Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.
Decrease, loss, or removal of the mineral constituents of bones. Temporary loss of bone mineral content is especially associated with space flight, weightlessness, and extended immobilization. OSTEOPOROSIS is permanent, includes reduction of total bone mass, and is associated with increased rate of fractures. CALCIFICATION, PHYSIOLOGIC is the process of bone remineralizing. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed; Nicogossian, Space Physiology and Medicine, 2d ed, pp327-33)
A tooth's loss of minerals, such as calcium in hydroxyapatite from the tooth matrix, caused by acidic exposure. An example of the occurrence of demineralization is in the formation of dental caries.
A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Therapeutic technique for replacement of minerals in partially decalcified teeth.
A test to determine the relative hardness of a metal, mineral, or other material according to one of several scales, such as Brinell, Mohs, Rockwell, Vickers, or Shore. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Diagnostic tests conducted in order to measure the increment of active DENTAL CARIES over a period of time.
Production of a radiographic image of a small or very thin object on fine-grained photographic film under conditions which permit subsequent microscopic examination or enlargement of the radiograph at linear magnifications of up to several hundred and with a resolution approaching the resolving power of the photographic emulsion (about 1000 lines per millimeter).
Fluorides, usually in pastes or gels, used for topical application to reduce the incidence of DENTAL CARIES.
Dental caries involving the tooth root, cementum, or cervical area of the tooth.
The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)
Abnormal immunoglobulins characteristic of MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain the basic structure RB(OH)2.
Pyrazines are heterocyclic organic compounds containing a six-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms at opposite positions, often responsible for the characteristic flavors and aromas found in various foods, beverages, and some biological systems, but they do not have a direct medical definition as they are not a drug, treatment, or a significant component of human physiology or pathology.

Xenogenic demineralized bone matrix: osteoinduction and influence of associated skeletal defects in heterotopic bone formation in rats. (1/35)

Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) was ectopically implanted in 36 male Wistar rats. In 18 of the animals a bone defect in the femoral condyles was also created: the left was filled with DBM and the right was left empty as a control. The animals were killed after 2, 4 and 6 weeks and new bone was histologically evaluated, comparing ectopic bone formation with or without distant bone injury. Results showed: (1) osteoinductivity of xenogenic DBM, and (2) earlier mineralization of ectopically implanted DBM in the group with associated skeletal injury. Our results show that xenogenic bone matrix acts as an osteoinductive material and that skeletal injury improves osteogenesis at distant sites.  (+info)

The correlation between immune rejection and osteoinduction of allogeneic bone grafting. (2/35)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between the immune rejection and the osteoinductive potential of bone allograft. METHODS: Allogeneic and syngeneic fresh bone, autolyzed antigen-extracted bone, bone matrix gelatin and demineralized bone matrix were implanted into the muscle of mice, and immunological tests, histological observation and alkaline phosphatase assay were performed. RESULTS: Three and 6 weeks after implantation, all kinds of allogeneic implants activated immune rejection, among them, fresh bone induced the most vigorous immune rejection and bone matrix gelatin caused the weakest response. Allogeneic autolyzed antigen-extracted bone, bone matrix gelatin and demineralized bone matrix inhibited proliferation of the lymphocytes in vitro and bone matrix gelatin had the most powerful inhibiting effect. Both allogeneic and syngeneic autolyzed antigen-extracted bone, bone matrix gelatin, and demineralized bone matrix induced heterotopic osteogenesis in vivo and bone matrix gelatin had the best osteoinductive capacity. CONCLUSION: There is a negative correlation between immune rejection to bone allograft and osteoinductive capacity of the graft.  (+info)

Demineralized bone matrix, bone morphogenetic proteins, and animal models of spine fusion: an overview. (3/35)

Preclinical investigations on the use of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) in the spine have yielded promising results. This has led to the preliminary introduction of these growth factors in controlled clinical trials. Initial data made available suggest that these differentiating factors will play a major role in the treatment of spinal disorders in the future. This article reviews key preclinical studies and their results that formed the basis for introduction into clinical trials. Non-primate and non-human primate models of spine fusion with BMP are reviewed objectively, and important issues regarding carrier, dose, and site of implantation are discussed. Finally, exciting new gene therapy research is discussed, with comments made on its applicability for the future.  (+info)

Clinical applications of bone graft substitutes in spine surgery: consideration of mineralized and demineralized preparations and growth factor supplementation. (4/35)

Bone graft substitutes may be broadly classified as mineralized and demineralized preparations. This article reviews the basic science and biology underlying each preparation. A review of the clinical and experimental applications of each preparation follows. The text concludes with a review of growth factors as biological supplements.  (+info)

In vitro release of vancomycin from vancomycin-loaded blood coated demineralised bone. (5/35)

In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the possibility that cancellous bone could be used as a carrier of antibiotics for local delivery. However, the release of antibiotics from the loaded cancellous bone is too rapid and uncertain. We hypothesised that demineralisation of cancellous bone would increase the amount of antibiotic adsorbed, and coating of the freeze-dried antibiotic-impregnated cancellous bone with bio-compatible material would prolong antibiotic release. Bovine cancellous bone blocks of equal size were demineralised using a 0.5 N HCl solution and loaded with vancomycin solution under vacuum. The loaded bone blocks were then freeze-dried. To obtain a bio-compatible coating, the vancomycin-impregnated bone blocks were soaked in fresh human venous blood for 3 h. The release of impregnated antibiotic from the bone blocks was evaluated in phosphate-buffered saline and foetal bovine serum. It was found that significantly larger amounts of vancomycin were adsorbed into the demineralised bone blocks than into the un-demineralised blocks. The blood coating was found to increase the duration of vancomycin release from the blocks. With demineralisation and blood coating, the blocks eluted vancomycin higher than therapeutic concentration for a 5-week period.  (+info)

Efficacy of contained metaphyseal and periarticular defects treated with two different demineralized bone matrix allografts. (6/35)

The efficacies of two different allografts, Grafton (demineralized bone matrix [DBM] in a glycerol carrier) and Orthoblast (DBM in a reverse thermal poloxamer carrier) were examined from cases involving periarticular fractures. Demographic, perioperative, and outcome data for patients with periarticular fractures who underwent a prospectively designed protocol for bone grafting were compiled, with 15 cases using Orthoblast and 13 using Grafton. A successful graft was defined as healing on the first graft attempt without complications. Healing was determined by radiographic studies and clinical evaluation. The successful graft rates of Orthoblast and Grafton were 15/15 and 9/13, respectively.  (+info)

Evidence for a serum factor that initiates the re-calcification of demineralized bone. (7/35)

The present studies show for the first time that demineralized bone re-calcifies rapidly when incubated at 37 degrees C in rat serum: re-calcification can be demonstrated by Alizarin Red and von Kossa stains, by depletion of serum calcium, and by uptake of calcium and phosphate by bone matrix. Re-calcification is specific for the type I collagen matrix structures that were calcified in the original bone, with no evidence for calcification in periosteum or cartilage. Re-calcification ceases when the amount of calcium and phosphate introduced into the matrix is comparable to that present in the original bone prior to demineralization, and the re-calcified bone is palpably hard. Re-calcified bone mineral is comparable to the original bone mineral in calcium to phosphate ratio and in Fourier transform infrared and x-ray diffraction spectra. The serum activity responsible for re-calcification is sufficiently potent that the addition of only 1.5% serum to Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium causes bone re-calcification. This putative serum calcification factor has an apparent molecular mass of 55-150 kDa and is inactivated by trypsin or chymotrypsin. The serum calcification factor must act on bone for 12 h before re-calcification can be detected by Alizarin Red or von Kossa staining and before the subsequent growth of calcification will occur in the absence of serum. The speed, matrix-type specificity, and extent of the serum-induced re-calcification of demineralized bone suggest that the serum calcification factor identified in these studies may participate in the normal calcification of bone.  (+info)

Demineralized bone alters expression of Wnt network components during chondroinduction of post-natal fibroblasts. (8/35)

OBJECTIVE: The Wnt family of secreted proteins, their receptors (Fzd proteins) and antagonists (secreted Fzd-related proteins, or Sfrp) regulate chondrocyte differentiation and chrondrogenesis during embryonic development. Here, the hypothesis that the Wnt regulatory network contributes to chondrocyte differentiation of post-natal cells was tested in an in vitro model of chondroinduction by demineralized bone powder (DBP). DESIGN: Human dermal fibroblasts (hDFs) were cultured in porous, three-dimensional (3D) collagen sponges with or without chondroinductive DBP. In some experiments, lithium chloride (LiCl), an agonist of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway, was added to the culture media. Sponges were cultured for intervals (0.5-21 days) before processing for molecular, histologic, and biochemical analyses. Expression of wnt, fzd, and sfrp genes was characterized by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Fibroblasts' contacts with DBP were documented by histology. Accumulation of proteoglycan in extracellular matrix was evaluated by histology (metachromasia in toluidine blue-stained sections) and quantitative immunoassay (chondroitin 4-sulfate ELISA). RESULTS: Expression of 15 wnt, fzd, and sfrp family members was detected in hDFs by RT-PCR. A subset of those genes (wnt2b, wnt5b, wnt10b, fzd6, fzd7) showed altered expression in hDFs exposed to DBP for 3 days. wnt and fzd gene expression was not altered before hDFs contacted the DBP within the collagen sponge. Human DFs cultured in plain collagen sponges and treated with LiCl accumulated significantly more metachromatic matrix than NaCl-treated controls on day 10, and showed a trend towards increased matrix chondroitin-4 sulfate content. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that changes in Wnt signaling contribute to chondroinduction of post-natal fibroblasts by DBP. This is the first evidence that Wnt components, which are essential regulators of pre-natal chondrocyte differentiation, may also influence post-natal chondrocyte differentiation induced by DBP.  (+info)

I'm not able to directly access real-time medical databases or search functions, but I can provide you with some information on the topic.

Bone demineralization is a process often associated with various medical and scientific techniques. It generally refers to the reduction of mineral content in bones, which can occur due to certain medical conditions, aging, or as part of laboratory procedures.

A bone demineralization technique in a laboratory setting typically involves the use of chemical solutions to remove minerals, mainly calcium and phosphate, from bone samples. This process is often used in research and scientific studies to isolate the organic matrix of bones, allowing for the study of its properties and components, such as collagen.

The demineralization process usually involves soaking bone specimens in a weak acid solution, like ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or acetic acid, for several days to weeks, depending on the size and density of the bones. The procedure must be carefully controlled to avoid damaging the organic matrix while ensuring complete demineralization.

Keep in mind that this is a simplified explanation, and specific techniques and protocols may vary based on the research question and bone type being studied.

Pathologic bone demineralization is a condition characterized by the loss of minerals, such as calcium and phosphate, from the bones. This process makes the bones more porous, weaker, and more susceptible to fractures. It can occur due to various medical conditions, including osteoporosis, hyperparathyroidism, Paget's disease of bone, and cancer that has spread to the bones (metastatic cancer).

In a healthy individual, the body constantly remodels the bones by removing old bone tissue (resorption) and replacing it with new tissue. This process is regulated by two types of cells: osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone resorption, and osteoblasts, which produce new bone tissue. In pathologic bone demineralization, there is an imbalance between the activity of these two cell types, with excessive resorption and inadequate formation of new bone tissue.

Pathologic bone demineralization can lead to a range of symptoms, including bone pain, fractures, loss of height, and a decreased ability to perform daily activities. Treatment for this condition depends on the underlying cause but may include medications that slow down bone resorption or promote bone formation, as well as lifestyle changes such as exercise and dietary modifications.

Tooth demineralization is a process that involves the loss of minerals, such as calcium and phosphate, from the hard tissues of the teeth. This process can lead to the development of dental caries or tooth decay. Demineralization occurs when acids produced by bacteria in the mouth attack the enamel of the tooth, dissolving its mineral content. Over time, these attacks can create holes or cavities in the teeth. Fluoride, found in many toothpastes and public water supplies, can help to remineralize teeth and prevent decay. Good oral hygiene practices, such as brushing and flossing regularly, can also help to prevent demineralization by removing plaque and bacteria from the mouth.

Dental enamel is the hard, white, outermost layer of a tooth. It is a highly mineralized and avascular tissue, meaning it contains no living cells or blood vessels. Enamel is primarily composed of calcium and phosphate minerals and serves as the protective covering for the crown of a tooth, which is the portion visible above the gum line.

Enamel is the hardest substance in the human body, and its primary function is to provide structural support and protection to the underlying dentin and pulp tissues of the tooth. It also plays a crucial role in chewing and biting by helping to distribute forces evenly across the tooth surface during these activities.

Despite its hardness, dental enamel can still be susceptible to damage from factors such as tooth decay, erosion, and abrasion. Once damaged or lost, enamel cannot regenerate or repair itself, making it essential to maintain good oral hygiene practices and seek regular dental checkups to prevent enamel damage and protect overall oral health.

"Bone" is the hard, dense connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrate animals. It provides support and protection for the body's internal organs, and serves as a attachment site for muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Bone is composed of cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone formation and resorption, respectively, and an extracellular matrix made up of collagen fibers and mineral crystals.

Bones can be classified into two main types: compact bone and spongy bone. Compact bone is dense and hard, and makes up the outer layer of all bones and the shafts of long bones. Spongy bone is less dense and contains large spaces, and makes up the ends of long bones and the interior of flat and irregular bones.

The human body has 206 bones in total. They can be further classified into five categories based on their shape: long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and sesamoid bones.

Tooth remineralization is a natural process by which minerals, such as calcium and phosphate, are redeposited into the microscopic pores (hydroxyapatite crystals) in the enamel of a tooth. This process can help to repair early decay and strengthen the teeth. It occurs when the mouth's pH is neutral or slightly alkaline, which allows the minerals in our saliva, fluoride from toothpaste or other sources, and calcium and phosphate ions from foods to be absorbed into the enamel. Remineralization can be promoted through good oral hygiene practices, such as brushing with a fluoride toothpaste, flossing, and eating a balanced diet that includes foods rich in calcium and phosphate.

A hardness test is a quantitative measure of a material's resistance to deformation, typically defined as the penetration of an indenter with a specific shape and load into the surface of the material being tested. There are several types of hardness tests, including Rockwell, Vickers, Brinell, and Knoop, each with their own specific methods and applications. The resulting hardness value is used to evaluate the material's properties, such as wear resistance, durability, and suitability for various industrial or manufacturing processes. Hardness tests are widely used in materials science, engineering, and quality control to ensure the consistency and reliability of materials and components.

Cariostatic agents are substances or medications that are used to prevent or inhibit the development and progression of dental caries, also known as tooth decay or cavities. These agents work by reducing the ability of bacteria in the mouth to produce acid, which can erode the enamel and dentin of the teeth and lead to cavities.

There are several types of cariostatic agents that are commonly used in dental care, including:

1. Fluorides: These are the most widely used and well-studied cariostatic agents. They work by promoting the remineralization of tooth enamel and making it more resistant to acid attacks. Fluoride can be found in toothpaste, mouthwashes, gels, varnishes, and fluoridated water supplies.
2. Antimicrobial agents: These substances work by reducing the population of bacteria in the mouth that contribute to tooth decay. Examples include chlorhexidine, triclosan, and xylitol.
3. Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP): This is a complex protein that has been shown to help remineralize tooth enamel and reduce the risk of dental caries. It can be found in some toothpastes and mouthwashes.
4. Silver diamine fluoride: This is a topical fluoride compound that contains silver ions, which have antimicrobial properties. It has been shown to be effective in preventing and arresting dental caries, particularly in high-risk populations such as young children and older adults with dry mouth.

It's important to note that while cariostatic agents can help reduce the risk of tooth decay, they are not a substitute for good oral hygiene practices such as brushing twice a day, flossing daily, and visiting the dentist regularly.

Dental caries activity tests are a group of diagnostic procedures used to measure or evaluate the activity and progression of dental caries (tooth decay). These tests help dentists and dental professionals determine the most appropriate treatment plan for their patients. Here are some commonly used dental caries activity tests:

1. **Bacterial Counts:** This test measures the number of bacteria present in a sample taken from the tooth surface. A higher bacterial count indicates a higher risk of dental caries.
2. **Sucrose Challenge Test:** In this test, a small amount of sucrose (table sugar) is applied to the tooth surface. After a set period, the presence and quantity of acid produced by bacteria are measured. Increased acid production suggests a higher risk of dental caries.
3. **pH Monitoring:** This test measures the acidity or alkalinity (pH level) of the saliva or plaque in the mouth. A lower pH level indicates increased acidity, which can lead to tooth decay.
4. **Dye Tests:** These tests use a special dye that stains active carious lesions on the tooth surface. The stained areas are then easily visible and can be evaluated for treatment.
5. **Transillumination Test:** A bright light is shone through the tooth to reveal any cracks, fractures, or areas of decay. This test helps identify early stages of dental caries that may not yet be visible during a routine dental examination.
6. **Laser Fluorescence Tests:** These tests use a handheld device that emits a laser beam to detect and quantify the presence of bacterial biofilm or dental plaque on the tooth surface. Increased fluorescence suggests a higher risk of dental caries.

It is important to note that these tests should be used as part of a comprehensive dental examination and not as standalone diagnostic tools. A dentist's clinical judgment, in conjunction with these tests, will help determine the best course of treatment for each individual patient.

Microradiography is a radiographic technique that uses X-rays to produce detailed images of small specimens, such as microscopic slides or individual cells. In this process, the specimen is placed in close contact with a high-resolution photographic emulsion, and then exposed to X-rays. The resulting image shows the distribution of radiopaque materials within the specimen, providing information about its internal structure and composition at a microscopic level.

Microradiography can be used for various applications in medical research and diagnosis, including the study of bone and tooth microstructure, the analysis of tissue pathology, and the examination of mineralized tissues such as calcifications or osteogenic lesions. The technique offers high resolution and contrast, making it a valuable tool for researchers and clinicians seeking to understand the complex structures and processes that occur at the microscopic level in living organisms.

Topical fluorides are a form of fluoride that are applied directly to the teeth to prevent dental caries (cavities). They are available in various forms such as toothpastes, gels, foams, and varnishes. Topical fluorides work by strengthening the enamel of the teeth, making them more resistant to acid attacks caused by bacteria in the mouth. They can also help to reverse early signs of decay. Regular use of topical fluorides, especially in children during the years of tooth development, can provide significant protection against dental caries.

Root caries is a type of dental decay that occurs on the root surface of teeth, which is typically exposed due to gingival recession or periodontal disease. These caries lesions often progress rapidly because the root surface lacks the protective enamel layer and has more porous cementum that is susceptible to acid dissolution. Root caries are most commonly found in older adults, but can also occur in younger individuals with poor oral hygiene or who have orthodontic appliances or crowns that expose root surfaces. If left untreated, root caries can lead to tooth sensitivity, pain, infection, and even tooth loss.

Dentin is the hard, calcified tissue that lies beneath the enamel and cementum of a tooth. It forms the majority of the tooth's structure and is composed primarily of mineral salts (hydroxyapatite), collagenous proteins, and water. Dentin has a tubular structure, with microscopic channels called dentinal tubules that radiate outward from the pulp chamber (the center of the tooth containing nerves and blood vessels) to the exterior of the tooth. These tubules contain fluid and nerve endings that are responsible for the tooth's sensitivity to various stimuli such as temperature changes, pressure, or decay. Dentin plays a crucial role in protecting the dental pulp while also providing support and structure to the overlying enamel and cementum.

Dental caries, also known as tooth decay or cavities, refers to the damage or breakdown of the hard tissues of the teeth (enamel, dentin, and cementum) due to the activity of acid-producing bacteria. These bacteria ferment sugars from food and drinks, producing acids that dissolve and weaken the tooth structure, leading to cavities.

The process of dental caries development involves several stages:

1. Demineralization: The acidic environment created by bacterial activity causes minerals (calcium and phosphate) to be lost from the tooth surface, making it weaker and more susceptible to decay.
2. Formation of a white spot lesion: As demineralization progresses, a chalky white area appears on the tooth surface, indicating early caries development.
3. Cavity formation: If left untreated, the demineralization process continues, leading to the breakdown and loss of tooth structure, resulting in a cavity or hole in the tooth.
4. Infection and pulp involvement: As the decay progresses deeper into the tooth, it can reach the dental pulp (the soft tissue containing nerves and blood vessels), causing infection, inflammation, and potentially leading to toothache, abscess, or even tooth loss.

Preventing dental caries involves maintaining good oral hygiene, reducing sugar intake, using fluoride toothpaste and mouthwash, and having regular dental check-ups and cleanings. Early detection and treatment of dental caries can help prevent further progression and more severe complications.

Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer that forms in a type of white blood cell called a plasma cell. Plasma cells help your body fight infection by producing antibodies. In multiple myeloma, cancerous plasma cells accumulate in the bone marrow and crowd out healthy blood cells. Rather than producing useful antibodies, the cancer cells produce abnormal proteins that can cause complications such as kidney damage, bone pain and fractures.

Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer called a plasma cell neoplasm. Plasma cell neoplasms are diseases in which there is an overproduction of a single clone of plasma cells. In multiple myeloma, this results in the crowding out of normal plasma cells, red and white blood cells and platelets, leading to many of the complications associated with the disease.

The abnormal proteins produced by the cancer cells can also cause damage to organs and tissues in the body. These abnormal proteins can be detected in the blood or urine and are often used to monitor the progression of multiple myeloma.

Multiple myeloma is a relatively uncommon cancer, but it is the second most common blood cancer after non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It typically occurs in people over the age of 65, and men are more likely to develop multiple myeloma than women. While there is no cure for multiple myeloma, treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and stem cell transplantation can help manage the disease and its symptoms, and improve quality of life.

Multiple primary neoplasms refer to the occurrence of more than one primary malignant tumor in an individual, where each tumor is unrelated to the other and originates from separate cells or organs. This differs from metastatic cancer, where a single malignancy spreads to multiple sites in the body. Multiple primary neoplasms can be synchronous (occurring at the same time) or metachronous (occurring at different times). The risk of developing multiple primary neoplasms increases with age and is associated with certain genetic predispositions, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices such as smoking and alcohol consumption.

Plasma cells are a type of white blood cell that are derived from B cells (another type of white blood cell) and are responsible for producing antibodies. Antibodies are proteins that help the body to fight against infections by recognizing and binding to specific antigens, such as bacteria or viruses. Plasma cells are found in the bone marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes, and they play a crucial role in the immune system's response to infection.

Plasma cells are characterized by their large size, eccentric nucleus, and abundant cytoplasm filled with rough endoplasmic reticulum, which is where antibody proteins are synthesized and stored. When activated, plasma cells can produce and secrete large amounts of antibodies into the bloodstream and lymphatic system, where they can help to neutralize or eliminate pathogens.

It's worth noting that while plasma cells play an important role in the immune response, abnormal accumulations of these cells can also be a sign of certain diseases, such as multiple myeloma, a type of cancer that affects plasma cells.

Myeloma proteins, also known as monoclonal immunoglobulins or M-proteins, are entire or abnormal immunoglobulin (antibody) molecules produced by a single clone of plasma cells, which are malignant in the case of multiple myeloma and some related disorders. These proteins accumulate in the blood and/or urine and can cause damage to various organs and tissues.

In multiple myeloma, the excessive proliferation of these plasma cells leads to the overproduction of a single type of immunoglobulin or its fragments, which can be detected and quantified in serum and/or urine electrophoresis. The most common types of myeloma proteins are IgG and IgA, followed by light chains (Bence Jones proteins) and, less frequently, IgD and IgM.

The presence and levels of myeloma proteins are important diagnostic markers for multiple myeloma and related disorders, such as monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Regular monitoring of these proteins helps assess the disease's activity, response to treatment, and potential complications like kidney dysfunction or amyloidosis.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Boronic acids are organic compounds that contain a boron atom bonded to two carbon atoms and a hydroxyl group. The general formula for a boronic acid is RB(OH)2, where R represents a organic group. Boronic acids are important reagents in organic synthesis and have been used in the preparation of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and materials science. They can also form stable complexes with many diols and phenols, which is the basis for their use in the detection and quantification of sugars, as well as in the design of boronic acid-based drugs that target diseases such as cancer and diabetes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pyrazines" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. Pyrazines are actually a class of organic compounds that contain a ring made up of two nitrogen atoms and three carbon atoms. They are found in various foods and contribute to their flavors. If you have any questions about organic chemistry or food science, I'd be happy to try to help!

The reduced osteoclast differentiation and activity results in decreased demineralisation and reabsorption of bone structures. ... Therefore, radiographic techniques are required to reach a correct diagnosis for DSS. In the skull, sclerosis is predominantly ... The expanded regions are also sclerotic and gives the characteristic bone-in-bone appearance. Platyspondyly is the development ... Bone. 120: 495-503. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2018.12.002. PMID 30537558. S2CID 54469878. John E, Kozlowski K, Masel J, Muralinath S, ...
... and bone demineralization. Until the development of the sacroplasty technique, there was no definitive treatment other than bed ... bone metastases located in the spine, pelvis and long bones can be treated with image guided ablative techniques (RFA, MWA, ... Ablation techniques can be performed throughout the body such as in the lung, liver, kidney, prostate, breast, bone, and other ... Technique and Instruments". Techniques in Vascular and Interventional Radiology. Elsevier BV. 19 (1): 2-9. doi:10.1053/j.tvir. ...
... patch-clamp techniques MeSH E05.200.750.132 - autoradiography MeSH E05.200.750.210 - bone demineralization technique MeSH ... embryo culture techniques MeSH E05.200.249.484 - organ culture techniques MeSH E05.200.249.617 - tissue culture techniques MeSH ... cell culture techniques MeSH E05.200.249.374 - coculture techniques MeSH E05.200.249.437 - diffusion chambers, culture MeSH ... fluorescent antibody technique MeSH E05.200.750.551.512.240.300 - fluorescent antibody technique, direct MeSH E05.200.750.551. ...
Unilateral NMR techniques use portable magnets that are applied to the object of interest, bypassing the need for sampling. " ... Solid-state NMR has also been successfully used to study biomaterials such as bone, teeth, hair, silk, wood, as well as viruses ... "Effects of Fluoride on in vitro Enamel Demineralization Analyzed by 19F MAS-NMR". Caries Research. 47 (5): 421-428. doi:10.1159 ... Both techniques were developed in the late 1980s, and require specialized hardware (probe). Multiple quantum magic angle ...
The machine detects tooth demineralization at an early stage so that the damage can be repaired using remineralizing compounds ... Founder and Chair of SPIE BiOS (Photonics West) Conference on "Optics in Bone Biology and Diagnostics". Inaugural (2007) ... Mandelis has created the field of dental photonic engineering and the technique of photocarrier radiometry. Andreas Mandelis ... Citation: "For seminal contributions to the development of new experimental techniques based on photothermal science, and the ...
MRI is the primary imaging technique in this case, with the most common MRI pattern showing bone marrow edema and a fracture ... Although osteoporosis is a classic cause, other conditions resulting in bone demineralization are well-recognized risk factors ... Impaction of subchondral bone will appear as an increased sclerosis of the subchondral bone (Figure 1). In the hip, posterior ... Occult osseous injuries may result from a direct blow to the bone by compressive forces of adjacent bones against one another ...
Bone fractures, such as a toddler's fracture (spiral fracture of the shin bone), can also cause pain and limp, but are uncommon ... More advanced imaging techniques can be used if the clinical picture is unclear; the exact role of different imaging modalities ... diminution of soft tissue planes around the hip joint or slight demineralisation of the proximal femur. The main reason for ... A prospective study". J Bone Joint Surg Am. 88 (6): 1251-7. doi:10.2106/JBJS.E.00216. PMID 16757758. S2CID 29137759. Kocher MS ...
Mineralised archaeological remains such as bones, teeth, shells, dental calculi and ceramics require an extra demineralisation ... It is a powerful analytical technique to separate, sequence and quantify complex protein mixtures. The first step in LC-MS/MS ... Bones. Ancient bones are one of the most well-characterised and iconic palaeoproteomes. Ancient bone proteomes have been ... BONE CELL BIOMECHANICS, MECHANOBIOLOGY AND BONE DISEASES. [S.l.]: ELSEVIER ACADEMIC PRESS. 2023. ISBN 978-0-323-96123-3. OCLC ...
"Demineralization-remineralization dynamics in teeth and bone". International Journal of Nanomedicine. 11: 4743-63. doi:10.2147/ ... Each technique yields hydroxyapatite crystals of varied characteristics, such as size and shape. These variations have a marked ... Up to 50% by volume and 70% by weight of human bone is a modified form of hydroxyapatite, known as bone mineral. Carbonated ... bone is made primarily of HA crystals interspersed in a collagen matrix-65 to 70% of the mass of bone is HA. Similarly HA is 70 ...
... a set of techniques and concepts used in data warehouse design Display Manager, a window system for Domain/OS on Apollo/Domain ... various processes affecting bones, teeth, soil, cocoons, and water Cantor's diagonal argument or method, a mathematical proof ... a means of correcting aberrations in photonics applications Deltamethrin Demineralisation (disambiguation), ...
Although microgravity is known to cause health problems such as muscle loss and bone demineralization, it is not known if ... The facility studies its effects on living organisms, as well as experimenting with shielding techniques. Initially, there was ... This causes legs to become weak through loss of muscle and bone mass. Astronauts show signs of a puffy face and chicken legs ... Upon return to Earth, recovery from bone loss and atrophy is a long process and the effects of microgravity may never fully ...
While bone requires a simple decalcification step, similarly, plant tissue requires an enzymatic degradation of the cell wall. ... The CLARITY technique has expanded to several applications beyond the brain. Numerous modifications have been published to ... Depending on the tissue type pre-processing steps such as demineralization or decolorization may be necessary after sample ... Other potential disadvantages of the technique are the length of time it takes to create and image a sample (the ...
... and chronic bone demineralization". The Journal of Pediatrics. 130 (5): 825-828. doi:10.1016/S0022-3476(97)80029-7. PMID ... although it remains only a research technique, this increase has been reported to accurately detect carriers of the disease. In ... Whyte MP (September 2017). "Hypophosphatasia: An overview For 2017". Bone. Rare Bone Diseases. 102: 15-25. doi:10.1016/j.bone. ... DXA may show abnormal bone mineral density which may correlate with disease severity, although bone mineral density in HPP ...
... and radiographic indications of bone demineralization in the calcaneus. No significant decrements in performance of mission ... For Apollo 15 to 17 missions, cardiac output measurements were obtained by the single-breath technique. Arteriovenous oxygen ... Bone. 36 (6): 1019-29. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2004.11.014. PMID 15811637. Berg, HE; Eiken, O; Miklavcic, L; Mekjavic, IB (February ... Rittweger, J; Frost, HM; Schiessl, H; Ohshima, H; Alkner, B; Tesch, P; Felsenberg, D (June 2005). "Muscle atrophy and bone loss ...
Composite materials made of Bioglass 45S5 and patient's own bone can be used for bone reconstruction. Further research is being ... There are two main manufacturing techniques that are used for the synthesis of Bioglass. The first is melt quench synthesis, ... Bakry, A.S. "Evaluation of new treatment for incipient enamel demineralization using 45S5 Bioglass". Dental Materials. 30: 341- ... and osteoinductive because it allows for new bone growth along the bone-implant interface as well as within the bone-implant ...
The glands are located posterior to the mandibular ramus and anterior to the mastoid process of the temporal bone. They are ... Maintenance of tooth integrity: Demineralization occurs when enamel disintegrates due to the presence of acid. When this occurs ... "Review of surgical techniques and guide for decision making in the treatment of benign parotid tumors". European Archives of ... Graft versus host disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation may manifest as dry mouth and many small mucoceles. ...
One technique that can be used to access these areas is dental floss. When the proper technique is used, flossing can remove ... If this is not treated, the inflammation will lead to the bone loss and will eventually lead to the affected teeth becoming ... at which point demineralisation occurs (below 5.5 for most people). It is important therefore to try to encourage infrequent ... The correct technique to ensure maximum plaque removal is as follows: Floss length: 15-25 cm wrapped around middle fingers. For ...
"Demineralization-remineralization dynamics in teeth and bone". International Journal of Nanomedicine. 11: 4743-4763. doi: ... The correct brushing technique is pivotal and involves a gentle scrub technique with small horizontal movements with an extra- ... The type of toothbrush, the technique used and the force applied when brushing can influence the occurrence and severity of ... The bristles combined with forceful brushing techniques applied can roughen the tooth surface and cause abrasion as well as ...
The homozygous mutation causes prenatal onset of recurrent fractures of the ribs and long bones, demineralization, decreased ... OI can also be detected before birth by using an in vitro genetic testing technique such as amniocentresis. In order to ... low mineral density bones; all types of OI have some bone involvement. In moderate and especially severe OI, the long bones may ... This decreases bone formation, and is not a problem when a person has healthy bones. It is thought, though, that decreasing the ...
Demineralisation of small bone chunks in sodium salt to separate collagen, which is then freeze-dried Demineralisation of ... 14th International Conference on Electromagnetic Isotope Separators and Techniques Related to their Applications. 204: 705-719 ... comparing whole bone demineralization with gelatinization and ultrafiltration". Journal of Archaeological Science. 47: 64-69. ... Bone, however, is constantly being renewed and can therefore be used to infer the adult diet and location of the individual. As ...
... and at the same time osteoclasts in the bone break down the bone as a way to prevent further infection. This can be treated ... Oral hygiene is important as dental biofilms may become acidic causing demineralization of the teeth (also known as dental ... given the fact that about 1000 different bacterial species have been recognised using modern techniques. A clean tooth surface ... Periodontitis is an infection of the gums which leads to bone destruction around the teeth in the jaw. Periodontitis occurs ...
The alveolar bone is the bone of the jaw which forms the alveolus around teeth. Like any other bone in the human body, alveolar ... A technique for altering the natural progression of eruption is employed by orthodontists who wish to delay or speed up the ... The incorporated fluoride makes enamel more resistant to demineralization and thus more resistant to decay. Topical fluoride, ... Periodontal ligaments connect the alveolar bone to the cementum. Alveolar bone surrounds the roots of teeth to provide support ...
The drug is able to chelate calcium ions and is incorporated into teeth, cartilage, and bone. Ingestion during the years of ... For example, dietary intake of tannin-rich foods, poor tooth brushing technique, tobacco products, and exposure to iron salts ... Prolonged dental plaque accumulation on the tooth surface can lead to enamel demineralisation and formation of white spot ... Higher consumption of fermentable carbohydrates will promote demineralisation and increase the risk of developing white spot ...
When demineralization of enamel occurs, a dentist can use a sharp instrument, such as a dental explorer, and "feel a stick" at ... Microabrasion techniques employ both methods. An acid is used first to weaken the outer 22-27 micrometers of enamel in order to ... Enamel is formed on the tooth while the tooth develops within the jaw bone before it erupts into the mouth. Once fully formed, ... Demineralization occurs for several reasons, but the most important cause of tooth decay is the ingestion of fermentable ...
... occurs due to increased bone demineralisation with acidosis. Bones are mainly composed of calcium phosphate. The phosphate ... Peterman's work in the 1920s established the techniques for induction and maintenance of the diet. Peterman documented positive ... Long-term use of the ketogenic diet in children increases the risk of slowed or stunted growth, bone fractures, and kidney ... Like many anticonvulsant drugs, the ketogenic diet has an adverse effect on bone health. Many factors may be involved such as ...
Organofluorine in the form of its radioisotope 18F is also at the heart of a modern medical imaging technique known as positron ... Small amounts of fluoride may be beneficial for bone strength, but this is an issue only in the formulation of artificial diets ... When teeth begin to decay from the acid produced by sugar-consuming bacteria, calcium is lost (demineralization). However, ... Chronic excess fluoride consumption can lead to skeletal fluorosis, a disease of the bones that affects millions in Asia and ...
If demineralization continues over time, enough mineral content may be lost so that the soft organic material left behind ... Technology using laser speckle image (LSI) techniques may provide a diagnostic aid to detect early carious lesions. Caries can ... but not the structures that are retained within the bone. Tooth decay is caused by biofilm (dental plaque) lying on the teeth ... Since demineralization of enamel by caries follows the direction of the enamel rods, the different triangular patterns between ...
Loss of bone density (bone demineralization), thought to be due to lack of input from weakened or paralysed muscles, can ... The quad cough technique is done lying on the back with the therapist applying pressure on the abdomen in the rhythm of the ... Another problem lack of mobility can cause is loss of bone density and changes in bone structure. ... Spinal column injury is trauma that causes fracture of the bone or instability of the ligaments in the spine; this can coexist ...
They often hire traffickers from Mexico or the Dominican Republic to transport the drug using a variety of smuggling techniques ... to strengthen broken bones, to expel cold from the body or prevent it from entering, and to cure rotten wounds or sores that ... people who use cocaine over a long period of time who do not hydrate sufficiently may experience demineralization of their ... but chromatographic techniques can easily distinguish and separately measure each of these substances. When interpreting the ...
The reduced osteoclast differentiation and activity results in decreased demineralisation and reabsorption of bone structures. ... Therefore, radiographic techniques are required to reach a correct diagnosis for DSS. In the skull, sclerosis is predominantly ... The expanded regions are also sclerotic and gives the characteristic bone-in-bone appearance. Platyspondyly is the development ... Bone. 120: 495-503. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2018.12.002. PMID 30537558. S2CID 54469878. John E, Kozlowski K, Masel J, Muralinath S, ...
The presence of total bone demineralization, in terms of osteopenia, determined by DEXA technique, on the three levels: Lumbar ... Study of partial bone demineralization in men. In male patients with psoriatic arthritis, there are demineralizations in all ... The bony skeleton is made of 80% cortical bone and 20% trabecular bone. The trabecular bone has an elevated metabolic turnover ... Chi-square X2 values for bone demineralization present in menopausal women depending on the type of patient. ...
Comparison of different protocols for demineralization of cortical bone *Siyuan Pang. *Frances Y. Su ... Pena, J. & Vallet-Regi, M. Hydroxyapatite, tricalcium phosphate and biphasic materials prepared by a liquid mix technique. J. ... Iron ions circulated in living bone not only inside the bone matrix through blood vessels in the osteonal vascular canals, but ... SR-FTIR of adult Lufengosaurus bone. Transversal sections through long bones, including ribs, did not produce a consistent ...
After the bones were washed and cleaned, Bead Balls Mill Mix 20 (Tehtnica Domel, Slovenia), was used to obtain the bone powder ... Considering that these cases involved DNA extraction from teeth, bones and old human remains, automate system was felt to be ... The DNA extraction from bone samples was performed on the automate Maxwell RSC 48 Instrument (Promega, USA), using the Maxwell ... by using automate DNA extraction from three different human bone types: tooth, femur and petrous pyramid. For each case, we ...
... a demineralized bone matrix with high osteoinductivity scores and enhanced osteoconductive scaffolding, used in spine and ... Scarborough N, White E, Hughes J, Manrique A, Poser J. Allograft Safety: Viral Inactivation with Bone Demineralization. Contemp ... Minimally invasive multilevel percutaneous correction and fusion for adult lumbar degenerative scoliosis: a technique and ... Grafton™ is a bone graft extender, bone graft substitute, and bone void filler in bony voids or gaps of the skeletal system (i. ...
Our data indicate that MOR 1125 bone cortices have similar bone elemental distributions to that of an extant bird, which ... Using these techniques, we did not find convincing evidence of a molecular signal that can be confidently interpreted as ... demineralization and optical microscopy (soft-tissue microstructures); (4) in situ and in-solution immunological assays ( ... associated with bone remodeling and redeposition. We then compare these data to the bone of an extant dinosaur (bird), as well ...
keywords = "Bone demineralization, Bone imaging, Bone mineral density, Hybrid-optical techniques, Nonionizing markers, ... Demineralization tracking has been carried out to a depth of ~3 mm below the irradiated surface. Compared with micro-CT imaging ... Demineralization tracking has been carried out to a depth of ~3 mm below the irradiated surface. Compared with micro-CT imaging ... Demineralization tracking has been carried out to a depth of ~3 mm below the irradiated surface. Compared with micro-CT imaging ...
9] MRI is the gold-standard imaging modality for detection of bone marrow involvement and the preferred imaging technique to ... 18] In addition, myeloma is a disease of older patients; it can present with diffuse demineralization, which may be ... Nuclear medicine bone scans rely on osteoblastic activity (bone formation) for diagnosis. As such, standard technetium-99m (99m ... Fast whole body techniques are available on some magnet systems. [27] MRI can also provide important information for prognosis ...
... and bone mineral measurements of 65 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism are reviewed. Fifty per cent presented with renal ... By absorptometric analysis and fine-detail radiography, a majority were found to have demineralization and excessive bone ... Application of direct magnification radiographic technique to the jaws. Phyllis J.Clark, Randy M.Feldman, David E.Frost, ... The actions of parathyroid hormone on bone: Relation to bone remodeling and turnover, calcium homeostasis, and metabolic bone ...
Nuclear medicine bone scans rely on osteoblastic activity (bone formation) for diagnosis. As such, standard technetium-99m (99m ... Fast whole body techniques are available on some magnet systems. [26] MRI also can provide important information for prognosis ... In addition, myeloma is a disease of older patients; it can present with diffuse demineralization, which may be ... Usually, little reactive bone sclerosis or periosteal reaction is seen. [15] However, some new treatment agents, such as ...
Bone Demineralization Technique. *Catheterization. *Cementation. *Centrifugation. *Chemistry Techniques, Analytical. *Chemistry ...
Bone Demineralization Technique. *Catheterization. *Cementation. *Centrifugation. *Chemistry Techniques, Analytical. *Chemistry ... Chiu WK, Vien BS, Russ M, Fitzgerald M. Towards a Non-Invasive Technique for Healing Assessment of Internally Fixated Femur. ...
Radiographs help detect areas of demineralization not visible clinically.. Cavitated caries confirmed as the cause reflects ... root and bone integrity, and check for other anomalies. ... Flossing Techniques). Treatment Goals and Approaches. The ... Dental caries manifesting as barely noticeable frosty or opaque spots represents early demineralization of enamel minerals by ... and 3D CT scans quantitatively assess early demineralization before it becomes clinically visible. This allows preventive ...
E5.478.594.410.320.200 Bone Demineralization Technique E5.200.750.210 E5.118 Bone Marrow Examination E1.450.375.135 E1.370. ... D12.776.97.130 Bacterial Typing Techniques E1.370.225.875.150.125 Bacteriological Techniques E1.370.225.875.150 Bacteriophage ... E1.370.225.750.551 Histocytological Preparation Techniques E1.370.225.500.620 E1.370.225.750.600 Histological Techniques E1.370 ... E4.932 Tissue Culture Techniques E5.200.249.617 E5.240.617 Tissue Embedding E1.370.225.500.620.720 E1.370.225.750.600.720 ...
E5.478.594.410.320.200 Bone Demineralization Technique E5.200.750.210 E5.118 Bone Marrow Examination E1.450.375.135 E1.370. ... D12.776.97.130 Bacterial Typing Techniques E1.370.225.875.150.125 Bacteriological Techniques E1.370.225.875.150 Bacteriophage ... E1.370.225.750.551 Histocytological Preparation Techniques E1.370.225.500.620 E1.370.225.750.600 Histological Techniques E1.370 ... E4.932 Tissue Culture Techniques E5.200.249.617 E5.240.617 Tissue Embedding E1.370.225.500.620.720 E1.370.225.750.600.720 ...
E5.478.594.410.320.200 Bone Demineralization Technique E5.200.750.210 E5.118 Bone Marrow Examination E1.450.375.135 E1.370. ... D12.776.97.130 Bacterial Typing Techniques E1.370.225.875.150.125 Bacteriological Techniques E1.370.225.875.150 Bacteriophage ... E1.370.225.750.551 Histocytological Preparation Techniques E1.370.225.500.620 E1.370.225.750.600 Histological Techniques E1.370 ... E4.932 Tissue Culture Techniques E5.200.249.617 E5.240.617 Tissue Embedding E1.370.225.500.620.720 E1.370.225.750.600.720 ...
E5.478.594.410.320.200 Bone Demineralization Technique E5.200.750.210 E5.118 Bone Marrow Examination E1.450.375.135 E1.370. ... D12.776.97.130 Bacterial Typing Techniques E1.370.225.875.150.125 Bacteriological Techniques E1.370.225.875.150 Bacteriophage ... E1.370.225.750.551 Histocytological Preparation Techniques E1.370.225.500.620 E1.370.225.750.600 Histological Techniques E1.370 ... E4.932 Tissue Culture Techniques E5.200.249.617 E5.240.617 Tissue Embedding E1.370.225.500.620.720 E1.370.225.750.600.720 ...
E5.478.594.410.320.200 Bone Demineralization Technique E5.200.750.210 E5.118 Bone Marrow Examination E1.450.375.135 E1.370. ... D12.776.97.130 Bacterial Typing Techniques E1.370.225.875.150.125 Bacteriological Techniques E1.370.225.875.150 Bacteriophage ... E1.370.225.750.551 Histocytological Preparation Techniques E1.370.225.500.620 E1.370.225.750.600 Histological Techniques E1.370 ... E4.932 Tissue Culture Techniques E5.200.249.617 E5.240.617 Tissue Embedding E1.370.225.500.620.720 E1.370.225.750.600.720 ...
E5.478.594.410.320.200 Bone Demineralization Technique E5.200.750.210 E5.118 Bone Marrow Examination E1.450.375.135 E1.370. ... D12.776.97.130 Bacterial Typing Techniques E1.370.225.875.150.125 Bacteriological Techniques E1.370.225.875.150 Bacteriophage ... E1.370.225.750.551 Histocytological Preparation Techniques E1.370.225.500.620 E1.370.225.750.600 Histological Techniques E1.370 ... E4.932 Tissue Culture Techniques E5.200.249.617 E5.240.617 Tissue Embedding E1.370.225.500.620.720 E1.370.225.750.600.720 ...
E5.478.594.410.320.200 Bone Demineralization Technique E5.200.750.210 E5.118 Bone Marrow Examination E1.450.375.135 E1.370. ... D12.776.97.130 Bacterial Typing Techniques E1.370.225.875.150.125 Bacteriological Techniques E1.370.225.875.150 Bacteriophage ... E1.370.225.750.551 Histocytological Preparation Techniques E1.370.225.500.620 E1.370.225.750.600 Histological Techniques E1.370 ... E4.932 Tissue Culture Techniques E5.200.249.617 E5.240.617 Tissue Embedding E1.370.225.500.620.720 E1.370.225.750.600.720 ...
E5.478.594.410.320.200 Bone Demineralization Technique E5.200.750.210 E5.118 Bone Marrow Examination E1.450.375.135 E1.370. ... D12.776.97.130 Bacterial Typing Techniques E1.370.225.875.150.125 Bacteriological Techniques E1.370.225.875.150 Bacteriophage ... E1.370.225.750.551 Histocytological Preparation Techniques E1.370.225.500.620 E1.370.225.750.600 Histological Techniques E1.370 ... E4.932 Tissue Culture Techniques E5.200.249.617 E5.240.617 Tissue Embedding E1.370.225.500.620.720 E1.370.225.750.600.720 ...
E5.478.594.410.320.200 Bone Demineralization Technique E5.200.750.210 E5.118 Bone Marrow Examination E1.450.375.135 E1.370. ... D12.776.97.130 Bacterial Typing Techniques E1.370.225.875.150.125 Bacteriological Techniques E1.370.225.875.150 Bacteriophage ... E1.370.225.750.551 Histocytological Preparation Techniques E1.370.225.500.620 E1.370.225.750.600 Histological Techniques E1.370 ... E4.932 Tissue Culture Techniques E5.200.249.617 E5.240.617 Tissue Embedding E1.370.225.500.620.720 E1.370.225.750.600.720 ...
... is a systemic inflammatory disease that results in cartilage and bone destruction. RA is characterized by a typical pattern and ... Association of bone edema with the progression of bone erosions quantified by hand magnetic resonance imaging in patients with ... Illustration of the scanning technique. Photograph depicts the typical scanning technique with application of the Entos Probe ... synovial hyperemia is the principal factor underlying the hallmark x-ray observation of periarticular demineralization on ...
Bone Demineralization Technique [E05.118] * Catheterization [E05.157] * Cementation [E05.170] * Centrifugation [E05.181] * ... A technique in which tissue is rendered resistant to the deleterious effects of prolonged ISCHEMIA and REPERFUSION by prior ... A technique in which tissue is rendered resistant to the deleterious effects of prolonged ISCHEMIA and REPERFUSION by prior ...
... bone-level changes were significant over time (p = 0.035 and p = 0.033). Peri-implant bone loss was more aggressive around ... Hybrid Funnel Technique: A Novel Approach for Implant Site Preparation: A Pilot Study by Luigi Canullo ... primarily pertaining to the study of enamel and its demineralisation (caries), but also linked to the investigations of other ... which were performed to monitor bone healing after bone augmentation procedures in an unrelated clinical study. During a ...
Bone Demineralization Technique. *Catheterization. *Cementation. *Centrifugation. *Chemistry Techniques, Analytical. *Chemistry ...
CT scan shows demineralisation of surrounding bone. Is there anything I can I give to maybe reduce the tumour and relieve pain? ... Khalsa shows how to strengthen the immune systems of dogs and cats without invasive techniques or pharmaceutical drugs. ...
Luckily though, theyve developed a resistance to localized demineralization thats stronger than bone because of this exposure ... One common technique is to swish water in your mouth after eating and drinking. Chewing sugar-free gum and sucking on sugar- ... Demineralization happens when acids found in bacteria and sugar attack your enamel. In contrast, remineralization happens when ... That means that when there is an imbalance between these two processes-say, when there is too much demineralization and not ...
... and can be performed as a histological technique to study bones and extract DNA. This process also occurs naturally during bone ... Decalcification (demineralization) of calcified cartilage and bone is often undertaken to soften the tissue for subsequent ... What causes bone decalcification?. Bone decalcification is the softening of bones due to the removal of calcium ions, ... What does decalcification bone look like?. Decalcified compact bone looks completely different than compact bone that still has ...
Closing the gap between oral hygiene and minimally invasive dentistry: a review on the resin infiltration technique of ... Ability of Pit and Fissure Sealant-containing Amorphous Calcium Phosphate to inhibit Enamel Demineralization. Zawaideh FI, ... hydroxyapatite bone), coral calcium from the Caribbean, organic and/or wild-crafted essential oil ...
  • Before discussing methods for remineralizing teeth, it's essential to understand the naturally occurring tooth remineralization process and demineralization. (colgate.com)
  • Furthermore, calcium permeation enhances remineralization and inhibits demineralization. (rdhmag.com)
  • Cavities occurs when there is an imbalance between the demineralization and remineralization cycles. (tooth-life.com)
  • Organic biocomponents of animals decompose and degrade during the fossilization process, and minerals in the groundwater are redeposited in the interstitial spaces, slowly transforming vertebrate bones and teeth into inorganic 'rock' 1 . (nature.com)
  • Considering that these cases involved DNA extraction from teeth, bones and old human remains, automate system was felt to be the best option to reduce handling errors and increase the possibilities of obtaining good quality DNA. (intechopen.com)
  • according to a study in the National Institute of Health , teeth are naturally at risk of demineralization simply due to their location and exposure. (colgate.com)
  • While fluoride toothpaste can aid in remineralizing your teeth, your saliva plays a crucial role in preventing demineralization, as it delivers fluoride to your tooth's surface . (colgate.com)
  • According to the American Dental Association , saliva also naturally adds minerals like calcium and phosphate to your teeth to replace what's been stripped away during demineralization. (colgate.com)
  • This is particularly important for densely mineralized tissues, such as mature long bones and teeth. (terasolartisans.com)
  • When this happens, there may be insufficient calcium floating in the bloodstream to return the borrowed calcium from the bones, and the body's bones and teeth become at risk for calcium deficiency. (rdhmag.com)
  • Endodontic treatment of teeth with open apex requires a non-conventional approach and the goals new therapies are to allow root's complete development differently from what happens with traditional apexification technique. (bvsalud.org)
  • Fluoride also strengthens our teeth so that they resist acids and demineralization better than teeth without fluoride, making them less vulnerable to cavities. (akpediatricdental.com)
  • After a sweet meal, the acidity of the mouth increases and demineralization occurs, during which the teeth lose their minerals. (tooth-life.com)
  • For instance, prolonged contact with acid on the teeth, frequent consumption of sugary foods or repeated nibbling increases the acid attack on the teeth and lengthens the demineralization periods. (tooth-life.com)
  • Dental caries manifesting as barely noticeable frosty or opaque spots represents early demineralization of enamel minerals by oral bacteria. (cdhp.org)
  • Demineralization happens when acids found in bacteria and sugar attack your enamel. (colgate.com)
  • Probiotics have been shown to reduce bacteria in your mouth, thus aiding in cavity prevention and other oral diseases , as well as preventing the demineralization of your enamel. (colgate.com)
  • Fluorinated water provides special protection against cavities by avoiding demineralization that weakens enamel. (businesstycoonn.com)
  • Minerals make up well over 90% of our enamel, a much higher percentage than is found anywhere else in the body, including our bones. (akpediatricdental.com)
  • But unlike bone tissue, which can heal and regenerate, tooth enamel cannot. (akpediatricdental.com)
  • Even though it is extremely strong, enamel can be damaged by a process called demineralization. (akpediatricdental.com)
  • In fact, talk to us about tooth-friendly menus, the best toothpastes, brushing techniques, and all the ways to keep your enamel its healthiest. (akpediatricdental.com)
  • In this chapter we will present the usefulness of genetic DNA testing of skeletonized remains for human identification, by using automate DNA extraction from three different human bone types: tooth, femur and petrous pyramid. (intechopen.com)
  • That means that when there is an imbalance between these two processes-say, when there is too much demineralization and not enough mineralization, tooth decay can occur. (colgate.com)
  • Not only is it needed for bone, nerve, and muscle strength, it's an essential element for lifelong tooth health. (rdhmag.com)
  • Researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles, have developed a laser-based technique for detecting early-stage tooth decay. (pearlypros.com)
  • The technique uses a laser to scan the surface of the tooth and identify areas of demineralization. (pearlypros.com)
  • As chronic inflammation persists, the bone can deteriorate and cause tooth loss. (businesstycoonn.com)
  • When it comes to effective tooth brushing, technique is everything. (tooth-life.com)
  • In the esthetic zone, composite bonding procedures are considered the most conservative and least invasive technique to return missing, diseased, and unsightly tooth structure to enhanced color, form, and function. (midac.in)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disease that results in cartilage and bone destruction. (medscape.com)
  • Decalcification (demineralization) of calcified cartilage and bone is often undertaken to soften the tissue for subsequent segmentation and ultramicrotomy. (terasolartisans.com)
  • Abstract: Purpose: Cracks in bone and articular calcified cartilage (ACC) of the subchondral plate heal by intercalation of a highly mineralised infill material which disappears with demineralisation. (davidmills.doctor)
  • Mutation of the gene results in osteoclast-rich osteopetrosis due to poor translation and altered structure of proton pump structure, which is normally involved in large amounts of osteoclast activity leading to absorption of bone tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medtronic's processing facility, located in Eatontown, New Jersey, is accredited by the American Association of Tissue Banks (AATB), and is committed to providing quality and innovation in its various demineralized bone matrix tissue forms. (medtronic.com)
  • Because allograft tissue processing, including demineralization, has evolved over time and is performed by numerous processors, it is important to recognize that not all demineralization processes are alike. (medtronic.com)
  • A technique in which tissue is rendered resistant to the deleterious effects of prolonged ISCHEMIA and REPERFUSION by prior exposure to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion. (nih.gov)
  • The implant is made from a biocompatible material that mimics the structure of natural bone, allowing for better integration with the surrounding tissue. (pearlypros.com)
  • A biopsy is a simple surgery that removes samples of soft tissue or bone from the body. (midac.in)
  • In the presence of risk factors ("sugar-rich" diet, lack of saliva, etc.), demineralization increases, leading to irreversible cavities. (tooth-life.com)
  • However, demineralization does not necessarily mean cavities. (tooth-life.com)
  • The V-ATPase is important in mediating the transport of hydrogen ions into the resorption lacunae, which is a pit on the bone surface enclosed by the osteoclast for bone resorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • The accumulation of ions in the lacuna facilitates the decomposition of hydroxyapatite crystals by creating an acidic environment, resulting in bone resorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • On conventional skeletal survey, 10% had minimal subperiosteal bone resorption limited to the phalanges. (rsna.org)
  • By absorptometric analysis and fine-detail radiography, a majority were found to have demineralization and excessive bone resorption. (rsna.org)
  • The bony skeleton is made of 80% cortical bone and 20% trabecular bone. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The trabecular bone has an elevated metabolic turnover, due to the high surface-volume ratio, eight times higher than that of the cortical bone. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The BMD variations can be measured earlier in the trabecular bone, as compared with the cortical one. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Concerning the spine, the articular vertebrae are mainly composed of trabecular bone, compared with the vertebral plates and the spinal apophyses, made of cortical bone. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The trochanteric area of the femur has a bone content that is similar to that resulting from the anteroposterior measurement of the spine, namely trabecular bone, whereas the femoral neck contains predominantly cortical bone. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Grafton™ DBF is a demineralized bone allograft consisting of demineralized cortical fibers. (medtronic.com)
  • Also, TC-PCT parameters are found to be more sensitive to trabecular and combined cortical-trabecular demineralization compared with x-ray parameters. (uthscsa.edu)
  • In contrast, the mechanisms responsible for pathological bone remodeling in PsA remain enigmatic although new candidate molecules and pathways have been identified ( 2 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Calcium and phosphate ions rebuild and strengthen molecules where demineralization has taken place. (akpediatricdental.com)
  • Fluoride is one of the most common and effective methods in preventing demineralization and can be found in most pharmacies. (colgate.com)
  • Chiu WK, Vien BS, Russ M, Fitzgerald M. Towards a Non-Invasive Technique for Healing Assessment of Internally Fixated Femur. (umassmed.edu)
  • Spine infections are rare infections that can involve the intervertebral disc space (discitis), the vertebral bones, the spinal canal or adjacent soft tissues. (wheelessonline.com)
  • Vertebral osteomyelitis refers to an infection of the vertebral bones in the spine. (wheelessonline.com)
  • Localized and systemic bone loss due to increased activity of osteoclasts is well established in PsA. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Notwithstanding this questionable role of bone mineral in systemic acid-base equilibrium, not only in CKD but even more in the absence of renal impairment, it is postulated that, in healthy individuals, foods, particularly those containing animal protein, would induce 'latent' acidosis and result, in the long run, in osteoporosis. (cambridge.org)
  • Bone decalcification is the softening of bones due to the removal of calcium ions, and can be performed as a histological technique to study bones and extract DNA. (terasolartisans.com)
  • Decalcified compact bone looks completely different than compact bone that still has calcium salts in its matrix. (terasolartisans.com)
  • An inadequate intake of calcium causes calcium in blood levels to drop, and this plunge prompts the body to borrow calcium from the bones. (rdhmag.com)
  • A group of 36 patients with psoriatic arthritis were chosen, with different types of arthropathy, from the total 82 patients with psoriatic arthritis in the study group, for which bone mineral density (BMD) was measured, using the DEXA technique. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Bone mineral density (BMD) modification in psoriatic arthritis still represents a largely widespread issue, being the source of several medical controversies. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Grafton™ is a bone graft extender, bone graft substitute, and bone void filler in bony voids or gaps of the skeletal system (i.e. spine, pelvis, extremities) not intrinsic to the stability of the bony structure. (medtronic.com)
  • This graft is moldable and may be hydrated with either sterile saline, sterile water, blood or BMA and can be combined with allograft or autograft for use in spinal fusion procedures, as well as any bone void where fusion is desired. (medtronic.com)
  • [ 9 ] MRI is the gold-standard imaging modality for detection of bone marrow involvement and the preferred imaging technique to rule out spinal cord compression in patients with multiple myeloma, whereas PET/CT provides valuable prognostic data and aids in assessment of response to therapy. (medscape.com)
  • Neurogenic myositis ossificans is the formation of heterotopic bone in the periarticular soft tissues of patients who have sustained a severe injury to the brain or spinal cord. (the-medical-dictionary.com)
  • This process also occurs naturally during bone development and growth, and when uninhibited, can cause diseases such as osteomalacia. (terasolartisans.com)
  • Clinical definitions of the various myeloma subtypes have been updated, as have the imaging definitions of what constitutes bone marrow disease and individual bony involvement. (medscape.com)
  • [ 8 ] Patients suspected of having multiple myeloma based on bone marrow aspirate results or hypergammaglobulinemia should undergo a radiographic skeletal survey. (medscape.com)
  • range, 44-83 years) with multiple myeloma proven by bone marrow biopsy. (medscape.com)
  • Quantitative activation suppression assay to evaluate human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell potency. (ctsicn.org)
  • About half of chemotherapy patients experience oral complications, particularly those being treated for leukemia and those who receive bone marrow transplants. (1stdentist.com)
  • Common symptoms include craniofacial hyperostosis, which is the excessive growth of bone in the skull and face. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radiologically, multiple destructive lytic lesions of the skeleton, as well as severe demineralization, characterize multiple myeloma. (medscape.com)
  • Even though the sealant material contains ACP, placement of the opaque sealant is applied with the same technique required by other dental sealants. (rdhmag.com)
  • The areas of demineralization should appear as white or brown spots. (tooth-life.com)
  • For example, researchers at the University of Groningen in the Netherlands have developed a 3D-printed dental implant that promotes bone regeneration. (pearlypros.com)
  • Bone demineralization manifested as osteopenia, with T‑scores ranging from ‑2.5 to ‑1, and not as osteoporosis. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Determining B MD by DEXA technique revealed osteopenia to a higher degree within the group of patients with psoriatic arthritis compared with the healthy patients, as well as the absence of osteoporosis in psoriatic arthritis. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • This theory currently influences nutrition research, dietary recommendations and the marketing of alkaline salt products or medications meant to optimise bone health and prevent osteoporosis. (cambridge.org)
  • Erosions may also be seen at the intra-articular portion of the distal end of the radius or within the carpal bones. (medscape.com)
  • The DNA extraction from bone samples was performed on the automate Maxwell RSC 48 Instrument (Promega, USA), using the Maxwell FSC DNA IQ Casework Kit (Promega, USA). (intechopen.com)
  • Accordingly, in CKD, bone mineral mobilisation would serve as a buffer system to acid accumulation. (cambridge.org)
  • This course directly counters the process of demineralization, which is what happens every time you eat and drink and the bacteria inside your mouth feed and produce acid. (bgwdentalgroup.com)
  • Other limbic abnormalities include progressive bowing of long bones, which is present in rare cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proprietary demineralization process inactivates viruses while preserving the osteoinductive activity necessary for new bone formation. (medtronic.com)
  • The D-Min™ process ensures the viral inactivation and osteoinductivity of demineralized bone matrix. (medtronic.com)
  • Controls in the D-Min™ process eliminate many of the variables that can affect the osteoinductivity of demineralized bone matrix. (medtronic.com)
  • Carpal bone ankylosis is a common and fairly specific sign, particularly in the Asian population, in whom it tends to occur early in the disease process. (medscape.com)
  • The main signs and symptoms of DSS includes: Skeletal abnormalities: platyspondyly, sclerosis Physical abnormalities: short stature, macrocephaly Neurological abnormalities: delayed development, mental retardation In general, patients with DSS develop osteopenia and bone fragility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult compact bone (including ribs) is composed of osteons with central vascular canals ( Fig. 1b-h ) that contain blood vessels and nerves in the living organism and lacunae, or spaces for the adult osteocytes ( Fig. 1m ). (nature.com)
  • MRI can provide information that is complementary to a skeletal survey and was recommended for use in patients with normal radiographic images and in all patients with an apparently solitary plasmacytoma of bone. (medscape.com)
  • Standard 99m Tc bone scintigraphy should play no role in the routine staging of myeloma, and sequential dual-energy radiographic absorptiometry (DXA) scans are not recommended, according to the authors. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical manifestations, radiographic findings, and bone mineral measurements of 65 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism are reviewed. (rsna.org)
  • Radiographs help detect areas of demineralization not visible clinically. (cdhp.org)
  • PET or MIBI imaging are also not recommended for routine use, according to the study findings, although both techniques may be useful in selected cases that warrant clarification of previous imaging findings. (medscape.com)
  • Surgical delay was associated with a loss of joint space and a greater degree of bone demineralisation. (the-medical-dictionary.com)
  • Surgical removal of mature heterotopic bone is required in order to regain a functional range of movement although the surgeon must take care to avoid fractures and damage to adjacent neurovascular structures. (the-medical-dictionary.com)
  • Toynbee described fixation of the stapes to the margins of the oval window in 1841 and found similar cases in 136 of 1,000 temporal bone dissections. (medscape.com)
  • The challenge of depth-resolved, nonionizing (hybrid-optical) detection of mineral loss in bones is addressed using truncated-correlation photothermal coherence tomography (TC-PCT). (uthscsa.edu)
  • Kaiplavil, S, Mandelis, A & Amaechi, BT 2014, ' Truncated-correlation photothermal coherence tomography of artificially demineralized animal bones: Two- and three-dimensional markers for mineral loss monitoring ', Journal of biomedical optics , vol. 19, no. 2, 026015. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Acetabular bone loss in revision total hip arthroplasty: evaluation and management. (rush.edu)
  • A technique for causing a targeted loss of molecular function from REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES that are formed by the illumination of dyes placed in the immediate vicinity of the target molecule. (uchicago.edu)
  • Otosclerosis is an osseous dyscrasia limited to the temporal bone that results in slow, progressive conductive hearing loss. (medscape.com)
  • Otosclerosis is often associated with osteogenesis imperfecta (van der Hoeve syndrome) in a classic triad of hearing loss (conductive, mixed, or sensorineural), spontaneous bone fractures, and blue sclera. (medscape.com)
  • Conversely, foods generating neutral or alkaline urine would favour bone growth and Ca balance, prevent bone loss and reduce osteoporotic fracture risk. (cambridge.org)
  • These results illustrate the limitations of conventional radiography and underscore the need for newer more sensitive radiological techniques. (rsna.org)
  • Several techniques and approaches are commonly used today, with largely excellent results. (medscape.com)
  • In premenopausal women, there was a significant association between the patient type and the presented bone demineralization type (χ 2 (2) =8.778, P=0.012), as the female patients with psoriatic arthritis presented total and partial demineralization to a larger degree, compared with healthy individuals. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Bone demineralization was significant in all three patient groups, both total and partial, in patients with psoriatic arthritis compared with healthy patients. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The key to regular oral hygiene is effectively breaking down plaque with a thorough toothbrushing technique. (tooth-life.com)
  • This study did not emphasize an association between the patient type and the presented bone demineralization type (χ 2 (2) =4.473, P=0.107) in men. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In menopausal women, this study did not highlight an association between the patient type and the presented bone demineralization type (χ 2 (2) =4.523, P=0.104). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The study used robust least square regression and innovation accounting techniques to get sound parameter estimates. (chagghana.org)
  • Aside from his association with fluoridation, Dr. Dean also studied the effects of radium poisoning on alveolar bone, developed a program to study the prevention and cure of Vincent's angina, and studied the causes, prevention, and cures for dental caries. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, computed tomography (CT) scanning of the temporal bone can often demonstrate foci of demineralization in the otic capsule in cases of cochlear otosclerosis. (medscape.com)
  • Compared with micro-CT imaging, TC-PCT offers an improved dynamic range, which is a beneficial feature while analyzing highly demineralized bones. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Conversely, the contention that a diet rich in alkaline or basic (OH − ) functions would be beneficial to bone health continues to generate a substantial scientific interest. (cambridge.org)
  • For low-demineralization levels, both modalities follow the same trend. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Sourdille popularized the procedure when his 3-stage technique was widely published during the 1930s. (medscape.com)
  • This technique allowed the bones to be clearly visible in white, the veins in blue and the arteries in red. (the-medical-dictionary.com)
  • Grafton™ DBM demineralized bone fibers (DBF) can be used in orthopedic or reconstructive bone grafting procedures. (medtronic.com)
  • The product can also be used in bone grafting procedures in combination with autologous bone or other forms of allograft bone, or alone as a bone graft. (medtronic.com)
  • It is comprised of multiple forms, each with unique handling characteristics designed to extend or replace autogenous bone in a variety of challenging bone grafting procedures. (medtronic.com)