The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
Breaks in bones.
The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
Diseases of BONES.
VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
The spinal or vertebral column.
The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.
The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
The bones of the free part of the upper extremity including the HUMERUS; RADIUS; and ULNA.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Bones that constitute each half of the pelvic girdle in VERTEBRATES, formed by fusion of the ILIUM; ISCHIUM; and PUBIC BONE.
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
A nonhormonal medication for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. This drug builds healthy bone, restoring some of the bone loss as a result of osteoporosis.
Decrease, loss, or removal of the mineral constituents of bones. Temporary loss of bone mineral content is especially associated with space flight, weightlessness, and extended immobilization. OSTEOPOROSIS is permanent, includes reduction of total bone mass, and is associated with increased rate of fractures. CALCIFICATION, PHYSIOLOGIC is the process of bone remineralizing. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed; Nicogossian, Space Physiology and Medicine, 2d ed, pp327-33)
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.
Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.
Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.
Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.
A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
Absence of menstruation.
Broken bones in the vertebral column.
A colorless crystalline or white powdery organic, tricarboxylic acid occurring in plants, especially citrus fruits, and used as a flavoring agent, as an antioxidant in foods, and as a sequestrating agent. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Breaks in bones resulting from low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration characteristic of OSTEOPOROSIS.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.
Excessive formation of dense trabecular bone leading to pathological fractures; OSTEITIS; SPLENOMEGALY with infarct; ANEMIA; and extramedullary hemopoiesis (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.
Sweet food products combining cane or beet sugars with other carbohydrates and chocolate, milk, eggs, and various flavorings. In the United States, candy refers to both sugar- and cocoa-based confections and is differentiated from sweetened baked goods; elsewhere the terms sugar confectionary, chocolate confectionary, and flour confectionary (meaning goods such as cakes and pastries) are used.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
The shaft of long bones.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
A condition of competitive female athletes in which there are interrelated problems of EATING DISORDERS; AMENORRHEA; and OSTEOPOROSIS.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.
The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.
An eating disorder that is characterized by the lack or loss of APPETITE, known as ANOREXIA. Other features include excess fear of becoming OVERWEIGHT; BODY IMAGE disturbance; significant WEIGHT LOSS; refusal to maintain minimal normal weight; and AMENORRHEA. This disorder occurs most frequently in adolescent females. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
Insertion of an implant into the bone of the mandible or maxilla. The implant has an exposed head which protrudes through the mucosa and is a prosthodontic abutment.
The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
Rhythmic and patterned body movements which are usually performed to music.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.
The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.
Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.
The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.
The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.
LDL-receptor related protein that combines with FRIZZLED RECEPTORS at the cell surface to form receptors that bind WNT PROTEINS. The protein plays an important role in the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY in OSTEOBLASTS and during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
A dead body, usually a human body.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
Abnormally infrequent menstruation.
The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the FEMUR; PATELLA; TIBIA; and FIBULA.
The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
COLLAGEN DISEASES characterized by brittle, osteoporotic, and easily fractured bones. It may also present with blue sclerae, loose joints, and imperfect dentin formation. Most types are autosomal dominant and are associated with mutations in COLLAGEN TYPE I.
An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.
Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Attachment of orthodontic devices and materials to the MOUTH area for support and to provide a counterforce to orthodontic forces.
Devices, usually alloplastic, surgically inserted into or onto the jawbone, which support a single prosthetic tooth and serve either as abutments or as cosmetic replacements for missing teeth.
Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.
The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Technique involving the passage of X-rays through oral structures to create a film record while a central tab or wing of dental X-ray film is being held between upper and lower teeth.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.
Replacement for a hip joint.
A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
Fractures of the short, constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters. It excludes intertrochanteric fractures which are HIP FRACTURES.
A family of proteins that share sequence similarity with the low density lipoprotein receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL).
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The joining of objects by means of a cement (e.g., in fracture fixation, such as in hip arthroplasty for joining of the acetabular component to the femoral component). In dentistry, it is used for the process of attaching parts of a tooth or restorative material to a natural tooth or for the attaching of orthodontic bands to teeth by means of an adhesive.
Fractures due to the strain caused by repetitive exercise. They are thought to arise from a combination of MUSCLE FATIGUE and bone failure, and occur in situations where BONE REMODELING predominates over repair. The most common sites of stress fractures are the METATARSUS; FIBULA; TIBIA; and FEMORAL NECK.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Endosseous dental implantation where implants are fitted with an abutment or where an implant with a transmucosal coronal portion is used immediately (within 1 week) after the initial extraction. Conventionally, the implantation is performed in two stages with more than two months in between the stages.
A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
3-Phenylchromones. Isomeric form of FLAVONOIDS in which the benzene group is attached to the 3 position of the benzopyran ring instead of the 2 position.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
A biosynthetic precursor of collagen containing additional amino acid sequences at the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal ends of the polypeptide chains.
9,10-Secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-3,25-diol. Biologically active metabolite of vitamin D2 which is more active in curing rickets than its parent. The compound is believed to attach to the same receptor as vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The TARSAL BONES; METATARSAL BONES; and PHALANGES OF TOES. The tarsal bones consists of seven bones: CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid; navicular; internal; middle; and external cuneiform bones. The five metatarsal bones are numbered one through five, running medial to lateral. There are 14 phalanges in each foot, the great toe has two while the other toes have three each.
Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).
Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.
A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.
Fracture of the lower end of the radius in which the lower fragment is displaced posteriorly.
Injuries involving the vertebral column.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.
Extraoral body-section radiography depicting an entire maxilla, or both maxilla and mandible, on a single film.
The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.
A second generation selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) used to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. It has estrogen agonist effects on bone and cholesterol metabolism but behaves as a complete estrogen antagonist on mammary gland and uterine tissue.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
(6 alpha)-17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A synthetic progestational hormone used in veterinary practice as an estrus regulator.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Fibrous blood-filled cyst in the bone. Although benign it can be destructive causing deformity and fractures.
Replacement of the hip joint.
Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.

Association of polymorphism at the type I collagen (COL1A1) locus with reduced bone mineral density, increased fracture risk, and increased collagen turnover. (1/6095)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between a common polymorphism within intron 1 of the COL1A1 gene and osteoporosis in a nested case-control study. METHODS: We studied 185 healthy women (mean +/- SD age 54.3+/-4.6 years). Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry, and fractures were determined radiographically. The COL1A1 genotype was assessed using the polymerase chain reaction and Bal I endonuclease digestion. RESULTS: Genotype frequencies were similar to those previously observed and in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium: SS 61.1%, Ss 36.2%, and ss 2.7%. Carriage of at least one copy of the "s" allele was associated with a significant reduction in lumbar spine BMD (P = 0.02) and an increased risk of total fracture (P = 0.04). Urinary pyridinoline levels were significantly elevated in those with the risk allele (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These data support the findings that the COL1A1 gene polymorphism is associated with low BMD and fracture risk, and suggest a possible physiologic effect on total body turnover of type I collagen.  (+info)

Predicting bone loss following orthotopic liver transplantation. (2/6095)

BACKGROUND: Hepatic osteodystrophy occurs in the majority of patients with advanced chronic liver disease with the abnormalities in bone metabolism accelerating following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). AIMS: To examine changes in bone mineral density (BMD) following OLT and to investigate factors that lead to bone loss. METHODS: Twelve patients had BMD (at both the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN)) and biochemical markers measured preoperatively and for 24 months following OLT. RESULTS: BMD was low in 75% of patients prior to OLT and decreased significantly from baseline at the LS at three months and the FN at six months. BMD began to increase thereafter at both sites, approaching baseline values at the LS by 12 months. Bone formation markers, osteocalcin and procollagen type I carboxy propeptide, decreased immediately post-OLT, with a concomitant increase seen in the resorption markers pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline. This resulted in a negative uncoupling index early post-OLT, that rebounded to positive values after six months. There was a significant correlation between the change in the uncoupling index between six and three months which preceded the increase in BMD at 12 months. The decrease in BMD recorded early post-OLT correlated with vitamin D levels at three months. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that increased resorption and inadequate formation are the major contributors to additional bone loss following OLT. Non-invasive biochemical markers precede later changes in BMD in this patient group following OLT and may have a role in investigating and planning intervention strategies to prevent bone loss in future studies.  (+info)

Osteopenia in the patient with cancer. (3/6095)

Osteopenia is defined as a reduction in bone mass. It is commonly known to occur in elderly people or women who are postmenopausal due to hormonal imbalances. This condition, however, can result because of many other factors, such as poor nutrition, prolonged pharmacological intervention, disease, and decreased mobility. Because patients with cancer experience many of these factors, they are often predisposed to osteopenia. Currently, patients with cancer are living longer and leading more fulfilling lives after treatment. Therefore, it is imperative that therapists who are responsible for these patients understand the risk factors for osteopenia and their relevance to a patient with cancer.  (+info)

Effect of shellfish calcium on the apparent absorption of calcium and bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats. (4/6095)

Fossil shellfish powder (FS) and Ezo giant scallop shell powder (EG) were rendered soluble with lactate and citrate under decompression (FSEx and EGEx, respectively) and we examined the effects of lactate-citrate solubilization of FS and EG on mineral absorption, tissue mineral contents, serum biochemical indices and bone mineral density (BMD) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The apparent absorption ratios of minerals tended to be high in the rats fed with the solubilized mineral sources, those in the FSEx group being significantly higher than in the FS group. There was no significant difference in the tibia mineral content among the OVX groups. BMD at the distal femoral diaphysis was significantly increased by FSEx and EGEx feeding. It is suggested that solubilization with lactate and citrate under decompression increased the solubility and bioavailability of calcium from such natural sources of shellfish calcium as FS and EG.  (+info)

Study of the effect of lactational bone loss on blood lead concentrations in humans. (5/6095)

Lactation and other clinical states of high bone turnover have been suggested to release lead (Pb) stored in bone into blood and tissues. Previous observations on the influences of lactation have been anecdotal, or at high blood Pb concentrations with varying past exposures, or complicated by postpartum fluid changes. A prospective observational study was performed to investigate possible changes in blood lead concentrations at multiple intervals during lactation for 6 months postpartum and to relate changes in blood lead concentrations to changes in bone density and other variables. Volunteer pregnant subjects (n = 58) were enrolled from a midwifery service at an academic public health hospital. Subjects were mostly Hispanic, recently immigrated, of low economic status, not receiving supplemental calcium, and had low blood Pb concentrations (2.35 +/- 2.05 microg/dl at enrollment). Bone density losses over 6 months for the group averaged -2.46 +/- 6.33% at the vertebral spine and -0.67 +/- 5.21% at the femoral neck. In predicting final bone density, apart from initial bone density only the total number of breast-feedings was a significant independent variable of the variables tested, accounting for an additional 12% of the variability. No changes in blood Pb concentrations were seen over the interval beyond 2 weeks postpartum (minimum detectable change was 0.4 microg/dl). There was no relation between the changes in bone density and changes in blood Pb or the integrated blood Pb over the 2-week to 6-month period. Normal (nonlactating) bone resorption rates contribute a large fraction of the Pb in blood during low-exposure circumstances. However, during lactation the increase in bone resorptive processes is probably relatively small with a larger decrease in deposition accounting for net bone loss, as suggested by other investigations. Thus, concomitant release of Pb from bones of lactating subjects with low blood lead concentrations on this background of high normal resorption was not large enough for detection.  (+info)

Mechanical considerations in impaction bone grafting. (6/6095)

In impaction grafting of contained bone defects after revision joint arthroplasty the graft behaves as a friable aggregate and its resistance to complex forces depends on grading, normal load and compaction. Bone mills in current use produce a distribution of particle sizes more uniform than is desirable for maximising resistance to shear stresses. We have performed experiments in vitro using morsellised allograft bone from the femoral head which have shown that its mechanical properties improve with increasing normal load and with increasing shear strains (strain hardening). The mechanical strength also increases with increasing compaction energy, and with the addition of bioglass particles to make good the deficiency in small and very small fragments. Donor femoral heads may be milled while frozen without affecting the profile of the particle size. Osteoporotic femoral heads provide a similar grading of sizes, although fewer particles are obtained from each specimen. Our findings have implications for current practice and for the future development of materials and techniques.  (+info)

Transplantation of osteoblast-like cells to the distracted callus in rabbits. (7/6095)

We carried out limb lengthening in rabbits and then transplanted osteoblast-like cells derived from the tibial periosteum to the centres of distracted callus immediately after distraction had been terminated. Two weeks later the transaxial area ratio at the centre of the distracted callus and the bone mineral density (BMD) were significantly higher in the transplanted group, by 21% and 42%, respectively, than in the non-injected group or the group injected with physiological saline (p < 0.05). Callus BMD as a percentage of density in uninvolved bone was also significantly higher in the transplanted group (p < 0.05) than in the other two groups, by 27% and 20% in the second and fourth weeks, respectively (p < 0.05). Mechanically, the callus in the transplanted group tended to be stronger as shown by the three-point bending test although the difference in fracture strength was not statistically significant. Our results show that transplantation of osteoblast-like cells promotes maturity of the distracted callus as observed at the second and fourth weeks after lengthening. The method appears promising as a means of shortening the consolidation period of callus distraction and decreasing complications during limb lengthening with an external fixator.  (+info)

Subsidence of a non-polished stem in revisions of the hip using impaction allograft. Evaluation with radiostereometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. (8/6095)

We revised 24 consecutive hips with loosening of the femoral stem using impaction allograft and a cemented stem with an unpolished proximal surface. Repeated radiostereometric examinations for up to two years showed a slow rate of subsidence with a mean of 0.32 mm (-2.0 to +0.31). Fifteen cases followed for a further year showed the same mean subsidence after three years, indicating stabilisation. A tendency to retroversion of the stems was noted between the operation and the last follow-up. Retroversion was also recorded when displacement of the stem was studied in ten of the patients after two years. Repeated determination of bone mineral density showed an initial loss after six months, followed by recovery to the postoperative level at two years. Defects in the cement mantle and malalignment of the stem were often noted on postoperative radiographs, but did not correlate with the degrees of migration or displacement. After one year, increasing frequency of trabecular remodelling or resorption of the graft was observed in the greater trochanter and distal to the tip of the stem. Cortical repair was noted distally and medially (Gruen regions 3, 5 and 6). Migration of the stems was the lowest reported to date, which we attribute to the improved grafting technique and to the hardness of the graft.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Lumbar spine bone mineral density in US adults. T2 - Demographic patterns and relationship with femur neck skeletal status. AU - Looker, A. C.. AU - Melton, L. J.. AU - Borrud, L. G.. AU - Shepherd, J. A.. PY - 2012/4/1. Y1 - 2012/4/1. N2 - Summary This analysis examines lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) of US adults from NHANES 2005-2008 by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Prevalence of low spine BMD and agreement between the prevalence of low BMD at the spine and femur neck in older adults are also assessed. Introduction Lumbar spine BMD data from a representative sample of the US population have not been previously available. Methods We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008 to examine demographic patterns in lumbar spine BMD among US adults age ≫20 years and the prevalence of low lumbar spine BMD in adults age 50 years. Agreement between the prevalence of low BMD at the femur neck and spine in older adults was also assessed. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aspirin and NSAID use in older women. T2 - Effect on bone mineral density and fracture risk. AU - Bauer, Douglas C.. AU - Orwoll, Eric S.. AU - Fox, Kathleen M.. AU - Vogt, Thomas M.. AU - Lane, Nancy E. AU - Hochberg, Marc C.. AU - Stone, Katie. AU - Nevitt, Michael C.. PY - 1996/1. Y1 - 1996/1. N2 - Prostaglandin inhibition by aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may inhibit bone loss and preserve bone mineral density (BMD) in vitro and in animal models. The effect of these agents on BMD and fracture risk in postmenopausal women is unknown. We assessed the risk factors for osteoporosis and the use of aspirin and NSAIDs in 7786 white women over age 65. Axial BMD was measured at the same time, and fractures were prospectively documented over the subsequent 4 years of follow-up. In age-adjusted analyses, daily use of aspirin or NSAIDs was associated with a 2.3-5.8% increase in BMD of the hip and spine. The relationship persisted even after adjustment for ...
To assess the prevalence of and risk factors for low bone mineral density in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 152 IBD patients and 73 healthy controls were studied. Sixty seven patients had ulcerative colitis, 78 had Crohns disease (52 of them (66.7%) had ileal disease), and seven had indeterminate colitis. Bone mineral density values (g/cm2) measured by dual energy x ray absorbtiometry at the spine (L2-L4), the femoral neck, Wards triangle, and the trochanter were 1.177, 0.948, 0.850, and 0.838 in the patients and 1.228 (p = 0.034), 1.001 (p = 0.009), 0.889 (NS), and 0.888 (p = 0.012) in the control group, respectively. The type or extent of the disease or previous small bowel resection did not have any significant effect on the bone mineral density values. There was a weak, but statistically significant negative correlation between bone mineral density and the total lifetime corticosteroid dose (in the lumbar spine r = -0.164, p = 0.04, the femoral neck r = -0.185, p = 0.02, Wards triangle ...
This study evaluated the effect of anti-osteoporosis treatment with intravenous zoledronic acid during the perioperative period, on the adjacent vertebral body bone mineral density (BMD) after spinal fusion surgery in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. All data were collected retrospectively from patients medical records using standardized forms, including: demographics (age, BMI, years since menopause); surgical details of levels included (fusion level and cephalad levels); and BMD values. BMD values (g/cm2) were recorded for the overall lumbar spine, for the levels cephalad to the fused segments, and the femoral neck. The group 0 represents the treated group and group 1 represents the untreated group. The table 1 shows the data about the description of demographic and surgery information of treated group and untreated group. Additionally, the table 2 shows the information about cephalad adjacent vertebral and femoral neck BMD value change. The conclusion shows that perioperative zoledronic acid
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Trait anxiety and tamoxifen effects on bone mineral density and sex hormone-binding globulin. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - LONG-TERM EFFECTS ON BONE MINERAL DENSITY AFTER FOUR YEARS OF TREATMENT WITH TWO INTENSIVE COMBINATION STRATEGIES, INCLUDING INITIALLY HIGH DOSE PREDNISOLONE, IN EARLY RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS PATIENTS: THE COBRA-LIGHT TRIAL. AU - Lucassen, M. J.. AU - ter Wee, M. M.. AU - den Uyl, D.. AU - Konijn, N. P.. AU - Nurmohamed, M. T.. AU - van Schaardenburg, D.. AU - Kerstens, P. J.. AU - Bultink, I. E.. AU - Van Tuyl, L. H.. AU - Boers, M.. AU - Lems, W. F.. PY - 2018/6. Y1 - 2018/6. U2 - 10.1136/annrheumdis-2018-eular.2826. DO - 10.1136/annrheumdis-2018-eular.2826. M3 - Meeting Abstract. VL - 77. SP - 290. EP - 291. JO - Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. JF - Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. SN - 0003-4967. ER - ...
Kemmler, W., von Stengel, S., Engelke, K., Haberle, L. and Kalender, W.A. (2010) Exercise Effects on Bone Mineral Density, Falls, Coronary Risk Factors, and Health Care Costs in Older Women The Randomized Controlled Senior Fitness and Prevention (SEFIP) Study. Archives of Internal Medicine, 170, 179-185.
2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. The goal of our study was to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass based on bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck and the lumbar spine in adults 50 years and older in the United States (US). We applied prevalence estimates of osteoporosis or low bone mass at the femoral neck or lumbar spine (adjusted by age, sex, and race/ethnicity to the 2010 Census) for the noninstitutionalized population aged 50 years and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010 to 2010 US Census population counts to determine the total number of older US residents with osteoporosis and low bone mass. There were more than 99 million adults aged 50 years and older in the US in 2010. Based on an overall 10.3% prevalence of osteoporosis, we estimated that in 2010, 10.2 million older adults had osteoporosis. The overall low bone mass prevalence was 43.9%, from which we estimated that 43.4 million older adults had low ...
As the population is becoming more aged, osteoporosis is becoming more prevalent and the number of fragility fractures that are occurring is increasing. One of the main predictors of developing osteoporosis in later life is a bone mineral density that is greater than 2.5 standard deviations below the young adult sex-matched mean, though studies have only been able to explain 5% of the variance seen in bone mineral densities between individuals. There is now increasing evidence that the development of osteoporosis can begin in utero and that epigenetic processes, such as DNA methylation, may be central to the mechanism by which early development influences bone mineral density and later bone health. Previous work within the group has identified associations of a 300bp differentially methylated region within the CDKN2A locus with bone mineral content, bone area and areal bone mineral density in offspring from the Southampton Womens Survey(SWS) cohort. As methylation of CDKN2A increases, bone ...
Hakim, O, Darling, A, Hart, K, Berry, J and Lanham-New, S (2011) VITAMIN D STATUS AND VOLUMETRIC BONE MINERAL DENSITY (VBMD) AT THE RADIUS AND TIBIA IN PREMENOPAUSAL CAUCASIAN AND ASIAN WOMEN Full text not available from this repository ...
Introduction: We investigated the impact of long-term levothyroxine (LT4) treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (BTMs) in premenopausal women with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) after thyroidectomy.. Material and methods: Sixty-five premenopausal women who received LT4 therapy at least one year (range, 1.5-9.0 years) after thyroidectomy for DTC and 50 premenopausal women without thyroid diseases were enrolled in this study. We measured the Z-scores of lumbar and hip BMD, serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), N-terminal propeptide of type 1 N procollagen (P1NP), C terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX-1), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), vitamin D3, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in all participants.. Results: In DTC subjects, serum TSH levels were lower, and serum FT4, P1NP, CTX-1, and ALP levels were higher compared with controls. The prevalence of low BMD was higher in ...
Chronic use of systemic glucocorticoids results in progressive bone loss and pathologic fractures. This study identified the predictive variables for bone loss and used peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) to measure changes in cortical and trabecular bone in patients receiving systemic glucocorticoid therapy of prednisone 15.4 g. Eighty-four asthmatic patients were included in the study. Vertebral fractures were diagnosed via plain spinal radiograms. pQCT was used to measure cortical and trabecular bone mineral density. Multiple regression analysis identified variables with predictive value. The cumulative dose of glucocorticoid correlated with the bone mineral density (p,0.05) and the trabecular bone density (p,0.01). Among patients , or = 65 yrs of age, the cumulative dose of glucocorticoid correlated with the occurrence of vertebral fractures (p,0.05), total bone mineral density (p,0.01) and cortical bone mineral density (p,0.01). Bone mineral density in the distal radius ...
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) devices from the three main manufacturers provide different bone mineral density (BMD) values, due in part to technical differences in the algorithms for bone mineral content (BMC) and area measurements and in part to the use of different manufacturer-derived reference databases. As a result, significant differences exist between Hologic, Lunar and Norland systems in the reported young normal standard deviation scores or T-scores. In a number of European countries, including Belgium, a T-score below −2.5 is one of the key criteria for reimbursement of osteoporosis treatments. This paper addresses the first attempt to implement a nationwide, uniform expression of BMD in patients, in order to harmonize drug reimbursement. To this end, measures were taken to implement a uniform expression of BMD in Belgian patients, by converting each manufacturers absolute BMD to standardized BMD (sBMD) values and by establishing a single national reference range.
Market Research Future adds new report of Bone Densitometers Market Research Report- Global Forecast to 2022 it contains Company information, geographical data and Table of Content. Market Highlight:. Bone densitometry is a sort of non-meddlesome development which is used to evaluate bone mass. This development measures the measure of loss of bone mass in a patients body. Bone mass is the greatness of the skeleton, general or specifically regions. Nowadays, bone densitometry is used as a set up standard to gage the bone material thickness. The market for bone densitometer is creating at a generally conventional rate. Creating senior masses which are exposed to bone related sicknesses has fueled the advancement of bone densitometer market.. The global market for bone densitometers is required to stretch around USD 1.2 billion before the finish of the conjecture time frame and is relied upon to develop at a CAGR of ~5.3%.. Get a Sample Report @ ...
Although widely used for its anti-estrogen properties tamoxifen has estrogen like effects on a number of tissues including bone and liver. Previous studies suggest a preservation of lumbar spine density in postmenopausal women but the effect on the hip had not been addressed. To determine whether tamoxifen prevents bone loss in the early postmenopausal period bone mineral density at the lumbar spine and femoral neck was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at presentation and 6 monthly thereafter for 1 year in a prospective controlled study. Also indices of bone turnover, serum osteocalcin and urinary hydroxyproline excretion, were assessed. Fifteen early postmenopausal women with Stage I or II breast cancer treated with tamoxifen and 21 normal postmenopausal women were studied. Sex hormone binding globulin and antithrombin III levels in serum were also measured as indices of the hepatic estrogenic activity. Tamoxifen (20 mg daily) prevented bone loss at the femoral neck and lumbar spine.
Limb bone lengths and bone mineral density (BMD) have been used to assess the bone growth and the risk of bone fractures in pigs, respectively. It has been suggested that limb bone lengths and BMD are under genetic control. However, the knowledge about the genetic basis of the limb bone lengths and mineralisatinon is limited in pigs. The aim of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting limb bone lengths and BMD of the distal femur in a White Duroc × Erhualian resource population. Limb bone lengths and femoral bone mineral density (fBMD) were measured in a total of 1021 and 116 F2 animals, respectively. There were strong positive correlations among the lengths of limb bones and medium positive correlations between the lengths of limb bones and fBMD. A whole-genome scan involving 183 microsatellite markers across the pig genome revealed 35 QTL for the limb bone lengths and 2 for femoral BMD. The most significant QTL for the lengths of five limb bones were mapped on two
BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that maternal body build and lifestyle factors predict neonatal bone mineral accrual. However, the paternal determinants of neonatal bone mass are not known. In this study we explored the relationship between a fathers bone mass and that of his offspring. METHODS: A total of 278 pregnancies (142 male and 136 female neonates) were recruited from the Southampton Womens Survey, a unique, well-established cohort of women, aged 20-34 yr, who had been assessed before and during pregnancy. The neonates and their fathers underwent whole body dual-x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) within 2 wk of birth using a Lunar DPX (General Electric Corp., Madison, WI) and Hologic Discovery instrument (Hologic Inc., Bedford, MA), respectively; correlation and regression methods were used to explore the parental determinants of neonatal bone mass. RESULTS: After adjusting the paternal DXA indices for fathers age and the neonatal for babys gestational age and age at DXA scan, there were
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bone mineral density changes in lactating adolescent mothers during the first postpartum year. AU - Méndez, Rosa Olivia. AU - Gallegos, Ana Cristina. AU - Cabrera, Rosa María. AU - Quihui, Luis. AU - Zozaya, Ramón. AU - Morales, Gloria G.. AU - Valencia, Mauro E.. AU - Méndez, Marcela. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. U2 - 10.1002/ajhb.22366. DO - 10.1002/ajhb.22366. M3 - Article. SP - 222. EP - 224. JO - American Journal of Human Biology. JF - American Journal of Human Biology. SN - 1042-0533. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Estimating lumbar bone mineral density from routine radiographs of the lumbar spine. AU - Michel, B. A.. AU - Bjorkengren, A. G.. AU - Lambert, E.. AU - Lane, Nancy E. AU - Fries, J. F.. AU - Bloch, D. A.. PY - 1993/3. Y1 - 1993/3. N2 - To evaluate the information content of lateral lumbar films with respect to bone mineral content, we compared reading criteria with values obtained by quantitative computed tomography (CT) of L1 at baseline and after 5 years. The highest correlations with mineral content were found for the criteria overall assessment of the vertebra, vertebral body density versus soft tissue, and amount of trabeculations. These three reading criteria yielded higher correlations with CT scores in subjects with lower body mass index. Changes in mineral content over the 5-year period could not be read adequately, the average difference representing only a loss of about 10% in the study subjects. We conclude that a rough estimate of bone density can be obtained ...
Researchers assessed the effect of hyperuricemia with and without psoriasis on bone microstructure and volumetric bone mineral density.
TY - GEN. T1 - The effects of exercise on Bone Mineral Density in Men. T2 - a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. AU - Hamilton, Blair Ross. AU - Staines, Katherine. AU - Kelley, George. AU - Kelley, Kristi. AU - Kohrt, Wendy. AU - Pitsiladis, Yannis. AU - Guppy, Fergus Michael. PY - 2020/5/19. Y1 - 2020/5/19. KW - Bone. KW - Exercise. KW - Men. KW - Meta-analysis. KW - Osteoporosis. U2 - 10.31236/ DO - 10.31236/ M3 - Other contribution. PB - SportRχiv ER - ...
PTH is the first Food and Drug Administration-approved agent that stimulates bone formation. According to Crandalls review, many small trials showed that daily subcutaneous PTH increases bone mass and 1 large RCT showed that it reduces fracture risk. The substantial risk reduction with 21 months of PTH resembles that seen with 1 to 2 years of alendronate or risedronate in patients who have osteoporosis (1−4). Treatment with PTH involves daily self-injections and is expensive. Thus, use of PTH should be limited to patients at high risk for fractures who have ≥ 1 vertebral fracture. The currently approved single 18- to 24-month course of daily PTH may not optimize use of PTH. Less frequent administration and shorter, longer, or repeated courses should be tested in trials to find ways to restore the architecture of bone and, perhaps, reach the previously elusive goal of curing patients with severe osteoporosis. As Crandall points out, the effect of combining antiresorptives and PTH needs ...
The use of antidepressants was also associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD), but this association was dependent on the persons weight and site of bone measurement.. Osteoporosis is a common disorder and an underlying factor in fragility fractures. Especially in women, the menopause increases the risk of osteoporosis. Other risk factors include low levels of physical activity, smoking, low intake of calcium and vitamin D, as well as some medications and diseases. In the elderly, susceptibility to fracture and serious hip fractures can result in long-term hospitalization and decreased state of health.. Previous studies have shown that also depression is associated with lower bone density. This might be due to the effects of depression-induced long-term stress and increased secretion of inflammatory markers. Furthermore, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) used to treat depression have been shown to weaken bone health. However, the majority of studies has focused on ...
To determine the relationships among nutrients intake, bone mass, and bone turnover in women we have investigated these issues in a population-based, cross-sectional, observational study in one county in central Sweden. A total of 175 women aged 28-74 at entry to the study were included. Dietary assessment was made by both a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and by four 1-week dietary records. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed at five sites: total body, L2-L4 region of the lumbar spine, and three regions of the proximal femur. Serum concentrations of osteocalcin (an osteoblast-specific protein reflecting bone turnover) were measured by a radioimmunoassay. Linear regression models, with adjustment for possible confounding factors were used for statistical analyses. A weak positive association was found between dietary calcium intake as calculated from the semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and total body bone mineral density (BMD) among premenopausal women. No ...
Age- and disease (osteoporotic fractured and osteoarthritic tissue)-related changes in the distribution of cortical bone were examined, using a multimodality approach, including measurement of local density, geometry and mechanical properties, where changes in these properties can give rise to instability and increasing probability of fracture. In contrast to the majority of previously reported research, this study also focuses on the characteristic non-circular femoral neck cross-sectional geometry and variation in bone mineral density (BMD) around the femoral neck. Twenty-two osteoarthritic and 7 osteoporotic femoral neck slices, collected from elective and trauma-related arthroplasty, and 16 cadaveric donor tissue controls were tested mechanically using Reference Point Indentation (BioDent™, Active Life Technologies®, Santa Barbara, CA) and then scanned with in vitro-based radiography intended to replicate the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry technique. All parameters were measured regionally
Author(s): Heilmeier, U; Carpenter, DR; Patsch, JM; Harnish, R; Joseph, GB; Burghardt, AJ; Baum, T; Schwartz, AV; Lang, TF; Link, TM | Abstract: © 2015, International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation. Summary: While type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with higher skeletal fragility, specific risk stratification remains incompletely understood. We found volumetric bone mineral density, geometry, and serum sclerostin differences between low-fracture risk and high-fracture risk T2D women. These features might help identify T2D individuals at high fracture risk in the future. Introduction: Diabetic bone disease, an increasingly recognized complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), is associated with high skeletal fragility. Exactly which T2D individuals are at higher risk for fracture, however, remains incompletely understood. Here, we analyzed volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), geometry, and serum sclerostin levels in two specific T2D subsets with different fracture
In this study, we focused on vBMD, bone microarchitecture and estimated bone strength of young male adult with CO AGHD and compared with age-matched controls. Our results showed that (1) vBMD of both distal tibia and non-dominant radius were significantly decreased in AGHD patients; (2) CO AGHD patients had significantly decreased cortical area and cortical thickness, as well as trabecular thickness and trabecular bone volume fraction of both tibia and distal radius; (3) CO AGHD patients had lower estimated bone strength; (4) after adjusting for age, BMI and serum levels of testosterone and free T4, serum IGF-1 level was a positive predictor for total vBMD, cortical vBMD, cortical area, trabecular vBMD, bone stiffness and failure load. In our series of CO AGHD patients, the average time course since cessation of rhGH replacement was 6.6 ± 3.3 years and all patients sustained testosterone replacement since 18 years old. We thus conclude that young adult male patients with CO AGHD who are no ...
THURSDAY, March 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Children on medications for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have lower bone density than their peers, a new U.S. study suggests.. Using data from a government health survey, researchers found that children taking ADHD medications had, on average, lower bone density in the hip and lumbar spine (lower back) than kids not on the drugs.. These prescription medications included stimulants such as Ritalin and Adderall, and nonstimulants, like Strattera.. Experts said its not clear that the medications themselves actually thin kids bones, as the study only showed an association, and there could be other explanations for the connection.. Im in no way saying that kids shouldnt be on these medications, said Dr. Jessica Rivera, the senior researcher on the study and an orthopedic surgeon with the U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research, at Fort Sam Houston, Texas.. Studies like this dont give answers -- they raise questions for further ...
Hydrogen peroxide is a common reactive oxygen species involved in the catalytic mechanism though it is toxic to cells due to its oxidative nature. This work investigates the effects of hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative damage on bone mineral density and mechanical properties of bone which is primarily a composite material composed primarily of collagen fibers and biominerals. Sheep leg bones were exposed to hydrogen peroxide for a week. Bone mineral density was measured by using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Compressive modulus tests were applied to bone in order to determine mechanical properties. Our study shows that the hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative stress has negative effects on bone mineral density and stiffness. We observed higher control curve slopes than that of hydrogen peroxide curves which account for lesser stiffness values in the exposed tissue ( ...
Osteoporosis, a disease characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD), increases the risk for fractures. Conventional risk factors alone do not completely explain measured BMD or osteoporotic fracture risk. Metabolomics may provide additional information. We aim to identify BMD-associated metabolomic markers that are predictive of fracture risk. We assessed 209 plasma metabolites by LC-MS/MS in 1,552 Framingham Offspring Study participants, and measured femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) BMD 2-10 years later using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. We assessed osteoporotic fractures up to 27-year follow-up after metabolomic profiling. We identified twenty-seven metabolites associated with FN-BMD or LS-BMD by LASSO regression with internal validation. Incorporating selected metabolites significantly improved the prediction and the classification of osteoporotic fracture risk beyond conventional risk factors (AUC=0.74 for the model with identified metabolites and risk factors vs AUC=0.70 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Utility of biochemical markers of bone turnover and bone mineral density in management of osteoporosis. AU - Vasikaran, Samuel. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Biochemical markers of bone turnover (bone-turnover markers) are released during bone formation or resorption and can be measured in blood and/or urine. The concentration of bone-turnover markers in serum or urine reflect bone remodeling activity and can potentially be used as surrogate markers of the rate of bone formation or bone resorption. While the diagnosis of osteoporosis is based on bone mineral density (BMD), the absolute fracture risk for a particular BMD measurement varies several fold depending on age and is also influenced by other clinical risk factors. The measurement of bone-turnover markers may be of additional value to BMD and clinical risk factors in fracture risk assessment by improving the sensitivity and specificity of prediction of future fractures. In clinical practice, bone-turnover markers may help ...
Humans are unique, compared with our closest living relatives (chimpanzees) and early fossil hominins, in having an enlarged body size and lower limb joint surfaces in combination with a relatively gracile skeleton (i.e., lower bone mass for our body size). Some analyses have observed that in at least a few anatomical regions modern humans today appear to have relatively low trabecular density, but little is known about how that density varies throughout the human skeleton and across species or how and when the present trabecular patterns emerged over the course of human evolution. Here, we test the hypotheses that (i) recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the upper and lower limbs compared with other primate taxa and (ii) the reduction in trabecular density first occurred in early Homo erectus, consistent with the shift toward a modern human locomotor anatomy, or more recently in concert with diaphyseal gracilization in Holocene humans. We used peripheral quantitative CT and
Osteoporosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality through its association with age-related fractures. Although most effort in fracture prevention has been directed at retarding the rate of age-related bone loss, and reducing the frequency and severity of trauma among elderly people, evidence is growing that peak bone mass is an important contributor to bone strength during later life. The normal patterns of skeletal growth have been well characterized in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. It has been confirmed that boys have higher bone mineral content, but not volumetric bone density, than girls. Furthermore, in both genders there is a dissociation between the peak velocities for height gain and bone mineral accrual. Puberty is the period during which volumetric density appears to increase in both axial and appendicular sites. Many factors influence the accumulation of bone mineral during childhood and adolescence, including heredity, gender, diet, physical activity, endocrine status and
Bone Densitometers Market (Technology - Axial Bone Densitometry (Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry and Quantitative Computed Tomography) and Peripheral Bone Densitometry (Single Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry, Peripheral Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry, Radiographic Absorptiometry, Quantitative Ultrasound, and Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography); End User - Hospitals, Diagnostic Centers, and Specialty Clinics) - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecast 2016 - ...
The purpose of this study is to determine if low bone mineral density (a measurement of how thick and strong bones are) improves in adults with HIV infection who switch their HIV medication tenofovir to another HIV medication raltegravir.. Hypothesis:That Bone Mineral Density (BMD) will improve in osteopenic or osteoporotic patients switching from ART including tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (r/PI) to ART including RAL+r/PI. ...
OBJECTIVE : Patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) have an increased prevalence of osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate prospectively the rate of bone loss and potential predictors of increased bone loss in a cohort of patients with CLD. DESIGN : Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at baseline and at follow-up by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the lumbar spine and the femoral neck. RESULTS : Forty-three patients (31 female, 12 male) were available for a second measurement of BMD, with a median of 25 months (range 18-41) between the measurements. Mean annual bone loss at the lumbar spine and the femoral neck, respectively, was 0.6 +/- 2.0% and 1.5 +/- 2.4% in females and 0.8 +/- 1.9% and 2.9 +/- 2.0% in males. The BMD Z score decreased significantly over time at the femoral neck (P = 0.005 and P = 0.02 for females and males, respectively). Bone loss was increased significantly at the lumbar spine in patients classified as Child-Pugh B + C compared with those classified ...
Impaired bone quality is associated with poor outcome of spinal surgery. The aim of the study was to assess the bone mineral status of patients scheduled to undergo spinal surgery and to report frequencies of bone mineral disorders. We retrospectively analyzed the bone mineral status of 144 patients requiring spinal surgery including bone mineral density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as well as laboratory data with serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D), parathyroid hormone, calcium, bone specific alkaline phosphate, osteocalcin, and gastrin. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) was additionally performed in a subgroup of 67 patients with T-Score below − 1.5 or history of vertebral fracture. Among 144 patients, 126 patients (87.5%) were older than 60 years. Mean age was 70.1 years. 42 patients (29.1%) had suffered from a vertebral compression fracture. 12 previously undiagnosed vertebral deformities were detected in 12 patients by vertebral fracture
Your doctor will tell you when your child should be checked for low bone density. In general, your child should be checked for low bone density if they have low levels of vitamin D, limited mobility or poor muscle tone, had 2 or more broken bones (fractures) before age 10, had 3 or more broken bones before age 19, had a vertebral or spine fracture, rett syndrome or other conditions that increase the risk of low bone density
[101 Pages Report] Check for Discount on United States Peripheral Bone Densitometer Market Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the United States Peripheral Bone Densitometer market...
CONTEXT: Treatment of osteoporotic women with PTH increases biochemical markers of bone turnover, increases axial bone mineral density (BMD), and reduces fracture risk. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the relationship between levels of baseline turnover before PTH therapy and short-term changes in turnover during PTH therapy and subsequent changes in areal and volumetric BMD. DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial at four academic centers. PATIENTS: Patients included 238 postmenopausal women with low hip or spine BMD. INTERVENTION: Subjects were randomized to sc PTH (1-84), 100 mug/d (119 women), for 1 yr. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Bone turnover markers were measured in fasting blood samples collected before therapy and after 1 and 3 months. Areal and volumetric BMD at the spine and hip were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and quantitative computed tomography (QCT) after 1 yr of therapy. RESULTS: Among women treated with PTH alone, the
Dear Editor,. We read with much interest the recently published article, Effects of Raloxifene on Bone Metabolism in Hemodialysis Patients With Type 2 Diabetes, by Saito et al (1). First, we would like to congratulate the authors. We wish to share a few scientific facts related to this interesting article.. It was a pleasure to inform from this article that no difference was observed in BMD (bone mineral density) changes between patients with diabetes and nondiabetics after using raloxifene one year long.. We have previously shown that the effects of low dose HRT and raloxifene on BMD at the lumbar spine and hip sites and biochemical markers of bone turnover in a randomized trial (2). In our study, the bone mineral density measurements with dual energy Xray absorptiometry (DEXA) method is accepted by the WHO as the gold standard for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Satoi et al. proposed the SOS value has been shown to be significantly and positively correlated with lumbar BMD in the general ...
Background: Women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have a higher risk of fractures despite increased bone mineral density (BMD). In experimental studies a potential role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in bone remodeling is suggested but studies in humans are lacking. This is a first study in humans investigating whether circulated levels of PAI-1 in postmenopausal women with T2DM are related to BMD and adiposity. Methods: Anthropometric variables, PAI-1 and insulin levels, serum lipids and bone turnover markers were measured in 127 postmenopausal women with T2DM. A total of 117 female patients were divided according to lumbar spine BMD measurements via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in three groups: 47 with osteopenia, 21 with osteoporosis and 49 with normal BMD. Results: Diabetic patients with normal BMD had significantly higher BMI, greater waist circumference and lower bone turnover markers than diabetics with osteopenia and osteoporosis. PAI-1 was lower in diabetics with ...
The findings could have implications for the prevention of osteoporosis.. Osteoporosis, or porous bone, is a disease in which there is a loss of bone mass and destruction of bone tissue. This process causes weakening of the bones and makes them more likely to break. The bones most often affected are the hips, spine, and wrists.. Osteoporosis affects over 10 million Americans, with women four times more likely to develop osteoporosis than men.. Another 34 million people have low bone mass and therefore have an increased risk for osteoporosis. Estrogen deficiency is one of the main causes of bone loss in women during and after menopause. Women may lose up to 20 percent of their bone mass in the five to seven years following menopause.. Premenopausal women with depression should be screened for low bone mass, says Dr. Giovanni Cizza, senior author of the study who conducted the research while at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH).. They should do a bone mineral density measurement, ...
Introduction:There is considerable amount of controversy about the long term effects of multiparity and duration of breast-feeding on maternal bone mineral density after menopause. This study was conducted to determine whether multiple pregnancy and prolonged duration of breast-feeding are independent predictors of low bone mass in post-menopausal Kurdish women. Methods: In a retrospective study, we evaluated 991 post-menopausal women with mean age of 58.9 years screened for osteoporosis by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). According to the parity (1-2, 3-4, 5-7, |7 children) and total duration of breast-feeding (1-24, 25-60, 61-96, |96 months) they were classified. Bone mineral density (BMD) results for femoral neck and lumbar spine were classified into three groups (normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis) according to the WHO criteria. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the independent associations of low femur or spine BMD with parity and total duration of breast-feeding. Results: We
Bone Density Test Some women are at greater risk for osteoporosis - the decrease of bone mass and density as a result of the depletion of bone calcium and protein - than others. Your physician can help you determine your risk of developing osteoporosis by taking your personal and family medical history, and by performing a bone density test or bone mass measurement. What is a bone density test? A bone density test, also known as bone mass measurement or bone mineral density test, measures the strength a...
01 February 2012 February 2012 - A new study has found that a drug shown to be highly effective in preventing breast cancer in women who are at high risk for the disease appears to worsen age-related bone loss, although the clinical implications of the findings are unclear.. In June 2011, the results of a Canadian-led clinical trial showed that, for postmenopausal women at increased risk of developing breast cancer, the drug exemestane reduced the risk by 65 %, compared with placebo. The new study found that exemestane worsens age-related bone loss by about three-fold compared to placebo.. The new study involved 351 postmenopausal women, with a median age of 61 years, who were not previously diagnosed with osteoporosis, were not on bone medications and were taking calcium and vitamin D supplements. The research team measured bone mineral density using high-resolution CT scans to assess the density or bone strength. After two years, the researchers found a 7.9 % loss of bone density in the ...
HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) experience deep and early disorders in fat and bone metabolism, leading to concomitant changes in fat mass and bone mineral density. We conducted a prospective study in treatment-naive HIV-infected patients randomized to receive two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in combination with either a protease inhibitor (PI) or a non-nucleosidic reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), to evaluate early changes in body composition, bone mineral density and metabolic markers as differentially induced by antiretroviral therapies. We measured changes in markers of carbohydrate, of fat and bone metabolism, and, using dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), body composition and bone mineral density (BMD). Complete data on changes between baseline and after 21 months treatment were available for 35 patients (16 in the PI group and 19 in the NNRTI group). A significant gain in BMI and in total and lower limb fat mass was recorded only in
TY - JOUR. T1 - The genetics of proximal femur geometry, distribution of bone mass and bone mineral density. AU - Slemenda, C. W.. AU - Turner, C. H.. AU - Peacock, M.. AU - Christian, J. C.. AU - Sorbel, J.. AU - Hui, S. L.. AU - Johnston, C. C.. PY - 1996/4/12. Y1 - 1996/4/12. N2 - To estimate genetic effects on femoral neck geometry and the distribution of bone mineral within the proximal femur a cross-sectional twin analysis was carried out at a university hospital that compared correlations in these traits in pairs of mono- and dizygotic female twins. Monozygotic (MZ, n = 51 pairs, age 49.1 ± 9.3 years) and dizygotic (DZ, n = 26 pairs, age 45.7 ± 11.3 years) twins were randomly selected from a larger sample of twins previously studied. Measurements of bone mineral density (BMD), femoral neck angles and length, cross-sectional area and moment of interia, the center of mass of the narrowest cross-section of the femoral neck, and BMDs of regions within the femoral neck were made. A summary ...
Osteoporosis is a serious health concern, especially for older people. There could be nutritional deficiencies that your family members have, and that should be addressed with your doctor. Once you determine the cause of low bone density, your doctor may recommend certain supplements, such as Vitamin D, Vitamin K, and/or Calcium. A diet rich in these vitamins could potentially prevent future bone density loss and osteoporosis. Foods such as eggs, oily fish (salmon, sardines, tuna), and fortified dairy products are high in Vitamin D. For Calcium-rich foods, try adding broccoli, kale, low-fat dairy, and oily fish to your diet. Exercise has been proven to increase bone density, particularly strength training (squats, lunges, pushups), and weight lifting. Also, cardio exercises such as running/jogging, fast walking, stair climbing, jumping rope, and jump training are great bone density building sports.. ...
The IAEA assists its Member States in their efforts to develop effective, evidence based interventions to combat malnutrition in all its forms using nuclear techniques. This publication was developed as an integral part of the IAEAs efforts to contribute to the transfer of technology and knowledge in the application of a widely used nuclear technique in nutrition, dual energy X ray absorptiometry (DXA). It provides information on the theoretical background as well as on the practical application of DXA to measure bone mineral density and to assess body composition.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Volumetric bone mineral density and bone structure in childhood chronic kidney disease. AU - Wetzsteon, Rachel J.. AU - Kalkwarf, Heidi J.. AU - Shults, Justine. AU - Zemel, Babette S.. AU - Foster, Bethany J.. AU - Griffin, Lindsay. AU - Strife, C. Frederic. AU - Foerster, Debbie L.. AU - Jean-Pierre, Darlene K.. AU - Leonard, Mary B.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2012 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2011/9. Y1 - 2011/9. N2 - Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased fracture risk and skeletal deformities. The impact of CKD on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and cortical dimensions during growth is unknown. Tibia quantitative computed tomographic scans were obtained in 156 children with CKD [69 stages 2 to 3, 51 stages 4 to 5, and 36 stage 5D (dialysis)] and 831 healthy participants aged 5 to 21 years. Sex-, race-, and age- or tibia length-specific Z-scores were generated for trabecular BMD (TrabBMD), cortical BMD (CortBMD), cortical area (CortArea) ...
Bruyere, Olivier ; Devogelaer, Jean-Pierre ; Delmas, Pierre D. ; Slosman, Daniel O. ; Albanese, Carlina ; et. al. Increase in femoral neck bone mineral density is associated with decrease in hip fracture incidence during treatment with strontium ranelate..70th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American-College-of-Rheumatology/41st Annual Scientific Meeting of the Association-of-Rheumatology-Health-Professionals (Washington (Dc), Nov 10-15, 2006). In: Arthritis & Rheumatism, Vol. 54, no. 9, p. S586-S586 (2006 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Point-of-Care Phalangeal Bone Mineral Density Measurement Can Reduce the Need of Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scanning in Danish Women at Risk of Fracture. AU - Holmberg, Teresa. AU - Bech, Mickael. AU - Gram, Jeppe. AU - Hermann, Anne Pernille. AU - Rubin, Katrine Hass. AU - Brixen, Kim. PY - 2016/3. Y1 - 2016/3. N2 - Identifying persons with a high risk of osteoporotic fractures remains a challenge. DXA uptake in women with elevated risk of osteoporosis seems to be depending on distance to scanning facilities. This study aimed to investigate the ability of a small portable scanner in identifying women with reduced bone mineral density (BMD), and to define triage thresholds for pre-selection. Total hip and lumbar spine BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and phalangeal BMD by radiographic absorptiometry in 121 Danish women with intermediate or high 10-year fracture probability (aged 61-81 years). Correlation between the two methods was estimated using ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increases in hip and spine bone mineral density are predictive for vertebral antifracture efficacy with ibandronate. AU - Miller, Paul D.. AU - Delmas, Pierre D.. AU - Huss, Hermann. AU - Patel, Katie M.. AU - Schimmer, Ralph C.. AU - Adami, Silvano. AU - Recker, Robert R.. PY - 2010/10/1. Y1 - 2010/10/1. N2 - The relationship between bisphosphonate-induced bone mineral density (BMD) gains and antifracture efficacy remains to be fully elucidated. Data from two antifracture studies were analyzed. Postmenopausal osteoporotic women received oral (2.5 mg daily, 20 mg intermittent) or intravenous (0.5 mg, 1 mg quarterly) ibandronate. Outcome measures included moving averages plots and logistic regression analyses of the relationship between BMD change and vertebral fracture rate. In moving averages plots, ibandronate-induced BMD gains were consistently associated with decreased fracture rates. In the oral study, total-hip BMD increases at years 2 and 3 and lumbar spine BMD increases ...
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TY - CONF. T1 - Liver disease severity and low bone mineral density in HIV mono-infected and HIV/HCV co-infected patients. AU - Rini, Giovam Battista. AU - Titone Lanza Di Scalea, Lucina. AU - Di Carlo, Paola. AU - Giannitrapani, Lydia. AU - Montalto, Giuseppe. AU - Tramuto, Fabio. AU - Soresi, Maurizio. AU - Midiri, Massimo. AU - Li Vecchi, Valentina. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Background: In this study we assess: prevalence of osteopenia, osteoporosis and reduced bone mineral density in HIV infection and HIV / HCV co-infection;risk factors associated with reduced bone mineral density(BMD); relationship between bone mineral density and reduced liver fibrosis (FE) measured as liver stiffness (LS), by FibroScan ® in patients co-infected with HIV / HCV; relationship between reduced bone mineral density and cardiovascular risk assessed with the 10-year Framingham risk score (FRS) in HIV / HCV co-infected Patients And Methods: One hundred and ninety-four HIV-infected subjects (121 males =62% and ...
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the possible association between vitamin D receptor genotype and bone mineral density in a large group of postmenopausal twins. DESIGN: Cross sectional twin study. SETTING: Twin population based in Britain. SUBJECTS: 95 dizygotic (non-identical) pairs of twins and 87 monozygotic (identical) pairs of twins aged 50-69 years, postmenopausal, and free of diseases affecting bone, recruited from a national register of twins and with a media campaign. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Bone mineral density measured at the hip, lumbar spine, forearm, and for the whole body by dual energy x ray absorptiometry in relation to differences in the vitamin D receptor genotype. RESULTS: At all sites the values of bone density among dizygotic twins were more similar in those of the same vitamin D receptor genotype than in those of differing genotype, and the values in the former were closer to the correlations seen in monozygotic twins. Women with the genotype that made them at risk of osteoporotic
Choice of normative database and number of skeletal sites considered had a substantial effect on the estimated prevalence of osteoporosis in older men in this study; a fourfold increase in the prevalence occurred when we defined osteoporosis by using NOF (male normative database, three skeletal sites) instead of WHO (female normative database, one skeletal site) criteria. These findings are in agreement with most,12 35 39 40 but not all,11 previous studies. Use of a female derived bone mineral density T score threshold to define osteoporosis in men is supported by a meta-analysis that reported similar relative risks of fracture per unit decrease in femoral neck bone mineral density in men and women and similar age adjusted hip fracture rates in men and women for any given absolute value of femoral neck bone mineral density.41 Both the NOF and the Endocrine Society in the United States recommend use of male derived bone mineral density T score thresholds.7 8 9 In contrast, the International ...
One of the main determinants of who will develop osteoporosis is the amount of bone accumulated at peak bone density. There is poor agreement, however, on when peak bone density occurs. Ethnic differences were observed in age at peak bone density and their correlates. Since the diagnosis of osteoporosis and osteopaenia is based on the comparison between patients bone mineral density (BMD) and optimal peak bone density in healthy young people (T-score), it is of great importance that each country should provide its own reference peak bone density data.. This review article presents our published results on peak bone density in Croatia and compares them with findings in other populations. Our research included 18 to 25-year-old students from Zagreb University and their parents. The results showed that peak bone mass in young Croatian women was achieved before the age of twenty, but BMD continued to increase after the mid-twenties in the long-bone cortical skeleton. BMD was comparable to the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Randomized controlled trial of alendronate in airways disease and low bone mineral density. AU - Smith, B. J.. AU - Laslett, L. L.. AU - Pile, K. D.. AU - Phillips, P. J.. AU - Phillipov, G.. AU - Evans, S. M.. AU - Esterman, A. J.. AU - Berry, J. G.. PY - 2004/1/1. Y1 - 2004/1/1. N2 - Background:Patients with airways disease have been demonstrated to be at risk of osteoporosis, and this is likely to be multifactorial. Our aim was to identify patients with low bone mineral density (BMD) using a screening program, and then evaluate the benefit of daily alendronate. Method:Subjects with hip or lumbar spine baseline T-scores ,-2.5, or Z-score ,-1.0 commenced on alendronate/calcium (10 mg/600 mg day) or placebo/calcium, in a double blind randomized controlled trial. BMD by dual emission X-ray absorptiometry (lumbar vertebrae 2-4, neck of femur, total femur) was repeated after 12 months, with adverse events recorded. Results: 145 subjects (74 male, 71 female, mean age 67, median FEV, ...
Dalla Via, J., Daly, R. and Fraser, S. 2018, The effect of exercise on bone mineral density in adult cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Osteoporosis international, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 287-303, doi: 10.1007/s00198-017-4237-3. ...
Low bone mineral density has been identified as a risk factor for osteoporotic fracture1 and fracture in childhood.2 Vitamin D supplementation in childhood may be a clinical strategy to maximise peak bone mass in children and, in turn, improve bone mineral density and reduce fracture risk in adulthood. However, the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation for improving bone density in children is unclear. Therefore, Winzenberg and colleagues performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation for improving paediatric bone mineral density, including how supplement dose and baseline vitamin D status may impact the outcome.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Continuous antiretroviral therapy decreases bone mineral density. AU - Grund, Birgit. AU - Peng, Grace. AU - Gibert, Cynthia L.. AU - Hoy, Jennifer F.. AU - Isaksson, Rachel L.. AU - Shlay, Judith C.. AU - Martinez, Esteban. AU - Reiss, Peter. AU - Visnegarwala, Fehmida. AU - Carr, Andrew D.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2011 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2009/7. Y1 - 2009/7. N2 - OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on bone mineral density (BMD) DESIGN: Randomized comparison of continuous ART (viral suppression group; VS) with intermittent ART (drug conservation group; DC) SETTING: Outpatient clinics in the United States, Australia, and Spain. PARTICIPANTS: Participants in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) Body Composition substudy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Annual hip and spine BMD by dual-energy radiographic absorptiometry (DXA) and spine BMD by quantitative computed tomography (qCT). METHODS: Comparisons were by ...
BACKGROUND: Infliximab has been shown to have beneficial effects on bone metabolism in patients with Crohns disease (CD) although as yet the exact mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. AIM: To evaluate the impact of adalimumab therapy on bone metabolism using a combined in vivo and in vitro model. METHODS: Parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, bone formation markers, bone resorption marker, pro-inflammatory cytokines, anti-inflammatory cytokines, osteoprotegerin, and sRANKL were measured in control patients and pre- and post-treatment with adalimumab in CD patients. The effect of control patients and pre- and post-treatment CD patients sera on human osteoblasts (hFOB 1.19) in vitro cell viability and differentiation was also analyzed. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in bone formation markers osteocalcin (P | 0.05) and procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P | 0.01) at 1 and 3 months post-treatment. Moreover, there was a sustained but not significant fall in serum CTx, a bone resorption
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the lumbar spine, proximal femur and distal radius in children. AU - Tsukahara, Hirokazu. AU - Sudo, M.. AU - Umezaki, M.. AU - Hiraoka, M.. AU - Yamamoto, K.. AU - Ishii, Y.. AU - Haruki, S.. PY - 1992/12. Y1 - 1992/12. N2 - Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine, proximal femur and distal radius in 48 Japanese children aged 3-18 years. In the normal children (n=32), BMD increased with age in all locations, with a nearly twofold increase from preschool age to adolescence. Most of the children with chronic diseases known to affect vone metabolism (e.g., steroid osteoporosis) (n=16) had low BMD in every region, indicating that these disease states probably affect multiple sites of the skeleton in children.. AB - Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine, proximal femur and distal radius in 48 Japanese children aged 3-18 years. ...
Puberty is a time when the foundation is laid for healthy bone mass. Over the course of puberty, 26% of bone mass is established in the 4-year period of peak height velocity and up to 60% of adult peak bone mass is established. Factors that affect normal bone mineralization include calcium intake, vitamin D status, degree of physical and weight bearing activities, hormones, genetics, body weight, and general health and nutrition status. HIV-infected children, youth, and adults have lower bone mineral density (BMD) than would be expected for healthy people of similar age, weight, and race. As the majority of perinatally HIV-infected U.S. children are entering or in adolescence, the potential for HIV-related impaired BMD during the adolescent peak of bone mass acquisition is of particular concern. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in BMD of the lumbar spine from pre-treatment levels to 24 and 48 weeks after alendronate treatment or placebo in HIV-infected children and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sequential changes in bone density before and after parathyroidectomy in primary hyprparathyroidism. AU - Leppla, D. C.. AU - Snyder, W.. AU - Pak, C. Y C. PY - 1982/1/1. Y1 - 1982/1/1. N2 - Bone density (bone mineral content/bone width) was determined by iodine-125 (12SI)-photon absorptiometry in the distal third of the radius before and after successful parathyroidectomy in 37 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Bone density progressively declined during the two years immediately preceding surgery. It rose by 6.4% during the first year following surgery but remained stable thereafter. The results suggest that photon absorptiometry analysis of bone density may disclose continuing bone loss before surgery and may show a partial recovery of bone loss that may ensue after successful parathyroidectomy.. AB - Bone density (bone mineral content/bone width) was determined by iodine-125 (12SI)-photon absorptiometry in the distal third of the radius before and after successful ...
Introduction Chronic sleep deprivation, which is associated with several age-related pathologies and altered endocrine function, may adversely affect bone. Our a priori hypothesis was that bone mineral density was lower in sleepdeprived (6.5-10 h/night) individuals. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of sleep and bone data on 1,146 individuals (652 women) was performed. Measurements were obtained at the distal radius by pQCT, and the spine and hip by DXA. Bone differences between sleepdeprived and sleep-adequate groups were compared after stratifying by sex and controlling for covariates. Results Overall, 19% of the population was sleep deprived. Sleep-deprived women had lower cortical volumetric BMD (1, 208±4 vs. 1, 219±2 mg/cm3, P=0.03) than sleep-adequate women. Sleep-deprived men had lower pSSI, an estimate of torsional bending strength, than sleep-adequate men (358± 10 vs. 382±5 mm3, P=0.04), due to a slightly smaller periosteal circumference (43.9±0.4 vs. 44.8±0.2 mm, P=0.07) and cortical area
Bone densitometry is used to measure the bone mineral content and density. This measurement can indicate decreased bone mass, a condition in which bones are more brittle and more prone to break or fracture easily. Bone densitometry is used primarily to diagnose osteoporosis and to determine fracture risk. The testing procedure measures the bone density of the bones of the spine, pelvis, lower arm, and thigh.. Bone densitometry testing may be done using X-rays, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, (DEXA or DXA), or by quantitative CT scanning using special software to determine bone density of the hip or spine. These procedures are generally done in a clinic, hospital, or free-standing radiology facility.. However, for mass screening purposes, there are portable types of bone densitometry testing. The portable testing is done using either a DEXA (or DXA) X-ray device or a quantitative ultrasound unit. Both types of portable testing may use the radius (one of the two bones of the lower arm), wrist, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oral contraceptive use and bone density change in adolescent and young adult women. T2 - A prospective study of age, hormone dose, and discontinuation. AU - Scholes, Delia. AU - Hubbard, Rebecca A.. AU - Ichikawa, Laura E.. AU - LaCroix, Andrea Z.. AU - Spangler, Leslie. AU - Beasley, Jeannette M.. AU - Reed, Susan. AU - Ott, Susan M.. PY - 2011/9/1. Y1 - 2011/9/1. N2 - Context: Oral contraceptive (OC) use is common, but bone changes associated with use of contemporary OC remain unclear. Objective: The objective of the study was to compare bone mineral density (BMD) change in adolescent and young adultOCusers and discontinuers of two estrogen doses, relative to nonusers. Design and Setting: This was a prospective cohort study, Group Health Cooperative. Participants: Participants included 606 women aged 14-30 yr (50% adolescents aged 14-18 yr): 389 OC users [62% 30-35 μg ethinyl estradiol (EE)] and 217 age-similar nonusers; there were 172 OC discontinuers. The 24-month retention ...
URL: Journal: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology. Publication Date: 12/2018. Summary: Exercise-trained female subjects that consume a diet that is approximately three times greater than the RDA for protein experience no harmful effects on bone mineral density or content. Nor were there any harmful effects on renal function.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of the male osteoporosis risk estimation score (MORES) with frax in identifying men at risk for osteoporosis. AU - Cass, Alvah R.. AU - Shepherd, Angela. AU - Asirot, Rechelle. AU - Mahajan, Manju. AU - Nizami, Maimoona. PY - 2016/7/1. Y1 - 2016/7/1. N2 - PURPOSE We wanted to compare the male osteoporosis risk estimation score (MORES) with the fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) in screening men for osteoporosis. METHODS This study reports analysis of data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), a nationally representative sample of the US population, comparing the operating characteristics of FRAX and MORES to identify men at risk for osteoporosis using a subset of 1,498 men, aged 50 years and older, with a valid dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. DXA-derived bone mineral density using a T score of -2.5 or lower at either the femoral neck or total hip defined the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Outcomes included the ...
INTRODUCTION: gonadal steroid hormones play a crucial role during skeletal growth and maturation in both men and women. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship of sex hormone levels, bone mineral density and biochemical markers of bone turnover in healthy Moroccan men. METHODS: 142 Moroccan men who had no previous diagnosis of osteoporosis were enrolled prospectively in this cross-sectional study between December 2009 and August 2010. Also, subjects were excluded from the study if they had conditions affecting bone metabolism. Different biochemical parameters were assayed: Testosterone, Estradiol, sex hormone binding globulin, Osteocalcin, vitamin D, crosslaps, intact parathyroid hormone and alkaline phosphatase. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure the Bone mineral density (BMD) (g/cm2). RESULTS: in this study, among the 142 Moroccan men, 29 (20.1%) had densitometry osteoporosis and the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was 94%. No correlation was found between
PubMed journal article Effects of resistance training on regional and total bone mineral density in premenopausal women: a randomized prospective stud were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of testosterone treatment on volumetric bone density and strength in older men with low testosterone a controlled clinical trial. AU - Snyder, Peter J.. AU - Kopperdahl, David L.. AU - Stephens-Shields, Alisa J.. AU - Ellenberg, Susan S.. AU - Cauley, Jane A.. AU - Ensrud, Kristine E.. AU - Lewis, Cora E.. AU - Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth. AU - Schwartz, Ann V.. AU - Lee, David C.. AU - Bhasin, Shalender. AU - Cunningham, Glenn R.. AU - Gill, Thomas M.. AU - Matsumoto, Alvin M.. AU - Swerdloff, Ronald S.. AU - Basaria, Shehzad. AU - Diem, Susan J.. AU - Wan, Christina. AU - Hou, Xiaoling. AU - Cifelli, Denise. AU - Dougar, Darlene. AU - Zeldow, Bret. AU - Bauer, Douglas C.. AU - Keaveny, Tony M.. PY - 2017/4/1. Y1 - 2017/4/1. N2 - IMPORTANCE As men age, they experience decreased serum testosterone concentrations, decreased bone mineral density (BMD), and increased risk of fracture. OBJECTIVE To determine whether testosterone treatment of older men with low testosterone ...
We conducted a genome-wide association study of low bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip and spine utilizing sequence variants found through whole-genome sequencing of 2636 Icelanders. We found two rare missense mutations, p.Gly496Ala and p.Gly703Ser, in the COL1A2 gene that associate with measures of osteoporosis in Icelanders. Mutations in COL1A2 are known to cause the autosomal dominant disorder osteogenesis imperfecta. Both variants associate with low BMD and with osteoporotic fractures. p.Gly496Ala (frequency of 0.105%) shows the strongest association with low BMD at the spine (p = 1.8 x 10(-7) , odds ratio [OR] = 4.61 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.59, 8.18]), whereas p.Gly703Ser (frequency of 0.050%) is most strongly associated with low BMD at the hip (p = 1.9 x 10(-8) , OR = 9.34 [95% CI 4.28, 20.3]). Association with fractures was p = 2.2 x 10(-5) , OR = 3.75 (95% CI 2.03, 6.93) and p = 0.0023, OR = 4.32 (95% CI 1.69, 11.1), respectively. The carriers of these variants do not have signs of
Design and methods. Part A of the Safe-D study is a cross-sectional study aiming to recruit 468 young females aged 16-25 years living in Victoria, Australia, through Facebook advertising. Participants are required to complete an extensive, online questionnaire, wear an ultra-violet dosimeter for 14 consecutive days and attend a study site visit. Outcome measures include areal bone mineral measures at the lumbar spine, total hip and whole body, as well as soft tissue composition using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Trabecular and cortical volumetric bone density at the tibia is measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Other tests include serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, serum biochemistry and a range of health markers. Details of mood disorder/s and depressive and anxiety symptoms are obtained by self-report. Cutaneous melanin density is measured by spectrophotometry ...
Background: It is not known whether the recently described break in the trend in hip fracture incidence in many settings applies in both women and men, depends on changes in bone mineral density (BMD) or changes in other risk factors, or whether it is apparent in both urban and rural settings. Methods: We evaluated changes in annual hip fracture incidence from 1987 to 2002 in Swedish men aged ≥60 years in one urban (n=25,491) and one rural population (n=16,432) and also secular differences in BMD, measured by single-photon absorptiometry at the distal radius and multiple other risk factors for hip fracture in a population-based sub-sample of the urban and the rural men aged 60-80 years in 1988/89 (n=202 vs. 121) and in 1998/99 (n=79 vs. 69). Results: No statistically significant changes in the annual age-adjusted hip fracture incidence per 10,000 were apparent from 1987 to 2002 in urban (0.38 per year, 95% CI-0.12 to 0.88) or rural men (-0.05 per year, 95% CI -0.63 to 0.53). BMD was similar in ...
As osteopenia and osteoporosis deteriorate physical functions, the person becomes less capable of walking and the risk of injuries from a fall increases. An injury from a fall may lead to fracture and hospitalization. As a result, deterioration of osteopenia and osteoporosis causes loss of physical functions even to the point of death. Thus, effective solutions are to be developed (Shahin et al., 2010). One way of preventing and controlling osteopenia and osteoporosis is an exercise therapy to improve the bone density. For example, a type of training that induces physical stress to osseous tissues such as weight or load bearing exercise is recommended. This type of training delays the reduction of bone density and even increases bone mass (Rittweger et al., 2000). Bone mass is an index that reflects the level of bone density. It is not only an important element for diagnosis of osteopenia and osteoporosis but also a predictive factor for the determine the risk of fracture. A bone density test is ...
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among hip geometry, bone mineral density, and the risk of hip fracture in premenopausal women. The participants in this case-control study were 16 premenopausal women with minimal-trauma hip fractures (fracture group) and 80 age-and BMI-adjusted controls. Subjects underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to assess BMD at the proximal femur and to obtain DXA-derived hip geometry measurements. The fracture group had a lower mean femoral neck and total hip BMD than the control group (0.721 ± 0.123 vs. 0.899 ± 0.115, p |0.001 for the femoral neck BMD and 0.724 ± 0.120 vs. 0.923 ± 0.116, p |0.001 for the total hip BMD). In addition, participants in the fracture group had a longer hip axis length (HAL; p = 0.007), narrower neck shaft angle (NSA; p = 0.008), smaller cross sectional area (CSA; p | 0.001) and higher cross sectional moment of inertia (CSMI; p = 0.004) than those in control group. After adjusting for BMD, the fracture group
Glucocorticoids, widely used in inflammatory disorders, rapidly increase bone fragility and, therefore, fracture risk. However, common bone densitometry measurements are not sensitive enough to detect these changes. Moreover, densitometry only partially recognizes treatment-induced fracture reductions in osteoporosis. Here, we tested whether the reference point indentation technique could detect bone tissue property changes early after glucocorticoid treatment initiation. After initial laboratory and bone density measurements, patients were allocated into groups receiving calcium+vitamin D (Ca+D) supplements or anti-osteoporotic drugs (risedronate, denosumab, teriparatide). Reference point indentation was performed on the cortical bone layer of the tibia by a handheld device measuring bone material strength index (BMSi). Bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Although Ca+D-treated patients exhibited substantial and significant deterioration, ...
The aim of this study was to establish, by means of peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at the distal radius, the existence of cortical and/or trabecular osteopenia, and to assess the integrity of bone geometry in uremic patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Our results show a clearcut selective reduction in volumetric cortical density, more evident in women (p = -0.0001) than men (p = 0.030), which appears to be independent of age and menopausal status. Trabecular density was not significantly changed in either sex. Cortical density of the patients correlated inversely with age (p = 0.003), duration of dialysis (p = 0.002) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels (p = 0.03). Trabecular density correlated only with age. Normally, cortical density is age-dependent and its reduction is accompanied by compensatory geometry changes. Compared with control subjects, in our female patients both cortical area and cortical thickness were reduced (p = 0.02 and 0.008), while ...
A FRAX model for Canada was constructed for prediction of osteoporotic and hip fracture risk using national hip fracture data with and without the use of femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD). Performance of this system was assessed independently in a large clinical cohort of 36,730 women and 2873 men from the Manitoba Bone Density Program database that tracks all clinical dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) test results for the Province of Manitoba, Canada. Linkage with other provincial health databases allowed for the direct comparison of fracture risk estimates from the Canadian FRAX model with observed fracture rates to 10 years (549 individuals with incident hip fractures and 2543 with incident osteoporotic fractures). The 10-year Kaplan-Meier estimate for hip fractures in women was 2.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1-3.4%] with a predicted value of 2.8% for FRAX with BMD, and in men the observed risk was 3.5% (95% CI 0.8-6.2%) with predicted value of 2.9%. The 10-year estimate of
Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia attributable to 21-hydroxylase deficiency are treated with glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoid administration, even in substitution doses, may cause decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine BMD, lean mass, a …
The Global Bone Density Test Market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 7.2% during the forecast period. Bone density test determines the density of bones and chances of the bone being broken. Central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) test is recommended for testing the bone density of hip and spine. Bone density test used in the diagnosis of osteoporosis, and osteopenia. The osteoporosis mostly occurs in women after the menopause but may also be present in males. The condition is less common in adults and children.. Read Exclusive Sample Report @ .. Rising prevalence of osteoporosis, osteopenia, hyperthyroidism, and increasing demand for portable bone testing devices drive the market growth. Furthermore, the demand for diagnosis and treatment measures for osteoporosis also influence the market growth. Additionally, the demand for technologically advanced devices drives the market growth.. According to the International Osteoporosis ...
The physiological role of GH in the adult skeleton is unknown. In this study, 12 adults (10 males and 2 females) with isolated GH deficiency were treated with GH as a single daily sc injection (0.125 IU/kg.week for the first 4 weeks and subsequently at 0.25 IU/kg.week) for 1 yr in a double blind, placebo-controlled manner. Bone mineral density of the spine (T12-L3) was measured by quantitative computed tomography, and bone mineral content (BMC) of the forearm by single photon absorptiometry at entry into the study and subsequently at 6 monthly intervals. All baseline bone mineral measurements were reduced compared with those in an age- and sex-matched control population. In the treatment cohort, quantitative computed tomography spinal trabecular bone mineral density increased by 7.8 g/L after 6 months of GH replacement (mean +/- SEM, 151.7 +/- 6.0 vs. 159.5 +/- 5.9 g/L; n = 11; P , 0.01), and this increment was maintained at 1 yr (160.7 +/- 6.3 g/L). Proximal forearm (cortical) BMC showed no ...
2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. The relationship between body mass index (BMI) and fracture risk is controversial. We sought to investigate the effect of collinearity between BMI and bone mineral density (BMD) on fracture risk, and to estimate the direct and indirect effect of BMI on fracture with BMD being the mediator. The study involved 2199 women and 1351 men aged 60 years or older. BMI was derived from baseline weight and height. Femoral neck BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; GE-LUNAR, Madison, WI, USA). The incidence of fragility fracture was ascertained by X-ray reports from 1991 through 2012. Causal mediation analysis was used to assess the mediated effect of BMD on the BMI-fracture relationship. Overall, 774 women (35% of total women) and 258 men (19%) had sustained a fracture. Approximately 21% of women and 20% of men were considered obese (BMI ≥ 30). In univariate analysis, greater BMI was associated with reduced fracture risk in women ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Locally measured microstructural parameters are better associated with vertebral strength than whole bone density. AU - Hazrati Marangalou, J.. AU - Eckstein, F.. AU - Kuhn, V.. AU - Ito, K.. AU - Cataldi, M.. AU - Taddei, F.. AU - Van Rietbergen, B.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Summary: Whole vertebrae areal and volumetric bone mineral density (BMD) measurements are not ideal predictors of vertebral fractures. We introduce a technique which enables quantification of bone microstructural parameters at precisely defined anatomical locations. Results show that local assessment of bone volume fraction at the optimal location can substantially improve the prediction of vertebral strength. Introduction: Whole vertebrae areal and volumetric BMD measurements are not ideal predictors of vertebral osteoporotic fractures. Recent studies have shown that sampling bone microstructural parameters in smaller regions may permit better predictions. In such studies, however, the sampling location ...
The vitamin D receptor (VDR) was the first candidate gene to be studied in relation to osteoporosis, and most attention has focused on polymorphisms situated near the 3 flank of VDR. The aim of this study was to investigate the association about VDR gene Apa I polymorphism with bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. We studied a total of 136 postmenopausal women with a mean age of 56.36 +/- 10.29 years. Among them, a total of 75 had osteoporosis, 37 had osteopenia, and 24 had normal BMD. Venous blood samples were obtained for evaluation of bone metabolism and genotyping. The VDR Apa I genotype was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. BMDs at the lumbar spine and hip were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Postmenopausal women with aa genotype had significantly lower BMD values (grams per centimeter square) at lumbar spines compared to persons with AA genotype. Also, postmenopausal women with AA genotype had ...
Sclerostin is a secreted Wnt antagonist produced almost exclusively by osteocytes that regulates bone mass. However, there is currently limited information on the determinants of sclerostin in a large population-based study. The main objectives of the present study were to: (1) establish reference normative interval values for serum sclerostin in randomly selected healthy premenopausal women; (2) study the changes in serum sclerostin in relation to age in premenopausal and postmenopausal women and the factors that may influence bone turnover; and (3) determine the effect of menopausal status on serum sclerostin. A total of 1803 women were studied (including [n = 1235] premenopausal, and [n = 568] postmenopausal women, respectively, aged 20 to 79 years). A total of 443 healthy premenopausal women (aged 35 to 45 years) were used to establish reference normative intervals for serum sclerostin. All women studied were medically examined and had their bone mineral density values obtained for the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Effects of Estrone (Ogen) on Spinal Bone Density of Postmenopausal Women. AU - Harris, Steven T.. AU - Genant, Harry K.. AU - Baylink, David J.. AU - Gallagher, J. Christopher. AU - Karp, Sherry Katz. AU - Mcconnell, Maureen A.. AU - Green, Elizabeth M.. AU - Stoll, Ralph W.. PY - 1991/10. Y1 - 1991/10. N2 - The effects of cyclical treatment with estrone sulfate (0.3, 0.625, or 1.25 mg), plus calcium carbonate, on spinal trabecular bone density were compared with placebo in 120 postmenopausal women in this 2-year, multicenter, doubleblind study. While the placebo and 0.3-mg treatment groups lost bone density (-3.6% and -5.1%), the 0.625- and 1.25-mg treatment groups experienced no significant change from baseline at 24 months (-0.8% and +0.7%). The 1.25-mg treatment group was significantly different from the placebo group at 12,18, and 24 months. Although the 0.625-mg treatment group was significantly different from the placebo group only at 18 months, the data suggest that ...
Dietary protein is theorized to hold both anabolic effects on bone and demineralizing effects mediated by the diet acid load of sulfate derived from methionine and cysteine. The relative importance of these effects is unknown but relevant to osteoporosis prevention. Postmenopausal women (n = 161, 67.9 +/- 6.0 y) were assessed for areal bone mineral density (aBMD) of lumbar spine (LS) and total hip (TH) using dual X-ray absorptiometry, and dietary intakes of protein, sulfur-containing amino acids, and minerals using a USDA multiple-pass 24-h recall. The acidifying influence of the diet was estimated using the ratio of protein:potassium intake, the potential renal acid load (PRAL), and intake of sulfate equivalents from protein. aBMD was regressed onto protein intake then protein was controlled for estimated dietary acid load. A step-down procedure assessed potential confounding influences (weight, age, physical activity, and calcium and vitamin D intakes). Protein alone did not predict LS aBMD (P ...
Background: Adult subjects with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) have low Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and are at risk of osteoporosis. Several observations suggest that peak bone mass is usually achieved by late adolescence, in the presence of adequate gonadal hormone concentrations. Consequently, the altered bone characteristics of PWS patients may be related to inadequate sex steroid levels during pubertal development.. Aim: To investigate BMD in PWS females during the transition phase.. Methods: Thirty-two females with genetically confirmed PWS, aged 22.1±0.4 year (mean+SE) (range 17.9 25.0 year), were studied. Eleven subjects were undergoing sex steroids therapy (Group A), while the remaining 21 individuals were naïve to substitutive treatment (Group B). Twenty subjects had undergone GH treatment during childhood. In all patients dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Lunar Prodigy) was used to measure BMD in the lumbar spine L1-L4 (gr/cm2), BMD T-score, and BMD Z-score.. Results: Four PWS had ...
... , or bone mineral density, is the amount of bone mineral in bone tissue. The concept is of mass of mineral per ... The DXA test works by measuring a specific bone or bones, usually the spine, hip, and wrist. The density of these bones is then ... The risk factors for low bone density and primary considerations for a bone density test include: females age 65 or older. ... Scores indicate the amount one's bone mineral density varies from the mean. Negative scores indicate lower bone density, and ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMND8 gene. "Human PubMed ... "Entrez Gene: Bone mineral density quantitative trait locus 8". Retrieved 2016-06-27. v t e (Articles with short description, ...
"Bone morphogenetic protein-3 is a negative regulator of bone density". Nature Genetics. 27 (1): 84-8. doi:10.1038/83810. PMID ... It negatively regulates bone density. BMP3 is an antagonist to other BMP's in the differentiation of osteogenic progenitors. It ... It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP's) is known for its ability to induce bone and cartilage development. It is a ... Bone morphogenetic protein 3, also known as osteogenin, is a protein in humans that is encoded by the BMP3 gene. The protein ...
"Bone density scan ... Olive oil ... Bursitis". Women's Health Advisor. 14 (7): 8. 2010. Deborah Bogle/Tom Mueller "Losing our ...
This is due in part to women having a higher incidence of diminished bone density and osteoporosis.[citation needed] Shin ... If the cause is unclear, medical imaging such as a bone scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be performed. Bone scans ... 7 December 2020). Low bone density. University of Michigan Health. Retrieved 26 June 2021, from ... De Permentier, Patrick (2014). "An Anatomical and Physiological Evaluation of the Periosteal Layer Surrounding Bone and Its ...
... bats come closest to birds in terms of bone density, suggesting that small dense bones are a flight adaptation. Many bird bones ... Most of the bones of the skull are flat bones, as is the sternum. Sesamoid bones are bones embedded in tendons. Since they act ... Bone tissue is mineralized tissue of two types, cortical bone and cancellous bone. Other types of tissue found in bones include ... cancellous bone at the ends of the bones. Most bones of the limbs, including those of the fingers and toes, are long bones. The ...
... and low bone density. There is substantial evidence indicating that lactose intolerance is a major factor in limiting calcium ... Barger-Lux and Heaney (August 1, 1994). "The role of calcium intake in preventing bone fragility, hypertension and certain ...
Grigsby, Iwen F.; Pham, Lan; Mansky, Louis M.; Gopalakrishnan, Raj; Mansky, Kim C. (2010). "Tenofovir-associated bone density ... a compound whose long-term use was associated with adverse side effects such as nephrotoxicity and bone density loss. Gilead's ...
A way to determine bone mass is to look at the size and density of the mineralized tissue in the periosteal envelope and using ... Peak bone mass is the maximum amount of bone a person has during their life. It typically occurs in the early 20s in females ... the bone mineral density (BMD) of a person can determine the strength of that bone. Research has shown that puberty affects ... "Differences in Peak Bone Density Between Male and Female Students". Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. 60 (1): 79- ...
In osteoporosis the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture is disrupted, and the amount and variety of ... in women as a bone mineral density 2.5 standard deviations below peak bone mass (20-year-old healthy female average) as ... With age comes decreased bone density. Therefore, vitamin D supplementation may provide the benefits of improving stability and ... Osteoporosis is an age-related disease of bone that leads to an increased risk of fracture. ...
PFS makes available bone density screening. "Sunrise," a cancer support group for women was founded by three cancer patients in ...
Carbone L, Tylavsky FA, Bush AJ, Koo W, Orwoll E, Cheng S (2000). "Bone density in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome". Osteoporosis ... low bone density). Other common features include a "marfanoid habitus" characterized by long, slender fingers (arachnodactyly ... A defect in collagen can weaken connective tissue in the skin, bones, blood vessels, and organs, resulting in the features of ... Forms of EDS in this category may present with soft, mildly stretchable skin, shortened bones, chronic diarrhea, joint ...
One of the major concerns is bone density and bone loss. Non-hormonal bisphosphonates increase bone strength and are available ... Stage 1A bone cancer Stage 1B bone cancer Stage 2A bone cancer Stage 2B bone cancer Stage 3 bone cancer Treatment of bone ... and hematopoietic neoplasms of bone. Bone tumors may be classified as "primary tumors", which originate in bone or from bone- ... Instead of amputation, the affected bone is removed and replaced in one of two ways: (a) bone graft, in which bone is taken ...
... the loss of bone minerals and densities; cardiovascular deconditioning; and decreased endurance and muscle mass. Radiation is ... Long-term stays in space reveal issues with bone and muscle loss in low gravity, immune system suppression, and radiation ... Analysis of the radio signals was used to gather information about the electron density of the ionosphere, while temperature ... 2016). "The Evolution of Galaxy Number Density at z < 8 and Its Implications". The Astrophysical Journal. 830 (2): 83. arXiv: ...
... low bone mineral density (BMD). The media play a very significant role in pressuring athletes to have the perfect body and to ...
Menstrual cycle Ovulation Anovulation Park, KH; Song, CH (Feb 1995). "Bone mineral density in premenopausal anovulatory women ... Anovulatory bleeding is hence termed 'estrogen breakthrough bleeding'. Anemia Bone density loss Endometrial cancer Infertility ...
... leading to a net decrease in bone density. The effects of alcohol on bone mineral density (BMD) are well-known and well-studied ... This results in an increased bone resorption rate and a decreased bone mineral density due to increased pit numbers and pit ... Some diseases with symptoms of decreased bone density are osteoporosis, and rickets. Some people who experience increased bone ... Bone resorption is resorption of bone tissue, that is, the process by which osteoclasts break down the tissue in bones and ...
"Obstetric implications of Neanderthal robusticity and bone density". Human Evolution. 9 (4): 331-342. doi:10.1007/BF02435519. ... which we know from paleontological and embryological evidence originated in the upper and lower jaws and the hyoid bone of ...
"New sequence variants associated with bone mineral density". Nature Genetics. 41 (1): 15-7. doi:10.1038/ng.284. PMID 19079262. ... "Entrez Gene: low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4". Nakayama M, Nakajima D, Nagase T, Nomura N, Seki N, Ohara O ( ... Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP-4), also known as multiple epidermal growth factor-like domains 7 ( ... "Molecular characterization and expression of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-10, a new member of the LDLR ...
Lee S, Gantes B, Riggs M, Crigger M (2007). "Bone density assessments of dental implant sites: 3. Bone quality evaluation ... Norton MR, Gamble C (February 2001). "Bone classification: an objective scale of bone density using the computerized tomography ... radiographically-identified bone density for purposes such as the placement of dental implants, as there is "no good data to ... Although some authors have supported the use of CBCT technology to evaluate bone density by measuring HU, such support is ...
This can increase risk of reduced bone density. Osmotic diuretics (e.g. mannitol) are substances that increase osmolarity but ... Bakhireva LN, Barrett-Connor E, Kritz-Silverstein D, Morton DJ (June 2004). "Modifiable predictors of bone loss in older men: a ... Rejnmark L, Vestergaard P, Heickendorff L, Andreasen F, Mosekilde L (January 2006). "Loop diuretics increase bone turnover and ... decrease BMD in osteopenic postmenopausal women: results from a randomized controlled study with bumetanide". J. Bone Miner. ...
... and the bone density of post-menopausal women. The charity was renamed 'Wellbeing of Women', in 2004. Wellbeing of Women ...
DeVita Raeburn, Elizabeth (20 November 2013). "Bone Density Higher in Blacks, Vitamin D Lower". MedPage Today. Archived from ... dark-skinned individuals have higher bone density and lower risk of fractures than lighter-skinned individuals with the same ... The most prevalent disease to follow vitamin D deficiency is rickets, the softening of bones in children potentially leading to ... Vieth, R (2003). In Bone Loss and Osteoporosis: an Anthropological Perspective. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press. pp. 135-150. ...
Combined oral contraception may also reduce bone density. Some drugs reduce the effect of the pill and can cause breakthrough ... "Oral contraceptive use and bone density change in adolescent and young adult women: a prospective study of age, hormone dose, ...
Dumont, Elizabeth R. (2010-07-22). "Bone density and the lightweight skeletons of birds". Proceedings of the Royal Society of ... yet the bones of birds were found to be denser than the bones of mammals. This suggests that pneumatization of bird bones does ... By invading the bones, the pneumatic diverticula would replace marrow with air, reducing the overall body mass. Reducing the ... The air pockets of the bones are connected to the pulmonary air sacs: However the extent of pneumaticity depends on species. ...
Several studies have shown safety and improvement in bone density. Algas calcareas was first found by Dr. Marcos Norman to ... "AlgaeCal - Natural Calcium Supplements To Increase Bone Density". Supplement Reviews Website v t e (Articles with short ...
... integrates clinical risk factors and bone mineral density at the femoral neck to calculate the 10-year probability of hip ... for the Manitoba Bone Density Program (June 2012). "Does osteoporosis therapy invalidate FRAX for fracture prediction?". ... FRAX (Fracture Risk Assessment Tool) is a diagnostic tool used to evaluate the 10-year probability of bone fracture risk. It ... Disease strongly associated with osteoporosis Alcohol intake of 3 or more standard drinks per day Bone mineral density (BMD) of ...
In those without symptoms, mildly increased blood calcium levels, normal kidneys, and normal bone density monitoring may be all ... "Stones" refers to kidney stones, "bones" to associated destructive bone changes, "groans" to the pain of stomach and peptic ... below normal for patient's age Bone density > 2.5 standard deviations below peak (i.e., T-score of −2.5) People age < 50 A 2020 ... increased bone resorption, allowing the flow of calcium from bone to blood reduced kidney clearance of calcium increased ...
Dumont, Elizabeth R. (22 July 2010). "Bone density and the lightweight skeletons of birds". Proceedings of the Royal Society B ... There are 206 bones in the adult human skeleton, although this number depends on whether the pelvic bones (the hip bones on ... Fused bones include those of the pelvis and the cranium. Not all bones are interconnected directly: There are three bones in ... Ligaments are elastic tissues that connect bones to other bones, and tendons are elastic tissues that connect muscles to bones ...
Jamal SA, Hamilton CJ, Eastell R, Cummings SR (23 February 2011). "Effect of Nitroglycerin Ointment on Bone Density and ... Staff writer (9 February 2010). "Research briefs: Kidney function tied to bone density". The News Journal. Wilmington, Delaware ... increasing the bone density of elderly women in the most vulnerable skeletal regions to the disease. Due to the potentially ... and one on nitrate use and bone density. These retractions related to her work with the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study ...
The periosteum of these bones is somewhat porous. Microolithus is very similar to modern bird eggs, even more so than ... The eggshell has circular pores with a density of 1.08 per square millimeter. Some Mircoolithus specimens have embryonic ... remains of long bones and possibly vertebra, but no useful characteristics for determining which bones or to what bird group ...
With a land area of 137.08 km2 (52.93 sq mi), it had a population density of 6.7/km2 (17.4/sq mi) in 2021. Population trend: ... "crushed bone", "dried meat" and "rushes to the mouth." The Post Office is itself designated since 1891 under the name of "Saint ...
... or nodular densities. Rare cases of PDCIS have presented with a bloody nipple discharge. Males have presented with PDCIS: in ... 1 to lung and 1 to bone. By the end of the study, 47 individuals had no evidence of disease and 2 had died of unknown causes. ...
1 Tenor Trombone SATB choir (2 or 3 voices per part) 1 Harp (amplified-the harp part may be supplemented by an amplified ... and dynamics Density: number of notes present, from one to four Register: four principal octave registers Duration: four ... 1 Alto Trombone 1 Bass Tuba SATB choir (2 or 3 voices per part) 1 Cimbalom (amplified) 2 Percussionists: 2 Tomtoms and 1 Bongo ... Bass Trombone SATB choir (2 or 3 voices per part) Piano 2 Percussionists: 2 Tomtoms and 1 Bongo 3 Alpine Cowbells [Almglocken] ...
... magnets have been tested for medical uses such as magnetic braces and bone repair, but biocompatibility issues have ... can access the midpoints of pressure and temperature regions and is used to acquire data for modeling on how density, ... and can snap together with enough force to break bones. These magnets are cheaper, lighter, and stronger than samarium-cobalt ...
For larger, higher-velocity calibers, such as tank guns, hardness is of secondary importance to density, and are normally sub- ... These bullets are designed to penetrate deeply through muscle and bone, while causing a wound channel of nearly the full ... providing increased sectional density for better penetration in soft targets. ... and even include exotic materials such as tungsten to increase their sectional density. ...
... and decreased bone density, among others. Elagolix is a GnRH antagonist, or an antagonist of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone ... effects on bone mineral density". Reprod Sci. 21 (11): 1341-51. doi:10.1177/1933719114549848. PMC 4212335. PMID 25249568. ... The duration of use of elagolix in the treatment of endometriosis should be limited due to a progressive risk of bone loss, and ... Elagolix should not be used in women with osteoporosis because it may increase the risk of further bone loss. Severe hepatic ...
... and peripheral bone mineral density, lifetime milk consumption, and lifetime physical activity, in elderly mothers and their ...
Yildiz, Mustafa; Oral, Baha (2006-06-01). "The effect of pregnancy and lactation on bone mineral density in fluoride-exposed ...
Typically, thick and dense bone is found in bottom feeders and low bone density is associated with mammals living in deep water ... doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.1999.tb00857.x. Hutchins, J. (1996). "Spatial and temporal variation in the density of northern cod and ... This is followed by the colonization of bones and surrounding sediments (which contain organic matter) by enrichment ... Finally, sulfophilic bacteria reduce the bones releasing hydrogen sulphide enabling the growth of chemoautotrophic organisms, ...
Several abiotic factors, such as temperature, rainfall, and humidity have been shown to influence the population density size ... and bone marrow. The parasitic pathogen is transmitted through the bite of a sandfly, and although humans can be infected, ... population density with climate variables in Montes Claros, an area of American visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the ...
mtDNA may be present in bones, teeth, or hair, which could be the only remains left in the case of severe degradation. In ... In addition, higher breakpoint densities were consistently observed within GC-skewed regions and in the close vicinity of the ... Kennedy, Maev (4 February 2013). "Richard III: DNA confirms twisted bones belong to king". The Guardian. Archived from the ...
Pors Nielsen, S. (2004). "The biological role of strontium". Bone. 35 (3): 583-588. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2004.04.026. PMID ... Metals in Nutrition Concept of a nutritious food: toward a nutrient density score (CS1: long volume value, Articles with short ... Calcium makes up 920 to 1200 grams of adult body weight, with 99% of it contained in bones and teeth. This is about 1.5% of ... used to construct bones, seashells, eggshells, exoskeletons and mollusc shells.[citation needed] At least twenty chemical ...
Treatment of osteoporosis has been explored as SARMs have been found to have trophic effects on bone density and mineralization ... Affects both muscle and bone LGD-3303 S-40503 - Selective for bone tissue, particularly low virilization, intended for ... treatment prevents bone loss and reduces body fat in ovariectomized rats". Pharmaceutical Research. 24 (2): 328-335. doi: ... which shows potential in the treatment of diseases that negatively affect muscles and bones. A common, negative effect of SARMs ...
The population density was 4,145.8 people per square mile (1,602.3/km2). There were 7,689 housing units at an average density ... the bones of a mastodon were unearthed over a period of several weeks. This mammal ranged in this territory when humans were ...
Human population density was very low, around only 0.4 inhabitants per square kilometre (1/sq mi). This was most likely due to ... In Africa, bone artifacts and the first art appear in the archaeological record. The first evidence of human fishing is also ... Edimat books, S.A. ISBN 84-8403-034-2. Nelson, D.E., Radiocarbon dating of bone and charcoal from Divje babe I cave, cited by ... "African Bone Tools Dispute Key Idea About Human Evolution". National Geographic News. Tim D. White (2006). Once were Cannibals ...
The population density was 951 inhabitants per square mile (367/km2). The 425,962 housing units averaged 405 per square mile ( ... Remlap Rocky Creek Snows Corner Sulphur Springs Sun City Sweetwater Creek Sydney Trapnell Turkey Creek Bullfrog Corner Bone ...
During the formative phase, X-ray images typically reveal calcium deposits with uniform density and a clear margin. In the more ... Some theories involve the differentiation of tendon cells into other cells, namely cartilages or bone cells. Others associate ... when the deposit is removed or to reattach the tendon to the bone if the deposit was at the tendon insertion into the bone. ...
The vertebral bones or intervertebral disks can shatter, causing the spinal cord to be punctured by a sharp fragment of bone. ... The epidural fat can be seen as low density on CT scan and high intensity on T2-weighted fast spin echo MRI images. Spinal ... Between the dura mater and the surrounding bone of the vertebrae is a space called the epidural space. The epidural space is ... Meanwhile, the overlying ectoderm secretes bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). This induces the roof plate to begin to secrete ...
T-bone A collision in which the front of a car crashes into the side of another car, forming a "T" shape. This is one of the ... density altitude (DA) A term in drag racing which often refers to atmospheric air pressure decreasing as altitude above sea ... Also, to crash into another car in such a fashion; the victim is "T-boned". T-car Alternative term for a spare car. tank- ... Turbocharged engines are largely unaffected, as the lower density of the intake air is offset by the lower backpressure ...
The toolmakers were modifying bone in much the same way as they did with stone. Though the Olduvan bone tools are normally ... Boaz believed that hominins would have had about the same population density as other large mammals, which would equate to ... Unlike P. robustus, the arm bones of OH 80 are heavily built, and the elbow joint shows similarities to that of modern gibbons ... Pante, M.; de la Torre, I.; d' Errico, F.; Njau, J.; Blumenschine, R. (2020). "Bone tools from Beds II-IV, Olduvai Gorge, ...
... with a smaller density located in North Australia. Overall Biology and Relevance for Humans O. Canarii is indeed economically ... in supplements that are used to break down saturated fatty acids and phosphates are used in the body to build and repair bones ...
... of TSH values below normal values frequently cause cardiac side effects and contribute to decreases in bone mineral density ( ...
Speroff L, Rowan J, Symons J, Genant H, Wilborn W (November 1996). "The comparative effect on bone density, endometrium, and ... Clinical Study on Hormone Dose Optimisation in Climacteric Symptoms Evaluation (CHOICE) Comparative Effect on Bone Density, ...
... plays a role in these processes: Wnt3A patterns a multipotent stem cell population that form neurons, muscles, bones, and ... Zilberberg A, Yaniv A, Gazit A (April 2004). "The low density lipoprotein receptor-1, LRP1, interacts with the human frizzled-1 ... Wnt3a instructs these multipotent stems cells to form muscle, bone, and cartilage progenitors over forming neurons. Wnt3A also ...
... which when inside the body migrate to the bone tissue and concentrate. This exposure can cause bone cancers and other bone ... NORM formed in carbonate matrix can have a density of 3.5 grams/cubic centimeters and must be noted when packing for ... However, some radium alpha particle emitters are "bone seekers" due to radium possessing a high affinity for chloride ions. In ... The elements are referred to as "bone seekers" ... such as bone tissue. The half-life for radium 226 is ...
TiN is non-toxic, meets FDA guidelines and has seen use in medical devices such as scalpel blades and orthopedic bone saw ... 1978). "Raman scattering, superconductivity, and phonon density of states of stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric TiN". ... compressing it to the proper density, then igniting it in an atmosphere of pure nitrogen. The heat released by the chemical ...
"Grinding Media: Higher Density and Smaller Size," Ceramic Bulletin, V70, #5, May 1991, p 806. "Johnson Founds Firm," Ceramic ... Coors Biomedical was also developing synthetic bone-grafting technologies. The technology became the property of Johnson & ...
Cattle eat bones when they have a phosphorus deficiency. However, in some cases they persist on eating bones even after their ... mu and kappa receptors are associated with aversion behaviors and Mu receptor density is greater in tethered sows than sows ... Cattle that continue to eat bones after their phosphorus levels are adequate do it because of a psychological reinforcer. "The ... This abnormal behavior seems to be related to opioid (related to the reward system) receptor density. In sows, prolonged ...
To lessen the risk of fractures in individuals at risk for falls, bone mineral density screening and testing of vitamin D ...
This article reviews the uses and limitations of BMD measurements and the relationship between BMD and bone strength. ... World Health Organization Criteria for Diagnosis of Osteoporosis Based on Bone Mineral Density Classification. Bone Mineral ... Cite this: Uses and Limitations of Bone Mineral Density Measurements in the Management of Osteoporosis - Medscape - May 09, ... Uses and Limitations of Bone Mineral Density Measurements in the Management of Osteoporosis ...
Its used to diagnose osteopenia (low bone mass) and osteoporosis, a more serious disorder that often leads to broken bones. ... A bone density scan is an imaging test that measures calcium and other minerals in your bones. ... What is a bone density scan?. A bone density scan, also known as a DEXA scan, is a type of low-dose x-ray test that measures ... Bone density results are often given in the form of a T score. A T score is a measurement that compares your bone density ...
The Bone Density Center at Massachusetts General Hospital offers state-of-the-art testing for the diagnosis and follow-up of ... If your bone density is normal, you may not need further testing for years. If your bone density is low or you have had a ... Bone Density Center The Bone Density Center at Massachusetts General Hospital offers state-of-the-art testing for the diagnosis ... Whole Body Bone Density and Body Composition. Whole body bone density and body composition analysis provides information about ...
New study will address vitamin D dosages and impact on bone health Read more ... Researchers study effect of space flight on astronauts bone health. Read more ... Calgary researcher leads international study on space flight bone loss. Read more ...
The T-score shows how your bone density compares to the optimal peak bone density for your gender. The Z-score shows how your ... DEXA (dual x-ray absorptiometry) scans measure bone density (thickness and strength of bones) by passing a high and low energy ... bone density compares to the bone densities of others who are the same age, gender, and ethnicity. ... osteoporosis or bone thinning and may be repeated over time to track changes in bone density. ...
Intake of magnesium through diet and supplements is positively associated with bone density throughout the whole body, ... Tags: Bone, Bone Mineral Density, Calcium, Diet, Food, Geriatrics, Hormone, Magnesium, Public Health, Research, Supplements, ... Additionally, researchers performed bone mineral density tests on the participants. Related Stories. *Multidirectional sports ... The study revealed that those who ingested more magnesium had significantly higher bone density than those who got the least ...
Bone Density, and Bone Strength. Although fluoride has generally been found to reduce the bone density of cortical bone, it is ... aka cancellous bone). Trabecular bone is the primary bone of the spine, whereas cortical bone is the primary bone of the legs ... Fluoride in Water & Bone Density. Interest in fluorides affect on bone density stems back to the mid-twentieth century, when ... Fluorides Differential Effect on Bone Density: Trabecular vs. Cortical Bone. Based on fluorides ability to increase bone mass ...
My moms bone density scan has improved from -2.87 to -1.03. The doctor said that is good news, but I would like to understand ...
Loss of density was greatest in the first 2 years of use. Two years after stopping the drug, bone mineral density was only ... Women who take the drug for more than 2 years should have their bone mineral density monitored. When interpreting bone mineral ... Medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera) and bone mineral density loss. Eric Wooltorton. CMAJ March 15, 2005 172 (6) 746; DOI ... In an unpublished study involving women above the age of 18 who used the drug for up to 5 years, bone mineral density in the ...
Bone mineral density in Egyptian adolescents and adults with short stature: results of a national survey  ... Comparing bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with and without vertebral fracture and its value in recognizing high- ... Vertebral fracture, the hallmark of osteoporosis, usually occurs in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density [‎BMD ... A national survey was made of bone mineral density among stunted adolescents and adults. A multistage ... ...
In general, if the density is low, then there is a greater chance of fracture. It can also be used to detect other bone ... It is a special X-Ray procedure that measures the density of your bones. ... disorders and conditions, such as osteopenia, brittle bone disease and osteomalacia.. What happens during a DXA scan?. A DXA ...
Find WebMDs comprehensive coverage of bone density tests including medical reference, news, pictures, videos, and more. ... Bone Density Tests Directory. Bone density tests (also called bone mineral density tests) check your bone strength and are used ... What Is a Bone Mineral Density Test? A bone mineral density test examines segments of your bone through X-rays to detect ... Bone Density Tests: A Clue to Your Future. DEXA bone density scans: Will you glide into your golden years or live out a ...
The findings of the present study suggest that there may be a correlation between the PDR and clinical bone healing. This ... Assessment of Bone Healing During Antegrade Intramedullary Rod Femur Lengthening Using Radiographic Pixel Density J Am Acad ... These values were then correlated with subjective evaluation of bone healing by the treating physician with expertise in bone ... Results: Bone regenerate healing was clinically declared by the treating surgeons (S.R.R. and A.T.F.) at a mean of 8.5 weeks ( ...
... algorithm can obtain bone mineral density data on hip radiographs similar to that garnered from DEXA. ... AI captures bone mineral density data on hip x-rays. By Erik L. Ridley, staff writer. November 29, 2021 -- An ... Bone mineral density testing has traditionally been performed on DEXA exams to determine if a patient has osteoporosis. DEXA is ... The researchers hypothesized that convolutional neural networks (CNNs) could be utilized to obtain bone mineral density from ...
Categories: Bone Density, Research and Articles Posted on 04/29/2016. by easystandleader Mobility status and bone density in ... Category: Bone Density. Posted on 05/02/2016. by easystandleader Does standing protect bone density in patients with chronic ... Categories: Bone Density, Research and Articles, Spinal Cord Injury Posted on 05/02/2016. by easystandleader Bone mineral ... Using analysis of the bone mineral density (BMD), various degrees of trabecular and cortical bone loss were recognised. A ...
... A bone density test can help your doctor predict your risk of getting bone fractures and detect ... Your health care provider can perform a bone density test in several ways, and the most common way is with a dual-energy x-ray ... Contact your doctor for more information about bone density screenings and your risk for osteoporosis. ...
In addition to the right foods, strength training goes a long way in improving bone health. ... Learn more about bone density and foods that help in improving bone density over time. ... Bone Density Foods. Tags:#bone density foods #improving bone density #preserving bone density #increase bone density naturally ... Foods to improve bone density. A natural and effective way to maintain bone density is to include bone density foods into your ...
Think twice about that bone density test. Patient information from Consumer Reports and the Choosing Wisely campaign. ... Its worth getting a bone density test if youre older or have other risk factors for weak bones, because without it the first ... sign of osteoporosis is usually a broken bone. But if youre not at higher risk, you should think twice about the test. Heres ...
A DEXA scan is a bone density test that can gauge your risk of osteoporosis. It can also measure body composition, such as body ... What is a bone density test?. A bone density test, DEXA, measures the mineral content of the bones in certain areas of the ... DEXA (DXA) Scan: Bone Density Test A DEXA scan is an imaging test that measures bone density (strength). DEXA scan results can ... How is a bone density test done?. DEXA bone density tests are outpatient procedures. You may be able to wear your regular ...
... one of the best workouts you can do for your health is to jump rope for bone density. ... Any kind of strength training or jump training when youre post-menopausal can help improve your bone mineral density and ... Dont be mistaken though: Jumping rope has benefits beyond bone density. Essentially a full-body exercise, it will elevate your ... you turn on certain genes that help regulate estrogen production and can even delay age-related losses in bone density and ...
... lifestyle and genetic factors can affect bone density. ... What is a bone density scan (DXA)?. A bone density scan, using ... If your bone density is 2.5 SD below average, this is described as osteoporosis. If your bone density is between the lower ... As a result, the total amount of bone tissue starts to decrease. This is often described as bone loss or bone thinning. It ... Genes: Bone health is dependent on inherited genes from our parents.. *Age: As we get older, bones become more fragile and more ...
In a society thats obsessed with muscle, its easy to forget about the bones, but our bones are integral to our health. And ... Ever wondered how to improve bone health to avoid osteoporosis? Its not so strange if you havent because most people dont ... 9 Tips To Keep Your Bones Healthy And Strong. Written By. BeWellBuzz ... really think about their bones until there is a problem. ...
By Malecare,2016-04-05T12:04:43-04:00April 5th, 2016,Advanced Prostate Cancer, Bone Health, Bone Mineral Density, Bones and ... Bone Health, Bone Metastases, Bone Mineral Density, CAB, Cabazitaxel, Chemo Therapy, Chemo Therapy Failure, Clinical Trials, ... has many negative side effects and the loss of bone mineral density (thinning of the bones) that ZA (and similar drugs) [...] ... By Malecare,2020-02-04T10:44:04-05:00June 17th, 2013,Advanced Prostate Cancer, Bone Mineral Density, Research, Start A Cure, ...
We perform scans to see how strong your bones are. What we do. Bone mineral density (BMD) scans are a special kind of X-ray ... You may be having a bone mineral density (BMD) scan to find out if you have osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a common disease that ... Bone Mineral Density Unit. Austin Health. PO Box 5555. Heidelberg VIC 3084. Australia ... You must not have had a Nuclear Medicine scan in the two days before your Bone Density scan. ...
... do women have to choose between heart health and strong bones? ... Is it true that middle-age women who lose weight also lose bone ... Bone & Joint Does Weight Loss Lower Bone Density?. Is it true that middle-age women who lose weight also lose bone mass, which ... Interestingly, men who lost weight in the same study actually gained bone density in the spine, and the density in their hips ... Their bone density at the spine and hip was measured initially, again six months later and again after two years, when only 236 ...
This Bone Density Enhancer Formula from BioEssence combines the best in nutritional ingredients with Chinese herbal extracts to ... Bone Density Enhancer is a rich source of vitamin D, which supports calcium absorption, and maintains bone strength. Vital ... minerals for healthy bones are also provided, including zinc, selenium, and magnesium oxide.* ...
You are here: Home ∼ Wellness ∼ DEXA Bone Density Scans DEXA Bone Density Scans. Published by Riverview Health on May 12, 2022 ... For more information or to schedule a DEXA bone density scan at Riverview Health Bone & Breast Center in Noblesville or ... Posted in Menopause, orthopedics, Wellness, Womens Health Tagged bone density, bones, dexa, menopause, orthopedics, radiology ... 54 million Americans have low bone density or osteoporosis and one in two women older than 50 will break a bone due to ...
Qualification: Have not had a DXA scan in past 2 years, have not had a heel bone density test in past year, and meet one of the ... Free Bone Density Screen: Tuesday, October 4, noon-2 pm, at The Miller Center, 120 Hardwood Drive, Lewisburg. ...
... late-stage study of romosozumab in men aged 55 to 90 years with osteoporosis found that it increased spine and hip bone mineral ... Late-Stage Study of Romosozumab in Men Finds It Increases Bone Mineral Density. ... Many people will not know they have osteoporosis-a skeletal disorder characterized by loss of bone mass, deterioration of bone ... Learn more about bone health.. The morbidity and mortality associated with fracture, in particular hip fracture, are greater ...
  • Osteoporosis is the most common cause of low bone mineral density. (
  • DXA allows physicians to diagnose osteoporosis and related bone diseases early, often before you suffer a fracture. (
  • Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, resulting in decreased bone strength and predisposition to fractures. (
  • [ 5 ] In the United States, an estimated 10 million people have osteoporosis and another 34 million have low bone mass (osteopenia), placing them at increased risk for this disorder. (
  • [ 6 ] According to the World Health Organization criteria, the 44 million people in the United States with either osteoporosis or low bone mass represent 55% of the population aged 50 years and older. (
  • Cite this: Uses and Limitations of Bone Mineral Density Measurements in the Management of Osteoporosis - Medscape - May 09, 2005. (
  • Osteoporosis is a progressive disease that causes bones to become very thin and brittle. (
  • People with osteoporosis are at higher risk for fractures (broken bones), especially in their hips, spine, and wrists. (
  • This means you have low bone density (osteopenia) and may be at risk for developing osteoporosis. (
  • This procedure is important for diagnosing (seeing if someone has) osteoporosis or bone thinning and may be repeated over time to track changes in bone density. (
  • Your healthcare provider may recommend a DEXA scan to test for osteoporosis or thinning of your bones. (
  • Osteoporosis increases the risk for broken bones and can have serious effects in older adults. (
  • Bone density tests (also called bone mineral density tests) check your bone strength and are used to help diagnose osteoporosis. (
  • All women 65 and over, those with osteoporosis risk factors, and all postmenopausal women with a broken bone should be tested. (
  • Bone mineral density testing has traditionally been performed on DEXA exams to determine if a patient has osteoporosis. (
  • A script was then applied to extract quantitative labels -- the average of the hip, L-spine, femur, and forearm when available -- as well as qualitative labels indicating normal bone density, osteopenia, or osteoporosis. (
  • The present results suggest that passive mechanical loading can have a beneficial effect on the preservation of bone mass in osteoporosis found in paraplegics. (
  • A bone density test can help your doctor predict your risk of getting bone fractures and detect osteoporosis, according to (
  • Contact your doctor for more information about bone density screenings and your risk for osteoporosis. (
  • Besides the age factor, sedentary lifestyle, smoking, drinking excessive alcohol, medications and an unbalanced diet, conditions like diabetes, kidney disease, liver disease and family history of osteoporosis can cause an aging person's bones to become less dense and strong. (
  • Deficiencies in these minerals may result in loss of bone density and contribute to development of bone disorders such as osteoporosis. (
  • It's worth getting a bone density test if you're older or have other risk factors for weak bones, because without it the first sign of osteoporosis is usually a broken bone. (
  • DEXA scan results can provide helpful details about your risk for osteoporosis (bone loss) and fractures (bone breaks). (
  • Osteoporosis is a term used to describe brittle bones and also the risk for having a broken bone. (
  • Osteoporosis literally means "porous bone. (
  • Osteoporosis results when you to lose bone faster than your body can create new bone tissue. (
  • Many people first realize they have osteoporosis after they break a bone from a minor fall. (
  • Healthcare providers often recommend a DEXA scan to assess your bone health for osteoporosis and fracture risk if you are older than 50, have had a broken bone, or other illnesses that put your bone health at risk. (
  • If one or more family members have had osteoporosis or more than one fracture, you could be at a higher risk for bone loss. (
  • What is osteoporosis and what affects bone density? (
  • The Royal Osteoporosis Society explain what osteopenia and osteoporosis mean and how diet, lifestyle and genetic factors can affect bone density. (
  • Osteoporosis is often thought of as a condition that only impacts elderly people - but did you know that diet and lifestyle at every stage of life can significantly affect your bone health? (
  • BBC Good Food asked the Royal Osteoporosis Society to explain the difference between osteopenia and osteoporosis, which ages are most crucial for bone formation and their top tips for building healthy bones. (
  • Osteoporosis is a condition in which bones lose their strength and are more likely to break ('fracture'), usually following a minor bump or fall. (
  • Fractures that occur because of reduced bone strength are described as 'fragility fractures' and many of these will be caused by osteoporosis. (
  • Ever wondered how to improve bone health to avoid osteoporosis? (
  • Osteoporosis is the thinning of bone that increases the risk for fractures, especially hip and spine fractures. (
  • You may be having a bone mineral density (BMD) scan to find out if you have osteoporosis. (
  • Osteoporosis is a common disease that causes your bones to become fragile and more likely to break. (
  • A study from Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston does conclude that weight loss in post-menopausal women can lead to lower bone density in the hip and spine, a change that can increase the risk of osteoporosis and fractures. (
  • According to the National Osteoporosis Foundation, 54 million Americans have low bone density or osteoporosis and one in two women older than 50 will break a bone due to osteoporosis. (
  • A DEXA scan, also known as bone mass measurement test, can help with early detection of osteoporosis, which allows you to slow the progression and prevent further bone loss and fractures. (
  • A 12-month, late-stage study of romosozumab in men aged 55 to 90 years with osteoporosis found that it increased spine and hip bone mineral density (BMD) and was well tolerated. (
  • The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled BRIDGE study suggested that romosozumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds and inhibits sclerostin, may be a promising bone-forming treatment for men with osteoporosis. (
  • Many people will not know they have osteoporosis-a skeletal disorder characterized by loss of bone mass, deterioration of bone tissue, and decline in bone quality-until they have a fracture. (
  • Low bone density is one of the important risk factors for osteoporosis. (
  • Currently, bone density testing is considered the best way to determine if a person has osteoporosis, osteopenia (density lower than the expected norm, but less than the level used to determine osteoporosis), or normal bone density for their sex and age. (
  • It doesn't tell us about the density of bones that are most likely to fracture from osteoporosis, such as the hip and spine. (
  • Osteoporosis causes thinning and weakening of normal bone. (
  • The best way to test for osteoporosis is with a bone density test. (
  • Bone mineral density (BMD) measurement using dual-energy X-ray densitometry (DXA) has long been established as the gold standard in the screening of osteoporosis. (
  • People with low bone density have either osteopenia, a mild form of this condition, or osteoporosis, a more severe type. (
  • However, researchers are not sure if taking calcium or Vitamin D reduces the risk of breaking a bone in people who already have osteoporosis. (
  • Osteopenia can progress to osteoporosis , a condition in which there is a significant amount of bone loss. (
  • The bone loss in osteoporosis gets worse with time, and patients with osteoporosis have a high risk for bone fractures. (
  • Patients with a T score less than -1 were called osteopenic, and people with a bone density of less than -2.5 were considered to have osteoporosis. (
  • In this study, the researchers considered patients with either osteopenia or osteoporosis to have low bone density. (
  • Normally a concern among older populations who experience bone health deficits and osteoporosis-related fractures, forearm fractures have been increasing among children and result in substantial health care costs. (
  • Osteoporosis is a relatively common condition among men and women that can result in bone fractures. (
  • A bone density scan is an important screening test because people with osteoporosis may not have any symptoms. (
  • Doctors can detect osteopenia or early signs of osteoporosis using a variety of devices to measure bone density. (
  • It measures the density of bones in your spine, hip and wrist .theareas most likely to be affected by osteoporosis and it's used to accurately follow changes in these bones over time. (
  • The loss of bone mass can also occur due to factors like periodontal disease, osteoporosis, diabetes, chemo treatment, or radiation treatment. (
  • By identifying decreases in bone mineral density, your health care provider can determine your risk of fractures, and diagnose and monitor osteoporosis progression. (
  • But as you age, your risk for osteoporosis increases because bone density tends to decrease as people grow older. (
  • For women under 65, bone density tests may be recommended based on risk factors for osteoporosis, such as a family history of the disease or a history of fractures. (
  • However, up to 1 in 4 men over 50 will break a bone due to osteoporosis. (
  • People over 50 who have broken a bone and people who have lost 1.5 inches of height or more also may need a bone density test to screen for osteoporosis. (
  • Another risk factor for osteoporosis is taking certain kinds of drugs that can interfere with the body’s process of rebuilding bone. (
  • The range between normal and osteoporosis is considered osteopenia, a condition where bone density is below the normal range and puts a person at higher risk for developing osteoporosis. (
  • osteoporosis was defined as a bone mineral density T-score of -2.5 or less. (
  • Of 235 consecutive patients with clinical hypogonadism treated at the center, 56% had normal bone mineral density levels, 39% were osteopenic, and 5% had frank osteoporosis. (
  • Having low bone mineral density doesn't necessarily mean that you will develop osteoporosis or have a fracture. (
  • Ultrasonic measurements of the bone may offer a simple, non-invasive and radiation-free assessment of bone quality in osteoporosis and other metabolic diseases affecting the bone. (
  • Teriparatide injection is used to treat osteoporosis (a condition in which the bones become thin and weak and break easily) in women who have undergone menopause ('change in life,' end of menstrual periods), who are at high risk of fractures (broken bones), and cannot use other osteoporosis treatments. (
  • It is also used to increase bone mass in men with certain types of osteoporosis who are at high risk for having broken bones (fractures), and who cannot use other osteoporosis treatments. (
  • Teriparatide injection is also used to treat osteoporosis in men and women who are taking corticosteroids (a type of medication that may cause osteoporosis in some patients) who are at high risk of fractures (broken bones), and cannot use other osteoporosis treatments. (
  • Osteoporosis, a disease in which bones grow weaker, threatens more than half of Americans over age 50," explained Ariel Anbar, a professor in ASU's Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and the School of Earth and Space Exploration, and senior author of the study. (
  • The team proposed a series of mechanisms to explain their observations including impaired bone growth, decreased bone density, and bone fragility or osteoporosis. (
  • Regular yoga practice can also help build bone density, which is necessary for osteoporosis prevention. (
  • Osteoporosis is a condition in which people have weakening bones, decreased bone mineral density, and increased risk of fracture. (
  • With this information, your doctor can estimate the strength of your bones and if you are at risk of osteoporosis. (
  • In general, the thicker your bone density, the longer it takes for osteoporosis to develop. (
  • Jumping on a trampoline stresses your bones making your bones less fragile and decreasing the chances of osteoporosis. (
  • Fosamax and other drugs such as Actonel, Boniva, and Reclast increase bone density and help prevent and treat osteoporosis and/or reduce the risk of fractures. (
  • Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS . (
  • The report opens with a detailed review of what is known about osteoporosis, the criteria for establishing diagnosis, the value of bone mineral density measurements as diagnostic and prognostic tools, factors that influence the morbidity and mortality caused by fractures at different sites, and the physiological determinants of bone loss and fracture risk. (
  • Osteoporosis is defined as a bone mineral density of 2.5 standard deviations or more below the mean value for a young woman at either the femur neck or the lumbar spine, or both locations, as measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. (
  • Osteoporosis or low bone mass in older adults: United States, 2017-2018. (
  • Bone density testing is very effective in diagnosing this condition, determining your risk for fractures and monitoring your response to therapy. (
  • In certain cases, we may also run tests to identify any fractures in your spine or to measure the bone density of your forearm or whole body. (
  • Women in this age group are at high risk for losing bone density, which can lead to fractures. (
  • One in two women and one in five men over the age of 50 experience fractures, mostly as a result of low bone strength. (
  • This change in the quality of your bones is much more likely and more significant as you move into later life, which explains why bones become more fragile and fractures become more common in old age. (
  • Many of us believe that the risk developing bone fractures is more common in men who have stage 4 prostate cancer that has developed distant metastasis than those men with stage 4 prostate cancer that do not have distant metastasis. (
  • Is it true that middle-age women who lose weight also lose bone mass, which increases the risk of fractures? (
  • Some earlier studies have also linked post menopausal weight loss to bone loss and an increased risk of fractures. (
  • This disease affects the skeletal system and causes bones to weaken and become more fragile, which can lead to fractures. (
  • Denosumab may increase bone mineral density (BMD) and reduce the incidence of new vertebral fractures in men receiving androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) for nonmetastatic prostate cancer (PCa), a study shows. (
  • The authors concluded that "twice-yearly administration of denosumab was associated with increases in bone mineral density at all skeletal sites and reduction in vertebral fractures in men receiving androgen-deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. (
  • Washington, DC-Researchers at Children's National Medical Center have found that African American children who experience forearm fractures are more likely to have lower bone density and vitamin D deficiency compared to children without fractures. (
  • Researchers found that African American children with forearm fractures have lower bone mineral density and are more likely to be vitamin D deficient compared to African American children without fractures. (
  • Given that 90 percent of peak bone mass is achieved by age 18, deficient bone health in childhood can lead to more fractures and weaker bones in adulthood. (
  • The study from Children's National looked specifically at bone mineral density and vitamin D levels of 150 African American children, ages 5 to 9, some who presented with forearm fractures, and some who did not have fractures. (
  • Any bone can be affected, but of special concern are fractures of the hip and spine. (
  • Healthy levels of magnesium in the body might decrease the risk of bone fractures, according to results of a study from the Universities of Bristol and Eastern Finland. (
  • A 2-year study ​ ​ of a group of menopausal women, concluded that magnesium therapy resulted in greater bone density and may have prevented the risk of fractures. (
  • The researchers also put forward possibilities that prove a link between magnesium levels and bone fractures was tenuous. (
  • Antiresorptive drugs (ARD) are bone metabolism patients, resulting in increased bone density, reduced risk modulators widely used in patients with some physiological of fractures and improved quality of life of individuals4,5. (
  • The Bone Density Center played an important role in the development of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the current standard for measuring bone mineral density. (
  • November 29, 2021 -- An artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm can obtain bone mineral density data on hip radiographs similar to the data garnered from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans, according to research presented Sunday at RSNA 2021 in Chicago. (
  • The bone density of lumbar and proximal femoral regions was measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. (
  • Your health care provider can perform a bone density test in several ways, and the most common way is with a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan, which uses low-does x-rays, according to (
  • The best known bone-density test is dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, or DEXA Scan , which is one of the most precise tests and is the gold standard for most physicians. (
  • Also called bone densitometry or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA or DEXA), a bone density scan is a form of X-ray technology used to measure bone loss. (
  • A dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) assessing bone mineral density. (
  • All patients had clinical and biochemical hypogonadism, defined as a testosterone level lower than 300 ng/dL, and all underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) bone scans on the same machine. (
  • Bone mineral density was measured in different body segments (upper limbs, lower limbs, spine, and total) using the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry technique. (
  • hormonal assay and Bone Mineral density measurement (BMD) by Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). (
  • When bones become thinner than normal, it's known as osteopenia. (
  • It can also be used to detect other bone disorders and conditions, such as osteopenia, brittle bone disease and osteomalacia. (
  • Osteopenia is a term used to describe "low bone mass. (
  • Osteopenia is a condition in which bones are less dense than normal, making these bones weaker. (
  • Osteopenia also raises the risk for breaking a bone. (
  • Low bone mineral density (osteopenia) indicates that some bones are less dense than is normal. (
  • The standard test for men, women and children measures bone density of the spine and hip. (
  • In an unpublished study involving women above the age of 18 who used the drug for up to 5 years, bone mineral density in the spine and hip was reduced by 5% to 6% below baseline. (
  • Their bone density at the spine and hip was measured initially, again six months later and again after two years, when only 236 of the original 424 participants remained in the study. (
  • DEXA uses two different X-ray beams to estimate Bone density in your spine and hip. (
  • What is a bone density scan? (
  • A bone density scan, also known as a DEXA scan, is a type of low-dose x-ray test that measures calcium and other minerals in your bones. (
  • Why do I need a bone density scan? (
  • Most women age 65 or older should have a bone density scan. (
  • To measure bone density in the forearm, finger, hand, or foot, a provider may use a portable scanner known as a peripheral DEXA (p-DEXA) scan. (
  • A bone density scan uses very low doses of radiation. (
  • Is there anything else I need to know about a bone density scan? (
  • A DEXA scan is the most common way to measure bone density. (
  • We trained a deep-learning system and found that, when applied to extremity radiographs such as the hip, we can diagnose abnormalities in bone mineral density similar to a DEXA scan," Mutasa said. (
  • A special X-ray or computed tomography (CT scan) procedure helps estimate the strength of bones. (
  • A DEXA scan is an imaging test that measures bone density (strength). (
  • Bone mineral density (BMD) scans are a special kind of X-ray scan used to measure how much calcium and other minerals are in a section of bone. (
  • You may also have a BMD scan if you have another medical conditions that may weaken your bones. (
  • You must not have had a Nuclear Medicine scan in the two days before your Bone Density scan. (
  • How is a DEXA bone density scan performed? (
  • Who should have a DEXA bone density scan? (
  • Qualification: Have not had a DXA scan in past 2 years, have not had a heel bone density test in past year, and meet one of the following criteria: over the age of 65, post-menopausal, or pre-menopausal with high risk factors. (
  • The researchers gave the study participants a bone scan to test for bone density. (
  • A bone density scan is a non-invasive test that measures the amount of bone in the major weight-bearing areas of the body, such as the lumbar spine, the hip, and the forearm. (
  • In our clinic, if a man has a testosterone of below 300 ng/dL, especially if he has risk factors for low BMD - including smoking, long-term steroid use, and diabetes - we think it's worthwhile to get a bone scan," said Dr Ellen. (
  • In a statement on the results , the Corps noted that a DEXA scan "is the most accurate means to estimate body fat, lean body mass, and bone density. (
  • If the bone density is lower than normal, steps should be taken to increase bone strength. (
  • We try to get testosterone up to increase bone health, and we also use selective estrogen receptor modifiers, or SERMS, because they help too," said Dr Ellen. (
  • This is an excellent exercise for anyone wishing to boost their overall health, strengthen their muscles, and increase bone density - and it doesn't matter what your age is. (
  • What is the fastest way to increase bone density? (
  • An expert not connected with the study commented in news reports that the bone density losses seen were actually minimal, in the one to two percent range, which she felt doesn't add much to fracture risk. (
  • TRT can result in increasing bone mineral density, particularly at lumbar site, but no information on fracture risk is available. (
  • A large part of the report is devoted to a review of the advantages and limitations of three candidate methods for predicting future fracture risk: assessment of bone mass, assessment of bone loss, and clinical assessment of risk factors. (
  • Bone density scans should not be performed for one week following any barium examination (such as barium swallow, GI series, barium enema, abdominal CT) or nuclear examination. (
  • DEXA (dual x-ray absorptiometry) scans measure bone density (thickness and strength of bones) by passing a high and low energy x-ray beam (a form of ionizing radiation) through the body, usually in the hip and the spine. (
  • DEXA scans measure the mineral content in certain bones, such as the hip, spine and/or wrist. (
  • We perform scans to see how strong your bones are. (
  • Together, they review her medications and bone scans and discuss potential treatments. (
  • Previous research has demonstrated that black men and women may process vitamin D and other calcium regulating hormones differently than whites, thus possibly explaining the lack of association between magnesium and bone density among them in this study. (
  • The 206 bones are needed for a variety of functions within the body such as protection, movement, support, blood cell production and regulation of calcium levels which explains the importance of healthy bone density across different life stages. (
  • When a bone density test is done, the amount of minerals (such as calcium) contained in a cubic centimeter of bone is measured. (
  • Calcium is an essential bone-building mineral. (
  • Loss of bone calcium impacts bone density. (
  • To reverse bone calcium loss, increase the amount of calcium consumed per day. (
  • Phosphorous works in tandem with calcium to build strong bones and teeth. (
  • Children can build strong bones by taking plenty of weight-bearing exercise and eating a well-balanced, calcium-rich diet . (
  • Although getting enough calcium is important, a healthy, balanced diet is essential to provide all the vitamins, minerals and other nutrients that your bones need. (
  • Calcium is vital for strong teeth and bones because it gives them strength and rigidity. (
  • Regardless of their calcium intake or the type of foods consumed by the post-menopausal women, those who lost a moderate amount of weight also lost some bone density. (
  • Bone Density Enhancer is a rich source of vitamin D, which supports calcium absorption, and maintains bone strength. (
  • Calcium salts owing to the third tests broken nexium bones bone density cranial nerve palsies and meningitis intracranial abscesses and extraction, if associated with abnormalities of the normal fashion after a few days. (
  • These results reinforce just how important it is for kids to get their exercise, calcium, and vitamin D for healthy bones so that they don't continue to have difficulties in adulthood," said Leticia Ryan, MD, MPH, lead author of the study and an emergency medicine pediatrician at Children's National. (
  • However, approximately six months after teeth loss, the patient's jaw bone deterioration begins due to the bone resorption process, where the calcium from the jawbone gets redistributed to other body parts. (
  • A bone density test uses a low dose of X-rays in a quick, noninvasive way to measure the amount of calcium and other minerals in a segment of bone, usually the hips and spine. (
  • With the new technique, bone loss is detected by carefully analyzing the isotopes of the chemical element calcium that are naturally present in urine. (
  • It is titled "Rapidly assessing changes in bone mineral balance using natural stable calcium isotopes. (
  • When bones form, the lighter isotopes of calcium enter bone a little faster than the heavier isotopes. (
  • That's similar to what happens with calcium isotopes when bones form. (
  • Bone favors lighter calcium isotopes and picks them over the heavier ones. (
  • But 15 years ago, corresponding author Joseph Skulan, now an adjunct professor at ASU, combined all the factors into a mathematical model that predicted that calcium isotope ratios in blood and urine should be extremely sensitive to bone mineral balance. (
  • This vitamin is highly important because it boosts mineral density and assists in absorbing and depositing calcium in the bones that are responsible for supporting your teeth. (
  • Phosphoric acid originates from phosphorus, which the body utilizes with calcium to maintain the teeth and also bones strong. (
  • Bone density testing uses X-rays to measure the density of minerals like calcium present in your bones. (
  • When you drink, alcohol acts like a calcium-blocker, preventing the bone-building minerals you eat from being absorbed. (
  • This is considered normal bone density. (
  • A normal bone density score, called a T score, is between +1 and -1. (
  • Furthermore, the longer the duration of hypogonadism, the greater the likelihood of normal bone mineral density levels. (
  • Further, porosity reduces metal density and Young module, which causes bone resorption, leading to implant failure, phenomenon known as stress shielding. (
  • Conclusions: These data suggest that 3 weeks of circadian disruption with concurrent sleep restriction can lead to an uncoupling of bone turnover wherein bone formation is decreased but bone resorption is unchanged. (
  • By slowing or stopping the bone-resorbing portion of the remodeling cycle, bisphosphonates allow new bone formation to catch up with bone resorption. (
  • Two promoter polymorphisms regulating interleukin-6 gene expression are associated with circulating levels of C-reactive protein and markers of bone resorption in postmenopausal women. (
  • Hyperhomocysteinemia is Associated with Inflammation, Bone Resorption, Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiency and MTHFR C677T Polymorphism in Postmenopausal Women with Decreased Bone Mineral Density. (
  • Preliminary results from an ongoing open-label self-selected nonrandomized group of adolescent women aged 12-18 years showed a similar decrease in bone mineral density of 4%-6.9% after 4.6 years of study. (
  • If that doesn't inspire you, consider the fact that the study found that the control group that performed no jumping exercises actually observed a bone density decrease . (
  • As a result, the total amount of bone tissue starts to decrease. (
  • There was also difference in the analysis of bone mass (Z-Score) between the groups at D21 and D42, which animals from EG showed a significant decrease in bone mass. (
  • Yes, jumping on a trampoline will decrease your bone density and increase your strength. (
  • Does Weight Loss Lower Bone Density? (
  • The result is lower bone density and weaker bones that are at greater risk for fracture. (
  • Our standard reports include measurement of your bone density and how it has changed over time. (
  • The measurement helps show the strength and thickness (known as bone density or mass) of your bones. (
  • A T score is a measurement that compares your bone density measurement with the bone density of a healthy 30-year-old. (
  • The scanner translates the bone density measurement data into pictures and graphs. (
  • While the bone density measurement indirectly estimates the mineral content of bone at any given time, the tests of bone mineral density do not reveal what is currently happening within bone. (
  • A single bone density measurement also cannot distinguish if you are currently losing bone and thus experiencing ongoing bone density reduction. (
  • Accordingly, the [i]T[/i]-score is the number of standard deviations that the individual measurement differs from the mean peak bone density of the healthy young population, matched for race and sex. (
  • The second installment of the seven-part series has pupils read articles on two different websites to learn about bone density and its measurement, as well as X-rays and other imaging tools. (
  • Your report will include the measurement of your bone density and how it has changed over time and also include general recommendations for medical management. (
  • Bone density test results are reported in a measurement known as a “T-score.â€� A T-score of minus 1 or higher is normal. (
  • Referring to IBD patients who may not have the traditional risk factors of age, family history or postmenopausal age, the authors wrote, "Evaluation of vitamin D levels and [increasing vitamin D levels to greater than 30 ng/ml] and limiting corticosteroid use may help reduce the risk of low bone mineral density in these patients. (
  • You're postmenopausal, older than 65 and have never had a bone density test. (
  • Bones are often affected in cancer survivors, usually a result of bone metastases, or of anti-cancer therapies which can contribute to bone loss and fragility. (
  • Importantly, we found that this not only compensated for the leukaemia-dependent bone fragility but also reduced leukaemia progression," Dr Cheung said. (
  • Ultrasound uses sound waves to estimate the strength of certain bones, such as those in the heel, wrist, or finger. (
  • As with ultrasound, measurements of the wrist, finger, or heel are good screening tests, but they do not necessarily tell us about the density of the bones that are most likely to fracture - the hip and spine. (
  • Ultrasound measurements are best seen as "screening tests" that reveal the possibility of low bone density and bone weakness. (
  • There is often, but not always, a fairly good correlation between ultrasound measurements of the heel and density of the hip or spine. (
  • One transducer is placed on either side of a bone, where one transmits ultrasound waves and the other receives them. (
  • The average of speed ultrasound differed between groups at D21, D42 and D72, and the animals from EG had lower bone mineral density after applications of ESWT. (
  • The bone mineral density [‏BMD]‏ of the calcaneus was estimated in 185 young women from the United Arab Emirates, using SAHARA ultrasound. (
  • Ultrasound transmission velocity and ultra-sound attenuation of the appendicular skeleton are influenced by bone density and by bone structure and correlated to me-chanical properties of bone. (
  • Results of the ultrasound techniques and their relation to established radiological measurements for the as-sessment of bone mineral density in vivo and in vitro are reported. (
  • Sometimes an ultrasound is used to get an early indication of bone density, with an X-Ray follow-up if the ultrasound indicates need. (
  • If your results show you have low bone density, your health care provider will recommend steps to prevent further bone loss. (
  • If you have questions about your results and/or treatments for bone loss, talk to your health care provider. (
  • But your health care provider may order more tests to confirm a diagnosis or to find out if bone loss treatment is working. (
  • In addition to the right foods, strength training goes a long way in improving bone health. (
  • Prepare nutritious meals that will help you enjoy good health, prevent bone density loss and reap benefits that contribute to healthy bone density. (
  • Integrate onions into meals and salads, they boost bone health. (
  • A 2019 review found that regular plyometric training improved bone health, muscular strength, body composition, postural stability, and physical performance in 176 women from 58 to 79 years old," Welch shares. (
  • Bone health is dependent on inherited genes from our parents. (
  • Which dietary factors can affect bone health? (
  • In a society that's obsessed with muscle, it's easy to forget about the bones, but our bones are integral to our health. (
  • If so, do women have to choose between heart health and strong bones? (
  • Learn more about bone health. (
  • Sequential bone density tests done over several years is one means to determine an individual's overall bone health. (
  • There are several different ways to assess the health of your bones. (
  • While a broken bone is not a major concern when we're young, it is a serious health issue as we get older. (
  • The Bone Density Solution is a well-rounded plan that gives powerful, all-natural techniques to develop your bones and increase your bone health to avoid bone injuries and boost your health. (
  • So if you discover an insufficiency in almost any vital bone-helping nutrient, it could cause numerous health concerns, such as weakening bones. (
  • Childhood is an important time to build strong bones and optimize bone health because 90 percent of peak bone mass is achieved by age 18. (
  • We hope to look at the public health aspects of promoting bone health as a means of injury prevention. (
  • Because bone health status during childhood may directly impact adult bone health, opportunities to intervene during childhood should be pursued. (
  • A forearm fracture could be an indication for parents that they need to have a larger conversation with their child's pediatrician about bone health and what steps to take to ensure proper bone development," stated James Chamberlain, MD , senior author of the study and Division Chief of Emergency Medicine and Trauma Services . (
  • BMD was correlated with baseline demographic, clinical and laboratory markers of disease activity and biochemical markers of bone health. (
  • To be eligible for the successful placement of dental implants, the patient must have good oral health and jaw bone density to support the implant. (
  • I’ve never had a fracture or bone health issues. (
  • Talk to your health care provider about getting a bone density test, and discuss with him or her any concerns you have about your bone health. (
  • Taking steps now can help ensure good bone health in the future. (
  • In our practice at Men's Health Boston, we now routinely obtain DEXA imaging in these men because of the high rate of abnormal BMD, and we regularly see improvements in bone density with testosterone therapy," Dr Morgentaler reported. (
  • She's been a patient at Kennedy Krieger Institute for the past decade, working with specialists in a variety of fields, including bone health, audiology, neurology and physical therapy. (
  • That's why, as I mentioned earlier, today's exercise involves muscles you may not have considered when it comes to bone health and posture. (
  • Their interaction with other micronutrients could maintain bone health and therefore was difficult to evaluate the separate effect of each nutrient. (
  • It is also straight connected with relief from joint pain, though it might be utilized in this dental health supplement to prevent bone loss. (
  • How Bone Density influences your Health? (
  • Abstract Objective: This study aimed to analyze the association between lumbar spine, femoral neck, total hip bone mineral density (biophysical bone health assessment parameter), and sociodemographic, anthropometric, behavioral, and health condition factors in Brazilian adults. (
  • Brittle bones break more easily. (
  • In line with the state website, The Bone Density Solution can be a computerized system to show you how to deal with fragile bone fragments and brittle bones. (
  • Possessing brittle bones lowers a person's lifespan, an investigation located, but how much used age in which therapy began. (
  • Evaluating is essential to come across these individuals before this takes place so they can take measures to diminish the impact of brittle bones. (
  • Getting steroid ointment drugs as tablets in the dosage of five milligrams or higher for three or higher weeks can improve the possibility of bone tissue loss and also establish brittle bones. (
  • The Bone Density Solution website states that brittle bones are a lifestyle situation. (
  • The study revealed that those who ingested more magnesium had significantly higher bone density than those who got the least amount of magnesium. (
  • The higher bone density and cylindrical implants with surface treatment provides greater IT and PF. (
  • 2 In contrast, women in the control group, who were not using hormonal contraception, had no significant change in bone mineral density. (
  • It was concluded that ESWT is able to promote change in bone mineral density. (
  • Bone is most easily seen in white, while the, fat and muscle tissue look like shadows in the background on the technologist's computer monitor. (
  • Low bone density occurs when our bodies lose bone tissue faster than it can be replaced. (
  • Today, more treatments are available to help reduce the risk of breaking a bone and to build new bone tissue faster. (
  • The more significant your bone tissue density, the greater number of bones you've "within the lender," plus the more unlikely you're to formulate weakening of bones as you may age. (
  • Weak bones are surely an age-connected situation that usually impacts females more than guys because of the hormone alterations at being menopausal affecting bone tissue wellness. (
  • Individuals with weak bones are susceptible to fracturing their bones due to very low bone mineral density, a lack of bone tissue and lower bone mass that causes a fragile and delicate bone framework. (
  • Healthcare providers sometimes call these tests bone densitometry tests, or DXA. (
  • Many individuals lose bone mass as they get older. (
  • For example, your DEXA might say you have low bone density as compared with the standard young reference range, but this does not give a sense of whether you have had thin bones since youth, or whether something caused you to lose bone after reaching a peak bone mass. (
  • Because men have a higher bone mass and lose bone more slowly than women, they’re at a lower risk of fracture. (
  • We begin to lose bone density, balance and coordination as we age. (
  • Most often, the foods we eat lack certain minerals essential for bones. (
  • These minerals not only contribute to bone development, they help in maintaining bone density as well. (
  • Vital minerals for healthy bones are also provided, including zinc, selenium, and magnesium oxide. (
  • The loss of minerals from bones can be due to age, disease and nutritional status. (
  • Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by dual-photon X-ray absorptiometry at the lumbar spine (L3, L4), the proximal femur and the femoral shaft, and by single-photon absorptiometry at the forearm in 53 patients with complete traumatic paraplegia of at least 1 year's duration and in age- and sex-matched healthy controls. (
  • The SPA (single-photon absorptiometry) is a radiation scanning technique that measures bones such as those in the wrist or heel. (
  • In addition, duel energy radiographic absorptiometry scanning should be considered to evaluate bone density. (
  • Little is known about bone mass acquisition among stunted adolescents who did not achieve their growth in height. (
  • Bones reach maximum mass between the ages of 25 and 35. (
  • Though men do not experience similar hormonal changes and tend to have larger and denser bones than women, men also begin losing bone mass later in life. (
  • Many individuals, including those who are slender and very active, have lower bone mass all of their lives. (
  • Many world-class athletes have low bone mass but their bones are healthy and very strong. (
  • Research shows women start losing bone mass earlier and faster than men. (
  • Any kind of strength training or jump training when you're post-menopausal can help improve your bone mineral density and muscle mass, and maintain your estrogen levels, says Welch. (
  • Gradually, over time, you turn on certain genes that help regulate estrogen production and can even delay age-related losses in bone density and muscle mass. (
  • Childhood and adolescence are crucial periods of bone mass accrual. (
  • More than 90% of the peak bone mass should be accrued by the end of adolescence. (
  • Z-score was more sensitive than BMD T-score for detecting low bone mass. (
  • So, what if someone doesn't have enough jaw bone mass? (
  • Bone grafting is an advanced and safe surgical procedure where bone matter obtained from the patient's body or an external source is placed in the jaw where adequate bone mass is deficient or requires additional structural support. (
  • Evaluation of long-term vitamin E insufficiency or excess on bone mass, density, and microarchitecture in rodents. (
  • Body fat is measured by percentage, calculated by how much body fat you have in relation to the rest of your body (bones, water weight, muscle mass etc). (
  • They found "Bone mass increased by up to 7% in parts of the exercised hip's outer shell or cortex. (
  • Information on non-invasive physical techniques for bone mass assessment is especially detailed. (
  • Your T-score compares your bone density with that of an ideal young standard of the same gender. (
  • When interpreting bone mineral density test results in adolescents, the patient's age and degree of skeletal maturation should be taken into account. (
  • We went back to the literature and found that more than a third of children diagnosed with pre-B ALL had symptoms of bone pain and skeletal defects at the time they were diagnosed - suggesting leukaemia cells can alter their surrounding environment. (
  • Diagnosis of short-limb skeletal dysplasia is based on the most severely affected segment of the long bone. (
  • The results also showed increases in the density of the layer of spongy bone under the cortex. (
  • B-The tracer ROI was drawn to include the entire trabecular bone except the pedicles. (
  • Notice the ROI on the vertebra, the water equivalent phantom (W), and the bone equivalent phantom (B). The vertebral ROI was confined to trabecular bone by use of the vertebral canal, ventral point of the vertebral body, bilateral intermediate points of the vertebral body, and the ventral point of the vertebral canal as landmarks. (
  • Women who take the drug for more than 2 years should have their bone mineral density monitored. (
  • In women, it remains constant till menopause and starts to shrink in size and density during the later stages. (
  • Post menopausal women undergo rapid bone loss during the first five years. (
  • He points out that a 2015 study of 60 women ages 25 to 50 found that those who performed jumping exercises for just 10 times, twice a day, over 16 weeks saw improvements in hip bone mineral density. (
  • Women are at greater risk than men because they have smaller bones and experience a higher rate of bone loss around the time of menopause. (
  • Pre-menopausal women participating in the study lost bone density in the hip, not the spine, as a result of their weight loss. (
  • The men in the study lost more fat than muscle, while in the post-menopausal women the loss of both muscle and fat correlated with declines in bone density. (
  • The Boston research team noted that the bone loss seen in these women might be sex specific and influenced by hormones. (
  • The morbidity and mortality associated with fracture, in particular hip fracture, are greater for men than for women, the authors found, and they wrote that there is a lack of bone-forming agents for men. (
  • Geographical variation in DXA bone mineral density in young European men and women. (
  • Low bone density affects about 52 million Americans, both men and women. (
  • A new online decision aid called "Healthy Bones" was developed as part of this summary for women who have gone through menopause. (
  • Does The Bone Density Solution Works For All Men And Women? (
  • Finally, several studies have also concluded that various nutrients are linked to bone mineral density in women. (
  • Compared with HIV-negative controls, women with HIV were more likely to have elevated triglycerides and insulin levels ( 7 ) and decreased bone mineral density ( 8 ). (
  • To investigate the association between subclinical peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and bone mineral density (BMD) at total hip , femoral neck , and lumbar spine (L1-4) in elderly men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). (
  • Additionally, researchers performed bone mineral density tests on the participants. (
  • Researchers from Thomas Jefferson University in Philadelphia trained a deep-learning algorithm that yielded 86.2% accuracy for classifying bone mineral density on hip radiographs, according to presenter Dr. Simukayi Mutasa. (
  • The researchers hypothesized that convolutional neural networks (CNNs) could be utilized to obtain bone mineral density from diagnostic imaging studies performed for other purposes. (
  • In the future, the researchers would like to utilize the quantitative image labels they have obtained and apply linear regression networks to gain a more fine-tuned representation of the patient's bone mineral density, according to Mutasa. (
  • The researchers would also like to tighten the gap in the cases they used between when patients received x-rays and DEXA exams, as some patients may experience significant change in bone density within a year, Mutasa said. (
  • These researchers found that both low levels of vitamin D in the blood and the corticosteroids commonly used to treat IBD were associated with low bone density. (
  • The researchers wanted to discover what was causing the bone loss and identified a signal produced by the leukaemia cells which instructed cells in the microenvironment - known as osteoclasts - to eat away at the bone. (
  • Implant design should be widely studied by researchers in order to increase the surface area in contact with the bone, consequently the osseointegration, bone anchorage and load distribution 9,10 . (
  • This study aimed at performing a retrospective analysis of the correlation between pixel density ratio (PDR) calculations and clinical readiness for weight bearing in patients undergoing intramedullary nail-mediated femoral distraction osteogenesis. (
  • As you age, your bones can lose thickness and strength. (
  • If your bone density is lower than what is considered normal, there are simple measures you can take to increase their thickness and strength. (
  • What is a bone density test? (
  • A bone density test, DEXA, measures the mineral content of the bones in certain areas of the skeleton. (
  • The beams use very little radiation to keep the test safer, and help to distinguish bone from other tissues. (
  • Your risk for breaking a bone, based on results of a bone density test. (
  • Mayo Clinic Q and A: Who should have a bone density test? (
  • But after my annual physical this year, my doctor suggested a bone density test. (
  • Most young, healthy people do not need a bone density test. (
  • If you are a woman 65 or older, a bone density test is recommended, with a repeat test generally performed two years after the initial test, although this interval may change depending upon any treatments being administered. (
  • Mayo Clinic Q and A: Do you need a bone density test? (
  • Interestingly, men who lost weight in the same study actually gained bone density in the spine, and the density in their hips didn't change. (
  • What Are The Causes Of Weak Bones? (
  • Weak bones could cause discomfort inside your bone, which is generally much more serious compared to the standard pains to get more aged. (
  • Weak bones effects reduced bone durability, and as a result, people with this problem have reached an improved probability of bone injuries. (
  • Weak bones are a type of ailment that leads bone to get breakable and fragile in a way that an uncomplicated fall or slight tension could cause a bone fracture. (
  • Sadly, there is no identified remedy for weak bones. (
  • Research suggests that tobacco use contributes to weak bones. (
  • Investigators recently studied the link between vitamin D deficiency and bone loss in people with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. (
  • IBD patients with low levels of vitamin D had twice the risk of having low bone density as the IBD patients with normal levels of vitamin D. Patients with vitamin D deficiency had nearly three times the risk of having low bone density as those with normal levels of vitamin D. (
  • Most medical insurance companies cover bone density testing for patients with certain medical conditions, though many insurers limit the frequency of these tests. (
  • However, a warning was recently issued that patients taking this drug may experience a significant loss of bone mineral density. (
  • This drug, which is widely taken by patients for whom compliance is an issue (e.g., adolescents and young adults), may cause a loss of bone density that may not be fully reversible in a group that is least able to afford such a loss. (
  • Does standing protect bone density in patients with chronic spinal cord injury? (
  • RxWiki News) Patients with inflammatory bowel disease have an increased risk of low bone density. (
  • Asian patients had four times the chance of having low bone density as Caucasians. (
  • Dr. Abraham and team found that IBD patients who took corticosteroids had twice the risk of having low bone density as those who did not take corticosteroids. (
  • Objectives The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) in a large prospective cohort of newly diagnosed patients with paediatric systemic lupus erythematosus (pSLE) and (2) identify risk factors associated with low BMD. (
  • 4 Patients with paediatric SLE (pSLE) are at risk of missing this critical period of bone accrual due to disease activity, treatment, decreased physical activity and vitamin D insufficiency. (
  • Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene polymorphisms have been associated with interindividual variations in glucocorticoid sensitivity in healthy individuals.Aim: Aim of this study was to investigate whether there was an association with sensitivity to glucocorticoids and bone mineral density in HPA axis disorders.Methods: We analyzed 3 polymorphisms of the GR gene (Bcl1, N363S, ER22/23EK) in 185 subjects: 52 patients with Cushing’. (
  • In a new study, this technique was more sensitive in detecting bone loss than the X-ray method used today, with less risk to patients. (
  • Vitamin D receptor initiation codon polymorphism, bone density and inflammatory activity of patients with ankylosing spondylitis. (
  • A retrospective study of male patients by Andereggen et al indicated that in men with prolactinomas, impaired bone density remains a problem even after medical (dopamine-agonist) or surgical treatment. (
  • Antiresorptive drugs operate in the bone metabolism modulation and are widely used in the treatment of bone metastases and bone losses related to hormonal deficiency. (
  • Bone density results are often given in the form of a T score. (
  • Paediatric studies on bone mineral density (BMD) with rheumatic diseases demonstrated conflicting results. (
  • There are different ways to measure bone density. (
  • It's a way to measure bone loss as you age. (
  • It uses very low levels of x-rays to measure how dense your bones are. (
  • SPA is a simple radiation scanning technique used to measure "appendicular" bones, such as the wrist or heel. (
  • You will lie on your back on a padded platform while a mechanical arm passes over your body using low dose x-rays to measure your bone density. (
  • DEXA can measure as little as 2% of bone loss per year. (
  • The findings of the present study suggest that there may be a correlation between the PDR and clinical bone healing. (
  • Dr Cheung said the findings, although pre-clinical, were promising and suggested that targeting the microenvironment around leukaemia cells could not only help fight leukaemia but simultaneously provide relief for one of its most common and painful side-effects, bone loss. (
  • When we created a pre-clinical model replicating this kind of leukaemia, we witnessed substantial bone loss during the development of the cancer," Dr Cheung said. (
  • The numerical value of the initial stability can be provided for clinical instruments such as Periotest and Osstell, and can be translated as the insertion torque value measured during the final seating of the implant in the recipient bed, which provides information about the quality of local bone, it can easily be obtained with the aid of a surgical wrench. (
  • We demonstrated the association between subclinical PAD and decreased total hip bone mineral density (BMD) in men aged ≥ 55 years with T2DM, providing clinical clues for the early detection of decreased bone density in total hip . (
  • Subclinical PAD (ABI ≤ 0.9) could be used as a risk factor for decreased total hip BMD in men aged ≥ 55 years with T2DM, which provides clinical clues for the early detection of low bone density in total hip in such populations . (
  • The full paper, 'New therapeutic opportunities from dissecting the pre-B leukemia bone marrow microenvironment', can be read in Leukemia . (
  • Examples of these drugs include steroid medications, such as prednisone, and immunosuppressant medications, such as those taken after organ or bone marrow transplants. (
  • Multiple myeloma (often called myeloma) affects plasma cells, a type of white blood cell found in your bone marrow. (
  • It means some of these cells have become cancerous and can crowd out the healthy blood cells in your bone marrow. (
  • As we get older, bones become more fragile and more likely to break. (
  • QCT is another radiation-based technology that directly measures the "central" bones such as the spinal vertebral bodies. (
  • This group of muscles is absolutely crucial for posture and vertebral density - they are involved in back extension, proper curvature of the spine, and holding the spine in an erect, upright position. (
  • DEXA tests help your healthcare provider track your bone density and risk for having a broken bone over time. (