Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Bone Diseases, MetabolicFractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Radius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Femur Neck: The constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal: Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.Bone Density Conservation Agents: Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Hip: The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Arm Bones: The bones of the free part of the upper extremity including the HUMERUS; RADIUS; and ULNA.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Calcaneus: The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Densitometry: The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Diphosphonates: Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Pelvic Bones: Bones that constitute each half of the pelvic girdle in VERTEBRATES, formed by fusion of the ILIUM; ISCHIUM; and PUBIC BONE.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Metacarpus: The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Alendronate: A nonhormonal medication for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. This drug builds healthy bone, restoring some of the bone loss as a result of osteoporosis.Bone Demineralization, Pathologic: Decrease, loss, or removal of the mineral constituents of bones. Temporary loss of bone mineral content is especially associated with space flight, weightlessness, and extended immobilization. OSTEOPOROSIS is permanent, includes reduction of total bone mass, and is associated with increased rate of fractures. CALCIFICATION, PHYSIOLOGIC is the process of bone remineralizing. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed; Nicogossian, Space Physiology and Medicine, 2d ed, pp327-33)Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Osseointegration: The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Alveolar Bone Loss: Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ilium: The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.Fractures, Spontaneous: Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ulna: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.Dental Implants: Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hip Fractures: Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Parietal Bone: One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.Etidronic Acid: A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Amenorrhea: Absence of menstruation.Spinal Fractures: Broken bones in the vertebral column.Calcium Citrate: A colorless crystalline or white powdery organic, tricarboxylic acid occurring in plants, especially citrus fruits, and used as a flavoring agent, as an antioxidant in foods, and as a sequestrating agent. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Osteoporotic Fractures: Breaks in bones resulting from low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration characteristic of OSTEOPOROSIS.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Osteopetrosis: Excessive formation of dense trabecular bone leading to pathological fractures; OSTEITIS; SPLENOMEGALY with infarct; ANEMIA; and extramedullary hemopoiesis (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Bone Cysts: Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.Candy: Sweet food products combining cane or beet sugars with other carbohydrates and chocolate, milk, eggs, and various flavorings. In the United States, candy refers to both sugar- and cocoa-based confections and is differentiated from sweetened baked goods; elsewhere the terms sugar confectionary, chocolate confectionary, and flour confectionary (meaning goods such as cakes and pastries) are used.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Diaphyses: The shaft of long bones.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Female Athlete Triad Syndrome: A condition of competitive female athletes in which there are interrelated problems of EATING DISORDERS; AMENORRHEA; and OSTEOPOROSIS.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.RANK Ligand: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.Mice, Inbred C57BLPremenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Osteoprotegerin: A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Estrogen Replacement Therapy: The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.Anorexia Nervosa: An eating disorder that is characterized by the lack or loss of APPETITE, known as ANOREXIA. Other features include excess fear of becoming OVERWEIGHT; BODY IMAGE disturbance; significant WEIGHT LOSS; refusal to maintain minimal normal weight; and AMENORRHEA. This disorder occurs most frequently in adolescent females. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Dental Implantation, Endosseous: Insertion of an implant into the bone of the mandible or maxilla. The implant has an exposed head which protrudes through the mucosa and is a prosthodontic abutment.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Dancing: Rhythmic and patterned body movements which are usually performed to music.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Bone Plates: Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Alveolar Process: The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Frontal Bone: The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7: A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Puberty: A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.Bone Marrow DiseasesHip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-5: LDL-receptor related protein that combines with FRIZZLED RECEPTORS at the cell surface to form receptors that bind WNT PROTEINS. The protein plays an important role in the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY in OSTEOBLASTS and during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Renal Osteodystrophy: Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Oligomenorrhea: Abnormally infrequent menstruation.Leg Bones: The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the FEMUR; PATELLA; TIBIA; and FIBULA.Metacarpal Bones: The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Osteogenesis Imperfecta: COLLAGEN DISEASES characterized by brittle, osteoporotic, and easily fractured bones. It may also present with blue sclerae, loose joints, and imperfect dentin formation. Most types are autosomal dominant and are associated with mutations in COLLAGEN TYPE I.Beclomethasone: An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Bone Marrow Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.Bone Marrow Examination: Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Orthodontic Anchorage Procedures: Attachment of orthodontic devices and materials to the MOUTH area for support and to provide a counterforce to orthodontic forces.Dental Implants, Single-Tooth: Devices, usually alloplastic, surgically inserted into or onto the jawbone, which support a single prosthetic tooth and serve either as abutments or as cosmetic replacements for missing teeth.Osteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.Tarsal Bones: The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Radiography, Bitewing: Technique involving the passage of X-rays through oral structures to create a film record while a central tab or wing of dental X-ray film is being held between upper and lower teeth.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Metatarsal Bones: The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.Hip Prosthesis: Replacement for a hip joint.Calcitonin: A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Femoral Neck Fractures: Fractures of the short, constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters. It excludes intertrochanteric fractures which are HIP FRACTURES.LDL-Receptor Related Proteins: A family of proteins that share sequence similarity with the low density lipoprotein receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL).Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Cementation: The joining of objects by means of a cement (e.g., in fracture fixation, such as in hip arthroplasty for joining of the acetabular component to the femoral component). In dentistry, it is used for the process of attaching parts of a tooth or restorative material to a natural tooth or for the attaching of orthodontic bands to teeth by means of an adhesive.Fractures, Stress: Fractures due to the strain caused by repetitive exercise. They are thought to arise from a combination of MUSCLE FATIGUE and bone failure, and occur in situations where BONE REMODELING predominates over repair. The most common sites of stress fractures are the METATARSUS; FIBULA; TIBIA; and FEMORAL NECK.Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Sports: Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.Hormone Replacement Therapy: Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Immediate Dental Implant Loading: Endosseous dental implantation where implants are fitted with an abutment or where an implant with a transmucosal coronal portion is used immediately (within 1 week) after the initial extraction. Conventionally, the implantation is performed in two stages with more than two months in between the stages.Hydroxyproline: A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Contraceptive Agents, Female: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Menstruation: The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.Isoflavones: 3-Phenylchromones. Isomeric form of FLAVONOIDS in which the benzene group is attached to the 3 position of the benzopyran ring instead of the 2 position.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Procollagen: A biosynthetic precursor of collagen containing additional amino acid sequences at the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal ends of the polypeptide chains.25-Hydroxyvitamin D 2: 9,10-Secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-3,25-diol. Biologically active metabolite of vitamin D2 which is more active in curing rickets than its parent. The compound is believed to attach to the same receptor as vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Foot Bones: The TARSAL BONES; METATARSAL BONES; and PHALANGES OF TOES. The tarsal bones consists of seven bones: CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid; navicular; internal; middle; and external cuneiform bones. The five metatarsal bones are numbered one through five, running medial to lateral. There are 14 phalanges in each foot, the great toe has two while the other toes have three each.Hypogonadism: Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).Forearm: Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Bone Demineralization Technique: Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Femur Head: The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Medroxyprogesterone Acetate: A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.Colles' Fracture: Fracture of the lower end of the radius in which the lower fragment is displaced posteriorly.Atriplex: A plant genus in the CHENOPODIACEAE family.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Cholecalciferol: Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.Radiography, Panoramic: Extraoral body-section radiography depicting an entire maxilla, or both maxilla and mandible, on a single film.Calcifediol: The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.Raloxifene: A second generation selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) used to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. It has estrogen agonist effects on bone and cholesterol metabolism but behaves as a complete estrogen antagonist on mammary gland and uterine tissue.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Medroxyprogesterone: (6 alpha)-17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A synthetic progestational hormone used in veterinary practice as an estrus regulator.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal: Fibrous blood-filled cyst in the bone. Although benign it can be destructive causing deformity and fractures.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip: Replacement of the hip joint.Hydroxycholecalciferols: Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Periosteum: Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.

Association of polymorphism at the type I collagen (COL1A1) locus with reduced bone mineral density, increased fracture risk, and increased collagen turnover. (1/6095)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between a common polymorphism within intron 1 of the COL1A1 gene and osteoporosis in a nested case-control study. METHODS: We studied 185 healthy women (mean +/- SD age 54.3+/-4.6 years). Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry, and fractures were determined radiographically. The COL1A1 genotype was assessed using the polymerase chain reaction and Bal I endonuclease digestion. RESULTS: Genotype frequencies were similar to those previously observed and in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium: SS 61.1%, Ss 36.2%, and ss 2.7%. Carriage of at least one copy of the "s" allele was associated with a significant reduction in lumbar spine BMD (P = 0.02) and an increased risk of total fracture (P = 0.04). Urinary pyridinoline levels were significantly elevated in those with the risk allele (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These data support the findings that the COL1A1 gene polymorphism is associated with low BMD and fracture risk, and suggest a possible physiologic effect on total body turnover of type I collagen.  (+info)

Predicting bone loss following orthotopic liver transplantation. (2/6095)

BACKGROUND: Hepatic osteodystrophy occurs in the majority of patients with advanced chronic liver disease with the abnormalities in bone metabolism accelerating following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). AIMS: To examine changes in bone mineral density (BMD) following OLT and to investigate factors that lead to bone loss. METHODS: Twelve patients had BMD (at both the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN)) and biochemical markers measured preoperatively and for 24 months following OLT. RESULTS: BMD was low in 75% of patients prior to OLT and decreased significantly from baseline at the LS at three months and the FN at six months. BMD began to increase thereafter at both sites, approaching baseline values at the LS by 12 months. Bone formation markers, osteocalcin and procollagen type I carboxy propeptide, decreased immediately post-OLT, with a concomitant increase seen in the resorption markers pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline. This resulted in a negative uncoupling index early post-OLT, that rebounded to positive values after six months. There was a significant correlation between the change in the uncoupling index between six and three months which preceded the increase in BMD at 12 months. The decrease in BMD recorded early post-OLT correlated with vitamin D levels at three months. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that increased resorption and inadequate formation are the major contributors to additional bone loss following OLT. Non-invasive biochemical markers precede later changes in BMD in this patient group following OLT and may have a role in investigating and planning intervention strategies to prevent bone loss in future studies.  (+info)

Osteopenia in the patient with cancer. (3/6095)

Osteopenia is defined as a reduction in bone mass. It is commonly known to occur in elderly people or women who are postmenopausal due to hormonal imbalances. This condition, however, can result because of many other factors, such as poor nutrition, prolonged pharmacological intervention, disease, and decreased mobility. Because patients with cancer experience many of these factors, they are often predisposed to osteopenia. Currently, patients with cancer are living longer and leading more fulfilling lives after treatment. Therefore, it is imperative that therapists who are responsible for these patients understand the risk factors for osteopenia and their relevance to a patient with cancer.  (+info)

Effect of shellfish calcium on the apparent absorption of calcium and bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats. (4/6095)

Fossil shellfish powder (FS) and Ezo giant scallop shell powder (EG) were rendered soluble with lactate and citrate under decompression (FSEx and EGEx, respectively) and we examined the effects of lactate-citrate solubilization of FS and EG on mineral absorption, tissue mineral contents, serum biochemical indices and bone mineral density (BMD) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The apparent absorption ratios of minerals tended to be high in the rats fed with the solubilized mineral sources, those in the FSEx group being significantly higher than in the FS group. There was no significant difference in the tibia mineral content among the OVX groups. BMD at the distal femoral diaphysis was significantly increased by FSEx and EGEx feeding. It is suggested that solubilization with lactate and citrate under decompression increased the solubility and bioavailability of calcium from such natural sources of shellfish calcium as FS and EG.  (+info)

Study of the effect of lactational bone loss on blood lead concentrations in humans. (5/6095)

Lactation and other clinical states of high bone turnover have been suggested to release lead (Pb) stored in bone into blood and tissues. Previous observations on the influences of lactation have been anecdotal, or at high blood Pb concentrations with varying past exposures, or complicated by postpartum fluid changes. A prospective observational study was performed to investigate possible changes in blood lead concentrations at multiple intervals during lactation for 6 months postpartum and to relate changes in blood lead concentrations to changes in bone density and other variables. Volunteer pregnant subjects (n = 58) were enrolled from a midwifery service at an academic public health hospital. Subjects were mostly Hispanic, recently immigrated, of low economic status, not receiving supplemental calcium, and had low blood Pb concentrations (2.35 +/- 2.05 microg/dl at enrollment). Bone density losses over 6 months for the group averaged -2.46 +/- 6.33% at the vertebral spine and -0.67 +/- 5.21% at the femoral neck. In predicting final bone density, apart from initial bone density only the total number of breast-feedings was a significant independent variable of the variables tested, accounting for an additional 12% of the variability. No changes in blood Pb concentrations were seen over the interval beyond 2 weeks postpartum (minimum detectable change was 0.4 microg/dl). There was no relation between the changes in bone density and changes in blood Pb or the integrated blood Pb over the 2-week to 6-month period. Normal (nonlactating) bone resorption rates contribute a large fraction of the Pb in blood during low-exposure circumstances. However, during lactation the increase in bone resorptive processes is probably relatively small with a larger decrease in deposition accounting for net bone loss, as suggested by other investigations. Thus, concomitant release of Pb from bones of lactating subjects with low blood lead concentrations on this background of high normal resorption was not large enough for detection.  (+info)

Mechanical considerations in impaction bone grafting. (6/6095)

In impaction grafting of contained bone defects after revision joint arthroplasty the graft behaves as a friable aggregate and its resistance to complex forces depends on grading, normal load and compaction. Bone mills in current use produce a distribution of particle sizes more uniform than is desirable for maximising resistance to shear stresses. We have performed experiments in vitro using morsellised allograft bone from the femoral head which have shown that its mechanical properties improve with increasing normal load and with increasing shear strains (strain hardening). The mechanical strength also increases with increasing compaction energy, and with the addition of bioglass particles to make good the deficiency in small and very small fragments. Donor femoral heads may be milled while frozen without affecting the profile of the particle size. Osteoporotic femoral heads provide a similar grading of sizes, although fewer particles are obtained from each specimen. Our findings have implications for current practice and for the future development of materials and techniques.  (+info)

Transplantation of osteoblast-like cells to the distracted callus in rabbits. (7/6095)

We carried out limb lengthening in rabbits and then transplanted osteoblast-like cells derived from the tibial periosteum to the centres of distracted callus immediately after distraction had been terminated. Two weeks later the transaxial area ratio at the centre of the distracted callus and the bone mineral density (BMD) were significantly higher in the transplanted group, by 21% and 42%, respectively, than in the non-injected group or the group injected with physiological saline (p < 0.05). Callus BMD as a percentage of density in uninvolved bone was also significantly higher in the transplanted group (p < 0.05) than in the other two groups, by 27% and 20% in the second and fourth weeks, respectively (p < 0.05). Mechanically, the callus in the transplanted group tended to be stronger as shown by the three-point bending test although the difference in fracture strength was not statistically significant. Our results show that transplantation of osteoblast-like cells promotes maturity of the distracted callus as observed at the second and fourth weeks after lengthening. The method appears promising as a means of shortening the consolidation period of callus distraction and decreasing complications during limb lengthening with an external fixator.  (+info)

Subsidence of a non-polished stem in revisions of the hip using impaction allograft. Evaluation with radiostereometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. (8/6095)

We revised 24 consecutive hips with loosening of the femoral stem using impaction allograft and a cemented stem with an unpolished proximal surface. Repeated radiostereometric examinations for up to two years showed a slow rate of subsidence with a mean of 0.32 mm (-2.0 to +0.31). Fifteen cases followed for a further year showed the same mean subsidence after three years, indicating stabilisation. A tendency to retroversion of the stems was noted between the operation and the last follow-up. Retroversion was also recorded when displacement of the stem was studied in ten of the patients after two years. Repeated determination of bone mineral density showed an initial loss after six months, followed by recovery to the postoperative level at two years. Defects in the cement mantle and malalignment of the stem were often noted on postoperative radiographs, but did not correlate with the degrees of migration or displacement. After one year, increasing frequency of trabecular remodelling or resorption of the graft was observed in the greater trochanter and distal to the tip of the stem. Cortical repair was noted distally and medially (Gruen regions 3, 5 and 6). Migration of the stems was the lowest reported to date, which we attribute to the improved grafting technique and to the hardness of the graft.  (+info)

*Bone density

... or bone mineral density (BMD) is the amount of bone mineral in bone tissue. The concept is of mass of mineral per ... The DXA test works by measuring a specific bone or bones, usually the spine, hip, and wrist. The density of these bones is then ... The following are risk factors for low bone density and primary considerations for the need for a bone density test. females ... Crushed vertebrae can result in falsely high bone density, so they must be excluded from analysis. Bone Density at the US ...

*Bone mineral density quantiative trait locus 8

... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMND8 gene. "Human PubMed ... Reference:". "Entrez Gene: Bone mineral density quantiative trait locus 8". Retrieved 2016-06-27. ...

*Olive oil

"Bone density scan ... Olive oil ... Bursitis". Women's Health Advisor. 14 (7): 8. 2010. Deborah Bogle/Tom Mueller "Losing our ...

*Lactagen

... and low bone density. There is substantial evidence indicating that lactose intolerance is a major factor in limiting calcium ... Barger-Lux and Heaney (August 1, 1994). "The role of calcium intake in preventing bone fragilty, hypertension and certain ...

*Spaceflight osteopenia

... causing bones to decrease in mass and density. Average bone loss of 1-2% was recorded in astronauts on Mir each month. This is ... "Different approaches of remodeling of bone to predict bone density distribution of proximal femur". Retrieved 2013-02-23. "Trip ... "LOST IN SPACE: BONE DENSITY". NASA. Retrieved 2013-02-23. Ubick, Suzanne; Mud, Mud, Glorious Mud, The Magazine of the ... Bone remodels in response to stress in order to maintain constant strain energy per bone mass throughout. To do this, it grows ...

*Classification of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome

... low bone density). Other common features include a "marfanoid habitus" which is characterized by long, slender fingers ( ... smooth and velvety skin with easy bruising and chronic pain of the muscles and/or bones. Classical EDS - associated with ... shortened bones, chronic diarrhea, joint hypermobility and dislocation, bladder rupture, or poor wound healing. Inheritance ...

*Patient's Friends Society-Jerusalem

PFS makes available bone density screening. "Sunrise," a cancer support group for women was founded by three cancer patients in ...

*Thalassocnus

One such adaptation is increased bone density. Heavier bones help lower buoyancy and thus conserve energy. The bones of ... Changes in bone structure suggest that Thalassocnus used to live in a terrestrial habit and then slowly adapted to an aquatic ... As time passed, a gradual thickening of the cortical bone was found in the ribs and limbs of Thalassocnus; an increase in ... Amson, E.; Muizon, C. de; Laurin, M.; Argot, C.; Buffrénil, V. de (2014). "Gradual adaptation of bone structure to aquatic ...

*Rickets

A bone density scan may be undertaken. Radiography typically show widening of the zones of provisional calcification of the ... Bone deformities may also improve over time. Occasionally surgery may be done to fix bone deformities. Genetic forms of the ... Rickets is a condition that results in weak or soft bones in children. Symptoms include bowed legs, stunted growth, bone pain, ... Maternal deficiencies may be the cause of overt bone disease from before birth and impairment of bone quality after birth. The ...

*Adaptation

"Obstetric implications of Neanderthal robusticity and bone density". Human Evolution. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 9 (4): 331- ... which we know from paleontological and embryological studies originated in the upper and lower jaws and the hyoid bone of their ...

*Cone beam computed tomography

Lee S, Gantes B, Riggs M, Crigger M (2007). "Bone density assessments of dental implant sites: 3. Bone quality evaluation ... Norton MR, Gamble C (February 2001). "Bone classification: an objective scale of bone density using the computerized tomography ... radiographically-identified bone density for purposes such as the placement of dental implants, as there is "no good data to ... Although some authors have supported the use of CBCT technology to evaluate bone density by measuring HU, such support is ...

*Diuretic

This can increase risk of reduced bone density. Osmotic diuretics (e.g. mannitol) are substances that increase osmolality but ... Bakhireva LN, Barrett-Connor E, Kritz-Silverstein D, Morton DJ (June 2004). "Modifiable predictors of bone loss in older men: a ... Rejnmark L, Vestergaard P, Heickendorff L, Andreasen F, Mosekilde L (January 2006). "Loop diuretics increase bone turnover and ... decrease BMD in osteopenic postmenopausal women: results from a randomized controlled study with bumetanide". J. Bone Miner. ...

*Wellbeing of Women

... and the bone density of post-menopausal women. The charity was renamed 'Wellbeing of Women', in 2004. Wellbeing of Women ...

*Dark skin

DeVita Raeburn, Elizabeth (20 November 2013). "Bone Density Higher in Blacks, Vitamin D Lower". MedPage Today. Retrieved 19 ... as they found that on average dark-skinned individuals have higher bone density and lower risk of fractures than lighter- ... The most prevalent disease to follow vitamin D deficiency is rickets, the softening of bones in children potentially leading to ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Vieth, R (2003). In Bone Loss and Osteoporosis: an Anthropological Perspective. ...

*Skeletal pneumaticity

Dumont, Elizabeth R. (2010-07-22). "Bone density and the lightweight skeletons of birds". Proceedings of the Royal Society of ... yet the bones of birds were found to be denser than the bones of mammals. This suggests that pneumatization of bird bones does ... By invading the bones, the pneumatic diverticula would replace marrow with air, reducing the overall body mass. Reducing the ... The air pockets of the bones are connected to the pulmonary air sacs: However the extent of pneumaticity depends on species. ...

*Hyperparathyroidism

In those without symptoms, mildly increased blood calcium levels, normal kidneys, and normal bone density monitoring may be all ... "Stones" refers to kidney stones, "bones" to associated destructive bone changes, "groans" to the pain of stomach and peptic ... below normal for patient's age Bone density > 2.5 standard deviations for below peak (i.e., T-score of -2.5) People age < 50 ... increased bone resorption, allowing flow of calcium from bone to blood reduced kidney clearance of calcium increased intestinal ...

*Blosozumab

Blocking SOST activity can lead to increased bone density. Blosozaumab has been studied with regards to the treatment of ... Clinical trials with Blosozumab have shown the antibody to be well tolerated and effective in producing a bone anabolic effect ... Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 29 (4): 935-943. doi:10.1002/jbmr.2092. ISSN 1523-4681. ...

*Vitamin K2

... reduced bone mineral density or content, osteopenia, and increased serum levels of undercarboxylated osteocalcin. Bone mineral ... Caraballo, P.J.; Gabriel, S.E.; Castro, M.R.; Atkinson, E.J.; Melton, L.J., III (1999). "Changes in bone density after exposure ... Iwamoto, I.; Kosha, S.; Noguchi, S. (1999). "A longitudinal study of the effect of vitamin K2 on bone mineral density in ... Barnes, C.; Newall, F.; Ignjatovic, V.; Wong, P.; Cameron, F.; Jones, G.; P., Monagle (2005). "Reduced bone density in children ...

*National Bone Health Campaign

Bone density Osteoporosis National Bone Health Campaign Web site. ... The national bone health campaign teaches young girls habits for improving their bone health by encouraging them to eat more ... The National Bone Health Campaign began in 1999 as a public/private partnership among the Centers for Disease Control and ... foods with calcium and vitamin D, and participating in physical activities that help the bones. ...

*Satoko Miyahara

The hip injury was attributed to low bone density. Miyahara injured her left foot in July and was diagnosed with inflammation ... Rutherford, Lynn (November 26, 2017). "Placid Pieces: Miyahara fights for stronger bones". IceNetwork.com. Rutherford, Lynn ( ...

*Bone morphogenetic protein 3

"Bone morphogenetic protein-3 is a negative regulator of bone density". Nature Genetics. 27 (1): 84-8. doi:10.1038/83810. PMID ... It negatively regulates bone density. BMP3 is an antagonist to other BMP's in the differentiation of osteogenic progenitors. It ... It, like other bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP's) is known for its ability to induce bone and cartilage development. It is a ... Bone morphogenetic protein 3, also known as osteogenin, is a protein in humans that is encoded by the BMP3 gene. The protein ...

*Kallmann syndrome

Bone density scans are recommended to monitor the bone mineral density. The bone density scan is known as a dual energy X-ray ... "Bone mineral density, body composition and bone turnover in patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism". Int J ... is essential for maintaining bone density. Deficiency in either testosterone or oestrogen can increase the rate of bone ... "Treatment of isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism effect on bone mineral density and bone turnover". J Clin Endocrinol Metab ...

*St. Helena Hospital

The Women's Center also offers mammography and bone density testing. The Hospital is part of Adventist Health, a health care ...

*Peak bone mass

A way to determine bone mass is to look at the size and density of the mineralized tissue in the periosteal envelope and using ... Peak bone mass is the maximum amount of bone a person has during their life. It typically occurs in the early 20s in females ... the bone mineral density (BMD) of a person can determine the strength of that bone. Research has shown that puberty affects ... "Differences in Peak Bone Density Between Male and Female Students". Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. 60 (1): 79- ...

*Ballet dancer

Such damage includes strains, fatigue fractures, and bone density loss. Injuries are common in ballet dancers because ballet ... Landing from jumps incorrectly may also lead to shin splints, in which the muscle separates from the bone. Class time is used ... Landing from jumps and working in pointe shoes cause bones to break and ankles to weaken. Tendonitis is common in female ballet ...

*Microolithus

The periosteum of these bones is somewhat porous. Microolithus is very similar to modern bird eggs, even more so than ... The eggshell has circular pores with a density of 1.08 per square millimeter. Some Mircoolithus specimens have embryonic ... remains of long bones and possibly vertebra, but no useful characteristics for determining which bones or to what bird group ...
Kemmler, W., von Stengel, S., Engelke, K., Haberle, L. and Kalender, W.A. (2010) Exercise Effects on Bone Mineral Density, Falls, Coronary Risk Factors, and Health Care Costs in Older Women The Randomized Controlled Senior Fitness and Prevention (SEFIP) Study. Archives of Internal Medicine, 170, 179-185.
As the population is becoming more aged, osteoporosis is becoming more prevalent and the number of fragility fractures that are occurring is increasing. One of the main predictors of developing osteoporosis in later life is a bone mineral density that is greater than 2.5 standard deviations below the young adult sex-matched mean, though studies have only been able to explain 5% of the variance seen in bone mineral densities between individuals. There is now increasing evidence that the development of osteoporosis can begin in utero and that epigenetic processes, such as DNA methylation, may be central to the mechanism by which early development influences bone mineral density and later bone health. Previous work within the group has identified associations of a 300bp differentially methylated region within the CDKN2A locus with bone mineral content, bone area and areal bone mineral density in offspring from the Southampton Womens Survey(SWS) cohort. As methylation of CDKN2A increases, bone ...
Hakim, O, Darling, A, Hart, K, Berry, J and Lanham-New, S (2011) VITAMIN D STATUS AND VOLUMETRIC BONE MINERAL DENSITY (VBMD) AT THE RADIUS AND TIBIA IN PREMENOPAUSAL CAUCASIAN AND ASIAN WOMEN Full text not available from this repository ...
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) devices from the three main manufacturers provide different bone mineral density (BMD) values, due in part to technical differences in the algorithms for bone mineral content (BMC) and area measurements and in part to the use of different manufacturer-derived reference databases. As a result, significant differences exist between Hologic, Lunar and Norland systems in the reported young normal standard deviation scores or T-scores. In a number of European countries, including Belgium, a T-score below −2.5 is one of the key criteria for reimbursement of osteoporosis treatments. This paper addresses the first attempt to implement a nationwide, uniform expression of BMD in patients, in order to harmonize drug reimbursement. To this end, measures were taken to implement a uniform expression of BMD in Belgian patients, by converting each manufacturers absolute BMD to standardized BMD (sBMD) values and by establishing a single national reference range.
Market Research Future adds new report of "Bone Densitometers Market Research Report- Global Forecast to 2022" it contains Company information, geographical data and Table of Content. Market Highlight:. Bone densitometry is a sort of non-meddlesome development which is used to evaluate bone mass. This development measures the measure of loss of bone mass in a patients body. Bone mass is the greatness of the skeleton, general or specifically regions. Nowadays, bone densitometry is used as a set up standard to gage the bone material thickness. The market for bone densitometer is creating at a generally conventional rate. Creating senior masses which are exposed to bone related sicknesses has fueled the advancement of bone densitometer market.. The global market for bone densitometers is required to stretch around USD 1.2 billion before the finish of the conjecture time frame and is relied upon to develop at a CAGR of ~5.3%.. Get a Sample Report @ ...
Although widely used for its anti-estrogen properties tamoxifen has estrogen like effects on a number of tissues including bone and liver. Previous studies suggest a preservation of lumbar spine density in postmenopausal women but the effect on the hip had not been addressed. To determine whether tamoxifen prevents bone loss in the early postmenopausal period bone mineral density at the lumbar spine and femoral neck was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at presentation and 6 monthly thereafter for 1 year in a prospective controlled study. Also indices of bone turnover, serum osteocalcin and urinary hydroxyproline excretion, were assessed. Fifteen early postmenopausal women with Stage I or II breast cancer treated with tamoxifen and 21 normal postmenopausal women were studied. Sex hormone binding globulin and antithrombin III levels in serum were also measured as indices of the hepatic estrogenic activity. Tamoxifen (20 mg daily) prevented bone loss at the femoral neck and lumbar spine.
BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that maternal body build and lifestyle factors predict neonatal bone mineral accrual. However, the paternal determinants of neonatal bone mass are not known. In this study we explored the relationship between a fathers bone mass and that of his offspring. METHODS: A total of 278 pregnancies (142 male and 136 female neonates) were recruited from the Southampton Womens Survey, a unique, well-established cohort of women, aged 20-34 yr, who had been assessed before and during pregnancy. The neonates and their fathers underwent whole body dual-x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) within 2 wk of birth using a Lunar DPX (General Electric Corp., Madison, WI) and Hologic Discovery instrument (Hologic Inc., Bedford, MA), respectively; correlation and regression methods were used to explore the parental determinants of neonatal bone mass. RESULTS: After adjusting the paternal DXA indices for fathers age and the neonatal for babys gestational age and age at DXA scan, there were
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bone mineral density changes in lactating adolescent mothers during the first postpartum year. AU - Méndez, Rosa Olivia. AU - Gallegos, Ana Cristina. AU - Cabrera, Rosa María. AU - Quihui, Luis. AU - Zozaya, Ramón. AU - Morales, Gloria G.. AU - Valencia, Mauro E.. AU - Méndez, Marcela. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. U2 - 10.1002/ajhb.22366. DO - 10.1002/ajhb.22366. M3 - Article. SP - 222. EP - 224. JO - American Journal of Human Biology. JF - American Journal of Human Biology. SN - 1042-0533. ER - ...
PTH is the first Food and Drug Administration-approved agent that stimulates bone formation. According to Crandalls review, many small trials showed that daily subcutaneous PTH increases bone mass and 1 large RCT showed that it reduces fracture risk. The substantial risk reduction with 21 months of PTH resembles that seen with 1 to 2 years of alendronate or risedronate in patients who have osteoporosis (1−4). Treatment with PTH involves daily self-injections and is expensive. Thus, use of PTH should be limited to patients at high risk for fractures who have ≥ 1 vertebral fracture. The currently approved single 18- to 24-month course of daily PTH may not optimize use of PTH. Less frequent administration and shorter, longer, or repeated courses should be tested in trials to find ways to restore the architecture of bone and, perhaps, reach the previously elusive goal of "curing" patients with severe osteoporosis. As Crandall points out, the effect of combining antiresorptives and PTH needs ...
The use of antidepressants was also associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD), but this association was dependent on the persons weight and site of bone measurement.. Osteoporosis is a common disorder and an underlying factor in fragility fractures. Especially in women, the menopause increases the risk of osteoporosis. Other risk factors include low levels of physical activity, smoking, low intake of calcium and vitamin D, as well as some medications and diseases. In the elderly, susceptibility to fracture and serious hip fractures can result in long-term hospitalization and decreased state of health.. Previous studies have shown that also depression is associated with lower bone density. This might be due to the effects of depression-induced long-term stress and increased secretion of inflammatory markers. Furthermore, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) used to treat depression have been shown to weaken bone health. However, the majority of studies has focused on ...
To determine the relationships among nutrients intake, bone mass, and bone turnover in women we have investigated these issues in a population-based, cross-sectional, observational study in one county in central Sweden. A total of 175 women aged 28-74 at entry to the study were included. Dietary assessment was made by both a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and by four 1-week dietary records. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed at five sites: total body, L2-L4 region of the lumbar spine, and three regions of the proximal femur. Serum concentrations of osteocalcin (an osteoblast-specific protein reflecting bone turnover) were measured by a radioimmunoassay. Linear regression models, with adjustment for possible confounding factors were used for statistical analyses. A weak positive association was found between dietary calcium intake as calculated from the semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and total body bone mineral density (BMD) among premenopausal women. No ...
In this study, we focused on vBMD, bone microarchitecture and estimated bone strength of young male adult with CO AGHD and compared with age-matched controls. Our results showed that (1) vBMD of both distal tibia and non-dominant radius were significantly decreased in AGHD patients; (2) CO AGHD patients had significantly decreased cortical area and cortical thickness, as well as trabecular thickness and trabecular bone volume fraction of both tibia and distal radius; (3) CO AGHD patients had lower estimated bone strength; (4) after adjusting for age, BMI and serum levels of testosterone and free T4, serum IGF-1 level was a positive predictor for total vBMD, cortical vBMD, cortical area, trabecular vBMD, bone stiffness and failure load. In our series of CO AGHD patients, the average time course since cessation of rhGH replacement was 6.6 ± 3.3 years and all patients sustained testosterone replacement since 18 years old. We thus conclude that young adult male patients with CO AGHD who are no ...
THURSDAY, March 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Children on medications for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have lower bone density than their peers, a new U.S. study suggests.. Using data from a government health survey, researchers found that children taking ADHD medications had, on average, lower bone density in the hip and lumbar spine (lower back) than kids not on the drugs.. These prescription medications included stimulants such as Ritalin and Adderall, and nonstimulants, like Strattera.. Experts said its not clear that the medications themselves actually thin kids bones, as the study only showed an association, and there could be other explanations for the connection.. "Im in no way saying that kids shouldnt be on these medications," said Dr. Jessica Rivera, the senior researcher on the study and an orthopedic surgeon with the U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research, at Fort Sam Houston, Texas.. Studies like this dont give answers -- they raise questions for further ...
Osteoporosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality through its association with age-related fractures. Although most effort in fracture prevention has been directed at retarding the rate of age-related bone loss, and reducing the frequency and severity of trauma among elderly people, evidence is growing that peak bone mass is an important contributor to bone strength during later life. The normal patterns of skeletal growth have been well characterized in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. It has been confirmed that boys have higher bone mineral content, but not volumetric bone density, than girls. Furthermore, in both genders there is a dissociation between the peak velocities for height gain and bone mineral accrual. Puberty is the period during which volumetric density appears to increase in both axial and appendicular sites. Many factors influence the accumulation of bone mineral during childhood and adolescence, including heredity, gender, diet, physical activity, endocrine status and
Bone Densitometers Market (Technology - Axial Bone Densitometry (Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry and Quantitative Computed Tomography) and Peripheral Bone Densitometry (Single Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry, Peripheral Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry, Radiographic Absorptiometry, Quantitative Ultrasound, and Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography); End User - Hospitals, Diagnostic Centers, and Specialty Clinics) - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecast 2016 - ...
The purpose of this study is to determine if low bone mineral density (a measurement of how thick and strong bones are) improves in adults with HIV infection who switch their HIV medication tenofovir to another HIV medication raltegravir.. Hypothesis:That Bone Mineral Density (BMD) will improve in osteopenic or osteoporotic patients switching from ART including tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (r/PI) to ART including RAL+r/PI. ...
OBJECTIVE : Patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) have an increased prevalence of osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate prospectively the rate of bone loss and potential predictors of increased bone loss in a cohort of patients with CLD. DESIGN : Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at baseline and at follow-up by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the lumbar spine and the femoral neck. RESULTS : Forty-three patients (31 female, 12 male) were available for a second measurement of BMD, with a median of 25 months (range 18-41) between the measurements. Mean annual bone loss at the lumbar spine and the femoral neck, respectively, was 0.6 +/- 2.0% and 1.5 +/- 2.4% in females and 0.8 +/- 1.9% and 2.9 +/- 2.0% in males. The BMD Z score decreased significantly over time at the femoral neck (P = 0.005 and P = 0.02 for females and males, respectively). Bone loss was increased significantly at the lumbar spine in patients classified as Child-Pugh B + C compared with those classified ...
[101 Pages Report] Check for Discount on United States Peripheral Bone Densitometer Market Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the United States Peripheral Bone Densitometer market...
CONTEXT: Treatment of osteoporotic women with PTH increases biochemical markers of bone turnover, increases axial bone mineral density (BMD), and reduces fracture risk. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the relationship between levels of baseline turnover before PTH therapy and short-term changes in turnover during PTH therapy and subsequent changes in areal and volumetric BMD. DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial at four academic centers. PATIENTS: Patients included 238 postmenopausal women with low hip or spine BMD. INTERVENTION: Subjects were randomized to sc PTH (1-84), 100 mug/d (119 women), for 1 yr. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Bone turnover markers were measured in fasting blood samples collected before therapy and after 1 and 3 months. Areal and volumetric BMD at the spine and hip were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and quantitative computed tomography (QCT) after 1 yr of therapy. RESULTS: Among women treated with PTH alone, the
The findings could have implications for the prevention of osteoporosis.. Osteoporosis, or porous bone, is a disease in which there is a loss of bone mass and destruction of bone tissue. This process causes weakening of the bones and makes them more likely to break. The bones most often affected are the hips, spine, and wrists.. Osteoporosis affects over 10 million Americans, with women four times more likely to develop osteoporosis than men.. Another 34 million people have low bone mass and therefore have an increased risk for osteoporosis. Estrogen deficiency is one of the main causes of bone loss in women during and after menopause. Women may lose up to 20 percent of their bone mass in the five to seven years following menopause.. "Premenopausal women with depression should be screened for low bone mass," says Dr. Giovanni Cizza, senior author of the study who conducted the research while at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH).. "They should do a bone mineral density measurement, ...
Bone Density Test Some women are at greater risk for osteoporosis - the decrease of bone mass and density as a result of the depletion of bone calcium and protein - than others. Your physician can help you determine your risk of developing osteoporosis by taking your personal and family medical history, and by performing a bone density test or bone mass measurement. What is a bone density test? A bone density test, also known as bone mass measurement or bone mineral density test, measures the strength a...
01 February 2012 February 2012 - A new study has found that a drug shown to be highly effective in preventing breast cancer in women who are at high risk for the disease appears to worsen age-related bone loss, although the clinical implications of the findings are unclear.. In June 2011, the results of a Canadian-led clinical trial showed that, for postmenopausal women at increased risk of developing breast cancer, the drug exemestane reduced the risk by 65 %, compared with placebo. The new study found that exemestane worsens age-related bone loss by about three-fold compared to placebo.. The new study involved 351 postmenopausal women, with a median age of 61 years, who were not previously diagnosed with osteoporosis, were not on bone medications and were taking calcium and vitamin D supplements. The research team measured bone mineral density using high-resolution CT scans to assess the density or bone strength. After two years, the researchers found a 7.9 % loss of bone density in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The genetics of proximal femur geometry, distribution of bone mass and bone mineral density. AU - Slemenda, C. W.. AU - Turner, C. H.. AU - Peacock, M.. AU - Christian, J. C.. AU - Sorbel, J.. AU - Hui, S. L.. AU - Johnston, C. C.. PY - 1996/4/12. Y1 - 1996/4/12. N2 - To estimate genetic effects on femoral neck geometry and the distribution of bone mineral within the proximal femur a cross-sectional twin analysis was carried out at a university hospital that compared correlations in these traits in pairs of mono- and dizygotic female twins. Monozygotic (MZ, n = 51 pairs, age 49.1 ± 9.3 years) and dizygotic (DZ, n = 26 pairs, age 45.7 ± 11.3 years) twins were randomly selected from a larger sample of twins previously studied. Measurements of bone mineral density (BMD), femoral neck angles and length, cross-sectional area and moment of interia, the center of mass of the narrowest cross-section of the femoral neck, and BMDs of regions within the femoral neck were made. A summary ...
Osteoporosis is a serious health concern, especially for older people. There could be nutritional deficiencies that your family members have, and that should be addressed with your doctor. Once you determine the cause of low bone density, your doctor may recommend certain supplements, such as Vitamin D, Vitamin K, and/or Calcium. A diet rich in these vitamins could potentially prevent future bone density loss and osteoporosis. Foods such as eggs, oily fish (salmon, sardines, tuna), and fortified dairy products are high in Vitamin D. For Calcium-rich foods, try adding broccoli, kale, low-fat dairy, and oily fish to your diet. Exercise has been proven to increase bone density, particularly strength training (squats, lunges, pushups), and weight lifting. Also, cardio exercises such as running/jogging, fast walking, stair climbing, jumping rope, and jump training are great bone density building sports.. ...
International Scholarly Research Notices is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal covering a wide range of subjects in science, technology, and medicine. The journals Editorial Board as well as its Table of Contents are divided into 108 subject areas that are covered within the journals scope.
Xu, H.; Xiong, D. H.; Xu, F. H.; Zhang, Y. Y.; Lei, S. F.; Deng, H. W. Association between VDR ApaI polymorphism and hip bone mineral density can be modified by body mass index: a study on postmenopausal chinese women. Acta Biochimica Et Biophysica Sinica. 2005, JAN. 37(1):61-67. ...
Trabecular bone structure as well as bone mineral density (BMD) have impact on the biomechanical competence of bone. In osteoporosis-related fractures, there have been shown to exist disconnections in the trabecular network as well as low bone mineral density. Imaging of bone parameters is therefore of importance in detecting osteoporosis. One available imaging device is cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). This device is often used in pre-operative imaging of dental implants, for which the trabecular network also has great importance.. Fourteen or 15 trabecular bone specimens from the radius were imaged for conducting this in vitro project.. The imaging data from one dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), two multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT), one high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) and four CBCT devices were segmented using an in-house developed code based on homogeneity thresholding. Seven trabecular microarchitecture parameters, as well as two ...
Proximal femur bone density measurements consistently outperformedlumbar spine measurements for fracture prediction, according to studyresults published in the August issue of the Archives of InternalMedicine.
Vitamins C and E, and magnesium helped postmenopausal women maintain healthy bones, and magnesium built bone in girls, in three new studies. In a bone study, doctors combined antioxidant vitamins and resistance training to measure the effect on bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. Thirty-four women, average age 66, were divided into four groups to take either 600 mg of vitamin E plus 1,000 mg of vitamin C per day, the same antioxidants plus exercising three times per week, a placebo with the same amount of exercise or just a placebo. After six months, the placebo-only group had lost significant lumbar spine BMD, while the antioxidant-only and antioxidant plus exercise groups remained stable. Magnesium helps increase BMD, but doctors dont know how. In an effort to find out, researchers in an osteoporosis study thought bone turnover, the natural cycle of bone loss and gain, might provide clues. In osteoporosis, bone turnover gets out of balance, as the body loses bone faster than ...
The change in lumbar vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) during a 2-year study period was examined in 167 healthy middle-aged and elderly Japanese women with reference to age, menopausal status and bone turnover markers at baseline. The perimenopausal and postmenopausal groups of the subjects showed a significant loss of BMD during the study period but the premenopausal women did not. The annual percent decrease of BMD (delta BMD) in the perimenopausal women (-2.40% in average) was significantly greater than that in either of the premenopausal (-0.01%) or over-all postmenopausal women (-0.85%). The subjects who had been postmenopausal for less than 10 years showed a significant bone loss. delta BMD in the postmenopausal women became less marked as the postmenopausal duration increased. The bone loss was accelerated for about 10 years after menopause. The pattern and magnitude of bone loss of Japanese women seemed to be similar to those of Caucasian women. The regression equation for delta BMD based on
Background This cross-sectional study aimed to look for an association in young children between whole body bone mineral content (BMC) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and dairy consumption as...
In large cohort studies changes in bone density and mass are often described statistically as mean values over a period of time1,2. This implies that bone loss occurs homogeneously in the study population over the observation period. Also in intervention studies often only mean changes in bone mass and density are reported3. So, for example, information about the number of non-responders are concealed in many studies4. Our study aims to clarify if there are temporary and individual variations in the rate of bone loss over a period of 4 years in an elderly ...
Osteoporosis is a major healthcare problem which is conventionally assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). New technologies such as high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) also predict fracture risk. HRpQCT measures a number of bone characteristics that may inform specific patterns of bone deficits. We used cluster analysis to define different bone phenotypes and their relationships to fracture prevalence and areal bone mineral density (BMD). 177 men and 159 women, in whom fracture history was determined by self-report and vertebral fracture assessment, underwent HRpQCT of the distal radius and femoral neck DXA. Five clusters were derived with two clusters associated with elevated fracture risk. Cluster 1 contained 26 women (50.0% fractured) and 30 men (50.0% fractured) with a lower mean cortical thickness and cortical volumetric BMD, and in men only, a mean total and trabecular area more than the sex-specific cohort mean. Cluster 2 contained 20 women (50.0%
GE Healthcare Lunar iDXA Bone Densitometer, Dual Energy for Sale. Check out our extensive catalog of New & Used GE Healthcare Lunar iDXA Bone Densitometer, Dual Energy devices. More than 200,000 items of Imaging devices & medical equipment. 162642965
The participants will be evaluated for a) Mineral metabolism: blood calcium, phosphorus, PTH, 25(OH) vitamin D; b) Bone turnover markers: bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, cross-linked C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx), and N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP); c) Bone Mineral Density using a Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry which is the standard method by which bone mass is measured clinically, we will measure bone mass at the lumbar spine, wrist, hip and total body bone mass at 3, and 18 months ...
Results Activity levels were related to body composition outcomes; for example, lean mass index (lean mass/height2) was positively associated with time spent in moderate activity (r=0.40, p=0.02) and negatively with time spent in sedentary activity (r=−0.50, p=0.002). Per cent time spent in sedentary activity correlated negatively with whole body bone mineral density z-score (r=−0.44, p=0.01) and hip bone mineral content (r=−0.38, p=0.03).. ...
PubMed journal article The frequency of low bone mineral density and its associated risk factors in patients with inflammatory bowel disease were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
Adequate levels of calcium intake can maximise the positive effect of physical activity on bone health during the growth period of children. Calcium supplementation has been shown to have a positive effect on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation reduces rates of bone loss and also fracture rates in older male and female adults, and the elderly. In institutionalised elderly women, this combined supplementation reduced hip fracture rates. Fruit and vegetable intake was positively associated with bone density in a study in men and women. The exact components of fruits and vegetables, which may confer a benefit to bone are still to be clarified. Moderate alcohol intake is not thought to be harmful to bone. However, chronic alcohol abuse is detrimental to bone health, with one of the mechanisms being a direct toxic effect on bone forming cells ...
The present study confirmed the hypothethetical association between a high Larsen score and low BMD in the femoral neck in a large sample of patients with RA with low to moderately active disease. Moreover, the well known associates of high age and low BMI were independent variables associated with low BMD at all measurement sites. With increasing age, BMD decreased more in women than in men im both the hip and the spine. The current results were confirmed in a large subgroup of corticosteroid naïve patients. This is interesting as these associations had not been studied previously in a large group of corticosteroid naive patients.7,17. Previous studies7,17 showed an inverse association between joint damage, expressed by the Larsen score, and BMD measured by DXA in patients with a disease duration of more than 10 years in relatively small patient groups. With the present study, we confirmed these findings in a large population that was heterogeneous for disease duration and joint damage. The ...
Studies have shown that elderly patients with osteoportic fractures of the hip have decreased bone mineral density (BMD) in the femoral neck in the first year following the fracture. However, a new prospective study of 21 patients found that between one and six years following the hip fractures there was a dramatic increase in BMD at both the femoral neck and lumbar spine measurement sites.. In many cases, the loss of BMD that occurred in the first year after a fracture was completely recouped, according to the study presented Wednesday in scientific paper 29.. The researchers observe that although the investigation is small, the results of the study suggest that pharmacological intervention with agents such as bisphosphonates to prevent accelerated loss of BMD after a hip fracture may not need to be continued indefinitely, if return to baseline BMD is the objective.. Although some studies have demonstrated a direct relationship between the level of activity and increased BMD, there was a ...
AIM: Non-invasive assessment of bone geometry, biomechanics, and mineral content in postmenopausal women by peripheral quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Total, trabecular and cortical mineral density (totBMD, cortBMD, trabBMD), and the geometrical (total area, trabecular area, cortical area) and biomechanical properties of bone (strength-strain index, cortical thickness) were assessed in 93 consecutive post-menopausal women (mean age: 63+/-7 yrs; age at menopause: 49+/-6 yrs; years since menopause: 14+/-9 yrs) by pQCT at the ultradistal radius of non-dominant forearm. RESULTS: Compared with 50 healthy women at peak of bone mass, volumetric total, trabecular and cortical bone densities were significantly reduced in postmenopausal subjects (TotBMD: 318+/-106 mg/cm3 vs ctr 442+/-100, -28%, ...
Recently one of our clients brought in a cookie cake in gratitude for John Shafer, one of our trainers, and a card shown here that says it all. It is results like these that really make our work rewarding. Debra was more than two standard deviations of away from the ideal bone density of a 25 year old. In the time she began training her bone density went from being more than two standard deviations away from ideal to slightly more than one standard deviation away from ideal. While she still slightly in osteopenia, she is going against the trend of decreasing bone density that is common for people her age. Debra will be 60 soon. Her regimen: she takes calcium supplements and vitamin D3, strength trains one a week for 30 minutes, and walks daily. She has lost 20 pounds. Our bones adapt to physical stress and are constantly remodeling themselves. If you expose the body and the bones to weight-bearing exercise the body and bones will adapt and become stronger.. A little strength training, an active ...
Focal vertebral bone density changes were assessed in vertebral computed tomography (CT) images obtained from clinically healthy dogs without diseases that affect bone density. The number, location, and density of lesions were determined. A total of 429 vertebral CT images from 20 dogs were reviewed, and 99 focal vertebral changes were identified in 14 dogs. Focal vertebral bone density changes were mainly found in thoracic vertebrae (29.6%) as hyperattenuating (86.9%) lesions. All focal vertebral changes were observed at the vertebral body, except for a single hyperattenuating change in one thoracic transverse process. Among the hyperattenuating changes, multifocal changes (53.5%) were more common than single changes (46.5%). Most of the hypoattenuating changes were single (92.3%). Eight dogs, 40% of the 20 dogs in the study and 61.6% of the 13 dogs showing focal vertebral changes in the thoracic vertebra, had hyperattenuating changes at the 7th or 8th thoracic vertebra. Our results indicate ...
Arimidex® does not possess progestogen, androgenic and estrogenic activity. Arimidex® in daily doses up to 10 mg does not have an effect on the secretion of cortisol and aldosterone, therefore, when using Arimidex®, no substitution corticosteroids are required.. Effect on bone mineral density. It has been shown that in patients with hormone-positive early postmenopausal breast cancer who are taking Arimidex®, changes in the bone system can be prevented in accordance with the standards established to treat patients with a certain risk of fractures. Thus, the advantage of Arimidex ® in combination with bisphosphonates (in comparison with Arimidex ® only) in patients with an average and high risk of fracture was demonstrated after 12 months in terms of bone mineral density, structural changes in bone tissue and markers of bone resorption. Moreover, in the low-risk group, there was no change in the mineral bone density index against the background of therapy with one preparation of Arimidex® ...
The percentage changes in lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) after 6 months of the therapy were −10.5% ± 0.8% in the alfacalcidol group, but only −2.1% ± 1.2% in the combined group. The rate of bone loss in the lumbar spine was significantly lower in the combined group than in the alfacalcidol group at 6 months. At 12 months of treatment, the percentage change in lumbar spine BMD was increased by 1.7% ± 1.4% in the combined group, but decreased by 9.9% ± 1.9% in the alfacalcidol group; the difference was significant. Bone fracture occurred at 12 months or later in 4 patients of the alfacalcidol groups, but not in the combined group, even at up to 18 months.. ...
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) may also be involved in decreasing bone mineral density during menopause, according to new research at the Medical College of Georgia in Augusta, GA.
The usefulness of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers measurements to assess the renal osteodystrophy in patients with chronic kidney disease, stage 5 (CKD5) are not well determined.. The aim was to analyze BMD, serum levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and bone turnover markers in dialysis patients. We examined 45 patients (20 f,25 m; age 45.1±10.8 yrs; age at dialysis onset 40.3±12.3 yrs; dialysis duration 5.0±4.0 yrs). BMD of the lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN) were estimated by DEXA (Lunar). Serum PTH, osteocalcin (OC), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (beta-CTx), alkaline phosphotase (ALP), calcium and phosphates were measured.. Median levels of PTH, OC, beta-CTx were significantly higher, than normal values (688.2 pg/ml; 321.7 pg/ml; 1.66 pg/ml, respectively). We found significant correlation of PTH level and age (r=−0.51), age at dialysis onset (r=−0.57), serum OC (r=0.54), beta-CTx (r=0.72) and ALP (r=0.65). Median BMD, T- and Z-scores in LS (1.15 ...
Abstract: objective To study inhibitory effect of oral administration of strontium ranelate( SR) and bovine collagen peptide( CP) on bone loss in tail suspended rats. Methods Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley( SD) rats were divided into 3 groups: normal control group( CN),tail supended group( TS),TS and once-daily intragastric administration of 750 mg / kg group( SR&CP),the experimental period was 28 d. Serum samples were analyzed for alkaline phosphatase( ALP) using an autoanalyzer; osteocalcin( OC) using radioimmunometric assay; the right femurs were analyzed for microstructure by micro CT; collagen fibers of tibia by masson staining and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry( DXA) was used to measure bone mineral density( BMD) of femur.Results TS rats supplemented with SR&CP showed osteoprotective effects: significant inhibition in reductions of their serum ALP and OC levels and femoral BMD,as well as improvement the microarchitecture of their femurs. Conclusions Oral administration SRCP can ...
Objective: To examine the total hip (TH) and femoral neck (FN) bone loss in women and men above 50 years of age with self-reported chronic diseases. Methods: Using data from The Tromsø Study, men and women aged 50-74 years were included in this study. Disease status was identified based on self-reports. Bone mineral density (BMD) of TH and FN were measured using DXA (Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry). The change in BMD was calculated as the difference between BMD in Tromsø 5 and Tromsø 6. Linear regression analysis was used to assess relationship between the predictor variables (diseases) and the outcome (change in total hip and femoral neck BMD). Results: Out of 2310 participants, 860 were men and 1450 were women. Men had significantly more cases of heart disease ( ...
This was a prospective study for all newly enrolled MSM from 2008-2011, who were treatment-naive and aged 20-55 years when presenting for care at a single centre in Amsterdam. All patients received a Dexa scan and low BMD was defined as a z-score (matched by age, sex and race) of ≥2.0 SDs below the mean at the lumbar spine or hip (using the US NHANES IV population dataset as reference). Medical conditions known to affect bone metabolism were an exclusion criteria, including IDU, renal disease and corticosteroid use. Smoking, alcohol, diet, and fracture history were also taken together with testing for a wide panel of bone-related biochemical markers including P1NP (bone formation) and CTX (bone resorption) for the participants in primary infection and the controls, but unfortunately not for those in chronic infection.. The three groups were matched for age and race: mean (+ SD) age 38 years (+ 8), and 80% were white. However, HIV negative men were heavier (82 vs 73 kgs, p=0.009) with higher ...
This is a noninvasive test to measure bone density. Knowing your bone density is important because you may be able to change a few things in your life that will provide a safer risk-free environment or seek necessary treatment or coaching to improve your bone density. We typically have you lie on a table fully clothed and pass a beam of low dose ionizing radiation over your lumbar spine and hips. The exam is comfortable and quick with results given at the completion of the exam, including recommendations on ways to maintain and or increase your bone density. The results are sent to your provider, who may want to discuss results in greater detail with you.. ...
The companion study included two groups of women from MA.27: 300 patients with bone mineral density T-scores ≥ −2.0 (up to two standard deviations below sex-matched, young adult mean) and 197 with at least one T-score (hip or spine) , −2.0. Both groups received vitamin D and calcium and patients with T-scores , −2.0 received bisphosphonates. The primary endpoints were percent change in bone mineral density at 2 years in lumbar spine and total hip for both groups. ...
Learn more about Practical Prevention -- Who Needs Bone Mineral Density Testing? at TriStar Southern Hills Bone mineral density (BMD) testing has become more available...
Juhani Multanen, Miika T Nieminen, Arja Häkkinen, Urho M Kujala, Timo Jämsä, Hannu Kautiainen, Eveliina Lammentausta, Riikka Ahola, Harri Selänne, Risto Ojala, Ilkka Kiviranta, Ari Heinonen. Osteoarthritis and osteoporosis often coexist in postmenopausal women. The simultaneous effect of bone-favorable high-impact training on these diseases is not well understood and is a topic of controversy. We evaluated the effects of high-impact exercise on bone mineral content (BMC) and the estimated biochemical composition of knee cartilage in postmenopausal women with mild knee osteoarthritis. Eighty women aged 50-66 years with mild knee osteoarthritis were randomly assigned to undergo supervised progressive exercise 3 times a week for 12 months (n = 40) or to a non-intervention control group (n = 40). BMC of the femoral neck, trochanter and lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The biochemical composition of cartilage was estimated using delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI ...
MAYWOOD, Il. - Osteoporosis is a growing concern among breast cancer survivors and their doctors, because certain cancer drugs can cause bone loss.. Many breast cancer patients also experience secondary causes of bone loss, such as vitamin D deficiency.. But a Loyola University Health System study has found that bone loss can be halted with a comprehensive regimen that includes both osteoporosis drugs and treatments that target secondary causes of bone loss.. The study by Dr. Pauline Camacho and colleagues was presented at the annual meeting of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.. "Doctors evaluating breast cancer patients for possible bone loss should look further than cancer drugs," Camacho said.. Primary causes of osteoporosis are menopause and aging. Secondary causes are diseases or conditions that exacerbate bone loss.. A class of breast cancer drugs called aromatase inhibitors can decrease bone mineral density and increase the risk of fractures in postmenopausal women. The ...
How to Treat Low Bone Density in Kids. Strong bones are a big part of any childs health. They are even more important because long-term skeletal health depends in part on developing bone strength and density in childhood. But how can you...
Scandinavia has among the highest incidence of fragility fractures in the world. The reasons for this are unknown, but might involve differences in genetic and/or environmental factors, such as sunlight exposure and levels of physical activity. Weight-bearing exercise is thought to have a beneficial effect on bone health in the young, but few studies have evaluated whether exercise in older subjects affects bone density and protects against fragility fractures.. The initial objective of this thesis was to evaluate whether a combined weight-bearing training programme twice a week would be beneficial as regards bone mineral density (BMD) and neuromuscular function in older women. Forty-eight community living women with a mean age of 73 years were recruited for this 12-month prospective, randomised controlled trial, and were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n=24) or a control group (n=24). The intervention group displayed significant increments in BMD at the Wards triangle, maximum ...
Wilbert S. Aronow, MD, FACC, FAHA, AGSF, FCCP, Divisions of Cardiology, Geriatrics, and Pulmonary/Critical Care, Department of Medicine, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA.. Low bone mineral density (BMD) is associated with obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD); this article reviews several recent studies that have demonstrated the association. In one study, for every 1-unit reduction in femoral neck T score, a 0.23 minute decrease in treadmill exercise duration was found after values were adjusted for age and other patient characteristics (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11-0.35, p,0.001). For every 1-unit reduction in femoral neck T score, there was a 22% increased risk of myocardial ischemia after values were adjusted for age and other patient characteristics (95% CI, 1.06-1.41, p = 0.004). Overall after adjustments, patients with a low BMD who were referred for exercise echocardiographic stress testing had a 43% greater risk of myocardial ischemia than did patients with normal ...
Bone density is a measurement of the concentration in bone of minerals (mostly calcium and phosphate) that are vital for strong bones. A high bone density means above-average amounts of calcium and phosphates in the bones, while a below-normal bone density can mean a loss of bone mass, possibly from osteopenia or osteoporosis.. ...
We studied the possible relationship between self-reported OA, bone density, postural stability measures, and atraumatic fractures as part of a study of men and women over 60 years of age. Methods. Subjects were part of the Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study. Bone density was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Postural stability...
So How Exactly Does it Work?. Calcium is in itself an opaque mineral. Because of a bones high calcium content you can easily see it on an x-ray. The x-ray procedures are non-invasive and doctors use them all the time for diagnosing and measuring bone thickness. Because of the opacity of bone and their easy visibility on an x-ray, doctors are able to detect any kind of bone problems and then treat them. It takes exposing bodies to small amounts of ionizing radiation that passes through the body and works to expose the results onto a photographic film plate which is placed on the opposite side of the body.. A specialized type of x-ray is used for imaging bone and check for bones density. It makes up the DXA image testing. The DXA, or dexa scan, is now considered to be the standard test for evaluating bone BMD (bone mineral density).. ...
If the standard supplementation of 400 IUs of vitamin D is increased to 800 IUs daily there are reductions in the number of premature and preterm babies with extremely low bone density, new research has found. ...
Tests to diagnose childhood bone cancer, such as x-ray and CT scan, are done when symptoms are present. Learn about diagnosing childhood bone cancer.
Results:. During 3.5 years of observation, spinal bone mineral density increased by 3.5% (P , 0.001) in an intention-to-treat analysis and by 5.2% among patients with greater than 90% adherence to therapy. Significant increases were seen in total-body and forearm bone density (P , 0.01). Symptoms related to HRT (breast tenderness, spotting, pelvic discomfort, and mood changes) were mild and short-lived. ...
Transilial bone-biopsy specimens were available from the trial by McClung et al., which was a 3-year (1994 to 1997), double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trial of alendronate in 447 healthy postmenopausal women 40 through 59 years of age who had entered menopause 6 to 36 months before enrollment.3 The trial by McClung et al. was a prevention trial, and the bone mineral density of the patients was within 2 SD above or below normal peak adult values at the initiation of the trial. However, the bone mineral density of the patients at baseline was approximately 10% below the mean value for young adult women, and the bone mineral density in patients receiving placebo decreased by 3 to 4% at the spine, femoral neck, and trochanter during the trial. This result indicates that these women were having postmenopausal bone loss.3 Women who had disorders of bone and mineral metabolism, smoked more than 20 cigarettes per day, or consumed three or more alcoholic drinks per day were ...
The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of body composition and muscle strength to racial differences in bone mineral density (BMD) in chronically active older adults. Participants were 49 men and 56 women grouped according to self-selected race (Black, Asian, or White). BMD, body composition, and knee strength were measured. Asian men had significantly lower body mass, strength, and BMD than White and Black men did (p , .05). Asian and White women had significantly lower body mass and BMD than Black women did (p , .05), with few strength differences between groups. When lean mass was controlled by ANCOVA. racial differences in BMD disappeared for all bone sites in both sexes. Controlling for body mass eliminated most racial differences in BMD. Controlling for strength did not alter racial differences in BMD for either sex. These results suggest that racial differences in BMD might in part result from differences in lean mass. ...
Background Reduced levels of physical activity have been found to be associated with an increased risk of osteoporotic fracture in a number of epidemiological studies, and intervention studies have shown beneficial effects of exercise regimes on bone mineral density. It is not yet established, however, which specific forms of customary physical...
This human study involving more than 200 women and men found that AlgaeCal formulations increased bone density by more than 2% on average. To gain bone density at all is an unusual finding as humans normally lose approximately 1% of bone each year after age 40. This open label study measured bone density of participants at the beginning, then again after six months of taking AlgaeCal formulations (including strontium).. The primary outcome measure was bone mineral density and a secondary measure was safety as reported in a panel of 43 blood tests along with quality of life questionnaire. Calcium studies often report an "increase in bone density", but it is never an outright increase - it is an increase compared to the placebo group which is declining - so the participants are actually losing bone. This study is a landmark result with a real increase in BMD.. ...
For more information, call 1-877-ACTONEL (toll-free) BENEFITS OF OSTEOPOROSIS TREATMENT ON FRACTURE RISK MAY BE GREAT, EVEN WHEN IMPROVEMENT IN BONE DENSITY IS SMALL. ORLANDO, FLORIDA A recent study revealed that reduction in fracture risk from risedronate, a bisphosphonate medication commonly used to treat patients who have osteoporosis, is seen even in patients who have only small improvements in bone mass as measured by bone density, according to research presented this week at the American College of Rheumatology Annual Scientific Meeting in Orlando, Florida. Researchers reanalyzed data from the HIP and VERT studies of risedronate, which included nearly 9,000 patients from two randomized, double-blind clinical trials. Patients were selected to receive risedronate or placebo based on low bone mineral density (an indicator of bone strength) and/or pre-existing vertebral fracture. All patients also received daily supplements of calcium and vitamin D if baseline levels were low. Researchers ...
bisphosphonates: A class of compounds, including alendronate and risedronate, that slow bone resorption. bone: organs composed of hard living tissue providing structural support to the body and made mostly of collagen and calcium. bone density: The amount of calcium and minerals in the bone tissue. bone mass: The total amount of bone tissue in the skeleton.. bone mineral density (BMD) test: a test used to diagnose osteoporosis. It detects bone loss even in its early stages. The test can also be used to determine if a person is at risk for fractures and can be used to monitor increases in bone density as a result of treatment. calcitonin: A naturally occurring hormone secreted by the thyroid gland known to increase bone density. It can also help relieve pain associated with fractures. It is available in two forms: injection or nasal spray. calcium: A mineral that is the primary component of hydroxyapatite. It is also vital to many physical processes, including heart rate, blood pressure, muscle ...
The researchers from the Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM) in Germany, the Paul Scherrer Institute in Switzerland and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH-Zurich) said osteoporosis is currently diagnosed almost exclusively by establishing an overall reduction in bone density. This new method will give much greater information about the associated local structure and bone density changes. Until now doctors have been hampered by their lack of ability to look in detail at changes to bone density.. TUMs Professor Franz Pfeiffer said this is all about to change. With our newly developed nano-CT [computed tomorgraphy] method it is now possible to visualise the bone structure and density changes at high resolutions and in 3D, explained Professor Pfeiffer, who led the research. This will enable us to do research on structural changes related to osteoporosis on a nanoscale and thus develop better therapeutic approaches.. Professor Pfeiffers team used X-ray CT to develop its method. ...
Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for bone mineral density (BMD) are defined as regions of the genome that contain sequence variations that cause differences in either bone deposition or rates of resorption. In this study, we investigate QTLs for BMD of whole bones using femurs and tibiae from the BXD family of recombinant inbred (RI) strains derived by crossing C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) inbred strains. ...
The placement of implants in edentulous areas is often compromised because of atrophic alveolar ridges. Several techniques have been suggested in the literature to increase inadequte bone width which includes bone grafting, distraction osteogenesis and bone expansion. Bone expansion technique is one of the most widely used methods which can also be utilized to increase the width of alveolar ridge and to provide sufficient bone volume for implant placement. The purpose of this study, is to measure the increase of the width of alveolar ridge after bone expansion following implant placement. Between 2013-2016, 30 consecutive, healthy, non-smoking, adult patients with atrophy of the maxilla and mandibula had 149 implants inserted. There were 18 women and 12 men, mean age 51.34 years (range 34 - 67). The initial width of the alveolar ridge measured from 2.5 to 3 mm (mean 2.83 ± 0.2) with Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The mean increase of bone width was achieved 1.25 mm (between 0.64 mm and 1.73 mm).
Medications: Loss of bone density is considered one of the signs of getting older. It is by age 20 that there is a decrease in bone density. However, there are several ways you can counter the decline and protect bone density from an early age.
A bone mass chart shows a healthy 30-year-old adults peak bone mineral density, according to the National Institutes of Health Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases. Doctors compare patient...
Results The 5207 titles retrieved were narrowed down to 7 studies (1 RCT, 3 case control and case studies each) that measured outcomes at 6 months (3 studies, 91% Infliximab (I), 5% Etanercept (E), and 14% Adalimumab (A)),1 year (5 studies,42% I, 31% E and 27% A), 2 years (4 studies,71%I,15% E &14% A) & 3 years(1 study). 76-92% were males. Only 2.6% (n=12) got bisphosphonates. Little data was available on calcium intake, vitamin D intake & fracture incidence. Spine BMD increased with TNFI treatment in all studies. The effect was significant compared to controls (4 studies). The effect was noted as early as 6 months & lasted up to 3 years with continued therapy, except in 1 study (n=19, where the change was similar to those on NSAIDs/bisphosphonates(Table 1). Change in spine BMD at 2 years ranged from 5.8-11%. Hip BMD remained stable/ improved by 1.9-2.3% and 1.8-3.5% at 1 & 2 years, respectively. BMD gain correlated to ESR reduction & baseline mSASSS. On multivariate regression analyses, ...
Tremendous advances have been made in knowledge about the pathogenesis and treatment of osteoporosis, a disease that affects more than 25 million Americans. In particular, it has been determined that two major processes are responsible for osteoporotic fractures. These are: 1) bone mass acquisition during adolescence; and 2) bone loss beyond the sixth decade. The former, and possibly the latter, are regulated by genetic and environmental factors. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), a ubiquitous polypeptide, assumes a critical role in both of these processes. Very recent studies have elucidated a complex multifaceted IGF regulatory system in bone and have allowed investigators to consider site-directed approaches to therapy. Even more exciting is the prospect that the genetic regulation of peak bone mass may be controlled by components of the IGF regulatory system. Within the last half decade, tremendous strides have been made in defining the regulatory circuits that determine the
ABSTRACTInsulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) clearly plays a role in bone metabolism and maintenance, as evidenced by in vitro and animal studies. In clinical studies, the age-related decrease in IGF-I parallels the age-related decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), but several age-adjusted cross-s
Bone Density Factory - Select 2017 high quality Bone Density Factory products in best price from certified Chinese Medical Bone Drill manufacturers, Density Analyzer suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com
A bone mineral density (BMD) test measures the mineral density (such as calcium) in your bones using a special X-ray, computed tomography (CT) scan, or ultrasound.
Women who undergo hormone therapy for menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes can not only increase bone mass, but also can improve bone structure
Table of Contents for Denmark Diagnostic Imaging Market Outlook to 2022 - Angio Suites, Bone Densitometers, Computed Tomography (CT) Systems, Contrast Agents, Contrast Media Injectors, Mammography Equipment, Mobile C-Arms, MRI Systems, Nuclear Imaging Equipment, Ultrasound Sys covers report scope, market research methodology, market landscape, drivers, challenges, trends, vendor landscape and exhibits to support the market analysis.
Maintaining your bone density as you get older is an important preventative step for both men & women. Read on to find out about how, with healthyonline
If bone loss is a potential threat, the medical recourse is to submit oneself to a bone mineral density (BMD) test to find out the true state of the bones at that point in time. The findings from the test expressed as T-score and Z-score are significant because they work as the backbone of the treatment program to manage the medical case of the patient. The problem lies now on the interpretation of these bone density T-score and Z-score.
Introduction: Atherosclerosis and osteoporosis are two major public health problems. These are both multifactorial and degenerative diseases that accompany aging. Co-morbidities are common, with a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle. Several studies have suggested a relationship between atherosclerosis and osteoporosis, with a significant correlation between coronary artery calcium and bone mineral density (BMD). The pulsatility index (PI) is designed to measure vascular resistance and characterizes the shape of the spectral waveform. The PI was increasing with age but alterations in PI are the reflection of multifactorial, pleiotropic events occurring in the cardio and cerebral vascular system. Atherosclerosis of the large proximal arteries and the intracranial vessels are important factors for increased PI.. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that the transcranial Doppler (TCD) PI would reflect the atherosclerotic component of ...
If you are at risk for osteoporosis or will be receiving treatment that increases your risk, your doctor may request bone mineral density testing before treatment begins to obtain a baseline value for later comparison. The test most often used is a low-dose X-ray technique known as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, commonly called densitometry or a DEXA scan. This test calculates bone density according to how much radiation the bone absorbs.. Osteoporosis is indicated by a bone density lower than the range expected in premenopausal women or other women similar to you in age and ethnicity. Testing is noninvasive, painless and takes about 20 to 30 minutes to complete. If you are at high risk for osteoporosis, your doctor may prescribe a medication approved for the prevention and/or treatment of osteoporosis (Table 1). In addition, changes in lifestyle habits can help keep your bones strong (Table 2).. Some complementary and herbal supplements are marketed as agents to help prevent and/or treat ...
Loss of bone density is a serious affliction affecting not only women in their menopausal stage or aging men in their twilight years. Its prevalence among young children is already fast catching attention. It is a medical case that needs special attention before serious injuries and fractures set in cutting short what may look like a promising career or future. With natural options being available for treatment and management of low bone density, healing is not too far-fetched. Cautious and conscious preparation of meal plans and regular exercise are regarded as not just easy but also inexpensive, practical and natural ways to heal bone loss.
It is very important that your doctor check your progress at regular visits to make sure that this medicine is working properly. Blood tests may be needed to check for unwanted effects. It is unlikely that a postmenopausal woman may become pregnant. But, you should know that using this medicine while you are pregnant could harm your unborn baby. Use an effective form of birth control to keep from getting pregnant. If you think you have become pregnant while using the medicine, tell your doctor right away. This medicine may decrease bone mineral density when used for a long time. A low bone mineral density can cause weak bones or osteoporosis. If you have any questions about this, talk to your doctor. This medicine may increase your cholesterol or fat in the blood. If this happens, your doctor may give you medicine to lower the cholesterol and fat. This medicine may cause some people to become dizzy, drowsy, or less alert than they are normally. If any of these side effects occur, do not drive, ...
A single bone mineral density (BMD) test given 15 years earlier predicted a woman s risk of developing fractures to her spine over time
Pooling the results of numerous studies, 56 genetic variants associated with bone mineral density have been identified, of which 14 are associated with fracture risk.
50% Cheaper Than One Purchased In The Us. Leading Online Regulated Pharmacy. Prednisone Bone Density Loss. Vipps Certified Online Pharmacy.
As the population of the United States grows increasingly older, it is important to do everything possible to minimize the risks we face. The fact is that as we age, our bodies begin to have certain health issues but there are things we can do to win the battle with aging. Partners in the battle are the Lifeline Screening Company, which provides a variety of tests that can help patients take positive steps to improve their health.. One silent disease that can affect men and women is osteoporosis. This disease which causes weakening of the bones, making them brittle and fragile, often has no symptoms. A person may not discover they suffer from osteoporosis until they experience a break or a fracture from a fall. Once one of the major bones in the body is broken, a person is set up for possible surgeries and a long rehabilitation. Here are some commonly asked questions about Lifeline Bone Density Screening.. What is involved in this test?. The Bone Density Screening uses a pulse-echo ultrasound to ...
(HealthDay)-African-American children with forearm fractures are more likely to have vitamin D deficiency and lower bone mineral density than their peers without fractures, according to a study published online Aug. 27 ...
Low bone mineral density (BMD) has been associated with a greater risk for cognitive decline, possibly as a marker for low estrogen exposure, ill health, weight loss, or other conditions. The phenotype apolipoprotein E (ApoE) e4 allele, which is highly correlated with cognitive decline, also has been associated with low BMD, accelerated bone loss, and fracture risk. Lui and colleagues investigated the question of whether the rate of bone loss is associated with subsequent cognitive decline and whether this association is mediated through the ApoE genotype.. The participants were 4,462 ambulatory, community-dwelling women 65 years and older who were enrolled in an ongoing prospective study. Change in total hip BMD was measured for a period of about three and one half years, with cognitive decline measured in the subsequent four years. Measurement modalities were dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and a modified Mini-Mental State Examination. ApoE testing was done on 1,750 women at ...
Learn about the importance of screening for osteoporosis and the bone mineral density test. Read about the different types of tests, and find out how to interpret the test results.
Press Release issued Oct 3, 2016: BDM tests assist medical practitioners in predicting the fracture risk of individuals by analyzing the composition of bones, including calcium and minerals. BDM devices are used as a non-invasive method of performing these tests that provide the quantitative measurement of bone mass or density. BDM devices are generally used in measuring bone mass, body composition, the risk of fracture, and pediatric development. The device is used to diagnose bone loss and osteoporosis, regulate the progress of osteoporosis medicine, and predict the risk of future bone fractures.
The final part of this blog series discusses how D may be needed to allow bisphosphonates to optimally improve bone mineral density and avoid fosamax jaw.
Bruyere, Olivier ; Devogelaer, Jean-Pierre ; Delmas, Pierre D. ; Slosman, Daniel O. ; Albanese, Carlina ; et. al. Increase in femoral neck bone mineral density is associated with decrease in hip fracture incidence during treatment with strontium ranelate..70th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American-College-of-Rheumatology/41st Annual Scientific Meeting of the Association-of-Rheumatology-Health-Professionals (Washington (Dc), Nov 10-15, 2006). In: Arthritis & Rheumatism, Vol. 54, no. 9, p. S586-S586 (2006 ...
itation: Orsini LGS, Pinheiro MM, Castro CHM, Silva AEB, Szejnfeld VL (2013) Bone Mineral Density Measurements, Bone Markers and Serum Vitamin D Concentrations in Men with Chronic Non-Cirrhotic Untreated Hepatitis C. PLoS ONE 8(11): e81652. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081652. Editor: Luc Malaval, INSERM U1059/LBTO, Université Jean Monnet, France. Received: June 10, 2013; Accepted: October 15, 2013; Published: November 28, 2013. Copyright: © 2013 Orsini et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.. Funding: This study was funded by a grant from the Rheumatology Division at the Universidade Federal de São Paulo/Escola Paulista de Medicina (Unifesp/EPM). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.. Competing interests: The ...
While the relative importance of these mechanisms may depend on dose, age, and nutritional status, it has been shown that fluoride can reduce bone strength prior to the onset skeletal fluorosis. Thus, at least some, if not all, of these mechanisms can operate before detectable signs of skeletal fluorosis are present.. 1) Reduction in Cortical Bone Density:. It is now well established that fluoride has a differential effect on bone density. While fluoride often increases bone density in trabecular bone (the primary bone of the axial skeleton), it often decreases bone density in cortical bone (the primary bone of the appendicular skeleton). Fluorides ability to reduce cortical bone has been documented in human clinical trials, in studies of humans with skeletal fluorosis, and in communities in the United States with 3.8 to 4 ppm fluoride in water (Phipps 1990; Sowers 1991). Most notably, recently published data suggests that this effect was associated with everyday fluoride exposures among a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tea and flavonoid intake predict osteoporotic fracture risk in elderly Australian women: A prospective study. AU - Myers, Gael. AU - Prince, Richard. AU - Kerr, D.A.. AU - Devine, A.. AU - Woodman, R.J.. AU - Lewis, J.R.. AU - Hodgson, Jonathan. PY - 2015/10. Y1 - 2015/10. N2 - © 2015 American Society for Nutrition. Background: Observational studies have linked tea drinking, a major source of dietary flavonoids, with higher bone density. However, there is a paucity of prospective studies examining the association of tea drinking and flavonoid intake with fracture risk. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the associations of black tea drinking and flavonoid intake with fracture risk in a prospective cohort of women aged .75 y. Design: A total of 1188 women were assessed for habitual dietary intake with a food-frequency and beverage questionnaire. Incidence of osteoporotic fracture requiring hospitalization was determined through the Western Australian Hospital ...
Background. Cinacalcet, a calcimimetic agent, is effective in treating both primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Because hyperparathyroidism induces mineralized bone loss, we investigated the effects of cinacalcet treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism due to chronic kidney disease.. Methods. Ten patients who were receiving haemodialysis and four patients, who had stage 4 chronic kidney disease participated and completed the multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of cinacalcet for treating secondary hyperparathyroidism. The efficacy of cinacalcet was assessed by plasma intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels. A dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed to measure the BMD of total proximal femurs and lumbar spine (L2-L4) before and after 26 weeks of treatment.. Results. Cinacalcet reduced iPTH from 912±296 to 515±359 pg/ml in haemodialysis patients and from 210±46 to 56±51 ...
Alendronate, risedronate, zoledronic acid, denosumab, and teriparatide reduce the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Ibandronate and raloxifene reduce the risk of vertebral but not nonvertebral fractures. Alendronate, risedronate, zoledronic acid, and denosumab prevent hip fractures among postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Risedronate decreases the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fracture among men with osteoporosis.. Among those treated with glucocorticoids, fracture risk reduction was demonstrated for risedronate and alendronate compared to placebo; and for teriparatide compared to alendronate.. Few studies have compared osteoporosis therapies head-to-head.. Adherence to pharmacotherapy is poor in patients with osteoporosis, as with other chronic conditions. Many factors affect adherence to medications, including dosing frequency, side effects of medications, knowledge about osteoporosis, and cost. Age, prior history of fracture, ...
Alendronate sodium hydrate (oral jelly) for the treatment of osteoporosis: review of a novel, easy to swallow formulation Kazuhiro Imai Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by loss of bone mass, decreased bone strength, and an increased risk of bone fracture. The disease progresses with age, especially in postmenopausal women. Japan is one of the most rapidly aging societies worldwide. Japanese individuals over 65 years of age constituted 23.0% of the population in 2010 and 25.1% to 25.2% as of 2013. The estimated number of people with osteoporosis in Japan is currently 13 million. Bisphosphonates increase bone mineral density by inhibiting osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, thereby reducing the risk of fractures. Alendronate sodium hydrate (alendronate) is a bisphosphonate that potently inhibits bone resorption and is used to treat osteoporosis. Sufficient water is required
Helicobacter pylori infection attacks the mucus of the stomach since it survives in acidic environment. However, the symptoms do not manifest in the … there is also a loss of appetite, and weight loss, blood in the stool in 25% of the …. Mom with Rare Blood Disorder Adopts 3 Kids with Same Condition ; 11 Weird Things People Have Swallowed ; Weight-Loss Procedure Makes Stomach into Accordion …. weight loss may affect bone mass and result in bone mineral density changes (BMD) and osteoporosis (2-6). Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) which is a known cause of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease is associated with …. Journal of Gastroenterology, 134, 306-323. 5. Smoot, D.T. (1997) How Does Helicobacter Pylori Cause Mucosal Damage? Direct Mechanisms. Gastroenterology, 113, S31-S34. 6. Monzón, H., Forne, M., Rosinach, M., Loras, C., et …. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection - Comprehensive overview covers symptoms, treatment of infection with Helicobacter pylori bacteria.. Many of these ...
Snoring is frequently associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Previous studies have shown that bone mineral density was significantly lower in patients with OSA than in controls; however, these studies did not focus on fractures. Fragility fractures can lead to long-term disabilities and a decrease in quality of life. The present study aimed to investigate the association between snoring and fragility fractures. This study included 2969 men and 3220 women aged 40 years and older from the Ansung and Ansan cohort studies in Korea. During a 10-year follow-up period, 129 and 273 fracture cases were reported in men and women, respectively. Severe snoring (6-7 nights per week or sleep disturbance by snoring in the next room) was a statistically significant risk factor for fracture (p = 0.006, hazard ratio 1.68, 95% confidence interval 1.16-2.43) after adjusting for covariates related to fragility fracture in women. However, both snoring and severe snoring groups did not show significant associations

Osteopetrosis core NGS panel | Connective Tissue Gene TestsOsteopetrosis core NGS panel | Connective Tissue Gene Tests

Osteopetrosis is a disorder of increased bone density due to defects in bone resorption. Several different forms are recognized ... Osteopetrosis is a disorder of increased bone density due to defects in bone resorption. Several different forms are recognized ... OPTA1 is characterized by diffuse osteosclerosis with pronounced involvement of cranial bones. The cranial vault may be ... Malignant osteopetrosis patients have restricted cranial foramina, reduced bone marrow volume, fractures, deafness, ...
more infohttp://ctgt.net/panel/osteopetrosis-core-ngs-panel

Bone Density | Bone Mineral Density | BMD |  MedlinePlusBone Density | Bone Mineral Density | BMD | MedlinePlus

... is the amount of bone mineral in your bones. A BMD test measures bone health and risk for breaking bones. ... A bone mineral density (BMD) test is the best way to measure your bone health. It compares your bone density, or mass, to that ... Bone Markers (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) * Bone-Density Tests: When You Need a Test and When You Dont (ABIM ... Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan) (American College of Radiology, Radiological Society of North America) Also in Spanish ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/bonedensity.html

Bone Density TestBone Density Test

Answers to common questions and concerns regarding bone density testing, such as what it is, how to prepare for a test, and how ... A bone density test will show how dense these bones are. When a person has osteoporosis, the bone is not as dense and therefore ... Your doctor has suggested you have a bone density test as part of the evaluation at National Jewish. A bone density test is a ... A bone density test can help determine a diagnosis early, before a person has a bone fracture and can help determine the ...
more infohttps://www.nationaljewish.org/treatment-programs/tests-procedures/imaging/bone-density

Bone density test - Mayo ClinicBone density test - Mayo Clinic

... a bone density test can assess your bone strength. Learn about the risks and results of this procedure. ... Locations for bone density testing. Locations for bone density testing. Bone density tests are usually done on bones in the ... Bone density. Bone density. With bone loss, the outer shell of a bone becomes thinner and the interior becomes more porous. ... A bone density test uses X-rays to measure how many grams of calcium and other bone minerals are packed into a segment of bone ...
more infohttps://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/bone-density-test/about/pac-20385273

Young gymnasts show high bone density - ReutersYoung gymnasts show high bone density - Reuters

For girls, building bone density from an early age may reduce their risk of the bone-thinning disease osteoporosis later in ... However, the artistic gymnasts had the greatest muscle mass and tended to have higher bone density, particularly in the arms. ... NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - The high-impact tumbling of gymnastics may boost young girls muscle mass and bone density, ... The years before puberty are an especially opportune time to boost bone density with exercise, explained the studys lead ...
more infohttps://www.reuters.com/article/us-bone-density/young-gymnasts-show-high-bone-density-idUSCOL75681220070607?feedType=RSS&utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+reuters%2FhealthNews+%28Reuters+Health+News%29

Bone Density - Adrenal Insufficiency - MedHelpBone Density - Adrenal Insufficiency - MedHelp

Bone Density. Hi all- I am a pituitary patient. Ive been taking Hydrocortisone now for about six years. Back when the journey ... My bone has filled in and it is no longer an issue. So I follow the, only take what you need philosophy my max is 15 mgs a ... My bone has filled in and it is no longer an issue. So I follow the, only take what you need philosophy my max is 15 mgs a ... Thanks! Yes bones can improve. I was very glad to hear that myself. Yes, I take Calcium citrate too, also at night to avoid ...
more infohttp://www.medhelp.org/posts/Adrenal-Insufficiency/Bone-Density/show/1539973

Optimizing Bone DensityOptimizing Bone Density

... the best way to build bone is to perform weight-bearing exercise. ... The number-one factor for improving and maintaining bone health ... the best way to build bone is to perform weight-bearing exercise regularly. Resistance exercise improves bone density more than ... Bone mass accumulates most during the first couple decades of life. The more bone gained during this period, the less risk of ... Vitamin D plays an important role in bone mineralization, working with calcium to break down old bone cells and build up new ...
more infohttps://www.vegkitchen.com/optimizing-bone-density/

Bone density screening | University of OxfordBone density screening | University of Oxford

The Iffley Road Sports Centre will host a day of bone density screening with Tracey Hunt, MSc Exercise and Nutrition Science, ... Bone density screening. Health and wellbeing. The Iffley Road Sports Centre will host a day of bone density screening with ... Tracey will assess your bone density and fracture risk using a machine called a Quantative Ultrasound Scanner or QUS. The ... Osteoporosis literally means porous bones. It occurs when the rate of bone renewal does not match the rate of breakdown, ...
more infohttp://www.ox.ac.uk/staff/news-listing/2018-12-19-bone-density-screening

Optimizing Bone DensityOptimizing Bone Density

... the best way to build bone is to perform weight-bearing exercise. ... The number-one factor for improving and maintaining bone health ... 5 comments on "Optimizing Bone Density" * Ivana Wilson March 23, 2012 at 1:05 pm. Are you quite sure that it is vitamin D2, and ... the best way to build bone is to perform weight-bearing exercise regularly. Resistance exercise improves bone density more than ... Bone mass accumulates most during the first couple decades of life. The more bone gained during this period, the less risk of ...
more infohttp://www.vegkitchen.com/nutrition/optimizing-bone-density/comment-page-1/

Bone Density Scan (QDR)Bone Density Scan (QDR)

Your doctor has ordered a bone density scan (QDR). The role of this procedure is to diagnose osteoporosis or to be a follow-up ... You can print and fill out the Bone Density Questionnaire, available here, before arriving to speed the registration process. ... Why choose the S. Mark Taper Foundation Imaging Center for a bone density scan? ... We will be measuring the mineral content of your bones.. The scan will be done with a low energy X-ray beam that produces very ...
more infohttps://www.cedars-sinai.edu/Patients/Programs-and-Services/Imaging-Center/For-Patients/Exams-by-Procedure/Womens-Imaging/Bone-Density-Scan-QDR.aspx

Bone Density Test | Johns Hopkins MedicineBone Density Test | Johns Hopkins Medicine

... can help determine how quickly you are losing bone mass and density. ... A bone density test measures the strength and density of your bones as you approach menopause and, when the test is repeated ... What is a bone density test?. A bone density test, also known as bone mass measurement or bone mineral density test, measures ... and to the optimal peak bone density of a healthy young adult of the same gender. Bone density testing can help to:. * Detect ...
more infohttps://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/treatment-tests-and-therapies/bone-density-test

Get a Bone Density Test - healthfinder.govGet a Bone Density Test - healthfinder.gov

Share this resource to help people learn more about bone density tests and osteoporosis (weak bones). ... A bone density test measures how strong bones are. ... What happens during a bone density test?. A bone density test ... A bone density test measures how strong bones are. The test will tell you if you have osteoporosis ("os-tee-oh-puh-ROH-sis"), ... You might not know you have the disease until you break a bone. Thats why its so important to get a bone density test to ...
more infohttps://healthfinder.gov/HealthTopics/Category/doctor-visits/screening-tests/get-a-bone-density-test

Get a Bone Density Test - healthfinder.govGet a Bone Density Test - healthfinder.gov

Share this resource to help people learn more about bone density tests and osteoporosis (weak bones). ... A bone density test measures how strong bones are. ... What happens during a bone density test?. A bone density test ... A bone density test measures how strong bones are. The test will tell you if you have osteoporosis ("os-tee-oh-puh-ROH-sis"), ... You might not know you have the disease until you break a bone. Thats why its so important to get a bone density test to ...
more infohttps://healthfinder.gov/HealthTopics/Population/older-adults/health-conditions-and-diseases/get-a-bone-density-test

Probiotics can help increase bone densityProbiotics can help increase bone density

Treatment with good bacteria widely used in probiotic supplements can strengthen bones, especially in females, finds a study ... "The significance of the study is that probiotics are, at least in mice, an effective means to increase bone density," said ... This caused T cells in the bone marrow to secrete a protein called Wnt10b, known to be critical for bone development. By ... bugs demonstrated an immune response that stimulated an increase in bone density.. The effect seen in young female mice is ...
more infohttps://www.gulf-times.com/story/613035/Probiotics-can-help-increase-bone-density

Bone density scan: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia ImageBone density scan: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia Image

The lower the density of a bone the higher the risk of fractures. A bone scan, along with a patients medical history, is a ... A bone density scan measures the density of bone in a person. ... A bone density scan measures the density of bone in a person. ... The lower the density of a bone the higher the risk of fractures. A bone scan, along with a patients medical history, is a ... A bone density scan has the advantage of being painless and exposing the patient to only a small amount of radiation. ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/imagepages/1073.htm

Bone density scan - Canadian Cancer SocietyBone density scan - Canadian Cancer Society

A bone density scan is also called a bone densitometry or dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. ... A bone density scan is an imaging test that uses x-rays and computer technology to measure bone density. ... Bone density scan. A bone density scan is an imaging test that uses x-rays to measure how strong your bones are. It is also ... Why a bone density scan is done. A bone density scan may be done to:* measure the amount of minerals, such as calcium, in bone ...
more infohttp://www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/diagnosis-and-treatment/tests-and-procedures/bone-density-scan/?region=ab

bone density test osteopenia | DailyStrengthbone density test osteopenia | DailyStrength

I have lost some bone density...I have to make an appointment to see what..... ... I finally got the results from my bone density test...The doctor says I have osteopenia... ... Irene, I had a bone density test a few years back and was told the same thing. The rhuemie uses the bone density tests as a ... I finally got the results from my bone density test...The doctor says I have osteopenia...I have lost some bone density...I ...
more infohttps://www.dailystrength.org/group/rheumatoid-arthritis/discussion/bone-density-test-osteopenia

Bone Density TestingBone Density Testing

Find a Froedtert & the Medical College of Wisconsin bone density test location. ... Bone density exams use a small amount of X-ray to tell if you are at risk for osteoporosis. ... Find a Bone Density Test Location Near You. More Bone Density Resources. The American College of Radiology and the Radiological ... Preparing for Your Bone Density Exam. There is no special preparation for a bone density exam. ...
more infohttps://www.froedtert.com/radiology/bone-density

3 Ways to Understand Bone Density Score - wikiHow3 Ways to Understand Bone Density Score - wikiHow

If you have had a bone density test, knowing how to interpret and understand the results can be important to your health and ... Explore this Article Bone Density Test Bone Density Test Results Discuss Bone Density with Health Professionals Questions & ... Know the purpose of a bone density test. Most individuals receive bone density scans to check for signs of osteoporosis. *Bone ... Ask how to prevent bone density loss. Even if you have a normal or healthy bone density score, you may wish to discuss ways to ...
more infohttps://www.wikihow.com/Understand-Bone-Density-Score

Docs: Celiac disease, bone density relatedDocs: Celiac disease, bone density related

Its also important to get a bone-density test. ... Docs: Celiac disease, bone density related. For people ... Docs: Celiac disease, bone density related. For people diagnosed with celiac disease, staying away from gluten is really ... Docs: Celiac disease, bone density related. For people diagnosed with celiac disease, staying away from gluten is really ... STAYING AWAY FROM GLUTEN IS REALLY IMPORTANT AND SO IS GETTING A BONE DENSITY TEST. IN A NEW STUDY RESEARCHERS FROM FINLAND AND ...
more infohttps://www.wbaltv.com/article/docs-celiac-disease-bone-density-related/6926964

Caffeine and Bone Density Loss : EpidemiologyCaffeine and Bone Density Loss : Epidemiology

Caffeine and Bone Density Loss. Kiel, Douglas P.; Felson, David T.; Hannan, Marian T.; Anderson, Jennifer J.; Wilson, Peter W. ... Home , November 1993 - Volume 4 - Issue 6 , Caffeine and Bone Density Loss ...
more infohttp://journals.lww.com/epidem/Citation/1993/11000/Caffeine_and_Bone_Density_Loss_.16.aspx

Bone Density Scan | MercyBone Density Scan | Mercy

Mercys bone health experts recommend bone density scans for people age 65 and older. The scan estimates bone density by taking ... A bone density scan is the only test that can determine if you have low bone density or osteoporosis. ... The results of your bone density scan will help you and your doctor:. *Learn if you have weak bones or osteoporosis before or ... Predict your chances of breaking a bone in the future.. *Determine if your bone density is improving, getting worse or staying ...
more infohttps://www.mercy.net/service/bone-density-scan/

Increase Bone Density With Supplements  | Newsmax.comIncrease Bone Density With Supplements | Newsmax.com

You can be put on a natural regimen that actually reverses faltering bone density and builds stronger bones. ... and vitamin K2 could improve bone density.. The women in the supplementation group had 4.3 percent increase in bone mineral ... If your doctor is prescribing an osteoporotic medication to treat your bone density tests, I say that is a good sign to find a ... density in the lumbar spine and a 2.2 percent increase in the hip bone. ...
more infohttps://www.newsmax.com/health/dr-brownstein/bone-density-osteoporosis-melatonin-vitamin-d/2020/02/18/id/954625/

Osteoporosis Prevention and Increasing Bone DensityOsteoporosis Prevention and Increasing Bone Density

Some women for instance believe they need a bone density test when they reach menopause in order to reduce the risk of ... Theres alot we may not know about our bones. ... Are Your Bones Getting Weaker? Find Out With Bone Density ... Theres alot we may not know about our bones. Some women for instance believe they need a bone density test when they reach ... Osteoporosis Prevention and Increasing Bone Density By Jody Smith HERWriter Average Select rating. Poor. Fair. Average. Good. ...
more infohttps://www.empowher.com/osteoporosis/content/osteoporosis-prevention-and-increasing-bone-density?allcomments=yes

Bone density - Medical Dictionary / Glossary | MedindiaBone density - Medical Dictionary / Glossary | Medindia

Bone density - Bone density is the amount of bone tissue in a certain volume of bone. It can be measured using a special x-ray ... Medical Word - Bone density. Ans : Bone density is the amount of bone tissue in a certain volume of bone. It can be measured ... Bone density - Glossary. Written & Compiled by Medindia Content Team. Medically Reviewed by The Medindia Medical Review Team on ...
more infohttp://www.medindia.net/glossary/bone_density.htm
  • Supplementation with either LGG or butyrate induced the expansion of regulatory T cells in the intestine and in bone marrow, the spongy tissue inside some bones. (gulf-times.com)
  • This caused T cells in the bone marrow to secrete a protein called Wnt10b, known to be critical for bone development. (gulf-times.com)
  • According to research from Tufts University, postmenopausal women who did strength-training twice a week for a year gained 1 percent to 2 percent in bone density. (empowher.com)
  • A 1994 Tufts University study showed that women between the ages of 50 and 70 who engaged in regular exercise maintained or increased their bone density, whereas their peers who didn't exercise lost bone density. (livestrong.com)
  • Not all health insurance plans pay for bone density tests, so ask your insurance provider beforehand if you're covered. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Bone density tests are easy, fast and painless. (mayoclinic.org)
  • In fact, some simple versions of bone density tests can be done at your local pharmacy or drugstore. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Ask your doctor if you are at risk for osteoporosis and find out when to start getting bone density tests. (healthfinder.gov)
  • If you have Medicare, find out about Medicare coverage for bone density tests . (healthfinder.gov)
  • The rhuemie uses the bone density tests as a measure of change. (dailystrength.org)
  • The tests provide a reading of the strength of your bones based on the presence of calcium and other minerals in the bone. (wikihow.com)
  • This machine tests bone density at your hip, lower back, and forearms to get a good measure of the strength of bones that are most likely to break in a slip or fall. (wikihow.com)
  • But Dr. Nelson Watts, director of the University of Cincinnati Bone Health and Osteoporosis Center says that waiting till age 65 is better, because earlier bone density tests may put you on drugs you don't need. (empowher.com)
  • Bone density tests are not necessary for people without risk factors for weak bones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most tests differ according to which bones are measured to determine the BMD result. (wikipedia.org)
  • These tests include: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA or DEXA) Dual X-ray Absorptiometry and Laser (DXL) Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) Single photon absorptiometry (SPA) Dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) Digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) Single energy X-ray absorptiometry (SEXA) DXA is currently the most widely used, but quantitative ultrasound (QUS) has been described as a more cost-effective approach to measure bone density. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study showed that healthy mice fed with Lactobacillyus rhamnosus GG (LGG) bugs demonstrated an immune response that stimulated an increase in bone density. (gulf-times.com)
  • Your bones are likely weak, brittle, and prone to breaks from falls or even from some regular activities. (wikihow.com)
  • One of the main keys to effective treatment for osteoporosis , brittle bone disease and various other bone conditions is early detection. (disabled-world.com)
  • It is an essential step in the way to finding out if you need to do something more to tackle a problem with brittle bones. (disabled-world.com)
  • Strong bones are important for your health. (medlineplus.gov)
  • NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - The high-impact tumbling of gymnastics may boost young girls' muscle mass and bone density, according to a small study. (reuters.com)
  • Any sports that include jumping, sprinting and rapid direction changes may aid in bone development, Vicente-Rodriguez told Reuters Health. (reuters.com)
  • Bone health is a complex and multifactorial process. (vegkitchen.com)
  • Interestingly, the number-one factor for improving and maintaining bone health isn't at all food related: the best way to build bone is to perform weight-bearing exercise regularly. (vegkitchen.com)
  • Take these steps to protect your bone health. (healthfinder.gov)
  • This information is used to tell your health care provider if your bone density is normal or if you are at risk for osteoporosis. (froedtert.com)
  • They are much cheaper but not always a good indicator of bone health in bones that are the most likely to break. (wikihow.com)
  • Each score indicates a different measure of bone health and can tell you information about the strength of your bones compared to healthy individuals and other people of the same background as you. (wikihow.com)
  • If you do not understand your bone density score or if your score indicates substantial bone density loss, it is essential to discuss your results with a health professional. (wikihow.com)
  • If you are young or currently healthy, it is also important to discuss bone health with a professional to understand your personal risk of bone density loss. (wikihow.com)
  • The reason is because bone health is known to decrease significantly among women who have gone through menopause, due to the drop in estrogen that the body experiences. (disabled-world.com)
  • The reason is because diet is known to play a major role in bone health. (disabled-world.com)
  • What you see on your skin could tell you about your bone health. (gardenoflife.com)
  • Increasing your daily intake of calcium and vitamin D, whether by making changes to your diet or taking supplemental pills, is crucial to bone health. (livestrong.com)
  • What Is the Connection Between Diabetes and Bone Health? (americanbonehealth.org)
  • Interestingly, this relationship between wrinkles and bone density was consistent in all of the bones the scientists tested, including the hip, lumbar spine and heel. (gardenoflife.com)
  • There is a statistical association between poor bone density and higher probability of fracture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hi Irene, Yes I have heard of it, I nurse a few patients who have it, the doc will probably put you on a high dose of Calcium Nitrate to strengthen your bones, you must be very careful not to fall over as your wrists, ankles and hips are most at risk, hope this helps. (dailystrength.org)
  • Determine if your bone density is improving, getting worse or staying the same. (mercy.net)
  • And the denser your bones, the stronger they generally are and the less likely they are to break. (mayoclinic.org)
  • What's more, they also had denser bones and more muscle than girls who practiced rhythmic gymnastics, a sport that requires fitness and agility but does not include the particularly high-impact moves of artistic gymnastics. (reuters.com)
  • It compares your bone density, or mass, to that of a healthy person who is the same age and sex as you are. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These give you an indication of how your bone density compares to the ideal as well as to the expected density for people in your life situation. (wikihow.com)
  • The concept is of mass of mineral per volume of bone (relating to density in the physics sense), although clinically it is measured by proxy according to optical density per square centimeter of bone surface upon imaging. (wikipedia.org)
  • Long-term use of steroid medications, such as prednisone, interferes with the bone-rebuilding process - which can lead to osteoporosis. (mayoclinic.org)
  • These bones are examined because they can help predict the likelihood of future breaks in other bones. (mercy.net)
  • Predict your chances of breaking a bone in the future. (mercy.net)
  • Over a long period of time, you have taken medicine that speeds up bone loss, such as corticosteroids for treating rheumatoid arthritis or other conditions, or some anti-seizure medicines. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • females age 65 or older males age 70 or older people over age 50 with any of the following: previous bone fracture from minor trauma rheumatoid arthritis low body weight a parent with a hip fracture Individuals with vertebral abnormalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results were also independent of age, percentage of body fat and other factors known to influence bone density, said Pal. (gardenoflife.com)
  • Pal concludes, "Ultimately, we want to know if intensity of skin wrinkles can allow identification of women who are more likely to fracture a bone, especially the femoral neck (the uppermost part of the thighbone that, when fractured, often results in surgery) or the hip, an often fatal injury in older people," she said. (gardenoflife.com)
  • Spanish researchers found that young girls who participated in artistic gymnastics had greater muscle mass and bone density than their peers whose activities were limited to gym class. (reuters.com)