Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.
Fibrous blood-filled cyst in the bone. Although benign it can be destructive causing deformity and fractures.
Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.
A scraping, usually of the interior of a cavity or tract, for removal of new growth or other abnormal tissue, or to obtain material for tissue diagnosis. It is performed with a curet (curette), a spoon-shaped instrument designed for that purpose. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Dorland, 27th ed)
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Saccular lesions lined with epithelium and contained within pathologically formed cavities in the jaw; also nonepithelial cysts (pseudocysts) as they apply to the jaw, e.g., traumatic or solitary cyst, static bone cavity, and aneurysmal bone cyst. True jaw cysts are classified as odontogenic or nonodontogenic.
Liquid material found in epithelial-lined closed cavities or sacs.
'Mandibular diseases' refer to various medical conditions that primarily affect the structure, function, or health of the mandible (lower jawbone), including but not limited to infections, tumors, developmental disorders, and degenerative diseases.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
General term for CYSTS and cystic diseases of the OVARY.
A usually benign tumor composed of cells which arise from chondroblasts or their precursors and which tend to differentiate into cartilage cells. It occurs primarily in the epiphyses of adolescents. It is relatively rare and represents less than 2% of all primary bone tumors. The peak incidence is in the second decade of life; it is about twice as common in males as in females. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1846)
The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.
Intradermal or subcutaneous saclike structure, the wall of which is stratified epithelium containing keratohyalin granules.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
'Spinal diseases' is a broad term referring to various medical conditions that affect the structural integrity, function, or health of the spinal column, including degenerative disorders, infections, inflammatory processes, traumatic injuries, neoplasms, and congenital abnormalities.
Maxillary diseases refer to various medical conditions primarily affecting the maxilla (upper jaw) bone, including inflammatory processes, tumors, cysts, or traumatic injuries, which may cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, or functional impairment.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
Diseases of BONES.
A disease of bone marked by thinning of the cortex by fibrous tissue containing bony spicules, producing pain, disability, and gradually increasing deformity. Only one bone may be involved (FIBROUS DYSPLASIA, MONOSTOTIC) or several (FIBROUS DYSPLASIA, POLYOSTOTIC).
Injections introduced directly into localized lesions.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Cysts of one of the parts of the mediastinum: the superior part, containing the trachea, esophagus, thoracic duct and thymus organs; the inferior middle part, containing the pericardium; the inferior anterior part containing some lymph nodes; and the inferior posterior part, containing the thoracic duct and esophagus.
A bone tumor composed of cellular spindle-cell stroma containing scattered multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts. The tumors range from benign to frankly malignant lesions. The tumor occurs most frequently in an end of a long tubular bone in young adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
A bone that forms the lower and anterior part of each side of the hip bone.
Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Chemical agents injected into blood vessels and lymphatic sinuses to shrink or cause localized THROMBOSIS; FIBROSIS, and obliteration of the vessels. This treatment is applied in a number of conditions such as VARICOSE VEINS; HEMORRHOIDS; GASTRIC VARICES; ESOPHAGEAL VARICES; PEPTIC ULCER HEMORRHAGE.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
Non-neoplastic tumor-like lesions at joints, developed from the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE of a joint through the JOINT CAPSULE into the periarticular tissues. They are filled with SYNOVIAL FLUID with a smooth and translucent appearance. A synovial cyst can develop from any joint, but most commonly at the back of the knee, where it is known as POPLITEAL CYST.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.
Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.
An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).
A usually spherical cyst, arising as an embryonic out-pouching of the foregut or trachea. It is generally found in the mediastinum or lung and is usually asymptomatic unless it becomes infected.
Injuries to the lower jaw bone.
The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.
A tumor consisting of displaced ectodermal structures along the lines of embryonic fusion, the wall being formed of epithelium-lined connective tissue, including skin appendages, and containing keratin, sebum, and hair. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Cysts formed from epithelial inclusions in the lines of fusion of the embryonic processes which form the jaws. They include nasopalatine or incisive canal cyst, incisive papilla cyst, globulomaxillary cyst, median palatal cyst, median alveolar cyst, median mandibular cyst, and nasoalveolar cyst.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
A commonly used x-ray contrast medium. As DIATRIZOATE MEGLUMINE and as Diatrizoate sodium, it is used for gastrointestinal studies, angiography, and urography.
One of three bones that make up the coxal bone of the pelvic girdle. In tetrapods, it is the part of the pelvis that projects backward on the ventral side, and in primates, it bears the weight of the sitting animal.
Breaks in bones.
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.
The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
An odontogenic fibroma in which cells have developed into cementoblasts and which consists largely of cementum.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Diseases of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.
Cysts found in the jaws and arising from epithelium involved in tooth formation. They include follicular cysts (e.g., primordial cyst, dentigerous cyst, multilocular cyst), lateral periodontal cysts, and radicular cysts. They may become keratinized (odontogenic keratocysts). Follicular cysts may give rise to ameloblastomas and, in rare cases, undergo malignant transformation.
A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.
A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.
Slow-growing fluid-filled epithelial sac at the apex of a tooth with a nonvital pulp or defective root canal filling.
Rods of bone, metal, or other material used for fixation of the fragments or ends of fractured bones.
Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.
Tumors of bone tissue or synovial or other soft tissue characterized by the presence of giant cells. The most common are giant cell tumor of tendon sheath and GIANT CELL TUMOR OF BONE.
Most common follicular odontogenic cyst. Occurs in relation to a partially erupted or unerupted tooth with at least the crown of the tooth to which the cyst is attached protruding into the cystic cavity. May give rise to an ameloblastoma and, in rare instances, undergo malignant transformation.
The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.
Metabolic bone diseases are a group of disorders that affect the bones' structure and strength, caused by disturbances in the normal metabolic processes involved in bone formation, resorption, or mineralization, including conditions like osteoporosis, osteomalacia, Paget's disease, and renal osteodystrophy.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
A rare intra-abdominal tumor in the MESENTERY. Mesenteric cysts are usually benign and can be very large fluid-filled (2000 mL) lesions.
A non-neoplastic inflammatory lesion, usually of the jaw or gingiva, containing large, multinucleated cells. It includes reparative giant cell granuloma. Peripheral giant cell granuloma refers to the gingiva (giant cell epulis); central refers to the jaw.
A thioester hydrolase which acts on esters formed between thiols such as DITHIOTHREITOL or GLUTATHIONE and the C-terminal glycine residue of UBIQUITIN.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.
The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.
Treatment of varicose veins, hemorrhoids, gastric and esophageal varices, and peptic ulcer hemorrhage by injection or infusion of chemical agents which cause localized thrombosis and eventual fibrosis and obliteration of the vessels.
Perineurial cysts commonly found in the SACRAL REGION. They arise from the PERINEURIUM membrane within the SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. The distinctive feature of the cysts is the presence of spinal nerve root fibers within the cyst wall, or the cyst cavity itself.

Treatment of an aneurysmal bone cyst of the spine by radionuclide ablation. (1/86)

We report the nonoperative treatment of a recurrent, multilevel spinal aneurysmal bone cyst by injection of 32P chromic phosphate colloid into the cyst. The patient was then followed up with serial CT examinations, which showed stabilization and progressive ossification within the lesion. The rationale, alternatives, and possible contraindications to radionuclide ablation of spinal aneurysmal bone cysts are discussed.  (+info)

Cytogenetic-morphologic correlations in aneurysmal bone cyst, giant cell tumor of bone and combined lesions. A report from the CHAMP study group. (2/86)

Aneurysmal bone cyst and giant cell tumor of bone are relatively rare bone tumors that sometimes coexist. We examined the karyotypes of 3 aneurysmal bone cysts, 12 giant cell tumors, and 3 combined lesions. All aneurysmal bone cysts showed involvement of chromosome segments 17p11-13 and/or 16q22. In addition, in 1 of the 3 giant cell tumors with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst, both chromosome bands were rearranged as well, albeit not in a balanced translocation. Seven out of 12 giant cell tumors were characterized by telomeric associations. One giant cell tumor showed a dup(16)(q13q22), suggesting the presence of a (minor) secondary aneurysmal bone cyst component, despite the absence of histological proof. Our results, combined with literature data further substantiate that segments 16q22 and 17p11-13 are nonrandomly involved in at least some aneurysmal bone cysts, irrespective of subtype (primary, secondary, intra/extraosseous, solid or classic). These findings strongly suggest that some aneurysmal bone cysts are true neoplasms. In addition, telomeric associations are the most frequent chromosomal aberrations in giant cell tumor of bone, the significance of which remains elusive. In combined giant cell tumor/aneurysmal bone cyst each component seems to retain its own karyotypic abnormality.  (+info)

Expression of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in aneurysmal bone cyst. (3/86)

The effects of insulin-like growth factor-I on bone tissue and its role in bone development have been extensively investigated, but there is little information on its role in the pathogenesis of aneurysmal bone cyst. Therefore, using the techniques of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, the authors studied the expression of insulin-like growth factor-I in 19 specimens of aneurysmal bone cyst. Insulin-like growth factor-I or specific mRNA sequences encoding for insulin-like growth factor-I were detectable in all specimens tested and were mainly localized in multinucleate giant cells. In contrast, only insignificant levels of insulin-like growth factor-I expression were detectable in normal human bone tissue. Taken together with the previously reported role of insulin-like growth factor-I in the pathogenesis of giant cell tumor, the findings of this study suggest that insulin-like growth factor-I may play a role in the pathogenesis of aneurysmal bone cyst.  (+info)

Chondroblastoma of a metacarpal bone mimicking an aneurysmal bone cyst: a case report and a review of the literature. (4/86)

Chondroblastoma of the metacarpal bone has been extremely rare and only seven cases have been reported in the English literature. Here we reported the eighth case of a chondroblastoma that developed on the first metacarpal bone of the right hand of a 21-year-old man. Radiographs showed an expansile osteolytic lesion with a multilocular appearance. In MR images, the lesion showed low intensity in T1 and high intensity in T2-weighted images with multiple fluid-fluid levels, which are findings resembling those of an aneurysmal bone cyst. From the pathological findings, however, it was recognized as a chondroblastoma with aneurysmal bone cyst-like change. Good clinical results was obtained by the subtotal resection of the metacarpal bone with a columnar-shaped iliac bone graft.  (+info)

Massive aneurysmal bone cyst of the anterior cranial fossa floor--case report. (5/86)

A 19-year-old male patient presented with a midline facial, nose, and forehead hard and bony swelling associated with hypertelorism. Neuroimaging revealed a massive tumor involving the anterior cranial fossa floor, which had occupied and enlarged all paranasal air sinuses, and displaced the orbits outwards and the frontal lobes of the brain superiorly. A basal transcranial route was used for radical resection of the massive and vascular tumor. Histological examination confirmed an aneurysmal bone cyst. Such tumors only rarely involve the cranial bones or paranasal air sinuses.  (+info)

Aneurysmal bone cyst of the orbit. (6/86)

Aneurysmal bone cysts of the skull are rare, and orbital involvement of these cysts is even less frequent. We present CT, MR imaging, and histopathologic findings of an aneurysmal bone cyst of the orbit in a 13-year-old female adolescent. The tumor mainly involved the frontal bone. MR imaging findings of the aneurysmal bone cyst of the skull were highly suggestive of the diagnosis.  (+info)

Unusual bleeding of aneurysmal bone cyst in the upper thoracic spine. (7/86)

Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a benign bone lesion and commonly affects young adolescents. It usually grows rapidly with hypervascularity. In the spine, it can cause extensive bone destruction and compress neural structures with eventual vertebral collapse. Operative management of such a lesion may be complicated by profuse hemorrhage. Herein, we report a 15-year-old boy who had an acute exacerbation of spinal cord compression because of an ABC in the upper thoracic region. With a two-staged operation that complicating with profuse intraoperative bleeding, decompressive curettage and stabilization of the vertebral column were assured. However, abrupt neurologic deterioration occurred because of rebleeding with spinal cord compression 1 month postoperatively. Secondary decompressive curettage and following local radiotherapy were undertaken to cure the disease. Neurological recovery and healing of spinal ABC could be expected if the lining of a cyst had been totally removed. At the 18-month follow-up examination, he was neurologically intact and without any backache, leg pain or gait disturbance.  (+info)

Aneurysmal bone cyst of the temporal bone: a case report. (8/86)

Aneurysmal bone cyst in temporal region is rare. It is a benign condition and may extend intracranially. Total surgical removal is recommended, whenever possible in one stage or in multiple stages. Prognosis is excellent and total removal will effect a cure. An unusual case of aneurysmal bone cyst of temporal region is reported.  (+info)

A bone cyst is a fluid-filled sac that develops within a bone. It can be classified as either simple (unicameral) or aneurysmal. Simple bone cysts are more common in children and adolescents, and they typically affect the long bones of the arms or legs. These cysts are usually asymptomatic unless they become large enough to weaken the bone and cause a fracture. Aneurysmal bone cysts, on the other hand, can occur at any age and can affect any bone, but they are most common in the leg bones and spine. They are characterized by rapidly growing blood-filled sacs that can cause pain, swelling, and fractures.

Both types of bone cysts may be treated with observation, medication, or surgery depending on their size, location, and symptoms. It is important to note that while these cysts can be benign, they should still be evaluated and monitored by a healthcare professional to ensure proper treatment and prevention of complications.

Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a benign but locally aggressive tumor that typically involves the metaphysis of long bones in children and adolescents. It is characterized by blood-filled spaces or cysts separated by fibrous septa containing osteoclast-type giant cells, spindle cells, and capillary vessels.

ABCs can also arise in other locations such as the vertebral column, pelvis, and skull. They may cause bone pain, swelling, or pathologic fractures. The exact cause of ABC is unknown, but it is thought to be related to a reactive process to a primary bone lesion or trauma.

Treatment options for ABC include curettage and bone grafting, intralesional injection of corticosteroids or bone marrow aspirate, and adjuvant therapy with phenol or liquid nitrogen. In some cases, radiation therapy may be used, but it is generally avoided due to the risk of secondary malignancies. Recurrence rates after treatment range from 10-30%.

A cyst is a closed sac, having a distinct membrane and division between the sac and its surrounding tissue, that contains fluid, air, or semisolid material. Cysts can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, internal organs, and bones. They can be caused by various factors, such as infection, genetic predisposition, or blockage of a duct or gland. Some cysts may cause symptoms, such as pain or discomfort, while others may not cause any symptoms at all. Treatment for cysts depends on the type and location of the cyst, as well as whether it is causing any problems. Some cysts may go away on their own, while others may need to be drained or removed through a surgical procedure.

Curettage is a medical procedure that involves scraping or removing tissue from the lining of an organ or body cavity, typically performed using a curette, which is a long, thin surgical instrument with a looped or sharp end. In gynecology, curettage is often used to remove tissue from the uterus during a procedure called dilation and curettage (D&C) to diagnose or treat abnormal uterine bleeding, or to remove residual placental or fetal tissue following a miscarriage or abortion. Curettage may also be used in other medical specialties to remove damaged or diseased tissue from areas such as the nose, throat, or skin.

"Bone" is the hard, dense connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrate animals. It provides support and protection for the body's internal organs, and serves as a attachment site for muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Bone is composed of cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone formation and resorption, respectively, and an extracellular matrix made up of collagen fibers and mineral crystals.

Bones can be classified into two main types: compact bone and spongy bone. Compact bone is dense and hard, and makes up the outer layer of all bones and the shafts of long bones. Spongy bone is less dense and contains large spaces, and makes up the ends of long bones and the interior of flat and irregular bones.

The human body has 206 bones in total. They can be further classified into five categories based on their shape: long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and sesamoid bones.

A jaw cyst is a pathological cavity filled with fluid or semi-fluid material, which forms within the jaw bones. They are typically classified as odontogenic (developing from tooth-forming tissues) or non-odontogenic (developing from other tissues). The most common types of odontogenic jaw cysts include dentigerous cysts (formed around the crown of an unerupted tooth) and follicular cysts (formed from the inflammation of a developing tooth's tissue). Non-odontogenic cysts, such as nasopalatine duct cysts and keratocystic odontogenic tumors, can also occur in the jaw bones. Jaw cysts may cause symptoms like swelling, pain, or displacement of teeth, but some may not present any symptoms until they grow large enough to be detected on a radiographic examination. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the cyst and, if necessary, reconstruction of the affected bone.

Cyst fluid refers to the fluid accumulated within a cyst, which is a closed sac-like or capsular structure, typically filled with liquid or semi-solid material. Cysts can develop in various parts of the body for different reasons, and the composition of cyst fluid may vary depending on the type of cyst and its location.

In some cases, cyst fluid might contain proteins, sugars, hormones, or even cells from the surrounding tissue. Infected cysts may have pus-like fluid, while cancerous or precancerous cysts might contain abnormal cells or tumor markers. The analysis of cyst fluid can help medical professionals diagnose and manage various medical conditions, including infections, inflammatory diseases, genetic disorders, and cancers.

It is important to note that the term 'cyst fluid' generally refers to the liquid content within a cyst, but the specific composition and appearance of this fluid may vary significantly depending on the underlying cause and type of cyst.

Mandibular diseases refer to conditions that affect the mandible, or lower jawbone. These diseases can be classified as congenital (present at birth) or acquired (developing after birth). They can also be categorized based on the tissues involved, such as bone, muscle, or cartilage. Some examples of mandibular diseases include:

1. Mandibular fractures: These are breaks in the lower jawbone that can result from trauma or injury.
2. Osteomyelitis: This is an infection of the bone and surrounding tissues, which can affect the mandible.
3. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders: These are conditions that affect the joint that connects the jawbone to the skull, causing pain and limited movement.
4. Mandibular tumors: These are abnormal growths that can be benign or malignant, and can develop in any of the tissues of the mandible.
5. Osteonecrosis: This is a condition where the bone tissue dies due to lack of blood supply, which can affect the mandible.
6. Cleft lip and palate: This is a congenital deformity that affects the development of the face and mouth, including the lower jawbone.
7. Mandibular hypoplasia: This is a condition where the lower jawbone does not develop properly, leading to a small or recessed chin.
8. Developmental disorders: These are conditions that affect the growth and development of the mandible, such as condylar hyperplasia or hemifacial microsomia.

Bone remodeling is the normal and continuous process by which bone tissue is removed from the skeleton (a process called resorption) and new bone tissue is formed (a process called formation). This ongoing cycle allows bones to repair microdamage, adjust their size and shape in response to mechanical stress, and maintain mineral homeostasis. The cells responsible for bone resorption are osteoclasts, while the cells responsible for bone formation are osteoblasts. These two cell types work together to maintain the structural integrity and health of bones throughout an individual's life.

During bone remodeling, the process can be divided into several stages:

1. Activation: The initiation of bone remodeling is triggered by various factors such as microdamage, hormonal changes, or mechanical stress. This leads to the recruitment and activation of osteoclast precursor cells.
2. Resorption: Osteoclasts attach to the bone surface and create a sealed compartment called a resorption lacuna. They then secrete acid and enzymes that dissolve and digest the mineralized matrix, creating pits or cavities on the bone surface. This process helps remove old or damaged bone tissue and releases calcium and phosphate ions into the bloodstream.
3. Reversal: After resorption is complete, the osteoclasts undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death), and mononuclear cells called reversal cells appear on the resorbed surface. These cells prepare the bone surface for the next stage by cleaning up debris and releasing signals that attract osteoblast precursors.
4. Formation: Osteoblasts, derived from mesenchymal stem cells, migrate to the resorbed surface and begin producing a new organic matrix called osteoid. As the osteoid mineralizes, it forms a hard, calcified structure that gradually replaces the resorbed bone tissue. The osteoblasts may become embedded within this newly formed bone as they differentiate into osteocytes, which are mature bone cells responsible for maintaining bone homeostasis and responding to mechanical stress.
5. Mineralization: Over time, the newly formed bone continues to mineralize, becoming stronger and more dense. This process helps maintain the structural integrity of the skeleton and ensures adequate calcium storage.

Throughout this continuous cycle of bone remodeling, hormones, growth factors, and mechanical stress play crucial roles in regulating the balance between resorption and formation. Disruptions to this delicate equilibrium can lead to various bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, where excessive resorption results in weakened bones and increased fracture risk.

An ovarian cyst is a sac or pouch filled with fluid that forms on the ovary. Ovarian cysts are quite common in women during their childbearing years, and they often cause no symptoms. In most cases, ovarian cysts disappear without treatment over a few months. However, larger or persistent cysts may require medical intervention, including surgical removal.

There are various types of ovarian cysts, such as functional cysts (follicular and corpus luteum cysts), which develop during the menstrual cycle due to hormonal changes, and non-functional cysts (dermoid cysts, endometriomas, and cystadenomas), which can form due to different causes.

While many ovarian cysts are benign, some may have malignant potential or indicate an underlying medical condition like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Regular gynecological check-ups, including pelvic examinations and ultrasounds, can help detect and monitor ovarian cysts.

Chondroblastoma is a rare, benign (non-cancerous) bone tumor that typically develops in the epiphysis, which is the rounded end of a long bone near a joint. It primarily affects children and adolescents, with around 90% of cases occurring before the age of 20.

The tumor arises from chondroblasts, cells responsible for producing cartilage during bone growth. Chondroblastoma is usually slow-growing and typically causes localized pain, swelling, or tenderness in the affected area. In some cases, it may weaken the bone and lead to fractures.

Treatment generally involves surgical removal of the tumor, followed by curettage (scraping) of the surrounding bone tissue and replacement with bone grafts or substitutes. Recurrence is possible but rare, and long-term prognosis is usually favorable.

Bone transplantation, also known as bone grafting, is a surgical procedure in which bone or bone-like material is transferred from one part of the body to another or from one person to another. The graft may be composed of cortical (hard outer portion) bone, cancellous (spongy inner portion) bone, or a combination of both. It can be taken from different sites in the same individual (autograft), from another individual of the same species (allograft), or from an animal source (xenograft). The purpose of bone transplantation is to replace missing bone, provide structural support, and stimulate new bone growth. This procedure is commonly used in orthopedic, dental, and maxillofacial surgeries to repair bone defects caused by trauma, tumors, or congenital conditions.

Bone density refers to the amount of bone mineral content (usually measured in grams) in a given volume of bone (usually measured in cubic centimeters). It is often used as an indicator of bone strength and fracture risk. Bone density is typically measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, which provide a T-score that compares the patient's bone density to that of a young adult reference population. A T-score of -1 or above is considered normal, while a T-score between -1 and -2.5 indicates osteopenia (low bone mass), and a T-score below -2.5 indicates osteoporosis (porous bones). Regular exercise, adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, and medication (if necessary) can help maintain or improve bone density and prevent fractures.

The humerus is the long bone in the upper arm that extends from the shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint) to the elbow joint. It articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula to form the shoulder joint and with the radius and ulna bones at the elbow joint. The proximal end of the humerus has a rounded head that provides for movement in multiple planes, making it one of the most mobile joints in the body. The greater and lesser tubercles are bony prominences on the humeral head that serve as attachment sites for muscles that move the shoulder and arm. The narrow shaft of the humerus provides stability and strength for weight-bearing activities, while the distal end forms two articulations: one with the ulna (trochlea) and one with the radius (capitulum). Together, these structures allow for a wide range of motion in the shoulder and elbow joints.

An epidermal cyst is a common benign skin condition characterized by the growth of a sac-like structure filled with keratin, a protein found in the outermost layer of the skin (epidermis). These cysts typically appear as round, firm bumps just under the surface of the skin, often on the face, neck, trunk, or scalp. They can vary in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter.

Epidermal cysts usually develop as a result of the accumulation of dead skin cells that become trapped within a hair follicle or a pilosebaceous unit (a structure that contains a hair follicle and an oil gland). The keratin produced by the skin cells then collects inside the sac, causing it to expand gradually.

These cysts are generally slow-growing, painless, and rarely cause any symptoms. However, they may become infected or inflamed, leading to redness, tenderness, pain, or pus formation. In such cases, medical attention might be necessary to drain the cyst or administer antibiotics to treat the infection.

Epidermal cysts can be removed surgically if they cause cosmetic concerns or become frequently infected. The procedure typically involves making an incision in the skin and removing the entire sac along with its contents to prevent recurrence.

Bone neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the bone. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign bone neoplasms do not spread to other parts of the body and are rarely a threat to life, although they may cause problems if they grow large enough to press on surrounding tissues or cause fractures. Malignant bone neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade and destroy nearby tissue and may spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.

There are many different types of bone neoplasms, including:

1. Osteochondroma - a benign tumor that develops from cartilage and bone
2. Enchondroma - a benign tumor that forms in the cartilage that lines the inside of the bones
3. Chondrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from cartilage
4. Osteosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from bone cells
5. Ewing sarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops in the bones or soft tissues around the bones
6. Giant cell tumor of bone - a benign or occasionally malignant tumor that develops from bone tissue
7. Fibrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from fibrous tissue in the bone

The symptoms of bone neoplasms vary depending on the type, size, and location of the tumor. They may include pain, swelling, stiffness, fractures, or limited mobility. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the tumor but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

Spinal diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the spinal column, which is made up of vertebrae (bones), intervertebral discs, facet joints, nerves, ligaments, and muscles. These diseases can cause pain, discomfort, stiffness, numbness, weakness, or even paralysis, depending on the severity and location of the condition. Here are some examples of spinal diseases:

1. Degenerative disc disease: This is a condition where the intervertebral discs lose their elasticity and height, leading to stiffness, pain, and decreased mobility.
2. Herniated disc: This occurs when the inner material of the intervertebral disc bulges or herniates out through a tear in the outer layer, causing pressure on the spinal nerves and resulting in pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected area.
3. Spinal stenosis: This is a narrowing of the spinal canal or the neural foramen (the openings where the spinal nerves exit the spinal column), which can cause pressure on the spinal cord or nerves and result in pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness.
4. Scoliosis: This is a curvature of the spine that can occur in children or adults, leading to an abnormal posture, back pain, and decreased lung function.
5. Osteoarthritis: This is a degenerative joint disease that affects the facet joints in the spine, causing pain, stiffness, and decreased mobility.
6. Ankylosing spondylitis: This is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the spine and sacroiliac joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and fusion of the vertebrae.
7. Spinal tumors: These are abnormal growths that can occur in the spinal column, which can be benign or malignant, causing pain, neurological symptoms, or even paralysis.
8. Infections: Bacterial or viral infections can affect the spine, leading to pain, fever, and other systemic symptoms.
9. Trauma: Fractures, dislocations, or sprains of the spine can occur due to accidents, falls, or sports injuries, causing pain, neurological deficits, or even paralysis.

Maxillary diseases refer to conditions that affect the maxilla, which is the upper bone of the jaw. This bone plays an essential role in functions such as biting, chewing, and speaking, and also forms the upper part of the oral cavity, houses the upper teeth, and supports the nose and the eyes.

Maxillary diseases can be caused by various factors, including infections, trauma, tumors, congenital abnormalities, or systemic conditions. Some common maxillary diseases include:

1. Maxillary sinusitis: Inflammation of the maxillary sinuses, which are air-filled cavities located within the maxilla, can cause symptoms such as nasal congestion, facial pain, and headaches.
2. Periodontal disease: Infection and inflammation of the tissues surrounding the teeth, including the gums and the alveolar bone (which is part of the maxilla), can lead to tooth loss and other complications.
3. Maxillary fractures: Trauma to the face can result in fractures of the maxilla, which can cause pain, swelling, and difficulty breathing or speaking.
4. Maxillary cysts and tumors: Abnormal growths in the maxilla can be benign or malignant and may require surgical intervention.
5. Oral cancer: Cancerous lesions in the oral cavity, including the maxilla, can cause pain, swelling, and difficulty swallowing or speaking.

Treatment for maxillary diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include antibiotics, surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices can help prevent many maxillary diseases.

Bone matrix refers to the non-cellular component of bone that provides structural support and functions as a reservoir for minerals, such as calcium and phosphate. It is made up of organic and inorganic components. The organic component consists mainly of type I collagen fibers, which provide flexibility and tensile strength to the bone. The inorganic component is primarily composed of hydroxyapatite crystals, which give bone its hardness and compressive strength. Bone matrix also contains other proteins, growth factors, and signaling molecules that regulate bone formation, remodeling, and repair.

Bone resorption is the process by which bone tissue is broken down and absorbed into the body. It is a normal part of bone remodeling, in which old or damaged bone tissue is removed and new tissue is formed. However, excessive bone resorption can lead to conditions such as osteoporosis, in which bones become weak and fragile due to a loss of density. This process is carried out by cells called osteoclasts, which break down the bone tissue and release minerals such as calcium into the bloodstream.

Bone diseases is a broad term that refers to various medical conditions that affect the bones. These conditions can be categorized into several groups, including:

1. Developmental and congenital bone diseases: These are conditions that affect bone growth and development before or at birth. Examples include osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease), achondroplasia (dwarfism), and cleidocranial dysostosis.
2. Metabolic bone diseases: These are conditions that affect the body's ability to maintain healthy bones. They are often caused by hormonal imbalances, vitamin deficiencies, or problems with mineral metabolism. Examples include osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and Paget's disease of bone.
3. Inflammatory bone diseases: These are conditions that cause inflammation in the bones. They can be caused by infections, autoimmune disorders, or other medical conditions. Examples include osteomyelitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
4. Degenerative bone diseases: These are conditions that cause the bones to break down over time. They can be caused by aging, injury, or disease. Examples include osteoarthritis, avascular necrosis, and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH).
5. Tumors and cancers of the bone: These are conditions that involve abnormal growths in the bones. They can be benign or malignant. Examples include osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and Ewing sarcoma.
6. Fractures and injuries: While not strictly a "disease," fractures and injuries are common conditions that affect the bones. They can result from trauma, overuse, or weakened bones. Examples include stress fractures, compound fractures, and dislocations.

Overall, bone diseases can cause a wide range of symptoms, including pain, stiffness, deformity, and decreased mobility. Treatment for these conditions varies depending on the specific diagnosis but may include medication, surgery, physical therapy, or lifestyle changes.

Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone is a rare, benign bone disorder that is characterized by the replacement of normal bone tissue with fibrous (scar-like) and immature bone tissue. This results in weakened bones that are prone to fractures, deformities, and pain. The condition can affect any bone in the body but most commonly involves the long bones of the legs, arms, and skull. It can occur as an isolated finding or as part of a genetic disorder called McCune-Albright syndrome. The exact cause of fibrous dysplasia is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from a genetic mutation that occurs during early bone development. There is no cure for fibrous dysplasia, and treatment typically focuses on managing symptoms and preventing complications.

"Intralesional injection" is a medical term that refers to the administration of a medication directly into a lesion or skin abnormality, such as a tumor, cyst, or blister. This technique is used to deliver the medication directly to the site of action, allowing for higher local concentrations and potentially reducing systemic side effects. Common examples include the injection of corticosteroids into inflamed tissues to reduce swelling and pain, or the injection of chemotherapeutic agents directly into tumors to shrink them.

Bone marrow is the spongy tissue found inside certain bones in the body, such as the hips, thighs, and vertebrae. It is responsible for producing blood-forming cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. There are two types of bone marrow: red marrow, which is involved in blood cell production, and yellow marrow, which contains fatty tissue.

Red bone marrow contains hematopoietic stem cells, which can differentiate into various types of blood cells. These stem cells continuously divide and mature to produce new blood cells that are released into the circulation. Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body, white blood cells help fight infections, and platelets play a crucial role in blood clotting.

Bone marrow also serves as a site for immune cell development and maturation. It contains various types of immune cells, such as lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, which help protect the body against infections and diseases.

Abnormalities in bone marrow function can lead to several medical conditions, including anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and various types of cancer, such as leukemia and multiple myeloma. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy are common diagnostic procedures used to evaluate bone marrow health and function.

A mediastinal cyst is a rare, abnormal fluid-filled sac located in the mediastinum, which is the central part of the chest cavity that separates the lungs and contains various organs such as the heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus gland, and lymph nodes. Mediastinal cysts can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (develop later in life). They are usually asymptomatic but can cause symptoms depending on their size and location. Symptoms may include chest pain, cough, difficulty breathing, or swallowing. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the cyst to prevent complications such as infection, bleeding, or pressure on surrounding structures.

A Giant Cell Tumor (GCT) of bone is a relatively uncommon, locally aggressive tumor that can sometimes become malignant. It is characterized by the presence of multinucleated giant cells which are distributed throughout the tumor tissue. These giant cells are thought to be derived from osteoclasts, which are specialized cells responsible for bone resorption.

GCTs typically affect adults in their 20s and 30s, with a slight female predominance. The most common sites of involvement include the long bones near the knee (distal femur and proximal tibia), as well as the distal radius, sacrum, and spine.

The tumor usually presents as pain and swelling in the affected area, sometimes accompanied by restricted mobility or pathological fractures due to bone weakening. The diagnosis is typically made based on imaging studies (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI) and confirmed through a biopsy.

Treatment options for GCTs of bone may include intralesional curettage with or without the use of adjuvant therapies (like phenol, liquid nitrogen, or cement), radiation therapy, or surgical resection. In some cases, systemic treatments like denosumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting RANKL, may be used to control the growth and spread of the tumor. Regular follow-ups are essential to monitor for potential recurrence, which can occur in up to 50% of cases within five years after treatment.

The pubic bone, also known as the pubis or pubic symphysis, is a part of the pelvis - the complex ring-like structure that forms the lower part of the trunk and supports the weight of the upper body. The pubic bone is the anterior (front) portion of the pelvic girdle, located at the bottom of the abdomen, and it connects to the other side at the pubic symphysis, a cartilaginous joint.

The pubic bone plays an essential role in supporting the lower limbs and providing attachment for various muscles involved in movements like walking, running, and jumping. It also protects some abdominal organs and contributes to the structure of the pelvic outlet, which is crucial during childbirth.

Spontaneous fractures are bone breaks that occur without any identifiable trauma or injury. They are typically caused by underlying medical conditions that weaken the bones, making them more susceptible to breaking under normal stress or weight. The most common cause of spontaneous fractures is osteoporosis, a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones. Other potential causes include various bone diseases, certain cancers, long-term use of corticosteroids, and genetic disorders affecting bone strength.

It's important to note that while the term "spontaneous" implies that the fracture occurred without any apparent cause, it is usually the result of an underlying medical condition. Therefore, if you experience a spontaneous fracture, seeking medical attention is crucial to diagnose and manage the underlying cause to prevent future fractures and related complications.

Sclerosing solutions are medications or substances that are used to intentionally cause the scarring and hardening (sclerosis) of tissue, usually in the context of treating various medical conditions. These solutions work by irritating the interior lining of blood vessels or other targeted tissues, leading to the formation of a fibrous scar and the eventual closure of the affected area.

One common use of sclerosing solutions is in the treatment of abnormal veins, such as varicose veins or spider veins. A solution like sodium tetradecyl sulfate or polidocanol is injected directly into the problematic vein, causing inflammation and eventual closure of the vein. The body then gradually absorbs the closed vein, reducing its appearance and associated symptoms.

Other medical applications for sclerosing solutions include the treatment of lymphatic malformations, hydroceles, and certain types of tumors or cysts. It is essential to administer these substances under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, as improper use can lead to complications such as infection, tissue damage, or embolism.

Bone development, also known as ossification, is the process by which bone tissue is formed and grows. This complex process involves several different types of cells, including osteoblasts, which produce new bone matrix, and osteoclasts, which break down and resorb existing bone tissue.

There are two main types of bone development: intramembranous and endochondral ossification. Intramembranous ossification occurs when bone tissue forms directly from connective tissue, while endochondral ossification involves the formation of a cartilage model that is later replaced by bone.

During fetal development, most bones develop through endochondral ossification, starting as a cartilage template that is gradually replaced by bone tissue. However, some bones, such as those in the skull and clavicles, develop through intramembranous ossification.

Bone development continues after birth, with new bone tissue being laid down and existing tissue being remodeled throughout life. This ongoing process helps to maintain the strength and integrity of the skeleton, allowing it to adapt to changing mechanical forces and repair any damage that may occur.

A Synovial Cyst is a type of benign cyst that typically develops in the synovium, which is the membrane that lines and lubricates joint capsules. These cysts are filled with synovial fluid, which is the same lubricating fluid found inside joints. They usually form as a result of degenerative changes, trauma, or underlying joint diseases such as osteoarthritis.

Synovial cysts commonly occur in the spine (particularly in the facet joints), but they can also develop in other areas of the body, including the knees, hips, and hands. While synovial cysts are generally not harmful, they may cause discomfort or pain if they press on nearby nerves or restrict movement in the affected joint. Treatment options for synovial cysts range from conservative measures like physical therapy and pain management to surgical intervention in severe cases.

Bone marrow cells are the types of cells found within the bone marrow, which is the spongy tissue inside certain bones in the body. The main function of bone marrow is to produce blood cells. There are two types of bone marrow: red and yellow. Red bone marrow is where most blood cell production takes place, while yellow bone marrow serves as a fat storage site.

The three main types of bone marrow cells are:

1. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs): These are immature cells that can differentiate into any type of blood cell, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. They have the ability to self-renew, meaning they can divide and create more hematopoietic stem cells.
2. Red blood cell progenitors: These are immature cells that will develop into mature red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes. Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide back to the lungs.
3. Myeloid and lymphoid white blood cell progenitors: These are immature cells that will develop into various types of white blood cells, which play a crucial role in the body's immune system by fighting infections and diseases. Myeloid progenitors give rise to granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils), monocytes, and megakaryocytes (which eventually become platelets). Lymphoid progenitors differentiate into B cells, T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells.

Bone marrow cells are essential for maintaining a healthy blood cell count and immune system function. Abnormalities in bone marrow cells can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, leukopenia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, or thrombocytosis, depending on the specific type of blood cell affected. Additionally, bone marrow cells are often used in transplantation procedures to treat patients with certain types of cancer, such as leukemia and lymphoma, or other hematologic disorders.

Bone substitutes are materials that are used to replace missing or damaged bone in the body. They can be made from a variety of materials, including natural bone from other parts of the body or from animals, synthetic materials, or a combination of both. The goal of using bone substitutes is to provide structural support and promote the growth of new bone tissue.

Bone substitutes are often used in dental, orthopedic, and craniofacial surgery to help repair defects caused by trauma, tumors, or congenital abnormalities. They can also be used to augment bone volume in procedures such as spinal fusion or joint replacement.

There are several types of bone substitutes available, including:

1. Autografts: Bone taken from another part of the patient's body, such as the hip or pelvis.
2. Allografts: Bone taken from a deceased donor and processed to remove any cells and infectious materials.
3. Xenografts: Bone from an animal source, typically bovine or porcine, that has been processed to remove any cells and infectious materials.
4. Synthetic bone substitutes: Materials such as calcium phosphate ceramics, bioactive glass, and polymer-based materials that are designed to mimic the properties of natural bone.

The choice of bone substitute material depends on several factors, including the size and location of the defect, the patient's medical history, and the surgeon's preference. It is important to note that while bone substitutes can provide structural support and promote new bone growth, they may not have the same strength or durability as natural bone. Therefore, they may not be suitable for all applications, particularly those that require high load-bearing capacity.

The frontal bone is the bone that forms the forehead and the upper part of the eye sockets (orbits) in the skull. It is a single, flat bone that has a prominent ridge in the middle called the superior sagittal sinus, which contains venous blood. The frontal bone articulates with several other bones, including the parietal bones at the sides and back, the nasal bones in the center of the face, and the zygomatic (cheek) bones at the lower sides of the orbits.

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Bone demineralization is a process often associated with various medical and scientific techniques. It generally refers to the reduction of mineral content in bones, which can occur due to certain medical conditions, aging, or as part of laboratory procedures.

A bone demineralization technique in a laboratory setting typically involves the use of chemical solutions to remove minerals, mainly calcium and phosphate, from bone samples. This process is often used in research and scientific studies to isolate the organic matrix of bones, allowing for the study of its properties and components, such as collagen.

The demineralization process usually involves soaking bone specimens in a weak acid solution, like ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or acetic acid, for several days to weeks, depending on the size and density of the bones. The procedure must be carefully controlled to avoid damaging the organic matrix while ensuring complete demineralization.

Keep in mind that this is a simplified explanation, and specific techniques and protocols may vary based on the research question and bone type being studied.

The sphenoid bone is a complex, irregularly shaped bone located in the middle cranial fossa and forms part of the base of the skull. It articulates with several other bones, including the frontal, parietal, temporal, ethmoid, palatine, and zygomatic bones. The sphenoid bone has two main parts: the body and the wings.

The body of the sphenoid bone is roughly cuboid in shape and contains several important structures, such as the sella turcica, which houses the pituitary gland, and the sphenoid sinuses, which are air-filled cavities within the bone. The greater wings of the sphenoid bone extend laterally from the body and form part of the skull's lateral walls. They contain the superior orbital fissure, through which important nerves and blood vessels pass between the cranial cavity and the orbit of the eye.

The lesser wings of the sphenoid bone are thin, blade-like structures that extend anteriorly from the body and form part of the floor of the anterior cranial fossa. They contain the optic canal, which transmits the optic nerve and ophthalmic artery between the brain and the orbit of the eye.

Overall, the sphenoid bone plays a crucial role in protecting several important structures within the skull, including the pituitary gland, optic nerves, and ophthalmic arteries.

A bronchogenic cyst is a type of congenital cyst that develops from abnormal budding or development of the bronchial tree during fetal growth. These cysts are typically filled with mucus or fluid and can be found in the mediastinum (the area between the lungs) or within the lung tissue itself.

Bronchogenic cysts are usually asymptomatic, but they can cause symptoms if they become infected, rupture, or compress nearby structures such as airways or blood vessels. Symptoms may include cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing, and recurrent respiratory infections.

Diagnosis of bronchogenic cysts is typically made through imaging tests such as chest X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the cyst to prevent complications.

Mandibular injuries refer to damages or traumas that affect the mandible, which is the lower part of the jawbone. These injuries can result from various causes, such as road accidents, physical assaults, sports-related impacts, or falls. Mandibular injuries may include fractures, dislocations, soft tissue damage, or dental injuries.

Symptoms of mandibular injuries might include pain, swelling, bruising, difficulty speaking, chewing, or opening the mouth wide, and in some cases, visible deformity or misalignment of the jaw. Depending on the severity and type of injury, treatment options may range from conservative management with pain control and soft diet to surgical intervention for fracture reduction and fixation. Immediate medical attention is crucial to ensure proper diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and prevention of potential complications.

The ilium is the largest and broadest of the three parts that make up the hip bone or coxal bone. It is the uppermost portion of the pelvis and forms the side of the waist. The ilium has a curved, fan-like shape and articulates with the sacrum at the back to form the sacroiliac joint. The large, concave surface on the top of the ilium is called the iliac crest, which can be felt as a prominent ridge extending from the front of the hip to the lower back. This region is significant in orthopedics and physical examinations for its use in assessing various medical conditions and performing certain maneuvers during the physical examination.

A dermoid cyst is a type of benign (non-cancerous) growth that typically develops during embryonic development. It is a congenital condition, which means it is present at birth, although it may not become apparent until later in life. Dermoid cysts are most commonly found in the skin or the ovaries of women, but they can also occur in other areas of the body, such as the spine or the brain.

Dermoid cysts form when cells that are destined to develop into skin and its associated structures, such as hair follicles and sweat glands, become trapped during fetal development. These cells continue to grow and multiply, forming a sac-like structure that contains various types of tissue, including skin, fat, hair, and sometimes even teeth or bone.

Dermoid cysts are usually slow-growing and may not cause any symptoms unless they become infected or rupture. In some cases, they may cause pain or discomfort if they press on nearby structures. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the cyst to prevent complications and alleviate symptoms.

Nonodontogenic cysts are a type of cyst that occur in the oral and maxillofacial region, but they do not originate from tooth-forming tissues. These cysts can develop in various locations within the jaws, including the bone or soft tissues. They are typically classified into several categories based on their origin, such as developmental, inflammatory, or neoplastic.

Examples of nonodontogenic cysts include:

1. Nasopalatine duct cyst - This is the most common type of nonodontogenic cyst and arises from remnants of the nasopalatine duct, which is a structure present during embryonic development. It typically appears in the anterior region of the maxilla (upper jaw).
2. Nasolabial cyst - This rare cyst develops near the nasolabial fold, between the nose and the upper lip. Its origin is unclear but may be related to embryonic remnants or developmental abnormalities.
3. Median mandibular cyst - Also known as a median mental cyst, this rare cyst forms in the midline of the mandible (lower jaw) and may originate from remnants of the dental lamina or other developmental structures.
4. Lateral periodontal cyst - This inflammatory cyst arises from the periodontal ligament, which supports the teeth within their sockets. It is usually found near the roots of lower molars and premolars.
5. Glandular odontogenic cyst - This developmental cyst originates from remnants of minor salivary glands or epithelial rests in the jawbone. It can appear as a unilocular (single-chambered) or multilocular (multi-chambered) cyst and may have a more aggressive behavior than other nonodontogenic cysts.
6. Dentigerous cyst - Although technically classified as an odontogenic cyst, the dentigerous cyst is sometimes considered a borderline case because it arises from the crowns of unerupted teeth rather than their roots. It can grow quite large and may cause significant bone resorption.

Nonodontogenic cysts are less common than odontogenic cysts, but they still require proper diagnosis and treatment to prevent complications such as tooth displacement, jaw deformation, or infection. Treatment options for nonodontogenic cysts depend on their size, location, and histological features and may include enucleation (complete removal), marsupialization (creating a communication between the cyst and oral cavity to allow for gradual reduction), or more extensive surgical procedures. Regular follow-up appointments with your dentist or oral surgeon are essential to monitor healing and ensure that the cyst does not recur.

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a medical procedure in which damaged or destroyed bone marrow is replaced with healthy bone marrow from a donor. Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside bones that produces blood cells. The main types of BMT are autologous, allogeneic, and umbilical cord blood transplantation.

In autologous BMT, the patient's own bone marrow is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with lymphoma or multiple myeloma who have undergone high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to destroy their cancerous bone marrow.

In allogeneic BMT, bone marrow from a genetically matched donor is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with leukemia, lymphoma, or other blood disorders who have failed other treatments.

Umbilical cord blood transplantation involves using stem cells from umbilical cord blood as a source of healthy bone marrow. This type of BMT is often used in children and adults who do not have a matched donor for allogeneic BMT.

The process of BMT typically involves several steps, including harvesting the bone marrow or stem cells from the donor, conditioning the patient's body to receive the new bone marrow or stem cells, transplanting the new bone marrow or stem cells into the patient's body, and monitoring the patient for signs of engraftment and complications.

BMT is a complex and potentially risky procedure that requires careful planning, preparation, and follow-up care. However, it can be a life-saving treatment for many patients with blood disorders or cancer.

Diatrizoate is a type of contrast medium that is used during X-ray examinations, such as CT scans and urography, to help improve the visibility of internal body structures. It is a type of iodinated compound, which means it contains iodine atoms. Diatrizoate works by blocking the absorption of X-rays, causing the areas where it is injected or introduced to appear white on X-ray images. This can help doctors to diagnose a variety of medical conditions, including problems with the urinary system and digestive tract.

Like all medications and contrast agents, diatrizoate can have side effects, including allergic reactions, kidney damage, and thyroid problems. It is important for patients to discuss any potential risks and benefits of using this agent with their healthcare provider before undergoing an X-ray examination.

The ischium is a part of the pelvic bone, specifically the lower and posterior portion. It is one of the three bones that fuse together to form each half of the pelvis, along with the ilium (the upper and largest portion) and the pubis (anteriorly).

The ischium has a thick, robust structure because it supports our body weight when we sit. Its main parts include:

1. The ischial tuberosity (sitting bone): This is the roughened, weight-bearing portion where you typically feel discomfort after sitting for long periods.
2. The ischial spine: A thin bony projection that serves as an attachment point for various muscles and ligaments.
3. The ramus of the ischium: The slender, curved part that extends downwards and joins with the pubis to form the inferior (lower) portion of the pelvic ring called the obturator foramen.

Together with the other components of the pelvis, the ischium plays a crucial role in providing stability, supporting the lower limbs, and protecting internal organs.

A bone fracture is a medical condition in which there is a partial or complete break in the continuity of a bone due to external or internal forces. Fractures can occur in any bone in the body and can vary in severity from a small crack to a shattered bone. The symptoms of a bone fracture typically include pain, swelling, bruising, deformity, and difficulty moving the affected limb. Treatment for a bone fracture may involve immobilization with a cast or splint, surgery to realign and stabilize the bone, or medication to manage pain and prevent infection. The specific treatment approach will depend on the location, type, and severity of the fracture.

Bone regeneration is the biological process of new bone formation that occurs after an injury or removal of a portion of bone. This complex process involves several stages, including inflammation, migration and proliferation of cells, matrix deposition, and mineralization, leading to the restoration of the bone's structure and function.

The main cells involved in bone regeneration are osteoblasts, which produce new bone matrix, and osteoclasts, which resorb damaged or old bone tissue. The process is tightly regulated by various growth factors, hormones, and signaling molecules that promote the recruitment, differentiation, and activity of these cells.

Bone regeneration can occur naturally in response to injury or surgical intervention, such as fracture repair or dental implant placement. However, in some cases, bone regeneration may be impaired due to factors such as age, disease, or trauma, leading to delayed healing or non-union of the bone. In these situations, various strategies and techniques, including the use of bone grafts, scaffolds, and growth factors, can be employed to enhance and support the bone regeneration process.

The metacarpus is the medical term for the part of the hand located between the carpus (wrist) and the digits (fingers). It consists of five bones, known as the metacarpal bones, which are numbered 1 to 5 from the thumb side to the little finger side. Each metacarpal bone has a base, a shaft, and a head. The bases of the metacarpal bones articulate with the carpal bones to form the wrist joint, while the heads of the metacarpal bones form the knuckles at the back of the hand.

The metacarpus plays an essential role in hand function as it provides stability and support for the movement of the fingers and thumb. Injuries or conditions affecting the metacarpus can significantly impact hand function, causing pain, stiffness, weakness, or deformity.

The epiphyses are the rounded ends of long bones in the body, which articulate with other bones to form joints. They are separated from the main shaft of the bone (diaphysis) by a growth plate called the physis or epiphyseal plate. The epiphyses are made up of spongy bone and covered with articular cartilage, which allows for smooth movement between bones. During growth, the epiphyseal plates produce new bone cells that cause the bone to lengthen until they eventually fuse during adulthood, at which point growth stops.

The femur is the medical term for the thigh bone, which is the longest and strongest bone in the human body. It connects the hip bone to the knee joint and plays a crucial role in supporting the weight of the body and allowing movement during activities such as walking, running, and jumping. The femur is composed of a rounded head, a long shaft, and two condyles at the lower end that articulate with the tibia and patella to form the knee joint.

Cementoma is a benign (non-cancerous) tumor that primarily affects the jaw bones, particularly the lower jaw (mandible). It is characterized by the growth of abnormal cementum-like tissue within the bone. Cementum is a hard tissue that covers the roots of teeth and helps anchor them to the jawbone.

There are different types of cementomas, including:

1. Periapical cemental dysplasia (PCD): This type of cementoma usually affects the anterior region of the lower jaw and is often associated with non-vital teeth. It typically presents as a small, radiopaque (dark) area on an X-ray.

2. Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD): FCOD is a more widespread form of cementoma that affects multiple areas of the jawbones. It primarily affects middle-aged women and can cause significant bone remodeling, leading to radiopaque lesions on X-rays.

3. Gigantiform cementoma: This rare, aggressive type of cementoma typically affects children and adolescents. It can cause rapid bone growth and expansion, resulting in facial deformities and functional impairments.

4. Ossifying fibroma: Although not strictly a cementoma, ossifying fibroma shares some similarities with these tumors. It is characterized by the formation of both bone and cementum-like tissue within the lesion.

Treatment for cementomas depends on their size, location, and growth rate. Small, asymptomatic lesions may not require treatment, while larger or symptomatic ones might need surgical removal to prevent complications such as tooth displacement, infection, or pathological fractures. Regular follow-ups with dental X-rays are essential to monitor the progression of these lesions.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Orbital diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the orbit, which is the bony cavity in the skull that contains the eye, muscles, nerves, fat, and blood vessels. These diseases can cause various symptoms such as eyelid swelling, protrusion or displacement of the eyeball, double vision, pain, and limited extraocular muscle movement.

Orbital diseases can be broadly classified into inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic (benign or malignant), vascular, traumatic, and congenital categories. Some examples of orbital diseases include:

* Orbital cellulitis: a bacterial or fungal infection that causes swelling and inflammation in the orbit
* Graves' disease: an autoimmune disorder that affects the thyroid gland and can cause protrusion of the eyeballs (exophthalmos)
* Orbital tumors: benign or malignant growths that develop in the orbit, such as optic nerve gliomas, lacrimal gland tumors, and lymphomas
* Carotid-cavernous fistulas: abnormal connections between the carotid artery and cavernous sinus, leading to pulsatile proptosis and other symptoms
* Orbital fractures: breaks in the bones surrounding the orbit, often caused by trauma
* Congenital anomalies: structural abnormalities present at birth, such as craniofacial syndromes or dermoid cysts.

Proper diagnosis and management of orbital diseases require a multidisciplinary approach involving ophthalmologists, neurologists, radiologists, and other specialists.

The tibia, also known as the shin bone, is the larger of the two bones in the lower leg and part of the knee joint. It supports most of the body's weight and is a major insertion point for muscles that flex the foot and bend the leg. The tibia articulates with the femur at the knee joint and with the fibula and talus bone at the ankle joint. Injuries to the tibia, such as fractures, are common in sports and other activities that put stress on the lower leg.

The calcaneus is the largest tarsal bone in the human foot, and it is commonly known as the heel bone. It articulates with the cuboid bone anteriorly, the talus bone superiorly, and several tendons and ligaments that help to form the posterior portion of the foot's skeletal structure. The calcaneus plays a crucial role in weight-bearing and movement, as it forms the lower part of the leg's ankle joint and helps to absorb shock during walking or running.

Odontogenic cysts are a type of cyst that originates from the dental tissues or odontogenic apparatus. They are typically found in the jawbones, and can be classified as developmental or inflammatory in origin. Developmental odontogenic cysts arise from remnants of the tooth-forming structures, while inflammatory odontogenic cysts result from an infection or injury to a tooth.

The most common types of odontogenic cysts include:

1. Periapical cyst - an inflammatory cyst that forms at the tip of the root of a dead or non-vital tooth.
2. Dentigerous cyst - a developmental cyst that surrounds the crown of an unerupted or impacted tooth.
3. Follicular cyst - a type of dentigerous cyst that forms around the crown of an unerupted wisdom tooth.
4. Odontogenic keratocyst - a developmental cyst that arises from the dental lamina and has a high recurrence rate.
5. Lateral periodontal cyst - a rare, developmental cyst that forms in the periodontal ligament of a vital tooth.

Odontogenic cysts can cause various symptoms such as swelling, pain, or numbness in the affected area. They may also displace or resorb adjacent teeth. Diagnosis is typically made through radiographic imaging and histopathological examination of tissue samples obtained through biopsy. Treatment options include surgical excision, marsupialization (a procedure that creates an opening between the cyst and oral cavity), or enucleation (removal of the cyst lining).

Methylprednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid drug, which is a class of hormones that naturally occur in the body and are produced by the adrenal gland. It is often used to treat various medical conditions such as inflammation, allergies, and autoimmune disorders. Methylprednisolone works by reducing the activity of the immune system, which helps to reduce symptoms such as swelling, pain, and redness.

Methylprednisolone is available in several forms, including tablets, oral suspension, and injectable solutions. It may be used for short-term or long-term treatment, depending on the condition being treated. Common side effects of methylprednisolone include increased appetite, weight gain, insomnia, mood changes, and increased susceptibility to infections. Long-term use of methylprednisolone can lead to more serious side effects such as osteoporosis, cataracts, and adrenal suppression.

It is important to note that methylprednisolone should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can cause serious side effects if not used properly. The dosage and duration of treatment will depend on various factors such as the patient's age, weight, medical history, and the condition being treated.

In medical terms, ribs are the long, curved bones that make up the ribcage in the human body. They articulate with the thoracic vertebrae posteriorly and connect to the sternum anteriorly via costal cartilages. There are 12 pairs of ribs in total, and they play a crucial role in protecting the lungs and heart, allowing room for expansion and contraction during breathing. Ribs also provide attachment points for various muscles involved in respiration and posture.

A radicular cyst is a type of dental cyst that forms around the root of a tooth, usually as a result of chronic infection or inflammation. It is also known as a periapical cyst. The cyst develops from the accumulation of fluid and cells in the periodontal ligament, which is the tissue that connects the tooth to the jawbone.

Radicular cysts are often caused by untreated dental caries or trauma to the tooth that allows bacteria to enter the pulp chamber of the tooth and cause an infection. Over time, the infection can spread to the surrounding tissues, leading to the formation of a cyst. Symptoms of a radicular cyst may include pain, swelling, and tenderness in the affected area. Treatment typically involves removing the affected tooth and the cyst through a surgical procedure.

I believe you are referring to "bone pins" or "bone nails" rather than "bone nails." These terms are used in the medical field to describe surgical implants made of metal or biocompatible materials that are used to stabilize and hold together fractured bones during the healing process. They can also be used in spinal fusion surgery to provide stability and promote bone growth between vertebrae.

Bone pins or nails typically have a threaded or smooth shaft, with a small diameter that allows them to be inserted into the medullary canal of long bones such as the femur or tibia. They may also have a head or eyelet on one end that allows for attachment to external fixation devices or other surgical instruments.

The use of bone pins and nails has revolutionized orthopedic surgery, allowing for faster healing times, improved stability, and better functional outcomes for patients with fractures or spinal deformities.

Oral surgical procedures refer to various types of surgeries performed in the oral cavity and maxillofacial region, which includes the mouth, jaws, face, and skull. These procedures are typically performed by oral and maxillofacial surgeons, who are dental specialists with extensive training in surgical procedures involving the mouth, jaws, and face.

Some common examples of oral surgical procedures include:

1. Tooth extractions: This involves removing a tooth that is damaged beyond repair or causing problems for the surrounding teeth. Wisdom tooth removal is a common type of tooth extraction.
2. Dental implant placement: This procedure involves placing a small titanium post in the jawbone to serve as a replacement root for a missing tooth. A dental crown is then attached to the implant, creating a natural-looking and functional replacement tooth.
3. Jaw surgery: Also known as orthognathic surgery, this procedure involves repositioning the jaws to correct bite problems or facial asymmetry.
4. Biopsy: This procedure involves removing a small sample of tissue from the oral cavity for laboratory analysis, often to diagnose suspicious lesions or growths.
5. Lesion removal: This procedure involves removing benign or malignant growths from the oral cavity, such as tumors or cysts.
6. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) surgery: This procedure involves treating disorders of the TMJ, which connects the jawbone to the skull and allows for movement when eating, speaking, and yawning.
7. Facial reconstruction: This procedure involves rebuilding or reshaping the facial bones after trauma, cancer surgery, or other conditions that affect the face.

Overall, oral surgical procedures are an important part of dental and medical care, helping to diagnose and treat a wide range of conditions affecting the mouth, jaws, and face.

Giant cell tumors (GCTs) are a type of benign or rarely malignant bone tumor that is characterized by the presence of multinucleated giant cells. These tumors typically affect adults between the ages of 20 and 40, and they can occur in any bone, but they most commonly involve the long bones near the knee joint.

GCTs are composed of three types of cells: mononuclear stromal cells, which produce the matrix of the tumor; multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells, which resemble the bone-resorbing cells found in normal bone; and macrophages, which are part of the body's immune system.

The mononuclear stromal cells produce a variety of growth factors that stimulate the formation and activity of the osteoclast-like giant cells, leading to localized bone destruction. The tumor may cause pain, swelling, and limited mobility in the affected area.

While GCTs are typically benign, they can be aggressive and locally destructive, with a tendency to recur after surgical removal. In some cases, GCTs may undergo malignant transformation, leading to the development of sarcomas. Treatment options for GCTs include curettage (scraping out) of the tumor, followed by bone grafting or the use of a cement spacer to fill the defect, and/or adjuvant therapy with radiation or chemotherapy.

A dentigerous cyst is a type of odontogenic cyst that forms around the crown of an unerupted tooth. It is typically slow-growing and often asymptomatic, but it can cause displacement or resorption of adjacent teeth if it becomes large enough. Dentigerous cysts are more common in permanent teeth than primary teeth, and they are more likely to occur in the mandible (lower jaw) than the maxilla (upper jaw). They are usually diagnosed through radiographic examination and can be treated by surgical removal of the cyst along with the affected tooth. If left untreated, dentigerous cysts can continue to grow and may eventually develop into a tumor or cancer.

The patella, also known as the kneecap, is a sesamoid bone located at the front of the knee joint. It is embedded in the tendon of the quadriceps muscle and serves to protect the knee joint and increase the leverage of the extensor mechanism, allowing for greater extension force of the lower leg. The patella moves within a groove on the femur called the trochlea during flexion and extension of the knee.

Metabolic bone diseases are a group of conditions that affect the bones and are caused by disorders in the body's metabolism. These disorders can result in changes to the bone structure, density, and strength, leading to an increased risk of fractures and other complications. Some common examples of metabolic bone diseases include:

1. Osteoporosis: a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones that are more likely to break, often as a result of age-related bone loss or hormonal changes.
2. Paget's disease of bone: a chronic disorder that causes abnormal bone growth and deformities, leading to fragile and enlarged bones.
3. Osteomalacia: a condition caused by a lack of vitamin D or problems with the body's ability to absorb it, resulting in weak and soft bones.
4. Hyperparathyroidism: a hormonal disorder that causes too much parathyroid hormone to be produced, leading to bone loss and other complications.
5. Hypoparathyroidism: a hormonal disorder that results in low levels of parathyroid hormone, causing weak and brittle bones.
6. Renal osteodystrophy: a group of bone disorders that occur as a result of chronic kidney disease, including osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and high turnover bone disease.

Treatment for metabolic bone diseases may include medications to improve bone density and strength, dietary changes, exercise, and lifestyle modifications. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct bone deformities or fractures.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Surgical decompression is a medical procedure that involves relieving pressure on a nerve or tissue by creating additional space. This is typically accomplished through the removal of a portion of bone or other tissue that is causing the compression. The goal of surgical decompression is to alleviate symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness caused by the compression.

In the context of spinal disorders, surgical decompression is often used to treat conditions such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, or bone spurs that are compressing nerves in the spine. The specific procedure used may vary depending on the location and severity of the compression, but common techniques include laminectomy, discectomy, and foraminotomy.

It's important to note that surgical decompression is a significant medical intervention that carries risks such as infection, bleeding, and injury to surrounding tissues. As with any surgery, it should be considered as a last resort after other conservative treatments have been tried and found to be ineffective. A thorough evaluation by a qualified medical professional is necessary to determine whether surgical decompression is appropriate in a given case.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

An injection is a medical procedure in which a medication, vaccine, or other substance is introduced into the body using a needle and syringe. The substance can be delivered into various parts of the body, including into a vein (intravenous), muscle (intramuscular), under the skin (subcutaneous), or into the spinal canal (intrathecal or spinal).

Injections are commonly used to administer medications that cannot be taken orally, have poor oral bioavailability, need to reach the site of action quickly, or require direct delivery to a specific organ or tissue. They can also be used for diagnostic purposes, such as drawing blood samples (venipuncture) or injecting contrast agents for imaging studies.

Proper technique and sterile conditions are essential when administering injections to prevent infection, pain, and other complications. The choice of injection site depends on the type and volume of the substance being administered, as well as the patient's age, health status, and personal preferences.

A Mesenteric Cyst is a rare, benign abdominal mass that forms within the mesentery, which is the fold of membrane that attaches the intestine to the abdominal wall and contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves. These cysts can vary in size from a few centimeters to several inches in diameter. They are typically asymptomatic but can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, or a palpable mass, depending on their size and location. The exact cause of mesenteric cysts is not well understood, but they may be congenital or acquired due to trauma, inflammation, or surgery. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the cyst.

A giant cell granuloma is a type of non-cancerous (benign) lesion characterized by the presence of large collections of immune cells called macrophages, which have fused together to form multinucleated giant cells. These lesions can occur in various tissues throughout the body but are most commonly found in the oral cavity and jawbone.

Giant cell granulomas can be further classified into two types: central (or bone) giant cell granuloma and peripheral giant cell granuloma. Central giant cell granulomas arise from the bone, while peripheral giant cell granulomas occur in the soft tissues of the gingiva or mouth lining.

Central giant cell granulomas are more aggressive than peripheral ones and can cause significant bone destruction if left untreated. They typically affect younger individuals, with a higher prevalence in females than males. The exact cause of central giant cell granulomas is not well understood but may be associated with local trauma, hormonal imbalances, or genetic factors.

Peripheral giant cell granulomas are less aggressive and usually present as painless, slow-growing nodules on the gums. They typically affect adults, with a higher prevalence in females than males. Peripheral giant cell granulomas may be associated with local irritants such as plaque, calculus, or dental restorations.

Treatment for giant cell granulomas depends on their size, location, and aggressiveness. Surgical excision is the most common treatment approach, but other options such as curettage, corticosteroid injections, or medication therapy may also be considered. Regular follow-up appointments with a healthcare provider are essential to monitor for recurrence.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Ubiquitin Thiolesterase" is not a widely recognized medical term or a well-defined concept in the field of medicine. Ubiquitination, however, is a post-translational modification that plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including protein degradation and regulation of signaling pathways.

Ubiquitin Thiolesterase could potentially refer to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a thioester bond between ubiquitin and a target protein. This process would be part of the ubiquitination cascade, where ubiquitin is transferred from one protein to another through various intermediates, including thioester bonds. However, I would recommend consulting primary literature or speaking with an expert in the field for more precise information on this topic.

Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) are a group of growth factors that play crucial roles in the development, growth, and repair of bones and other tissues. They belong to the Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily and were first discovered when researchers found that certain proteins extracted from demineralized bone matrix had the ability to induce new bone formation.

BMPs stimulate the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts, which are the cells responsible for bone formation. They also promote the recruitment and proliferation of these cells, enhancing the overall process of bone regeneration. In addition to their role in bone biology, BMPs have been implicated in various other biological processes, including embryonic development, wound healing, and the regulation of fat metabolism.

There are several types of BMPs (BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-7, etc.) that exhibit distinct functions and expression patterns. Due to their ability to stimulate bone formation, recombinant human BMPs have been used in clinical applications, such as spinal fusion surgery and non-healing fracture treatment. However, the use of BMPs in medicine has been associated with certain risks and complications, including uncontrolled bone growth, inflammation, and cancer development, which necessitates further research to optimize their therapeutic potential.

Fracture healing is the natural process by which a broken bone repairs itself. When a fracture occurs, the body responds by initiating a series of biological and cellular events aimed at restoring the structural integrity of the bone. This process involves the formation of a hematoma (a collection of blood) around the fracture site, followed by the activation of inflammatory cells that help to clean up debris and prepare the area for repair.

Over time, specialized cells called osteoblasts begin to lay down new bone matrix, or osteoid, along the edges of the broken bone ends. This osteoid eventually hardens into new bone tissue, forming a bridge between the fracture fragments. As this process continues, the callus (a mass of newly formed bone and connective tissue) gradually becomes stronger and more compact, eventually remodeling itself into a solid, unbroken bone.

The entire process of fracture healing can take several weeks to several months, depending on factors such as the severity of the injury, the patient's age and overall health, and the location of the fracture. In some cases, medical intervention may be necessary to help promote healing or ensure proper alignment of the bone fragments. This may include the use of casts, braces, or surgical implants such as plates, screws, or rods.

The cervical vertebrae are the seven vertebrae that make up the upper part of the spine, also known as the neck region. They are labeled C1 to C7, with C1 being closest to the skull and C7 connecting to the thoracic vertebrae in the chest region. The cervical vertebrae have unique structures to allow for a wide range of motion in the neck while also protecting the spinal cord and providing attachment points for muscles and ligaments.

Sclerotherapy is a medical procedure used to treat varicose veins and spider veins. It involves the injection of a solution (called a sclerosant) directly into the affected vein, which causes the vein to collapse and eventually fade away. The sclerosant works by irritating the lining of the vein, causing it to swell and stick together, which then leads to clotting and the eventual reabsorption of the vein by the body.

The procedure is typically performed in a doctor's office or outpatient setting and may require multiple sessions depending on the severity and number of veins being treated. Common side effects include bruising, swelling, and discomfort at the injection site, as well as the possibility of developing brownish pigmentation or small ulcers near the treatment area. However, these side effects are usually temporary and resolve on their own within a few weeks.

Sclerotherapy is considered a safe and effective treatment for varicose veins and spider veins, with high success rates and low complication rates. It is important to note that while sclerotherapy can improve the appearance of affected veins, it does not prevent new veins from developing in the future.

Tarlov cysts, also known as perineural cysts or sacral nerve root sheath cysts, are fluid-filled sacs that develop on the outside of the spinal nerve roots, most commonly found in the lower spine (sacrum). These cysts typically form at the point where the nerves exit the spinal canal and enter the surrounding tissue. They are usually benign but can cause various symptoms depending on their size and location.

Tarlov cysts contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is the same fluid that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord. The exact cause of Tarlov cysts remains unclear, but they may result from trauma, degenerative changes, or congenital factors. Some individuals with Tarlov cysts may not experience any symptoms, while others might have pain, tingling, numbness, or weakness in the lower back, legs, or feet. In rare cases, Tarlov cysts can lead to more severe complications such as nerve compression or spinal cord injury. Treatment options for Tarlov cysts include observation, pain management, and surgical intervention in select cases.

... micrograph of an aneurysmal bone cyst Intermediate magnification micrograph of an aneurysmal bone cyst Simple bone cyst (SBC) ... Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a non-cancerous bone tumor composed of multiple varying sizes of spaces in a bone which are ... Unicameral bone cyst Giant cell tumor Telangiectatic osteosarcoma Secondary aneurysmal bone cyst Curettage is performed on some ... Aneurysmal bone cysts may be intraosseous, staying inside of the bone marrow. Or they may be extraosseous, developing on the ...
Unicameral bone cyst (simple or solidary bone cyst) Aneurysmal bone cyst Traumatic bone cyst On CT scans, bone cysts that have ... "aneurismal cyst" in 1942 In 1950 they modified this term to "aneurismal bone cyst". They may be associated with bone tumors. ... Aneurysmal bone cysts are benign neoformations which can affect any bone. More than half occur in the metaphysis of long bones ... The traumatic bone cyst, also referred to as a simple bone cyst or hemorrhagic cyst, is a pseudocyst that most commonly affects ...
Inflammatory collateral cyst B. Non-epithelial-lined cysts 1. Solitary bone cyst 2. Aneurysmal bone cyst II. Cysts associated ... ranging from anatomic variants such as Stafne static bone cyst, to the aggressive aneurysmal bone cyst. I. Cysts of the jaws A ... Paradental cyst Periapical cyst (The periapical cyst, otherwise known as radicular cyst, is the most common odontogenic cyst.) ... Cyst Mucous cyst of the oral mucosa Zadik, Yehuda; Aktaş, Alper; Drucker, Scott; Nitzan W., Dorrit (2012). "Aneurysmal bone ...
Mascard, E.; Gomez-Brouchet, A.; Lambot, K. (February 2015). "Bone cysts: Unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst". Orthopaedics & ... A unicameral bone cyst, also known as a simple bone cyst, is a cavity filled with a yellow-colored fluid. It is considered to ... 2020). "3. Bone tumours: simple bone cyst". Soft Tissue and Bone Tumours: WHO Classification of Tumours. Vol. 3 (5th ed.). Lyon ... Bone Grafting: Bone grafting is proceeded with after curettage; the empty cavity is transplanted with donor bone tissue, bone ...
Sartawi, Muthana; Quateen, Ahmed; Nataraj, Andrew; Medairos, Robert (2015). "Spinal Intradural Aneurysmal Bone Cyst: A Case ...
168-175 Aneurysmal bone cysts of the phalanges. The Hand, 13 (1981), 296-300 Spontaneous healing of aneurysmal bone cysts. JBJS ... Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 41-B (1959), 160-179 The growth of transplanted foetal bones in different immunological ... Scottish Bone Tumour Registry Medical Research Council Committee on Osteoporosis Surgical representative on the Merit Award ... I Age changes in cancellous bone. JBJS 48-A (1966), 289-299 II An evaluation of some methods for measuring osteoporosis. JBJS ...
... identify the neoplastic cell in primary aneurysmal bone cysts and are absent in so-called secondary aneurysmal bone cysts". Am ... 2005). "Aneurysmal bone cyst variant translocations upregulate USP6 transcription by promoter swapping with the ZNF9, COL1A1, ... Giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG): GCRG are regarded as variants of aneurysmal bone cysts that occur in sites other than ... 2004). "USP6 (Tre2) fusion oncogenes in aneurysmal bone cyst". Cancer Res. 64 (6): 1920-3. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-03-2827. ...
Glial cyst Tarlov cyst (spinal canal) Aneurysmal bone cyst, a benign bone tumor with a radiographic cystic appearance. Baker's ... Mucous cyst of the oral mucosa Nasolabial cyst Thyroglossal cyst Vocal fold cyst Fibrous cyst (breast cyst) Pulmonary cyst (air ... cyst or popliteal cyst (behind the knee joint) Mucoid cyst (ganglion cysts of the digits) Stafne static bone cyst (an anatomic ... Sebaceous cyst - sac below skin Trichilemmal cyst - same as a pilar cyst, a familial cyst of the scalp Odontogenic cyst ...
Zadik Y, Aktaş A, Drucker S, Nitzan DW (December 2012). "Aneurysmal bone cyst of mandibular condyle: a case report and review ... These conditions include chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, giant cell tumor, and aneurysmal bone cyst. The temporomandibular joints ... Aplasia of mandible or cranial bone Hypoplasia of mandible or cranial bone Hyperplasia of mandible or cranial bone Dysplasia ... This is the last growth center of bone in the body and is multidirectional in its growth capacity, unlike a typical long bone. ...
Oliveira AM, Chou MM (January 2014). "USP6-induced neoplasms: the biologic spectrum of aneurysmal bone cyst and nodular ... Oliveira AM, Chou MM (January 2014). "USP6-induced neoplasms: the biologic spectrum of aneurysmal bone cyst and nodular ... June 2010). "TRE17/USP6 oncogene translocated in aneurysmal bone cyst induces matrix metalloproteinase production via ... They typically present with a tumor in areas of the head that lay directly over the temporal or parietal bones. Individual ...
... such as Stafne static bone cyst and aneurysmal bone cyst of the jaws. Pseudocysts are often asymptomatic. Symptoms are more ... Types of adrenal cysts include parasitic cysts, epithelial cysts, endothelial cysts, and pseudocysts. 56% of all adrenal cyst- ... Zadik, Yehuda; Aktaş, Alper; Drucker, Scott; Nitzan, Dorrit W. (2012). "Aneurysmal bone cyst of mandibular condyle: A case ... Not all cysts require treatment. Many pancreatic pseudocysts improve and disappear by themselves. If the cysts are small and ...
Giant cell tumor of bone with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst-like change producing β-human chorionic gonadotropin. Skeletal ... Fitzhugh specializes in bone and soft tissue pathology and cytopathology and has made the Pathology Power List by The ... As a physician specializing in orthopedic pathology and cytopathology, Fitzhugh signs out surgical pathology specimens, bone ...
These include, aneurysmal bone cyst, chondroblastoma, simple bone cyst, osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, osteosarcoma, giant- ... and fluid levels due to aneurysmal bone cyst or bleeding within tumour. However, axial views of the subarticular bone (bony ... Large cell Aneurysmal bone cyst Pai SB, Lalitha RM, Prasad K, Rao SG, Harish K (September 2005). "Giant cell tumor of the ... Giant-cell tumor of the bone accounts for 4-5% of primary bone tumors and about 20% of benign bone tumors. However, ...
... giant-cell tumor of bone, and aneurysmal bone cyst. Cancer can arise in bone tissue, and bones are also a common site for other ... Most of the bones of the skull are flat bones, as is the sternum. Sesamoid bones are bones embedded in tendons. Since they act ... Cancellous bone, or spongy bone, also known as trabecular bone, is the internal tissue of the skeletal bone and is an open cell ... Bone tissue is mineralized tissue of two types, cortical bone and cancellous bone. Other types of tissue found in bones include ...
... giant cell tumor of bone and aneurysmal bone cyst.[citation needed] Malignant primary bone tumors, known as bone sarcomas, ... Stage 1A bone cancer Stage 1B bone cancer Stage 2A bone cancer Stage 2B bone cancer Stage 3 bone cancer Treatment of bone ... and hematopoietic neoplasms of bone. Bone tumors may be classified as "primary tumors", which originate in bone or from bone- ... Instead of amputation, the affected bone is removed and replaced in one of two ways: (a) bone graft, in which bone is taken ...
Additionally, one-third of all cases involve aneurysmal bone cysts which are thought to be the result of stress, trauma or ... "Chondroblastoma of Bone." The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 82A.8 (2000): 1140-1145. Web. 6 Dec. 2015. Kurt, Ann-Marie, et ... Other differential diagnoses for chondroblastoma consist of giant cell tumors, bone cysts, eosinophilic granulomas, clear cell ... However, local recurrence for long bone lesions is around 10%, with chondroblastoma in flat bones having higher recurrence and ...
She twice underwent surgery on her neck following a separation of the vertebrae due to an aneurysmal bone cyst. She was ...
... identify the neoplastic cell in primary aneurysmal bone cysts and are absent in so-called secondary aneurysmal bone cysts". Am ... Bone Miner. Res. 14 (5): 764-75. doi:10.1359/jbmr.1999.14.5.764. PMID 10320525. S2CID 12829659. Braungart E, Schumacher C, ... suggests a specific function in bone development and maintenance. The mammalian CDH-11 homologues are termed calsyntenin. CDH11 ...
Odontogenic myxoma Hemangioma Central odontogenic fibroma Brown tumour of hyperparathyroidism Cherubism Aneurysmal bone cysts ... Lobules of the lesion can be separated by fibrous tissue or even thin layer of bone or osteoid that can be seen ... This growth can also erode through bone including the alveolar ridge, resulting in a soft tissue swelling that is purple in ... Rapidly growing tumours are more likely to recur and can sometimes require full excision with surrounding bone. Large lesions ...
... simple bone cyst, aneurysmal bone cyst, non-ossifying fibroma, and osteoid osteoma. One of the clinical signs of rickets that ... Anatomy photo: Musculoskeletal/bone/structure0/structure2 - Comparative Organology at University of California, Davis - "Bone, ... It contains the growth plate, the part of the bone that grows during childhood, and as it grows it ossifies near the diaphysis ... The metaphysis contains a diverse population of cells including mesenchymal stem cells, which give rise to bone and fat cells, ...
see the entry for aneurysmal bone cyst, which "like pyogenic granuloma and ganglion cyst, a misnomer that has withstood the ... Cyst on right wrist Cyst on dorsum of right foot Cyst on a finger Small cyst on right index finger small cyst on thumb lanced ... The average size of these cysts is 2.0 cm, but excised cysts of more than 5 cm have been reported. The size of the cyst may ... Cysts that were compressing one or more nerves and causing bone erosions have been reported to occur near the shoulder joint. ...
MeSH C05.116.070.265 - bone cysts, aneurysmal MeSH C05.116.099.052 - acro-osteolysis MeSH C05.116.099.052.400 - Hajdu-Cheney ... odontogenic cyst, calcifying MeSH C05.500.470.690.790 - periodontal cyst MeSH C05.500.470.690.790.820 - radicular cyst MeSH ... odontogenic cysts MeSH C05.500.470.690.150 - basal cell nevus syndrome MeSH C05.500.470.690.310 - dentigerous cyst MeSH C05.500 ... alveolar bone loss MeSH C05.116.264.579 - osteolysis MeSH C05.116.264.579.052 - acro-osteolysis MeSH C05.116.264.579.052.400 - ...
MeSH C04.182.089.265 - bone cysts, aneurysmal MeSH C04.182.089.530 - jaw cysts MeSH C04.182.089.530.660 - nonodontogenic cysts ... odontogenic cyst, calcifying MeSH C04.182.089.530.690.790 - periodontal cyst MeSH C04.182.089.530.690.790.820 - radicular cyst ... bone tissue MeSH C04.557.450.565.575.400 - fibroma, ossifying MeSH C04.557.450.565.575.420 - giant cell tumor of bone MeSH ... central nervous system cysts MeSH C04.588.614.250.387.100 - arachnoid cysts MeSH C04.588.614.250.580 - meningeal neoplasms MeSH ...
Teratoma Lipoma Ganglioneuroma Myxopapillary ependymoma Primitive neuroectodermal tumor Aneurysmal bone cyst Ewing's sarcoma ...
... a large feline outside its indigenous range Aneurysmal bone cyst, a kind of lesion ATP-binding cassette transporter, a ...
Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 6 linked to Aneurysmal bone cyst (17p13) ACADVL: acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, very long ... 17q12 microdeletion syndrome Koolen-de Vries syndrome Alexander disease Andersen-Tawil syndrome Aneurysmal bone cyst Birt-Hogg- ... Breast cancer Bruck syndrome Campomelic dysplasia Canavan disease Cerebroretinal microangiopathy with calcifications and cysts ...
Aneurysmal bone cyst - Ankle replacement - Anterior cruciate ligament injury - Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction - ... Bone cutter - Bone cyst - Bone density - Bone disease - Bone fracture - Bone fracture healing - Bone grafting - Bone healing - ... Bone metastases - Bone mineral - Bone pathology - Bone remodeling - Bone resorption - Bone tumor - Bone - Bosworth fracture - ... Sesamoid bone - Sesamoiditis - Sever's disease - Shenton's Line - Shepherd's fracture - Shin splints - Short bone - Shoulder ...
Clinical experience has been gained from aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC), simple bone cysts (UBC), enchondroma and nonossifying ... up study of bioactive glass and autogenous bone as bone graft substitutes in benign bone tumours". J Biomed Mater Res. 94B (1 ... Bone consolidation occurs. S53P4 bioactive glass continues to remodel into bone over a period of years. The bacterial growth ... Bioactive glass bonds to bone - facilitating new bone formation. Osteostimulation begins by stimulating osteogenic cells to ...
Primary hyperparathyroidism Simple bone cyst Aneurismal bone cyst Osteoporosis Chronic osteomyelitis Osteogenesis imperfecta ... benign bone tumours and cysts, secondary malignant bone tumours and primary malignant bone tumours. Fragility fracture is a ... inherited bone disorders, or a bone cyst. Only a small number of conditions are commonly responsible for pathological fractures ... A pathologic fracture is a bone fracture caused by weakness of the bone structure that leads to decrease mechanical resistance ...
... type V choledochal cyst) Type IV choledochal cysts Treatment is usually directed towards management of the underlying cause. ... In the phlebectatic type, the blood-filled spaces are lined with endothelium and are associated with aneurysmal dilatation of ... It also occasionally affects spleen, lymph nodes, lungs, kidneys, adrenal glands, bone marrow, and other parts of ... Polycystic liver disease Solitary congenital cysts Congenital hepatic fibrosis Hydatid cyst Von Meyenburg complexes Caroli ...

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