcription factor, SOX9 binds to specific DNA sequences in the promoter or enhancer regions of its target genes and regulates their expression. In the context of sex determination, SOX9 is essential for the development of Sertoli cells in the male gonad, which are responsible for supporting sperm production. SOX9 also plays a role in maintaining the undifferentiated state of stem cells and promoting cell differentiation in various tissues.

Mutations in the SOX9 gene have been associated with several human genetic disorders, including campomelic dysplasia, a severe skeletal disorder characterized by bowed legs, and sex reversal in individuals with XY chromosomes.

Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs) are a family of growth factors that play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell survival, proliferation, migration, and differentiation. They bind to specific tyrosine kinase receptors (FGFRs) on the cell surface, leading to intracellular signaling cascades that regulate gene expression and downstream cellular responses. FGFs are involved in embryonic development, tissue repair, and angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels). There are at least 22 distinct FGFs identified in humans, each with unique functions and patterns of expression. Some FGFs, like FGF1 and FGF2, have mitogenic effects on fibroblasts and other cell types, while others, such as FGF7 and FGF10, are essential for epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during organ development. Dysregulation of FGF signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including cancer, fibrosis, and developmental disorders.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that bind to and respond to parathyroid hormone, a hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands. These receptors are found in various tissues throughout the body, including bone, kidney, and intestine.

The PTH receptor is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, which consists of seven transmembrane domains. When PTH binds to the receptor, it activates a signaling pathway that leads to increased calcium levels in the blood. In bone, activation of PTH receptors stimulates the release of calcium from bone matrix, while in the kidney, it increases the reabsorption of calcium from the urine and decreases the excretion of phosphate.

In the intestine, PTH receptors play a role in the regulation of vitamin D metabolism, which is important for calcium absorption. Overall, the activation of PTH receptors helps to maintain normal calcium levels in the blood and regulate bone metabolism.

Alveolar bone loss refers to the breakdown and resorption of the alveolar process of the jawbone, which is the part of the jaw that contains the sockets of the teeth. This type of bone loss is often caused by periodontal disease, a chronic inflammation of the gums and surrounding tissues that can lead to the destruction of the structures that support the teeth.

In advanced stages of periodontal disease, the alveolar bone can become severely damaged or destroyed, leading to tooth loss. Alveolar bone loss can also occur as a result of other conditions, such as osteoporosis, trauma, or tumors. Dental X-rays and other imaging techniques are often used to diagnose and monitor alveolar bone loss. Treatment may include deep cleaning of the teeth and gums, medications, surgery, or tooth extraction in severe cases.

Bone cements are medical-grade materials used in orthopedic and trauma surgery to fill gaps between bone surfaces and implants, such as artificial joints or screws. They serve to mechanically stabilize the implant and provide a smooth, load-bearing surface. The two most common types of bone cement are:

1. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement: This is a two-component system consisting of powdered PMMA and liquid methyl methacrylate monomer. When mixed together, they form a dough-like consistency that hardens upon exposure to air. PMMA cement has been widely used for decades in joint replacement surgeries, such as hip or knee replacements.
2. Calcium phosphate (CP) cement: This is a two-component system consisting of a powdered CP compound and an aqueous solution. When mixed together, they form a paste that hardens through a chemical reaction at body temperature. CP cement has lower mechanical strength compared to PMMA but demonstrates better biocompatibility, bioactivity, and the ability to resorb over time.

Both types of bone cements have advantages and disadvantages, and their use depends on the specific surgical indication and patient factors.

Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 3 (FGFR3) is a type of cell surface receptor that binds to fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), which are signaling proteins involved in various biological processes such as cell division, growth, and wound healing.

FGFR3 is a transmembrane protein with an extracellular domain that contains the binding site for FGFs, a transmembrane domain, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain that activates downstream signaling pathways upon FGF binding.

Mutations in the FGFR3 gene have been associated with several human genetic disorders, including thanatophoric dysplasia, achondroplasia, and hypochondroplasia, which are characterized by abnormal bone growth and development. In these conditions, gain-of-function mutations in FGFR3 lead to increased receptor activity and activation of downstream signaling pathways, resulting in impaired endochondral ossification and short-limbed dwarfism.

In addition to its role in bone growth and development, FGFR3 has been implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival in various tissues, including the brain, lung, and kidney. Dysregulation of FGFR3 signaling has also been associated with cancer, including bladder, breast, and cervical cancers.

Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β) is a type of cytokine, which is a cell signaling protein involved in the regulation of various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). TGF-β plays a critical role in embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, and wound healing. It also has been implicated in several pathological conditions such as fibrosis, cancer, and autoimmune diseases.

TGF-β exists in multiple isoforms (TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3) that are produced by many different cell types, including immune cells, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts. The protein is synthesized as a precursor molecule, which is cleaved to release the active TGF-β peptide. Once activated, TGF-β binds to its receptors on the cell surface, leading to the activation of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate gene expression and cell behavior.

In summary, Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine involved in various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, and wound healing. It has been implicated in several pathological conditions such as fibrosis, cancer, and autoimmune diseases.

A bone cyst is a fluid-filled sac that develops within a bone. It can be classified as either simple (unicameral) or aneurysmal. Simple bone cysts are more common in children and adolescents, and they typically affect the long bones of the arms or legs. These cysts are usually asymptomatic unless they become large enough to weaken the bone and cause a fracture. Aneurysmal bone cysts, on the other hand, can occur at any age and can affect any bone, but they are most common in the leg bones and spine. They are characterized by rapidly growing blood-filled sacs that can cause pain, swelling, and fractures.

Both types of bone cysts may be treated with observation, medication, or surgery depending on their size, location, and symptoms. It is important to note that while these cysts can be benign, they should still be evaluated and monitored by a healthcare professional to ensure proper treatment and prevention of complications.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass, deterioration of bone tissue, and disruption of bone architecture, leading to increased risk of fractures, particularly in the spine, wrist, and hip. It mainly affects older people, especially postmenopausal women, due to hormonal changes that reduce bone density. Osteoporosis can also be caused by certain medications, medical conditions, or lifestyle factors such as smoking, alcohol abuse, and a lack of calcium and vitamin D in the diet. The diagnosis is often made using bone mineral density testing, and treatment may include medication to slow bone loss, promote bone formation, and prevent fractures.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

"Newborn animals" refers to the very young offspring of animals that have recently been born. In medical terminology, newborns are often referred to as "neonates," and they are classified as such from birth until about 28 days of age. During this time period, newborn animals are particularly vulnerable and require close monitoring and care to ensure their survival and healthy development.

The specific needs of newborn animals can vary widely depending on the species, but generally, they require warmth, nutrition, hydration, and protection from harm. In many cases, newborns are unable to regulate their own body temperature or feed themselves, so they rely heavily on their mothers for care and support.

In medical settings, newborn animals may be examined and treated by veterinarians to ensure that they are healthy and receiving the care they need. This can include providing medical interventions such as feeding tubes, antibiotics, or other treatments as needed to address any health issues that arise. Overall, the care and support of newborn animals is an important aspect of animal medicine and conservation efforts.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Gene deletion is a type of mutation where a segment of DNA, containing one or more genes, is permanently lost or removed from a chromosome. This can occur due to various genetic mechanisms such as homologous recombination, non-homologous end joining, or other types of genomic rearrangements.

The deletion of a gene can have varying effects on the organism, depending on the function of the deleted gene and its importance for normal physiological processes. If the deleted gene is essential for survival, the deletion may result in embryonic lethality or developmental abnormalities. However, if the gene is non-essential or has redundant functions, the deletion may not have any noticeable effects on the organism's phenotype.

Gene deletions can also be used as a tool in genetic research to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes. For example, researchers may use gene deletion techniques to create genetically modified animal models to investigate the impact of gene deletion on disease progression or development.

Biomechanics is the application of mechanical laws to living structures and systems, particularly in the field of medicine and healthcare. A biomechanical phenomenon refers to a observable event or occurrence that involves the interaction of biological tissues or systems with mechanical forces. These phenomena can be studied at various levels, from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue, organ, and whole-body level.

Examples of biomechanical phenomena include:

1. The way that bones and muscles work together to produce movement (known as joint kinematics).
2. The mechanical behavior of biological tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments under various loads and stresses.
3. The response of cells and tissues to mechanical stimuli, such as the way that bone tissue adapts to changes in loading conditions (known as Wolff's law).
4. The biomechanics of injury and disease processes, such as the mechanisms of joint injury or the development of osteoarthritis.
5. The use of mechanical devices and interventions to treat medical conditions, such as orthopedic implants or assistive devices for mobility impairments.

Understanding biomechanical phenomena is essential for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies for a wide range of medical conditions, from musculoskeletal injuries to neurological disorders.

The term "extremities" in a medical context refers to the most distant parts of the body, including the hands and feet (both fingers and toes), as well as the arms and legs. These are the farthest parts from the torso and head. Medical professionals may examine a patient's extremities for various reasons, such as checking circulation, assessing nerve function, or looking for injuries or abnormalities.

Proteins are complex, large molecules that play critical roles in the body's functions. They are made up of amino acids, which are organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins. Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs. They are essential for the growth, repair, and maintenance of body tissues, and they play a crucial role in many biological processes, including metabolism, immune response, and cellular signaling. Proteins can be classified into different types based on their structure and function, such as enzymes, hormones, antibodies, and structural proteins. They are found in various foods, especially animal-derived products like meat, dairy, and eggs, as well as plant-based sources like beans, nuts, and grains.

A "mutant strain of mice" in a medical context refers to genetically engineered mice that have specific genetic mutations introduced into their DNA. These mutations can be designed to mimic certain human diseases or conditions, allowing researchers to study the underlying biological mechanisms and test potential therapies in a controlled laboratory setting.

Mutant strains of mice are created through various techniques, including embryonic stem cell manipulation, gene editing technologies such as CRISPR-Cas9, and radiation-induced mutagenesis. These methods allow scientists to introduce specific genetic changes into the mouse genome, resulting in mice that exhibit altered physiological or behavioral traits.

These strains of mice are widely used in biomedical research because their short lifespan, small size, and high reproductive rate make them an ideal model organism for studying human diseases. Additionally, the mouse genome has been well-characterized, and many genetic tools and resources are available to researchers working with these animals.

Examples of mutant strains of mice include those that carry mutations in genes associated with cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, metabolic diseases, and immunological conditions. These mice provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of human diseases and help advance our understanding of potential therapeutic interventions.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are a group of structural and functional molecules that provide support, organization, and regulation to the cells in tissues and organs. The ECM is composed of a complex network of proteins, glycoproteins, and carbohydrates that are secreted by the cells and deposited outside of them.

ECM proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, including:

1. Collagens: These are the most abundant ECM proteins and provide strength and stability to tissues. They form fibrils that can withstand high tensile forces.
2. Proteoglycans: These are complex molecules made up of a core protein and one or more glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. The GAG chains attract water, making proteoglycans important for maintaining tissue hydration and resilience.
3. Elastin: This is an elastic protein that allows tissues to stretch and recoil, such as in the lungs and blood vessels.
4. Fibronectins: These are large glycoproteins that bind to cells and ECM components, providing adhesion, migration, and signaling functions.
5. Laminins: These are large proteins found in basement membranes, which provide structural support for epithelial and endothelial cells.
6. Tenascins: These are large glycoproteins that modulate cell adhesion and migration, and regulate ECM assembly and remodeling.

Together, these ECM proteins create a microenvironment that influences cell behavior, differentiation, and function. Dysregulation of ECM proteins has been implicated in various diseases, including fibrosis, cancer, and degenerative disorders.

Physiologic neovascularization is the natural and controlled formation of new blood vessels in the body, which occurs as a part of normal growth and development, as well as in response to tissue repair and wound healing. This process involves the activation of endothelial cells, which line the interior surface of blood vessels, and their migration, proliferation, and tube formation to create new capillaries. Physiologic neovascularization is tightly regulated by a balance of pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors, ensuring that it occurs only when and where it is needed. It plays crucial roles in various physiological processes, such as embryonic development, tissue regeneration, and wound healing.

Wnt proteins are a family of secreted signaling molecules that play crucial roles in the regulation of fundamental biological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. They were first discovered in 1982 through genetic studies in Drosophila melanogaster (fruit flies) and have since been found to be highly conserved across various species, from invertebrates to humans.

Wnt proteins exert their effects by binding to specific receptors on the target cell surface, leading to the activation of several intracellular signaling pathways:

1. Canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway: In the absence of Wnt ligands, β-catenin is continuously degraded by a destruction complex consisting of Axin, APC (Adenomatous polyposis coli), and GSK3β (Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta). When Wnt proteins bind to their receptors Frizzled and LRP5/6, the formation of a "signalosome" complex leads to the inhibition of the destruction complex, allowing β-catenin to accumulate in the cytoplasm and translocate into the nucleus. Here, it interacts with TCF/LEF (T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer-binding factor) transcription factors to regulate the expression of target genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival.
2. Non-canonical Wnt pathways: These include the Wnt/Ca^2+^ pathway and the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway. In the Wnt/Ca^2+^ pathway, Wnt ligands bind to Frizzled receptors and activate heterotrimeric G proteins, leading to an increase in intracellular Ca^2+^ levels and activation of downstream targets such as protein kinase C (PKC) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII). These signaling events ultimately regulate cell movement, adhesion, and gene expression. In the PCP pathway, Wnt ligands bind to Frizzled receptors and coreceptor complexes containing Ror2 or Ryk, leading to activation of small GTPases such as RhoA and Rac1, which control cytoskeletal organization and cell polarity.

Dysregulation of Wnt signaling has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, developmental disorders, and degenerative conditions. In cancer, aberrant activation of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway contributes to tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis by promoting cell proliferation, survival, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Inhibitors targeting different components of the Wnt signaling pathway are currently being developed as potential therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment.

According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), stem cells are "initial cells" or "precursor cells" that have the ability to differentiate into many different cell types in the body. They can also divide without limit to replenish other cells for as long as the person or animal is still alive.

There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which come from human embryos, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues throughout the body. Embryonic stem cells have the ability to differentiate into all cell types in the body, while adult stem cells have more limited differentiation potential.

Stem cells play an essential role in the development and repair of various tissues and organs in the body. They are currently being studied for their potential use in the treatment of a wide range of diseases and conditions, including cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and neurological disorders. However, more research is needed to fully understand the properties and capabilities of these cells before they can be used safely and effectively in clinical settings.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body, and it is a major component of connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, skin, and bones. Collagen provides structure and strength to these tissues and helps them to withstand stretching and tension. It is made up of long chains of amino acids, primarily glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline, which are arranged in a triple helix structure. There are at least 16 different types of collagen found in the body, each with slightly different structures and functions. Collagen is important for maintaining the integrity and health of tissues throughout the body, and it has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses in various medical conditions.

Homeodomain proteins are a group of transcription factors that play crucial roles in the development and differentiation of cells in animals and plants. They are characterized by the presence of a highly conserved DNA-binding domain called the homeodomain, which is typically about 60 amino acids long. The homeodomain consists of three helices, with the third helix responsible for recognizing and binding to specific DNA sequences.

Homeodomain proteins are involved in regulating gene expression during embryonic development, tissue maintenance, and organismal growth. They can act as activators or repressors of transcription, depending on the context and the presence of cofactors. Mutations in homeodomain proteins have been associated with various human diseases, including cancer, congenital abnormalities, and neurological disorders.

Some examples of homeodomain proteins include PAX6, which is essential for eye development, HOX genes, which are involved in body patterning, and NANOG, which plays a role in maintaining pluripotency in stem cells.

Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7 (BMP-7) is a growth factor belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily. It plays crucial roles in the development and maintenance of various tissues, including bones, cartilages, and kidneys. In bones, BMP-7 stimulates the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells, thereby promoting bone formation and regeneration. It also has potential therapeutic applications in the treatment of various musculoskeletal disorders, such as fracture healing, spinal fusion, and osteoporosis.

Bone marrow diseases, also known as hematologic disorders, are conditions that affect the production and function of blood cells in the bone marrow. The bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside bones where all blood cells are produced. There are various types of bone marrow diseases, including:

1. Leukemia: A cancer of the blood-forming tissues, including the bone marrow. Leukemia causes the body to produce large numbers of abnormal white blood cells, which can crowd out healthy blood cells and impair their function.
2. Lymphoma: A cancer that starts in the lymphatic system, which is part of the immune system. Lymphoma can affect the bone marrow and cause an overproduction of abnormal white blood cells.
3. Multiple myeloma: A cancer of the plasma cells, a type of white blood cell found in the bone marrow. Multiple myeloma causes an overproduction of abnormal plasma cells, which can lead to bone pain, fractures, and other complications.
4. Aplastic anemia: A condition in which the bone marrow does not produce enough new blood cells. This can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, and an increased risk of infection.
5. Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS): A group of disorders in which the bone marrow does not produce enough healthy blood cells. MDS can lead to anemia, infections, and bleeding.
6. Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs): A group of disorders in which the bone marrow produces too many abnormal white or red blood cells, or platelets. MPNs can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, itching, and an increased risk of blood clots.

Treatment for bone marrow diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation, or targeted therapies that target specific genetic mutations.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Body weight is the measure of the force exerted on a scale or balance by an object's mass, most commonly expressed in units such as pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg). In the context of medical definitions, body weight typically refers to an individual's total weight, which includes their skeletal muscle, fat, organs, and bodily fluids.

Healthcare professionals often use body weight as a basic indicator of overall health status, as it can provide insights into various aspects of a person's health, such as nutritional status, metabolic function, and risk factors for certain diseases. For example, being significantly underweight or overweight can increase the risk of developing conditions like malnutrition, diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

It is important to note that body weight alone may not provide a complete picture of an individual's health, as it does not account for factors such as muscle mass, bone density, or body composition. Therefore, healthcare professionals often use additional measures, such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and blood tests, to assess overall health status more comprehensively.

A biological marker, often referred to as a biomarker, is a measurable indicator that reflects the presence or severity of a disease state, or a response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can be found in various materials such as blood, tissues, or bodily fluids, and they can take many forms, including molecular, histologic, radiographic, or physiological measurements.

In the context of medical research and clinical practice, biomarkers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Diagnosis: Biomarkers can help diagnose a disease by indicating the presence or absence of a particular condition. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker used to detect prostate cancer.
2. Monitoring: Biomarkers can be used to monitor the progression or regression of a disease over time. For instance, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are monitored in diabetes patients to assess long-term blood glucose control.
3. Predicting: Biomarkers can help predict the likelihood of developing a particular disease or the risk of a negative outcome. For example, the presence of certain genetic mutations can indicate an increased risk for breast cancer.
4. Response to treatment: Biomarkers can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific treatment by measuring changes in the biomarker levels before and after the intervention. This is particularly useful in personalized medicine, where treatments are tailored to individual patients based on their unique biomarker profiles.

It's important to note that for a biomarker to be considered clinically valid and useful, it must undergo rigorous validation through well-designed studies, including demonstrating sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical relevance.

Collagenases are a group of enzymes that have the ability to break down collagen, which is a structural protein found in connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, and skin. Collagen is an important component of the extracellular matrix, providing strength and support to tissues throughout the body.

Collagenases are produced by various organisms, including bacteria, animals, and humans. In humans, collagenases play a crucial role in normal tissue remodeling and repair processes, such as wound healing and bone resorption. However, excessive or uncontrolled activity of collagenases can contribute to the development of various diseases, including arthritis, periodontitis, and cancer metastasis.

Bacterial collagenases are often used in research and medical applications for their ability to digest collagen quickly and efficiently. For example, they may be used to study the structure and function of collagen or to isolate cells from tissues. However, the clinical use of bacterial collagenases is limited due to concerns about their potential to cause tissue damage and inflammation.

Overall, collagenases are important enzymes that play a critical role in maintaining the health and integrity of connective tissues throughout the body.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Embryonic and fetal development is the process of growth and development that occurs from fertilization of the egg (conception) to birth. The terms "embryo" and "fetus" are used to describe different stages of this development:

* Embryonic development: This stage begins at fertilization and continues until the end of the 8th week of pregnancy. During this time, the fertilized egg (zygote) divides and forms a blastocyst, which implants in the uterus and begins to develop into a complex structure called an embryo. The embryo consists of three layers of cells that will eventually form all of the organs and tissues of the body. During this stage, the basic structures of the body, including the nervous system, heart, and gastrointestinal tract, begin to form.
* Fetal development: This stage begins at the end of the 8th week of pregnancy and continues until birth. During this time, the embryo is called a fetus, and it grows and develops rapidly. The organs and tissues that were formed during the embryonic stage continue to mature and become more complex. The fetus also begins to move and kick, and it can hear and respond to sounds from outside the womb.

Overall, embryonic and fetal development is a complex and highly regulated process that involves the coordinated growth and differentiation of cells and tissues. It is a critical period of development that lays the foundation for the health and well-being of the individual throughout their life.

A chick embryo refers to the developing organism that arises from a fertilized chicken egg. It is often used as a model system in biological research, particularly during the stages of development when many of its organs and systems are forming and can be easily observed and manipulated. The study of chick embryos has contributed significantly to our understanding of various aspects of developmental biology, including gastrulation, neurulation, organogenesis, and pattern formation. Researchers may use various techniques to observe and manipulate the chick embryo, such as surgical alterations, cell labeling, and exposure to drugs or other agents.

Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins are molecules that mediate communication and interaction between different cells in living organisms. They play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). These signals can be released into the extracellular space, where they bind to specific receptors on the target cell's surface, triggering intracellular signaling cascades that ultimately lead to a response.

Peptides are short chains of amino acids, while proteins are larger molecules made up of one or more polypeptide chains. Both can function as intercellular signaling molecules by acting as ligands for cell surface receptors or by being cleaved from larger precursor proteins and released into the extracellular space. Examples of intercellular signaling peptides and proteins include growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, hormones, neurotransmitters, and their respective receptors.

These molecules contribute to maintaining homeostasis within an organism by coordinating cellular activities across tissues and organs. Dysregulation of intercellular signaling pathways has been implicated in various diseases, such as cancer, autoimmune disorders, and neurodegenerative conditions. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying intercellular signaling is essential for developing targeted therapies to treat these disorders.

'Leg bones' is a general term that refers to the bones in the leg portion of the lower extremity. In humans, this would specifically include:

1. Femur: This is the thigh bone, the longest and strongest bone in the human body. It connects the hip bone to the knee.

2. Patella: This is the kneecap, a small triangular bone located at the front of the knee joint.

3. Tibia and Fibula: These are the bones of the lower leg. The tibia, or shin bone, is the larger of the two and bears most of the body's weight. It connects the knee to the ankle. The fibula, a slender bone, runs parallel to the tibia on its outside.

Please note that in medical terminology, 'leg bones' doesn't include the bones of the foot (tarsal bones, metatarsal bones, and phalanges), which are often collectively referred to as the 'foot bones'.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

Bone marrow neoplasms are a type of cancer that originates in the bone marrow, which is the spongy tissue inside bones where blood cells are produced. These neoplasms can be divided into two main categories: hematologic (or liquid) malignancies and solid tumors.

Hematologic malignancies include leukemias, lymphomas, and multiple myeloma. Leukemias are cancers of the white blood cells, which normally fight infections. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells that do not function properly, leading to an increased risk of infection, anemia, and bleeding.

Lymphomas are cancers of the lymphatic system, which helps to fight infections and remove waste from the body. Lymphoma can affect the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus gland, and bone marrow. There are two main types of lymphoma: Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Multiple myeloma is a cancer of the plasma cells, which are a type of white blood cell that produces antibodies to help fight infections. In multiple myeloma, abnormal plasma cells accumulate in the bone marrow and produce large amounts of abnormal antibodies, leading to bone damage, anemia, and an increased risk of infection.

Solid tumors of the bone marrow are rare and include conditions such as chordomas, Ewing sarcomas, and osteosarcomas. These cancers originate in the bones themselves or in other tissues that support the bones, but they can also spread to the bone marrow.

Treatment for bone marrow neoplasms depends on the type and stage of cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

A bone marrow examination is a medical procedure in which a sample of bone marrow, the spongy tissue inside bones where blood cells are produced, is removed and examined. This test is used to diagnose or monitor various conditions affecting blood cell production, such as infections, leukemia, anemia, and other disorders of the bone marrow.

The sample is typically taken from the hipbone (iliac crest) or breastbone (sternum) using a special needle. The procedure may be done under local anesthesia or with sedation to minimize discomfort. Once the sample is obtained, it is examined under a microscope for the presence of abnormal cells, changes in cell size and shape, and other characteristics that can help diagnose specific conditions. Various stains, cultures, and other tests may also be performed on the sample to provide additional information.

Bone marrow examination is an important diagnostic tool in hematology and oncology, as it allows for a detailed assessment of blood cell production and can help guide treatment decisions for patients with various blood disorders.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

The pelvic bones, also known as the hip bones, are a set of three irregularly shaped bones that connect to form the pelvic girdle in the lower part of the human body. They play a crucial role in supporting the spine and protecting the abdominal and pelvic organs.

The pelvic bones consist of three bones:

1. The ilium: This is the largest and uppermost bone, forming the majority of the hip bone and the broad, flaring part of the pelvis known as the wing of the ilium or the iliac crest, which can be felt on the side of the body.
2. The ischium: This is the lower and back portion of the pelvic bone that forms part of the sitting surface or the "sit bones."
3. The pubis: This is the front part of the pelvic bone, which connects to the other side at the pubic symphysis in the midline of the body.

The pelvic bones are joined together at the acetabulum, a cup-shaped socket that forms the hip joint and articulates with the head of the femur (thigh bone). The pelvic bones also have several openings for the passage of blood vessels, nerves, and reproductive and excretory organs.

The shape and size of the pelvic bones differ between males and females due to their different roles in childbirth and locomotion. Females typically have a wider and shallower pelvis than males to accommodate childbirth, while males usually have a narrower and deeper pelvis that is better suited for weight-bearing and movement.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

The metacarpal bones are the long slender bones that make up the middle part of the hand, located between the carpals (wrist bones) and the phalanges (finger bones). There are five metacarpal bones in total, with one for each finger and thumb. Each bone has a base attached to the carpals, a shaft, and a head that connects to the phalanges. The metacarpal bones play a crucial role in hand function, providing stability and support during gripping and manipulation movements.

Organ size refers to the volume or physical measurement of an organ in the body of an individual. It can be described in terms of length, width, and height or by using specialized techniques such as imaging studies (like CT scans or MRIs) to determine the volume. The size of an organ can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, body size, and overall health status. Changes in organ size may indicate various medical conditions, including growths, inflammation, or atrophy.

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex network of biomolecules that provides structural and biochemical support to cells in tissues and organs. It is composed of various proteins, glycoproteins, and polysaccharides, such as collagens, elastin, fibronectin, laminin, and proteoglycans. The ECM plays crucial roles in maintaining tissue architecture, regulating cell behavior, and facilitating communication between cells. It provides a scaffold for cell attachment, migration, and differentiation, and helps to maintain the structural integrity of tissues by resisting mechanical stresses. Additionally, the ECM contains various growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines that can influence cellular processes such as proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Overall, the extracellular matrix is essential for the normal functioning of tissues and organs, and its dysregulation can contribute to various pathological conditions, including fibrosis, cancer, and degenerative diseases.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Cell division is the process by which a single eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) divides into two identical daughter cells. This complex process involves several stages, including replication of DNA, separation of chromosomes, and division of the cytoplasm. There are two main types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis is the type of cell division that results in two genetically identical daughter cells. It is a fundamental process for growth, development, and tissue repair in multicellular organisms. The stages of mitosis include prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm.

Meiosis, on the other hand, is a type of cell division that occurs in the gonads (ovaries and testes) during the production of gametes (sex cells). Meiosis results in four genetically unique daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for sexual reproduction and genetic diversity. The stages of meiosis include meiosis I and meiosis II, which are further divided into prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

In summary, cell division is the process by which a single cell divides into two daughter cells, either through mitosis or meiosis. This process is critical for growth, development, tissue repair, and sexual reproduction in multicellular organisms.

Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP-4) is a growth factor that belongs to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily. It plays crucial roles in various biological processes, including embryonic development, cell growth, and differentiation. In the skeletal system, BMP-4 stimulates the formation of bone and cartilage by inducing the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into chondrocytes and osteoblasts. It also regulates the maintenance and repair of bones throughout life. An imbalance in BMP-4 signaling has been associated with several skeletal disorders, such as heterotopic ossification and osteoarthritis.

The tarsal bones are a group of seven articulating bones in the foot that make up the posterior portion of the foot, located between the talus bone of the leg and the metatarsal bones of the forefoot. They play a crucial role in supporting the body's weight and facilitating movement.

There are three categories of tarsal bones:

1. Proximal row: This includes the talus, calcaneus (heel bone), and navicular bones. The talus articulates with the tibia and fibula to form the ankle joint, while the calcaneus is the largest tarsal bone and forms the heel. The navicular bone is located between the talus and the cuneiform bones.

2. Intermediate row: This includes the cuboid bone, which is located laterally (on the outside) to the navicular bone and articulates with the calcaneus, fourth and fifth metatarsals, and the cuneiform bones.

3. Distal row: This includes three cuneiform bones - the medial, intermediate, and lateral cuneiforms - which are located between the navicular bone proximally and the first, second, and third metatarsal bones distally. The medial cuneiform is the largest of the three and articulates with the navicular bone, first metatarsal, and the intermediate cuneiform. The intermediate cuneiform articulates with the medial and lateral cuneiforms and the second metatarsal. The lateral cuneiform articulates with the intermediate cuneiform, cuboid, and fourth metatarsal.

Together, these bones form a complex network of joints that allow for movement and stability in the foot. Injuries or disorders affecting the tarsal bones can result in pain, stiffness, and difficulty walking.

Trans-activators are proteins that increase the transcriptional activity of a gene or a set of genes. They do this by binding to specific DNA sequences and interacting with the transcription machinery, thereby enhancing the recruitment and assembly of the complexes needed for transcription. In some cases, trans-activators can also modulate the chromatin structure to make the template more accessible to the transcription machinery.

In the context of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection, the term "trans-activator" is often used specifically to refer to the Tat protein. The Tat protein is a viral regulatory protein that plays a critical role in the replication of HIV by activating the transcription of the viral genome. It does this by binding to a specific RNA structure called the Trans-Activation Response Element (TAR) located at the 5' end of all nascent HIV transcripts, and recruiting cellular cofactors that enhance the processivity and efficiency of RNA polymerase II, leading to increased viral gene expression.

Beta-catenin is a protein that plays a crucial role in gene transcription and cell-cell adhesion. It is a key component of the Wnt signaling pathway, which regulates various processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration during embryonic development and tissue homeostasis in adults.

In the absence of Wnt signals, beta-catenin forms a complex with other proteins, including adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and axin, which targets it for degradation by the proteasome. When Wnt ligands bind to their receptors, this complex is disrupted, allowing beta-catenin to accumulate in the cytoplasm and translocate to the nucleus. In the nucleus, beta-catenin interacts with T cell factor/lymphoid enhancer-binding factor (TCF/LEF) transcription factors to activate the transcription of target genes involved in cell fate determination, survival, and proliferation.

Mutations in the genes encoding components of the Wnt signaling pathway, including beta-catenin, have been implicated in various human diseases, such as cancer, developmental disorders, and degenerative conditions.

Diphosphonates are a class of medications that are used to treat bone diseases, such as osteoporosis and Paget's disease. They work by binding to the surface of bones and inhibiting the activity of bone-resorbing cells called osteoclasts. This helps to slow down the breakdown and loss of bone tissue, which can help to reduce the risk of fractures.

Diphosphonates are typically taken orally in the form of tablets, but some forms may be given by injection. Commonly prescribed diphosphonates include alendronate (Fosamax), risedronate (Actonel), and ibandronate (Boniva). Side effects of diphosphonates can include gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, heartburn, and abdominal pain. In rare cases, they may also cause esophageal ulcers or osteonecrosis of the jaw.

It is important to follow the instructions for taking diphosphonates carefully, as they must be taken on an empty stomach with a full glass of water and the patient must remain upright for at least 30 minutes after taking the medication to reduce the risk of esophageal irritation. Regular monitoring of bone density and kidney function is also recommended while taking these medications.

Calcium is an essential mineral that is vital for various physiological processes in the human body. The medical definition of calcium is as follows:

Calcium (Ca2+) is a crucial cation and the most abundant mineral in the human body, with approximately 99% of it found in bones and teeth. It plays a vital role in maintaining structural integrity, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, hormonal secretion, blood coagulation, and enzyme activation.

Calcium homeostasis is tightly regulated through the interplay of several hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, and vitamin D. Dietary calcium intake, absorption, and excretion are also critical factors in maintaining optimal calcium levels in the body.

Hypocalcemia refers to low serum calcium levels, while hypercalcemia indicates high serum calcium levels. Both conditions can have detrimental effects on various organ systems and require medical intervention to correct.

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGFA) is a specific isoform of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family. It is a well-characterized signaling protein that plays a crucial role in angiogenesis, the process of new blood vessel formation from pre-existing vessels. VEGFA stimulates the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells, which line the interior surface of blood vessels, thereby contributing to the growth and development of new vasculature. This protein is essential for physiological processes such as embryonic development and wound healing, but it has also been implicated in various pathological conditions, including cancer, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy. The regulation of VEGFA expression and activity is critical to maintaining proper vascular function and homeostasis.

Protein isoforms are different forms or variants of a protein that are produced from a single gene through the process of alternative splicing, where different exons (or parts of exons) are included in the mature mRNA molecule. This results in the production of multiple, slightly different proteins that share a common core structure but have distinct sequences and functions. Protein isoforms can also arise from genetic variations such as single nucleotide polymorphisms or mutations that alter the protein-coding sequence of a gene. These differences in protein sequence can affect the stability, localization, activity, or interaction partners of the protein isoform, leading to functional diversity and specialization within cells and organisms.

I'm not able to directly access real-time medical databases or search functions, but I can provide you with some information on the topic.

Bone demineralization is a process often associated with various medical and scientific techniques. It generally refers to the reduction of mineral content in bones, which can occur due to certain medical conditions, aging, or as part of laboratory procedures.

A bone demineralization technique in a laboratory setting typically involves the use of chemical solutions to remove minerals, mainly calcium and phosphate, from bone samples. This process is often used in research and scientific studies to isolate the organic matrix of bones, allowing for the study of its properties and components, such as collagen.

The demineralization process usually involves soaking bone specimens in a weak acid solution, like ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or acetic acid, for several days to weeks, depending on the size and density of the bones. The procedure must be carefully controlled to avoid damaging the organic matrix while ensuring complete demineralization.

Keep in mind that this is a simplified explanation, and specific techniques and protocols may vary based on the research question and bone type being studied.

'Foot bones,' also known as the tarsal and metatarsal bones, are the 26 bones that make up the foot in humans. The foot is divided into three parts: the hindfoot, midfoot, and forefoot.

The hindfoot contains two bones: the talus, which connects to the leg bone (tibia), and the calcaneus (heel bone). These bones form the ankle joint and heel.

The midfoot is made up of five irregularly shaped bones called the navicular, cuboid, and three cuneiform bones. These bones help form the arch of the foot and connect the hindfoot to the forefoot.

The forefoot contains the metatarsals (five long bones) and the phalanges (14 small bones). The metatarsals connect the midfoot to the toes, while the phalanges make up the toes themselves.

These bones work together to provide stability, support, and movement for the foot, allowing us to walk, run, and jump.

The ilium is the largest and broadest of the three parts that make up the hip bone or coxal bone. It is the uppermost portion of the pelvis and forms the side of the waist. The ilium has a curved, fan-like shape and articulates with the sacrum at the back to form the sacroiliac joint. The large, concave surface on the top of the ilium is called the iliac crest, which can be felt as a prominent ridge extending from the front of the hip to the lower back. This region is significant in orthopedics and physical examinations for its use in assessing various medical conditions and performing certain maneuvers during the physical examination.

In medical and embryological terms, the mesoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early stages of embryonic development. It forms between the ectoderm and endoderm during gastrulation, and it gives rise to a wide variety of cell types, tissues, and organs in the developing embryo.

The mesoderm contributes to the formation of structures such as:

1. The connective tissues (including tendons, ligaments, and most of the bones)
2. Muscular system (skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscles)
3. Circulatory system (heart, blood vessels, and blood cells)
4. Excretory system (kidneys and associated structures)
5. Reproductive system (gonads, including ovaries and testes)
6. Dermis of the skin
7. Parts of the eye and inner ear
8. Several organs in the urogenital system

Dysfunctions or abnormalities in mesoderm development can lead to various congenital disorders and birth defects, highlighting its importance during embryogenesis.

Carrier proteins, also known as transport proteins, are a type of protein that facilitates the movement of molecules across cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and active transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, and other molecules from one side of the membrane to the other, against their concentration gradient. This process requires energy, usually in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Carrier proteins have a specific binding site for the molecule they transport, and undergo conformational changes upon binding, which allows them to move the molecule across the membrane. Once the molecule has been transported, the carrier protein returns to its original conformation, ready to bind and transport another molecule.

Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of ions and other molecules inside and outside of cells, and are essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and nutrient uptake.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

DNA-binding proteins are a type of protein that have the ability to bind to DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the genetic material of organisms. These proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as regulation of gene expression, DNA replication, repair and recombination.

The binding of DNA-binding proteins to specific DNA sequences is mediated by non-covalent interactions, including electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals forces. The specificity of binding is determined by the recognition of particular nucleotide sequences or structural features of the DNA molecule.

DNA-binding proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, such as transcription factors, histones, and restriction enzymes. Transcription factors are a major class of DNA-binding proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences in the promoter region of genes and recruiting other proteins to modulate transcription. Histones are DNA-binding proteins that package DNA into nucleosomes, the basic unit of chromatin structure. Restriction enzymes are DNA-binding proteins that recognize and cleave specific DNA sequences, and are widely used in molecular biology research and biotechnology applications.

Gene expression profiling is a laboratory technique used to measure the activity (expression) of thousands of genes at once. This technique allows researchers and clinicians to identify which genes are turned on or off in a particular cell, tissue, or organism under specific conditions, such as during health, disease, development, or in response to various treatments.

The process typically involves isolating RNA from the cells or tissues of interest, converting it into complementary DNA (cDNA), and then using microarray or high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine which genes are expressed and at what levels. The resulting data can be used to identify patterns of gene expression that are associated with specific biological states or processes, providing valuable insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of diseases and potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

In recent years, gene expression profiling has become an essential tool in various fields, including cancer research, drug discovery, and personalized medicine, where it is used to identify biomarkers of disease, predict patient outcomes, and guide treatment decisions.

The radius is one of the two bones in the forearm in humans and other vertebrates. In humans, it runs from the lateral side of the elbow to the thumb side of the wrist. It is responsible for rotation of the forearm and articulates with the humerus at the elbow and the carpals at the wrist. Any medical condition or injury that affects the radius can impact the movement and function of the forearm and hand.

Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a benign but locally aggressive tumor that typically involves the metaphysis of long bones in children and adolescents. It is characterized by blood-filled spaces or cysts separated by fibrous septa containing osteoclast-type giant cells, spindle cells, and capillary vessels.

ABCs can also arise in other locations such as the vertebral column, pelvis, and skull. They may cause bone pain, swelling, or pathologic fractures. The exact cause of ABC is unknown, but it is thought to be related to a reactive process to a primary bone lesion or trauma.

Treatment options for ABC include curettage and bone grafting, intralesional injection of corticosteroids or bone marrow aspirate, and adjuvant therapy with phenol or liquid nitrogen. In some cases, radiation therapy may be used, but it is generally avoided due to the risk of secondary malignancies. Recurrence rates after treatment range from 10-30%.

Promoter regions in genetics refer to specific DNA sequences located near the transcription start site of a gene. They serve as binding sites for RNA polymerase and various transcription factors that regulate the initiation of gene transcription. These regulatory elements help control the rate of transcription and, therefore, the level of gene expression. Promoter regions can be composed of different types of sequences, such as the TATA box and CAAT box, and their organization and composition can vary between different genes and species.

3T3 cells are a type of cell line that is commonly used in scientific research. The name "3T3" is derived from the fact that these cells were developed by treating mouse embryo cells with a chemical called trypsin and then culturing them in a flask at a temperature of 37 degrees Celsius.

Specifically, 3T3 cells are a type of fibroblast, which is a type of cell that is responsible for producing connective tissue in the body. They are often used in studies involving cell growth and proliferation, as well as in toxicity tests and drug screening assays.

One particularly well-known use of 3T3 cells is in the 3T3-L1 cell line, which is a subtype of 3T3 cells that can be differentiated into adipocytes (fat cells) under certain conditions. These cells are often used in studies of adipose tissue biology and obesity.

It's important to note that because 3T3 cells are a type of immortalized cell line, they do not always behave exactly the same way as primary cells (cells that are taken directly from a living organism). As such, researchers must be careful when interpreting results obtained using 3T3 cells and consider any potential limitations or artifacts that may arise due to their use.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

Technetium Tc 99m Medronate is a radiopharmaceutical agent used in nuclear medicine for bone scintigraphy. It is a technetium-labeled bisphosphonate compound, which accumulates in areas of increased bone turnover and metabolism. This makes it useful for detecting and evaluating various bone diseases and conditions, such as fractures, tumors, infections, and arthritis.

The "Tc 99m" refers to the radioisotope technetium-99m, which has a half-life of approximately 6 hours and emits gamma rays that can be detected by a gamma camera. The medronate component is a bisphosphonate molecule that binds to hydroxyapatite crystals in bone tissue, allowing the radiolabeled compound to accumulate in areas of active bone remodeling.

Overall, Technetium Tc 99m Medronate is an important tool in nuclear medicine for diagnosing and managing various musculoskeletal disorders.

... as well as post-natal bone development. They have an important role during embryonic development on the embryonic patterning ... Spinal Fusion and Bone Morphogenetic Protein Reddi AH (1997). "Bone morphogenetic proteins: an unconventional approach to ... Early studies by Hari Reddi unraveled the sequence of events involved in bone matrix-induced bone morphogenesis. On the basis ... BMP: The What and the Who BMPedia - the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Wiki Bone+Morphogenetic+Proteins at the U.S. National ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce bone and cartilage development. BMP5 may play a role in ... Jiang FX, Stanley EG, Gonez LJ, Harrison LC (Feb 2002). "Bone morphogenetic proteins promote development of fetal pancreas ... Bone morphogenetic proteins were originally identified by an ability of demineralized bone extract to induce endochondral ... "Identification of transforming growth factor beta family members present in bone-inductive protein purified from bovine bone". ...
November 2019). "Bone marrow adipose tissue does not express UCP1 during development or adrenergic-induced remodeling". ... Burning bone fat a key to better bone health". Science Daily. 18 May 2017. "Why are our bones full of fat? The secrets of bone ... high-fat diets induces low bone mineral density and reduces bone formation in rats". Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 25 ( ... Report from the First European Meeting on Bone Marrow Adiposity (BMA 2015)". Bone. 93: 212-215. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2015.11.013 ...
There is a hereditary factor in the development of Paget's disease of bone. Two genes, SQSTM1 and RANK, and specific regions of ... and does not spread from bone to bone. Rarely, a bone affected by Paget's disease can transform into a malignant bone cancer. ... The affected bones show signs of dysregulated bone remodeling at the microscopic level, specifically excessive bone breakdown ... causing the bone to become hypervascular. The bone hypercellularity may then diminish, leaving a dense "pagetic bone," also ...
Max Planck Institute for Human Development. doi:10.14280/08241.39. Werner Pelz: Die Amtsenthebung von Heinrich Bone. Ein ... Born in Drolshagen, Bone was the eldest of six children. His parents, Mathäus Bone and his wife Elisabeth, née Kramer, ran a ... In 1841, Bone was appointed Oberlehrer at the new Rheinische Ritterakademie [de] (now Silverberg-Gymnasium), in Bedburg. Bone ... Literature by and about Heinrich Bone in the German National Library catalogue Works by and about Heinrich Bone in the Deutsche ...
However, with the development of music education in the public school system, high school, and university concert bands and ... International Trombone Association Online Trombone Journal British Trombone Society Trombone History Timeline by Will Kimball, ... tenor-bass trombone'), a B♭ tenor trombone built with the wider bore and larger bell of a bass trombone that Sattler had ... Tenor trombones without a valve are sometimes known as straight trombones. Bass The modern bass trombone usually has two valve ...
BMP1 belongs to the peptidase M12A family of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). It induces bone and cartilage development. ... It was initially discovered to work like other BMPs by inducing bone and cartilage development. It however, is a ... 1993). "Mapping of the bone morphogenetic protein 1 gene (BMP1) to 8p21: removal of BMP1 from candidacy for the bone disorder ... Bone morphogenetic protein 1, also known as BMP1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the BMP1 gene. There are seven ...
Source Bone was selected to play in the USA Women's Youth Development Festival. Eligible players are female basketball players ... Bone helped the team win all five games, starting all five games and scoring over ten points per game. Bone continued on to the ... Bone started all nine games and was the team's second highest scorer, with 12.3 points per game. Source Bone's younger half- ... Bone was a member of the USA Women's U18 team which won the gold medal at the FIBA Americas Championship in Buenos Aires, ...
Hearing is of importance for a normal speech development. The skull bone in children is often very thin and softer than in the ... A bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) is a type of hearing aid based on bone conduction. It is primarily suited for people who ... Bone-anchored hearing aids use a surgically implanted abutment to transmit sound by direct conduction through bone to the inner ... A 4-mm-long titanium screw with a diameter of 3.75 mm was inserted in the bone behind the ear, and a bone conduction hearing ...
"Echo's Bones"". The Development of Samuel Beckett's Fiction. University of Illinois Press. Ruby Cohn (2001). A Beckett Canon. ... Echo's Bones' is a short story by Samuel Beckett that was originally written in 1933. The Europa Press published a stand alone ... Beckett rewrote the ending of "Draff", the last story in More Pricks Than Kicks, taking text from "Echo's Bones". The opening ... In particular, the line "Echo's bones were turned to stone" is in Beckett's Dream of Fair to Middling Women notebook. Beckett's ...
Features of bone development assessed in determining bone age include the presence of bones (have certain bones ossified yet), ... Bone age is the degree of a person's skeletal development. In children, bone age serves as a measure of physiological maturity ... The long bones are those that grow primarily by elongation at an epiphysis at one end of the growing bone. The long bones ... a selection of bones are given a score based on their perceived development, a sum is totaled based on the individual bone ...
It usually finishes structural development by 2 years old. Because of the late postnatal development of the mastoid process, ... The mastoid part of the temporal bone is the posterior (back) part of the temporal bone, one of the bones of the skull. Its ... In addition to these a large irregular cavity is situated at the upper and front part of the bone. It is called the tympanic ... The word "mastoid" is derived from the Greek word for "breast", a reference to the shape of this bone. Its outer surface is ...
... and lacrimal bones. During development, the jugal bone originates from dermal bone. This bone is considered key in the ... While the jugal bone is thick and straplike in most other reptiles, the jugal bone is thin and strutlike in birds. This is ... It is connected to the quadratojugal and maxilla, as well as other bones, which may vary by species. The jugal bone is located ... The jugal is a skull bone found in most reptiles, amphibians and birds. In mammals, the jugal is often called the malar or ...
"Proposed development at Greer Stadium includes parks, affordable housing". The Tennessean. May 26, 2017. Retrieved May 27, 2017 ... Official website T Bone Burnett on National Public Radio T Bone Burnett at IMDb Burnett, T-Bone; Whifler, Graeme; Marquez, ... "T Bone Burnett - Discography". T Bone Burnett. The Mojo Collection (4 ed.). 2007. Hartenbach, Brett. "The B-52 Band & the ... Joseph Henry "T Bone" Burnett III (born January 14, 1948) is an American record producer, guitarist and songwriter. He rose to ...
... the bone does not follow a typical sesamoid development pattern and can be seen articulating with more than one bone, the ... It is the last carpal bone to ossify. The pisiform bone is a small bone found in the proximal row of the wrist (carpus). It is ... Carpal bone Intercarpal articulations Position of pisiform bone (shown in red). Left hand. Animation. Pisiform bone of the left ... Sesamoid bones, Bones of the hand, Carpal bones). ... The pisiform bone has four surfaces: The dorsal surface is ...
The origin and early development of the Chinese writing system. New Haven, CT: American Oriental Society. ISBN 0-940490-18-8. ... Oraculology is the discipline for the study of oracle bones and the oracle bone script. The Shang-dynasty oracle bones are ... bone and bronze inscriptions may predate the oracle bones. However, the oracle bones are considered the earliest significant ... One oracle bone might be used for one session or for many, and one session could be recorded on a number of bones. The divined ...
Reddi AH (July 2000). "Bone morphogenetic proteins and skeletal development: the kidney-bone connection". Pediatric Nephrology ... bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) versus autologous bone grafting for tibial fractures]". Der Unfallchirurg (in German). 110 ... Bone morphogenetic protein 7 or BMP7 (also known as osteogenic protein-1 or OP-1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... bone morphogenetic protein 7 at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) BMP7 as Molecule of the ...
It is certain that Shang-lineage writing underwent a period of development before the Anyang oracle bone script because of its ... Oraculology is the discipline for the study of oracle bones and the oracle bone script. The common Chinese term for oracle bone ... Oracle bone inscriptions, however, are often arranged so that the columns begin near the centerline of the shell or bone, and ... Oracle bone script (Chinese: 甲骨文; pinyin: jiǎgǔwén) is an ancient form of Chinese characters that were engraved on oracle bones ...
The development of the ethmoidal cells begins during fetal life. Some birds and other migratory animals have deposits of ... The ethmoid bone is one of the bones that make up the orbit of the eye. The ethmoid bone is an anterior cranial bone located ... Ethmoid bone from above. Perpendicular plate of ethmoid. Ethmoid bone (view from behind). Ethmoid bone from the right side. ... The ethmoid bone (/ˈɛθmɔɪd/; from Ancient Greek: ἡθμός, romanized: hēthmós, lit. 'sieve') is an unpaired bone in the skull that ...
The Kanes live in a suburban housing development on Tower Hill. He and his half-sister Margaret like each other, but Margaret ... Silent to the Bone, first edition, p. 34. Silent to the Bone, first edition, p. 79. School Library Journal (2000). Review ... The story is "loosely based on a real case". Silent to the Bone is a first-person narrative by Connor Kane, a 13-year-old boy. ... Margaret is the protagonist of The Outcasts of 19 Schuyler Place (2004), a kind of prequel to Silent to the Bone.) According to ...
ISBN 0-88365-001-0. Schuller, Gunther (1991). The Swing Era: The Development of Jazz, 1930-1945, Vol. 2. New York: Oxford ... 125 Jazz Breaks for Trombone is a 1927 folio or songbook of compositions for trombone by Glenn Miller. The jazz breaks were ... There are no recordings of the trombone solos. OCLC. Worldcat. 125 Jazz Breaks for Trombone by Glenn Miller. Glenn Miller's 125 ... GLENN MILLER'S 125 Jazz Breaks for Trombone. $1.00." An ad for the sheet music also appeared in the 1928 Metronome, Volume 44, ...
"Development and Duration of Radiographic Signs of Bone Healing in Children". American Journal of Roentgenology. 175 (1): 75-78 ... Young bone unites more rapidly than adult bone. Pre-existing bone malignancy. Mechanical factors such as the bone not being ... Age, bone type, drug therapy and pre-existing bone pathology are factors that affect healing. The role of bone healing is to ... This new lamellar bone is in the form of trabecular bone. Eventually, all of the woven bone and cartilage of the original ...
Four incarnations of Gravity Bone were produced during its one-year development. Chung commented during an interview with ... Development shifted in a new direction, and Gravity Bone was transformed; the player would act as a computer hacker, "hacking ... He said that Wong's films had a strong influence on the development of the game. Charles Onyett from IGN applauded Gravity Bone ... which included Gravity Bone as an additional feature. The game, though not a direct sequel in story to Gravity Bone, follows ...
The role trauma plays in the development of these cysts is unknown. Some speculate that repeated trauma puts the bone at risk ... Bone Grafting: Bone grafting is proceeded with after curettage; the empty cavity is transplanted with donor bone tissue, bone ... 2020). "3. Bone tumours: simple bone cyst". Soft Tissue and Bone Tumours: WHO Classification of Tumours. Vol. 3 (5th ed.). Lyon ... A unicameral bone cyst, also known as a simple bone cyst, is a cavity filled with a yellow-colored fluid. It is considered to ...
Lacrimal canaliculi "Magitot on the Development and Structure of the Human Teeth". The American Journal of Dental Science. 9 (4 ... Bone canaliculi are microscopic canals between the lacunae of ossified bone. The radiating processes of the osteocytes (called ... Materials picked up by osteocytes adjacent to blood vessels are distributed throughout the bone matrix via the canaliculi. The ...
"Introduction and definition of CKD-MBD and the development of the guideline statements". Kidney International Supplements. 76 ( ... bone modeling) and bone structure and function during adulthood (bone remodeling). As a result, bone abnormalities are found ... Torres PU, Bover J, Mazzaferro S, de Vernejoul MC, Cohen-Solal M (2014). "When, how, and why a bone biopsy should be performed ... It represents a systemic disorder of mineral and bone metabolism due to CKD manifested by either one or a combination of the ...
Bone morphogenetic proteins are known for their ability to induce bone and cartilage development. BMP10 is categorized as a BMP ... Bone morphogenetic protein 10 (BMP10) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP10 gene. BMP10 is a polypeptide ... "Entrez Gene: bone morphogenetic protein 10". Neuhaus H, Rosen V, Thies RS (February 1999). "Heart specific expression of mouse ... 2005). "Identification of receptors and signaling pathways for orphan bone morphogenetic protein/growth differentiation factor ...
"Bobby Bones Signs Overall TV Development Deal With BBC Studios' L.A. Production Arm". October 29, 2020. Retrieved October 30, ... The Bobby Bones Show". The Bobby Bones Show. Bobby Bones (May 19, 2016). The Bobby Bones Show (radio broadcast). iHeartMedia. ... Bones took over the slot hosted by longtime DJ Gerry House, who retired in 2010. Bones now broadcasts from the WSIX-FM studios ... Bones' first full-time radio contract paid him $17,000. In 2002, Bones was hired by Q100/KQAR in Little Rock, Arkansas. He then ...
In living amphibians (lissamphibians), the postfrontal is absent, having failed to ossify during development. The postfrontal ... The postfrontal is a paired cranial bone found in many tetrapods. It occupies an area of the skull roof between and behind the ... Schoch, Rainer R. (2014). "Amphibian skull evolution: The developmental and functional context of simplification, bone loss and ... orbits (eye sockets), lateral to the frontal and parietal bones, and anterior to the postorbital bone. The postfrontal forms ...
... and character development perfectly. This promising start will especially appeal to James S. A. Corey fans." Writing in GeekDad ... Stars and Bones homepage Stars and Bones at Titan Books Stars and Bones title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction ... Pitt, David (1 February 2022). "Stars and Bones". Booklist. Chicago. 118 (11): 28. ProQuest 2623912259. "Stars and Bones". ... Stars and Bones is a science fiction novel by British writer Gareth L. Powell. It was first published in the United Kingdom in ...
BMP-2 has important roles during embryonic development, as well as bone remodeling and homeostasis in adulthood. Some of its ... As the clinical application of BMP-2 is largely implicated in bone, we focus primarily on its role in bone. However, we also ... Specifically, within the BMP family, Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2) was the first BMP to be characterized and has been ... Further, this review explores other potential treatments that may be useful in treating bone disorders. ...
Stack Exchange network consists of 183 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. Visit Stack Exchange ...
... as well as post-natal bone development. They have an important role during embryonic development on the embryonic patterning ... Spinal Fusion and Bone Morphogenetic Protein Reddi AH (1997). "Bone morphogenetic proteins: an unconventional approach to ... Early studies by Hari Reddi unraveled the sequence of events involved in bone matrix-induced bone morphogenesis. On the basis ... BMP: The What and the Who BMPedia - the Bone Morphogenetic Protein Wiki Bone+Morphogenetic+Proteins at the U.S. National ...
Basic Functions of Bone Bone is the basic unit of the human skeletal system and provides the framework for and bears the weight ... Growth, Modeling, and Remodeling of Bone. Much as in development, bone also grows by either endochondral ossification or ... Compact bone (dense bone, cortical bone) - This type of bone is ivorylike and dense in texture without cavities; it is the ... Sponge bone (trabecular bone, cancellous bone) - This type of bone is so named because it is spongelike with numerous cavities ...
Bone and bones -- metabolism -- congresses , Bone development -- congresses , Diet -- congresses , Nutrition -- in infancy and ... Nutrition and bone development / editors, Jean-Philippe Bonjour, Reginald C. Tsang. Contributor(s): Bonjour, Jean-Philippe , ...
Casual Game Development. Are you ready to take the gaming world by storm? Dive into the realm of hyper-casual games with ... Ancient humans used cave in Spain as burial spot for 4 millennia, 7,000 bones reveal. Posted on March 8, 2024. by Latamtech ... More than 7,000 human bones have been found in the cave, showing that it was used for burials for at least 4,000 years, from ... However, "we also know that [he or she] did not survive the intervention since there is no bone regeneration in the hole," ...
bone marrow transplant from Neuroscience News features breaking science news from research labs, scientists and colleges around ... Povertys Profound Impact on Brain Development and Behavior. * Brain Area Linked to Attention Control Identified ... A new study reports bone marrow transplants can significantly delay the onset of motor deficits in mouse models of MLIV.. Read ... Hereditary Alzheimers Transmitted Via Bone Marrow Transplants. Alzheimers disease, traditionally seen as a brain-centric ...
World of Warships will be adding some new British content, including some new battlecruisers in Early Access, new events, and an updated Port of London. Wargaming also begins an overhaul of the games reward system and economy.
High stakes: the Arctic test of sustainable development. *Air pollution increases risk of Alzheimers disease developing, new ... A single cell transplanted in a mouse spontaneously generated cartilage and bone and even began to form a bone marrow niche. ... Cartilage and certain bone defects are notoriously difficult to heal." Dr. Mao is co-director of the Center for Craniofacial ... Stem Cells from Jaw Bone Help Repair Damaged Cartilage. October 11, 2016. ScienceBlog.com ...
GIACOMELLI, Édio et al. Development of glass ionomer cement modified with seashell powder as a scaffold material for bone ... seashells could be used in glass ionomer cement aiming at the development of a scaffold material for bone grafting or ... material for cases of bone formation. METHODS: White and black seashells were ground into a fine, homogeneous powder. To ...
IoT Development Boards Batteries Feather CircuitPython Circuit Playground Crickit - Creative Robotics Particle STEMMA Machine ... Stacking Header Set for Beagle Bone Capes (2x23). Product ID: 706. Stack to the max with our Beagle Bone Proto Cape using these ... We tried half a dozen modules to find one that works well with the Pi and Bone without the need of recompiling any kernels: its ... These simple 2x23 male headers are a great addition to your Beagle Bone Black, plugging right into each set of side-sockets. ...
Noncancerous bone tumor. *Healing problems or development of scar tissue after surgery ...
Strengthens bones. *Supports brain development. *Supports healthy growth. *Boosts immunity. *Helps the digestive system ...
Gripping, eerie, and impossible to put down, House of Bone and Rain is a dark coming-of-age story drenched with spectral terror ... With breathless pacing, knockout prose, and dynamic characters to follow into the dark, House of Bone and Rain is part crime ... Thoughtful and violent, lyrical and muscular, House of Bone and Rain is a mystical, moving powerhouse that never lets up -- and ... Blurring the boundaries between myth, mysticism, and the grim realities of our world, House of Bone and Rain is a harrowing ...
Albright, F., and Reifenstein, E. C. (1948). Bone development in diabetic children: a Roentgen study. Am. J. Med. Sci. 174, 313 ... Bone Turnover and Diabetes Mellitus. Several observations evidenced a condition of low bone turnover and decreased bone ... 2005) demonstrated a reduction in bone formation and an increase in bone resorption with a low bone mass; conversely, GIP- ... The relative of lean tissue mass and fat mass to bone density in young women. Bone 37, 474-481. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2005.04.038 ...
This six-episode mini-series will review important information primary care clinicians need to know about bone ... Do we know what it takes to build strong, healthy bones? Which nutrients are important for bone development? What role does ... Calcium and vitamin D are essential in building healthy bone; theyre especially important early in life as our bone mineral ... "Bone Basics and Tips for Good Bone Health". ... Episode 1: "Bone-jour" Bone Basics & Tips for Good Bone Health ...
Importance A survival prediction model for patients with bone metastases arising from lung cancer would be highly valuable. ... Development and Validation of a Nomogram for Assessing Survival in Patients With Metastatic Lung Cancer Referred for ... Development and Validation of a Nomogram for Assessing Survival in Patients With Metastati ... and 12 months in patients with metastatic lung cancer referred for radiotherapy to treat bone metastases, and it may guide ...
Contribute to pytorch/botorch development by creating an account on GitHub. ... development versions, as in Option 2, do that before proceeding.. Option 3a: Bare-bones editable install. ... development versions, you will need to ensure that the ALLOW_LATEST_GPYTORCH_LINOP. environment variable is set:. pip install ... Specifies tools necessary for development (testing, linting, docs building; see Contributing below). ...
... fat mass with bone mineral density at the femoral neck and trochanter; lean mass with bone mineral density at the lumbar spine ... of bone mineral density variability at the femoral neck is related to body weight and age; 18.9% of bone mineral density ... with a predominance of trabecular bone.Keywords: women, menopause, bone mineral density, body composition, energy expenditure ... Bone mineral density was assessed at the lumbar spine (L2–L4), femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and trochanter using ...
TRT also produces known risks including development of polycythemia (Hct , 50) in 6% of those treated, decrease in HDL, breast ... Injection of testosterone may be safer and more effective than transdermal administration for combating loss of muscle and bone ... increased bone mineral density, and improved sexual function, and in some cases those benefits are dose dependent. For example ...
Several diseases can result in disorders of bone mineralization in children, including rickets, renal diseases (renal ... Two different genes have been identified as being involved in the development of Dent disease. CLCN5 is affected in Dent ... Bone-mineral density in children and adolescents who have spastic cerebral palsy. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1995 Nov. 77(11):1671- ... Disorders of bone mineralization. Diseases that can cause disorders of bone mineralization in children include rickets, renal ...
Development and evaluation of real-time PCR assays for the detection of the newly identified KI and WU polyomaviruses. J Clin ... Development was accomplished by using the ABC kit and ImmPACT SG (Vector Laboratories, Inc.; no. SK-4705). Tissues were blocked ... We describe a case of viral pneumonitis in a bone marrow transplant recipient who died in 2001. Before her death, influenza and ... In conclusion, WUPyV was detected by multiple methods in the lung of a bone marrow transplant recipient who had viral ...
... bone graft substitutes market to reach US$ 1.3 Bn by 2031. Europe is projected to account for major market share from 2023 to ... Key Developments in Global Dental Membrane & Bone Graft Substitutes Market. *In February 2022, TheraVet, a leading company ... Bone graft substitutes are materials used to replace or augment natural bone in areas where bone loss or defects have occurred ... Dental bone grafts can be derived from various sources, including autografts (patients own bone), allografts (donor bone), ...
An expert guide to the Prone Bone sex position, including what it is, how to do it, and the benefits ... If you like doggy, youve got to try the Prone Bone sex position - heres how to master it. ... Tech chiefs including Elon Musk and Steve Wozniak call on scientists to pause development of AI systems. ... Tech chiefs including Elon Musk and Steve Wozniak call on scientists to pause development of AI systems. ...
Reconstitution of lymphoid development and function in ZAP-70-deficient mice following gene transfer into bone marrow cells ... Reconstitution of lymphoid development and function in ZAP-70-deficient mice following gene transfer into bone marrow cells. ... ZAP-70-mutant mice exhibit an earlier block in T-cell development, at the CD4+CD8+ thymocyte stage,13,14 whereas ZAP-70- ... However, introduction of ZAP-70 allowed the development of CD3+ T lymphocytes. Both mature CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were detected ...
80K fellowship to support his development of a material that helps damaged bones to heal. ... or use cadaver bone. This technology aimss to deliver rapid and successful bone repair, reducing the time patients spend in the ... 80K fellowship to support his development of a material that helps damaged bones to heal. ... has developed a number of synthetic bone graft substitutes that replace the need to harvest the patients own bone, ...
This study led to the development of a novel model of sarcoma metastasis that will support future work to develop pharmacologic ... Improved outcomes for patients with bone sarcomas depend on the development of novel therapies that can successfully prevent ... Bone sarcomas are particularly prone to migrate from the original bone to other bones, the lungs, and the bone marrow. The ... Figure 1: Bone sarcomas can spread to other sites.. Aggressive cancers have the ability to spread from their original site to ...
Beto and the Bone Dance. ,ParaStyle:By>By Gina Freschet.Oct. 2001. 32p. Farrar, $16 (0-374-31720-8). K-Grade 3. REVIEW. First ... Want to see more of the premier readers advisory and collection development resource? *Please LOG IN at the upper right to ... Beto and the Bone Dance. By Gina Freschet.. Oct. 2001. 32p. Farrar, $16 (0-374-31720-8). K-Grade 3. REVIEW. First published ...
Bone densitometry technician. *Medical laboratory technician. *Medical scientist *Research and development scientist. ... Be supported by the Flinders Health and Medical Research Institutes Research Education Development Hub (RED Hub). ...
  • It is imperative to understand the regulatory processes that govern cell cycle during bone healing and development as this will pave the way to develop novel therapies to improve bone healing after injury in instances of aged or osteoporotic fractures. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fractures can occur in any bone, but hip and spine fractures are most common, accounting for 42% of all osteoporotic fractures. (agemed.org)
  • Specific topics include bone physiology, the role of calcium and vitamin D, risk factors for osteopenia, when and how to screen for osteopenia, common fractures seen in patients with osteoporosis and the management of osteopenia and osteoporosis. (mayo.edu)
  • We now have a variety of pharmacologic options for treating osteoporosis which are effective in increasing bone density, but more importantly decreasing the risk of fractures. (mayo.edu)
  • While a variety of bone fractures can result from osteoporosis, hip fractures are the most serious complication. (mayo.edu)
  • Bone fractures, especially of the spine and hip are the most serious complications of osteoporosis. (mayo.edu)
  • They also have reduced bone mineral density, which can lead to osteoporosis and bone fractures. (nih.gov)
  • Patients with bone metastases from cancer are at increased risk of experiencing debilitating pathologic fractures and other skeletal-related events. (amgen.com)
  • ii) (iii) (iv) Events considered to be SREs include fractures, spinal cord compression, and severe bone pain that may require surgery or radiation. (amgen.com)
  • However, not all osteoporotic individuals suffer atraumatic fractures, and the association between bone mass and fracture incidence has yet to be clearly defined. (cdc.gov)
  • The osteoporosis component will also include assessment of risk factors for low bone mass and for falling, since both are related to the occurrence of osteoporotic hip fractures. (cdc.gov)
  • Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue leading to increased susceptibility to fractures, most commonly of the hip, spine and wrist. (who.int)
  • Programmes should also identify those at risk for fractures, on the basis of age, gender, bone mineral density, history of fracture, and lifetime use of agents such as alcohol, tobacco and corticosteroids, and incorporate strategies aimed at such people for preventing falls or lessening their impact. (who.int)
  • Similarly, another study has shown that inhibition of p27 can increase bone mineral density and bone formation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recently, we demonstrated that lack of p21 can increase bone formation after an injury, both bone volume and bone mineral density [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Primary osteoporosis (osteoporosis that is not secondary to a separate condition or medication) is characterized by decreasing bone mass and density and reduced bone strength leading to a higher risk for fracture ( Appendix Table 1 ) ( 1 , 2 ). (agemed.org)
  • The pathogenic mechanisms of impaired skeletal strength in diabetes remain to be clarified in details and they are only in part reflected by a variation in bone mineral density. (frontiersin.org)
  • they're especially important early in life as our bone mineral density increases. (mayo.edu)
  • TRT produces a number of established benefits in hypogonadal men, including increased muscle mass and strength, decreased fat mass, increased bone mineral density, and improved sexual function, and in some cases those benefits are dose dependent. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers have found that hormone replacement therapy in young women with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) led to increases in their bone mineral density, restoring levels to normal. (nih.gov)
  • Bone mineral density is an important measure of bone health. (nih.gov)
  • This study showed that not only could hormone treatment reduce the rate at which women with POI lose bone mineral density, but it could actually restore bone density to normal levels," said Dr. Lawrence M. Nelson, study author and investigator in the Program on Reproductive and Adult Endocrinology at NICHD. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers at the NIH examined scans of the hip and lower spine to determine the effects of hormone treatment on bone mineral density of women with primary ovarian insufficiency. (nih.gov)
  • Using bone density scans of the hip and lower spine, researchers measured the effects of two hormone replacement regimens on the bone mineral density of women with POI who were between the ages of 18 and 42. (nih.gov)
  • For comparison, the scientists also measured bone mineral density in an untreated group of 70 women with normal ovarian function. (nih.gov)
  • Both hormone treatment regimens led to significant increases in the bone mineral density in the treatment groups. (nih.gov)
  • When the study began, women with POI had significantly lower hip and spine bone mineral density levels compared to the control group. (nih.gov)
  • By the study's end, both bone density measures had increased to the same levels as the women without the condition. (nih.gov)
  • However, the addition of testosterone in the treatment regimen did not prove to be statistically significant in helping increase bone mineral density. (nih.gov)
  • While hormone replacement therapy's effect on bone mineral density has been studied in postmenopausal women, there is limited research on the effects of this therapy in younger women," said lead author Dr. Vaishali B. Popat, an endocrinologist who helped conduct this study at NIH. (nih.gov)
  • This study provides important evidence that hormone replacement therapy with an appropriate dose of estradiol delivered via a skin patch combined with oral progestin can improve bone density to normal in women with primary ovarian insufficiency. (nih.gov)
  • The decision to include assessments of bone density in the survey was based on the recognition of the growing problem of osteoporosis, or decreased bone mass. (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of the bone density component is to obtain estimates of the prevalence of low bone density of the hip in the U.S. population over 20 years of age, and in various subpopulation groups. (cdc.gov)
  • Also, because bone density values overlap between normal and osteoporotic individuals, clear criteria for definitions of abnormality have not been established. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, bone loss occurs at different rates in different types of bone, so it is possible for individuals to have bone loss in the spine, but normal bone density in the forearm. (cdc.gov)
  • Estimates of low bone density derived from NHANES III data will offer unique information regarding bone loss and osteoporosis. (cdc.gov)
  • The distribution of bone density at the hip that is collected in the survey will provide reference data for clinicians and researchers in assessing bone mass in individuals. (cdc.gov)
  • NHANES III will provide the first reference data on bone density from a nationally representative sample and will permit an examination of bone mineral density in black and Hispanic population subgroups, for whom prevalence of low bone mass is poorly defined. (cdc.gov)
  • The effects of elbow loading were evaluated through measurement of bone length, weight, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone mineral content (BMC), as well as mRNA expression levels of load-sensitive transcription factors such as c-fos, egr1, and atf3. (cdc.gov)
  • In these products, BMPs are delivered to the site of the fracture by being incorporated into a bone implant, and released gradually to allow bone formation, as the growth stimulation by BMPs must be localized and sustained for some weeks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Up to one in two women and one in four men will experience a bone fracture due to the disease. (mayo.edu)
  • An SRE consists of any of the following: a pathologic fracture, the need for radiation or surgery to ameliorate bone pathology secondary to tumor growth, or spinal cord compression. (amgen.com)
  • The low bone mass that characterizes osteoporosis causes an increased susceptibility to spontaneous or a traumatic bone fracture. (cdc.gov)
  • Bone mass can decrease without symptoms for a significant period of time before fracture occurs, and since fracture is the main clinical sign of the disease, many clinicians and researchers limit the definitions of osteoporosis to the presence of an atraumatic fracture. (cdc.gov)
  • Bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP) should not be routinely used in any type of anterior cervical spine fusion, such as with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Working with mice, researchers have pinpointed the location of bone generating stem cells in the spine, at the ends of shins, and in other bones. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease with inflammation in the spine which can lead to bone erosions, new bone formation, and ankylosis in the spine. (springer.com)
  • The analysis of serum biomarkers reflecting inflammation, bone destruction, and new bone formation could be helpful for a better understanding of the sequence of events in the spine. (springer.com)
  • However, "we also know that [he or she] did not survive the intervention since there is no bone regeneration in the hole," Rodríguez-Hidalgo said. (latamtech.biz)
  • They suggest that molecular signals that govern stem cells may have therapeutic applications for cartilage and bone regeneration. (scienceblog.com)
  • Dental membrane & bone graft substitutes are two important materials used in dental and oral surgery procedures to promote bone regeneration and enhance the success of dental implant placement. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • These are often used in procedures such as guided tissue regeneration (GTR) and guided bone regeneration (GBR) to create a favorable environment for new bone and tissue growth. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • The patient population includes adults with primary osteoporosis or low bone mass. (agemed.org)
  • 40% of older U.S. adults) have low bone mass associated with a high risk for progression to osteoporosis ( 6 ). (agemed.org)
  • This six-episode mini-series will review important information primary care clinicians need to know about bone health and osteoporosis. (mayo.edu)
  • However, rather than treating osteoporosis, what advice can we give our patients that will help prevent loss of bone mass and hopefully prevent osteoporosis. (mayo.edu)
  • According to the Bone Health and Osteoporosis Foundation, over 50 million Americans have osteoporosis. (mayo.edu)
  • Bone loss resulting in osteoporosis is primarily a consequence of normal ageing, but can also arise owing to impaired development of peak bone mass or excessive loss during adulthood. (who.int)
  • Originally discovered by their ability to induce the formation of bone and cartilage, BMPs are now considered to constitute a group of pivotal morphogenetic signals, orchestrating tissue architecture throughout the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The signaling pathways involving BMPs, BMPRs and SMADs are important in the development of the heart, central nervous system, and cartilage, as well as post-natal bone development. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the long bones, the epiphysis is the region between the growth plate or growth plate scar and the expanded end of bone, covered by articular cartilage. (medscape.com)
  • A single cell transplanted in a mouse spontaneously generated cartilage and bone and even began to form a bone marrow niche. (scienceblog.com)
  • Cartilage and certain bone defects are notoriously difficult to heal. (scienceblog.com)
  • In a series of experiments described in the new report, Dr. Embree, Dr. Mao, and their colleagues isolated fibrocartilage stem cells (FCSCs) from the joint and showed that the cells can form cartilage and bone, both in the laboratory and when implanted into animals. (scienceblog.com)
  • Therefore, we analysed parameters of cartilage degradation, neoangiogenesis, and new bone formation in different cohorts of patients with axial spondyloarthritis with and without treatment with TNF-α blocker agents. (springer.com)
  • They are disorders of growth and remodeling of bone and cartilage. (medscape.com)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are multi-functional growth factors belonging to the Transforming Growth Factor-Beta (TGF-β) superfamily. (mdpi.com)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a group of growth factors also known as cytokines and as metabologens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mRNA molecules were complexed within nonviral lipid particles, loaded onto sponges, and surgically implanted into the bone defects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone graft substitutes are materials used to replace or augment natural bone in areas where bone loss or defects have occurred. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • This technology aimss to deliver rapid and successful bone repair, reducing the time patients spend in the operating theatre, post-operative pain and potential for disease transmission involved in cases of bone defects or trauma. (abdn.ac.uk)
  • Dr. Robyn Cree is an EIS officer assigned to the child development studies team and children's preparedness in CDC's national Center on birth defects and development of disabilities. (cdc.gov)
  • In the national Center on birth defects and development disabilities. (cdc.gov)
  • Of note, some antidiabetic drugs (e.g., thiazolidinediones, insulin) may deeply affect bone metabolism. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here we will review the established as well as the putative effects of incretin hormones and of incretin-based drugs on bone metabolism, both in preclinical models and in man, taking into account that such therapeutic strategy may be effective not only to achieve a good glycemic control, but also to improve bone health in diabetic patients. (frontiersin.org)
  • Of note, some antidiabetic drugs (e.g., thiazolidinediones, insulin) may have important effects on bone metabolism. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here we review the established as well as the putative effects of incretin-based drugs on bone metabolism, both in preclinical models and in man, taking into account that such therapeutic strategy may be effective not only to achieve a good glycemic control, but also to improve bone health in diabetic patients. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this podcast, we'll review the importance of calcium and vitamin D and I'll be discussing these questions with our guest, endocrinologist and bone specialist, Daniel L. Hurley, M.D., from the Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism at the Mayo Clinic. (mayo.edu)
  • BMP-2 has important roles during embryonic development, as well as bone remodeling and homeostasis in adulthood. (mdpi.com)
  • They have an important role during embryonic development on the embryonic patterning and early skeletal formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knowledge of the location of the epiphysis and its equivalents in various bones aids clinicians in the recognition of the origin of bone lesions and further facilitates the diagnostic considerations, in that some bone tumors (eg, chondroblastoma ) have a strong predilection for the epiphysis or epiphysioid bones. (medscape.com)
  • Technological advancements in graft materials are driving the global dental membrane & bone graft substitutes market. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Furthermore, development of combination products integrating dental membranes and bone graft substitutes has simplified surgical procedures and enhanced treatment outcomes. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Rise in prevalence of dental implant procedures, aging population, technological advancements, patient awareness, dental tourism, and emergence of regenerative dentistry are driving demand for dental membranes and bone graft substitutes. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Rise in awareness about dental health is driving the global dental membrane & bone graft substitutes market value. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Bone graft substitutes are materials used to replace or augment bone in dental procedures. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Bone graft substitutes can be synthetic, derived from natural sources, or a combination of both. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Consequently, demand for dental membranes and bone graft substitutes has also risen. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • The company, which spun out from the University of Aberdeen in 2011, has developed a number of synthetic bone graft substitutes that replace the need to harvest the patient's own bone, or use cadaver bone. (abdn.ac.uk)
  • WU polyomavirus (WUPyV) was detected in a bone marrow transplant recipient with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome who died in 2001. (cdc.gov)
  • The cells reside within the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), which articulates the jaw bone to the skull. (scienceblog.com)
  • Thus, a deeper understanding of the biology of bone sarcoma metastasis is urgently needed so that novel therapies that target and prevent these processes can be developed. (sarcomahelp.org)
  • This strict regulation is made possible by checkpoint proteins [ 13 ], the functions of which in regards to bone healing and development will be the focus of this review. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The relative predilection of osteosarcoma for the metaphyseal region of long bones in children has been attributed to the rapid bone turnover due to extensive bone remodeling during growth spurts (see Growth, Modeling, and Remodeling of Bone below). (medscape.com)
  • In T2DM, the occurrence of low bone turnover together with a decreased osteoblast activity and compromised bone quality has been shown. (frontiersin.org)
  • Reduction in bone turnover markers was greater with denosumab. (amgen.com)
  • The researchers predicted that disabling only one copy of each gene would offer protection from bone tumor growth. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Development and Validation of a Nomogram for Assessing Survival in Patients With Metastatic Lung Cancer Referred for Radiotherapy for Bone Metastases. (bvsalud.org)
  • Importance A survival prediction model for patients with bone metastases arising from lung cancer would be highly valuable. (bvsalud.org)
  • Amgen (Nasdaq: AMGN) today announced the publication of results from a pivotal Phase 3 study of 2,046 patients which compared denosumab with Zometa(R) (zoledronic acid) in delaying or preventing skeletal-related events (SREs) in breast cancer patients with bone metastases. (amgen.com)
  • The study, published today in the Journal of Clinical Oncology , found that denosumab was superior to Zometa in delaying or preventing SREs in breast cancer patients with bone metastases. (amgen.com)
  • Bone metastases occur in more than 1.5 million patients with cancer worldwide and are most commonly associated with cancers of the prostate, lung, and breast, with incidence rates as high as 75 percent of patients with metastatic disease. (amgen.com)
  • Approximately 50-70 percent of cancer patients with bone metastases will experience debilitating SREs. (amgen.com)
  • Patients who experience an SRE as a result of bone metastases incur significantly higher medical costs compared with those who do not experience such events. (amgen.com)
  • x) (xii) In fact, the total economic burden of patients with bone metastases in the U.S. alone is estimated to be $12.6 billion annually. (amgen.com)
  • they will need to train health-care workers, provide better access to bone densitometry (or other reliable methods of diagnosis), find ways of manufacturing or importing treatments decided upon, and create or adopt guidelines for treatment. (who.int)
  • Identifying the location of bone stem cells and some of the genetic triggers that control their growth is an important step forward," said Alan E. Guttmacher, M.D., acting director of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), the NIH institute where much of the research took place. (sciencedaily.com)
  • When the two genes are working normally, bone cell growth proceeds normally and cancerous overgrowth is kept in check. (sciencedaily.com)
  • TNF-α blocker-naïve AS patients were investigated for serum levels of metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) (n = 71), vasoendothelial growth factor (VEGF) (n = 50), and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP) (n = 71) at baseline and after 1 and 2 years. (springer.com)
  • Dental membranes are thin barriers or sheets that are used to guide and protect the growth of new bone and soft tissue during the healing process. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • These provide a scaffold for new bone growth and can be derived from synthetic materials, allografts (cadaveric bone), xenografts (animal-derived), or alloplasts (synthetic biomaterials). (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • The Fellowship will support further research into a load-bearing material to stimulate bone growth which it's hoped will increase the clinical applications of this novel technology. (abdn.ac.uk)
  • Although the development and growth of cartilaginous structures are disturbed, the intramembranous ossification and appositional growth pattern are not primarily affected. (medscape.com)
  • Elbow loading promotes longitudinal bone growth of the ulna and the humerus. (cdc.gov)
  • Mechanical stimulation plays a critical role in bone development and growth. (cdc.gov)
  • Osteosarcoma is a malignant primary bone tumor that is characterized by neoplastic osteoblasts that produce osteoid. (medscape.com)
  • High-grade bone tumors, primarily osteosarcoma (OS) and Ewing sarcoma family tumors (ES), are a significant clinical problem in the pediatric, adolescent and young adult populations. (sarcomahelp.org)
  • Researchers have long known that stem cells from bone marrow give rise to bone cells and to red and white blood cells. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The current study is the first to identify the location of bone stem cells in the adult mouse skeleton. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The term distinguishes the cells from hematopoietic stem cells, which give rise to blood cells, and which are found in bone marrow. (sciencedaily.com)
  • White blood cells develop from stem cells in the bone marrow. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Stryker Biotech) for a humanitarian device exemption as an alternative to autograft in long bone nonunions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present study examined the possibility of modifying the structural properties of glass ionomer cement by adding seashells to form a possible 'scaffold' material for cases of bone formation. (bvsalud.org)
  • This region is a common site for many primary bone tumors and similar lesions. (medscape.com)
  • In many cases, life-long thank all of you who have collaborated habits and behaviours are formed during to the development of this Policy and the primary and middle school years. (who.int)
  • Although an epiphysis is present at each end of the long limb bones, it is found at only one end of the metacarpals (proximal first and distal second through the fifth metacarpals), metatarsals (proximal first and distal second through fifth metatarsals), phalanges (proximal ends), clavicles, and ribs. (medscape.com)
  • The present study demonstrates that joint loading is potentially useful for stimulating bone lengthening and treating limb length discrepancy. (cdc.gov)
  • Neonatal anthropometric variables and 25(OH)D level will be measured at birth, and bone and fat mass assessment by DXA, at one month of age. (who.int)
  • Studies to identify the chemical signals that initiate the formation of new bone tissue could lead to new techniques for regenerating damaged or injured bone. (sciencedaily.com)
  • These advancements have revolutionized the field of regenerative dentistry, offering improved biocompatibility, tissue engineering approaches, and synthetic graft materials that closely resemble natural bone. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • These membranes help to prevent the migration of soft tissue cells into the surgical site, allowing the bone and tissue to regenerate more effectively. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Although there is a need for biocompatibility and cellular cytotoxicity testing in vitro, as well as in vivo evaluation, seashells could be used in glass ionomer cement aiming at the development of a 'scaffold' material for bone grafting or osseointegration. (bvsalud.org)
  • These provide a scaffold for new bone formation and promote the integration of the implant with the surrounding bone. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Inhibition of CXCR4 by genetic and pharmacologic means dramatically reduced the migratory and invasive potential of Ewing sarcoma cells towards CXCL12 suggesting that inhibition of this axis may be a novel approach to inhibiting Ewing sarcoma metastasis to lungs and bone marrow in vivo (1). (sarcomahelp.org)
  • Background: Osteodex (ODX) is a cytotoxic bone-targeting polybisphosphonate, intended for treatment of bone metastasis from castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). (lu.se)
  • Patients and Methods: Twenty-eight patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and confirmed bone metastasis were assigned to seven infusions of ODX every third week, divided in seven ascending dose cohorts. (lu.se)
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level, and to positively impact infant bone mineral content (BMC). (who.int)
  • Several diseases can result in disorders of bone mineralization, which can be defined as the process by which osteoid becomes calcified. (medscape.com)
  • In 1977, at the Second International Conference for Nomenclature for Constitutional Diseases of Bone, the name was changed from diastrophic dwarfism to diastrophic dysplasia. (medscape.com)
  • Bone lengthening was associated with increases in bone weight, BMD and BMC. (cdc.gov)
  • rhBMP-2 causes more overgrown bone than any other BMPs and is widely used off-label. (wikipedia.org)
  • BMPs interact with specific receptors on the cell surface, referred to as bone morphogenetic protein receptors (BMPRs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Development of a sample bank and clinical database for the retrospective analysis of unrelated bone marrow transplants: a pilot study of 138 transplants using RSCA for high resolution HLA matching. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Alzheimer's disease, traditionally seen as a brain-centric condition, may have systemic origins and can be accelerated through bone marrow transplants from donors with familial Alzheimer's to healthy mice. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • A new study reports bone marrow transplants can significantly delay the onset of motor deficits in mouse models of MLIV. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Now, researchers can explore ways to harness these cells so that ultimately they might be used to repair damaged or malformed bone. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The researchers refer to the newly identified cells as bone stromal cells. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The latest excavations in December 2023 were among the first to accurately date many of the human bones found there. (latamtech.biz)
  • Although rhBMP-2 and rhBMP-7 are used in the treatment of a variety of bone-related conditions including spinal fusions and nonunions, the risks of this off-label treatment are not understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is "little debate or controversy" about the effectiveness of rhBMP-2 to grow bone to achieve spinal fusions, and Medtronic generates $700 million in annual sales from their product. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone graft substitute acts as a three-dimensional framework, allowing bone-forming cells to migrate into the graft material and initiate new bone formation. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors) is expected to exert potentially beneficial effects on bone health, possibly due to a bone anabolic activity of GLP-1, that can be either direct or indirect through the involvement of thyroid C cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Of note, in the light of physiological actions of incretin hormones, such drugs are expected to exert potentially beneficial effects beyond glycemia, including on bone health, possibly due to a bone anabolic activity of GLP-1 that can be either direct or indirect, through the involvement of thyroid C cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we provide a concise review of cell cycle regulators that influence cells like osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and chondrocytes, during development and/or healing of bone. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Denosumab is the first fully human monoclonal antibody in late stage clinical development that specifically targets RANK Ligand, the essential regulator of osteoclasts (the cells that break down bone). (amgen.com)
  • It is the zone of endochondral ossification in an actively growing bone or the epiphyseal scar in a fully grown bone. (medscape.com)
  • Further clinical development is currently in progress. (lu.se)
  • The ACP Clinical Guidelines Committee based these recommendations on an updated systematic review of evidence and graded them using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) system. (agemed.org)
  • Moreover, the tumors formed only at locations where bone is actively growing, even in the adult mouse skeleton. (sciencedaily.com)
  • We demonstrated that deletion of p21, a cell cycle regulator acting at the G1/S transition enhanced bone repair capacity after a burr-hole injury in the proximal tibia of mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Specifically, within the BMP family, Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2) was the first BMP to be characterized and has been well-studied. (mdpi.com)
  • Specifically BMP-4 and its inhibitors play a major role in neurulation and the development of the neural plate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, studies of this stem cell population could yield insight into the formation of bone tumors. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Recent data about radiographic progression during treatment with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) blocker agents in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) have prompted an intensive discussion about the link between inflammation/bone destruction and new bone formation and the order of events. (springer.com)
  • Rising levels of BALP and the negative correlation between MMP-3 and BALP in spondyloarthritis patients with TNF-α blocker treatment indicate that new bone formation in AS occurs if inflammation is successfully treated and might be part of a healing process. (springer.com)