The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
Breaks in bones.
The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
Diseases of BONES.
VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
The spinal or vertebral column.
The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.
The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
The bones of the free part of the upper extremity including the HUMERUS; RADIUS; and ULNA.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Bones that constitute each half of the pelvic girdle in VERTEBRATES, formed by fusion of the ILIUM; ISCHIUM; and PUBIC BONE.
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
A nonhormonal medication for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. This drug builds healthy bone, restoring some of the bone loss as a result of osteoporosis.
Decrease, loss, or removal of the mineral constituents of bones. Temporary loss of bone mineral content is especially associated with space flight, weightlessness, and extended immobilization. OSTEOPOROSIS is permanent, includes reduction of total bone mass, and is associated with increased rate of fractures. CALCIFICATION, PHYSIOLOGIC is the process of bone remineralizing. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed; Nicogossian, Space Physiology and Medicine, 2d ed, pp327-33)
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.
Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.
Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.
Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.
A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
Absence of menstruation.
Broken bones in the vertebral column.
A colorless crystalline or white powdery organic, tricarboxylic acid occurring in plants, especially citrus fruits, and used as a flavoring agent, as an antioxidant in foods, and as a sequestrating agent. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Breaks in bones resulting from low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration characteristic of OSTEOPOROSIS.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.
Excessive formation of dense trabecular bone leading to pathological fractures; OSTEITIS; SPLENOMEGALY with infarct; ANEMIA; and extramedullary hemopoiesis (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.
Sweet food products combining cane or beet sugars with other carbohydrates and chocolate, milk, eggs, and various flavorings. In the United States, candy refers to both sugar- and cocoa-based confections and is differentiated from sweetened baked goods; elsewhere the terms sugar confectionary, chocolate confectionary, and flour confectionary (meaning goods such as cakes and pastries) are used.
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
The shaft of long bones.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
A condition of competitive female athletes in which there are interrelated problems of EATING DISORDERS; AMENORRHEA; and OSTEOPOROSIS.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.
The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.
An eating disorder that is characterized by the lack or loss of APPETITE, known as ANOREXIA. Other features include excess fear of becoming OVERWEIGHT; BODY IMAGE disturbance; significant WEIGHT LOSS; refusal to maintain minimal normal weight; and AMENORRHEA. This disorder occurs most frequently in adolescent females. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
Insertion of an implant into the bone of the mandible or maxilla. The implant has an exposed head which protrudes through the mucosa and is a prosthodontic abutment.
The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
Rhythmic and patterned body movements which are usually performed to music.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.
The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.
Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.
The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.
The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.
LDL-receptor related protein that combines with FRIZZLED RECEPTORS at the cell surface to form receptors that bind WNT PROTEINS. The protein plays an important role in the WNT SIGNALING PATHWAY in OSTEOBLASTS and during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
A dead body, usually a human body.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
Abnormally infrequent menstruation.
The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the FEMUR; PATELLA; TIBIA; and FIBULA.
The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
COLLAGEN DISEASES characterized by brittle, osteoporotic, and easily fractured bones. It may also present with blue sclerae, loose joints, and imperfect dentin formation. Most types are autosomal dominant and are associated with mutations in COLLAGEN TYPE I.
An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.
Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Attachment of orthodontic devices and materials to the MOUTH area for support and to provide a counterforce to orthodontic forces.
Devices, usually alloplastic, surgically inserted into or onto the jawbone, which support a single prosthetic tooth and serve either as abutments or as cosmetic replacements for missing teeth.
Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.
The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Technique involving the passage of X-rays through oral structures to create a film record while a central tab or wing of dental X-ray film is being held between upper and lower teeth.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.
Replacement for a hip joint.
A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
Fractures of the short, constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters. It excludes intertrochanteric fractures which are HIP FRACTURES.
A family of proteins that share sequence similarity with the low density lipoprotein receptor (RECEPTORS, LDL).
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The joining of objects by means of a cement (e.g., in fracture fixation, such as in hip arthroplasty for joining of the acetabular component to the femoral component). In dentistry, it is used for the process of attaching parts of a tooth or restorative material to a natural tooth or for the attaching of orthodontic bands to teeth by means of an adhesive.
Fractures due to the strain caused by repetitive exercise. They are thought to arise from a combination of MUSCLE FATIGUE and bone failure, and occur in situations where BONE REMODELING predominates over repair. The most common sites of stress fractures are the METATARSUS; FIBULA; TIBIA; and FEMORAL NECK.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Endosseous dental implantation where implants are fitted with an abutment or where an implant with a transmucosal coronal portion is used immediately (within 1 week) after the initial extraction. Conventionally, the implantation is performed in two stages with more than two months in between the stages.
A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
3-Phenylchromones. Isomeric form of FLAVONOIDS in which the benzene group is attached to the 3 position of the benzopyran ring instead of the 2 position.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
A biosynthetic precursor of collagen containing additional amino acid sequences at the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal ends of the polypeptide chains.
9,10-Secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-3,25-diol. Biologically active metabolite of vitamin D2 which is more active in curing rickets than its parent. The compound is believed to attach to the same receptor as vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The TARSAL BONES; METATARSAL BONES; and PHALANGES OF TOES. The tarsal bones consists of seven bones: CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid; navicular; internal; middle; and external cuneiform bones. The five metatarsal bones are numbered one through five, running medial to lateral. There are 14 phalanges in each foot, the great toe has two while the other toes have three each.
Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).
Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.
A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.
Fracture of the lower end of the radius in which the lower fragment is displaced posteriorly.
Injuries involving the vertebral column.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.
Extraoral body-section radiography depicting an entire maxilla, or both maxilla and mandible, on a single film.
The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.
A second generation selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) used to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. It has estrogen agonist effects on bone and cholesterol metabolism but behaves as a complete estrogen antagonist on mammary gland and uterine tissue.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
(6 alpha)-17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A synthetic progestational hormone used in veterinary practice as an estrus regulator.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Fibrous blood-filled cyst in the bone. Although benign it can be destructive causing deformity and fractures.
Replacement of the hip joint.
Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.

Association of polymorphism at the type I collagen (COL1A1) locus with reduced bone mineral density, increased fracture risk, and increased collagen turnover. (1/6095)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between a common polymorphism within intron 1 of the COL1A1 gene and osteoporosis in a nested case-control study. METHODS: We studied 185 healthy women (mean +/- SD age 54.3+/-4.6 years). Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry, and fractures were determined radiographically. The COL1A1 genotype was assessed using the polymerase chain reaction and Bal I endonuclease digestion. RESULTS: Genotype frequencies were similar to those previously observed and in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium: SS 61.1%, Ss 36.2%, and ss 2.7%. Carriage of at least one copy of the "s" allele was associated with a significant reduction in lumbar spine BMD (P = 0.02) and an increased risk of total fracture (P = 0.04). Urinary pyridinoline levels were significantly elevated in those with the risk allele (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These data support the findings that the COL1A1 gene polymorphism is associated with low BMD and fracture risk, and suggest a possible physiologic effect on total body turnover of type I collagen.  (+info)

Predicting bone loss following orthotopic liver transplantation. (2/6095)

BACKGROUND: Hepatic osteodystrophy occurs in the majority of patients with advanced chronic liver disease with the abnormalities in bone metabolism accelerating following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). AIMS: To examine changes in bone mineral density (BMD) following OLT and to investigate factors that lead to bone loss. METHODS: Twelve patients had BMD (at both the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN)) and biochemical markers measured preoperatively and for 24 months following OLT. RESULTS: BMD was low in 75% of patients prior to OLT and decreased significantly from baseline at the LS at three months and the FN at six months. BMD began to increase thereafter at both sites, approaching baseline values at the LS by 12 months. Bone formation markers, osteocalcin and procollagen type I carboxy propeptide, decreased immediately post-OLT, with a concomitant increase seen in the resorption markers pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline. This resulted in a negative uncoupling index early post-OLT, that rebounded to positive values after six months. There was a significant correlation between the change in the uncoupling index between six and three months which preceded the increase in BMD at 12 months. The decrease in BMD recorded early post-OLT correlated with vitamin D levels at three months. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that increased resorption and inadequate formation are the major contributors to additional bone loss following OLT. Non-invasive biochemical markers precede later changes in BMD in this patient group following OLT and may have a role in investigating and planning intervention strategies to prevent bone loss in future studies.  (+info)

Osteopenia in the patient with cancer. (3/6095)

Osteopenia is defined as a reduction in bone mass. It is commonly known to occur in elderly people or women who are postmenopausal due to hormonal imbalances. This condition, however, can result because of many other factors, such as poor nutrition, prolonged pharmacological intervention, disease, and decreased mobility. Because patients with cancer experience many of these factors, they are often predisposed to osteopenia. Currently, patients with cancer are living longer and leading more fulfilling lives after treatment. Therefore, it is imperative that therapists who are responsible for these patients understand the risk factors for osteopenia and their relevance to a patient with cancer.  (+info)

Effect of shellfish calcium on the apparent absorption of calcium and bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats. (4/6095)

Fossil shellfish powder (FS) and Ezo giant scallop shell powder (EG) were rendered soluble with lactate and citrate under decompression (FSEx and EGEx, respectively) and we examined the effects of lactate-citrate solubilization of FS and EG on mineral absorption, tissue mineral contents, serum biochemical indices and bone mineral density (BMD) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The apparent absorption ratios of minerals tended to be high in the rats fed with the solubilized mineral sources, those in the FSEx group being significantly higher than in the FS group. There was no significant difference in the tibia mineral content among the OVX groups. BMD at the distal femoral diaphysis was significantly increased by FSEx and EGEx feeding. It is suggested that solubilization with lactate and citrate under decompression increased the solubility and bioavailability of calcium from such natural sources of shellfish calcium as FS and EG.  (+info)

Study of the effect of lactational bone loss on blood lead concentrations in humans. (5/6095)

Lactation and other clinical states of high bone turnover have been suggested to release lead (Pb) stored in bone into blood and tissues. Previous observations on the influences of lactation have been anecdotal, or at high blood Pb concentrations with varying past exposures, or complicated by postpartum fluid changes. A prospective observational study was performed to investigate possible changes in blood lead concentrations at multiple intervals during lactation for 6 months postpartum and to relate changes in blood lead concentrations to changes in bone density and other variables. Volunteer pregnant subjects (n = 58) were enrolled from a midwifery service at an academic public health hospital. Subjects were mostly Hispanic, recently immigrated, of low economic status, not receiving supplemental calcium, and had low blood Pb concentrations (2.35 +/- 2.05 microg/dl at enrollment). Bone density losses over 6 months for the group averaged -2.46 +/- 6.33% at the vertebral spine and -0.67 +/- 5.21% at the femoral neck. In predicting final bone density, apart from initial bone density only the total number of breast-feedings was a significant independent variable of the variables tested, accounting for an additional 12% of the variability. No changes in blood Pb concentrations were seen over the interval beyond 2 weeks postpartum (minimum detectable change was 0.4 microg/dl). There was no relation between the changes in bone density and changes in blood Pb or the integrated blood Pb over the 2-week to 6-month period. Normal (nonlactating) bone resorption rates contribute a large fraction of the Pb in blood during low-exposure circumstances. However, during lactation the increase in bone resorptive processes is probably relatively small with a larger decrease in deposition accounting for net bone loss, as suggested by other investigations. Thus, concomitant release of Pb from bones of lactating subjects with low blood lead concentrations on this background of high normal resorption was not large enough for detection.  (+info)

Mechanical considerations in impaction bone grafting. (6/6095)

In impaction grafting of contained bone defects after revision joint arthroplasty the graft behaves as a friable aggregate and its resistance to complex forces depends on grading, normal load and compaction. Bone mills in current use produce a distribution of particle sizes more uniform than is desirable for maximising resistance to shear stresses. We have performed experiments in vitro using morsellised allograft bone from the femoral head which have shown that its mechanical properties improve with increasing normal load and with increasing shear strains (strain hardening). The mechanical strength also increases with increasing compaction energy, and with the addition of bioglass particles to make good the deficiency in small and very small fragments. Donor femoral heads may be milled while frozen without affecting the profile of the particle size. Osteoporotic femoral heads provide a similar grading of sizes, although fewer particles are obtained from each specimen. Our findings have implications for current practice and for the future development of materials and techniques.  (+info)

Transplantation of osteoblast-like cells to the distracted callus in rabbits. (7/6095)

We carried out limb lengthening in rabbits and then transplanted osteoblast-like cells derived from the tibial periosteum to the centres of distracted callus immediately after distraction had been terminated. Two weeks later the transaxial area ratio at the centre of the distracted callus and the bone mineral density (BMD) were significantly higher in the transplanted group, by 21% and 42%, respectively, than in the non-injected group or the group injected with physiological saline (p < 0.05). Callus BMD as a percentage of density in uninvolved bone was also significantly higher in the transplanted group (p < 0.05) than in the other two groups, by 27% and 20% in the second and fourth weeks, respectively (p < 0.05). Mechanically, the callus in the transplanted group tended to be stronger as shown by the three-point bending test although the difference in fracture strength was not statistically significant. Our results show that transplantation of osteoblast-like cells promotes maturity of the distracted callus as observed at the second and fourth weeks after lengthening. The method appears promising as a means of shortening the consolidation period of callus distraction and decreasing complications during limb lengthening with an external fixator.  (+info)

Subsidence of a non-polished stem in revisions of the hip using impaction allograft. Evaluation with radiostereometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. (8/6095)

We revised 24 consecutive hips with loosening of the femoral stem using impaction allograft and a cemented stem with an unpolished proximal surface. Repeated radiostereometric examinations for up to two years showed a slow rate of subsidence with a mean of 0.32 mm (-2.0 to +0.31). Fifteen cases followed for a further year showed the same mean subsidence after three years, indicating stabilisation. A tendency to retroversion of the stems was noted between the operation and the last follow-up. Retroversion was also recorded when displacement of the stem was studied in ten of the patients after two years. Repeated determination of bone mineral density showed an initial loss after six months, followed by recovery to the postoperative level at two years. Defects in the cement mantle and malalignment of the stem were often noted on postoperative radiographs, but did not correlate with the degrees of migration or displacement. After one year, increasing frequency of trabecular remodelling or resorption of the graft was observed in the greater trochanter and distal to the tip of the stem. Cortical repair was noted distally and medially (Gruen regions 3, 5 and 6). Migration of the stems was the lowest reported to date, which we attribute to the improved grafting technique and to the hardness of the graft.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Lumbar spine bone mineral density in US adults. T2 - Demographic patterns and relationship with femur neck skeletal status. AU - Looker, A. C.. AU - Melton, L. J.. AU - Borrud, L. G.. AU - Shepherd, J. A.. PY - 2012/4/1. Y1 - 2012/4/1. N2 - Summary This analysis examines lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) of US adults from NHANES 2005-2008 by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Prevalence of low spine BMD and agreement between the prevalence of low BMD at the spine and femur neck in older adults are also assessed. Introduction Lumbar spine BMD data from a representative sample of the US population have not been previously available. Methods We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008 to examine demographic patterns in lumbar spine BMD among US adults age ≫20 years and the prevalence of low lumbar spine BMD in adults age 50 years. Agreement between the prevalence of low BMD at the femur neck and spine in older adults was also assessed. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aspirin and NSAID use in older women. T2 - Effect on bone mineral density and fracture risk. AU - Bauer, Douglas C.. AU - Orwoll, Eric S.. AU - Fox, Kathleen M.. AU - Vogt, Thomas M.. AU - Lane, Nancy E. AU - Hochberg, Marc C.. AU - Stone, Katie. AU - Nevitt, Michael C.. PY - 1996/1. Y1 - 1996/1. N2 - Prostaglandin inhibition by aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may inhibit bone loss and preserve bone mineral density (BMD) in vitro and in animal models. The effect of these agents on BMD and fracture risk in postmenopausal women is unknown. We assessed the risk factors for osteoporosis and the use of aspirin and NSAIDs in 7786 white women over age 65. Axial BMD was measured at the same time, and fractures were prospectively documented over the subsequent 4 years of follow-up. In age-adjusted analyses, daily use of aspirin or NSAIDs was associated with a 2.3-5.8% increase in BMD of the hip and spine. The relationship persisted even after adjustment for ...
To assess the prevalence of and risk factors for low bone mineral density in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 152 IBD patients and 73 healthy controls were studied. Sixty seven patients had ulcerative colitis, 78 had Crohns disease (52 of them (66.7%) had ileal disease), and seven had indeterminate colitis. Bone mineral density values (g/cm2) measured by dual energy x ray absorbtiometry at the spine (L2-L4), the femoral neck, Wards triangle, and the trochanter were 1.177, 0.948, 0.850, and 0.838 in the patients and 1.228 (p = 0.034), 1.001 (p = 0.009), 0.889 (NS), and 0.888 (p = 0.012) in the control group, respectively. The type or extent of the disease or previous small bowel resection did not have any significant effect on the bone mineral density values. There was a weak, but statistically significant negative correlation between bone mineral density and the total lifetime corticosteroid dose (in the lumbar spine r = -0.164, p = 0.04, the femoral neck r = -0.185, p = 0.02, Wards triangle ...
This study evaluated the effect of anti-osteoporosis treatment with intravenous zoledronic acid during the perioperative period, on the adjacent vertebral body bone mineral density (BMD) after spinal fusion surgery in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. All data were collected retrospectively from patients medical records using standardized forms, including: demographics (age, BMI, years since menopause); surgical details of levels included (fusion level and cephalad levels); and BMD values. BMD values (g/cm2) were recorded for the overall lumbar spine, for the levels cephalad to the fused segments, and the femoral neck. The group 0 represents the treated group and group 1 represents the untreated group. The table 1 shows the data about the description of demographic and surgery information of treated group and untreated group. Additionally, the table 2 shows the information about cephalad adjacent vertebral and femoral neck BMD value change. The conclusion shows that perioperative zoledronic acid
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Trait anxiety and tamoxifen effects on bone mineral density and sex hormone-binding globulin. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - LONG-TERM EFFECTS ON BONE MINERAL DENSITY AFTER FOUR YEARS OF TREATMENT WITH TWO INTENSIVE COMBINATION STRATEGIES, INCLUDING INITIALLY HIGH DOSE PREDNISOLONE, IN EARLY RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS PATIENTS: THE COBRA-LIGHT TRIAL. AU - Lucassen, M. J.. AU - ter Wee, M. M.. AU - den Uyl, D.. AU - Konijn, N. P.. AU - Nurmohamed, M. T.. AU - van Schaardenburg, D.. AU - Kerstens, P. J.. AU - Bultink, I. E.. AU - Van Tuyl, L. H.. AU - Boers, M.. AU - Lems, W. F.. PY - 2018/6. Y1 - 2018/6. U2 - 10.1136/annrheumdis-2018-eular.2826. DO - 10.1136/annrheumdis-2018-eular.2826. M3 - Meeting Abstract. VL - 77. SP - 290. EP - 291. JO - Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. JF - Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. SN - 0003-4967. ER - ...
Kemmler, W., von Stengel, S., Engelke, K., Haberle, L. and Kalender, W.A. (2010) Exercise Effects on Bone Mineral Density, Falls, Coronary Risk Factors, and Health Care Costs in Older Women The Randomized Controlled Senior Fitness and Prevention (SEFIP) Study. Archives of Internal Medicine, 170, 179-185.
2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. The goal of our study was to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass based on bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck and the lumbar spine in adults 50 years and older in the United States (US). We applied prevalence estimates of osteoporosis or low bone mass at the femoral neck or lumbar spine (adjusted by age, sex, and race/ethnicity to the 2010 Census) for the noninstitutionalized population aged 50 years and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010 to 2010 US Census population counts to determine the total number of older US residents with osteoporosis and low bone mass. There were more than 99 million adults aged 50 years and older in the US in 2010. Based on an overall 10.3% prevalence of osteoporosis, we estimated that in 2010, 10.2 million older adults had osteoporosis. The overall low bone mass prevalence was 43.9%, from which we estimated that 43.4 million older adults had low ...
As the population is becoming more aged, osteoporosis is becoming more prevalent and the number of fragility fractures that are occurring is increasing. One of the main predictors of developing osteoporosis in later life is a bone mineral density that is greater than 2.5 standard deviations below the young adult sex-matched mean, though studies have only been able to explain 5% of the variance seen in bone mineral densities between individuals. There is now increasing evidence that the development of osteoporosis can begin in utero and that epigenetic processes, such as DNA methylation, may be central to the mechanism by which early development influences bone mineral density and later bone health. Previous work within the group has identified associations of a 300bp differentially methylated region within the CDKN2A locus with bone mineral content, bone area and areal bone mineral density in offspring from the Southampton Womens Survey(SWS) cohort. As methylation of CDKN2A increases, bone ...
Hakim, O, Darling, A, Hart, K, Berry, J and Lanham-New, S (2011) VITAMIN D STATUS AND VOLUMETRIC BONE MINERAL DENSITY (VBMD) AT THE RADIUS AND TIBIA IN PREMENOPAUSAL CAUCASIAN AND ASIAN WOMEN Full text not available from this repository ...
Introduction: We investigated the impact of long-term levothyroxine (LT4) treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (BTMs) in premenopausal women with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) after thyroidectomy.. Material and methods: Sixty-five premenopausal women who received LT4 therapy at least one year (range, 1.5-9.0 years) after thyroidectomy for DTC and 50 premenopausal women without thyroid diseases were enrolled in this study. We measured the Z-scores of lumbar and hip BMD, serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), N-terminal propeptide of type 1 N procollagen (P1NP), C terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX-1), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), vitamin D3, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in all participants.. Results: In DTC subjects, serum TSH levels were lower, and serum FT4, P1NP, CTX-1, and ALP levels were higher compared with controls. The prevalence of low BMD was higher in ...
Chronic use of systemic glucocorticoids results in progressive bone loss and pathologic fractures. This study identified the predictive variables for bone loss and used peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) to measure changes in cortical and trabecular bone in patients receiving systemic glucocorticoid therapy of prednisone 15.4 g. Eighty-four asthmatic patients were included in the study. Vertebral fractures were diagnosed via plain spinal radiograms. pQCT was used to measure cortical and trabecular bone mineral density. Multiple regression analysis identified variables with predictive value. The cumulative dose of glucocorticoid correlated with the bone mineral density (p,0.05) and the trabecular bone density (p,0.01). Among patients , or = 65 yrs of age, the cumulative dose of glucocorticoid correlated with the occurrence of vertebral fractures (p,0.05), total bone mineral density (p,0.01) and cortical bone mineral density (p,0.01). Bone mineral density in the distal radius ...
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) devices from the three main manufacturers provide different bone mineral density (BMD) values, due in part to technical differences in the algorithms for bone mineral content (BMC) and area measurements and in part to the use of different manufacturer-derived reference databases. As a result, significant differences exist between Hologic, Lunar and Norland systems in the reported young normal standard deviation scores or T-scores. In a number of European countries, including Belgium, a T-score below −2.5 is one of the key criteria for reimbursement of osteoporosis treatments. This paper addresses the first attempt to implement a nationwide, uniform expression of BMD in patients, in order to harmonize drug reimbursement. To this end, measures were taken to implement a uniform expression of BMD in Belgian patients, by converting each manufacturers absolute BMD to standardized BMD (sBMD) values and by establishing a single national reference range.
Market Research Future adds new report of Bone Densitometers Market Research Report- Global Forecast to 2022 it contains Company information, geographical data and Table of Content. Market Highlight:. Bone densitometry is a sort of non-meddlesome development which is used to evaluate bone mass. This development measures the measure of loss of bone mass in a patients body. Bone mass is the greatness of the skeleton, general or specifically regions. Nowadays, bone densitometry is used as a set up standard to gage the bone material thickness. The market for bone densitometer is creating at a generally conventional rate. Creating senior masses which are exposed to bone related sicknesses has fueled the advancement of bone densitometer market.. The global market for bone densitometers is required to stretch around USD 1.2 billion before the finish of the conjecture time frame and is relied upon to develop at a CAGR of ~5.3%.. Get a Sample Report @ ...
Although widely used for its anti-estrogen properties tamoxifen has estrogen like effects on a number of tissues including bone and liver. Previous studies suggest a preservation of lumbar spine density in postmenopausal women but the effect on the hip had not been addressed. To determine whether tamoxifen prevents bone loss in the early postmenopausal period bone mineral density at the lumbar spine and femoral neck was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at presentation and 6 monthly thereafter for 1 year in a prospective controlled study. Also indices of bone turnover, serum osteocalcin and urinary hydroxyproline excretion, were assessed. Fifteen early postmenopausal women with Stage I or II breast cancer treated with tamoxifen and 21 normal postmenopausal women were studied. Sex hormone binding globulin and antithrombin III levels in serum were also measured as indices of the hepatic estrogenic activity. Tamoxifen (20 mg daily) prevented bone loss at the femoral neck and lumbar spine.
Limb bone lengths and bone mineral density (BMD) have been used to assess the bone growth and the risk of bone fractures in pigs, respectively. It has been suggested that limb bone lengths and BMD are under genetic control. However, the knowledge about the genetic basis of the limb bone lengths and mineralisatinon is limited in pigs. The aim of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting limb bone lengths and BMD of the distal femur in a White Duroc × Erhualian resource population. Limb bone lengths and femoral bone mineral density (fBMD) were measured in a total of 1021 and 116 F2 animals, respectively. There were strong positive correlations among the lengths of limb bones and medium positive correlations between the lengths of limb bones and fBMD. A whole-genome scan involving 183 microsatellite markers across the pig genome revealed 35 QTL for the limb bone lengths and 2 for femoral BMD. The most significant QTL for the lengths of five limb bones were mapped on two
BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that maternal body build and lifestyle factors predict neonatal bone mineral accrual. However, the paternal determinants of neonatal bone mass are not known. In this study we explored the relationship between a fathers bone mass and that of his offspring. METHODS: A total of 278 pregnancies (142 male and 136 female neonates) were recruited from the Southampton Womens Survey, a unique, well-established cohort of women, aged 20-34 yr, who had been assessed before and during pregnancy. The neonates and their fathers underwent whole body dual-x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) within 2 wk of birth using a Lunar DPX (General Electric Corp., Madison, WI) and Hologic Discovery instrument (Hologic Inc., Bedford, MA), respectively; correlation and regression methods were used to explore the parental determinants of neonatal bone mass. RESULTS: After adjusting the paternal DXA indices for fathers age and the neonatal for babys gestational age and age at DXA scan, there were
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bone mineral density changes in lactating adolescent mothers during the first postpartum year. AU - Méndez, Rosa Olivia. AU - Gallegos, Ana Cristina. AU - Cabrera, Rosa María. AU - Quihui, Luis. AU - Zozaya, Ramón. AU - Morales, Gloria G.. AU - Valencia, Mauro E.. AU - Méndez, Marcela. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. U2 - 10.1002/ajhb.22366. DO - 10.1002/ajhb.22366. M3 - Article. SP - 222. EP - 224. JO - American Journal of Human Biology. JF - American Journal of Human Biology. SN - 1042-0533. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Estimating lumbar bone mineral density from routine radiographs of the lumbar spine. AU - Michel, B. A.. AU - Bjorkengren, A. G.. AU - Lambert, E.. AU - Lane, Nancy E. AU - Fries, J. F.. AU - Bloch, D. A.. PY - 1993/3. Y1 - 1993/3. N2 - To evaluate the information content of lateral lumbar films with respect to bone mineral content, we compared reading criteria with values obtained by quantitative computed tomography (CT) of L1 at baseline and after 5 years. The highest correlations with mineral content were found for the criteria overall assessment of the vertebra, vertebral body density versus soft tissue, and amount of trabeculations. These three reading criteria yielded higher correlations with CT scores in subjects with lower body mass index. Changes in mineral content over the 5-year period could not be read adequately, the average difference representing only a loss of about 10% in the study subjects. We conclude that a rough estimate of bone density can be obtained ...
Researchers assessed the effect of hyperuricemia with and without psoriasis on bone microstructure and volumetric bone mineral density.
TY - GEN. T1 - The effects of exercise on Bone Mineral Density in Men. T2 - a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. AU - Hamilton, Blair Ross. AU - Staines, Katherine. AU - Kelley, George. AU - Kelley, Kristi. AU - Kohrt, Wendy. AU - Pitsiladis, Yannis. AU - Guppy, Fergus Michael. PY - 2020/5/19. Y1 - 2020/5/19. KW - Bone. KW - Exercise. KW - Men. KW - Meta-analysis. KW - Osteoporosis. U2 - 10.31236/ DO - 10.31236/ M3 - Other contribution. PB - SportRχiv ER - ...
PTH is the first Food and Drug Administration-approved agent that stimulates bone formation. According to Crandalls review, many small trials showed that daily subcutaneous PTH increases bone mass and 1 large RCT showed that it reduces fracture risk. The substantial risk reduction with 21 months of PTH resembles that seen with 1 to 2 years of alendronate or risedronate in patients who have osteoporosis (1−4). Treatment with PTH involves daily self-injections and is expensive. Thus, use of PTH should be limited to patients at high risk for fractures who have ≥ 1 vertebral fracture. The currently approved single 18- to 24-month course of daily PTH may not optimize use of PTH. Less frequent administration and shorter, longer, or repeated courses should be tested in trials to find ways to restore the architecture of bone and, perhaps, reach the previously elusive goal of curing patients with severe osteoporosis. As Crandall points out, the effect of combining antiresorptives and PTH needs ...
The use of antidepressants was also associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD), but this association was dependent on the persons weight and site of bone measurement.. Osteoporosis is a common disorder and an underlying factor in fragility fractures. Especially in women, the menopause increases the risk of osteoporosis. Other risk factors include low levels of physical activity, smoking, low intake of calcium and vitamin D, as well as some medications and diseases. In the elderly, susceptibility to fracture and serious hip fractures can result in long-term hospitalization and decreased state of health.. Previous studies have shown that also depression is associated with lower bone density. This might be due to the effects of depression-induced long-term stress and increased secretion of inflammatory markers. Furthermore, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) used to treat depression have been shown to weaken bone health. However, the majority of studies has focused on ...
To determine the relationships among nutrients intake, bone mass, and bone turnover in women we have investigated these issues in a population-based, cross-sectional, observational study in one county in central Sweden. A total of 175 women aged 28-74 at entry to the study were included. Dietary assessment was made by both a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and by four 1-week dietary records. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed at five sites: total body, L2-L4 region of the lumbar spine, and three regions of the proximal femur. Serum concentrations of osteocalcin (an osteoblast-specific protein reflecting bone turnover) were measured by a radioimmunoassay. Linear regression models, with adjustment for possible confounding factors were used for statistical analyses. A weak positive association was found between dietary calcium intake as calculated from the semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and total body bone mineral density (BMD) among premenopausal women. No ...
Age- and disease (osteoporotic fractured and osteoarthritic tissue)-related changes in the distribution of cortical bone were examined, using a multimodality approach, including measurement of local density, geometry and mechanical properties, where changes in these properties can give rise to instability and increasing probability of fracture. In contrast to the majority of previously reported research, this study also focuses on the characteristic non-circular femoral neck cross-sectional geometry and variation in bone mineral density (BMD) around the femoral neck. Twenty-two osteoarthritic and 7 osteoporotic femoral neck slices, collected from elective and trauma-related arthroplasty, and 16 cadaveric donor tissue controls were tested mechanically using Reference Point Indentation (BioDent™, Active Life Technologies®, Santa Barbara, CA) and then scanned with in vitro-based radiography intended to replicate the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry technique. All parameters were measured regionally
Author(s): Heilmeier, U; Carpenter, DR; Patsch, JM; Harnish, R; Joseph, GB; Burghardt, AJ; Baum, T; Schwartz, AV; Lang, TF; Link, TM | Abstract: © 2015, International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation. Summary: While type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with higher skeletal fragility, specific risk stratification remains incompletely understood. We found volumetric bone mineral density, geometry, and serum sclerostin differences between low-fracture risk and high-fracture risk T2D women. These features might help identify T2D individuals at high fracture risk in the future. Introduction: Diabetic bone disease, an increasingly recognized complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), is associated with high skeletal fragility. Exactly which T2D individuals are at higher risk for fracture, however, remains incompletely understood. Here, we analyzed volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), geometry, and serum sclerostin levels in two specific T2D subsets with different fracture
In this study, we focused on vBMD, bone microarchitecture and estimated bone strength of young male adult with CO AGHD and compared with age-matched controls. Our results showed that (1) vBMD of both distal tibia and non-dominant radius were significantly decreased in AGHD patients; (2) CO AGHD patients had significantly decreased cortical area and cortical thickness, as well as trabecular thickness and trabecular bone volume fraction of both tibia and distal radius; (3) CO AGHD patients had lower estimated bone strength; (4) after adjusting for age, BMI and serum levels of testosterone and free T4, serum IGF-1 level was a positive predictor for total vBMD, cortical vBMD, cortical area, trabecular vBMD, bone stiffness and failure load. In our series of CO AGHD patients, the average time course since cessation of rhGH replacement was 6.6 ± 3.3 years and all patients sustained testosterone replacement since 18 years old. We thus conclude that young adult male patients with CO AGHD who are no ...
THURSDAY, March 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Children on medications for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have lower bone density than their peers, a new U.S. study suggests.. Using data from a government health survey, researchers found that children taking ADHD medications had, on average, lower bone density in the hip and lumbar spine (lower back) than kids not on the drugs.. These prescription medications included stimulants such as Ritalin and Adderall, and nonstimulants, like Strattera.. Experts said its not clear that the medications themselves actually thin kids bones, as the study only showed an association, and there could be other explanations for the connection.. Im in no way saying that kids shouldnt be on these medications, said Dr. Jessica Rivera, the senior researcher on the study and an orthopedic surgeon with the U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research, at Fort Sam Houston, Texas.. Studies like this dont give answers -- they raise questions for further ...
Hydrogen peroxide is a common reactive oxygen species involved in the catalytic mechanism though it is toxic to cells due to its oxidative nature. This work investigates the effects of hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative damage on bone mineral density and mechanical properties of bone which is primarily a composite material composed primarily of collagen fibers and biominerals. Sheep leg bones were exposed to hydrogen peroxide for a week. Bone mineral density was measured by using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Compressive modulus tests were applied to bone in order to determine mechanical properties. Our study shows that the hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative stress has negative effects on bone mineral density and stiffness. We observed higher control curve slopes than that of hydrogen peroxide curves which account for lesser stiffness values in the exposed tissue ( ...
Osteoporosis, a disease characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD), increases the risk for fractures. Conventional risk factors alone do not completely explain measured BMD or osteoporotic fracture risk. Metabolomics may provide additional information. We aim to identify BMD-associated metabolomic markers that are predictive of fracture risk. We assessed 209 plasma metabolites by LC-MS/MS in 1,552 Framingham Offspring Study participants, and measured femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) BMD 2-10 years later using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. We assessed osteoporotic fractures up to 27-year follow-up after metabolomic profiling. We identified twenty-seven metabolites associated with FN-BMD or LS-BMD by LASSO regression with internal validation. Incorporating selected metabolites significantly improved the prediction and the classification of osteoporotic fracture risk beyond conventional risk factors (AUC=0.74 for the model with identified metabolites and risk factors vs AUC=0.70 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Utility of biochemical markers of bone turnover and bone mineral density in management of osteoporosis. AU - Vasikaran, Samuel. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Biochemical markers of bone turnover (bone-turnover markers) are released during bone formation or resorption and can be measured in blood and/or urine. The concentration of bone-turnover markers in serum or urine reflect bone remodeling activity and can potentially be used as surrogate markers of the rate of bone formation or bone resorption. While the diagnosis of osteoporosis is based on bone mineral density (BMD), the absolute fracture risk for a particular BMD measurement varies several fold depending on age and is also influenced by other clinical risk factors. The measurement of bone-turnover markers may be of additional value to BMD and clinical risk factors in fracture risk assessment by improving the sensitivity and specificity of prediction of future fractures. In clinical practice, bone-turnover markers may help ...
Humans are unique, compared with our closest living relatives (chimpanzees) and early fossil hominins, in having an enlarged body size and lower limb joint surfaces in combination with a relatively gracile skeleton (i.e., lower bone mass for our body size). Some analyses have observed that in at least a few anatomical regions modern humans today appear to have relatively low trabecular density, but little is known about how that density varies throughout the human skeleton and across species or how and when the present trabecular patterns emerged over the course of human evolution. Here, we test the hypotheses that (i) recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the upper and lower limbs compared with other primate taxa and (ii) the reduction in trabecular density first occurred in early Homo erectus, consistent with the shift toward a modern human locomotor anatomy, or more recently in concert with diaphyseal gracilization in Holocene humans. We used peripheral quantitative CT and
Osteoporosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality through its association with age-related fractures. Although most effort in fracture prevention has been directed at retarding the rate of age-related bone loss, and reducing the frequency and severity of trauma among elderly people, evidence is growing that peak bone mass is an important contributor to bone strength during later life. The normal patterns of skeletal growth have been well characterized in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. It has been confirmed that boys have higher bone mineral content, but not volumetric bone density, than girls. Furthermore, in both genders there is a dissociation between the peak velocities for height gain and bone mineral accrual. Puberty is the period during which volumetric density appears to increase in both axial and appendicular sites. Many factors influence the accumulation of bone mineral during childhood and adolescence, including heredity, gender, diet, physical activity, endocrine status and
Bone Densitometers Market (Technology - Axial Bone Densitometry (Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry and Quantitative Computed Tomography) and Peripheral Bone Densitometry (Single Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry, Peripheral Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry, Radiographic Absorptiometry, Quantitative Ultrasound, and Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography); End User - Hospitals, Diagnostic Centers, and Specialty Clinics) - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecast 2016 - ...
The purpose of this study is to determine if low bone mineral density (a measurement of how thick and strong bones are) improves in adults with HIV infection who switch their HIV medication tenofovir to another HIV medication raltegravir.. Hypothesis:That Bone Mineral Density (BMD) will improve in osteopenic or osteoporotic patients switching from ART including tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (r/PI) to ART including RAL+r/PI. ...
OBJECTIVE : Patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) have an increased prevalence of osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate prospectively the rate of bone loss and potential predictors of increased bone loss in a cohort of patients with CLD. DESIGN : Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at baseline and at follow-up by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the lumbar spine and the femoral neck. RESULTS : Forty-three patients (31 female, 12 male) were available for a second measurement of BMD, with a median of 25 months (range 18-41) between the measurements. Mean annual bone loss at the lumbar spine and the femoral neck, respectively, was 0.6 +/- 2.0% and 1.5 +/- 2.4% in females and 0.8 +/- 1.9% and 2.9 +/- 2.0% in males. The BMD Z score decreased significantly over time at the femoral neck (P = 0.005 and P = 0.02 for females and males, respectively). Bone loss was increased significantly at the lumbar spine in patients classified as Child-Pugh B + C compared with those classified ...
Impaired bone quality is associated with poor outcome of spinal surgery. The aim of the study was to assess the bone mineral status of patients scheduled to undergo spinal surgery and to report frequencies of bone mineral disorders. We retrospectively analyzed the bone mineral status of 144 patients requiring spinal surgery including bone mineral density by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as well as laboratory data with serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D), parathyroid hormone, calcium, bone specific alkaline phosphate, osteocalcin, and gastrin. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) was additionally performed in a subgroup of 67 patients with T-Score below − 1.5 or history of vertebral fracture. Among 144 patients, 126 patients (87.5%) were older than 60 years. Mean age was 70.1 years. 42 patients (29.1%) had suffered from a vertebral compression fracture. 12 previously undiagnosed vertebral deformities were detected in 12 patients by vertebral fracture
Your doctor will tell you when your child should be checked for low bone density. In general, your child should be checked for low bone density if they have low levels of vitamin D, limited mobility or poor muscle tone, had 2 or more broken bones (fractures) before age 10, had 3 or more broken bones before age 19, had a vertebral or spine fracture, rett syndrome or other conditions that increase the risk of low bone density
[101 Pages Report] Check for Discount on United States Peripheral Bone Densitometer Market Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the United States Peripheral Bone Densitometer market...
CONTEXT: Treatment of osteoporotic women with PTH increases biochemical markers of bone turnover, increases axial bone mineral density (BMD), and reduces fracture risk. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the relationship between levels of baseline turnover before PTH therapy and short-term changes in turnover during PTH therapy and subsequent changes in areal and volumetric BMD. DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial at four academic centers. PATIENTS: Patients included 238 postmenopausal women with low hip or spine BMD. INTERVENTION: Subjects were randomized to sc PTH (1-84), 100 mug/d (119 women), for 1 yr. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Bone turnover markers were measured in fasting blood samples collected before therapy and after 1 and 3 months. Areal and volumetric BMD at the spine and hip were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and quantitative computed tomography (QCT) after 1 yr of therapy. RESULTS: Among women treated with PTH alone, the
Dear Editor,. We read with much interest the recently published article, Effects of Raloxifene on Bone Metabolism in Hemodialysis Patients With Type 2 Diabetes, by Saito et al (1). First, we would like to congratulate the authors. We wish to share a few scientific facts related to this interesting article.. It was a pleasure to inform from this article that no difference was observed in BMD (bone mineral density) changes between patients with diabetes and nondiabetics after using raloxifene one year long.. We have previously shown that the effects of low dose HRT and raloxifene on BMD at the lumbar spine and hip sites and biochemical markers of bone turnover in a randomized trial (2). In our study, the bone mineral density measurements with dual energy Xray absorptiometry (DEXA) method is accepted by the WHO as the gold standard for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Satoi et al. proposed the SOS value has been shown to be significantly and positively correlated with lumbar BMD in the general ...
Background: Women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have a higher risk of fractures despite increased bone mineral density (BMD). In experimental studies a potential role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in bone remodeling is suggested but studies in humans are lacking. This is a first study in humans investigating whether circulated levels of PAI-1 in postmenopausal women with T2DM are related to BMD and adiposity. Methods: Anthropometric variables, PAI-1 and insulin levels, serum lipids and bone turnover markers were measured in 127 postmenopausal women with T2DM. A total of 117 female patients were divided according to lumbar spine BMD measurements via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in three groups: 47 with osteopenia, 21 with osteoporosis and 49 with normal BMD. Results: Diabetic patients with normal BMD had significantly higher BMI, greater waist circumference and lower bone turnover markers than diabetics with osteopenia and osteoporosis. PAI-1 was lower in diabetics with ...
The findings could have implications for the prevention of osteoporosis.. Osteoporosis, or porous bone, is a disease in which there is a loss of bone mass and destruction of bone tissue. This process causes weakening of the bones and makes them more likely to break. The bones most often affected are the hips, spine, and wrists.. Osteoporosis affects over 10 million Americans, with women four times more likely to develop osteoporosis than men.. Another 34 million people have low bone mass and therefore have an increased risk for osteoporosis. Estrogen deficiency is one of the main causes of bone loss in women during and after menopause. Women may lose up to 20 percent of their bone mass in the five to seven years following menopause.. Premenopausal women with depression should be screened for low bone mass, says Dr. Giovanni Cizza, senior author of the study who conducted the research while at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH).. They should do a bone mineral density measurement, ...
Introduction:There is considerable amount of controversy about the long term effects of multiparity and duration of breast-feeding on maternal bone mineral density after menopause. This study was conducted to determine whether multiple pregnancy and prolonged duration of breast-feeding are independent predictors of low bone mass in post-menopausal Kurdish women. Methods: In a retrospective study, we evaluated 991 post-menopausal women with mean age of 58.9 years screened for osteoporosis by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). According to the parity (1-2, 3-4, 5-7, |7 children) and total duration of breast-feeding (1-24, 25-60, 61-96, |96 months) they were classified. Bone mineral density (BMD) results for femoral neck and lumbar spine were classified into three groups (normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis) according to the WHO criteria. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the independent associations of low femur or spine BMD with parity and total duration of breast-feeding. Results: We
Bone Density Test Some women are at greater risk for osteoporosis - the decrease of bone mass and density as a result of the depletion of bone calcium and protein - than others. Your physician can help you determine your risk of developing osteoporosis by taking your personal and family medical history, and by performing a bone density test or bone mass measurement. What is a bone density test? A bone density test, also known as bone mass measurement or bone mineral density test, measures the strength a...
01 February 2012 February 2012 - A new study has found that a drug shown to be highly effective in preventing breast cancer in women who are at high risk for the disease appears to worsen age-related bone loss, although the clinical implications of the findings are unclear.. In June 2011, the results of a Canadian-led clinical trial showed that, for postmenopausal women at increased risk of developing breast cancer, the drug exemestane reduced the risk by 65 %, compared with placebo. The new study found that exemestane worsens age-related bone loss by about three-fold compared to placebo.. The new study involved 351 postmenopausal women, with a median age of 61 years, who were not previously diagnosed with osteoporosis, were not on bone medications and were taking calcium and vitamin D supplements. The research team measured bone mineral density using high-resolution CT scans to assess the density or bone strength. After two years, the researchers found a 7.9 % loss of bone density in the ...
HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) experience deep and early disorders in fat and bone metabolism, leading to concomitant changes in fat mass and bone mineral density. We conducted a prospective study in treatment-naive HIV-infected patients randomized to receive two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in combination with either a protease inhibitor (PI) or a non-nucleosidic reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), to evaluate early changes in body composition, bone mineral density and metabolic markers as differentially induced by antiretroviral therapies. We measured changes in markers of carbohydrate, of fat and bone metabolism, and, using dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), body composition and bone mineral density (BMD). Complete data on changes between baseline and after 21 months treatment were available for 35 patients (16 in the PI group and 19 in the NNRTI group). A significant gain in BMI and in total and lower limb fat mass was recorded only in
TY - JOUR. T1 - The genetics of proximal femur geometry, distribution of bone mass and bone mineral density. AU - Slemenda, C. W.. AU - Turner, C. H.. AU - Peacock, M.. AU - Christian, J. C.. AU - Sorbel, J.. AU - Hui, S. L.. AU - Johnston, C. C.. PY - 1996/4/12. Y1 - 1996/4/12. N2 - To estimate genetic effects on femoral neck geometry and the distribution of bone mineral within the proximal femur a cross-sectional twin analysis was carried out at a university hospital that compared correlations in these traits in pairs of mono- and dizygotic female twins. Monozygotic (MZ, n = 51 pairs, age 49.1 ± 9.3 years) and dizygotic (DZ, n = 26 pairs, age 45.7 ± 11.3 years) twins were randomly selected from a larger sample of twins previously studied. Measurements of bone mineral density (BMD), femoral neck angles and length, cross-sectional area and moment of interia, the center of mass of the narrowest cross-section of the femoral neck, and BMDs of regions within the femoral neck were made. A summary ...
Osteoporosis is a serious health concern, especially for older people. There could be nutritional deficiencies that your family members have, and that should be addressed with your doctor. Once you determine the cause of low bone density, your doctor may recommend certain supplements, such as Vitamin D, Vitamin K, and/or Calcium. A diet rich in these vitamins could potentially prevent future bone density loss and osteoporosis. Foods such as eggs, oily fish (salmon, sardines, tuna), and fortified dairy products are high in Vitamin D. For Calcium-rich foods, try adding broccoli, kale, low-fat dairy, and oily fish to your diet. Exercise has been proven to increase bone density, particularly strength training (squats, lunges, pushups), and weight lifting. Also, cardio exercises such as running/jogging, fast walking, stair climbing, jumping rope, and jump training are great bone density building sports.. ...
The IAEA assists its Member States in their efforts to develop effective, evidence based interventions to combat malnutrition in all its forms using nuclear techniques. This publication was developed as an integral part of the IAEAs efforts to contribute to the transfer of technology and knowledge in the application of a widely used nuclear technique in nutrition, dual energy X ray absorptiometry (DXA). It provides information on the theoretical background as well as on the practical application of DXA to measure bone mineral density and to assess body composition.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Volumetric bone mineral density and bone structure in childhood chronic kidney disease. AU - Wetzsteon, Rachel J.. AU - Kalkwarf, Heidi J.. AU - Shults, Justine. AU - Zemel, Babette S.. AU - Foster, Bethany J.. AU - Griffin, Lindsay. AU - Strife, C. Frederic. AU - Foerster, Debbie L.. AU - Jean-Pierre, Darlene K.. AU - Leonard, Mary B.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2012 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2011/9. Y1 - 2011/9. N2 - Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased fracture risk and skeletal deformities. The impact of CKD on volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and cortical dimensions during growth is unknown. Tibia quantitative computed tomographic scans were obtained in 156 children with CKD [69 stages 2 to 3, 51 stages 4 to 5, and 36 stage 5D (dialysis)] and 831 healthy participants aged 5 to 21 years. Sex-, race-, and age- or tibia length-specific Z-scores were generated for trabecular BMD (TrabBMD), cortical BMD (CortBMD), cortical area (CortArea) ...
Bruyere, Olivier ; Devogelaer, Jean-Pierre ; Delmas, Pierre D. ; Slosman, Daniel O. ; Albanese, Carlina ; et. al. Increase in femoral neck bone mineral density is associated with decrease in hip fracture incidence during treatment with strontium ranelate..70th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American-College-of-Rheumatology/41st Annual Scientific Meeting of the Association-of-Rheumatology-Health-Professionals (Washington (Dc), Nov 10-15, 2006). In: Arthritis & Rheumatism, Vol. 54, no. 9, p. S586-S586 (2006 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Point-of-Care Phalangeal Bone Mineral Density Measurement Can Reduce the Need of Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scanning in Danish Women at Risk of Fracture. AU - Holmberg, Teresa. AU - Bech, Mickael. AU - Gram, Jeppe. AU - Hermann, Anne Pernille. AU - Rubin, Katrine Hass. AU - Brixen, Kim. PY - 2016/3. Y1 - 2016/3. N2 - Identifying persons with a high risk of osteoporotic fractures remains a challenge. DXA uptake in women with elevated risk of osteoporosis seems to be depending on distance to scanning facilities. This study aimed to investigate the ability of a small portable scanner in identifying women with reduced bone mineral density (BMD), and to define triage thresholds for pre-selection. Total hip and lumbar spine BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and phalangeal BMD by radiographic absorptiometry in 121 Danish women with intermediate or high 10-year fracture probability (aged 61-81 years). Correlation between the two methods was estimated using ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increases in hip and spine bone mineral density are predictive for vertebral antifracture efficacy with ibandronate. AU - Miller, Paul D.. AU - Delmas, Pierre D.. AU - Huss, Hermann. AU - Patel, Katie M.. AU - Schimmer, Ralph C.. AU - Adami, Silvano. AU - Recker, Robert R.. PY - 2010/10/1. Y1 - 2010/10/1. N2 - The relationship between bisphosphonate-induced bone mineral density (BMD) gains and antifracture efficacy remains to be fully elucidated. Data from two antifracture studies were analyzed. Postmenopausal osteoporotic women received oral (2.5 mg daily, 20 mg intermittent) or intravenous (0.5 mg, 1 mg quarterly) ibandronate. Outcome measures included moving averages plots and logistic regression analyses of the relationship between BMD change and vertebral fracture rate. In moving averages plots, ibandronate-induced BMD gains were consistently associated with decreased fracture rates. In the oral study, total-hip BMD increases at years 2 and 3 and lumbar spine BMD increases ...
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TY - CONF. T1 - Liver disease severity and low bone mineral density in HIV mono-infected and HIV/HCV co-infected patients. AU - Rini, Giovam Battista. AU - Titone Lanza Di Scalea, Lucina. AU - Di Carlo, Paola. AU - Giannitrapani, Lydia. AU - Montalto, Giuseppe. AU - Tramuto, Fabio. AU - Soresi, Maurizio. AU - Midiri, Massimo. AU - Li Vecchi, Valentina. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Background: In this study we assess: prevalence of osteopenia, osteoporosis and reduced bone mineral density in HIV infection and HIV / HCV co-infection;risk factors associated with reduced bone mineral density(BMD); relationship between bone mineral density and reduced liver fibrosis (FE) measured as liver stiffness (LS), by FibroScan ® in patients co-infected with HIV / HCV; relationship between reduced bone mineral density and cardiovascular risk assessed with the 10-year Framingham risk score (FRS) in HIV / HCV co-infected Patients And Methods: One hundred and ninety-four HIV-infected subjects (121 males =62% and ...
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the possible association between vitamin D receptor genotype and bone mineral density in a large group of postmenopausal twins. DESIGN: Cross sectional twin study. SETTING: Twin population based in Britain. SUBJECTS: 95 dizygotic (non-identical) pairs of twins and 87 monozygotic (identical) pairs of twins aged 50-69 years, postmenopausal, and free of diseases affecting bone, recruited from a national register of twins and with a media campaign. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Bone mineral density measured at the hip, lumbar spine, forearm, and for the whole body by dual energy x ray absorptiometry in relation to differences in the vitamin D receptor genotype. RESULTS: At all sites the values of bone density among dizygotic twins were more similar in those of the same vitamin D receptor genotype than in those of differing genotype, and the values in the former were closer to the correlations seen in monozygotic twins. Women with the genotype that made them at risk of osteoporotic
Choice of normative database and number of skeletal sites considered had a substantial effect on the estimated prevalence of osteoporosis in older men in this study; a fourfold increase in the prevalence occurred when we defined osteoporosis by using NOF (male normative database, three skeletal sites) instead of WHO (female normative database, one skeletal site) criteria. These findings are in agreement with most,12 35 39 40 but not all,11 previous studies. Use of a female derived bone mineral density T score threshold to define osteoporosis in men is supported by a meta-analysis that reported similar relative risks of fracture per unit decrease in femoral neck bone mineral density in men and women and similar age adjusted hip fracture rates in men and women for any given absolute value of femoral neck bone mineral density.41 Both the NOF and the Endocrine Society in the United States recommend use of male derived bone mineral density T score thresholds.7 8 9 In contrast, the International ...
One of the main determinants of who will develop osteoporosis is the amount of bone accumulated at peak bone density. There is poor agreement, however, on when peak bone density occurs. Ethnic differences were observed in age at peak bone density and their correlates. Since the diagnosis of osteoporosis and osteopaenia is based on the comparison between patients bone mineral density (BMD) and optimal peak bone density in healthy young people (T-score), it is of great importance that each country should provide its own reference peak bone density data.. This review article presents our published results on peak bone density in Croatia and compares them with findings in other populations. Our research included 18 to 25-year-old students from Zagreb University and their parents. The results showed that peak bone mass in young Croatian women was achieved before the age of twenty, but BMD continued to increase after the mid-twenties in the long-bone cortical skeleton. BMD was comparable to the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Randomized controlled trial of alendronate in airways disease and low bone mineral density. AU - Smith, B. J.. AU - Laslett, L. L.. AU - Pile, K. D.. AU - Phillips, P. J.. AU - Phillipov, G.. AU - Evans, S. M.. AU - Esterman, A. J.. AU - Berry, J. G.. PY - 2004/1/1. Y1 - 2004/1/1. N2 - Background:Patients with airways disease have been demonstrated to be at risk of osteoporosis, and this is likely to be multifactorial. Our aim was to identify patients with low bone mineral density (BMD) using a screening program, and then evaluate the benefit of daily alendronate. Method:Subjects with hip or lumbar spine baseline T-scores ,-2.5, or Z-score ,-1.0 commenced on alendronate/calcium (10 mg/600 mg day) or placebo/calcium, in a double blind randomized controlled trial. BMD by dual emission X-ray absorptiometry (lumbar vertebrae 2-4, neck of femur, total femur) was repeated after 12 months, with adverse events recorded. Results: 145 subjects (74 male, 71 female, mean age 67, median FEV, ...
Dalla Via, J., Daly, R. and Fraser, S. 2018, The effect of exercise on bone mineral density in adult cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Osteoporosis international, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 287-303, doi: 10.1007/s00198-017-4237-3. ...
Low bone mineral density has been identified as a risk factor for osteoporotic fracture1 and fracture in childhood.2 Vitamin D supplementation in childhood may be a clinical strategy to maximise peak bone mass in children and, in turn, improve bone mineral density and reduce fracture risk in adulthood. However, the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation for improving bone density in children is unclear. Therefore, Winzenberg and colleagues performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation for improving paediatric bone mineral density, including how supplement dose and baseline vitamin D status may impact the outcome.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Continuous antiretroviral therapy decreases bone mineral density. AU - Grund, Birgit. AU - Peng, Grace. AU - Gibert, Cynthia L.. AU - Hoy, Jennifer F.. AU - Isaksson, Rachel L.. AU - Shlay, Judith C.. AU - Martinez, Esteban. AU - Reiss, Peter. AU - Visnegarwala, Fehmida. AU - Carr, Andrew D.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2011 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2009/7. Y1 - 2009/7. N2 - OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on bone mineral density (BMD) DESIGN: Randomized comparison of continuous ART (viral suppression group; VS) with intermittent ART (drug conservation group; DC) SETTING: Outpatient clinics in the United States, Australia, and Spain. PARTICIPANTS: Participants in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) Body Composition substudy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Annual hip and spine BMD by dual-energy radiographic absorptiometry (DXA) and spine BMD by quantitative computed tomography (qCT). METHODS: Comparisons were by ...
BACKGROUND: Infliximab has been shown to have beneficial effects on bone metabolism in patients with Crohns disease (CD) although as yet the exact mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. AIM: To evaluate the impact of adalimumab therapy on bone metabolism using a combined in vivo and in vitro model. METHODS: Parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, bone formation markers, bone resorption marker, pro-inflammatory cytokines, anti-inflammatory cytokines, osteoprotegerin, and sRANKL were measured in control patients and pre- and post-treatment with adalimumab in CD patients. The effect of control patients and pre- and post-treatment CD patients sera on human osteoblasts (hFOB 1.19) in vitro cell viability and differentiation was also analyzed. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in bone formation markers osteocalcin (P | 0.05) and procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P | 0.01) at 1 and 3 months post-treatment. Moreover, there was a sustained but not significant fall in serum CTx, a bone resorption
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the lumbar spine, proximal femur and distal radius in children. AU - Tsukahara, Hirokazu. AU - Sudo, M.. AU - Umezaki, M.. AU - Hiraoka, M.. AU - Yamamoto, K.. AU - Ishii, Y.. AU - Haruki, S.. PY - 1992/12. Y1 - 1992/12. N2 - Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine, proximal femur and distal radius in 48 Japanese children aged 3-18 years. In the normal children (n=32), BMD increased with age in all locations, with a nearly twofold increase from preschool age to adolescence. Most of the children with chronic diseases known to affect vone metabolism (e.g., steroid osteoporosis) (n=16) had low BMD in every region, indicating that these disease states probably affect multiple sites of the skeleton in children.. AB - Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine, proximal femur and distal radius in 48 Japanese children aged 3-18 years. ...
Puberty is a time when the foundation is laid for healthy bone mass. Over the course of puberty, 26% of bone mass is established in the 4-year period of peak height velocity and up to 60% of adult peak bone mass is established. Factors that affect normal bone mineralization include calcium intake, vitamin D status, degree of physical and weight bearing activities, hormones, genetics, body weight, and general health and nutrition status. HIV-infected children, youth, and adults have lower bone mineral density (BMD) than would be expected for healthy people of similar age, weight, and race. As the majority of perinatally HIV-infected U.S. children are entering or in adolescence, the potential for HIV-related impaired BMD during the adolescent peak of bone mass acquisition is of particular concern. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in BMD of the lumbar spine from pre-treatment levels to 24 and 48 weeks after alendronate treatment or placebo in HIV-infected children and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sequential changes in bone density before and after parathyroidectomy in primary hyprparathyroidism. AU - Leppla, D. C.. AU - Snyder, W.. AU - Pak, C. Y C. PY - 1982/1/1. Y1 - 1982/1/1. N2 - Bone density (bone mineral content/bone width) was determined by iodine-125 (12SI)-photon absorptiometry in the distal third of the radius before and after successful parathyroidectomy in 37 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Bone density progressively declined during the two years immediately preceding surgery. It rose by 6.4% during the first year following surgery but remained stable thereafter. The results suggest that photon absorptiometry analysis of bone density may disclose continuing bone loss before surgery and may show a partial recovery of bone loss that may ensue after successful parathyroidectomy.. AB - Bone density (bone mineral content/bone width) was determined by iodine-125 (12SI)-photon absorptiometry in the distal third of the radius before and after successful ...
Introduction Chronic sleep deprivation, which is associated with several age-related pathologies and altered endocrine function, may adversely affect bone. Our a priori hypothesis was that bone mineral density was lower in sleepdeprived (6.5-10 h/night) individuals. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of sleep and bone data on 1,146 individuals (652 women) was performed. Measurements were obtained at the distal radius by pQCT, and the spine and hip by DXA. Bone differences between sleepdeprived and sleep-adequate groups were compared after stratifying by sex and controlling for covariates. Results Overall, 19% of the population was sleep deprived. Sleep-deprived women had lower cortical volumetric BMD (1, 208±4 vs. 1, 219±2 mg/cm3, P=0.03) than sleep-adequate women. Sleep-deprived men had lower pSSI, an estimate of torsional bending strength, than sleep-adequate men (358± 10 vs. 382±5 mm3, P=0.04), due to a slightly smaller periosteal circumference (43.9±0.4 vs. 44.8±0.2 mm, P=0.07) and cortical area
Bone densitometry is used to measure the bone mineral content and density. This measurement can indicate decreased bone mass, a condition in which bones are more brittle and more prone to break or fracture easily. Bone densitometry is used primarily to diagnose osteoporosis and to determine fracture risk. The testing procedure measures the bone density of the bones of the spine, pelvis, lower arm, and thigh.. Bone densitometry testing may be done using X-rays, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, (DEXA or DXA), or by quantitative CT scanning using special software to determine bone density of the hip or spine. These procedures are generally done in a clinic, hospital, or free-standing radiology facility.. However, for mass screening purposes, there are portable types of bone densitometry testing. The portable testing is done using either a DEXA (or DXA) X-ray device or a quantitative ultrasound unit. Both types of portable testing may use the radius (one of the two bones of the lower arm), wrist, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oral contraceptive use and bone density change in adolescent and young adult women. T2 - A prospective study of age, hormone dose, and discontinuation. AU - Scholes, Delia. AU - Hubbard, Rebecca A.. AU - Ichikawa, Laura E.. AU - LaCroix, Andrea Z.. AU - Spangler, Leslie. AU - Beasley, Jeannette M.. AU - Reed, Susan. AU - Ott, Susan M.. PY - 2011/9/1. Y1 - 2011/9/1. N2 - Context: Oral contraceptive (OC) use is common, but bone changes associated with use of contemporary OC remain unclear. Objective: The objective of the study was to compare bone mineral density (BMD) change in adolescent and young adultOCusers and discontinuers of two estrogen doses, relative to nonusers. Design and Setting: This was a prospective cohort study, Group Health Cooperative. Participants: Participants included 606 women aged 14-30 yr (50% adolescents aged 14-18 yr): 389 OC users [62% 30-35 μg ethinyl estradiol (EE)] and 217 age-similar nonusers; there were 172 OC discontinuers. The 24-month retention ...
URL: Journal: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology. Publication Date: 12/2018. Summary: Exercise-trained female subjects that consume a diet that is approximately three times greater than the RDA for protein experience no harmful effects on bone mineral density or content. Nor were there any harmful effects on renal function.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of the male osteoporosis risk estimation score (MORES) with frax in identifying men at risk for osteoporosis. AU - Cass, Alvah R.. AU - Shepherd, Angela. AU - Asirot, Rechelle. AU - Mahajan, Manju. AU - Nizami, Maimoona. PY - 2016/7/1. Y1 - 2016/7/1. N2 - PURPOSE We wanted to compare the male osteoporosis risk estimation score (MORES) with the fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) in screening men for osteoporosis. METHODS This study reports analysis of data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), a nationally representative sample of the US population, comparing the operating characteristics of FRAX and MORES to identify men at risk for osteoporosis using a subset of 1,498 men, aged 50 years and older, with a valid dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. DXA-derived bone mineral density using a T score of -2.5 or lower at either the femoral neck or total hip defined the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Outcomes included the ...
INTRODUCTION: gonadal steroid hormones play a crucial role during skeletal growth and maturation in both men and women. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship of sex hormone levels, bone mineral density and biochemical markers of bone turnover in healthy Moroccan men. METHODS: 142 Moroccan men who had no previous diagnosis of osteoporosis were enrolled prospectively in this cross-sectional study between December 2009 and August 2010. Also, subjects were excluded from the study if they had conditions affecting bone metabolism. Different biochemical parameters were assayed: Testosterone, Estradiol, sex hormone binding globulin, Osteocalcin, vitamin D, crosslaps, intact parathyroid hormone and alkaline phosphatase. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure the Bone mineral density (BMD) (g/cm2). RESULTS: in this study, among the 142 Moroccan men, 29 (20.1%) had densitometry osteoporosis and the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was 94%. No correlation was found between
PubMed journal article Effects of resistance training on regional and total bone mineral density in premenopausal women: a randomized prospective stud were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of testosterone treatment on volumetric bone density and strength in older men with low testosterone a controlled clinical trial. AU - Snyder, Peter J.. AU - Kopperdahl, David L.. AU - Stephens-Shields, Alisa J.. AU - Ellenberg, Susan S.. AU - Cauley, Jane A.. AU - Ensrud, Kristine E.. AU - Lewis, Cora E.. AU - Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth. AU - Schwartz, Ann V.. AU - Lee, David C.. AU - Bhasin, Shalender. AU - Cunningham, Glenn R.. AU - Gill, Thomas M.. AU - Matsumoto, Alvin M.. AU - Swerdloff, Ronald S.. AU - Basaria, Shehzad. AU - Diem, Susan J.. AU - Wan, Christina. AU - Hou, Xiaoling. AU - Cifelli, Denise. AU - Dougar, Darlene. AU - Zeldow, Bret. AU - Bauer, Douglas C.. AU - Keaveny, Tony M.. PY - 2017/4/1. Y1 - 2017/4/1. N2 - IMPORTANCE As men age, they experience decreased serum testosterone concentrations, decreased bone mineral density (BMD), and increased risk of fracture. OBJECTIVE To determine whether testosterone treatment of older men with low testosterone ...
We conducted a genome-wide association study of low bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip and spine utilizing sequence variants found through whole-genome sequencing of 2636 Icelanders. We found two rare missense mutations, p.Gly496Ala and p.Gly703Ser, in the COL1A2 gene that associate with measures of osteoporosis in Icelanders. Mutations in COL1A2 are known to cause the autosomal dominant disorder osteogenesis imperfecta. Both variants associate with low BMD and with osteoporotic fractures. p.Gly496Ala (frequency of 0.105%) shows the strongest association with low BMD at the spine (p = 1.8 x 10(-7) , odds ratio [OR] = 4.61 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.59, 8.18]), whereas p.Gly703Ser (frequency of 0.050%) is most strongly associated with low BMD at the hip (p = 1.9 x 10(-8) , OR = 9.34 [95% CI 4.28, 20.3]). Association with fractures was p = 2.2 x 10(-5) , OR = 3.75 (95% CI 2.03, 6.93) and p = 0.0023, OR = 4.32 (95% CI 1.69, 11.1), respectively. The carriers of these variants do not have signs of
Design and methods. Part A of the Safe-D study is a cross-sectional study aiming to recruit 468 young females aged 16-25 years living in Victoria, Australia, through Facebook advertising. Participants are required to complete an extensive, online questionnaire, wear an ultra-violet dosimeter for 14 consecutive days and attend a study site visit. Outcome measures include areal bone mineral measures at the lumbar spine, total hip and whole body, as well as soft tissue composition using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Trabecular and cortical volumetric bone density at the tibia is measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Other tests include serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, serum biochemistry and a range of health markers. Details of mood disorder/s and depressive and anxiety symptoms are obtained by self-report. Cutaneous melanin density is measured by spectrophotometry ...
Background: It is not known whether the recently described break in the trend in hip fracture incidence in many settings applies in both women and men, depends on changes in bone mineral density (BMD) or changes in other risk factors, or whether it is apparent in both urban and rural settings. Methods: We evaluated changes in annual hip fracture incidence from 1987 to 2002 in Swedish men aged ≥60 years in one urban (n=25,491) and one rural population (n=16,432) and also secular differences in BMD, measured by single-photon absorptiometry at the distal radius and multiple other risk factors for hip fracture in a population-based sub-sample of the urban and the rural men aged 60-80 years in 1988/89 (n=202 vs. 121) and in 1998/99 (n=79 vs. 69). Results: No statistically significant changes in the annual age-adjusted hip fracture incidence per 10,000 were apparent from 1987 to 2002 in urban (0.38 per year, 95% CI-0.12 to 0.88) or rural men (-0.05 per year, 95% CI -0.63 to 0.53). BMD was similar in ...
As osteopenia and osteoporosis deteriorate physical functions, the person becomes less capable of walking and the risk of injuries from a fall increases. An injury from a fall may lead to fracture and hospitalization. As a result, deterioration of osteopenia and osteoporosis causes loss of physical functions even to the point of death. Thus, effective solutions are to be developed (Shahin et al., 2010). One way of preventing and controlling osteopenia and osteoporosis is an exercise therapy to improve the bone density. For example, a type of training that induces physical stress to osseous tissues such as weight or load bearing exercise is recommended. This type of training delays the reduction of bone density and even increases bone mass (Rittweger et al., 2000). Bone mass is an index that reflects the level of bone density. It is not only an important element for diagnosis of osteopenia and osteoporosis but also a predictive factor for the determine the risk of fracture. A bone density test is ...
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among hip geometry, bone mineral density, and the risk of hip fracture in premenopausal women. The participants in this case-control study were 16 premenopausal women with minimal-trauma hip fractures (fracture group) and 80 age-and BMI-adjusted controls. Subjects underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to assess BMD at the proximal femur and to obtain DXA-derived hip geometry measurements. The fracture group had a lower mean femoral neck and total hip BMD than the control group (0.721 ± 0.123 vs. 0.899 ± 0.115, p |0.001 for the femoral neck BMD and 0.724 ± 0.120 vs. 0.923 ± 0.116, p |0.001 for the total hip BMD). In addition, participants in the fracture group had a longer hip axis length (HAL; p = 0.007), narrower neck shaft angle (NSA; p = 0.008), smaller cross sectional area (CSA; p | 0.001) and higher cross sectional moment of inertia (CSMI; p = 0.004) than those in control group. After adjusting for BMD, the fracture group
Glucocorticoids, widely used in inflammatory disorders, rapidly increase bone fragility and, therefore, fracture risk. However, common bone densitometry measurements are not sensitive enough to detect these changes. Moreover, densitometry only partially recognizes treatment-induced fracture reductions in osteoporosis. Here, we tested whether the reference point indentation technique could detect bone tissue property changes early after glucocorticoid treatment initiation. After initial laboratory and bone density measurements, patients were allocated into groups receiving calcium+vitamin D (Ca+D) supplements or anti-osteoporotic drugs (risedronate, denosumab, teriparatide). Reference point indentation was performed on the cortical bone layer of the tibia by a handheld device measuring bone material strength index (BMSi). Bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Although Ca+D-treated patients exhibited substantial and significant deterioration, ...
The aim of this study was to establish, by means of peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at the distal radius, the existence of cortical and/or trabecular osteopenia, and to assess the integrity of bone geometry in uremic patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Our results show a clearcut selective reduction in volumetric cortical density, more evident in women (p = -0.0001) than men (p = 0.030), which appears to be independent of age and menopausal status. Trabecular density was not significantly changed in either sex. Cortical density of the patients correlated inversely with age (p = 0.003), duration of dialysis (p = 0.002) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels (p = 0.03). Trabecular density correlated only with age. Normally, cortical density is age-dependent and its reduction is accompanied by compensatory geometry changes. Compared with control subjects, in our female patients both cortical area and cortical thickness were reduced (p = 0.02 and 0.008), while ...
A FRAX model for Canada was constructed for prediction of osteoporotic and hip fracture risk using national hip fracture data with and without the use of femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD). Performance of this system was assessed independently in a large clinical cohort of 36,730 women and 2873 men from the Manitoba Bone Density Program database that tracks all clinical dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) test results for the Province of Manitoba, Canada. Linkage with other provincial health databases allowed for the direct comparison of fracture risk estimates from the Canadian FRAX model with observed fracture rates to 10 years (549 individuals with incident hip fractures and 2543 with incident osteoporotic fractures). The 10-year Kaplan-Meier estimate for hip fractures in women was 2.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1-3.4%] with a predicted value of 2.8% for FRAX with BMD, and in men the observed risk was 3.5% (95% CI 0.8-6.2%) with predicted value of 2.9%. The 10-year estimate of
Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia attributable to 21-hydroxylase deficiency are treated with glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoid administration, even in substitution doses, may cause decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine BMD, lean mass, a …
The Global Bone Density Test Market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 7.2% during the forecast period. Bone density test determines the density of bones and chances of the bone being broken. Central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) test is recommended for testing the bone density of hip and spine. Bone density test used in the diagnosis of osteoporosis, and osteopenia. The osteoporosis mostly occurs in women after the menopause but may also be present in males. The condition is less common in adults and children.. Read Exclusive Sample Report @ .. Rising prevalence of osteoporosis, osteopenia, hyperthyroidism, and increasing demand for portable bone testing devices drive the market growth. Furthermore, the demand for diagnosis and treatment measures for osteoporosis also influence the market growth. Additionally, the demand for technologically advanced devices drives the market growth.. According to the International Osteoporosis ...
The physiological role of GH in the adult skeleton is unknown. In this study, 12 adults (10 males and 2 females) with isolated GH deficiency were treated with GH as a single daily sc injection (0.125 IU/kg.week for the first 4 weeks and subsequently at 0.25 IU/kg.week) for 1 yr in a double blind, placebo-controlled manner. Bone mineral density of the spine (T12-L3) was measured by quantitative computed tomography, and bone mineral content (BMC) of the forearm by single photon absorptiometry at entry into the study and subsequently at 6 monthly intervals. All baseline bone mineral measurements were reduced compared with those in an age- and sex-matched control population. In the treatment cohort, quantitative computed tomography spinal trabecular bone mineral density increased by 7.8 g/L after 6 months of GH replacement (mean +/- SEM, 151.7 +/- 6.0 vs. 159.5 +/- 5.9 g/L; n = 11; P , 0.01), and this increment was maintained at 1 yr (160.7 +/- 6.3 g/L). Proximal forearm (cortical) BMC showed no ...
2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. The relationship between body mass index (BMI) and fracture risk is controversial. We sought to investigate the effect of collinearity between BMI and bone mineral density (BMD) on fracture risk, and to estimate the direct and indirect effect of BMI on fracture with BMD being the mediator. The study involved 2199 women and 1351 men aged 60 years or older. BMI was derived from baseline weight and height. Femoral neck BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; GE-LUNAR, Madison, WI, USA). The incidence of fragility fracture was ascertained by X-ray reports from 1991 through 2012. Causal mediation analysis was used to assess the mediated effect of BMD on the BMI-fracture relationship. Overall, 774 women (35% of total women) and 258 men (19%) had sustained a fracture. Approximately 21% of women and 20% of men were considered obese (BMI ≥ 30). In univariate analysis, greater BMI was associated with reduced fracture risk in women ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Locally measured microstructural parameters are better associated with vertebral strength than whole bone density. AU - Hazrati Marangalou, J.. AU - Eckstein, F.. AU - Kuhn, V.. AU - Ito, K.. AU - Cataldi, M.. AU - Taddei, F.. AU - Van Rietbergen, B.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Summary: Whole vertebrae areal and volumetric bone mineral density (BMD) measurements are not ideal predictors of vertebral fractures. We introduce a technique which enables quantification of bone microstructural parameters at precisely defined anatomical locations. Results show that local assessment of bone volume fraction at the optimal location can substantially improve the prediction of vertebral strength. Introduction: Whole vertebrae areal and volumetric BMD measurements are not ideal predictors of vertebral osteoporotic fractures. Recent studies have shown that sampling bone microstructural parameters in smaller regions may permit better predictions. In such studies, however, the sampling location ...
The vitamin D receptor (VDR) was the first candidate gene to be studied in relation to osteoporosis, and most attention has focused on polymorphisms situated near the 3 flank of VDR. The aim of this study was to investigate the association about VDR gene Apa I polymorphism with bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. We studied a total of 136 postmenopausal women with a mean age of 56.36 +/- 10.29 years. Among them, a total of 75 had osteoporosis, 37 had osteopenia, and 24 had normal BMD. Venous blood samples were obtained for evaluation of bone metabolism and genotyping. The VDR Apa I genotype was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. BMDs at the lumbar spine and hip were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Postmenopausal women with aa genotype had significantly lower BMD values (grams per centimeter square) at lumbar spines compared to persons with AA genotype. Also, postmenopausal women with AA genotype had ...
Sclerostin is a secreted Wnt antagonist produced almost exclusively by osteocytes that regulates bone mass. However, there is currently limited information on the determinants of sclerostin in a large population-based study. The main objectives of the present study were to: (1) establish reference normative interval values for serum sclerostin in randomly selected healthy premenopausal women; (2) study the changes in serum sclerostin in relation to age in premenopausal and postmenopausal women and the factors that may influence bone turnover; and (3) determine the effect of menopausal status on serum sclerostin. A total of 1803 women were studied (including [n = 1235] premenopausal, and [n = 568] postmenopausal women, respectively, aged 20 to 79 years). A total of 443 healthy premenopausal women (aged 35 to 45 years) were used to establish reference normative intervals for serum sclerostin. All women studied were medically examined and had their bone mineral density values obtained for the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Effects of Estrone (Ogen) on Spinal Bone Density of Postmenopausal Women. AU - Harris, Steven T.. AU - Genant, Harry K.. AU - Baylink, David J.. AU - Gallagher, J. Christopher. AU - Karp, Sherry Katz. AU - Mcconnell, Maureen A.. AU - Green, Elizabeth M.. AU - Stoll, Ralph W.. PY - 1991/10. Y1 - 1991/10. N2 - The effects of cyclical treatment with estrone sulfate (0.3, 0.625, or 1.25 mg), plus calcium carbonate, on spinal trabecular bone density were compared with placebo in 120 postmenopausal women in this 2-year, multicenter, doubleblind study. While the placebo and 0.3-mg treatment groups lost bone density (-3.6% and -5.1%), the 0.625- and 1.25-mg treatment groups experienced no significant change from baseline at 24 months (-0.8% and +0.7%). The 1.25-mg treatment group was significantly different from the placebo group at 12,18, and 24 months. Although the 0.625-mg treatment group was significantly different from the placebo group only at 18 months, the data suggest that ...
Dietary protein is theorized to hold both anabolic effects on bone and demineralizing effects mediated by the diet acid load of sulfate derived from methionine and cysteine. The relative importance of these effects is unknown but relevant to osteoporosis prevention. Postmenopausal women (n = 161, 67.9 +/- 6.0 y) were assessed for areal bone mineral density (aBMD) of lumbar spine (LS) and total hip (TH) using dual X-ray absorptiometry, and dietary intakes of protein, sulfur-containing amino acids, and minerals using a USDA multiple-pass 24-h recall. The acidifying influence of the diet was estimated using the ratio of protein:potassium intake, the potential renal acid load (PRAL), and intake of sulfate equivalents from protein. aBMD was regressed onto protein intake then protein was controlled for estimated dietary acid load. A step-down procedure assessed potential confounding influences (weight, age, physical activity, and calcium and vitamin D intakes). Protein alone did not predict LS aBMD (P ...
Background: Adult subjects with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) have low Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and are at risk of osteoporosis. Several observations suggest that peak bone mass is usually achieved by late adolescence, in the presence of adequate gonadal hormone concentrations. Consequently, the altered bone characteristics of PWS patients may be related to inadequate sex steroid levels during pubertal development.. Aim: To investigate BMD in PWS females during the transition phase.. Methods: Thirty-two females with genetically confirmed PWS, aged 22.1±0.4 year (mean+SE) (range 17.9 25.0 year), were studied. Eleven subjects were undergoing sex steroids therapy (Group A), while the remaining 21 individuals were naïve to substitutive treatment (Group B). Twenty subjects had undergone GH treatment during childhood. In all patients dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Lunar Prodigy) was used to measure BMD in the lumbar spine L1-L4 (gr/cm2), BMD T-score, and BMD Z-score.. Results: Four PWS had ...
Bone density[edit]. No evidence has been identified to suggest Mirena affects bone mineral density (BMD).[54] Two small studies ... "Prospective study of the forearm bone mineral density of long-term users of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system". ... since it is well established that the main factor responsible for bone loss in women is hypoestrogenism, and, in agreement with ...
A Z score is just a comparison of what a patient's bone mineral density is in comparison to the average bone mineral density of ... DXA has been shown to overestimate the bone mineral density of taller subjects and underestimate the bone mineral density of ... areal Bone Mineral Density), it is not an accurate measurement of true bone mineral density, which is mass divided by a volume ... Bone densities are often given to patients as a T score or a Z score. A T score tells the patient what their bone mineral ...
"Bone density scan ... Olive oil ... Bursitis". Women's Health Advisor. 14 (7): 8. 2010.. ...
... and low bone density. There is substantial evidence indicating that lactose intolerance is a major factor in limiting calcium ... Barger-Lux and Heaney (August 1, 1994). "The role of calcium intake in preventing bone fragilty, hypertension and certain ...
Park, KH; Song, CH (Feb 1995). "Bone mineral density in premenopausal anovulatory women". Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology ...
A bone density scan may be undertaken. Radiography typically show widening of the zones of provisional calcification of the ... Bone deformities may also improve over time. Occasionally surgery may be done to fix bone deformities. Genetic forms of the ... Rickets is a condition that results in weak or soft bones in children. Symptoms include bowed legs, stunted growth, bone pain, ... Maternal deficiencies may be the cause of overt bone disease from before birth and impairment of bone quality after birth. The ...
Grigsby, Iwen F.; Pham, Lan; Mansky, Louis M.; Gopalakrishnan, Raj; Mansky, Kim C. (2010). "Tenofovir-associated bone density ... a compound whose long-term use was associated with adverse side effects such as nephrotoxicity and bone density loss. Gilead ... debilitating kidney and bone damage, often developing conditions such as Fanconi syndrome and osteomalacia. Gilead has come ...
PFS makes available bone density screening. "Sunrise," a cancer support group for women was founded by three cancer patients in ...
Carbone, L.; Tylavsky, F. A.; Bush, A. J.; Koo, W.; Orwoll, E.; Cheng, S. (2000). "Bone density in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome". ... low bone density). Other common features include a "marfanoid habitus" that is characterized by long, slender fingers ( ... A defect in collagen can weaken connective tissue in the skin, bones, blood vessels, and organs, resulting in the features of ... Forms of EDS in this category may present with soft, mildly stretchable skin, shortened bones, chronic diarrhea, joint ...
2011). "The effects of oral xylitol administration on bone density in rat femur". Odontology. 99: 28-33. doi:10.1007/s10266-010 ... Food containing xylitol increased bone density in rat studies. These results have generated interest in the sugar alcohol that ... 2001). "Increased bone volume and bone mineral content in xylitol-fed aged rats". Gerontology. 47: 300-305. doi:10.1159/ ...
This can increase risk of reduced bone density.[8] ... Muscles, bones,. and joints (M). *Anabolic steroids. *Anti- ... "J. Bone Miner. Res. 21 (1): 163-70. doi:10.1359/JBMR.051003. PMID 16355285.. ... "Modifiable predictors of bone loss in older men: a prospective study". Am J Prev Med. 26 (5): 436-42. doi:10.1016/j.amepre. ... "Loop diuretics increase bone turnover and decrease BMD in osteopenic postmenopausal women: results from a randomized ...
Bone mineral density decreases with increasing age. Osteoporotic bone loss can be prevented through an adequate intake of ... "Calcaneal Bone Mineral Density Predicts Fracture Occurrence: A Five-Year Follow-up Study in Elderly People". Journal of Bone ... also known as the heel bone, is the largest of the tarsal bones and articulates with the cuboid bone anteriorly and the talus ... in 1997, showed that greater bone density indicated less risk for fractures in the calcaneus. In 1991, Kathol conducted a study ...
Bone Density Link RemoveEdit. Hi link was not wrong it defines the bone density feature and all. so I took it as a reference if ...
... displaces calcium from the bones, lowering bone density of the skeleton and leading to weakened bones, or osteoporosis.[60] ... Bone density and bone lossEdit. In a meta-analysis of 88 studies, drinking soda correlates with a decrease in milk consumption ... had significantly lower bone mineral density (BMD) of ≈4 % in the hip than those who didn't, even though researchers controlled ... are associated with low bone mineral density in older women: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study". The American Journal of ...
Bone density scans are recommended to monitor the bone mineral density.[13] ... Laitinen EM, Hero M, Vaaralahti K, Tommiska J, Raivio T (August 2012). "Bone mineral density, body composition and bone ... is essential for maintaining bone density.[18] Deficiency in either testosterone or oestrogen can increase the rate of bone ... "Treatment of isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism effect on bone mineral density and bone turnover". The Journal of Clinical ...
It shares the Percheron's size and density of bone; like the Andalusian, the Spanish-Norman has a refined, convex head, long ...
... "induces bone formation and increases bone mineral density reducing the risk for osteoporosis and other bone disorders" pursuant ... EFSA Femarelle® and bone mineral density Archived 30 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine Scientific substantiation of a health ... "Bone mineral density changes during the menopause transition in a multiethnic cohort of women". The Journal of Clinical ... It also appears effective for preventing bone loss and osteoporotic fracture,[75] but it is generally recommended only for ...
Bone or muscle pain. *Decreased bone density or increased bone density (osteoporosis or osteosclerosis) ... Systemic mastocytosis involves the bone marrow in the majority of cases and in some cases other internal organs, usually in ... Dense infiltrates of ,15 mast cells in the bone marrow or an extracutaneous organ ...
"Obstetric implications of Neanderthal robusticity and bone density". Human Evolution. 9 (4): 331-342. doi:10.1007/BF02435519. ... which we know from paleontological and embryological evidence originated in the upper and lower jaws and the hyoid bone of ...
Lee S, Gantes B, Riggs M, Crigger M (2007). "Bone density assessments of dental implant sites: 3. Bone quality evaluation ... Norton MR, Gamble C (February 2001). "Bone classification: an objective scale of bone density using the computerized tomography ... radiographically-identified bone density for purposes such as the placement of dental implants, as there is "no good data to ... Although some authors have supported the use of CBCT technology to evaluate bone density by measuring HU, such support is ...
... and the bone density of post-menopausal women. The charity was renamed 'Wellbeing of Women', in 2004. Wellbeing of Women ...
DeVita Raeburn, Elizabeth (20 November 2013). "Bone Density Higher in Blacks, Vitamin D Lower". MedPage Today. Retrieved 19 ... dark-skinned individuals have higher bone density and lower risk of fractures than lighter-skinned individuals with the same ... The most prevalent disease to follow vitamin D deficiency is rickets, the softening of bones in children potentially leading to ... Vieth, R (2003). In Bone Loss and Osteoporosis: an Anthropological Perspective. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press. pp. 135-150. ...
Combined oral contraception may also reduce bone density. Some drugs reduce the effect of the pill and can cause breakthrough ... "Oral contraceptive use and bone density change in adolescent and young adult women: a prospective study of age, hormone dose, ...
Dumont, Elizabeth R. (2010-07-22). "Bone density and the lightweight skeletons of birds". Proceedings of the Royal Society of ... yet the bones of birds were found to be denser than the bones of mammals. This suggests that pneumatization of bird bones does ... By invading the bones, the pneumatic diverticula would replace marrow with air, reducing the overall body mass. Reducing the ... The air pockets of the bones are connected to the pulmonary air sacs: However the extent of pneumaticity depends on species. ...
In those without symptoms, mildly increased blood calcium levels, normal kidneys, and normal bone density monitoring may be all ... "Stones" refers to kidney stones, "bones" to associated destructive bone changes, "groans" to the pain of stomach and peptic ... below normal for patient's age Bone density > 2.5 standard deviations below peak (i.e., T-score of -2.5) People age < 50 ... increased bone resorption, allowing flow of calcium from bone to blood reduced kidney clearance of calcium increased intestinal ...
The operation doesn't shave down your bone density. It doesn't change. You look at a man's hands and you look at a woman's ... He stated in Time magazine that "Male to female transsexuals have significantly less muscle strength and bone density, and ... although she believes Fox has male bone density and structure, leading to an unfair advantage. In an interview with Out, Rousey ... "larger heel bones" than the white men he was competing with? Are we repeating history yet again with bogus bone claims? Can we ...
Bone density , 2.5 standard deviations below peak (i.e., T-score of -2.5) ... and normal bone density monitoring may be all that is required.[2] The medication cinacalcet may also be used to decrease PTH ... "Stones" refers to kidney stones, "bones" to associated destructive bone changes, "groans" to the pain of stomach and peptic ... increased bone resorption, allowing the flow of calcium from bone to blood ...
Density 2.99 g·cm−3[54]. 4.47 g·cm−3[55]. 6.162 g·cm−3. 10 g·cm−3. ... Lutetium has no biological role as well, but it is found even in the highest known organism, the humans, concentrating in bones ... and bones of humans.[81] There is normally as little as 0.5 milligrams found within the entire human body; human breast milk ...
Human population density was very low, around only one person per square mile.[3] This was most likely due to low body fat, ... Nelson, D.E., Radiocarbon dating of bone and charcoal from Divje babe I cave, cited by Morley, p. 47 ... Upper Paleolithic (and possibly Middle Paleolithic)[83] humans used flute-like bone pipes as musical instruments,[38][84] and ... In Africa, bone artifacts and the first art appear in the archaeological record. The first evidence of human fishing is also ...
... and the wormian bones in the skull.[12] Another study reported an increase in the size of the hybrid as compared to either of ... and also increases with forage density.[14] A strong attachment exists among members of the female herd, many of which are ...
... and decreased bone mineral density, make its use for male acne impractical in most cases.[114][115][116] Pregnant and lactating ...
It is not yet known whether changes in concentration of SP or density of its receptors is the cause of any given disease, or an ... "Increased expression of preprotachykinin-I and neurokinin receptors in human breast cancer cells: implications for bone marrow ...
TSH values below normal values will frequently cause cardiac side-effects and contribute to decreases in bone mineral density ( ...
... and the bone density (amount of calcium) is determined and given a number (a T-score). It is not used for bone imaging, as the ... Cancer, bone fractures. Significant tests. screening tests, X-ray, CT, MRI, PET, bone scan, ultrasonography, mammography, ... DEXA, or bone densitometry, is used primarily for osteoporosis tests. It is not projection radiography, as the X-rays are ... This is the standard method for bone densitometry. It is also used in CT pulmonary angiography to decrease the required dose of ...
Overhunting can reduce the local population of game animals by more than half, as well as reducing population density, and may ... Reconstructed woolly mammoth bone hut, based on finds in Mezhyrich.. The passenger pigeon was a species of pigeon endemic to ... Studies on early hunter-gatherers raises questions about the current use of population size or density as a proxy for the ...
is the density of states (number of states per energy per volume). This formula takes into account the spin degeneracy of the ... JPL said it hopes to perform experiments regarding the effects of microgravity on bone and muscle mass. ...
Apparent density[edit]. The solid or skeletal density of activated carbons will typically range between 2000 and 2100 kg/m3 ( ... Higher density provides greater volume activity and normally indicates better-quality activated carbon. ASTM D 2854 -09 (2014) ... is used to determine the apparent density of activated carbon. Hardness/abrasion number[edit]. It is a measure of the activated ... altering the electron density around the reactant molecule and allowing it to undergo reactions that would not normally be ...
... help in maintaining bone mineral density, improved passive range motion, reduction in abnormal muscle tone and spasticity, and ...
Both males and females with larger combs have higher bone density and strength, which allows females to deposit more calcium ... This linkage is further evidenced by the fact that two of the genes, HAO1 and BMP2, affecting medullary bone (the part of the ... those chickens who express higher levels of these two genes in bone tissue produce more eggs and display less egg incubation ... bone that transfers calcium into developing eggshells) are located at the same locus as the gene affecting comb mass. HAO1 and ...
is the density of the fluid, v. 1. {\displaystyle \scriptstyle v_{1}}. is the (slower) fluid velocity where the pipe is wider, ... The leadpipe of a trombone, affecting the timbre. *Foam proportioners used to induct fire fighting foam concentrate into fire ... which will increase the density of the fluid through the constriction (though the velocity will remain constant). This is the ... for increased mass flow rate but only if the nozzle area is also increased to compensate for the resulting decrease in density ...
... such as hypercalcemia and numerous bone changes such as bone loss that potentially leads to osteoporosis, spontaneous bone ... very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL), retinoic acid bound to albumin, water soluble β- ... resulting in increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. It is likely to exert this effect by binding to specific ... Increased bone turnoverEdit. Retinoic acid suppresses osteoblast activity and stimulates osteoclast formation in vitro,[23] ...
Both sets of bones connect the shoulder girdle to the skull. With the loss of these bones, tetrapods acquired a neck, allowing ... The difference in density between air and water causes smells (certain chemical compounds detectable by chemoreceptors) to ... Bones and groups of bones were also consolidated and strengthened.[71]. In Carboniferous tetrapods, the neck joint (occiput) ... A notable feature of Tiktaalik is the absence of bones covering the gills. These bones would otherwise connect the shoulder ...
The human bone fragments it contained, from about 21 different individuals, are thought to be roughly between 10,200 and 10,400 ... Density. 580/sq mi (220/km2). GVA. • Total. £113 billion. • Per capita. £18,195 (4th). ...
If and when the stressor is overcome, bone growth will resume, resulting in a line of increased mineral density that will be ... Living bones are subject to Wolff's law, which states that bones are physically affected and remodeled by physical activity or ... Living or freshly dead bones are somewhat resilient, so metal blade injuries to bone will generate a linear cut with relatively ... The archaeology of human bones. Routledge. Samuel J. Redman, 2016. Bone Rooms: From Scientific Racism to Human Prehistory in ...
High nutrient density. dietary sources Term for deficiency Term for excess Potassium 04700.0004700 NE; NE Quantity A systemic ... A component of bones (see apatite), cells, in energy processing, in DNA and ATP (as phosphate) and many other functions Red ... Required for processing ATP and for bones Spinach, legumes, nuts, seeds, whole grains, peanut butter, avocado[22] ... Dairy products, eggs, canned fish with bones (salmon, sardines), green leafy vegetables, nuts, seeds, tofu, thyme, oregano, ...
It has the highest density of church buildings in Indonesia, with approximately one church for every 100m road.[32] This is due ... trombones, and tubas, all constructed out of local bamboo, which form the basis of a song genre known as musik bambu.[34] ...
... "induces bone formation and increases bone mineral density reducing the risk for osteoporosis and other bone disorders" pursuant ... EFSA Femarelle® and bone mineral density (页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆) Scientific substantiation of a health claim related to "Femarelle®" ...
മുഴുവൻ പേര് High Density Poly Ethylene എന്നാണ്. ദൈർഘ്യമേറിയ, ശാഖകളില്ലാത്ത ശൃംഖലകളാണ് ഈ ഇനത്തിൻറെ ലക്ഷണം. സാന്ദ്രത ഏതാണ്ട് ... ഉദാഹരണത്തിന് കൃത്രിമ ശ്രോണീ ഫലകം ( Hip bone implant) ഈ ഇനം പോളി എഥിലീൻ കൊണ്ടാണ് ഉണ്ടാക്കുന്നത്. ... Linear Low Density Poly Ethylene എന്നാണ് മുഴുവൻ പേര്. എഥിലീനിനോടൊപ്പം 1-ബ്യൂട്ടീൻ, 1-ഹെക്സീൻ, 1-ഒക്റ്റേൻ, എന്നീ സഹഏകകങ്ങളും ചേർ ... നീണ്ടതും നിബിഡവുമായ ശാഖകളുളള ശൃംഖലകളാണ് എൽ.ഡിപിഇയുടെ (Low Density Poly Ethylene) പ്രത്യേകത. ...
... recorded pair densities were 0.3-0.6 occupied territories per 100 km2 (39 sq mi).[209] In eastern Germany, densities were ... Currently, eagles only occur in the Hawaiian Islands as vagrants, but Quaternary bones of Haliaeetus have been found on three ... Densities of white-tailed eagles have greatly increased in some parts of the range due to conservation efforts. Some threats ... On Orkney, Scotland, sea eagle bones have been found in 6000-year-old burial mounds, among them the Tomb of the Eagles, ...
This can increase risk of reduced bone density.[9] ... "Modifiable predictors of bone loss in older men: a prospective ... Rejnmark L, Vestergaard P, Heickendorff L, Andreasen F, Mosekilde L (January 2006). "Loop diuretics increase bone turnover and ... decrease BMD in osteopenic postmenopausal women: results from a randomized controlled study with bumetanide". J. Bone Miner. ...
40] Its consumption has led to fluorosis (a form of fluoride poisoning that affects the bones and teeth) in areas of high brick ... due to its density and hardness. The taste of densely compressed raw pu'er is believed to benefit from careful aging for up to ...
"The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. British Volume. 77 (2): 219-24. doi:10.1302/0301-620X.77B2.7706334. PMID 7706334.. ... innervation density of slowly adapting type I and rapidly adapting type I mechanoreceptors are greatly increased. These two ...
Bone mass is affected by muscles forces and their loads to the bone structure. The strength and density of the bone is directly ... Usually viewed as a precursor to osteoporosis, osteopenia is when bone density is lower than normal levels. ... The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 88A (8): 1689-1698. doi:10.2106/JBJS.E.01181. PMID 16882889. S2CID 10659933.. ... The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 88A (8): 1689-1698. doi:10.2106/JBJS.E.01181. PMID 16882889. S2CID 10659933.. ...
Generally, long-term patients, both male and female, tend to undergo annual DEXA scans to appraise bone density. ... to combat such side effects and to prevent bone wastage. ...
Their density is 59,000 to 76,000 per square millimeter near the pulp, whereas the density is only half as much near the enamel ... Dentin is a bone-like matrix that is porous and yellow-hued material. It is made up of 70% inorganic materials (mainly ... The diameter and density of the tubules are greatest near the pulp.[7] Tapering from the inner to the outermost surface, they ... It is similar to osteoid in bone and is thickest when dentinogenesis is occurring.[1] ...
The greatest population density was to be found in the southern and eastern regions of the continent, the River Murray valley ... I had to come to the somewhat uncomfortable conclusion that even Andrew Bolt was becoming Indigenous because the bones of his ... is that people have a connection with their ancestors whose bones are in the soil. Whose dust is part of the sand. ... there are signs that the population density of Indigenous Australia was comparatively higher in the north-eastern sections of ...
... test measures the mineral density (such as calcium) in your bones using a special X-ray, computed tomography (CT) scan, or ... Bone Density. Test Overview. A bone density test is a kind of X-ray test. It measures the density of minerals (such as calcium ... A bone density test is a kind of X-ray test. It measures the density of minerals (such as calcium) in your bones. Results are ... Results of bone density tests can be reported in several ways.. T-score. Your T-score is your bone density compared to the ...
Health Information on Bone Density: MedlinePlus Multiple Languages Collection ... Bone Density: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Densidad ósea: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) ... Kids and Their Bones: A Guide for Parents - English HTML Kids and Their Bones: A Guide for Parents - español (Spanish) HTML ... Exercise for Your Bone Health - English HTML Exercise for Your Bone Health - español (Spanish) HTML ...
The Bone Density Center at Massachusetts General Hospital offers state-of-the-art testing for the diagnosis and follow-up of ... If your bone density is normal, you may not need further testing for years. If your bone density is low or you have had a ... Bone Density Center The Bone Density Center at Massachusetts General Hospital offers state-of-the-art testing for the diagnosis ... Whole Body Bone Density and Body Composition. Whole body bone density and body composition analysis provides information about ...
For girls, building bone density from an early age may reduce their risk of the bone-thinning disease osteoporosis later in ... However, the artistic gymnasts had the greatest muscle mass and tended to have higher bone density, particularly in the arms. ... NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - The high-impact tumbling of gymnastics may boost young girls muscle mass and bone density, ... The years before puberty are an especially opportune time to boost bone density with exercise, explained the studys lead ...
... a bone density scan or a bone densitometry scan ... is a special type of X-ray that measures bone mineral density ( ... Find out when bone density scans are used. Measuring bone density. During a bone density scan, a special type of X-ray called ... Find out more about how bone density scans are carried out. How safe are bone density (DEXA) scans. Bone density scans are very ... Who needs to have a bone density scan. You may need to have a bone density scan if youre:. *over 50 with a risk of developing ...
The Iffley Road Sports Centre will host a day of bone density screening with Tracey Hunt, MSc Exercise and Nutrition Science, ... Bone density screening. Health and wellbeing. The Iffley Road Sports Centre will host a day of bone density screening with ... Tracey will assess your bone density and fracture risk using a machine called a Quantative Ultrasound Scanner or QUS. The ... Osteoporosis literally means porous bones. It occurs when the rate of bone renewal does not match the rate of breakdown, ...
In bone mineral density (BMD) scanning, the energy of x ray beams that are passed through bones is absorbed, and what is not ... The number of pixels in the area is summed, then the amount of bone in each pixel is calculated. This allows a bone density to ... Bone mineral density scans. BMJ 2002; 325 doi: (Published 31 August 2002) Cite this as ... The radiation energy per pixel ("picture element") is detected and converted into an "areal density" measured in g/cm2. ...
Tags: Suzy Hogan safety Outdoors Mental Health Hiking Fitness cardio bone density active Physical Activity mental wellness ...
Share this resource to help people learn more about bone density tests and osteoporosis (weak bones). ... A bone density test measures how strong bones are. ... What happens during a bone density test?. A bone density test ... A bone density test measures how strong bones are. The test will tell you if you have osteoporosis ("os-tee-oh-puh-ROH-sis"), ... You might not know you have the disease until you break a bone. Thats why its so important to get a bone density test to ...
... is the amount of bone mineral in your bones. A BMD test measures bone health and risk for breaking bones. ... A bone mineral density (BMD) test is the best way to measure your bone health. It compares your bone density, or mass, to that ... Bone Density Scan (National Library of Medicine) Also in Spanish * Bone-Density Tests: When You Need a Test and When You Dont ... URL of this page: Bone Density Also called: Bone mass ...
Bone Density. Hi all- I am a pituitary patient. Ive been taking Hydrocortisone now for about six years. Back when the journey ... My bone has filled in and it is no longer an issue. So I follow the, only take what you need philosophy my max is 15 mgs a ... My bone has filled in and it is no longer an issue. So I follow the, only take what you need philosophy my max is 15 mgs a ... Thanks! Yes bones can improve. I was very glad to hear that myself. Yes, I take Calcium citrate too, also at night to avoid ...
Prolonged isolation can induce bone loss in humans Clinical studies have found that bone mineral density in patients with ... Osteoporosis drug increases bone mineral density in the hip and lumbar spine New research presented at ACR Convergence, the ... Thin, weakened bones associated with heightened risk of heart attack or stroke in women Thin and brittle bones are strongly ... Study reveals major factors that affect bone health in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients Impaired bone health ...
red wine; bone density I know that a glass of red wine daily is supposed to be good for me but since menopause I am over- ... Is this worthwhile or should I rather not have it? Also, is bone-density testing essential in mid-fifties, even if i am of ... Bone density is helpful in knowing what your baseline is, even if you have taken supplements.. Best wishes ...
Answers to common questions and concerns regarding bone density testing, such as what it is, how to prepare for a test, and how ... A bone density test will show how dense these bones are. When a person has osteoporosis, the bone is not as dense and therefore ... Your doctor has suggested you have a bone density test as part of the evaluation at National Jewish. A bone density test is a ... A bone density test can help determine a diagnosis early, before a person has a bone fracture and can help determine the ...
If you have had a bone density test, knowing how to interpret and understand the results can be important to your health and ... Know the purpose of a bone density test. Most individuals receive bone density scans to check for signs of osteoporosis. *Bone ... Ask how to prevent bone density loss. Even if you have a normal or healthy bone density score, you may wish to discuss ways to ... Bone Density Test Results Most bone density scans provide 2 separate scores: T-scores and Z-scores. Each score indicates a ...
... youre a woman at the age of menopause and have a high chance for breaking bones *youre a man 50 or older ... your doctor may recommend a bone density test if: *youre a postmenopausal woman over 50 * ... What type of bone mineral density test is central dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)? ... U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: "Get a Bone Density Test." ...
... can help determine how quickly you are losing bone mass and density. ... A bone density test measures the strength and density of your bones as you approach menopause and, when the test is repeated ... What is a bone density test?. A bone density test, also known as bone mass measurement or bone mineral density test, measures ... and to the optimal peak bone density of a healthy young adult of the same gender. Bone density testing can help to:. * Detect ...
Currently, most screening systems measure bone mineral density (BMD). Susan Ott, associate professor at the University of ... Brittle bones:Is meat murder for bones?. What Doctors Dont Tell You ... Osteoporosis: A load of old bones:How accurate is bone testing?. What Doctors Dont Tell You ... WHAT DOCTORS READ:BONE BOOST WITH CALCIUM. What Doctors Dont Tell You ...
A bone density scan is also called a bone densitometry or dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. ... A bone density scan is an imaging test that uses x-rays and computer technology to measure bone density. ... Bone density scan. A bone density scan is an imaging test that uses x-rays to measure how strong your bones are. It is also ... Why a bone density scan is done. A bone density scan may be done to:* measure the amount of minerals, such as calcium, in bone ...
In-vivo bone density measuring system using a modified emission computed tomographic gamma camera arrangement for detecting ... As mentioned hereinbefore gamma cameras have been used heretofore for bone mineral density measurements and even for bone ... certain of the spinal bones may be desired and/or certain sections of the hip bones may also be desired for the bone density ... of a bone mineral density measurement system using gamma cameras and showing improvements over present bone mineral density ...
The picture that is produced can show areas where the bones are not dense, or areas where there is increased activity of cells ... What is a bone density test?. The picture that is produced can show areas where the bones are not dense, or areas where there ... I have been asked to go for a bone density test because I am severely underweight. ... of the bones using an X-ray technique or something which has been given to you for your bones to take up which makes it easy to ...
Treatment with good bacteria widely used in probiotic supplements can strengthen bones, especially in females, finds a study ... "The significance of the study is that probiotics are, at least in mice, an effective means to increase bone density," said ... This caused T cells in the bone marrow to secrete a protein called Wnt10b, known to be critical for bone development. By ... bugs demonstrated an immune response that stimulated an increase in bone density.. The effect seen in young female mice is ...
Just found out on Friday that my Doctor has submitted a referral for me to get a bone density scan. I remember her telling me ... Just found out on Friday that my Doctor has submitted a referral for me to get a bone density scan. I remember her telling me ... Yet, I dont have bone issues, can anyone tell me if this is just a precautionary step or what???. Mari ... D is the vitamin that allows calcium to be absorbed into the bones. Very important. Good luck! ...
Your doctor has ordered a bone density scan (QDR). The role of this procedure is to diagnose osteoporosis or to be a follow-up ... You can print and fill out the Bone Density Questionnaire, available here, before arriving to speed the registration process. ... Why choose the S. Mark Taper Foundation Imaging Center for a bone density scan? ... We will be measuring the mineral content of your bones.. The scan will be done with a low energy X-ray beam that produces very ...
Dr Vivek Baliga discusses the bone mineral density test. What is the test, why is it done, how is it done and how is it useful ... 2. BONE MINERAL DENSITY As we get older, our bones naturally get a little thinner and the density of the bone is reduced. The ... Bone Mineral Density - Dr Vivek Baliga Article For Patients * 1. BONE MINERAL DENSITY Dr. Vivek Baliga, Consultant Internal ... 3. WHAT IS A BMD TEST? A BMD (Bone Mineral Density) test is a test used to determine the thickness and strength of the bones. ...
Common Antidepressants Associated With Lower Bone Density. Julia WhittyJune 26, 2007 5:22 PM *Share on Facebook ... Depression or broken bones or both. How about looking for the root cause of the depression, not just the (dubious) chemistry? - ... If you feel the urgency deep in your bones like we do, please consider signing up as a monthly donor during our fall pledge ... But serotonin may also be associated with an increased rate of bone loss in older men and women, according to two new JAMA ...
Learn about bone mineral density, how the screening is done, and get an explanation of test results. ... Get information on bone density scan for osteoporosis and osteopenia risk. ... Who Should Get a Bone Density Scan?. Bone density testing is used to assess the strength of the bones and the probability of ... Reasons why repeating bone density scans is extremely tricky include:. *Bone density changes so slowly that the changes may be ...
You can be put on a natural regimen that actually reverses faltering bone density and builds stronger bones. ... and vitamin K2 could improve bone density.. The women in the supplementation group had 4.3 percent increase in bone mineral ... If your doctor is prescribing an osteoporotic medication to treat your bone density tests, I say that is a good sign to find a ... density in the lumbar spine and a 2.2 percent increase in the hip bone. ...
Fracture causes bone density losses throughout the body Breaking a bone causes bone density losses throughout the body, not ... If a patient is found to have low bone density prior to surgery, it could affect the treatment plan before, during and after ... bone mineral density and muscle strength - play a potentially causal role in the risk of suffering osteoporotic fracture, a ... has succeeded in compiling an atlas of genetic factors associated with estimated bone mineral density (BMD), one of the most ...
Hologic® Bone Densitometers. Henry Schein offers the complete line of Bone Densitometers from Hologic®.. Osteoporosis is ... Hologic bone densitometry systems offer you a single platform to support a wide range of patients over a lifetime of care. ...
  • So the thicker your bones are, the longer it takes to get osteoporosis . (
  • These are the bones most likely to fracture from osteoporosis. (
  • It's also recommended for younger women who are at higher risk for broken bones caused by osteoporosis. (
  • Osteoporosis is the most common cause of low bone mineral density. (
  • DXA allows physicians to diagnose osteoporosis and related bone diseases early, often before you suffer a fracture. (
  • For girls, building bone density from an early age may reduce their risk of the bone-thinning disease osteoporosis later in life. (
  • Bone density scans are often used to diagnose or assess your risk of osteoporosis , a health condition that weakens bones and makes them more likely to break. (
  • The results from a bone density scan are usually used alongside a fracture risk assessment to assess your chances of osteoporosis and breaking a bone. (
  • Osteoporosis does not cause any symptoms until a bone is broken. (
  • The test measures the bone density in your heel, and is very useful for assessing your risk of fracturing (breaking) your legs, arms, hips and wrists - common fracture sites for sufferers of osteoporosis. (
  • You will also receive an information pack with evidence-based nutrition, exercise and lifestyle advice to enable you to safeguard yourself against osteoporosis, greatly enhancing your chances of having strong and healthy bones for life. (
  • The test will tell you if you have osteoporosis ("os-tee-oh-puh-ROH-sis"), or weak bones. (
  • If you are at risk for osteoporosis, your doctor or nurse may recommend you get a bone density test every 2 years. (
  • Osteoporosis is a bone disease. (
  • People with osteoporosis most often break bones in the hip, spine, and wrist. (
  • If you have osteoporosis, you can still slow down bone loss. (
  • Ask your doctor if you are at risk for osteoporosis and find out when to start getting bone density tests. (
  • Low bone mass that is not low enough to be osteoporosis is sometimes called osteopenia. (
  • Not everyone who has low bone mass gets osteoporosis, but they are at higher risk for getting it. (
  • Years of suffering and billions of euro in global health care costs, arising from osteoporosis-related bone fractures, could be eliminated using big data to target vulnerable patients, according to researchers at Lero, the Science Foundation Ireland Research Centre for Software. (
  • A multidisciplinary team of researchers led by Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) has discovered several genetic markers associated with bone mineral accrual, which could ultimately help identify causes of eventual osteoporosis earlier in life through genetic testing. (
  • New research presented at ACR Convergence, the American College Rheumatology's annual meeting, reveals that romosozumab, an osteoporosis drug, produces substantial gains in bone mineral density in the hip and lumbar spine within one year, and that transitioning patients to a potent antiresorptive drug can lead to even more bone density gains. (
  • When a person has osteoporosis, the bone is not as dense and therefore is weaker than it should be. (
  • The test is a standard screen for osteoporosis among elderly women, but your doctor may also order a bone density scan if you have recently undergone an organ or bone marrow transplant, taken certain steroid medications long-term, recently broken a bone, experienced a dip in certain hormone levels, or lost height. (
  • Most individuals receive bone density scans to check for signs of osteoporosis. (
  • Bone density scans are often used to detect your individual risk of bone fracture and your personal chance of developing osteoporosis if you do not currently have the condition. (
  • Bone density scans can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of osteoporosis treatments. (
  • National Osteoporosis Foundation: "Bone Density Exam/Testing. (
  • Some women are at greater risk for osteoporosis - the decrease of bone mass and density as a result of the depletion of bone calcium and protein - than others. (
  • Your doctor can help you determine your risk of developing osteoporosis by taking your personal and family medical history, and by doing a bone density test or bone mass measurement. (
  • Your mother, grandmother, or another close relative had osteoporosis or bone fractures. (
  • Osteoporosis: A load of old bones:How accurate is bone testing? (
  • Your doctor will use this score to discuss whether you have normal bone mass, low bone mass or osteoporosis. (
  • Treatment with good bacteria widely used in probiotic supplements can strengthen bones, especially in females, finds a study that may develop novel ways of treating bone loss condition osteoporosis. (
  • An additional 7% have osteoporosis (substantially low bone density). (
  • One in three women and one of five men over the age of 50 will experience a bone fracture related to osteoporosis . (
  • Osteoporosis is a medical condition that is characterized by bones that are less dense than, and thus not as strong as, normal bone. (
  • Osteoporosis increases the risk of breaking a bone (fracture) with even minor trauma , such as a fall from standing height, or even from a cough or sneeze. (
  • Osteoporosis and low bone mass affect an estimated 44 million Americans. (
  • Of those, 10 million have osteoporosis, and the remaining 34 million have a lower than normal bone mass (medically termed osteopenia ) and are at higher risk of developing osteoporosis. (
  • Bone density testing is used to assess the strength of the bones and the probability of fracture in persons at risk for osteoporosis. (
  • In order to understand the role of bone mineral density scanning, it is important to know about how osteoporosis occurs. (
  • It is also commonly a result of aging , change in normal hormones as occurs after menopause , and with diets low in calcium and vitamin D . In osteoporosis, osteoclasts outperform osteoblasts so that more bone is taken up than is laid down. (
  • Scientists have harnessed powerful data analysis tools and three-dimensional studies of genomic geography to implicate new risk genes for osteoporosis, the chronic bone-weakening condition that affects millions of people. (
  • In a study that could lead to wide use of inexpensive ultrasound screenings for osteoporosis, researchers found data from ultrasonography of the calcaneus was equal to data gathered using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, which is considered the gold standard for assessing bone health. (
  • A ground-breaking new study led by researchers from the Lady Davis Institute (LDI) at the Jewish General Hospital (JGH) has succeeded in compiling an atlas of genetic factors associated with estimated bone mineral density (BMD), one of the most clinically relevant factors in diagnosing osteoporosis. (
  • Osteoporosis, a bone disease that can result in painful fractures - typically in the back, hip or wrist - is often thought of as a woman's disease. (
  • The test is performed to help diagnose your risk of fracture (eg, spinal compression fracture), detect osteopenia (low bone density) and osteoporosis. (
  • To understand osteoporosis, you should understand how bones grow and regenerate. (
  • The more bone gained during this period, the less risk of osteoporosis you face later in life. (
  • A high bone density means above-average amounts of calcium and phosphates in the bones, while a below-normal bone density might mean you have low bone density (sometimes called osteopenia) or osteoporosis. (
  • osteoporosis was defined as a bone mineral density T-score of -2.5 or less. (
  • Of 235 consecutive patients with clinical hypogonadism treated at the center, 56% had normal bone mineral density levels, 39% were osteopenic, and 5% had frank osteoporosis. (
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS) may be associated with reduced bone mass and higher frequency of osteoporosis. (
  • The new study might therefore 'empower physicians to increasingly use annual blood/urine bone turnover markers to decide on treatment of worsening osteopenia or osteoporosis ,' Mezitis said. (
  • Osteoporosis definition: a disease characterized by low bone mass and density. (
  • Osteoporosis causes symptoms of weak, thin, fragile bones. (
  • Newswise - CHICAGO, IL - Postmenopausal women with osteoporosis who take denosumab long-term have increased bone density, sustained low rate of fractures, and a favorable benefit/risk profile, a new multinational study finds. (
  • This study provides reassurance to physicians and their patients that long-term treatment with denosumab for at least 8 years leads to significant increases in bone density and is safe for appropriately selected women with postmenopausal osteoporosis," said lead study author E. Michael Lewiecki, MD, clinical assistant professor of medicine at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine in Albuquerque. (
  • Osteoporosis is a long-term disease that occurs when the creation of new bone doesn't keep up with the removal of old bone. (
  • Osteoporosis is a disease that results from excess bone turnover. (
  • Osteoporosis and bone physiology. (
  • Some women for instance believe they need a bone density test when they reach menopause in order to reduce the risk of osteoporosis. (
  • But Dr. Nelson Watts, director of the University of Cincinnati Bone Health and Osteoporosis Center says that waiting till age 65 is better, because earlier bone density tests may put you on drugs you don't need. (
  • Dr. Watts suggests that there are means other than drugs to protect their bones from the risk of osteoporosis. (
  • Because symptoms of osteoporosis may not develop until bone loss is extensive, it is important for those at risk for the disease to undergo periodic bone testing. (
  • An additional 30 percent have low bone density that puts them at risk of developing osteoporosis (including African- Americans). (
  • The best defense against osteoporosis in prostate cancer is to identify patients with a high risk for fracture during the first clinical visit, select an effective anti-osteoporosis agent, and advise the patient to change his lifestyle and diet to prevent further bone loss. (
  • If your bone density is lower than normal for your age, it indicates a risk for osteoporosis and bone fractures. (
  • A DEXA scan is used to determine your risk of osteoporosis and bone fracture. (
  • A bone density test measures the strength of your bones to see if you have osteoporosis, or bone loss. (
  • Osteoporosis may have no symptoms, but it can lead to bone fractures and breaks. (
  • Effective detection and treatment for osteoporosis brittle bone disease and other bone conditions is having a bone density test done. (
  • One of the main keys to effective treatment for osteoporosis , brittle bone disease and various other bone conditions is early detection. (
  • Retrieved 2019-09-17, from - Reference Category Number: DW#277-1196. (
  • Progressive bone density loss is the major symptom associated with osteopenia and osteoporosis. (
  • It will help determine if you have osteoporosis , a bone-thinning disease. (
  • If you don't have a lot of risks for osteoporosis your doctor may not be thinking about the need for a bone density scan. (
  • Bone density measurement is used in clinical medicine as an indirect indicator of osteoporosis and fracture risk. (
  • Bone density measurements are used to screen people for osteoporosis risk and to identify those who might benefit from measures to improve bone strength. (
  • A bone density test may detect osteoporosis or osteopenia. (
  • The criteria of the World Health Organization are: Normal is a T-score of −1.0 or higher Osteopenia is defined as between −1.0 and −2.5 Osteoporosis is defined as −2.5 or lower, meaning a bone density that is two and a half standard deviations below the mean of a 30-year-old man/woman. (
  • This information is used to tell your health care provider if your bone density is normal or if you are at risk for osteoporosis. (
  • There is concern among researchers that the use of PrEP among young people may impair normal bone development, leaving them vulnerable to early-onset osteoporosis in later life. (
  • They are used to detect osteoporosis and predict the risk of bone fracture. (
  • This test, commonly known as a BMD, is an X-ray-like screening of your bone to find out whether or not you have osteoporosis, a bone-weakening disease that affects primarily postmenopausal women and also strikes some elderly men. (
  • The test can also indicate whether you're at risk for developing osteoporosis, and can be used to track bone density changes over time. (
  • About 20 years ago doctors used regular X-rays to look for osteoporosis, but they could pick up changes only after a 25 to 40 percent drop in bone density -- by which time the disease is already far advanced. (
  • The National Osteoporosis Foundation recommends bone density testing if you're a woman over 65, if you've suffered a bone fracture after menopause, or if you've gone through menopause and have one or more risk factors for the disease. (
  • It measures bone mineral density in the sites most often fractured when someone has osteoporosis: the spine and hip. (
  • The National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) released new clinical guidelines in 2008 that offer guidance on when to treat people with low bone mass. (
  • These nutrients are also essential in avoiding osteoporosis and maintaining good bone health. (
  • Calcium preserves bone strength and is vital in preventing osteoporosis-related fractures, and vitamin D helps absorb the calcium you consume. (
  • A bone density test-also referred to as a DXA scan or a bone mineral density (BMD) test-is the current way to diagnose osteoporosis. (
  • Women younger than 65 who are at higher risk for broken bones caused by osteoporosis. (
  • Osteoporosis, a word meaning "porous bone," is a disease that weakens bones, making them brittle and susceptible to fracture. (
  • According to the NIH, an estimated 53 million Americans have osteoporosis or are at risk of developing the disease due to low bone mass. (
  • Our study explores the hereditary aspect of osteoporosis by investigating the role our genes play in determining bone mineral density and who is at risk of fracture due to low bone density," explains senior author Douglas Kiel, M.D., M.P.H., Director of the Musculoskeletal Research Center at IFAR, Hebrew SeniorLife in Boston, Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Associate Member of the Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT. (
  • Bone tissue with osteoporosis has more voids than healthy bone. (
  • Abnormally low bone mineral density (BMD), known as osteoporosis, is a common health problem that runs in families. (
  • The study concluded that when an initial bone-mineral-density (BMD) screening showed no osteoporosis, repeating the test 4 years later didn't necessarily help to predict the risk for bone fracture. (
  • The new study involved 351 postmenopausal women, with a median age of 61 years, who were not previously diagnosed with osteoporosis, were not on bone medications and were taking calcium and vitamin D supplements. (
  • In particular we need to determine what clinical implications these observed changes in bone density may have for women, specifically whether women are at higher risk for developing osteoporosis or fractures if they take exemestane. (
  • The study objectives were to determine fracture rates in relation to bone mineral density at various central skeletal sites, using the World Health Organization definition for osteoporosis (T-score -2.5 or less), and to contrast fracture patterns among women 50 to 64 years of age with those among women 65 years of age and older. (
  • Outcomes included the percentage of osteoporotic fractures and the rates of fracture and excess fracture (per 1000 person-years) among postmenopausal women with osteopenia and osteoporosis relative to those with normal bone mineral density (according to the classification of the World Health Organization). (
  • Bone mineral density is commonly used to diagnose osteoporosis and to predict individual fracture risk. (
  • 1 , 2 The World Health Organization has proposed a diagnostic classification for bone mineral density based on the T-score (number of standard deviations above or below the mean for young adults), which recognizes 3 categories: normal (T-score -1 or higher), osteopenia (T-score between -1 and -2.5) and osteoporosis (T-score -2.5 or less). (
  • In addition to the reduction in fracture rate, BMD offered to women regardless of fracture risk factor appears to heighten women's awareness of bone health, educates them about osteoporosis, provides an opportunity for them to get personalized feedback about their risk factors, and provides the opportunity for personal consultation with their doctors, pointed out Andrea LaCroix, the study's principal investigator. (
  • Most Z-scores are not typically used to diagnose osteoporosis but are used to look for potential causes of bone density loss, notes WebMD. (
  • Bone loss and osteoporosis develop so slowly in most women whose bones test normal at age 65 that many can safely wait as long as 15 years before having a second bone density test, researchers report in a new study. (
  • The women had a bone density test when they entered the study and did not have osteoporosis. (
  • The researchers report that fewer than 1 percent of women with normal bone density when they entered the study, and fewer than 5 percent with mildly low bone density, developed osteoporosis in the ensuing 15 years. (
  • But of those with substantially low bone density at the study's start, close to the cutoff point for osteoporosis of fewer than 2.5 standard deviations from the reference level, 10 percent progressed to osteoporosis in about a year. (
  • Dr. Ethel S. Siris, director of the Toni Stabile Osteoporosis Center, stands in front of a bone density scanner at the Columbia University Medical Center New York-Presbyterian Hospital. (
  • The results, said Joan A. McGowan, director of the division of musculoskeletal diseases at the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, "provide telling evidence that you are not going to fall off a cliff if you have normal bone density in your 60s or early 70s, that you are not going to have osteoporosis in the next five years unless something else happens. (
  • AMGN ) today announced findings from a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter Phase 4 study showing that Prolia ® (denosumab) achieved greater gains in bone mineral density (BMD) than the intravenous bisphosphonate zoledronic acid in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis following previous treatment with oral bisphosphonates. (
  • Despite the availability of newer therapies like denosumab, bisphosphonates are commonly used first-line to treat osteoporosis,' said lead investigator Paul Miller , M.D., medical director of the Colorado Center for Bone Research, Lakewood, Colo. 'Our findings showed that denosumab provides significantly greater bone mineral density increases than zoledronic acid. (
  • Our continued research in this innovative antiresorptive reinforces Amgen's commitment to bone biology and understanding the value Prolia brings to treating osteoporosis in postmenopausal women at high risk for fracture. (
  • Excessive bone loss can lead to a condition called osteoporosis, which significantly increases a person's risk for fracture. (
  • Women specifically can lose up to 20 percent of their bone mass in the five to seven years after menopause, 1 and up to half of all women over the age of 50 will have an osteoporosis-related fracture in their lifetime. (
  • 2 Postmenopausal osteoporosis, the most common form of the disease, 3 is a condition that weakens bones over time, making them thinner, more brittle, and more likely to break. (
  • As we age, our bones lose calcium and other minerals, which can lead to osteoporosis, a disorder that makes bones weak and more likely to break. (
  • Osteoporosis doesn't have any symptoms, so you may not know there is a problem until you break a bone. (
  • A bone density scan is the only test that can determine if you have low bone density or osteoporosis. (
  • Learn if you have weak bones or osteoporosis before or after you break a bone. (
  • Bone density studies measure specific mineral values in targeted bony structures throughout the skeletal system, which allows a physician to diagnose osteoporosis (porous bone) or osteopenia (low bone density, the precursor to osteoporosis). (
  • Women are more prone to osteoporosis because they have smaller bones than men. (
  • Osteoporosis falls more than two and a half standard deviations below the 30-year-old peak bone mass. (
  • Cherry says, "This study suggest that women who take steps early in life to keep their bones strong, or boost their bone density once weakness appears, may not only prevent osteoporosis but may prevent heart disease as well. (
  • Osteoporosis (or porous bone) is a bone disease in which bones become weak and are more likely to break. (
  • Without prevention or treatment, osteoporosis can progress without pain or symptoms until a bone breaks (fractures). (
  • Osteoporosis is often the underlying cause of bone fractures. (
  • In fact, more than 2 million American men have osteoporosis, and in women, bone loss can begin as early as 25 years of age. (
  • Building strong bones and reaching peak bone density (maximum strength and solidness), especially before the age of 30, can be the best defense against developing osteoporosis. (
  • Early detection of low bone mass (osteopenia) or osteoporosis is the most important step for prevention and treatment. (
  • If osteopenia or osteoporosis has occurred, a person can take action to stop the progression of bone loss. (
  • Bone mineral density tests measure the solidness and mass (bone density) in the lumbar spine, hip, and/or wrist, which are the most common sites of fractures due to osteoporosis. (
  • If a person has any of these risk factors or other signs of osteoporosis, a doctor may recommend that bone mass is measured. (
  • Low bone density, also known as osteopenia, osteoperia or pre-osteoporosis, is technically not a disease but an indication your child's bone mineral density is below normal. (
  • Children with osteopenia are more likely to develop osteoporosis if something is not done to stop bone loss. (
  • A painless noninvasive bone density test is used to determine whether your child has normal bone density, low bone density or osteoporosis. (
  • In order to check for osteoporosis, the doctor commonly scans the lower back bones (vertebrae) and hips. (
  • If a DEXA scan shows that you have osteoporosis, you may be given advice and treatment to help strengthen your bones. (
  • Changes in thigh muscle volume predict bone mineral density response to lifestyle therapy in frail, obese older adults," Osteoporosis International , vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 551-558, 2014. (
  • Depressive symptoms and rates of bone loss at the hip in older men," Osteoporosis International , vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 111-119, 2013. (
  • Osteoporosis causes bones to become fragile and increases the likeliness of breakage. (
  • A bone density scan or test is used to screen for and detect the early stages of osteoporosis. (
  • Bone density testing is very effective in diagnosing this condition, determining your risk for fractures and monitoring your response to therapy. (
  • In certain cases, we may also run tests to identify any fractures in your spine or to measure the bone density of your forearm or whole body. (
  • 5.  Bone fractures from minimal trauma. (
  • Sometimes even a violent cough or a sneeze can cause bone fractures. (
  • Loss of menstrual regularity has been associated with an increased risk of wrist and hip fractures related to reduced bone density, even without the development of amenorrhea. (
  • All the roughly 3,000 women in this long-term extension of the trial took denosumab for up to 8 years, and overall, they showed a continued increase in their mean bone mineral density, with a cumulative 8-year gain of 18.4% at the lumbar spine and 8.3% at the total hip, with few fractures and a good safety profile. (
  • A computer compares your bone strength and risk of fractures to that of other people the same age and to young people at peak bone density (around age 30). (
  • Loss of bone density can lead to frequent fractures. (
  • This information may be used to predict your risk of bone fractures. (
  • These test results will help your doctor determine your risk for bone fractures. (
  • Bone scans are nuclear medicine tests that require an injection and are used to detect fractures, cancer, infections and other abnormalities in the bone. (
  • Ideally, genomic research will one day lead to more personalized interventions (precision medicine) that, in this case, will reduce bone loss and prevent fractures in older adults. (
  • This condition increases the risk of bone fractures, which is a significant health challenge for older adults. (
  • In this study, most of the postmenopausal women with osteoporotic fractures had nonosteoporotic bone mineral density values. (
  • Population-based data on the percentage of fractures that occur in postmenopausal women with either normal bone mineral density or osteopenia are limited. (
  • Stone and colleagues, 6 in a secondary data analysis of 9704 women over 65 years of age, reported that total hip bone mineral density was more strongly correlated with most fractures than were lumbar spine or peripheral bone mineral density measurements. (
  • 6 Siris and collaborators, 7 in a cohort of 149 524 women over 50 years of age, used peripheral bone mineral density to determine the association between osteopenia and self-reported fractures. (
  • Point out to patients that bone mineral density testing has been shown not only to reduce the occurrence of bone fractures, but also to reduce fracture risk-factors in some cases. (
  • Low bone density is associated with an increased risk of fractures and other concerns. (
  • Screening can catch decreasing bone density early, before fractures occur. (
  • Interestingly, although low bone density is well known as a risk factor for future problems, particularly fractures, high density is problematic as well. (
  • Use of antidepressants and rates of hip bone loss in older women: the study of osteoporotic fractures" Arch Intern Med. (
  • This may range from a mild reduction in the calcium density, measured on a bone density scan, to a moderate reduction called osteopenia through to a significant bone mineralisation loss with its associated risks of collapsed vertebrae and fractures. (
  • FRAX is a fracture risk assessment tool (computer software) that reviews a patient's age, bone density and other fracture risk factors. (
  • The treatments that reduce fracture risk by increasing bone density have important long-term effects. (
  • Their new guidelines use the World Health Organizations Absolute Fracture Risk, which considers bone mineral density and nine other risk factors to determine a persons likelihood of fracturing a bone in the next 10 years. (
  • Of course, more research needs to be done, but this new study that was presented in early June at the Endocrine Society in Boston says that skin wrinkling, including laugh lines, crow's feet and other telltale wrinkles could signal lower bone density and increased fracture risk. (
  • In 1994, the World Health Organization (WHO) reviewed the worldwide data on bone density testing and fracture risk. (
  • BOSTON--September 14, 2015--Researchers from Harvard-affiliated Hebrew SeniorLife Institute for Aging Research (IFAR), in collaboration with scientists from a number of international institutes, have identified a genetic variant regulating a gene responsible for bone mineral density and fracture risk. (
  • This finding highlights the importance of considering key clinical risk factors that operate independently of bone mineral density (such as age) when assessing fracture risk. (
  • Fracture risk is best estimated by the FRAX score (, which uses bone density and other parameters to help doctors and patients decide whether taking medication is appropriate. (
  • If your fracture risk is high enough to take medication, your bone density is usually measured every one to two years. (
  • It can't measure the density of the bones most likely to break, such as the hip and spine. (
  • It can measure bone density in your hip and spine. (
  • One downside of ultrasound is that it can't measure the density of the bones in the hip and spine. (
  • The standard test for men, women and children measures bone density of the spine and hip. (
  • Thin and brittle bones are strongly linked to women's heart disease risk, with thinning of the lower (lumbar) spine, top of the thigh bone (femoral neck), and hip especially predictive of a heightened heart attack and stroke risk, suggests research in the journal Heart. (
  • X-rays are taken of the bones of the lower spine and hip. (
  • A Dual Energy Photo Absorbtion Technique for Measurement of Bone Mineralization of the Spine Using a Gamma Camera", abstract by Wilson, C. R. et al. (
  • The commonly studies bones are the spine, forearm and hip bones. (
  • Certain areas in the body have a higher ratio of cancellous bone to cortical bone such as the spine (vertebrae), the wrist (distal radius), and the hips (femoral neck). (
  • The women in the supplementation group had 4.3 percent increase in bone mineral density in the lumbar spine and a 2.2 percent increase in the hip bone. (
  • In other words, a second bone scan didn't help doctors better predict which women might suffer a fracture of their hip, spine, forearm or shoulder. (
  • We assessed bone mineral density with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the hip and lumbar spine in 75 lithium treated outpatients and 75 normal subjects matched for age, sex and body mass index. (
  • A DXA spine bone density report showing the image of the spine, the measured bone density, and comparisons to a young adult and individual of the same age. (
  • A range for the mineral density of the bone of the spine region is from 1000 to 1200 g/cm 2 . (
  • During this interval, the mean lumbar spine bone mineral increased from an initial value of 1.01 g/cm 2 to 1.07 g/cm 2 , an increase of 6.6% per year. (
  • We compared bone mineral density measured at the lumbar spine and femoral neck using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 52 patients with active peripheral psoriatic arthritis and in 52 controls. (
  • No significant differences in lumbar spine bone mineral density were found in the analyses of the male, premenopausal female, and postmenopausal female subgroups. (
  • I have just had my second bone density scans in 17 months and the results show a 4.7 per cent decrease in mass in the lumbar and spine region between the scans. (
  • Since most of my spine is strong and healthy bone, maybe that means a few weak disks won't be an issue for Dr. Lenke to move forward with surgery? (
  • Our bone density scanners use what's called Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) to take a picture of your spine, hip, body and wrist, and calculate their density. (
  • According to Endocrine Web, biphosphanates have been proven in studies to lead to increased bone mineral density in the spine and hip. (
  • These pictures are used to measure the density of the bones at the spine, hip, and forearm. (
  • Central DXA measures bone density in the hip and spine. (
  • 3% average increase in bone mineral density in the lumbar spine, a 2. (
  • QCT uses a computerized tomography (CT) scanner together with computer software to determine the bone density, usually at the spine. (
  • The DXA test works by measuring a specific bone or bones, usually the spine, hip, and wrist. (
  • The bones that are most commonly tested are in the spine, hip and sometimes the forearm. (
  • In contrast bone mineral density declined by 1% in the hip and 1.81% in the spine by the end-of-study visit in those with optimal tenofovir diphosphate levels, before recovering to the same level in the spine as the placebo group at the 6-month follow-up visit. (
  • It can measure bone loss at several sites in the body, but is usually used as an alternative to DXA to measure bone density in the spine. (
  • Interestingly, this relationship between wrinkles and bone density was consistent in all of the bones the scientists tested, including the hip, lumbar spine and heel. (
  • Lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) were measured using dual-photon absorptimetry. (
  • Baseline density measurements for the lumbar spine and hip were performed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. (
  • In this retrospective cohort study, we examined records for 16 505 women 50 years of age or older who underwent baseline bone mineral densitometry of the lumbar spine (first through fourth lumbar vertebrae) and the proximal femur (total hip, femoral neck and trochanter) between May 1998 and October 2002. (
  • The scan estimates bone density by taking images of your hip, spine and lower back. (
  • Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) - This type of CT scan measures bone density in the spine. (
  • Dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) - This test uses a radioactive substance to measure bone density in the hip and spine. (
  • We demonstrate significantly lower bone density at the lumbar spine and hip among HIV-infected women as compared to female control subjects of similar age, weight and racial background. (
  • Lumbar spine (1.02 ± 0.02 versus 1.07 ± 0.02 g/cm2, P = 0.03) and total hip (0.93 ± 0.01 versus 0.99 ± 0.01 g/cm2, P = 0.004) bone density were reduced in HIV-infected compared with control subjects. (
  • The skin wrinkling was predictive of bone loss at all commonly measured sites (hip, lumbar spine and heel), and was independent of age, body composition or other factors known to influence bone density. (
  • Central DEXA devices are large machines that can measure bone density in the centre of your skeleton, such as your hip and spine. (
  • Bones naturally become thinner (called osteopenia ) as you grow older. (
  • About 40% of postmenopausal women in the U.S. have osteopenia (low bone density ). (
  • A score between -1 and -2.5 may mean you have osteopenia, the first stage of bone loss. (
  • Osteopenia is the medical term for low bone density, in which the measured density is between one and two and a half standard deviations below that of the healthy 30 year old. (
  • Do you mean that your bones are "thin" in the sense of osteopenia, or just small bones? (
  • Although the absolute difference in bone density between the groups was relatively modest, HIV-infected subjects were 2.5 times more likely to have osteopenia as compared to healthy control subjects. (
  • Consideration should be given to testing bone density in HIV-infected women with risk factors for osteopenia. (
  • A bone density scan uses low dose X-rays to see how dense (or strong) your bones are. (
  • As well as being quick and painless, a bone density scan is more effective than normal X-rays in identifying low bone density. (
  • During a bone density scan, a special type of X-ray called dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is passed through your body. (
  • The amount of radiation used during a bone density scan is very low and less than 2 days' exposure to natural background radiation (NBR). (
  • A bone density test is like an x-ray or scan of your body. (
  • The bone density machine will scan your lower back, hip, and forearm. (
  • Centralized bone scans involve a large X-ray machine with a movable arm that will scan different parts of your skeleton while you lie on a padded table. (
  • A bone density scan is an imaging test that uses x-rays to measure how strong your bones are. (
  • It is also called a bone densitometry or dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. (
  • A bone density scan is usually done as an outpatient procedure in the x-ray (radiology) department of a hospital or clinic. (
  • Before you have a bone density scan, it is important to tell the x-ray technologist or radiologist if you are breastfeeding or pregnant or think you may be pregnant. (
  • You may have to wait 10 to 14 days before having the bone density scan. (
  • The benefits of having a bone density scan outweigh the risk of exposure to the small amount of radiation received during the scan. (
  • A bone density scan tells your doctor how strong your bones are by using a numbered score. (
  • A bone density scan can also predict how likely you are to break a bone over the next 10 years by using a percentage. (
  • Preparing a child for a bone density scan depends on the age and experience of the child. (
  • Just found out on Friday that my Doctor has submitted a referral for me to get a bone density scan. (
  • Your doctor has ordered a bone density scan (QDR). (
  • The test, referred to as bone densitometry or bone mineral density scan (BMD), is a simple, noninvasive procedure that takes just minutes. (
  • In our clinic, if a man has a testosterone of below 300 ng/dL, especially if he has risk factors for low BMD - including smoking, long-term steroid use, and diabetes - we think it's worthwhile to get a bone scan," said Dr Ellen. (
  • However, having a second bone scan 'was not associated with improved discrimination between women who did and did not experience subsequent hip fracture or major osteoporotic fracture,' according to the report published online July 27 in JAMA Internal Medicine . (
  • In fact, the researchers found that the results of a woman's first bone scan were much more predictive of her risk of fracture than any subsequent test, regardless of the woman's race, ethnicity and age. (
  • A DEXA scan is a high-precision type of X-ray that measures your bone mineral density and bone loss. (
  • My recent bone scan showed improvement from my initial scan back in March and noted a favorable response to treatment. (
  • The DEXA scan is an x-ray scan that uses a small amount of radiation to take pictures of different bones. (
  • Ask about a bone density scan if you haven't already had one. (
  • What is the difference between this and a bone scan? (
  • It is the most sensitive scan to detect bone disease and can take into account other diseases such as arthritis that may affect the bone. (
  • In most cases, a bone density scan is done in a radiology department or clinic by a technologist. (
  • The machine will scan your bones and measure the amount of radiation they absorb. (
  • A bone density scan is a test used to measure bone loss, according to the Radiological Society of North America. (
  • DXA projects two X-ray beams to better assess bone density and can detect a variance as small as 3 percent from one scan to the next. (
  • Need to make a doctor appointment for Bone Density Measurement / DXA Scan this week? (
  • A DEXA scan is a painless test that measures the density of bones. (
  • One way is by employing the use of a medical device, known as a bone density scan. (
  • A bone density scan requires a patient to lie on his or her back on a padded scanning table, wearing loose fitting clothing or a hospital gown. (
  • It measures the density of minerals (such as calcium ) in your bones. (
  • As this occurs, our bones lose calcium and other minerals. (
  • You need both vitamin D and calcium for strong bones. (
  • Calcium helps keep your bones strong. (
  • Also, is bone-density testing essential in mid-fifties, even if i am of heavy build and have taken calcium and magnesium and daily yoghurt for the last ten years at least? (
  • The tests provide a reading of the strength of your bones based on the presence of calcium and other minerals in the bone. (
  • The long held belief that milk (or the equivalent in calcium) can help strengthen bones has been vindicated by a US study group. (
  • D is the vitamin that allows calcium to be absorbed into the bones. (
  • It measures the quantity of calcium and other minerals in the bone that makes it strong.When assessing the bone density, only a particular part of the bone is assessed. (
  • If your BMD reveals you have thin bones, then your doctor will likely prescribe vitamin D and calcium supplements. (
  • Hi Irene, Yes I have heard of it, I nurse a few patients who have it, the doc will probably put you on a high dose of Calcium Nitrate to strengthen your bones, you must be very careful not to fall over as your wrists, ankles and hips are most at risk, hope this helps. (
  • Vitamin D plays an important role in bone mineralization, working with calcium to break down old bone cells and build up new ones. (
  • Bone density is a measurement of the concentration in bone of minerals (mostly calcium and phosphate) that are vital for strong bones. (
  • Make sure you're getting plenty of calcium to keep your bones strong. (
  • Calcium is the single most abundant mineral in your body, and about 99% of it is found in your bones and teeth. (
  • Getting sufficient calcium will help you grow healthy bones and maintain bone density. (
  • Focus on eating foods that contain lots of calcium to maintain bone density. (
  • Husband also takes an additional 1200 mg Calcium and vitamin 1000 mg D3 every day to help with promoting bone strength. (
  • If your diet does not consist of adequate amounts of Calcium, Vitamin D or other essential nutrients, there is a possibility that you may have a degenerative bone disease. (
  • Common strategies used to increase bone density include increasing daily intake of calcium and vitamin D, either through diet modification or supplements, exercise and medication. (
  • Increasing your daily intake of calcium and vitamin D, whether by making changes to your diet or taking supplemental pills, is crucial to bone health. (
  • Taking calcium reduces bone loss and decreases the chance of a fracture, while vitamin D helps calcium to be properly absorbed. (
  • None of the researchers know for sure why this is happening, but the general belief is that decreasing the acid causing calcium malabsorption leaving us with less calcium in our blood to absorb into our bones. (
  • Pre-teens and teens aren't known for good bone healthy diets so the extra calcium is hopefully helping out a little. (
  • Note that bone mineral density was higher in blacks than in whites and adjusted mean calcium levels were also greater in blacks than whites. (
  • And "measurement of bone-turnover markers, levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and urinary calcium excretion might have provided additional insight into the effect of vitamin D-binding protein on mineral metabolism," the authors said. (
  • A bone density test is an examination by either special x-rays or ultrasound to determine how much bone mineral content (calcium and other minerals) is present in any section of bone. (
  • Dawson-Hughes, B., Harris, S.S., Krall, E.A. and Dallal, G.E. (1997) Effect of Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation on Bone Density in Men and Women 65 years of Age or Older. (
  • A bone density test uses X-rays to measure how many grams of calcium and other bone minerals are packed into a segment of bone. (
  • A test that uses low-dose x-rays to measure bone mineral density, including calcium content, in a section of bone. (
  • A bone mineral density (BMD) test measures the density of calcium in your bones. (
  • Objective To determine whether increasing calcium intake from dietary sources affects bone mineral density (BMD) and, if so, whether the effects are similar to those of calcium supplements. (
  • The putative mechanism by which calcium intake affects bone health is by increasing bone mineral density (BMD). (
  • Other nutrients, including calcium and energy intake from nonprotein sources, did not correlate significantly with the two bone density parameters. (
  • In addition to eliminating smoking and drinking alcohol, Cherry recommends physical activity and the proper balance of nutrients including calcium (1,000 mg a day under age 50 and 1,200 mg over age 50) to strengthen and support bone tissue. (
  • Many treatments for cancer can effect the amount of protein and calcium in the bone (the bone density). (
  • There are several different ways to measure bone density. (
  • This is the most accurate way to measure bone density. (
  • Single-energy X-ray absorptiometry (SXA) may be used to measure bone density in the heel and forearm. (
  • This test uses a radioactive substance to measure bone density. (
  • Ultrasound uses sound waves to measure bone density, usually in your heel. (
  • Currently, most screening systems measure bone mineral density (BMD). (
  • Due to the inferior ability to monitor change, the extra expense, and the significantly increased radiation that QCT requires, DXA scanning has become the gold standard and the most widely used method to measure bone mineralization. (
  • These tests include: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA or DEXA) Dual X-ray Absorptiometry and Laser (DXL) Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) Single photon absorptiometry (SPA) Dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) Digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) Single energy X-ray absorptiometry (SEXA) DXA is currently the most widely used, but quantitative ultrasound (QUS) has been described as a more cost-effective approach to measure bone density. (
  • Other tests, known for short as pDXA, are mini-versions of the DXA that measure bone density in the forearm, finger, wrist, and sometimes the heel of the foot. (
  • One other test a quantitative ultrasound uses sound waves to measure bone density. (
  • Portable machines (P-DXA) can measure bone density in the wrist or forearm. (
  • It is most often used to measure bone loss. (
  • The most common, accurate method to measure bone density involves dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). (
  • Peripheral DXA (pDXA) - Portable machines used to measure bone density in the arms or legs. (
  • Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) - A portable machine used to measure bone density of the heel. (
  • Other tests measure bone density in the heel or hand. (
  • Peripheral DEXA devices are smaller, portable machines that are used to measure bone density on the periphery of your skeleton, such as your wrist, heel or finger. (
  • It provides information on the theoretical background as well as on the practical application of DXA to measure bone mineral density and to assess body composition. (
  • Our standard reports include measurement of your bone density and how it has changed over time. (
  • A bone density test, also known as bone mass measurement or bone mineral density test, measures the strength and density of your bones as you approach menopause and, when the test is repeated sometime later, can help determine how quickly you are losing bone mass and density. (
  • The measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual x-ray absorptiometry. (
  • The use of antidepressants is also associated with lower BMD, but this link is dependent on weight and site of bone measurement. (
  • Proponents of bone mineral density (BMD) testing argue that this measurement is among the strongest predictors of future fracture and is necessary for directing preventive and therapeutic measures for women. (
  • Normal bone density for people 50 years old and older is within 1 standard deviation, or SD, of the peak bone density of a 30-year-old adult, a measurement. (
  • A deficient understanding of bone density measurement studies can cripple your ability to code properly. (
  • Radiographic absorptiometry (RA) - This technique is most commonly used for bone density measurement at the hand or heel. (
  • Recently, another physician looked up my test results and pointed out to me that the bone mass measurement in that hip has been virtually unchanged over the years. (
  • Special detectors in the DEXA machine measure how much radiation passes through your bones, and this information is sent to a computer. (
  • (
  • All patients had clinical and biochemical hypogonadism, defined as a testosterone level lower than 300 ng/dL, and all underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) bone scans on the same machine. (
  • In our practice at Men's Health Boston, we now routinely obtain DEXA imaging in these men because of the high rate of abnormal BMD, and we regularly see improvements in bone density with testosterone therapy," Dr Morgentaler reported. (
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) established DEXA as the best technique for assessing bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. (
  • DEXA is also known as DXA or bone densitometry. (
  • Standard X-ray diagnostics used before the development of the DEXA technology were only able to detect bone loss that was greater than 40 percent . (
  • Before DEXA, the first sign of bone density loss might be when an older adult broke a bone. (
  • Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is a test that measures the density of your bones. (
  • The American College of Radiology and the Radiological Society of North America offer detailed information on bone densitometry (DEXA), including a video. (
  • Background and Objectives: Bone density measurements by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) recognized now as a safe and accurate technique [1] is being done frequently. (
  • The other procedure for a bone density test is performed on a portable machine known as a P-DEXA (Peripheral Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry). (
  • The amount of mineralisation of the bones can be measured with a dexa scanner. (
  • Bone density scans should not be performed for one week following any barium examination (such as barium swallow, GI series, barium enema, abdominal CT) or nuclear examination. (
  • The current findings are based on fitness tests and bone and muscle scans from 35 prepubescent girls - nine who were part of artistic gymnastic clubs, 13 who practiced rhythmic gymnastics and 13 who did not exercise outside of school. (
  • Despite being very safe, bone density scans and X-rays are not recommended for pregnant women, as X-rays can damage an unborn child. (
  • Understand the differences between peripheral and centralized bone scans. (
  • Most bone density scans provide 2 separate scores: T-scores and Z-scores. (
  • Bone density scans use low levels of ionizing radiation . (
  • Reading over the new findings, he noted that ' bone mineral density scans are costly to the health care system' and there are less expensive options, such as blood or urine tests, to monitor bone health. (
  • Finally, it is important to note that bone density tests are not the same as bone scans. (
  • A sub-study to evaluate changes in bone mineral density using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans recruited 500 consecutive participants at seven study sites in five cities in North and South America, Thailand and South Africa. (
  • The research team measured bone mineral density using high-resolution CT scans to assess the density or bone strength. (
  • Mercy's bone health experts recommend bone density scans for people age 65 and older. (
  • Hologic bone densitometry systems offer you a single platform to support a wide range of patients over a lifetime of care. (
  • Bone densitometry may include your FRAX ® score. (
  • Bone densitometry may include a Lateral Vertebral Assessment to check for spinal fracture due to loss of height (eg, one inch or more) or borderline bone density results. (
  • Bone Densitometry. (
  • Bone Densitometry Accessed 10/12/2015. (
  • My endocrinologist whom I just met this week said all of my bone are very healthy and strong except for two to three disks in my lumbar. (
  • Your bone density measurements will be compared with the bone density of a young healthy adult or an adult of your own age, gender and ethnicity. (
  • The participants underwent bone mineral density measurements at the start of the study and again three years later. (
  • Using standardized bone density measurements of the total hip, 'normal' bone is greater than 833 mg/cm 2 . (
  • This study examined bone density among postmenopausal Buddhist nuns and female religious followers of Buddhism in southern Taiwan and related the measurements to subject characteristics including age, body mass, physical activity, nutrient intake, and vegetarian practice. (
  • They no longer want women to take them indefinitely, and no longer consider bone density measurements the sole defining factor in deciding if a woman needs to be treated. (
  • Now, with the new study, researchers are asking whether frequent bone density measurements even make sense for the majority of older women whose bone density is not near a danger zone on initial tests, recommended at age 65. (
  • The researchers at the University of Minnesota looked at the bone density measurements of women taking two types of widely prescribed antidepressants for over four years: serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and tricyclic antidepressants. (
  • The Bone Density Center played an important role in the development of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the current standard for measuring bone mineral density. (
  • Another test called radiographic absorptiometry (RA) measures bone density in the hand, using a standard or computer-generated x-ray. (
  • Key words: Vegetarian - Bone mineral density - Postmenopausal - Dual-photon absorptiometry. (
  • The range of bone mineral density for the forearm is from 700 to 800 g/cm 2 . (
  • A bone density test uses a small amount of X-ray to measure the amount of mineral in the bones of your lower back, hip and sometimes forearm. (
  • Rajan, R. and Subramanian, K. (2014) Forearm Bone Mineral Density of Normal Indian Population. (
  • In the forearm, however, the association of anti-depressants with reduced bone density was not observed in men until their body weight was under 165 pounds. (
  • The procedure is similar, but generally measures the bone density only in your wrist or forearm. (
  • A thinning bone results in a lower bone density or bone mass. (
  • These data also suggest a lower bone turnover state in those receiving lithium. (
  • To assess whether infertile men have a lower bone mineral density (BMD) compared with fertile men at the time of fertility workup. (
  • Humans are unique, compared with our closest living relatives (chimpanzees) and early fossil hominins, in having an enlarged body size and lower limb joint surfaces in combination with a relatively gracile skeleton (i.e., lower bone mass for our body size). (
  • Negative scores indicate lower bone density, and positive scores indicate higher. (
  • In fact, did you know that if you are a woman in your 40s or 50s with significant skin wrinkling, then you could have lower bone density? (
  • The scientists found that women with worse skin wrinkling had lower bone density than women with smoother skin-faces and necks-with firmer skin in those areas associated with greater bone density. (
  • Recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD) in men, according to a new study from the University of Eastern Finland in collaboration with Deakin University, Australia. (
  • Lower bone density has also been linked to depression . (
  • Lower bone density may predispose HIV-infected subjects to increased morbidity and further bone loss with aging. (
  • Altered nutritional status, hormonal function and body composition may contribute to lower bone density in HIV-infected women. (
  • A bone density test is a kind of X-ray test. (
  • If results from an ultrasound test find low bone density, DXA is advised to confirm the results. (
  • A bone density test measures how strong bones are. (
  • If you are a woman age 65 or older, schedule a bone density test. (
  • If you are a woman age 64 or younger and you have gone through menopause, ask your doctor if you need a bone density test. (
  • That's why it's so important to get a bone density test to measure your bone strength. (
  • What happens during a bone density test? (
  • A bone density test doesn't hurt, and you don't need to do anything to prepare for it. (
  • Schedule a bone density test, if your doctor recommends it. (
  • If you don't have health insurance, you can still get a bone density test. (
  • A bone mineral density (BMD) test is the best way to measure your bone health. (
  • Your doctor has suggested you have a bone density test as part of the evaluation at National Jewish. (
  • A bone density test will show how dense these bones are. (
  • A bone density test can help determine a diagnosis early, before a person has a bone fracture and can help determine the effects of treatment. (
  • Avoid having any barium studies done 2 to 3 days before the bone density test. (
  • The bone density test does not hurt. (
  • The bone density test will take about 15 minutes. (
  • If you have had a bone density test, knowing how to interpret and understand the results can be important to your health and your peace of mind. (
  • Some physicians will start with the peripheral test and only conduct the centralized test if the first screen indicates poor bone density. (
  • Know the purpose of a bone density test. (
  • Who should get a bone mineral density test? (
  • What Is a Bone Mineral Density Test? (
  • Mayo Clinic: "Bone Density Test. (
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: "Get a Bone Density Test. (
  • Columbia University Medical Center: "Bone Density Test. (
  • How does the bone mineral density test work? (
  • What are some reasons for having a bone density test? (
  • I have been asked to go for a bone density test because I am severely underweight. (
  • Could you please tell me what a bone density test is? (
  • Whatever test is used they basically take a type of 'picture' of the bones using an X-ray technique or something which has been given to you for your bones to take up which makes it easy to see the outline of your bones. (
  • Dr Vivek Baliga discusses the bone mineral density test. (
  • A BMD (Bone Mineral Density) test is a test used to determine the thickness and strength of the bones. (
  • I finally got the results from my bone density test. (
  • Irene, I fractured my ankle in May, and my rheumatologist sent me for a bone density test, because of RA and prednisone use. (
  • Irene, I had a bone density test a few years back and was told the same thing. (
  • A bone mineral density (BMD) test measures skeletal bone loss. (
  • Bone density tests are often touted as a way to predict the risk of fracture in postmenopausal women, but a new study casts doubt on the value of repeating this commonly used test. (
  • By the age of 65 though, a bone density test is a good idea, whether your doctor suggests it or not. (
  • It's also important to get a bone-density test. (
  • All women over the age of 65, and men with risk factors, should have a bone density test. (
  • Here, we test the hypotheses that ( i ) recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the upper and lower limbs compared with other primate taxa and ( ii ) the reduction in trabecular density first occurred in early Homo erectus , consistent with the shift toward a modern human locomotor anatomy, or more recently in concert with diaphyseal gracilization in Holocene humans. (
  • Bone density test came back with results that were better than normal with no risk of fracture. (
  • Here are some signs that may indicate that you should consider having a bone density test done, in order to determine whether or not you are at risk for a bone disorder. (
  • Women between the ages of fifty-five and sixty-five, particularly those who have gone through or have began menopause, should consider having a bone density test. (
  • People who are over the age of fifty and have a family history of bone disease should also think about having a bone density test. (
  • Anyone who has a family history of brittle bone disease, a condition that also affects children, should have this test done at the first sign of bone disease. (
  • Anyone who has problems with absorbing nutrients or who lacked a well balanced diet when they were younger should consider having a test for bone density. (
  • Keep in mind that certain medical insurance companies may or may not cover the cost of a bone density test, depending on risk factors associated with your bone health. (
  • Since a bone density test is an important key to prevention and treatment for a bone disorder, it is important to remember that it is well worth the cost if you can afford to cover it yourself. (
  • So get out there and grab yourself a bone density test if you're worried. (
  • This test will help your doctor assess the density of your bones. (
  • The risk factors for low bone density and primary considerations for a bone density test include: females age 65 or older. (
  • Other considerations that are related to risk of low bone density and the need for a test include smoking habits, drinking habits, the long-term use of corticosteroid drugs, and a vitamin D deficiency. (
  • Results of the test are often reported in three terms: Measured areal density in g cm−2. (
  • Medicare coverage Medicare will pay for a bone density test (DXA) as part of preventive screening every two years for women 65 or older and men 70 or older. (
  • How do you interpret your bone density test score? (
  • Medicare pays for a bone density test every two years and many doctors have assumed that is the ideal interval, although national guidelines recommend them only at "regular intervals. (
  • Once you have the results of your bone density test, your Mercy doctor will discuss the best ways for you to reduce your chances of breaking a bone, and actions you can take to make your bones stronger. (
  • Peripheral QCT (pQCT) - This type of CT test measures bone density in the arms or legs. (
  • A test can tell you how your bone density compares to that of others, but it cannot tell you why the differences exist or what you should do. (
  • A bone density test is relatively simple. (
  • A bone density test carries no particular risks. (
  • The only way to accurately test the strength and solidness of the bones is with bone mineral density (BMD) tests. (
  • DEAR DR. ROACH: I am 76 years old and have had a bone density test every two years for the past 12 years at the recommendation of my physician. (
  • Every test has shown bone loss in my left hip, which is the result of a childhood case of polio. (
  • The test lasts for about 10 to 30 minutes as a scanner travels over the body sending images to a computer, which then analyzes the data and calculates the bone density. (
  • The significance of the study is that probiotics are, at least in mice, an effective means to increase bone density," said Roberto Pacifici from the Emory University in the US. (
  • And you are never too old to increase bone density. (
  • Exercise is an excellent natural way to increase bone density. (
  • Good weight-bearing exercises to increase bone density include aerobics, stair climbing, cycling with resistance, dancing and weight-lifting. (
  • Not only will exercise help you to increase bone density, it will also help to prevent the likelihood of falls that could result in a bone fracture. (
  • There are several medications available by prescription that you can take to increase bone density. (
  • Brittle bones:Is meat murder for bones? (
  • It is a condition where the bones have lost all their vital minerals and become thin and brittle. (
  • The disorder primarily affects women past menopause, causing their bones to become weak and brittle, sometimes so much so that a fall or even a cough can cause a fracture. (
  • It is an essential step in the way to finding out if you need to do something more to tackle a problem with brittle bones. (
  • If you just mean that you are small-boned, then don't sweat it. (
  • Given these findings, the study authors believe that repeat bone density tests should not be part of a routine exam in postmenopausal women. (
  • According to research from Tufts University, postmenopausal women who did strength-training twice a week for a year gained 1 percent to 2 percent in bone density. (
  • Although most studies have focused on postmenopausal women, the new study analyzed the association of single and recurrent MDD episodes and the use of antidepressants with bone density in men. (
  • Postmenopausal psoriatic arthritis patients had a lower femoral neck bone mineral density than the relevant subgroup of controls. (
  • A Randomised Comparison Evaluating Changes in Bone Mineral Density in Advanced Prostate Cancer: Luteinising Hormone-releasing Hormone Agonists Versus Transdermal Oestradiol. (
  • M. M. Petersen, P. T. Nielsen, J. B. Lauritzen, and B. Lund, "Changes in bone mineral density of the proximal tibia after uncemented total knee arthroplasty. (
  • The findings suggest that before they reach puberty, girls should take up activities that put some stress on the bones in order to strengthen them, the study authors report in the International Journal of Sports Medicine. (
  • The osteoblasts create collagen and strengthen the bone. (
  • Less energy will pass through healthy bone than through osteopenic or osteoporotic bone. (
  • Patient bone mineral density (BMD) predicts the likelihood of osteoporotic fracture. (
  • This turnover is important in keeping bones healthy and in repairing any minor damage that may occur with wear and tear. (
  • Cancellous bone undergoes turnover at a faster rate than cortical bone. (
  • Furthermore, the treated group had a reduction in bone turnover when compared to the treatment group. (
  • Osteoclasts destroy bone mineral tissue in the process called bone turnover. (
  • Several procedures have been created which monitor the bone turnover process. (
  • Miller said: "This study completes a suite of trials that show transitioning from oral bisphosphonates to denosumab provides greater increases in bone mineral density and reduction in bone turnover markers, compared to maintaining therapy with another bisphosphonate. (
  • This is because the level of oestrogen declines after the menopause , resulting in a decrease in bone density. (
  • For women, in addition to age, the menopause transition itself causes an extra degree of bone loss. (
  • Bone loss in women begins at about age 30 and speeds up after menopause. (
  • The reason is because bone health is known to decrease significantly among women who have gone through menopause, due to the drop in estrogen that the body experiences. (
  • If you have gone through menopause, are on certain medications or have certain pre-existing medical conditions which may cause you to experience a bone disorder, it is possible that they may cover the cost. (
  • According to a report published by the U.S. Preventative Services Task Force, the estrogen deficiency that occurs with menopause is a major factor leading to loss of bone density in women. (
  • NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - The high-impact tumbling of gymnastics may boost young girls' muscle mass and bone density, according to a small study. (
  • Any sports that include jumping, sprinting and rapid direction changes may aid in bone development, Vicente-Rodriguez told Reuters Health. (
  • Take these steps to protect your bone health. (
  • Strong bones are important for your health. (
  • Among other benefits, it has been shown to protect against bone disease and maintain soft tissue health. (
  • Impaired bone health is among the most significant long-term consequences of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), a common therapy for patients with malignant and non-malignant hematological diseases. (
  • Although weight loss surgery is a highly effective treatment for obesity, it can be detrimental to bone health. (
  • They are much cheaper but not always a good indicator of bone health in bones that are the most likely to break. (
  • Each score indicates a different measure of bone health and can tell you information about the strength of your bones compared to healthy individuals and other people of the same background as you. (
  • New York State Department of Health: "Bone Mineral Density Testing. (
  • Bone health can be easily assessed through a bone mineral density study, also called a BMD study. (
  • For patients contemplating spinal fusion surgery to alleviate pain, bone health is an important consideration. (
  • Bone health is a complex and multifactorial process. (
  • Interestingly, the number-one factor for improving and maintaining bone health isn't at all food related: the best way to build bone is to perform weight-bearing exercise regularly. (
  • We try to get testosterone up to increase bone health, and we also use selective estrogen receptor modifiers, or SERMS, because they help too," said Dr Ellen. (
  • Mojtahedi MC, Snook EM, Motl RW, Evans EM (2008) Bone health in ambulatory individuals with multiple sclerosis: impact of physical activity, glucocorticoid use, and body composition. (
  • Bone Health and Bone-targeted Therapies for Prostate Cancer: a Programme in Evidence-based Care - Cancer Care Ontario Clinical Practice Guideline. (
  • To make recommendations with respect to bone health and bone-targeted therapies in men with prostate cancer. (
  • EAA clinical guideline on management of bone health in the andrological outpatient clinic. (
  • The results from OSTPRE-FPS suggest that low to moderate alcohol intake may exert protective effects on bone health in elderly women. (
  • The reason is because diet is known to play a major role in bone health. (
  • What can you do to maintain good bone health? (
  • What you see on your skin could tell you about your bone health. (
  • What Is the Connection Between Diabetes and Bone Health? (
  • Despite the known change in BMD in HIV+ persons, less is known about the effect of antiretroviral (ART) exposure and duration of treatment, ART type, and cumulative HIV viremia on bone health. (
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) used to treat depression have been shown to weaken bone health as well. (
  • The study constitutes part of the Ph.D. project of Researcher Päivi Rauma, focusing on the effects of depression and antidepressants on bone health. (
  • All of the women had medical coverage with Manitoba Health throughout the observation period, which ended Mar. 31, 2004, and were included in the clinical database of the Manitoba Bone Density Program. (
  • T- and Z-scores are baseline bone-specific values calculated based on guidelines published by the World Health Organization (WHO). (
  • According to the World Health Organization, bone density falls into three major categories: high, normal and low. (
  • A large study of nearly 3000 elderly women (average age of 78.5 years) has indicated that antidepressant medications can affect bone health. (
  • Many nutrients used for bone and joint health, including tissue-forming nutrients such as hyaluronic acid, glucosamine, chondroitin, MSM sulfur, and dietary protein are going to synergistically support skin health health via collagen synthesis and tissue matrix formation. (
  • If you use nutrition to support your skin health, you will enhance your bone health as a result. (
  • Race and sex effects on the association between muscle strength, soft tissue, and bone mineral density in healthy elders: the health, aging, and body composition study," Journal of Bone and Mineral Research , vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1343-1352, 2001. (
  • Bone health is not always at the top of individual to-do lists, but it is essential for a longer, happier, and healthier life. (
  • We all lose some bone mass as we age. (
  • Spanish researchers found that young girls who participated in artistic gymnastics had greater muscle mass and bone density than their peers whose activities were limited to gym class. (
  • However, the artistic gymnasts had the greatest muscle mass and tended to have higher bone density, particularly in the arms. (
  • It compares your bone density, or mass, to that of a healthy person who is the same age and sex as you are. (
  • Causes of low bone mass include family history, not developing good bone mass when you are young, and certain conditions or medicines. (
  • If you have low bone mass, there are things you can do to help slow down bone loss. (
  • The loss of bone mass and the thinning of bones makes it very susceptible to breaking and fracture. (
  • Bone mineral density (BMD) estimates the true mass of bone. (
  • Most of a person's bone mass is achieved by early adulthood. (
  • After that time, the bone mass gradually declines throughout the rest of a person's life. (
  • There is a normal rate of decline in bone mass with age in both men and women. (
  • Adolescence is a critical period for bone accretion as over half of peak bone mass is achieved during the teenage years. (
  • [ 25 ] Regular menses is a sign that the ovaries are producing normal amounts of estrogen, androgens, and progesterone, all of which play an important role in building and maintaining bone mass. (
  • Women 55 and older have an increased risk of bone and muscle loss but therapy with the hormone Dehydroepiandrosterone may help prevent bone loss and increase muscle mass in older women, according to a new study led by Catherine M. Jankowski, PhD, FACSM, an exercise physiologist and associate professor at the University of Colorado College of Nursing at the Anschutz Medical Campus. (
  • Bone mass accumulates most during the first couple decades of life. (
  • MS patients exhibit increased frequency of low bone mass compared with controls. (
  • Formica CA, Cosman F, Nieves J, Herbert J, Lindsay R (1997) Reduced bone mass and fat-free mass in women with multiple sclerosis: effects of ambulatory status and glucocorticoid use. (
  • However, the data on the effect of lithium on bone mass are conflicting. (
  • In conclusion, our results suggest that maintenance therapy with lithium carbonate may preserve or enhance bone mass. (
  • Those who are most susceptible to loosing bone mass are women, Europeans, and those over fifty. (
  • The DXA process graphs a persons bone mass per area in contrast to a normal for that patient's category. (
  • This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of low bone mass in male drug users and to evaluate the relationship between endogenous testosterone and bone mass. (
  • The only two published studies of bone mass in psoriatic arthritis produced conflicting results. (
  • Bone Density Loss and Prevention - Dietary nutrient deficiencies are the single largest contributors leading to bone density mass loss. (
  • Also according to Endocrine Web, calcitonin drugs such as miacalcin also work by inhibiting the activity of osteoclasts and therefore resorption, resulting in increases in bone mass. (
  • T score-This number shows the amount of bone you have in comparison to a young adult of the same gender with peak bone mass. (
  • The concept is of mass of mineral per volume of bone (relating to density in the physics sense), although clinically it is measured by proxy according to optical density per square centimetre of bone surface upon imaging. (
  • Less than 0.5% of patients who underwent DXA-scanning were found to have a T- or Z-score of more than +4.0, often the cause of an unusually high bone mass (HBM) and associated with mild skeletal dysplasia and the inability to float in water. (
  • I have really thin Bones, i want to build bone mass. (
  • Density is equal to the amount of mass per unit of volume. (
  • 2. mass , body , bulk , consistency , solidity Jupiter's moon Io has a density of 3.5 grams per cubic centimetre. (
  • A cross-sectional study of loss of muscle mass corresponding to sarcopenia in healthy Chinese men and women: reference values, prevalence, and association with bone mass," Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism , vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 78-88, 2014. (
  • Factors associated with appendicular bone mass in older women," Annals of Internal Medicine , vol. 118, no. 9, pp. 657-665, 1993. (
  • Height and weight values are, but I-PTH values are not, an important determinant of the actual bone mass of patients. (
  • The microscopic structure of bone appears to predict which patients will experience poor outcomes after spinal fusion, according to a new study by researchers at Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) in New York City. (
  • Descriptive statistics for and Regression - stepwise multiple was used to predict bone mineral density via anthropometric variables in elderly women. (
  • These bones are examined because they can help predict the likelihood of future breaks in other bones. (
  • Predict your chances of breaking a bone in the future. (
  • I have long suggested that women evaluate the strength and growth rate of their fingernails to help predict how their bones may be doing. (
  • The number of pixels in the area is summed, then the amount of bone in each pixel is calculated. (
  • The amount of bone lost tells your physician how dense and strong your bones are. (
  • Bone density is the amount of bone tissue in a certain volume of bone. (
  • Z score-This number shows the amount of bone you have in comparison to other people of your age group, gender, and race. (
  • Bone density, or bone mineral density (BMD), is the amount of bone mineral in bone tissue. (
  • To determine the amount of bone density loss, the T-score is multiplied by 10 percent. (
  • Strong, dense bones allow less of the X-ray beam to pass through them. (
  • The more dense your bones, the stronger and less likely they are to break (fracture). (
  • The more dense the bones (from greater mineral content), the more energy is absorbed, and the less energy detected. (
  • The picture that is produced can show areas where the bones are not dense, or areas where there is increased activity of cells, known. (
  • The picture that is produced can show areas where the bones are not dense, or areas where there is increased activity of cells, known as 'hot spots' which can then be further investigated. (
  • As you get older, your bones start to deteriorate quicker than they can be repaired, which causes them to be less dense and easier to break. (
  • A low score indicates that the bone is less dense than it should be, and is more likely to break. (
  • It means your bones are weak and more likely to break. (
  • Bone density tests are often performed on post-menopausal women and others with potentially weak skeletons to estimate the likelihood of breaking bones. (
  • Loss of bone density results in bones that are thin, weak and easily fractured. (
  • Bone density tests are not recommended for people without risk factors for weak bones, which is more likely to result in unnecessary treatment rather than discovery of a true problem. (
  • If your child has weak or thin bones, medication may be necessary. (
  • Post menopausal women who are experiencing bone pain and weakness. (
  • Post-menopausal women are more at risk for bone density loss because the menstrual hormone estrogen plays an important role in protecting against bone loss. (
  • Lastly, estrogen replacement therapy is helpful in improving bone density in post-menopausal women. (
  • Yet, although Kemmler and colleagues (9) investigated the exercise effects on fitness and bone mineral density in early post-menopausal women, there are relatively few studies that seek to verify in this population the effect of moderate intensity resistance training. (
  • This study showed that long-term treatment with denosumab was safe and resulted in continuing increases in bone density over the 8 years of treatment, with persistently low fracture rates. (
  • In general, density increases as pressure increases and temperature decreases. (
  • It compares the density of your bone to those of healthy young women. (
  • Some antidepressants appear to be associated with an increased rate of bone loss in older men and women. (
  • But serotonin may also be associated with an increased rate of bone loss in older men and women, according to two new JAMA articles. (
  • Young women with ovarian insufficiency that is unresponsive to therapy require hormone replacement to maintain bone density. (
  • Estimated total bone mineral density for males is: 1990 -- 3.88 g/cm 2 for females -- 2.90 g/cm 2 , in 1984 -- males is 4.24 g/cm 2 , and for females it is 3.47 g/cm 2 , and in 1991 for women it is 3.11 g/cm 2 . (
  • Alcohol consumption and bone mineral density in elderly women. (
  • Findings regarding alcohol consumption and bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly women have been inconsistent. (
  • For this reason, it is important that women especially take steps to maintain and improve bone density. (
  • A 1994 Tufts University study showed that women between the ages of 50 and 70 who engaged in regular exercise maintained or increased their bone density, whereas their peers who didn't exercise lost bone density. (
  • The study investigators were reporting further results from a sub-study of the iPrEx trial which measured bone mineral density in 498 people enrolled in the international study of pre-exposure prophylaxis using tenofovir/emtricitabine ( Truvada ) in men who have sex with men and transgender women. (
  • Pal concludes, "Ultimately, we want to know if intensity of skin wrinkles can allow identification of women who are more likely to fracture a bone, especially the femoral neck (the uppermost part of the thighbone that, when fractured, often results in surgery) or the hip, an often fatal injury in older people," she said. (
  • February 2012 - A new study has found that a drug shown to be highly effective in preventing breast cancer in women who are at high risk for the disease appears to worsen age-related bone loss, although the clinical implications of the findings are unclear. (
  • The study group (16 505 women 50 years of age or older) was drawn from the Manitoba Bone Density Program database, which includes all bone mineral density results for Manitoba. (
  • Depressive symptoms and rates of bone loss at the hip in older women," J Am Geriatr Soc. (
  • On his Web site, Dr. Reginald B. Cherry cites a study published in the American Journal of Epidemiology claiming an increase in the risk of heart disease for women with low bone density. (
  • This is the first report of reduced bone density among otherwise healthy, ambulatory HIV-infected women in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). (
  • In non HIV-infected women, numerous studies suggest the importance of weight in achieving and maintaining normal bone density. (
  • Although bone density has been previously investigated in HIV-infected men, little is known regarding bone density in HIV-infected women. (
  • Among the HIV-infected women, bone density correlated with weight (r = 0.41, P (
  • Although women comprise an increasing proportion of HIV and AIDS cases, little is known regarding bone density in the growing population of HIV-infected women. (
  • In a prior study, we have shown reduced bone density among HIV-infected women with the AIDS wasting syndrome. (
  • We now investigate bone density in normal weight, ambulatory HIV-infected women. (
  • Researchers have now proven that facial skin wrinkles 1 are an accurate predictor of bone density in women in their late 40s and early 50s. (
  • The study evaluated 114 women in their late 40s and early 50s who had their last menstrual cycle within three years - a potential time of high bone loss due to the sudden drop in estrogen. (
  • In an evaluation that included the depth of wrinkles and the use of a durometer to evaluate skin firmness, women determined to have the most wrinkles on their face and neck were found to have the lowest bone density. (
  • A positive association between intake of animal protein and bone mineral density (BMD) among women aged 55 years and older was found in a study published in the April 2002 issue of the American Journal of Epidemiology. (
  • The results show that trabecular density remained high throughout human evolution until it decreased significantly in recent modern humans, suggesting a possible link between changes in our skeleton and increased sedentism. (
  • These results suggest that peripheral psoriatic arthritis is not associated with significant generalized bone loss. (
  • The surgery was actually cancelled because of the density results, but I will meet with Dr. Lenke in St. Louis for a second opinion next month. (
  • Average bone mineral density = BMC / W [g/cm2] BMC = bone mineral content = g/cm W = width at the scanned line Results are generally scored by two measures, the T-score and the Z-score. (
  • Results & Conclusion: Bone Mineral Density (BMD) of distal radius and ulna, proximal radius and ulna, proximal radius of normal Indian female and BMD of proximal radius and ulna of male population are found to be less considering the reference value of Asian population provided by the manufacturer. (
  • These results were also independent of age, percentage of body fat and other factors known to influence bone density, said Pal. (
  • The results confirmed that some of the genetic variants were associated with bone mineral density by comparing their data with information from more than 20,000 other research participants. (
  • Study results show that a gene involved at the earliest stages of human development, the engrailed homeobox-1 gene, plays a central role in regulating bone density. (
  • The results showed that bone density at the hip was affected by SSRIs but not by tricyclic antidepressants. (
  • Quality Assurance of Gamma Camera as an Imaging System for Bone Mineral Content Evaluation", Abstract by Hoory, S. et al. (
  • You might not know you have the disease until you break a bone. (
  • Low bone density usually progresses until diagnosed after a fracture (broken bone), and people with low bone density are more likely to break a bone compared to people with normal bone density. (
  • They compare your bone density with standards for what is expected in someone of your age, gender, and size, and to the optimal peak bone density of a healthy young adult of the same gender. (
  • It sends two X-ray beams at different peak energy frequencies to the target bones. (
  • One peak is absorbed by soft tissue and the other by bone. (
  • It measures the density of bones in the arms or legs, such as the wrist. (
  • Research published in the American Journal of Epidemiology showed a possible link between high bone density and osteoarthritis, while a 2001 study by the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center showed a link between high bone density and breast cancer rates. (
  • This is because existing bone tissue is broken down faster than new bone is made. (
  • The amounts of each X-ray beam that are blocked by bone and soft tissue are compared to each other. (
  • Some radiation is absorbed by the bone and soft tissue, and some travels through your body. (
  • Supplementation with either LGG or butyrate induced the expansion of regulatory T cells in the intestine and in bone marrow, the spongy tissue inside some bones. (
  • Bone is a living tissue and is constantly being remodeled. (
  • In this disease the bone weakens from the inside, as more tissue is destroyed then hard bone created. (
  • The machine measures the bone mineral density of the tissue of the bone. (
  • Cleveland Clinic offers expert diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation for bone, joint or connective tissue disorders and rheumatic and immunologic diseases. (
  • Bone is an endocrine tissue expressing androgen and estrogen receptors as well as steroid metabolizing enzymes. (
  • When the soft tissue absorption amount is subtracted from the total absorption, the remainder is your bone mineral density. (
  • Bone is a living tissue that changes over the course of a lifetime. (
  • As these people age, the composition of their bone tissue changes, and voids form to make their bone porous. (
  • You take certain medications (eg, corticosteroids) that can cause loss of bone density. (
  • After two years, the researchers found a 7.9 % loss of bone density in the exemestane group compared to a 1.1 % loss in the placebo group. (
  • Clinical studies have found that bone mineral density in patients with anxiety or depression is lower than in ordinary people. (
  • Bone mineral density in patients with peripheral psoriatic arthritis. (
  • But today, machines called densitometers, which expose you to only 1-50th the radiation you'd get in a chest X-ray, can detect as little as a 1 percent bone loss. (
  • A study published in the journal Aging looked at whether a combination of melatonin, strontium, vitamin D3, and vitamin K2 could improve bone density. (
  • There is little benefit for those over 70 taking higher dose vitamin D supplements to improve their bone strength and reduce the risk of falls, new research has revealed. (
  • Ozgocmen S, Bulut S, Ilhan N, Gulkesen A, Ardicoglu O, Ozkan Y (2005) Vitamin d deficiency and reduced bone mineral density in multiple sclerosis: effect of ambulatory status and functional capacity. (
  • While bone mineral density increased in both groups, the mean increase was nonsignificantly greater with the lower dose of vitamin D than with the higher dose. (
  • Researchers found that taking vitamin D supplements do not improve the bone mineral density in all adults. (
  • Black Americans had lower levels of total 25-hydroxyvitamin D and vitamin D-binding protein than whites, but they had similar levels of bioavailable 25-hydroxyvitamin D and higher bone density, a population-based cohort study reported. (
  • If your bone density is lower than normal, you can increase it and your strength. (
  • If your bone density is normal, you may not need further testing for years. (
  • Furthermore, the longer the duration of hypogonadism, the greater the likelihood of normal bone mineral density levels. (
  • Biphosphanates prevent bone-density loss by preventing the normal resorption of bone by a specialized type of bone cells called osteoclasts. (
  • It is the bone mineral density (BMD) at the site when compared to the young normal reference mean. (
  • In this context we compared the young reference values and age-related values of bone density of the normal Indian population with the reference value of Asian population provided by the manufacturer. (
  • A person with a T-score of -1 and above is considered to have normal bone density, explains Mayo Clinic. (
  • What is the normal bone density for a 74-year-old female? (
  • A T-score of -1 and above indicates normal bone density for people of all ages when compared to a normal young adult, according to the National Osteoporosi. (
  • What is the range for normal bone density levels in people over 50? (
  • Normal bone density falls within one standard deviation of the density measured in a healthy 30-year-old person. (
  • More research will be required in order to establish these links, but for now it seems that normal density, neither high nor low, is the ideal. (
  • These give you an indication of how your bone density compares to the ideal as well as to the expected density for people in your life situation. (
  • It compares the thickness of your bone to others individuals of the same gender, age, weight and race. (
  • The T-score compares the bone density of a healthy, young adult of the same sex to the patient, according to Mayo Clinic.The Z-score is the standard deviation of what is typically expected of an adult of the same age, weight, race and sex as the patient. (
  • During the study, the patient lies down on an examining table and the scanner rapidly directs x-ray energy to determine bone mineralization. (
  • Both of these areas are important as they are composed of different types of bone (trabecular and cortical) and therefore can have different mineralization and fracture rates. (
  • In a series of lab tests with bone cells and genetically modified mice, the scientists showed that DAAM2 influences bone density, mineralization, porosity, and strength. (
  • This information helps your doctor estimate the strength of your bones. (
  • Bone density is also known as bone mineral density or BMD and correlates with the strength of your bones and their ability to bear weight. (
  • You can increase the strength of your bones by lifting heavy weights and doing exercises that are high impact. (
  • Most medical insurance companies cover bone density testing for patients with certain medical conditions, though many insurers limit the frequency of these tests. (
  • Patients taking steroid medication for prolonged periods of time can develop bone thinning. (
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament reconstruction patients often face bone and muscle loss immediately following the procedure. (
  • Femoral and spinal bone mineral density (BMD) in 70 ambulatory MS patients (46 females and 24 males) was compared with 100 sex-, age-, and BMI-matched control individuals. (
  • Dovio A, Perazzolo L, Osella G, Ventura M, Termine A, Milano E, Bertolotto A, Angeli A (2004) Immediate fall of bone formation and transient increase of bone resorption in the course of high-dose, short-term glucocorticoid therapy in young patients with multiple sclerosis. (
  • We aimed to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal variation in BMD and associated bone markers in patients with nonmetastatic prostate cancer (PCa) managed with and without ADT. (
  • Effect of Androgen-deprivation Therapy on Bone Mineral Density in Japanese Patients with Prostate Cancer. (
  • To evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in Japanese patients with prostate cancer (PCa) after administering androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for 2 years. (
  • Neither was femoral neck density significantly different between male or premenopausal female psoriatic arthritis patients and controls. (
  • It is well documented that bone mineral density (BMD) in HIV+ patients is lower when compared with the expected BMD in non-HIV patients [1-10]. (
  • Strongly encourage all female patients aged 65 years and older to undergo bone mineral density testing. (
  • Although current weight was similar between the subjects, lowest adult weight tended to be lower, and was highly significant as a predictor of bone density in regression modeling among the HIV-infected patients. (
  • Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported in patients with celiac disease in association with secondary hyperparathyroidism. (
  • This is the natural, healthy state of continuous uptake of old bone (resorption) followed by the deposit of new bone. (
  • The cells that lay new bone down are called osteoblasts, and the cells responsible for resorption of old bone are called osteoclasts. (
  • Since estrogen prevents bone loss by inhibiting bone resorption, treatment with synthetic estrogen, known as estrogen replacement therapy, is another technique used to improve bone density. (
  • Hypothesis 2: Viral load, markers of inflammation, and markers of bone resorption will all decrease in ART+ vs. ART- persons. (