Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.
Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.
The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.
Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)
Procedures to repair or stabilize vertebral fractures, especially compression fractures accomplished by injecting BONE CEMENTS into the fractured VERTEBRAE.
A polymer obtained by reacting polyacrylic acid with a special anion-leachable glass (alumino-silicate). The resulting cement is more durable and tougher than others in that the materials comprising the polymer backbone do not leach out.
The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
A relatively hard, translucent, restorative material used primarily in anterior teeth. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p50)
The methyl ester of methacrylic acid. It polymerizes easily to form POLYMETHYL METHACRYLATE. It is used as a bone cement.
Water-soluble low-molecular-weight polymers of acrylic or methacrylic acid that form solid, insoluble products when mixed with specially prepared ZnO powder. The resulting cement adheres to dental enamel and is also used as a luting agent.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
The joining of objects by means of a cement (e.g., in fracture fixation, such as in hip arthroplasty for joining of the acetabular component to the femoral component). In dentistry, it is used for the process of attaching parts of a tooth or restorative material to a natural tooth or for the attaching of orthodontic bands to teeth by means of an adhesive.
Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A compound used as an x-ray contrast medium that occurs in nature as the mineral barite. It is also used in various manufacturing applications and mixed into heavy concrete to serve as a radiation shield.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Crumbling or smashing of cancellous BONE by forces acting parallel to the long axis of bone. It is applied particularly to vertebral body fractures (SPINAL FRACTURES). (Blauvelt and Nelson, A Manual of Orthopedic Terminology, 1994, p4)
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
Broken bones in the vertebral column.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.
Used as a dental cement this is mainly zinc oxide (with strengtheners and accelerators) and eugenol. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p50)
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS that induce a dispersion of undissolved material throughout a liquid.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
Diseases of BONES.
Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
Replacement for a hip joint.
Nonexpendable items used in the performance of orthopedic surgery and related therapy. They are differentiated from ORTHOTIC DEVICES, apparatus used to prevent or correct deformities in patients.
Infections resulting from the implantation of prosthetic devices. The infections may be acquired from intraoperative contamination (early) or hematogenously acquired from other sites (late).
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
Acrylic resins, also known as polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), are a type of synthetic resin formed from polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers, used in various medical applications such as dental restorations, orthopedic implants, and ophthalmic lenses due to their biocompatibility, durability, and transparency.
Procedures to restore vertebrae to their original shape following vertebral compression fractures by inflating a balloon inserted into the vertebrae, followed by removal of the balloon and injection of BONE CEMENTS to fill the cavity.
Supplies used in building.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Replacement of the hip joint.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).
The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.
Prostheses used to partially or totally replace a human or animal joint. (from UMDNS, 1999)
The administration of medication by insertion of a tiny needle or catheter into the spinal sac or epidural cavity.
The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).
'Osteomyelitis' is a medical condition defined as an inflammation or infection of the bone or marrow, often caused by bacteria or fungi, which can lead to symptoms such as pain, swelling, warmth, and redness in the affected area, and may require antibiotics or surgical intervention for treatment.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Toluidines are a group of organic compounds consisting of various derivatives of toluene with an amine group (-NH2) attached to the benzene ring, which have been used in chemical synthesis and historical medical research but are not currently utilized as therapeutic agents due to their carcinogenic properties.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
An aminoglycoside, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius. It is effective against gram-negative bacteria, especially the PSEUDOMONAS species. It is a 10% component of the antibiotic complex, NEBRAMYCIN, produced by the same species.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via chemical reactions, usually involving two components. This type of dental bonding uses a self-cure or dual-cure system.
The spinal or vertebral column.
Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.
Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.
The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.
Holding a DENTAL PROSTHESIS in place by its design, or by the use of additional devices or adhesives.
Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.
A prosthesis or restoration placed for a limited period, from several days to several months, which is designed to seal the tooth and maintain its position until a permanent restoration (DENTAL RESTORATION, PERMANENT) will replace it. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
Spinal neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop within the spinal column, which can be benign or malignant, and originate from cells within the spinal structure or spread to the spine from other parts of the body (metastatic).
Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A scraping, usually of the interior of a cavity or tract, for removal of new growth or other abnormal tissue, or to obtain material for tissue diagnosis. It is performed with a curet (curette), a spoon-shaped instrument designed for that purpose. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Dorland, 27th ed)
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A dead body, usually a human body.
Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.
Surgical reconstruction of a joint to relieve pain or restore motion.
Metabolic bone diseases are a group of disorders that affect the bones' structure and strength, caused by disturbances in the normal metabolic processes involved in bone formation, resorption, or mineralization, including conditions like osteoporosis, osteomalacia, Paget's disease, and renal osteodystrophy.
Blocking of a blood vessel by fat deposits in the circulation. It is often seen after fractures of large bones or after administration of CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Breaks in bones.
Acrylates are a group of synthetic compounds based on acrylic acid, commonly used in various industrial and medical applications such as adhesives, coatings, and dental materials, known to cause allergic reactions and contact dermatitis in sensitive individuals.
The reaction product of bisphenol A and glycidyl methacrylate that undergoes polymerization when exposed to ultraviolet light or mixed with a catalyst. It is used as a bond implant material and as the resin component of dental sealants and composite restorative materials.
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.
Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.
The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via exposure to light.
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.
Replacement for a knee joint.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.
The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.
A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.
Partial or total replacement of a joint.
The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.
Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.
A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A subfield of acoustics dealing in the radio frequency range higher than acoustic SOUND waves (approximately above 20 kilohertz). Ultrasonic radiation is used therapeutically (DIATHERMY and ULTRASONIC THERAPY) to generate HEAT and to selectively destroy tissues. It is also used in diagnostics, for example, ULTRASONOGRAPHY; ECHOENCEPHALOGRAPHY; and ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, to visually display echoes received from irradiated tissues.
A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).
Cements that act through infiltration and polymerization within the dentinal matrix and are used for dental restoration. They can be adhesive resins themselves, adhesion-promoting monomers, or polymerization initiators that act in concert with other agents to form a dentin-bonding system.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Materials placed inside a root canal for the purpose of obturating or sealing it. The materials may be gutta-percha, silver cones, paste mixtures, or other substances. (Dorland, 28th ed, p631 & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p187)
Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.
Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.
The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.
A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.
Light sources used to activate polymerization of light-cured DENTAL CEMENTS and DENTAL RESINS. Degree of cure and bond strength depends on exposure time, wavelength, and intensity of the curing light.
One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.
An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.
A test to determine the relative hardness of a metal, mineral, or other material according to one of several scales, such as Brinell, Mohs, Rockwell, Vickers, or Shore. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Composite materials composed of an ion-leachable glass embedded in a polymeric matrix. They differ from GLASS IONOMER CEMENTS in that partially silanized glass particles are used to provide a direct bond to the resin matrix and the matrix is primarily formed by a light-activated, radical polymerization reaction.
Use of a metal casting, usually with a post in the pulp or root canal, designed to support and retain an artificial crown.
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
Restorations of metal, porcelain, or plastic made to fit a cavity preparation, then cemented into the tooth. Onlays are restorations which fit into cavity preparations and overlay the occlusal surface of a tooth or teeth. Onlays are retained by frictional or mechanical factors.
Relating to the size of solids.
Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.
An inner coating, as of varnish or other protective substance, to cover the dental cavity wall. It is usually a resinous film-forming agent dissolved in a volatile solvent, or a suspension of calcium hydroxide in a solution of a synthetic resin. The lining seals the dentinal tubules and protects the pulp before a restoration is inserted. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.
Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.
A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.
The seepage of fluids, debris, and micro-organisms between the walls of a prepared dental cavity and the restoration.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.
A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.
Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.

Cement migration after THR. A comparison of charnley elite and exeter femoral stems using RSA. (1/1009)

Studies using roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) have shown that the femoral components of cemented total hip replacements (THR) migrate distally relative to the bone, but it is not clear whether this occurs at the cement-implant or the cement-bone interface or within the cement mantle. Our aim was to determine where this migration occurred, since this has important implications for the way in which implants function and fail. Using RSA we compared for two years the migration of the tip of the stem with that of the cement restrictor for two different designs of THR, the Exeter and Charnley Elite. We have assumed that if the cement restrictor migrates, then at least part of the cement mantle also migrates. Our results have shown that the Exeter migrates distally three times faster than the Charnley Elite and at different interfaces. With the Exeter migration was at the cement-implant interface whereas with the Charnley Elite there was migration at both the cement-bone and the cement-implant interfaces.  (+info)

Induction of macrophage C-C chemokine expression by titanium alloy and bone cement particles. (2/1009)

Particulate wear debris is associated with periprosthetic inflammation and loosening in total joint arthroplasty. We tested the effects of titanium alloy (Ti-alloy) and PMMA particles on monocyte/macrophage expression of the C-C chemokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), monocyte inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1alpha), and regulated upon activation normal T expressed and secreted protein (RANTES). Periprosthetic granulomatous tissue was analysed for expression of macrophage chemokines by immunohistochemistry. Chemokine expression in human monocytes/macrophages exposed to Ti-alloy and PMMA particles in vitro was determined by RT-PCR, ELISA and monocyte migration. We observed MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha expression in all tissue samples from failed arthroplasties. Ti-alloy and PMMA particles increased expression of MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha in macrophages in vitro in a dose- and time-dependent manner whereas RANTES was not detected. mRNA signal levels for MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha were also observed in cells after exposure to particles. Monocyte migration was stimulated by culture medium collected from macrophages exposed to Ti-alloy and PMMA particles. Antibodies to MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha inhibited chemotactic activity of the culture medium samples. Release of C-C chemokines by macrophages in response to wear particles may contribute to chronic inflammation at the bone-implant interface in total joint arthroplasty.  (+info)

The inadequacy of standard radiographs in detecting flaws in the cement mantle. (3/1009)

Radiological assessment of the cement mantle is used routinely to determine the outcome of total hip replacement. We performed a simulated replacement arthroplasty on cadaver femora and took standard postoperative radiographs. The femora were then sectioned into 7 mm slices starting at the calcar, and high-resolution faxitron radiographs were taken of these sections. Analysis of the faxitron images showed that defects in the cement mantle were observed up to 100 times more frequently than on the standard films. We therefore encourage the search for a better technique in assessing the cement mantle.  (+info)

Total knee replacement: should it be cemented or hybrid? (4/1009)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the complication rates associated with total knee arthroplasty against the types of fixation (hybrid or cemented), using a single total knee design (the anatomic modular knee [AMK] prosthesis). DESIGN: A prospective, nonrandomized, controlled trial. SETTING: University Hospital in London, Ont., a tertiary care teaching centre. PATIENTS: Two groups made up of 484 knees in 395 patients (89 bilateral). INTERVENTIONS: In 260 knees a hybrid configuration (cemented tibia and noncemented femur) was used (group 1). In 224 knees the femoral and tibial components were cemented (group 2). All patellae were cemented in both groups. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical results were assessed by The Knee Society Clinical Rating Scores at 3 months, 6 months and yearly intervals. Radiographic results were determined by 3-foot standing radiographs and at each follow-up visit standing knee radiographs, lateral and skyline views. Radiographs were analysed for alignment, presence or absence of radiolucent lines or changes in the position of the implant. All reoperations and nonoperative complications were recorded. RESULTS: At an average follow-up of 4.8 years, 8 knees (1.6%) required reoperation. An analysis of the complications leading to reoperation demonstrated no difference between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: There was no difference in outcome whether the femoral component was cemented or not. Medium-term results of the AMK are excellent with a very low reoperation rate.  (+info)

Massive pelvic and femoral pseudotumoral osteolysis secondary to an uncemented total hip arthroplasty. (5/1009)

A 51 year-old man developed an extensive osteolytic response to wear debris in an uncemented porous-coated total hip arthroplasty, with metal/polyethylene interface, which had been implanted eighteen years previously. This reaction, which involved the upper femur and the ilium, produced a mass which compressed the pelvic viscera.  (+info)

Pulmonary embolism caused by acrylic cement: a rare complication of percutaneous vertebroplasty. (6/1009)

A pulmonary embolus of acrylic cement was present in a 41-year-old woman with Langerhans' cell vertebral histiocytosis (LCH) after percutaneous vertebroplasty. Chest radiograph and CT confirmed pulmonary infarction and the presence of cement in the pulmonary arteries. She was treated with anticoagulants, and responded favorably. This rare complication occurred because perivertebral venous migration was not recognized during vertebroplasty. Adequate preparation of cement and biplane fluoroscopy are recommended for vertebroplasty.  (+info)

More failures of uncemented acetabular screw-rings than of cemented polyethylene cups in total hip arthroplasties. (7/1009)

The results of 498 total hip arthroplasties were prospectively studied. In 329 patients a cemented acetabular polyethylene cup was inserted. In 169 patients a threaded socket without cement was introduced. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 8 years and follow-up rate was over 90%. Of the 169 threaded sockets 8 required revision (4.7%), and 3 acetabular components were seen to be loose on X-ray. Of the cemented cups, only 2 (0.6%) required revision and none were considered loose on X-ray.  (+info)

Mid-term migration of a cemented total hip replacement assessed by radiostereometric analysis. (8/1009)

We have previously reported the short-term migration of cemented Hinek femoral components using radiostereometric analysis (RSA). We now report the mid-term migration. During the first 2 years after implantation the prosthesis subsided into varus and rotated internally. Between years 3 and 8 the prosthesis continued to rotate internally with the head moving posteriorly (0.07 mm/year, P=0.004). It also continued to fall into varus with the tip moving laterally (0.07 mm/year, P=0.04). The head (0.06 mm/year, P<0.0001), shoulder (0.04 mm/year, P=0.0001) and tip (0.04 mm/year, P=0.001) continued to migrate distally. There were two cases of failure due to aseptic loosening during the follow-up period. During the second year both of these had posterior head migration, which was abnormally rapid (>2 SD from the mean). We have demonstrated that a cemented implant has slow but significant levels of migration and rotation for at least 8 years after implantation. Our study confirms that implants with abnormally rapid posterior head migration during the second year are likely to fail.  (+info)

Bone cements are medical-grade materials used in orthopedic and trauma surgery to fill gaps between bone surfaces and implants, such as artificial joints or screws. They serve to mechanically stabilize the implant and provide a smooth, load-bearing surface. The two most common types of bone cement are:

1. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement: This is a two-component system consisting of powdered PMMA and liquid methyl methacrylate monomer. When mixed together, they form a dough-like consistency that hardens upon exposure to air. PMMA cement has been widely used for decades in joint replacement surgeries, such as hip or knee replacements.
2. Calcium phosphate (CP) cement: This is a two-component system consisting of a powdered CP compound and an aqueous solution. When mixed together, they form a paste that hardens through a chemical reaction at body temperature. CP cement has lower mechanical strength compared to PMMA but demonstrates better biocompatibility, bioactivity, and the ability to resorb over time.

Both types of bone cements have advantages and disadvantages, and their use depends on the specific surgical indication and patient factors.

Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is a type of synthetic resin that is widely used in the medical field due to its biocompatibility and versatility. It is a transparent, rigid, and lightweight material that can be easily molded into different shapes and forms. Here are some of the medical definitions of PMMA:

1. A biocompatible acrylic resin used in various medical applications such as bone cement, intraocular lenses, dental restorations, and drug delivery systems.
2. A type of synthetic material that is used as a bone cement to fix prosthetic joint replacements and vertebroplasty for the treatment of spinal fractures.
3. A transparent and shatter-resistant material used in the manufacture of medical devices such as intravenous (IV) fluid bags, dialyzer housings, and oxygenators.
4. A drug delivery system that can be used to administer drugs locally or systemically, such as intraocular sustained-release drug implants for the treatment of chronic eye diseases.
5. A component of dental restorations such as fillings, crowns, and bridges due to its excellent mechanical properties and esthetic qualities.

Overall, PMMA is a versatile and valuable material in the medical field, with numerous applications that take advantage of its unique properties.

"Bone" is the hard, dense connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrate animals. It provides support and protection for the body's internal organs, and serves as a attachment site for muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Bone is composed of cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone formation and resorption, respectively, and an extracellular matrix made up of collagen fibers and mineral crystals.

Bones can be classified into two main types: compact bone and spongy bone. Compact bone is dense and hard, and makes up the outer layer of all bones and the shafts of long bones. Spongy bone is less dense and contains large spaces, and makes up the ends of long bones and the interior of flat and irregular bones.

The human body has 206 bones in total. They can be further classified into five categories based on their shape: long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and sesamoid bones.

Dental cements are materials used in dentistry to bond or seal restorative dental materials, such as crowns, fillings, and orthodontic appliances, to natural tooth structures. They can be made from various materials including glass ionomers, resin-modified glass ionomers, zinc oxide eugenol, polycarboxylate, and composite resins. The choice of cement depends on the specific clinical situation and the properties required, such as strength, durability, biocompatibility, and esthetics.

Methyl Methacrylates (MMA) are a family of synthetic materials that are commonly used in the medical field, particularly in orthopedic and dental applications. Medically, MMA is often used as a bone cement to fix prosthetic implants, such as artificial hips or knees, into place during surgeries.

Methyl methacrylates consist of a type of acrylic resin that hardens when mixed with a liquid catalyst. This property allows it to be easily molded and shaped before it sets, making it ideal for use in surgical procedures where precise positioning is required. Once hardened, MMA forms a strong, stable bond with the bone, helping to secure the implant in place.

It's important to note that while MMA is widely used in medical applications, there have been concerns about its safety in certain situations. For example, some studies have suggested that high levels of methyl methacrylate fumes released during the setting process may be harmful to both patients and surgical staff. Therefore, appropriate precautions should be taken when using MMA-based products in medical settings.

Resin cements are dental materials used to bond or cement restorations, such as crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances, to natural teeth or implants. They are called "resin" cements because they are made of a type of synthetic resin material that can be cured or hardened through the use of a chemical reaction or exposure to light.

Resin cements typically consist of three components: a base, a catalyst, and a filler. The base and catalyst are mixed together to create a putty-like consistency, which is then applied to the restoration or tooth surface. Once the cement is in place, it is exposed to light or allowed to chemically cure, which causes it to harden and form a strong bond between the restoration and the tooth.

Resin cements are known for their excellent adhesive properties, as well as their ability to withstand the forces of biting and chewing. They can also be color-matched to natural teeth, making them an aesthetically pleasing option for dental restorations. However, they may not be suitable for all patients or situations, and it is important for dental professionals to carefully consider the specific needs and conditions of each patient when choosing a cement material.

Vertebroplasty is a medical procedure used to treat spinal fractures, particularly those resulting from osteoporosis or cancer. The procedure involves injecting a type of bone cement called polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) into the damaged vertebra. This helps to stabilize the bone, reduce pain, and improve function.

During the procedure, a small incision is made in the skin, and a hollow needle is guided using fluoroscopy (a type of X-ray guidance) into the fractured vertebra. Once in place, the PMMA cement is injected into the bone, where it hardens quickly, providing stability to the fractured vertebra.

It's important to note that while vertebroplasty can be an effective treatment for some patients with spinal fractures, it's not always necessary or appropriate. The decision to undergo this procedure should be made in consultation with a healthcare provider and based on a thorough evaluation of the patient's individual needs and circumstances.

Glass Ionomer Cements (GICs) are a type of dental restorative material that have the ability to chemically bond to tooth structure. They are composed of a mixture of silicate glass powder and an organic acid, such as polyacrylic acid. GICs have several clinical applications in dentistry, including as a filling material for small to moderate sized cavities, as a liner or base under other restorative materials, and as a cement for securing crowns, bridges, and orthodontic appliances.

GICs are known for their biocompatibility, caries inhibition, and adhesion to tooth structure. They also have the ability to release fluoride ions, which can help protect against future decay. However, they are not as strong or wear-resistant as some other dental restorative materials, such as amalgam or composite resin, so they may not be suitable for use in high-load bearing restorations.

GICs can be classified into two main types: conventional and resin-modified. Conventional GICs have a longer setting time and are more prone to moisture sensitivity during placement, while resin-modified GICs contain additional methacrylate monomers that improve their handling properties and shorten their setting time. However, the addition of these monomers may also reduce their fluoride release capacity.

Overall, glass ionomer cements are a valuable dental restorative material due to their unique combination of adhesion, biocompatibility, and caries inhibition properties.

Compressive strength is a measure of the maximum compressive load that a material or structure can withstand before failure or deformation. It is typically expressed in units of pressure, such as pounds per square inch (psi) or megapascals (MPa). Compressive strength is an important property in the design and analysis of structures and materials, as it helps to ensure their safety and durability under compressive loads.

In medical terminology, compressive strength may refer to the ability of biological tissues, such as bone or cartilage, to withstand compressive forces without deforming or failing. For example, osteoporosis is a condition characterized by reduced bone density and compressive strength, which can increase the risk of fractures in affected individuals. Similarly, degenerative changes in articular cartilage can lead to decreased compressive strength and joint pain or stiffness.

I'm happy to help! However, I must clarify that "materials testing" is not a medical term per se. It is a term used in various fields, including engineering and materials science, to describe the process of subjecting materials to different tests to evaluate their properties and performance under various conditions.

In the context of medical devices or implants, materials testing may refer to the evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of materials used in their construction. These tests can include assessments of strength, durability, biocompatibility, and other factors that are critical to ensuring the safety and efficacy of medical devices.

Medical device manufacturers must comply with regulatory standards for materials testing to ensure that their products meet specific requirements for performance, safety, and quality. These standards may vary depending on the type of device, its intended use, and the country or region in which it will be marketed and sold.

Bone remodeling is the normal and continuous process by which bone tissue is removed from the skeleton (a process called resorption) and new bone tissue is formed (a process called formation). This ongoing cycle allows bones to repair microdamage, adjust their size and shape in response to mechanical stress, and maintain mineral homeostasis. The cells responsible for bone resorption are osteoclasts, while the cells responsible for bone formation are osteoblasts. These two cell types work together to maintain the structural integrity and health of bones throughout an individual's life.

During bone remodeling, the process can be divided into several stages:

1. Activation: The initiation of bone remodeling is triggered by various factors such as microdamage, hormonal changes, or mechanical stress. This leads to the recruitment and activation of osteoclast precursor cells.
2. Resorption: Osteoclasts attach to the bone surface and create a sealed compartment called a resorption lacuna. They then secrete acid and enzymes that dissolve and digest the mineralized matrix, creating pits or cavities on the bone surface. This process helps remove old or damaged bone tissue and releases calcium and phosphate ions into the bloodstream.
3. Reversal: After resorption is complete, the osteoclasts undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death), and mononuclear cells called reversal cells appear on the resorbed surface. These cells prepare the bone surface for the next stage by cleaning up debris and releasing signals that attract osteoblast precursors.
4. Formation: Osteoblasts, derived from mesenchymal stem cells, migrate to the resorbed surface and begin producing a new organic matrix called osteoid. As the osteoid mineralizes, it forms a hard, calcified structure that gradually replaces the resorbed bone tissue. The osteoblasts may become embedded within this newly formed bone as they differentiate into osteocytes, which are mature bone cells responsible for maintaining bone homeostasis and responding to mechanical stress.
5. Mineralization: Over time, the newly formed bone continues to mineralize, becoming stronger and more dense. This process helps maintain the structural integrity of the skeleton and ensures adequate calcium storage.

Throughout this continuous cycle of bone remodeling, hormones, growth factors, and mechanical stress play crucial roles in regulating the balance between resorption and formation. Disruptions to this delicate equilibrium can lead to various bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, where excessive resorption results in weakened bones and increased fracture risk.

Silicate cement is not typically used as a medical definition, but rather in the field of construction materials and concrete technology. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

Silicate cement, also known as alkali-activated cement or soluble silicate cement, is a type of binding agent produced through the reaction of an alkali source (such as sodium hydroxide or sodium silicate) with silica-rich materials like fly ash, slag, or metakaolin. This process forms a complex network of silicate chains, which provide high strength, durability, and resistance to aggressive environments compared to traditional Portland cement. Although not directly used in medical applications, it can be found in some construction materials that may have indirect medical relevance, such as dental impressions, restorative materials, or construction of healthcare facilities.

Methyl Methacrylate (MMA) is not a medical term itself, but it is a chemical compound that is used in various medical applications. Therefore, I will provide you with a general definition and some of its medical uses.

Methyl methacrylate (C5H8O2) is an organic compound, specifically an ester of methacrylic acid and methanol. It is a colorless liquid at room temperature, with a characteristic sweet odor. MMA is primarily used in the production of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), a transparent thermoplastic often referred to as acrylic glass or plexiglass.

In the medical field, PMMA has several applications:

1. Intraocular lenses: PMMA is used to create artificial intraocular lenses (IOLs) that replace natural lenses during cataract surgery. These IOLs are biocompatible and provide excellent optical clarity.
2. Bone cement: MMA is mixed with a powdered polymer to form polymethyl methacrylate bone cement, which is used in orthopedic and trauma surgeries for fixation of prosthetic joint replacements, vertebroplasty, and kyphoplasty.
3. Dental applications: PMMA is used in the fabrication of dental crowns, bridges, and dentures due to its excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility.
4. Surgical implants: PMMA is also used in various surgical implants, such as cranial plates and reconstructive surgery, because of its transparency and ability to be molded into specific shapes.

Polycarboxylate cement is not a medical term, but rather refers to a type of hydraulic cement used in construction and engineering. It's a specialized kind of cement that contains polycarboxylate-based high-range water-reducing admixtures (HRWRAs). These admixtures improve the workability and durability of concrete by reducing the amount of water needed for mixing while maintaining or even enhancing the strength of the final product.

The use of polycarboxylate cement is not directly related to medical practice or patient care, but it may have indirect implications in medical fields such as construction safety, environmental health, and industrial medicine.

Bone density refers to the amount of bone mineral content (usually measured in grams) in a given volume of bone (usually measured in cubic centimeters). It is often used as an indicator of bone strength and fracture risk. Bone density is typically measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, which provide a T-score that compares the patient's bone density to that of a young adult reference population. A T-score of -1 or above is considered normal, while a T-score between -1 and -2.5 indicates osteopenia (low bone mass), and a T-score below -2.5 indicates osteoporosis (porous bones). Regular exercise, adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, and medication (if necessary) can help maintain or improve bone density and prevent fractures.

Bone resorption is the process by which bone tissue is broken down and absorbed into the body. It is a normal part of bone remodeling, in which old or damaged bone tissue is removed and new tissue is formed. However, excessive bone resorption can lead to conditions such as osteoporosis, in which bones become weak and fragile due to a loss of density. This process is carried out by cells called osteoclasts, which break down the bone tissue and release minerals such as calcium into the bloodstream.

In the medical field, cementation refers to the process of using a type of dental cement or bonding agent to attach a dental restoration (such as a crown, bridge, or false tooth) to a natural tooth or implant. The cement helps to create a strong and secure attachment, while also helping to seal the restoration and prevent the entry of bacteria and saliva.

Dental cement can be made from various materials, including glass ionomers, resin-modified glass ionomers, zinc phosphate, and polycarboxylate cements. The choice of cement depends on several factors, such as the type of restoration being attached, the location in the mouth, and the patient's individual needs and preferences.

Cementation is an important step in many dental procedures, as it helps to ensure the longevity and success of the restoration. Proper technique and material selection are crucial for achieving a successful cementation that will last for years to come.

Zirconium is not a medical term, but it is a chemical element with the symbol Zr and atomic number 40. It is a gray-white, strong, corrosion-resistant transition metal that is used primarily in nuclear reactors, as an opacifier in glazes for ceramic cookware, and in surgical implants such as artificial joints due to its biocompatibility.

In the context of medical devices or implants, zirconium alloys may be used for their mechanical properties and resistance to corrosion. For example, zirconia (a form of zirconium dioxide) is a popular material for dental crowns and implants due to its durability, strength, and natural appearance.

However, it's important to note that while zirconium itself is not considered a medical term, there are various medical applications and devices that utilize zirconium-based materials.

Barium sulfate is a medication that is commonly used as a contrast material in medical imaging procedures, such as X-rays and CT scans. It works by coating the inside of the digestive tract, making it visible on an X-ray or CT scan and allowing doctors to see detailed images of the stomach, intestines, and other parts of the digestive system.

Barium sulfate is a white, chalky powder that is mixed with water to create a thick, milky liquid. It is generally safe and does not cause significant side effects when used in medical imaging procedures. However, it should not be taken by individuals who have a known allergy to barium or who have certain digestive conditions, such as obstructions or perforations of the bowel.

It's important to note that while barium sulfate is an important tool for medical diagnosis, it is not a treatment for any medical condition and should only be used under the direction of a healthcare professional.

Tensile strength is a material property that measures the maximum amount of tensile (pulling) stress that a material can withstand before failure, such as breaking or fracturing. It is usually measured in units of force per unit area, such as pounds per square inch (psi) or pascals (Pa). In the context of medical devices or biomaterials, tensile strength may be used to describe the mechanical properties of materials used in implants, surgical tools, or other medical equipment. High tensile strength is often desirable in these applications to ensure that the material can withstand the stresses and forces it will encounter during use.

Bone neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the bone. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign bone neoplasms do not spread to other parts of the body and are rarely a threat to life, although they may cause problems if they grow large enough to press on surrounding tissues or cause fractures. Malignant bone neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade and destroy nearby tissue and may spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.

There are many different types of bone neoplasms, including:

1. Osteochondroma - a benign tumor that develops from cartilage and bone
2. Enchondroma - a benign tumor that forms in the cartilage that lines the inside of the bones
3. Chondrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from cartilage
4. Osteosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from bone cells
5. Ewing sarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops in the bones or soft tissues around the bones
6. Giant cell tumor of bone - a benign or occasionally malignant tumor that develops from bone tissue
7. Fibrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from fibrous tissue in the bone

The symptoms of bone neoplasms vary depending on the type, size, and location of the tumor. They may include pain, swelling, stiffness, fractures, or limited mobility. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the tumor but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

A compression fracture is a type of bone fracture that occurs when there is a collapse of a vertebra in the spine. This type of fracture is most commonly seen in the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spine. Compression fractures are often caused by weakened bones due to osteoporosis, but they can also result from trauma or tumors that weaken the bone.

In a compression fracture, the front part (anterior) of the vertebra collapses, while the back part (posterior) remains intact, causing the height of the vertebra to decrease. This can lead to pain, deformity, and decreased mobility. In severe cases, multiple compression fractures can result in a condition called kyphosis, which is an abnormal curvature of the spine that leads to a hunchback appearance.

Compression fractures are typically diagnosed through imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. Treatment may include pain medication, bracing, physical therapy, or in some cases, surgery. Preventive measures such as maintaining a healthy diet, getting regular exercise, and taking medications to prevent or treat osteoporosis can help reduce the risk of compression fractures.

Bone marrow is the spongy tissue found inside certain bones in the body, such as the hips, thighs, and vertebrae. It is responsible for producing blood-forming cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. There are two types of bone marrow: red marrow, which is involved in blood cell production, and yellow marrow, which contains fatty tissue.

Red bone marrow contains hematopoietic stem cells, which can differentiate into various types of blood cells. These stem cells continuously divide and mature to produce new blood cells that are released into the circulation. Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body, white blood cells help fight infections, and platelets play a crucial role in blood clotting.

Bone marrow also serves as a site for immune cell development and maturation. It contains various types of immune cells, such as lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, which help protect the body against infections and diseases.

Abnormalities in bone marrow function can lead to several medical conditions, including anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and various types of cancer, such as leukemia and multiple myeloma. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy are common diagnostic procedures used to evaluate bone marrow health and function.

Calcium phosphates are a group of minerals that are important components of bones and teeth. They are also found in some foods and are used in dietary supplements and medical applications. Chemically, calcium phosphates are salts of calcium and phosphoric acid, and they exist in various forms, including hydroxyapatite, which is the primary mineral component of bone tissue. Other forms of calcium phosphates include monocalcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate, and tricalcium phosphate, which are used as food additives and dietary supplements. Calcium phosphates are important for maintaining strong bones and teeth, and they also play a role in various physiological processes, such as nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction.

A spinal fracture, also known as a vertebral compression fracture, is a break in one or more bones (vertebrae) of the spine. This type of fracture often occurs due to weakened bones caused by osteoporosis, but it can also result from trauma such as a car accident or a fall.

In a spinal fracture, the front part of the vertebra collapses, causing the height of the vertebra to decrease, while the back part of the vertebra remains intact. This results in a wedge-shaped deformity of the vertebra. Multiple fractures can lead to a hunched forward posture known as kyphosis or dowager's hump.

Spinal fractures can cause pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the back, legs, or arms, depending on the location and severity of the fracture. In some cases, spinal cord compression may occur, leading to more severe symptoms such as paralysis or loss of bladder and bowel control.

In the context of medical terminology, "porosity" is not a term that is frequently used to describe human tissues or organs. However, in dermatology and cosmetics, porosity refers to the ability of the skin to absorb and retain moisture or topical treatments.

A skin with high porosity has larger pores and can absorb more products, while a skin with low porosity has smaller pores and may have difficulty absorbing products. It is important to note that this definition of porosity is not a medical one but is instead used in the beauty industry.

Gentamicin is an antibiotic that belongs to the class of aminoglycosides. It is used to treat various types of bacterial infections, including:

* Gram-negative bacterial infections, such as those caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis
* Certain Gram-positive bacterial infections, such as those caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes

Gentamicin works by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, which inhibits protein synthesis and ultimately leads to bacterial cell death. It is typically given via injection (intramuscularly or intravenously) and is often used in combination with other antibiotics to treat serious infections.

Like all aminoglycosides, gentamicin can cause kidney damage and hearing loss, especially when used for long periods of time or at high doses. Therefore, monitoring of drug levels and renal function is recommended during treatment.

Bone substitutes are materials that are used to replace missing or damaged bone in the body. They can be made from a variety of materials, including natural bone from other parts of the body or from animals, synthetic materials, or a combination of both. The goal of using bone substitutes is to provide structural support and promote the growth of new bone tissue.

Bone substitutes are often used in dental, orthopedic, and craniofacial surgery to help repair defects caused by trauma, tumors, or congenital abnormalities. They can also be used to augment bone volume in procedures such as spinal fusion or joint replacement.

There are several types of bone substitutes available, including:

1. Autografts: Bone taken from another part of the patient's body, such as the hip or pelvis.
2. Allografts: Bone taken from a deceased donor and processed to remove any cells and infectious materials.
3. Xenografts: Bone from an animal source, typically bovine or porcine, that has been processed to remove any cells and infectious materials.
4. Synthetic bone substitutes: Materials such as calcium phosphate ceramics, bioactive glass, and polymer-based materials that are designed to mimic the properties of natural bone.

The choice of bone substitute material depends on several factors, including the size and location of the defect, the patient's medical history, and the surgeon's preference. It is important to note that while bone substitutes can provide structural support and promote new bone growth, they may not have the same strength or durability as natural bone. Therefore, they may not be suitable for all applications, particularly those that require high load-bearing capacity.

In the context of medical terminology, "hardness" is not a term that has a specific or standardized definition. It may be used in various ways to describe the firmness or consistency of a tissue, such as the hardness of an artery or tumor, but it does not have a single authoritative medical definition.

In some cases, healthcare professionals may use subjective terms like "hard," "firm," or "soft" to describe their tactile perception during a physical examination. For example, they might describe the hardness of an enlarged liver or spleen by comparing it to the feel of their knuckles when gently pressed against the abdomen.

However, in other contexts, healthcare professionals may use more objective measures of tissue stiffness or elasticity, such as palpation durometry or shear wave elastography, which provide quantitative assessments of tissue hardness. These techniques can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring conditions that affect the mechanical properties of tissues, such as liver fibrosis or cancer.

Therefore, while "hardness" may be a term used in medical contexts to describe certain physical characteristics of tissues, it does not have a single, universally accepted definition.

Zinc oxide-eugenol cement is a dental material used as a temporary filling or base. It is a mixture of zinc oxide powder and eugenol (oil of cloves) liquid. The setting reaction of this cement is an acid-base reaction between the zinc oxide and eugenol, which results in the formation of a hard, insoluble material.

The cement has several desirable properties, including good biocompatibility, low toxicity, and antimicrobial activity due to the presence of eugenol. It is also radiopaque, meaning that it can be seen on X-rays, which makes it useful for temporary fillings in areas where there may be a need for future monitoring or evaluation.

Zinc oxide-eugenol cement is commonly used as a temporary filling material during root canal treatment, to seal the access cavity and protect the pulp tissue until a permanent restoration can be placed. It can also be used as a base material under dental restorations such as amalgam or composite fillings, providing a protective layer between the restoration and the dentin.

However, it is not recommended for long-term use due to its lack of strength and durability compared to other filling materials. Prolonged exposure to eugenol can also cause tissue irritation in some individuals.

Bone development, also known as ossification, is the process by which bone tissue is formed and grows. This complex process involves several different types of cells, including osteoblasts, which produce new bone matrix, and osteoclasts, which break down and resorb existing bone tissue.

There are two main types of bone development: intramembranous and endochondral ossification. Intramembranous ossification occurs when bone tissue forms directly from connective tissue, while endochondral ossification involves the formation of a cartilage model that is later replaced by bone.

During fetal development, most bones develop through endochondral ossification, starting as a cartilage template that is gradually replaced by bone tissue. However, some bones, such as those in the skull and clavicles, develop through intramembranous ossification.

Bone development continues after birth, with new bone tissue being laid down and existing tissue being remodeled throughout life. This ongoing process helps to maintain the strength and integrity of the skeleton, allowing it to adapt to changing mechanical forces and repair any damage that may occur.

Bone marrow cells are the types of cells found within the bone marrow, which is the spongy tissue inside certain bones in the body. The main function of bone marrow is to produce blood cells. There are two types of bone marrow: red and yellow. Red bone marrow is where most blood cell production takes place, while yellow bone marrow serves as a fat storage site.

The three main types of bone marrow cells are:

1. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs): These are immature cells that can differentiate into any type of blood cell, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. They have the ability to self-renew, meaning they can divide and create more hematopoietic stem cells.
2. Red blood cell progenitors: These are immature cells that will develop into mature red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes. Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide back to the lungs.
3. Myeloid and lymphoid white blood cell progenitors: These are immature cells that will develop into various types of white blood cells, which play a crucial role in the body's immune system by fighting infections and diseases. Myeloid progenitors give rise to granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils), monocytes, and megakaryocytes (which eventually become platelets). Lymphoid progenitors differentiate into B cells, T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells.

Bone marrow cells are essential for maintaining a healthy blood cell count and immune system function. Abnormalities in bone marrow cells can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, leukopenia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, or thrombocytosis, depending on the specific type of blood cell affected. Additionally, bone marrow cells are often used in transplantation procedures to treat patients with certain types of cancer, such as leukemia and lymphoma, or other hematologic disorders.

Emulsifying agents, also known as emulsifiers, are substances that help to mix two immiscible liquids, such as oil and water, to form a stable emulsion. Emulsifiers work by reducing the surface tension between the two liquids, allowing them to mix together and remain mixed. They are often used in food production, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals to create smooth and consistent products. Examples of emulsifying agents include lecithin, egg yolk, and various synthetic compounds.

The femur is the medical term for the thigh bone, which is the longest and strongest bone in the human body. It connects the hip bone to the knee joint and plays a crucial role in supporting the weight of the body and allowing movement during activities such as walking, running, and jumping. The femur is composed of a rounded head, a long shaft, and two condyles at the lower end that articulate with the tibia and patella to form the knee joint.

Bone diseases is a broad term that refers to various medical conditions that affect the bones. These conditions can be categorized into several groups, including:

1. Developmental and congenital bone diseases: These are conditions that affect bone growth and development before or at birth. Examples include osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease), achondroplasia (dwarfism), and cleidocranial dysostosis.
2. Metabolic bone diseases: These are conditions that affect the body's ability to maintain healthy bones. They are often caused by hormonal imbalances, vitamin deficiencies, or problems with mineral metabolism. Examples include osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and Paget's disease of bone.
3. Inflammatory bone diseases: These are conditions that cause inflammation in the bones. They can be caused by infections, autoimmune disorders, or other medical conditions. Examples include osteomyelitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
4. Degenerative bone diseases: These are conditions that cause the bones to break down over time. They can be caused by aging, injury, or disease. Examples include osteoarthritis, avascular necrosis, and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH).
5. Tumors and cancers of the bone: These are conditions that involve abnormal growths in the bones. They can be benign or malignant. Examples include osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and Ewing sarcoma.
6. Fractures and injuries: While not strictly a "disease," fractures and injuries are common conditions that affect the bones. They can result from trauma, overuse, or weakened bones. Examples include stress fractures, compound fractures, and dislocations.

Overall, bone diseases can cause a wide range of symptoms, including pain, stiffness, deformity, and decreased mobility. Treatment for these conditions varies depending on the specific diagnosis but may include medication, surgery, physical therapy, or lifestyle changes.

Prosthesis failure is a term used to describe a situation where a prosthetic device, such as an artificial joint or limb, has stopped functioning or failed to meet its intended purpose. This can be due to various reasons, including mechanical failure, infection, loosening of the device, or a reaction to the materials used in the prosthesis.

Mechanical failure can occur due to wear and tear, manufacturing defects, or improper use of the prosthetic device. Infection can also lead to prosthesis failure, particularly in cases where the prosthesis is implanted inside the body. The immune system may react to the presence of the foreign material, leading to inflammation and infection.

Loosening of the prosthesis can also cause it to fail over time, as the device becomes less stable and eventually stops working properly. Additionally, some people may have a reaction to the materials used in the prosthesis, leading to tissue damage or other complications that can result in prosthesis failure.

In general, prosthesis failure can lead to decreased mobility, pain, and the need for additional surgeries or treatments to correct the problem. It is important for individuals with prosthetic devices to follow their healthcare provider's instructions carefully to minimize the risk of prosthesis failure and ensure that the device continues to function properly over time.

'Adhesiveness' is a term used in medicine and biology to describe the ability of two surfaces to stick or adhere to each other. In medical terms, it often refers to the property of tissues or cells to adhere to one another, as in the case of scar tissue formation where healing tissue adheres to adjacent structures.

In the context of microbiology, adhesiveness can refer to the ability of bacteria or other microorganisms to attach themselves to surfaces, such as medical devices or human tissues, which can lead to infection and other health problems. Adhesives used in medical devices, such as bandages or wound dressings, also have adhesiveness properties that allow them to stick to the skin or other surfaces.

Overall, adhesiveness is an important property in many areas of medicine and biology, with implications for wound healing, infection control, and the design and function of medical devices.

A hip prosthesis, also known as a total hip replacement, is a surgical implant designed to replace the damaged or diseased components of the human hip joint. The procedure involves replacing the femoral head (the ball at the top of the thigh bone) and the acetabulum (the socket in the pelvis) with artificial parts, typically made from materials such as metal, ceramic, or plastic.

The goal of a hip prosthesis is to relieve pain, improve joint mobility, and restore function, allowing patients to return to their normal activities and enjoy an improved quality of life. The procedure is most commonly performed in individuals with advanced osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or other degenerative conditions that have caused significant damage to the hip joint.

There are several different types of hip prostheses available, each with its own unique design and set of benefits and risks. The choice of prosthesis will depend on a variety of factors, including the patient's age, activity level, overall health, and specific medical needs. In general, however, all hip prostheses are designed to provide a durable, long-lasting solution for patients suffering from debilitating joint pain and stiffness.

Orthopedic equipment refers to devices or appliances used in the practice of orthopedics, which is a branch of medicine focused on the correction, support, and prevention of disorders, injuries, or deformities of the skeletal system, including bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, and muscles. These devices can be categorized into various types based on their function and application:

1. Mobility aids: Equipment that helps individuals with impaired mobility to move around more easily, such as walkers, crutches, canes, wheelchairs, and scooters.
2. Immobilization devices: Used to restrict movement of a specific body part to promote healing, prevent further injury, or provide support during rehabilitation, including casts, braces, splints, slings, and collars.
3. Prosthetics: Artificial limbs that replace missing body parts due to amputation, illness, or congenital defects, enabling individuals to perform daily activities and maintain independence.
4. Orthotics: Custom-made or off-the-shelf devices worn inside shoes or on the body to correct foot alignment issues, provide arch support, or alleviate pain in the lower extremities.
5. Rehabilitation equipment: Devices used during physical therapy sessions to improve strength, flexibility, balance, and coordination, such as resistance bands, exercise balls, balance boards, and weight training machines.
6. Surgical instruments: Specialized tools used by orthopedic surgeons during operations to repair fractures, replace joints, or correct deformities, including saws, drills, retractors, and screwdrivers.
7. Diagnostic equipment: Imaging devices that help healthcare professionals assess musculoskeletal conditions, such as X-ray machines, CT scanners, MRI machines, and ultrasound systems.

These various types of orthopedic equipment play a crucial role in the diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation, and management of orthopedic disorders and injuries, enhancing patients' quality of life and functional abilities.

Prosthesis-related infections, also known as prosthetic joint infections (PJIs), are infections that occur around or within a prosthetic device, such as an artificial joint. These infections can be caused by bacteria, fungi, or other microorganisms and can lead to serious complications if not treated promptly and effectively.

Prosthesis-related infections can occur soon after the implantation of the prosthetic device (early infection) or months or even years later (late infection). Early infections are often caused by bacteria that enter the surgical site during the procedure, while late infections may be caused by hematogenous seeding (i.e., when bacteria from another source spread through the bloodstream and settle in the prosthetic device) or by contamination during a subsequent medical procedure.

Symptoms of prosthesis-related infections can include pain, swelling, redness, warmth, and drainage around the affected area. In some cases, patients may also experience fever, chills, or fatigue. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests (such as blood cultures, joint fluid analysis, and tissue biopsy), and imaging studies (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI).

Treatment of prosthesis-related infections usually involves a combination of antibiotics and surgical intervention. The specific treatment approach will depend on the type and severity of the infection, as well as the patient's overall health status. In some cases, it may be necessary to remove or replace the affected prosthetic device.

Bone regeneration is the biological process of new bone formation that occurs after an injury or removal of a portion of bone. This complex process involves several stages, including inflammation, migration and proliferation of cells, matrix deposition, and mineralization, leading to the restoration of the bone's structure and function.

The main cells involved in bone regeneration are osteoblasts, which produce new bone matrix, and osteoclasts, which resorb damaged or old bone tissue. The process is tightly regulated by various growth factors, hormones, and signaling molecules that promote the recruitment, differentiation, and activity of these cells.

Bone regeneration can occur naturally in response to injury or surgical intervention, such as fracture repair or dental implant placement. However, in some cases, bone regeneration may be impaired due to factors such as age, disease, or trauma, leading to delayed healing or non-union of the bone. In these situations, various strategies and techniques, including the use of bone grafts, scaffolds, and growth factors, can be employed to enhance and support the bone regeneration process.

Acrylic resins are a type of synthetic polymer made from methacrylate monomers. They are widely used in various industrial, commercial, and medical applications due to their unique properties such as transparency, durability, resistance to breakage, and ease of coloring or molding. In the medical field, acrylic resins are often used to make dental restorations like false teeth and fillings, medical devices like intraocular lenses, and surgical instruments. They can also be found in orthopedic implants, bone cement, and other medical-grade plastics. Acrylic resins are biocompatible, meaning they do not typically cause adverse reactions when in contact with living tissue. However, they may release small amounts of potentially toxic chemicals over time, so their long-term safety in certain applications is still a subject of ongoing research.

Kyphoplasty is a surgical procedure used to treat vertebral compression fractures, which are commonly caused by osteoporosis or cancer. The goal of kyphoplasty is to stabilize the fracture, reduce pain, and restore some or all of the lost vertebral body height.

During the procedure, a small incision is made in the back, and a narrow tube is inserted into the damaged vertebra under the guidance of fluoroscopy (a type of continuous X-ray imaging). A special balloon is then inflated inside the vertebral body to create a cavity or space. This process helps to restore the height of the vertebra and correct any abnormal kyphosis (hunchback) deformity that may have developed due to the fracture.

Once the desired cavity has been created, bone cement is injected into the space to stabilize the vertebra. The cement hardens quickly, providing immediate support and pain relief. After the procedure, patients are usually advised to limit their physical activity for a short period of time to allow the cement to fully set.

It's important to note that kyphoplasty is not suitable for all types of spinal fractures or conditions, and its effectiveness may vary depending on the individual case. Therefore, a thorough evaluation by a spine specialist is necessary before deciding whether this procedure is appropriate.

Construction materials are substances or components that are used in the building and construction of infrastructure, such as buildings, roads, bridges, and other structures. These materials can be naturally occurring, like wood, stone, and clay, or they can be manufactured, like steel, concrete, and glass. The choice of construction material depends on various factors, including the project's requirements, structural strength, durability, cost, and sustainability.

In a medical context, construction materials may refer to the substances used in the construction or fabrication of medical devices, equipment, or furniture. These materials must meet strict regulations and standards to ensure they are safe, biocompatible, and do not pose a risk to patients or healthcare workers. Examples of medical construction materials include surgical-grade stainless steel, medical-grade plastics, and radiation-shielding materials used in the construction of medical imaging equipment enclosures.

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a type of electron microscopy that uses a focused beam of electrons to scan the surface of a sample and produce a high-resolution image. In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of a specimen, and secondary electrons are emitted from the sample due to interactions between the electrons and the atoms in the sample. These secondary electrons are then detected by a detector and used to create an image of the sample's surface topography. SEM can provide detailed images of the surface of a wide range of materials, including metals, polymers, ceramics, and biological samples. It is commonly used in materials science, biology, and electronics for the examination and analysis of surfaces at the micro- and nanoscale.

Hip arthroplasty, also known as hip replacement surgery, is a medical procedure where the damaged or diseased joint surfaces of the hip are removed and replaced with artificial components. These components typically include a metal or ceramic ball that replaces the head of the femur (thigh bone), and a polyethylene or ceramic socket that replaces the acetabulum (hip socket) in the pelvis.

The goal of hip arthroplasty is to relieve pain, improve joint mobility, and restore function to the hip joint. This procedure is commonly performed in patients with advanced osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, hip fractures, or other conditions that cause significant damage to the hip joint.

There are several types of hip replacement surgeries, including traditional total hip arthroplasty, partial (hemi) hip arthroplasty, and resurfacing hip arthroplasty. The choice of procedure depends on various factors, such as the patient's age, activity level, overall health, and the extent of joint damage.

After surgery, patients typically require rehabilitation to regain strength, mobility, and function in the affected hip. With proper care and follow-up, most patients can expect significant pain relief and improved quality of life following hip arthroplasty.

Mechanical stress, in the context of physiology and medicine, refers to any type of force that is applied to body tissues or organs, which can cause deformation or displacement of those structures. Mechanical stress can be either external, such as forces exerted on the body during physical activity or trauma, or internal, such as the pressure changes that occur within blood vessels or other hollow organs.

Mechanical stress can have a variety of effects on the body, depending on the type, duration, and magnitude of the force applied. For example, prolonged exposure to mechanical stress can lead to tissue damage, inflammation, and chronic pain. Additionally, abnormal or excessive mechanical stress can contribute to the development of various musculoskeletal disorders, such as tendinitis, osteoarthritis, and herniated discs.

In order to mitigate the negative effects of mechanical stress, the body has a number of adaptive responses that help to distribute forces more evenly across tissues and maintain structural integrity. These responses include changes in muscle tone, joint positioning, and connective tissue stiffness, as well as the remodeling of bone and other tissues over time. However, when these adaptive mechanisms are overwhelmed or impaired, mechanical stress can become a significant factor in the development of various pathological conditions.

Polymerization is not exclusively a medical term, but it is widely used in the field of medical sciences, particularly in areas such as biochemistry and materials science. In a broad sense, polymerization refers to the process by which small molecules, known as monomers, chemically react and join together to form larger, more complex structures called polymers.

In the context of medical definitions:

Polymerization is the chemical reaction where multiple repeating monomer units bind together covalently (through strong chemical bonds) to create a long, chain-like molecule known as a polymer. This process can occur naturally or be induced artificially through various methods, depending on the type of monomers and desired polymer properties.

In biochemistry, polymerization plays an essential role in forming important biological macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, proteins, and polysaccharides. These natural polymers are built from specific monomer units—nucleotides for nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), amino acids for proteins, and sugars for polysaccharides—that polymerize in a highly regulated manner to create the final functional structures.

In materials science, synthetic polymers are often created through polymerization for various medical applications, such as biocompatible materials, drug delivery systems, and medical devices. These synthetic polymers can be tailored to have specific properties, such as degradation rates, mechanical strength, or hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity, depending on the desired application.

Bone transplantation, also known as bone grafting, is a surgical procedure in which bone or bone-like material is transferred from one part of the body to another or from one person to another. The graft may be composed of cortical (hard outer portion) bone, cancellous (spongy inner portion) bone, or a combination of both. It can be taken from different sites in the same individual (autograft), from another individual of the same species (allograft), or from an animal source (xenograft). The purpose of bone transplantation is to replace missing bone, provide structural support, and stimulate new bone growth. This procedure is commonly used in orthopedic, dental, and maxillofacial surgeries to repair bone defects caused by trauma, tumors, or congenital conditions.

Dental bonding is a cosmetic dental procedure in which a tooth-colored resin material (a type of plastic) is applied and hardened with a special light, which ultimately "bonds" the material to the tooth to improve its appearance. According to the American Dental Association (ADA), dental bonding can be used for various purposes, including:

1. Repairing chipped or cracked teeth
2. Improving the appearance of discolored teeth
3. Closing spaces between teeth
4. Protecting a portion of the tooth's root that has been exposed due to gum recession
5. Changing the shape and size of teeth

Dental bonding is generally a quick and painless procedure, often requiring little to no anesthesia. The surface of the tooth is roughened and conditioned to help the resin adhere properly. Then, the resin material is applied, molded, and smoothed to the desired shape. A special light is used to harden the material, which typically takes only a few minutes. Finally, the bonded material is trimmed, shaped, and polished to match the surrounding teeth.

While dental bonding can be an effective solution for minor cosmetic concerns, it may not be as durable or long-lasting as other dental restoration options like veneers or crowns. The lifespan of a dental bonding procedure typically ranges from 3 to 10 years, depending on factors such as oral habits, location of the bonded tooth, and proper care. Regular dental checkups and good oral hygiene practices can help extend the life of dental bonding.

A joint prosthesis, also known as an artificial joint or a replacement joint, is a surgical implant used to replace all or part of a damaged or diseased joint. The most common types of joint prostheses are total hip replacements and total knee replacements. These prostheses typically consist of a combination of metal, plastic, and ceramic components that are designed to replicate the movement and function of a natural joint.

Joint prostheses are usually recommended for patients who have severe joint pain or mobility issues that cannot be adequately managed with other treatments such as physical therapy, medication, or lifestyle changes. The goal of joint replacement surgery is to relieve pain, improve joint function, and enhance the patient's quality of life.

Joint prostheses are typically made from materials such as titanium, cobalt-chrome alloys, stainless steel, polyethylene plastic, and ceramics. The choice of material depends on a variety of factors, including the patient's age, activity level, weight, and overall health.

While joint replacement surgery is generally safe and effective, there are risks associated with any surgical procedure, including infection, blood clots, implant loosening or failure, and nerve damage. Patients who undergo joint replacement surgery typically require several weeks of rehabilitation and physical therapy to regain strength and mobility in the affected joint.

Spinal infusions, also known as intrathecal infusions, refer to the administration of medications directly into the spinal canal through a surgically implanted device. This device typically consists of a pump and a catheter. The pump is a small reservoir that contains the medication, while the catheter is a thin tube that delivers the medication to the intrathecal space, which is the area surrounding the spinal cord.

This route of administration is often used for the management of chronic pain, as well as for the treatment of certain neurological disorders such as spasticity and severe muscle spasms. The medications that are commonly administered through spinal infusions include local anesthetics, opioids, and muscle relaxants.

The main advantage of spinal infusions is that they allow for the delivery of medication directly to the site of action, which can result in more effective pain relief and fewer systemic side effects compared to systemic administration. However, there are also potential risks associated with this procedure, including infection, bleeding, and mechanical failure of the device. Therefore, spinal infusions should only be performed by trained medical professionals in a controlled clinical setting.

Osseointegration is a direct structural and functional connection between living bone and the surface of an implant. It's a process where the bone grows in and around the implant, which is typically made of titanium or another biocompatible material. This process provides a solid foundation for dental prosthetics, such as crowns, bridges, or dentures, or for orthopedic devices like artificial limbs. The success of osseointegration depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the quality and quantity of available bone, and the surgical technique used for implant placement.

Osteomyelitis is a medical condition characterized by an infection that involves the bone or the bone marrow. It can occur as a result of a variety of factors, including bacterial or fungal infections that spread to the bone from another part of the body, or direct infection of the bone through trauma or surgery.

The symptoms of osteomyelitis may include pain and tenderness in the affected area, fever, chills, fatigue, and difficulty moving the affected limb. In some cases, there may also be redness, swelling, and drainage from the infected area. The diagnosis of osteomyelitis typically involves imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans, as well as blood tests and cultures to identify the underlying cause of the infection.

Treatment for osteomyelitis usually involves a combination of antibiotics or antifungal medications to eliminate the infection, as well as pain management and possibly surgical debridement to remove infected tissue. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and manage the condition.

Surface properties in the context of medical science refer to the characteristics and features of the outermost layer or surface of a biological material or structure, such as cells, tissues, organs, or medical devices. These properties can include physical attributes like roughness, smoothness, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, and electrical conductivity, as well as chemical properties like charge, reactivity, and composition.

In the field of biomaterials science, understanding surface properties is crucial for designing medical implants, devices, and drug delivery systems that can interact safely and effectively with biological tissues and fluids. Surface modifications, such as coatings or chemical treatments, can be used to alter surface properties and enhance biocompatibility, improve lubricity, reduce fouling, or promote specific cellular responses like adhesion, proliferation, or differentiation.

Similarly, in the field of cell biology, understanding surface properties is essential for studying cell-cell interactions, cell signaling, and cell behavior. Cells can sense and respond to changes in their environment, including variations in surface properties, which can influence cell shape, motility, and function. Therefore, characterizing and manipulating surface properties can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of cellular processes and offer new strategies for developing therapies and treatments for various diseases.

Toluidines are a group of organic compounds that consist of a benzene ring with two methyl groups and an amine group. They are derivatives of toluene, hence the name. There are three isomers of toluidines, depending on the position of the amino group: ortho-toluidine, meta-toluidine, and para-toluidine.

In a medical context, toluidines may be used as chemical reagents for diagnostic tests or in research. For example, they have been used in histology to stain tissues for microscopic examination. However, exposure to toluidines has been associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, so appropriate safety precautions should be taken when handling these chemicals.

Bone matrix refers to the non-cellular component of bone that provides structural support and functions as a reservoir for minerals, such as calcium and phosphate. It is made up of organic and inorganic components. The organic component consists mainly of type I collagen fibers, which provide flexibility and tensile strength to the bone. The inorganic component is primarily composed of hydroxyapatite crystals, which give bone its hardness and compressive strength. Bone matrix also contains other proteins, growth factors, and signaling molecules that regulate bone formation, remodeling, and repair.

The tibia, also known as the shin bone, is the larger of the two bones in the lower leg and part of the knee joint. It supports most of the body's weight and is a major insertion point for muscles that flex the foot and bend the leg. The tibia articulates with the femur at the knee joint and with the fibula and talus bone at the ankle joint. Injuries to the tibia, such as fractures, are common in sports and other activities that put stress on the lower leg.

Tobramycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat various types of bacterial infections. According to the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terminology of the National Library of Medicine (NLM), the medical definition of Tobramycin is:

"A semi-synthetic modification of the aminoglycoside antibiotic, NEOMYCIN, that retains its antimicrobial activity but has less nephrotoxic and neurotoxic side effects. Tobramycin is used in the treatment of serious gram-negative infections, especially Pseudomonas infections in patients with cystic fibrosis."

Tobramycin works by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit of bacterial cells, inhibiting protein synthesis and ultimately leading to bacterial cell death. It is commonly used to treat severe infections caused by susceptible strains of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Serratia marcescens, and Enterobacter species.

Tobramycin is available in various formulations, such as injectable solutions, ophthalmic ointments, and inhaled powder for nebulization. The choice of formulation depends on the type and location of the infection being treated. As with any antibiotic, it's essential to use Tobramycin appropriately and under medical supervision to minimize the risk of antibiotic resistance and potential side effects.

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a medical procedure in which damaged or destroyed bone marrow is replaced with healthy bone marrow from a donor. Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside bones that produces blood cells. The main types of BMT are autologous, allogeneic, and umbilical cord blood transplantation.

In autologous BMT, the patient's own bone marrow is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with lymphoma or multiple myeloma who have undergone high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to destroy their cancerous bone marrow.

In allogeneic BMT, bone marrow from a genetically matched donor is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with leukemia, lymphoma, or other blood disorders who have failed other treatments.

Umbilical cord blood transplantation involves using stem cells from umbilical cord blood as a source of healthy bone marrow. This type of BMT is often used in children and adults who do not have a matched donor for allogeneic BMT.

The process of BMT typically involves several steps, including harvesting the bone marrow or stem cells from the donor, conditioning the patient's body to receive the new bone marrow or stem cells, transplanting the new bone marrow or stem cells into the patient's body, and monitoring the patient for signs of engraftment and complications.

BMT is a complex and potentially risky procedure that requires careful planning, preparation, and follow-up care. However, it can be a life-saving treatment for many patients with blood disorders or cancer.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Self-curing of dental resins, also known as auto-curing or self-cure, refers to the ability of certain dental materials to undergo polymerization and harden without the need for external light activation. This process is typically achieved through a chemical reaction between two components within the material that generates heat and causes the resin to solidify.

Self-curing dental resins are commonly used in dentistry for various applications, such as filling cavities or creating dental restorations like crowns and bridges. These materials offer several advantages over light-cured resins, including easier placement in hard-to-reach areas and reduced dependence on specialized equipment.

However, self-curing resins may have some limitations compared to light-cured alternatives, such as longer setting times, potential for overheating during the curing process, and less precise control over the degree of polymerization.

The spine, also known as the vertebral column, is a complex structure in the human body that is part of the axial skeleton. It is composed of 33 individual vertebrae (except in some people where there are fewer due to fusion of certain vertebrae), intervertebral discs, facet joints, ligaments, muscles, and nerves.

The spine has several important functions:

1. Protection: The spine protects the spinal cord, which is a major component of the nervous system, by enclosing it within a bony canal.
2. Support: The spine supports the head and upper body, allowing us to maintain an upright posture and facilitating movement of the trunk and head.
3. Movement: The spine enables various movements such as flexion (bending forward), extension (bending backward), lateral flexion (bending sideways), and rotation (twisting).
4. Weight-bearing: The spine helps distribute weight and pressure evenly across the body, reducing stress on individual vertebrae and other structures.
5. Blood vessel and nerve protection: The spine protects vital blood vessels and nerves that pass through it, including the aorta, vena cava, and spinal nerves.

The spine is divided into five regions: cervical (7 vertebrae), thoracic (12 vertebrae), lumbar (5 vertebrae), sacrum (5 fused vertebrae), and coccyx (4 fused vertebrae, also known as the tailbone). Each region has unique characteristics that allow for specific functions and adaptations to the body's needs.

Calcium compounds are chemical substances that contain calcium ions (Ca2+) bonded to various anions. Calcium is an essential mineral for human health, and calcium compounds have numerous biological and industrial applications. Here are some examples of calcium compounds with their medical definitions:

1. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3): A common mineral found in rocks and sediments, calcium carbonate is also a major component of shells, pearls, and bones. It is used as a dietary supplement to prevent or treat calcium deficiency and as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid.
2. Calcium citrate (C6H8CaO7): A calcium salt of citric acid, calcium citrate is often used as a dietary supplement to prevent or treat calcium deficiency. It is more soluble in water and gastric juice than calcium carbonate, making it easier to absorb, especially for people with low stomach acid.
3. Calcium gluconate (C12H22CaO14): A calcium salt of gluconic acid, calcium gluconate is used as a medication to treat or prevent hypocalcemia (low blood calcium levels) and hyperkalemia (high blood potassium levels). It can be given intravenously, orally, or topically.
4. Calcium chloride (CaCl2): A white, deliquescent salt, calcium chloride is used as a de-icing agent, a food additive, and a desiccant. In medical settings, it can be used to treat hypocalcemia or hyperkalemia, or as an antidote for magnesium overdose.
5. Calcium lactate (C6H10CaO6): A calcium salt of lactic acid, calcium lactate is used as a dietary supplement to prevent or treat calcium deficiency. It is less commonly used than calcium carbonate or calcium citrate but may be better tolerated by some people.
6. Calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2): A mineral found in rocks and bones, calcium phosphate is used as a dietary supplement to prevent or treat calcium deficiency. It can also be used as a food additive or a pharmaceutical excipient.
7. Calcium sulfate (CaSO4): A white, insoluble powder, calcium sulfate is used as a desiccant, a plaster, and a fertilizer. In medical settings, it can be used to treat hypocalcemia or as an antidote for magnesium overdose.
8. Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2): A white, alkaline powder, calcium hydroxide is used as a disinfectant, a flocculant, and a building material. In medical settings, it can be used to treat hyperkalemia or as an antidote for aluminum overdose.
9. Calcium acetate (Ca(C2H3O2)2): A white, crystalline powder, calcium acetate is used as a food additive and a medication. It can be used to treat hyperphosphatemia (high blood phosphate levels) in patients with kidney disease.
10. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3): A white, chalky powder, calcium carbonate is used as a dietary supplement, a food additive, and a pharmaceutical excipient. It can also be used as a building material and a mineral supplement.

Chromium alloys are materials made by combining chromium with other metals, such as nickel, cobalt, or iron. The addition of chromium to these alloys enhances their properties, making them resistant to corrosion and high temperatures. These alloys have a wide range of applications in various industries, including automotive, aerospace, and medical devices.

Chromium alloys can be classified into two main categories: stainless steels and superalloys. Stainless steels are alloys that contain at least 10.5% chromium by weight, which forms a passive oxide layer on the surface of the material, protecting it from corrosion. Superalloys, on the other hand, are high-performance alloys designed to operate in extreme environments, such as jet engines and gas turbines. They contain significant amounts of chromium, along with other elements like nickel, cobalt, and molybdenum.

Chromium alloys have several medical applications due to their excellent properties. For instance, they are used in surgical instruments, dental implants, and orthopedic devices because of their resistance to corrosion and biocompatibility. Additionally, some chromium alloys exhibit superelasticity, a property that allows them to return to their original shape after being deformed, making them suitable for use in stents and other medical devices that require flexibility and durability.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "silicates" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Silicates are a broad class of minerals that are composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in various arrangements. They are abundant in Earth's crust and are commonly found in sand, quartz, and many types of rocks.

While not directly related to human health, some silicate-based materials can have medical applications. For example, certain forms of magnesium silicate (talc) have been used as a component in some medications for their ability to absorb moisture and help reduce the risk of skin irritation. However, exposure to certain types of silica dust (like crystalline silica) has been linked to lung diseases such as silicosis, bronchitis, and lung cancer, especially in occupational settings like construction, sandblasting, and mining.

If you have any concerns about silicates or their potential impact on your health, I would recommend consulting a healthcare professional for personalized advice based on your specific situation.

Osteoblasts are specialized bone-forming cells that are derived from mesenchymal stem cells. They play a crucial role in the process of bone formation and remodeling. Osteoblasts synthesize, secrete, and mineralize the organic matrix of bones, which is mainly composed of type I collagen.

These cells have receptors for various hormones and growth factors that regulate their activity, such as parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, and transforming growth factor-beta. When osteoblasts are not actively producing bone matrix, they can become trapped within the matrix they produce, where they differentiate into osteocytes, which are mature bone cells that play a role in maintaining bone structure and responding to mechanical stress.

Abnormalities in osteoblast function can lead to various bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, and Paget's disease of bone.

Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass, deterioration of bone tissue, and disruption of bone architecture, leading to increased risk of fractures, particularly in the spine, wrist, and hip. It mainly affects older people, especially postmenopausal women, due to hormonal changes that reduce bone density. Osteoporosis can also be caused by certain medications, medical conditions, or lifestyle factors such as smoking, alcohol abuse, and a lack of calcium and vitamin D in the diet. The diagnosis is often made using bone mineral density testing, and treatment may include medication to slow bone loss, promote bone formation, and prevent fractures.

Carboxymethylcellulose sodium is a type of cellulose derivative that is widely used in the medical and pharmaceutical fields as an excipient or a drug delivery agent. It is a white, odorless powder with good water solubility and forms a clear, viscous solution.

Chemically, carboxymethylcellulose sodium is produced by reacting cellulose, which is derived from plant sources such as wood or cotton, with sodium hydroxide and chloroacetic acid. This reaction introduces carboxymethyl groups (-CH2COO-) to the cellulose molecule, making it more soluble in water and providing negative charges that can interact with positively charged ions or drugs.

In medical applications, carboxymethylcellulose sodium is used as a thickening agent, binder, disintegrant, and suspending agent in various pharmaceutical formulations such as tablets, capsules, liquids, and semisolids. It can also be used as a lubricant in the manufacture of tablets and capsules to facilitate their ejection from molds or dies.

Carboxymethylcellulose sodium has been shown to have good biocompatibility and low toxicity, making it a safe and effective excipient for use in medical and pharmaceutical applications. However, like any other excipient, it should be used with caution and in appropriate amounts to avoid any adverse effects or interactions with the active ingredients of the drug product.

Dental prosthesis retention refers to the means by which a dental prosthesis, such as a denture, is held in place in the mouth. The retention can be achieved through several methods, including:

1. Suction: This is the most common method of retention for lower dentures, where the shape and fit of the denture base create suction against the gums to hold it in place.
2. Mechanical retention: This involves the use of mechanical components such as clasps or attachments that hook onto remaining natural teeth or dental implants to hold the prosthesis in place.
3. Adhesive retention: Dental adhesives can be used to help secure the denture to the gums, providing additional retention and stability.
4. Implant retention: Dental implants can be used to provide a more secure and stable retention of the dental prosthesis. The implant is surgically placed in the jawbone and acts as an anchor for the prosthesis.

Proper retention of a dental prosthesis is essential for optimal function, comfort, and speech. A well-retained prosthesis can help prevent sore spots, improve chewing efficiency, and enhance overall quality of life.

Magnesium oxide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula MgO. It is a white, odorless solid that is highly basic and stable. Medically, magnesium oxide is used as a dietary supplement to prevent or treat low amounts of magnesium in the blood. It is also used as a antacid to neutralize stomach acid and as a laxative to relieve constipation.

A dental restoration, temporary, is a type of dental restorative material or device that is used for a short period of time to restore the function, shape, and aesthetics of a damaged or decayed tooth. It serves as a placeholder until a permanent restoration can be created and placed.

Temporary dental restorations are typically made of materials such as cotton, plastic, or metal alloys that are easy to manipulate and remove. They may be used in various situations, including:

1. To protect the tooth pulp from further damage or infection after a deep cavity preparation or root canal treatment.
2. To restore the shape and function of a fractured or chipped tooth while waiting for a permanent restoration to be fabricated.
3. As a provisional restoration during the period of healing following oral surgery, such as extraction or implant placement.
4. In some cases, temporary dental restorations may also serve as a diagnostic tool to evaluate the patient's comfort and function before proceeding with a permanent restoration.

It is important to note that temporary dental restorations are not intended for long-term use and should be replaced with a permanent restoration as soon as possible to ensure optimal oral health and functionality.

Dental stress analysis is a method used in dentistry to evaluate the amount and distribution of forces that act upon teeth and surrounding structures during biting, chewing, or other functional movements. This analysis helps dental professionals identify areas of excessive stress or strain that may lead to dental problems such as tooth fracture, mobility, or periodontal (gum) disease. By identifying these areas, dentists can develop treatment plans to reduce the risk of dental issues and improve overall oral health.

Dental stress analysis typically involves the use of specialized equipment, such as strain gauges, T-scan occlusal analysis systems, or finite element analysis software, to measure and analyze the forces that act upon teeth during various functional movements. The results of the analysis can help dentists determine the best course of treatment, which may include adjusting the bite, restoring damaged teeth with crowns or fillings, or fabricating custom-made oral appliances to redistribute the forces evenly across the dental arch.

Overall, dental stress analysis is an important tool in modern dentistry that helps dental professionals diagnose and treat dental problems related to occlusal (bite) forces, ensuring optimal oral health and function for their patients.

Biomechanics is the application of mechanical laws to living structures and systems, particularly in the field of medicine and healthcare. A biomechanical phenomenon refers to a observable event or occurrence that involves the interaction of biological tissues or systems with mechanical forces. These phenomena can be studied at various levels, from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue, organ, and whole-body level.

Examples of biomechanical phenomena include:

1. The way that bones and muscles work together to produce movement (known as joint kinematics).
2. The mechanical behavior of biological tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments under various loads and stresses.
3. The response of cells and tissues to mechanical stimuli, such as the way that bone tissue adapts to changes in loading conditions (known as Wolff's law).
4. The biomechanics of injury and disease processes, such as the mechanisms of joint injury or the development of osteoarthritis.
5. The use of mechanical devices and interventions to treat medical conditions, such as orthopedic implants or assistive devices for mobility impairments.

Understanding biomechanical phenomena is essential for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies for a wide range of medical conditions, from musculoskeletal injuries to neurological disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Finite Element Analysis" (FEA) is not a medical term. It is a computational technique used in engineering and physical sciences. FEA is a computerized method for predicting how a product reacts to real-world forces, vibration, heat, fluid flow, and other physical effects. It's a way that engineers can simulate the performance of a product or system before it is built, which can help reduce costs, improve quality, and shorten the development time.

However, in a medical context, FEA might be used in the field of biomechanical engineering to analyze the mechanical behavior of biological systems, such as bones, joints, or soft tissues, under various loads and conditions. This can help researchers and clinicians better understand the mechanisms of injury, disease, or the effects of treatment, and develop more effective prevention, diagnostic, or therapeutic strategies.

Spinal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors found within the spinal column, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These tumors can originate in the spine itself, called primary spinal neoplasms, or they can spread to the spine from other parts of the body, known as secondary or metastatic spinal neoplasms. Spinal neoplasms can cause various symptoms, such as back pain, neurological deficits, and even paralysis, depending on their location and size. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent or minimize long-term complications and improve the patient's prognosis.

Aluminum silicates are a type of mineral compound that consist of aluminum, silicon, and oxygen in their chemical structure. They are often found in nature and can be categorized into several groups, including kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, and bentonite. These minerals have various industrial and commercial uses, including as fillers and extenders in products like paper, paint, and rubber. In the medical field, certain types of aluminum silicates (like bentonite) have been used in some medicinal and therapeutic applications, such as detoxification and gastrointestinal disorders. However, it's important to note that the use of these minerals in medical treatments is not widely accepted or supported by extensive scientific evidence.

Curettage is a medical procedure that involves scraping or removing tissue from the lining of an organ or body cavity, typically performed using a curette, which is a long, thin surgical instrument with a looped or sharp end. In gynecology, curettage is often used to remove tissue from the uterus during a procedure called dilation and curettage (D&C) to diagnose or treat abnormal uterine bleeding, or to remove residual placental or fetal tissue following a miscarriage or abortion. Curettage may also be used in other medical specialties to remove damaged or diseased tissue from areas such as the nose, throat, or skin.

Titanium is not a medical term, but rather a chemical element (symbol Ti, atomic number 22) that is widely used in the medical field due to its unique properties. Medically, it is often referred to as a biocompatible material used in various medical applications such as:

1. Orthopedic implants: Titanium and its alloys are used for making joint replacements (hips, knees, shoulders), bone plates, screws, and rods due to their high strength-to-weight ratio, excellent corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility.
2. Dental implants: Titanium is also commonly used in dental applications like implants, crowns, and bridges because of its ability to osseointegrate, or fuse directly with bone tissue, providing a stable foundation for replacement teeth.
3. Cardiovascular devices: Titanium alloys are used in the construction of heart valves, pacemakers, and other cardiovascular implants due to their non-magnetic properties, which prevent interference with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans.
4. Medical instruments: Due to its resistance to corrosion and high strength, titanium is used in the manufacturing of various medical instruments such as surgical tools, needles, and catheters.

In summary, Titanium is a chemical element with unique properties that make it an ideal material for various medical applications, including orthopedic and dental implants, cardiovascular devices, and medical instruments.

A cadaver is a deceased body that is used for medical research or education. In the field of medicine, cadavers are often used in anatomy lessons, surgical training, and other forms of medical research. The use of cadavers allows medical professionals to gain a deeper understanding of the human body and its various systems without causing harm to living subjects. Cadavers may be donated to medical schools or obtained through other means, such as through consent of the deceased or their next of kin. It is important to handle and treat cadavers with respect and dignity, as they were once living individuals who deserve to be treated with care even in death.

Polymethacrylic acids are not typically referred to as a medical term, but rather as a chemical one. They are a type of synthetic polymer made up of repeating units of methacrylic acid (MAA). These polymers have various applications in different industries, including the medical field.

In medicine, polymethacrylates are often used in the formulation of controlled-release drug delivery systems, such as beads or microspheres, due to their ability to swell and shrink in response to changes in pH or temperature. This property allows for the gradual release of drugs encapsulated within these polymers over an extended period.

Polymethacrylates are also used in dental applications, such as in the production of artificial teeth and dentures, due to their durability and resistance to wear. Additionally, they can be found in some surgical sealants and adhesives.

While polymethacrylic acids themselves may not have a specific medical definition, their various forms and applications in medical devices and drug delivery systems contribute significantly to the field of medicine.

Arthroplasty is a surgical procedure to restore the integrity and function of a joint. The term is derived from two Greek words: "arthro" meaning joint, and "plasty" meaning to mold or form. There are several types of arthroplasty, but most involve resurfacing the damaged joint cartilage with artificial materials such as metal, plastic, or ceramic.

The goal of arthroplasty is to relieve pain, improve mobility, and restore function in a joint that has been damaged by arthritis, injury, or other conditions. The most common types of arthroplasty are total joint replacement (TJR) and partial joint replacement (PJR).

In TJR, the surgeon removes the damaged ends of the bones in the joint and replaces them with artificial components called prostheses. These prostheses can be made of metal, plastic, or ceramic materials, and are designed to mimic the natural movement and function of the joint.

In PJR, only one side of the joint is resurfaced, typically because the damage is less extensive. This procedure is less invasive than TJR and may be recommended for younger patients who are still active or have a higher risk of complications from a full joint replacement.

Other types of arthroplasty include osteotomy, in which the surgeon cuts and reshapes the bone to realign the joint; arthrodesis, in which the surgeon fuses two bones together to create a stable joint; and resurfacing, in which the damaged cartilage is removed and replaced with a smooth, artificial surface.

Arthroplasty is typically recommended for patients who have tried other treatments, such as physical therapy, medication, or injections, but have not found relief from their symptoms. While arthroplasty can be highly effective in relieving pain and improving mobility, it is not without risks, including infection, blood clots, and implant failure. Patients should discuss the benefits and risks of arthroplasty with their healthcare provider to determine if it is the right treatment option for them.

Metabolic bone diseases are a group of conditions that affect the bones and are caused by disorders in the body's metabolism. These disorders can result in changes to the bone structure, density, and strength, leading to an increased risk of fractures and other complications. Some common examples of metabolic bone diseases include:

1. Osteoporosis: a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones that are more likely to break, often as a result of age-related bone loss or hormonal changes.
2. Paget's disease of bone: a chronic disorder that causes abnormal bone growth and deformities, leading to fragile and enlarged bones.
3. Osteomalacia: a condition caused by a lack of vitamin D or problems with the body's ability to absorb it, resulting in weak and soft bones.
4. Hyperparathyroidism: a hormonal disorder that causes too much parathyroid hormone to be produced, leading to bone loss and other complications.
5. Hypoparathyroidism: a hormonal disorder that results in low levels of parathyroid hormone, causing weak and brittle bones.
6. Renal osteodystrophy: a group of bone disorders that occur as a result of chronic kidney disease, including osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and high turnover bone disease.

Treatment for metabolic bone diseases may include medications to improve bone density and strength, dietary changes, exercise, and lifestyle modifications. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct bone deformities or fractures.

Fat embolism is a medical condition that occurs when fat globules enter the bloodstream and block small blood vessels (arterioles and capillaries) in various tissues and organs. This can lead to inflammation, tissue damage, and potentially life-threatening complications.

Fat embolism typically occurs as a result of trauma, such as long bone fractures or orthopedic surgeries, where fat cells from the marrow of the broken bone enter the bloodstream. It can also occur in other conditions that cause fat to be released into the circulation, such as pancreatitis, decompression sickness, and certain medical procedures like liposuction.

Symptoms of fat embolism may include respiratory distress, fever, confusion, petechial rash (small purple or red spots on the skin), and a decrease in oxygen levels. In severe cases, it can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and even death. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, and medications to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

A bone fracture is a medical condition in which there is a partial or complete break in the continuity of a bone due to external or internal forces. Fractures can occur in any bone in the body and can vary in severity from a small crack to a shattered bone. The symptoms of a bone fracture typically include pain, swelling, bruising, deformity, and difficulty moving the affected limb. Treatment for a bone fracture may involve immobilization with a cast or splint, surgery to realign and stabilize the bone, or medication to manage pain and prevent infection. The specific treatment approach will depend on the location, type, and severity of the fracture.

Acrylates are a group of chemical compounds that are derived from acrylic acid. They are commonly used in various industrial and commercial applications, including the production of plastics, resins, paints, and adhesives. In the medical field, acrylates are sometimes used in the formation of dental restorations, such as fillings and dentures, due to their strong bonding properties and durability.

However, it is important to note that some people may have allergic reactions or sensitivities to acrylates, which can cause skin irritation, allergic contact dermatitis, or other adverse effects. Therefore, medical professionals must use caution when working with these materials and ensure that patients are informed of any potential risks associated with their use.

Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate (BPAGM) is a type of chemical compound that belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glycidyl methacrylates. It is created by the reaction between bisphenol A and glycidyl methacrylate.

BPAGM is used in various industrial applications, including the production of coatings, adhesives, and resins. In the medical field, it has been used as a component in some dental materials, such as bonding agents and composite resins. However, due to concerns about its potential health effects, including its possible estrogenic activity and potential to cause reproductive toxicity, its use in dental materials has become more restricted in recent years.

It is important to note that exposure to BPAGM should be limited as much as possible, and appropriate safety measures should be taken when handling this chemical compound.

Prostheses: Artificial substitutes or replacements for missing body parts, such as limbs, eyes, or teeth. They are designed to restore the function, appearance, or mobility of the lost part. Prosthetic devices can be categorized into several types, including:

1. External prostheses: Devices that are attached to the outside of the body, like artificial arms, legs, hands, and feet. These may be further classified into:
a. Cosmetic or aesthetic prostheses: Primarily designed to improve the appearance of the affected area.
b. Functional prostheses: Designed to help restore the functionality and mobility of the lost limb.
2. Internal prostheses: Implanted artificial parts that replace missing internal organs, bones, or tissues, such as heart valves, hip joints, or intraocular lenses.

Implants: Medical devices or substances that are intentionally placed inside the body to replace or support a missing or damaged biological structure, deliver medication, monitor physiological functions, or enhance bodily functions. Examples of implants include:

1. Orthopedic implants: Devices used to replace or reinforce damaged bones, joints, or cartilage, such as knee or hip replacements.
2. Cardiovascular implants: Devices that help support or regulate heart function, like pacemakers, defibrillators, and artificial heart valves.
3. Dental implants: Artificial tooth roots that are placed into the jawbone to support dental prostheses, such as crowns, bridges, or dentures.
4. Neurological implants: Devices used to stimulate nerves, brain structures, or spinal cord tissues to treat various neurological conditions, like deep brain stimulators for Parkinson's disease or cochlear implants for hearing loss.
5. Ophthalmic implants: Artificial lenses that are placed inside the eye to replace a damaged or removed natural lens, such as intraocular lenses used in cataract surgery.

A drug carrier, also known as a drug delivery system or vector, is a vehicle that transports a pharmaceutical compound to a specific site in the body. The main purpose of using drug carriers is to improve the efficacy and safety of drugs by enhancing their solubility, stability, bioavailability, and targeted delivery, while minimizing unwanted side effects.

Drug carriers can be made up of various materials, including natural or synthetic polymers, lipids, inorganic nanoparticles, or even cells and viruses. They can encapsulate, adsorb, or conjugate drugs through different mechanisms, such as physical entrapment, electrostatic interaction, or covalent bonding.

Some common types of drug carriers include:

1. Liposomes: spherical vesicles composed of one or more lipid bilayers that can encapsulate hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs.
2. Polymeric nanoparticles: tiny particles made of biodegradable polymers that can protect drugs from degradation and enhance their accumulation in target tissues.
3. Dendrimers: highly branched macromolecules with a well-defined structure and size that can carry multiple drug molecules and facilitate their release.
4. Micelles: self-assembled structures formed by amphiphilic block copolymers that can solubilize hydrophobic drugs in water.
5. Inorganic nanoparticles: such as gold, silver, or iron oxide nanoparticles, that can be functionalized with drugs and targeting ligands for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
6. Cell-based carriers: living cells, such as red blood cells, stem cells, or immune cells, that can be loaded with drugs and used to deliver them to specific sites in the body.
7. Viral vectors: modified viruses that can infect cells and introduce genetic material encoding therapeutic proteins or RNA interference molecules.

The choice of drug carrier depends on various factors, such as the physicochemical properties of the drug, the route of administration, the target site, and the desired pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. Therefore, selecting an appropriate drug carrier is crucial for achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes and minimizing side effects.

Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) are a group of growth factors that play crucial roles in the development, growth, and repair of bones and other tissues. They belong to the Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily and were first discovered when researchers found that certain proteins extracted from demineralized bone matrix had the ability to induce new bone formation.

BMPs stimulate the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts, which are the cells responsible for bone formation. They also promote the recruitment and proliferation of these cells, enhancing the overall process of bone regeneration. In addition to their role in bone biology, BMPs have been implicated in various other biological processes, including embryonic development, wound healing, and the regulation of fat metabolism.

There are several types of BMPs (BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-7, etc.) that exhibit distinct functions and expression patterns. Due to their ability to stimulate bone formation, recombinant human BMPs have been used in clinical applications, such as spinal fusion surgery and non-healing fracture treatment. However, the use of BMPs in medicine has been associated with certain risks and complications, including uncontrolled bone growth, inflammation, and cancer development, which necessitates further research to optimize their therapeutic potential.

Biocompatible materials are non-toxic and non-reacting substances that can be used in medical devices, tissue engineering, and drug delivery systems without causing harm or adverse reactions to living tissues or organs. These materials are designed to mimic the properties of natural tissues and are able to integrate with biological systems without being rejected by the body's immune system.

Biocompatible materials can be made from a variety of substances, including metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. The specific properties of these materials, such as their mechanical strength, flexibility, and biodegradability, are carefully selected to meet the requirements of their intended medical application.

Examples of biocompatible materials include titanium used in dental implants and joint replacements, polyethylene used in artificial hips, and hydrogels used in contact lenses and drug delivery systems. The use of biocompatible materials has revolutionized modern medicine by enabling the development of advanced medical technologies that can improve patient outcomes and quality of life.

Osteogenesis is the process of bone formation or development. It involves the differentiation and maturation of osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells that synthesize and deposit the organic matrix of bone tissue, composed mainly of type I collagen. This organic matrix later mineralizes to form the inorganic crystalline component of bone, primarily hydroxyapatite.

There are two primary types of osteogenesis: intramembranous and endochondral. Intramembranous osteogenesis occurs directly within connective tissue, where mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into osteoblasts and form bone tissue without an intervening cartilage template. This process is responsible for the formation of flat bones like the skull and clavicles.

Endochondral osteogenesis, on the other hand, involves the initial development of a cartilaginous model or template, which is later replaced by bone tissue. This process forms long bones, such as those in the limbs, and occurs through several stages involving chondrocyte proliferation, hypertrophy, and calcification, followed by invasion of blood vessels and osteoblasts to replace the cartilage with bone tissue.

Abnormalities in osteogenesis can lead to various skeletal disorders and diseases, such as osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease), achondroplasia (a form of dwarfism), and cleidocranial dysplasia (a disorder affecting skull and collarbone development).

Equipment Failure Analysis is a process of identifying the cause of failure in medical equipment or devices. This involves a systematic examination and evaluation of the equipment, its components, and operational history to determine why it failed. The analysis may include physical inspection, chemical testing, and review of maintenance records, as well as assessment of design, manufacturing, and usage factors that may have contributed to the failure.

The goal of Equipment Failure Analysis is to identify the root cause of the failure, so that corrective actions can be taken to prevent similar failures in the future. This is important in medical settings to ensure patient safety and maintain the reliability and effectiveness of medical equipment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polystyrenes" is not a medical term. Polystyrene is a type of synthetic aromatic hydrocarbon polymer that is used in a variety of commercial and industrial products, such as packaging materials, insulation, and disposable cutlery. It's important to note that some polystyrene products may contain potentially harmful chemicals, such as styrene, which can leach out into food or drink, posing potential health risks. However, the medical community primarily deals with the health effects of exposure to these chemicals rather than defining the material itself.

Composite resins, also known as dental composites or filling materials, are a type of restorative material used in dentistry to restore the function, integrity, and morphology of missing tooth structure. They are called composite resins because they are composed of a combination of materials, including a resin matrix (usually made of bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate or urethane dimethacrylate) and filler particles (commonly made of silica, quartz, or glass).

The composite resins are widely used in modern dentistry due to their excellent esthetic properties, ease of handling, and ability to bond directly to tooth structure. They can be used for a variety of restorative procedures, including direct and indirect fillings, veneers, inlays, onlays, and crowns.

Composite resins are available in various shades and opacities, allowing dentists to match the color and translucency of natural teeth closely. They also have good wear resistance, strength, and durability, making them a popular choice for both anterior and posterior restorations. However, composite resins may be prone to staining over time and may require more frequent replacement compared to other types of restorative materials.

Light-curing of dental adhesives refers to the process of using a special type of light to polymerize and harden the adhesive material used in dentistry. The light is typically a blue spectrum light, with a wavelength of approximately 460-490 nanometers, which activates a photoinitiator within the adhesive. This initiates a polymerization reaction that causes the adhesive to solidify and form a strong bond between the tooth surface and the dental restoration material, such as a filling or a crown.

The light-curing process is an important step in many dental procedures as it helps ensure the durability and longevity of the restoration. The intensity and duration of the light exposure are critical factors that can affect the degree of cure and overall strength of the bond. Therefore, it is essential to follow the manufacturer's instructions carefully when using dental adhesives and light-curing equipment.

Prosthesis design is a specialized field in medical device technology that involves creating and developing artificial substitutes to replace a missing body part, such as a limb, tooth, eye, or internal organ. The design process typically includes several stages: assessment of the patient's needs, selection of appropriate materials, creation of a prototype, testing and refinement, and final fabrication and fitting of the prosthesis.

The goal of prosthesis design is to create a device that functions as closely as possible to the natural body part it replaces, while also being comfortable, durable, and aesthetically pleasing for the patient. The design process may involve collaboration between medical professionals, engineers, and designers, and may take into account factors such as the patient's age, lifestyle, occupation, and overall health.

Prosthesis design can be highly complex, particularly for advanced devices such as robotic limbs or implantable organs. These devices often require sophisticated sensors, actuators, and control systems to mimic the natural functions of the body part they replace. As a result, prosthesis design is an active area of research and development in the medical field, with ongoing efforts to improve the functionality, comfort, and affordability of these devices for patients.

The lumbar vertebrae are the five largest and strongest vertebrae in the human spine, located in the lower back region. They are responsible for bearing most of the body's weight and providing stability during movement. The lumbar vertebrae have a characteristic shape, with a large body in the front, which serves as the main weight-bearing structure, and a bony ring in the back, formed by the pedicles, laminae, and processes. This ring encloses and protects the spinal cord and nerves. The lumbar vertebrae are numbered L1 to L5, starting from the uppermost one. They allow for flexion, extension, lateral bending, and rotation movements of the trunk.

A knee prosthesis, also known as a knee replacement or artificial knee joint, is a medical device used to replace the damaged or diseased weight-bearing surfaces of the knee joint. It typically consists of three components: the femoral component (made of metal) that fits over the end of the thighbone (femur), the tibial component (often made of metal and plastic) that fits into the top of the shinbone (tibia), and a patellar component (usually made of plastic) that replaces the damaged surface of the kneecap.

The primary goal of knee prosthesis is to relieve pain, restore function, and improve quality of life for individuals with advanced knee joint damage due to conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or traumatic injuries. The procedure to implant a knee prosthesis is called knee replacement surgery or total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (BMP-2) is a growth factor that belongs to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily. It plays a crucial role in bone and cartilage formation, as well as in the regulation of wound healing and embryonic development. BMP-2 stimulates the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts, which are cells responsible for bone formation.

BMP-2 has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a medical device to promote bone growth in certain spinal fusion surgeries and in the treatment of open fractures that have not healed properly. It is usually administered in the form of a collagen sponge soaked with recombinant human BMP-2 protein, which is a laboratory-produced version of the natural protein.

While BMP-2 has shown promising results in some clinical applications, its use is not without risks and controversies. Some studies have reported adverse effects such as inflammation, ectopic bone formation, and increased rates of cancer, which have raised concerns about its safety and efficacy. Therefore, it is essential to weigh the benefits and risks of BMP-2 therapy on a case-by-case basis and under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional.

Orthopedic procedures are surgical or nonsurgical methods used to treat musculoskeletal conditions, including injuries, deformities, or diseases of the bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, and tendons. These procedures can range from simple splinting or casting to complex surgeries such as joint replacements, spinal fusions, or osteotomies (cutting and repositioning bones). The primary goal of orthopedic procedures is to restore function, reduce pain, and improve the quality of life for patients.

The hip joint, also known as the coxal joint, is a ball-and-socket type synovial joint that connects the femur (thigh bone) to the pelvis. The "ball" is the head of the femur, while the "socket" is the acetabulum, a concave surface on the pelvic bone.

The hip joint is surrounded by a strong fibrous capsule and is reinforced by several ligaments, including the iliofemoral, ischiofemoral, and pubofemoral ligaments. The joint allows for flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, medial and lateral rotation, and circumduction movements, making it one of the most mobile joints in the body.

The hip joint is also supported by various muscles, including the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, iliopsoas, and other hip flexors and extensors. These muscles provide stability and strength to the joint, allowing for weight-bearing activities such as walking, running, and jumping.

A dental crown is a type of dental restoration that completely caps or encircles a tooth or dental implant. Crowns are used to restore the strength, functionality, and appearance of teeth that have been damaged or weakened due to various reasons such as decay, fracture, or large fillings. They can be made from various materials including porcelain, ceramic, metal, or a combination of these. The crown is custom-made to fit over the prepared tooth and is cemented into place, becoming a permanent part of the tooth. Crowns are also used for cosmetic purposes to improve the appearance of discolored or misshapen teeth.

Arthroplasty, replacement, is a surgical procedure where a damaged or diseased joint surface is removed and replaced with an artificial implant or device. The goal of this surgery is to relieve pain, restore function, and improve the quality of life for patients who have severe joint damage due to arthritis or other conditions.

During the procedure, the surgeon removes the damaged cartilage and bone from the joint and replaces them with a metal, plastic, or ceramic component that replicates the shape and function of the natural joint surface. The most common types of joint replacement surgery are hip replacement, knee replacement, and shoulder replacement.

The success rate of joint replacement surgery is generally high, with many patients experiencing significant pain relief and improved mobility. However, as with any surgical procedure, there are risks involved, including infection, blood clots, implant loosening or failure, and nerve damage. Therefore, it's essential to discuss the potential benefits and risks of joint replacement surgery with a healthcare provider before making a decision.

Dentin is the hard, calcified tissue that lies beneath the enamel and cementum of a tooth. It forms the majority of the tooth's structure and is composed primarily of mineral salts (hydroxyapatite), collagenous proteins, and water. Dentin has a tubular structure, with microscopic channels called dentinal tubules that radiate outward from the pulp chamber (the center of the tooth containing nerves and blood vessels) to the exterior of the tooth. These tubules contain fluid and nerve endings that are responsible for the tooth's sensitivity to various stimuli such as temperature changes, pressure, or decay. Dentin plays a crucial role in protecting the dental pulp while also providing support and structure to the overlying enamel and cementum.

Methacrylates are a group of chemical compounds that contain the methacrylate functional group, which is a vinyl group (CH2=CH-) with a carbonyl group (C=O) at the β-position. This structure gives them unique chemical and physical properties, such as low viscosity, high reactivity, and resistance to heat and chemicals.

In medical terms, methacrylates are used in various biomedical applications, such as dental restorative materials, bone cements, and drug delivery systems. For example, methacrylate-based resins are commonly used in dentistry for fillings, crowns, and bridges due to their excellent mechanical properties and adhesion to tooth structures.

However, there have been concerns about the potential toxicity of methacrylates, particularly their ability to release monomers that can cause allergic reactions, irritation, or even mutagenic effects in some individuals. Therefore, it is essential to use these materials with caution and follow proper handling and safety protocols.

Aluminum compounds refer to chemical substances that are formed by the combination of aluminum with other elements. Aluminum is a naturally occurring metallic element, and it can combine with various non-metallic elements to form compounds with unique properties and uses. Some common aluminum compounds include:

1. Aluminum oxide (Al2O3): Also known as alumina, this compound is formed when aluminum combines with oxygen. It is a white, odorless powder that is highly resistant to heat and corrosion. Aluminum oxide is used in a variety of applications, including ceramics, abrasives, and refractories.
2. Aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3): This compound is formed when aluminum combines with sulfuric acid. It is a white, crystalline powder that is highly soluble in water. Aluminum sulfate is used as a flocculant in water treatment, as well as in the manufacture of paper and textiles.
3. Aluminum chloride (AlCl3): This compound is formed when aluminum combines with chlorine. It is a white or yellowish-white solid that is highly deliquescent, meaning it readily absorbs moisture from the air. Aluminum chloride is used as a catalyst in chemical reactions, as well as in the production of various industrial chemicals.
4. Aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3): This compound is formed when aluminum combines with hydroxide ions. It is a white, powdery substance that is amphoteric, meaning it can react with both acids and bases. Aluminum hydroxide is used as an antacid and as a fire retardant.
5. Zinc oxide (ZnO) and aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3): This compound is formed when zinc oxide is combined with aluminum hydroxide. It is a white, powdery substance that is used as a filler in rubber and plastics, as well as in the manufacture of paints and coatings.

It's important to note that some aluminum compounds have been linked to health concerns, particularly when they are inhaled or ingested in large quantities. For example, aluminum chloride has been shown to be toxic to animals at high doses, while aluminum hydroxide has been associated with neurological disorders in some studies. However, the risks associated with exposure to these compounds are generally low, and they are considered safe for most industrial and consumer uses when used as directed.

The thoracic vertebrae are the 12 vertebrae in the thoracic region of the spine, which is the portion between the cervical and lumbar regions. These vertebrae are numbered T1 to T12, with T1 being closest to the skull and T12 connecting to the lumbar region.

The main function of the thoracic vertebrae is to provide stability and support for the chest region, including protection for the vital organs within, such as the heart and lungs. Each thoracic vertebra has costal facets on its sides, which articulate with the heads of the ribs, forming the costovertebral joints. This connection between the spine and the ribcage allows for a range of movements while maintaining stability.

The thoracic vertebrae have a unique structure compared to other regions of the spine. They are characterized by having long, narrow bodies, small bony processes, and prominent spinous processes that point downwards. This particular shape and orientation of the thoracic vertebrae contribute to their role in limiting excessive spinal movement and providing overall trunk stability.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Ultrasonics is a branch of physics and acoustics that deals with the study and application of sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper limit of human hearing, typically 20 kilohertz or above. In the field of medicine, ultrasonics is commonly used in diagnostic and therapeutic applications through the use of medical ultrasound.

Diagnostic medical ultrasound, also known as sonography, uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images of internal organs, tissues, and bodily structures. A transducer probe emits and receives sound waves that bounce off body structures and reflect back to the probe, creating echoes that are then processed into an image. This technology is widely used in various medical specialties, such as obstetrics and gynecology, cardiology, radiology, and vascular medicine, to diagnose a range of conditions and monitor the health of organs and tissues.

Therapeutic ultrasound, on the other hand, uses lower-frequency sound waves to generate heat within body tissues, promoting healing, increasing local blood flow, and reducing pain and inflammation. This modality is often used in physical therapy and rehabilitation settings to treat soft tissue injuries, joint pain, and musculoskeletal disorders.

In summary, ultrasonics in medicine refers to the use of high-frequency sound waves for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, providing valuable information about internal body structures and facilitating healing processes.

Dental porcelain is a type of biocompatible ceramic material that is commonly used in restorative and cosmetic dentistry to create tooth-colored restorations such as crowns, veneers, inlays, onlays, and bridges. It is made from a mixture of powdered porcelain and water, which is heated to high temperatures to form a hard, glass-like substance. Dental porcelain has several desirable properties for dental restorations, including:

1. High strength and durability: Dental porcelain is strong enough to withstand the forces of biting and chewing, making it suitable for use in load-bearing restorations such as crowns and bridges.
2. Natural appearance: Dental porcelain can be matched closely to the color, translucency, and texture of natural teeth, allowing for highly aesthetic restorations that blend seamlessly with the surrounding dentition.
3. Biocompatibility: Dental porcelain is biologically inert and does not cause adverse reactions or toxicity in the body, making it a safe choice for dental restorations.
4. Chemical resistance: Dental porcelain is resistant to staining and chemical attack from substances such as coffee, tea, red wine, and acidic foods and drinks.
5. Low thermal conductivity: Dental porcelain has low thermal conductivity, which means it does not transmit heat or cold readily, reducing the risk of temperature sensitivity in dental restorations.

Overall, dental porcelain is a versatile and reliable material for creating high-quality, natural-looking, and durable dental restorations.

The temporal bone is a paired bone that is located on each side of the skull, forming part of the lateral and inferior walls of the cranial cavity. It is one of the most complex bones in the human body and has several important structures associated with it. The main functions of the temporal bone include protecting the middle and inner ear, providing attachment for various muscles of the head and neck, and forming part of the base of the skull.

The temporal bone is divided into several parts, including the squamous part, the petrous part, the tympanic part, and the styloid process. The squamous part forms the lateral portion of the temporal bone and articulates with the parietal bone. The petrous part is the most medial and superior portion of the temporal bone and contains the inner ear and the semicircular canals. The tympanic part forms the lower and anterior portions of the temporal bone and includes the external auditory meatus or ear canal. The styloid process is a long, slender projection that extends downward from the inferior aspect of the temporal bone and serves as an attachment site for various muscles and ligaments.

The temporal bone plays a crucial role in hearing and balance, as it contains the structures of the middle and inner ear, including the oval window, round window, cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals. The stapes bone, one of the three bones in the middle ear, is entirely encased within the petrous portion of the temporal bone. Additionally, the temporal bone contains important structures for facial expression and sensation, including the facial nerve, which exits the skull through the stylomastoid foramen, a small opening in the temporal bone.

Dentin-bonding agents are substances used in dentistry to create a strong and durable bond between the dental restoration material (such as composite resin, glass ionomer cement, or crowns) and the dentin surface of a tooth. Dentin is the hard tissue that lies beneath the enamel and consists of microscopic tubules filled with fluid.

The primary function of dentin-bonding agents is to improve the adhesion of restorative materials to the tooth structure, enhancing the retention and durability of dental fillings, crowns, veneers, and other types of restorations. These agents typically contain one or more types of bonding resins, such as hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride (4-META), and/or phosphoric acid ester monomers.

The application process for dentin-bonding agents usually involves several steps, including:

1. Etching the dentin surface with a mild acid to remove the smear layer and expose the collagen network within the dentin tubules.
2. Applying a primer that penetrates into the etched dentin and promotes the infiltration of bonding resins into the dentinal tubules.
3. Applying an adhesive, which is typically a mixture of hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers, to form a stable bond between the tooth structure and the restoration material.
4. Light-curing the adhesive to polymerize the resin and create a strong mechanical bond with the dentin surface.

Dentin-bonding agents have significantly improved the clinical success of various dental restorations by enhancing their retention, reducing microleakage, and minimizing postoperative sensitivity. However, they may still be susceptible to degradation over time due to factors such as moisture contamination, enzymatic degradation, or hydrolysis, which can lead to the failure of dental restorations. Therefore, continuous advancements in dentin-bonding technology are essential for improving the long-term success and durability of dental restorations.

A reoperation is a surgical procedure that is performed again on a patient who has already undergone a previous operation for the same or related condition. Reoperations may be required due to various reasons, such as inadequate initial treatment, disease recurrence, infection, or complications from the first surgery. The nature and complexity of a reoperation can vary widely depending on the specific circumstances, but it often carries higher risks and potential complications compared to the original operation.

In the field of medicine, ceramics are commonly referred to as inorganic, non-metallic materials that are made up of compounds such as oxides, carbides, and nitrides. These materials are often used in medical applications due to their biocompatibility, resistance to corrosion, and ability to withstand high temperatures. Some examples of medical ceramics include:

1. Bioceramics: These are ceramic materials that are used in medical devices and implants, such as hip replacements, dental implants, and bone grafts. They are designed to be biocompatible, which means they can be safely implanted into the body without causing an adverse reaction.
2. Ceramic coatings: These are thin layers of ceramic material that are applied to medical devices and implants to improve their performance and durability. For example, ceramic coatings may be used on orthopedic implants to reduce wear and tear, or on cardiovascular implants to prevent blood clots from forming.
3. Ceramic membranes: These are porous ceramic materials that are used in medical filtration systems, such as hemodialysis machines. They are designed to selectively filter out impurities while allowing essential molecules to pass through.
4. Ceramic scaffolds: These are three-dimensional structures made of ceramic material that are used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. They provide a framework for cells to grow and multiply, helping to repair or replace damaged tissues.

Overall, medical ceramics play an important role in modern healthcare, providing safe and effective solutions for a wide range of medical applications.

Root canal filling materials are substances used to fill and seal the root canal system inside a tooth following root canal treatment. The main goal of using these materials is to prevent reinfection, provide structural support to the weakened tooth, and restore its functionality.

Commonly used root canal filling materials include:

1. Gutta-percha: A rubber-like material derived from the sap of the Palaquium gutta tree. It is widely used as the primary filling material due to its biocompatibility, malleability, and ability to be compacted into the root canal space. Gutta-percha points or cones are typically used in conjunction with a sealer for optimal adaptation and seal.

2. Sealers: These are adhesive materials that help bond gutta-percha to dentin walls and improve the seal between the filling material and root canal walls. Some commonly used sealers include zinc oxide eugenol, calcium hydroxide-based sealers, and resin-based sealers.

3. Silver points: These are silver cones with a sharp tip that can be inserted into the root canal space as an alternative to gutta-percha. However, their use has declined due to concerns about corrosion and potential tooth discoloration.

4. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA): A biocompatible cement composed primarily of Portland cement, bismuth oxide, and other additives. MTA is used for various applications in endodontics, including root-end filling, perforation repair, and apexification. It has excellent sealing ability, antibacterial properties, and promotes hard tissue formation.

5. Bioceramics: These are advanced materials with similar properties to MTA but with improved handling characteristics and setting times. They include materials like Bioaggregate, EndoSequence BC Sealer, and iRoot SP.

6. Thermoplasticized gutta-percha: This technique involves heating and softening gutta-percha using a specialized device called a thermomechanical compactor or an oven. The softened gutta-percha is then injected into the root canal space, providing better adaptation to the root canal walls and creating a more uniform seal.

The choice of materials depends on various factors, including the clinical situation, patient's needs, and practitioner's preference.

Synthetic resins are artificially produced substances that have properties similar to natural resins. They are typically created through polymerization, a process in which small molecules called monomers chemically bind together to form larger, more complex structures known as polymers.

Synthetic resins can be classified into several categories based on their chemical composition and properties, including:

1. Thermosetting resins: These resins undergo a chemical reaction when heated, resulting in a rigid and infusible material that cannot be melted or reformed once it has cured. Examples include epoxy, phenolic, and unsaturated polyester resins.

2. Thermoplastic resins: These resins can be repeatedly softened and hardened by heating and cooling without undergoing any significant chemical changes. Examples include polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene.

3. Elastomeric resins: These resins have the ability to stretch and return to their original shape when released, making them ideal for use in applications that require flexibility and durability. Examples include natural rubber, silicone rubber, and polyurethane.

Synthetic resins are widely used in various industries, including construction, automotive, electronics, and healthcare. In the medical field, they may be used to create dental restorations, medical devices, and drug delivery systems, among other applications.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Silver" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol Ag and atomic number 47. Silver is a soft, white, lustrous transition metal that occurs in its pure, free form (native silver) as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite.

In the medical field, silver compounds have been used for their antimicrobial properties. For example, silver sulfadiazine is a common topical cream used to prevent or treat wound infections. Colloidal silver, a suspension of silver particles in a liquid, has also been promoted as a dietary supplement and alternative treatment for various conditions, but its effectiveness and safety are not well-established.

Shear strength is a property of a material that describes its ability to withstand forces that cause internal friction and sliding of one portion of the material relative to another. In the context of human tissues, shear strength is an important factor in understanding how tissues respond to various stresses and strains, such as those experienced during physical activities or injuries.

For example, in the case of bones, shear strength is a critical factor in determining their ability to resist fractures under different types of loading conditions. Similarly, in soft tissues like ligaments and tendons, shear strength plays a crucial role in maintaining the integrity of these structures during movement and preventing excessive deformation or injury.

It's worth noting that measuring the shear strength of human tissues can be challenging due to their complex structure and anisotropic properties. As such, researchers often use specialized techniques and equipment to quantify these properties under controlled conditions in the lab.

Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula ZnO. It exists as a white, odorless, and crystalline powder. In medicine, zinc oxide is used primarily as a topical agent for the treatment of various skin conditions, including diaper rash, minor burns, and irritations caused by eczema or psoriasis.

Zinc oxide has several properties that make it useful in medical applications:

1. Antimicrobial activity: Zinc oxide exhibits antimicrobial properties against bacteria, viruses, and fungi, which can help prevent infection and promote wound healing.
2. Skin protectant: It forms a physical barrier on the skin, protecting it from external irritants, friction, and moisture. This property is particularly useful in products like diaper rash creams and sunscreens.
3. Astringent properties: Zinc oxide can help constrict and tighten tissues, which may reduce inflammation and promote healing.
4. Mineral sunscreen agent: Zinc oxide is a common active ingredient in physical (mineral) sunscreens due to its ability to reflect and scatter UV light, protecting the skin from both UVA and UVB radiation.

Zinc oxide can be found in various medical and skincare products, such as creams, ointments, pastes, lotions, and powders. It is generally considered safe for topical use, but it may cause skin irritation or allergic reactions in some individuals.

Curing lights, dental, are specialized devices used in dentistry to initiate the polymerization (hardening) of light-cured restorative materials, such as composite resins and sealants. These lights emit high-intensity, visible blue light with a wavelength range typically between 450-490 nanometers. This blue light activates photoinitiators within the dental material, which then undergo a chemical reaction that causes the material to harden and solidify.

There are two primary types of curing lights used in dental practice:

1. Quartz Tungsten Halogen (QTH) Lamps: These are traditional curing lights that use a halogen bulb to produce the necessary light intensity. They provide a broad spectrum of light, which allows them to cure a wide variety of materials. However, they tend to produce more heat and have a shorter lifespan compared to newer alternatives.
2. Light-Emitting Diodes (LED) Curing Lights: These are more modern curing lights that utilize LEDs as the light source. They offer several advantages over QTH lamps, including cooler operation, longer lifespan, and lower energy consumption. Additionally, some LED curing lights can emit higher light intensities, which may lead to shorter curing times and better polymerization of the restorative material.

Proper use of dental curing lights is essential for ensuring optimal physical and mechanical properties of the restored teeth, such as strength, wear resistance, and marginal seal.

The parietal bone is one of the four flat bones that form the skull's cranial vault, which protects the brain. There are two parietal bones in the skull, one on each side, located posterior to the frontal bone and temporal bone, and anterior to the occipital bone. Each parietal bone has a squamous part, which forms the roof and sides of the skull, and a smaller, wing-like portion called the mastoid process. The parietal bones contribute to the formation of the coronal and lambdoid sutures, which are fibrous joints that connect the bones in the skull.

Clindamycin is a antibiotic medication used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It is a type of antibiotic known as a lincosamide, which works by binding to the bacterial ribosome and inhibiting protein synthesis. This leads to the death of the bacteria and helps to clear the infection.

Clindamycin is effective against a wide range of gram-positive and some anaerobic bacteria, making it a useful antibiotic for treating many different types of infections, including skin and soft tissue infections, bone and joint infections, respiratory infections, and dental infections. It is also sometimes used to treat certain types of bacterial vaginal infections.

Like all antibiotics, clindamycin should be used only under the direction of a healthcare provider, as misuse can lead to antibiotic resistance. Additionally, clindamycin can cause side effects such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, and it may increase the risk of developing a serious intestinal infection called Clostridioides difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD). It is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when taking this medication.

A hardness test is a quantitative measure of a material's resistance to deformation, typically defined as the penetration of an indenter with a specific shape and load into the surface of the material being tested. There are several types of hardness tests, including Rockwell, Vickers, Brinell, and Knoop, each with their own specific methods and applications. The resulting hardness value is used to evaluate the material's properties, such as wear resistance, durability, and suitability for various industrial or manufacturing processes. Hardness tests are widely used in materials science, engineering, and quality control to ensure the consistency and reliability of materials and components.

Compomers are a type of dental restorative material that contain both glass ionomer and composite resin components. They are designed to combine the advantages of both materials, such as the fluoride release and adhesion to tooth structure of glass ionomers, and the strength and esthetics of composite resins. Compomers are often used for restoring primary teeth in children due to their ease of use and reduced sensitivity compared to traditional composite resins. However, they may not be as durable or wear-resistant as other restorative materials, so their use is generally limited to small to moderate-sized cavities.

The post and core technique is a dental restorative procedure that involves the use of a post made of metal or other materials, which is placed inside the root canal of a severely damaged tooth, to provide support and retention for a dental core. The dental core is then built up using various materials such as composite resin, glass ionomer cement, or amalgam, to restore the missing portion of the tooth structure. This technique is often used as a foundation for a dental crown in cases where there is not enough remaining tooth structure to support the crown on its own. The post and core restoration helps to reinforce the tooth, prevent fractures, and improve the overall functionality and esthetics of the restored tooth.

X-ray microtomography, often referred to as micro-CT, is a non-destructive imaging technique used to visualize and analyze the internal structure of objects with high spatial resolution. It is based on the principles of computed tomography (CT), where multiple X-ray images are acquired at different angles and then reconstructed into cross-sectional slices using specialized software. These slices can be further processed to create 3D visualizations, allowing researchers and clinicians to examine the internal structure and composition of samples in great detail. Micro-CT is widely used in materials science, biology, medicine, and engineering for various applications such as material characterization, bone analysis, and defect inspection.

Inlays are a type of dental restoration used to repair and restore teeth that have been damaged by decay or trauma. They are custom-made fillings made in a laboratory, typically from materials such as gold, porcelain, or composite resin. Inlays are designed to fit precisely into the cavity or damaged area of a tooth, restoring its strength, function, and appearance. Unlike traditional fillings, which are molded directly onto the tooth, inlays are created outside of the mouth and then bonded or cemented into place during a separate dental appointment. This makes them a more durable and long-lasting solution for repairing damaged teeth. Inlays can also be used to replace old or failing fillings, providing a stronger and more aesthetically pleasing alternative.

In the context of medical and health sciences, particle size generally refers to the diameter or dimension of particles, which can be in the form of solid particles, droplets, or aerosols. These particles may include airborne pollutants, pharmaceutical drugs, or medical devices such as nanoparticles used in drug delivery systems.

Particle size is an important factor to consider in various medical applications because it can affect the behavior and interactions of particles with biological systems. For example, smaller particle sizes can lead to greater absorption and distribution throughout the body, while larger particle sizes may be filtered out by the body's natural defense mechanisms. Therefore, understanding particle size and its implications is crucial for optimizing the safety and efficacy of medical treatments and interventions.

Alveolar bone loss refers to the breakdown and resorption of the alveolar process of the jawbone, which is the part of the jaw that contains the sockets of the teeth. This type of bone loss is often caused by periodontal disease, a chronic inflammation of the gums and surrounding tissues that can lead to the destruction of the structures that support the teeth.

In advanced stages of periodontal disease, the alveolar bone can become severely damaged or destroyed, leading to tooth loss. Alveolar bone loss can also occur as a result of other conditions, such as osteoporosis, trauma, or tumors. Dental X-rays and other imaging techniques are often used to diagnose and monitor alveolar bone loss. Treatment may include deep cleaning of the teeth and gums, medications, surgery, or tooth extraction in severe cases.

A dental cavity lining, also known as a dental restoration or filling, refers to the material used to fill and seal a tooth after decay has been removed. The purpose of the lining is to restore the function, integrity, and morphology of the tooth, while preventing further decay and infection. Common materials used for dental cavity linings include:

1. Amalgam: A mixture of metals, such as silver, tin, copper, and mercury, amalgam fillings are strong, durable, and resistant to wear. They are often used for posterior teeth that undergo heavy chewing forces. However, due to their dark color, they may be less aesthetically pleasing compared to other materials.
2. Composite resin: A tooth-colored material made of a mixture of plastic and glass particles, composite resins provide a more natural appearance and are often used for anterior teeth or cosmetic restorations. They bond directly to the tooth structure, which can help reinforce the remaining tooth structure. However, they may be less durable than amalgam fillings and may wear down or discolor over time.
3. Glass ionomer: A tooth-colored material made of acrylic and a type of glass, glass ionomers release fluoride, which can help protect the tooth from further decay. They are often used for fillings near the gum line, for cementing crowns or orthodontic appliances, or as a base layer under other restorative materials. Glass ionomers are less durable than composite resins and amalgam fillings and may not withstand heavy chewing forces as well.
4. Gold: A precious metal used for dental restorations, gold is highly durable, non-reactive, and resistant to corrosion. It can be used for inlays, onlays, or crowns and provides excellent longevity. However, due to its high cost and less desirable aesthetics, it is not as commonly used as other materials.
5. Porcelain: A ceramic material that can be matched to the color of natural teeth, porcelain is often used for inlays, onlays, crowns, or veneers. It provides excellent aesthetics and durability but may be more brittle than other materials and requires a skilled dental technician for fabrication.

Ultimately, the choice of restorative material depends on several factors, including the location and extent of the decay, the patient's oral health status, aesthetic preferences, and budget. Dentists will consider these factors when recommending the most appropriate material for a specific situation.

Minimally invasive surgical procedures are a type of surgery that is performed with the assistance of specialized equipment and techniques to minimize trauma to the patient's body. This approach aims to reduce blood loss, pain, and recovery time as compared to traditional open surgeries. The most common minimally invasive surgical procedure is laparoscopy, which involves making small incisions (usually 0.5-1 cm) in the abdomen or chest and inserting a thin tube with a camera (laparoscope) to visualize the internal organs.

The surgeon then uses long, slender instruments inserted through separate incisions to perform the necessary surgical procedures, such as cutting, coagulation, or suturing. Other types of minimally invasive surgical procedures include arthroscopy (for joint surgery), thoracoscopy (for chest surgery), and hysteroscopy (for uterine surgery). The benefits of minimally invasive surgical procedures include reduced postoperative pain, shorter hospital stays, quicker return to normal activities, and improved cosmetic results. However, not all surgeries can be performed using minimally invasive techniques, and the suitability of a particular procedure depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the nature and extent of the surgical problem, and the surgeon's expertise.

Radioimmunodetection (RID) is a medical diagnostic technique that combines the specificity of antibodies with the sensitivity of radioisotopes to detect and locate antigens or tumor markers within the body. This technique involves labeling antibodies with radioactive isotopes, which are then introduced into the patient's body. The labeled antibodies bind to the target antigens, allowing for their detection and localization using external gamma cameras.

The process typically begins with the production of monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies that specifically recognize and bind to a particular antigen associated with a disease or condition. These antibodies are then labeled with radioisotopes such as technetium-99m, iodine-131, or indium-111, which emit gamma rays that can be detected by external imaging devices.

Once the labeled antibodies have been administered to the patient, they circulate throughout the body and bind to their respective antigens. The bound radioactive antibodies can then be imaged using a gamma camera or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanner, providing information about the location, size, and distribution of the target antigens within the body.

Radioimmunodetection has been widely used in the detection and monitoring of various malignancies, including cancerous tumors and metastases, as well as inflammatory and infectious diseases. It offers several advantages over other diagnostic techniques, such as high sensitivity, specificity, and non-invasiveness, making it an essential tool in modern medical imaging and diagnostics.

Calcium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2. It is also known as slaked lime or hydrated lime. Calcium hydroxide is a white, odorless, tasteless, and alkaline powder that dissolves in water to form a caustic solution.

Medically, calcium hydroxide is used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and relieve symptoms of heartburn, indigestion, and upset stomach. It is also used as a topical agent to treat skin conditions such as poison ivy rash, sunburn, and minor burns. When applied to the skin, calcium hydroxide helps to reduce inflammation, neutralize irritants, and promote healing.

In dental applications, calcium hydroxide is used as a filling material for root canals and as a paste to treat tooth sensitivity. It has the ability to stimulate the formation of new dentin, which is the hard tissue that makes up the bulk of the tooth.

It's important to note that calcium hydroxide should be used with caution, as it can cause irritation and burns if it comes into contact with the eyes or mucous membranes. It should also be stored in a cool, dry place away from heat and open flames.

Dental leakage, also known as "microleakage" in dental terminology, refers to the seepage or penetration of fluids, bacteria, or other substances between the walls of a dental restoration (such as a filling, crown, or bridge) and the prepared tooth structure. This occurs due to the presence of microscopic gaps or spaces at the interface of the restoration and the tooth.

Dental leakage can lead to several problems, including:

1. Recurrent decay: The seepage of fluids, bacteria, and sugars from the oral environment can cause secondary tooth decay around the margins of the restoration.
2. Sensitivity: Microleakage may result in temperature sensitivity or pain when consuming hot or cold foods and beverages due to fluid movement within the gap.
3. Discoloration: Over time, dental leakage might lead to staining of the tooth structure around the restoration, resulting in an unaesthetic appearance.
4. Failed restorations: Persistent dental leakage can weaken the bond between the restoration and the tooth, increasing the risk of restoration failure and the need for replacement.

To prevent dental leakage, dentists employ various techniques during restoration placement, such as using appropriate adhesives, following meticulous preparation protocols, and ensuring a tight seal around the margins of the restoration. Regular dental check-ups and professional cleanings are essential to monitor the condition of existing restorations and address any issues before they become more severe.

Pharmaceutical chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the design, synthesis, and development of chemical entities used as medications. It involves the study of drugs' physical, chemical, and biological properties, as well as their interactions with living organisms. This field also encompasses understanding the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of drugs in the body, which are critical factors in drug design and development. Pharmaceutical chemists often work closely with biologists, medical professionals, and engineers to develop new medications and improve existing ones.

Vancomycin is an antibiotic that belongs to the glycopeptide class. It is primarily used to treat severe infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE). Vancomycin works by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls. It is usually administered intravenously in a hospital setting due to its potential nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. The medical definition of 'Vancomycin' can be summarized as:

"A glycopeptide antibiotic used to treat severe infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, particularly those that are resistant to other antibiotics. It inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis and is administered intravenously due to its potential nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity."

A dental restoration, permanent, is a type of dental treatment that involves the use of materials such as gold, silver amalgam, porcelain, or composite resin to repair and restore the function, form, and aesthetics of a damaged or decayed tooth. Unlike temporary restorations, which are meant to be replaced with a permanent solution, permanent restorations are designed to last for many years, if not a lifetime.

Examples of permanent dental restorations include:

1. Dental fillings: These are used to fill cavities caused by tooth decay. The decayed portion of the tooth is removed, and the resulting space is filled with a material such as amalgam, composite resin, or gold.
2. Inlays and onlays: These are similar to dental fillings but are made in a laboratory and then bonded to the tooth. They are used when there is not enough tooth structure left to support a filling.
3. Dental crowns: Also known as caps, these are used to cover and protect a tooth that has been damaged or weakened by decay, injury, or wear. The crown fits over the entire tooth, restoring its shape, size, and strength.
4. Dental bridges: These are used to replace one or more missing teeth. A bridge consists of one or more artificial teeth (pontics) that are held in place by crowns on either side.
5. Dental implants: These are used to replace missing teeth. An implant is a small titanium post that is surgically placed in the jawbone, where it functions as an anchor for a replacement tooth or bridge.

Permanent dental restorations are custom-made for each patient and require careful planning and preparation. They are designed to blend in with the surrounding teeth and provide a natural-looking appearance. With proper care and maintenance, these restorations can last for many years and help preserve the health and function of the teeth and mouth.

Biofilms are defined as complex communities of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, that adhere to surfaces and are enclosed in a matrix made up of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS matrix is composed of polysaccharides, proteins, DNA, and other molecules that provide structural support and protection to the microorganisms within.

Biofilms can form on both living and non-living surfaces, including medical devices, implants, and biological tissues. They are resistant to antibiotics, disinfectants, and host immune responses, making them difficult to eradicate and a significant cause of persistent infections. Biofilms have been implicated in a wide range of medical conditions, including chronic wounds, urinary tract infections, middle ear infections, and device-related infections.

The formation of biofilms typically involves several stages, including initial attachment, microcolony formation, maturation, and dispersion. Understanding the mechanisms underlying biofilm formation and development is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat biofilm-associated infections.

Osteoclasts are large, multinucleated cells that are primarily responsible for bone resorption, a process in which they break down and dissolve the mineralized matrix of bones. They are derived from monocyte-macrophage precursor cells of hematopoietic origin and play a crucial role in maintaining bone homeostasis by balancing bone formation and bone resorption.

Osteoclasts adhere to the bone surface and create an isolated microenvironment, called the "resorption lacuna," between their cell membrane and the bone surface. Here, they release hydrogen ions into the lacuna through a process called proton pumping, which lowers the pH and dissolves the mineral component of the bone matrix. Additionally, osteoclasts secrete proteolytic enzymes, such as cathepsin K, that degrade the organic components, like collagen, in the bone matrix.

An imbalance in osteoclast activity can lead to various bone diseases, including osteoporosis and Paget's disease, where excessive bone resorption results in weakened and fragile bones.

Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals, primarily consisting of fluorapatite, chlorapatite, and hydroxylapatite. They are important constituents of rocks and bones, and they have a wide range of applications in various industries. In the context of medicine, apatites are most notable for their presence in human teeth and bones.

Hydroxylapatite is the primary mineral component of tooth enamel, making up about 97% of its weight. It provides strength and hardness to the enamel, enabling it to withstand the forces of biting and chewing. Fluorapatite, a related mineral that contains fluoride ions instead of hydroxyl ions, is also present in tooth enamel and helps to protect it from acid erosion caused by bacteria and dietary acids.

Chlorapatite has limited medical relevance but can be found in some pathological calcifications in the body.

In addition to their natural occurrence in teeth and bones, apatites have been synthesized for various medical applications, such as bone graft substitutes, drug delivery systems, and tissue engineering scaffolds. These synthetic apatites are biocompatible and can promote bone growth and regeneration, making them useful in dental and orthopedic procedures.

Dental materials are substances that are used in restorative dentistry, prosthodontics, endodontics, orthodontics, and preventive dentistry to restore or replace missing tooth structure, improve the function and esthetics of teeth, and protect the oral tissues from decay and disease. These materials can be classified into various categories based on their physical and chemical properties, including metals, ceramics, polymers, composites, cements, and alloys.

Some examples of dental materials include:

1. Amalgam: a metal alloy used for dental fillings that contains silver, tin, copper, and mercury. It is strong, durable, and resistant to wear but has been controversial due to concerns about the toxicity of mercury.
2. Composite: a tooth-colored restorative material made of a mixture of glass or ceramic particles and a bonding agent. It is used for fillings, veneers, and other esthetic dental treatments.
3. Glass ionomer cement: a type of cement used for dental restorations that releases fluoride ions and helps prevent tooth decay. It is often used for fillings in children's teeth or as a base under crowns and bridges.
4. Porcelain: a ceramic material used for dental crowns, veneers, and other esthetic restorations. It is strong, durable, and resistant to staining but can be brittle and prone to fracture.
5. Gold alloy: a metal alloy used for dental restorations that contains gold, copper, and other metals. It is highly biocompatible, corrosion-resistant, and malleable but can be expensive and less esthetic than other materials.
6. Acrylic resin: a type of polymer used for dental appliances such as dentures, night guards, and orthodontic retainers. It is lightweight, flexible, and easy to modify but can be less durable than other materials.

The choice of dental material depends on various factors, including the location and extent of the restoration, the patient's oral health status, their esthetic preferences, and their budget. Dental professionals must consider these factors carefully when selecting the appropriate dental material for each individual case.

A bone cyst is a fluid-filled sac that develops within a bone. It can be classified as either simple (unicameral) or aneurysmal. Simple bone cysts are more common in children and adolescents, and they typically affect the long bones of the arms or legs. These cysts are usually asymptomatic unless they become large enough to weaken the bone and cause a fracture. Aneurysmal bone cysts, on the other hand, can occur at any age and can affect any bone, but they are most common in the leg bones and spine. They are characterized by rapidly growing blood-filled sacs that can cause pain, swelling, and fractures.

Both types of bone cysts may be treated with observation, medication, or surgery depending on their size, location, and symptoms. It is important to note that while these cysts can be benign, they should still be evaluated and monitored by a healthcare professional to ensure proper treatment and prevention of complications.

... are anchored with bone cement. The bone cement fills the free space between the prosthesis and the bone and plays the important ... Bone cements are provided as two-component materials. Bone cements consist of a powder (i.e., pre-polymerized PMMA and or PMMA ... If the patient is known to have any allergies to constituents of the bone cement, according to current knowledge bone cement ... Anchorage without cement - cement-free implant placement - is the alternative. New bone cement formulations require ...
She is currently editing a book on Bone Cements by the Woodhead Publishing UK (Journal). Her profile on ORCID can be found here ... Deb, S. (2008). Orthopaedic Bone Cements. Elsevier. ISBN 978-1-84569-517-0. Deb, S., ed. (2015). Biomaterials for Oral and ... "Curently [sic] editing a book on Bone Cements: Woodhead Publishing UK (Journal) - Research Portal, King's College, London". ... Palmer, Richard M. Evaluation of a β-Calcium Metaphosphate Bone Graft Containing Bone Morphogenetic Protein-7 in Rabbit ...
Cement; Wolverine (November 21, 1992) Cockroaches; Broken Bones; Dentist Chair; Rhinoceros (November 28, 1992) Omnimax ... Funny Bone Chat; Onions & Tears Chat (November 19, 1983) Color Blindness; Taste Buds; Black Hole Chat (November 26, 1983) ... Bone Marrow; King's Singers; Rotting Foods (December 9, 1995) Wild Lion Vet; Bicycles; Fish Breathing; Insect Warfare (December ... Bones; Coyotes (December 28, 1996) Wetlands; Eco-Filtration; Drinking Water; Water Tower (January 4, 1997) Lost World Dinosaurs ...
"Titlar". Retrieved 2022-12-12. briefpoems (2022-07-07). "Cement Angels - Brief poems by Nelson Ball". Brief Poems ... Swedish Translation by Charlotte Jung and Eva Ribich.] Gothenburg, Sweden: Trombone, 2022. "Nelson Ball Fonds". McMaster ...
Anselmetti, Giovanni Carlo (June 2010). "Osteoplasty: Percutaneous Bone Cement Injection beyond the Spine". Seminars in ... It is the surgical alteration or reshaping of bone. It may be used to relieve pain associated with metastatic bone disease.[ ... Osteoplasty is the branch of surgery concerned with bone repair or bone grafting. ... Percutaneous osteoplasty involves the use of bone cement to reduce pain and improve mobility. Resection osteoplasty is used in ...
Percutaneous osteoplasty involves the use of bone cement to reduce pain and improve mobility. In palliative therapy, the main ... Due to the high rate of bone turnover, metabolites are theorized to be capable of detecting bone metastasis. Use of bone ... bone metastases generally arise from epithelial tumors and form a solid mass inside the bone. Bone metastases, especially in a ... and interleukins to increase bone resorption. The destruction of bone affected by bone metastases are caused by osteoclast- ...
This could be inflammation and dentine or cement loss. Bone tissue is a dynamic system with active metabolism. Bone tissue ... Bone resorption is resorption of bone tissue, that is, the process by which osteoclasts break down the tissue in bones and ... Bone remodeling is a process which maintains bone strength and ion homeostasis by replacing discrete parts of old bone with ... Physiological bone resorption is an integral part of bone functioning, while the bone is constantly growing thanks to two ...
firm to pay $23M for illegal bone cement tests". Yahoo News/Associated Press. Retrieved 2010-10-05. "Synthes acquires U.S. ... According to the indictment, before the marketing program began, pilot studies showed the company that the bone cement reacted ... In October 2010, Synthes and its subsidiary Norian both pleaded guilty to crimes relating to illegally implanting bone cement ... In 2009 the U.S. attorney in Philadelphia accused the company of illegally promoting a bone void filler for unapproved uses, ...
The haversian canal contains the bone's blood supplies. The boundary of an osteon is the cement line. Each haversian canal is ... Haversian canals Cortical bone (compact bone) Cancellous bone (spongy bone) Ross, Lawrence M.; Lamperti, Edward D., eds. (2006 ... Archived 2015-03-04 at the Wayback Machine Bone [dead link] - BioWeb at University of ... In bioarchaeological research and in forensic investigations, osteons in a bone fragment can be used to determine the sex of an ...
Bone cement acts like a grout and not so much like a glue in arthroplasty. Although sticky, it does not bond to either the bone ... In orthopedic surgery, PMMA bone cement is used to affix implants and to remodel lost bone. It is supplied as a powder with ... A disadvantage of this bone cement is that it heats up to 82.5 °C (180.5 °F) while setting that may cause thermal necrosis of ... "Low-modulus PMMA bone cement modified with castor oil". Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering. 21 (5-6): 323-332. doi:10.3233/ ...
4-7-year stereoradiographic follow-up of 84 cemented prostheses". The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. British Volume. 76 (6 ... Two synchronised x-ray foci are used to obtain a stereo image of the bone and the prosthesis. The positions of the foci are ... To achieve the high accuracy, the following steps are carried out: Small radio opaque markers are introduced in the bone and ... The coordinates of the bone and prosthesis markers are accurately measured and the three-dimensional position of the markers is ...
A cement line demarcates articular calcified cartilage from subchondral bones.[citation needed] Once damaged, cartilage has ... Bone morphogenetic proteins are growth factors released during embryonic development to induce condensation and determination ... This temporary cartilage is gradually replaced by bone (endochondral ossification), a process that ends at puberty. In contrast ... and new bone produced in the vascular space in a process similar to endochondral ossification at the physis. ...
The basin is made of cement and tile. The dimensions of the sculpture are 9'6" × 4' × 4'. The dimensions of the fountain basin ... Instruments consist of saxophones, sousaphones, trombones, trumpets, and tubas. The sculpture sits in a fountain basin, which ...
... Medical manufactures bone cement and develops coatings for medical implants. Its products are used in orthopedic ...
... hundreds of sculptures made from chicken bones, ceramic and cast cement; pin-up style photos of his wife, Marie; plus dozens of ... in leftover chicken and turkey bones. Architecturally imposing bone structures resulted. After soaking the bones in ammonia and ... This time, however, his paintings were informed by the decade he spent constructing architectural bone sculptures. His later ... The exhibit, entitled "Eugene Von Bruenchenhein: Freelance Artist-Poet and Sculptor-Inovator-Arrow maker and Plant man-Bone ...
Bone cement has been the material most often used, in spite of its tendency to slippage and resorption, and a consequent high ... Once diagnosed, the gap in the temporal bone can be repaired by surgical resurfacing of the affected bone or plugging of the ... Resurfacing with calcium phosphate bone cement". Australian Journal of Otolaryngology. 4 (3): 167-173. Teixido, Michael; ... A clinical sign of this phenomenon is the ability of the patient to hear (not feel) a tuning fork placed upon the ankle bone. ...
Bioclastic phosphates or bone beds: Bone beds are bedded phosphate deposits that contain concentrations of small skeletal ... Bioclastic phosphates can also be cemented by phosphate minerals. Phosphatization: Phosphatization is a type of rare diagenetic ... The bones and teeth of certain fish (e.g. anchovies) absorb phosphorus and are later deposited and buried in the ocean sediment ... It is also present as hydroxyapatite Ca5(PO4)3OH or Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, which is often dissolved from vertebrate bones and teeth, ...
"Technological issues for the development of more efficient calcium phosphate bone cements: A critical assessment". Biomaterials ... is a component used in the formation of some hydroxyapatite calcium phosphate cements that used for the repair of bone defects ... One example of a hydroxyapatite cement forming reaction is that of tetracalcium phosphate and dicalcium diphosphate dihydrate: ... Tetracalcium phosphate is a component in some calcium phosphate cements that have medical applications. Tetracalcium phosphate ...
... to immobilize broken bones, or for metal casting). Mixed with polymers, it has been used as a bone repair cement. Small amounts ... It has been used in bone regeneration as a graft material and graft binder (or extender) and as a barrier in guided bone tissue ... 2 CaSO4 + 2 SiO2 → 2 CaSiO3 + 2 SO2 + O2 The plant made sulfuric acid by the "Anhydrite Process", in which cement clinker ... Titus, Harry W.; McNally, Edmund; Hilberg, Frank C. (1933-01-01). "Effect of Calcium Carbonate and Calcium Sulphate on Bone ...
Use of the bone cement resulted in the deaths of three people. Wyss was not indicted, but four top executives of Synthes were ... Attorneys for Eastern Pennsylvania for using an untested calcium-phosphate-based bone cement on human patients without ... "Bad to the Bone - a Medical Horror Story",, 18 September 2012. "Three people died in illegal human experiments ... a medical device manufacturer making internal screws and plates for broken bones. He founded the company after meeting Martin ...
"While time hardens cement, at this age, it does not heal bones". ...
The dentition was thecodont (tooth roots deeply cemented within the jaw bone). Teeth were constantly shed through a process ... The palate, which consists of the pterygoid bones, palatine bone, and nearby processes of other bones, is tightly packed to ... Microanatomical studies on bones of juvenile Mosasaurus and related genera have found that their bone structures are comparable ... Isolated bones suggest some M. hoffmannii may have exceeded the lengths of the Penza specimen. One such bone is a quadrate ( ...
... unfused nasal bones; the reduced premaxilla and lost first incisor; a nasal incision (or notch below the nasal bones) reaching ... brachydont or low-crowned teeth without cement; upper molars bearing a fold of enamel known as an anterocrochet; and lower ... These factors were used by Matthew Mihlbacher in 2003 to analyze a bone bed of Aphelops known as the Love Island bonebed; ... More derived (specialized) species have larger teeth and longer, more slender nasal bones (also producing a larger incision). ...
Her work considers degradable and non-degradable composite bone cements, as well as dental restorative materials. She works ... Similar to the dental materials, injectable materials for bone repair or drug delivery can mimic nearby bone. These bone repair ... Alongside the design of materials for dentistry, Young is developing degradable materials for bone repair. ... where she works on the development and characterisation of new materials for the repair of tooth and bone. Young studied ...
The titanium rod is inserted in the bone and connected through an opening or stoma in the stump to an external prosthetic limb ... Cementing Osseointegration Implants Results in Loosening: Case Report and Review of Literature. 2020. Periprosthetic ... Bone density changes after five or more years of unilateral lower extremity osseointegration: Observational cohort study. 2023 ... Traditional and rigid socket based technology is now replaced with a surgery that inserts a titanium implant into the bone. ...
Veering between Collins soul/pop and Clapton blues/rock, August cemented Clapton's comeback. "It's in the Way That You Use It ... trombone (2, 4, 6, 7, 9) Randy Brecker - trumpet (2, 4, 6, 7, 9) Jon Faddis - trumpet (2, 4, 6, 7, 9) Leon Pendarvis - horn ... and trombone player Dave Bargeron. Collins, East and Phillinganes would recreate their studio roles for Clapton's acclaimed ...
In medicine, it is used in bone cement and to replace eye lenses. Acrylic paint consists of PMMA particles suspended in water. ...
The bones were crushed on cement with mallets and added to the ashes. These were transported every night in sacks made of ... Eventually, the camp authorities bought a bone-crushing machine (Knochenmühle) from Schriever and Co. in Hamburg to speed up ...
Gruber, H. E.; Mekikian, P. (1991). "Application of stains-all for demarcation of cement lines in methacrylate embedded bone". ... It is used in SDS-PAGE, agarose gel electrophoresis and histologic staining, e.g. staining of growth lines in bones. Green, M. ...
DTA may be used in cement chemistry, mineralogical research and in environmental studies. DTA curves may also be used to date ... "The application of differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis to dating bone remains". Journal of Forensic ... Ramachandran V.S. "Applications of differential thermal analysis in cement chemistry". Chap. V, Chemical Publishing Co., Inc., ... bone remains or to study archaeological materials. Using DTA one can obtain liquidus & solidus lines of phase diagrams. ...
... are anchored with bone cement. The bone cement fills the free space between the prosthesis and the bone and plays the important ... Bone cements are provided as two-component materials. Bone cements consist of a powder (i.e., pre-polymerized PMMA and or PMMA ... If the patient is known to have any allergies to constituents of the bone cement, according to current knowledge bone cement ... Anchorage without cement - cement-free implant placement - is the alternative. New bone cement formulations require ...
You are here: Home / / Onions - a fall favorite and bone superfood / red onions on rustic cement wood bakground ... The Center for Better Bones and the Better Bones Foundation. Dr. Susan E. Brown, PhD. 605 Franklin Park Drive. East Syracuse, ... red onions on rustic cement wood bakground October 4, 2016. /0 Comments/by Dr. Susan E. Brown. ... Acid-alkaline balance and bone health: research articles of special interest. *Acid-alkaline balance: general research articles ...
The bone cement was used to fill up the gap in animals group III for first 30 days then it was replaced with iliac chip bone ... The bone cement leading to fibrotic capsule formation was quite helpful to delay iliac bone graft resorption and enhancing ... The application of bone cement in gap nonunion, crushed bone and fragmental fractures is highly recommended. ... GROSS AND HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF BONE CEMENT AND BONE GRAFT IN DOG ...
What is the risk of death or severe harm due to bone cement implantation syndrome among patients undergoing hip ... What is the risk of death or severe harm due to bone cement implantation syndrome among patients undergoing hip ... What is the risk of death or severe harm due to bone cement implantation syndrome among patients undergoing hip ...
Bone remodeling and implant migration of uncemented femoral and cemented asymmetrical tibial components in total knee ... The aim of the study was to evaluate bone remodeling and implant migration with cemented asymmetrical tibial and uncemented ... The aim of the study was to evaluate bone remodeling and implant migration with cemented asymmetrical tibial and uncemented ... The aim of the study was to evaluate bone remodeling and implant migration with cemented asymmetrical tibial and uncemented ...
We are leading publisher of Bone cements industry and research report. ... Find Global Bone cements Market Research Report with detailed Forecasts - ...
Decrease quantity for Regal Table Lamp in Grey Cement -. Increase quantity for Regal Table Lamp in Grey Cement +. ... Regal Table Lamp in Grey Cement. Regular Price $437.00 Sale Price $437.00 Regular Price Sale Sold Out ... Bone & Brass is a retail marketplace featuring hand-selected furniture, lighting and home decor. It is the result of thousands ...
Mechanical performance of acrylic bone cements containing different radiopacifying agents. M. P. Ginebra, L. Albuixech, E. ... Mechanical performance of acrylic bone cements containing different radiopacifying agents. In: Biomaterials. 2002 ; Vol. 23, No ... Mechanical performance of acrylic bone cements containing different radiopacifying agents. Biomaterials. 2002 Apr 15;23(8):1873 ... Mechanical performance of acrylic bone cements containing different radiopacifying agents. / Ginebra, M. P.; Albuixech, L.; ...
Introducing the Remedy Spacer System: The first FDA-cleared modular system available for both hip and knee two-stage infection revision arthroplasty.
The test temperature had a strong effect on the creep performance of the bone cements with a higher creep rate observed at body ... Dynamic creep and mechanical characteristics of SmartSet GHV bone cement. Lookup NU author(s): Professor Andrew McCaskie ... As a visco-elastic material, the sensitivity of bone cement to the temperature change was evident during mechanical testing. ... The restrained dynamic creep behaviour and mechanical properties of SmartSet GHV bone cement have been investigated at both ...
Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are extensively used as synthetic bone grafts, but their poor toughness limits their use to ... A novel strategy to enhance interfacial adhesion in fiber-reinforced calcium phosphate cement. ... info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/FP7/241879/EU/Regenerating Bone defects using New biomedical Engineering approaches/REBORNE. ... A novel strategy to enhance interfacial adhesion in fiber-reinforced calcium phosphate cement. ...
GIACOMELLI, Édio et al. Development of glass ionomer cement modified with seashell powder as a scaffold material for bone ... seashells could be used in glass ionomer cement aiming at the development of a scaffold material for bone grafting or ... PURPOSE: The present study examined the possibility of modifying the structural properties of glass ionomer cement by adding ... The ground seashells were mixed with the glass ionomer cement at either 1, 5 or 10% concentrations (in weight). Samples without ...
Bone Cement and Black Light Detection - Part 1. Stephen M. Kovach. March 26, 2024 ...
The orthopedic surgeon has 2 major tasks to perform when treating patients who develop bone metastases. The first task is to ... Devices and/or procedures used in the surgical fixation of long bones include the following:. * Standard or cemented stems ... Metastatic bone disease occurs when cancer spreads from a primary organ site to bone. The spine is the most common location of ... Bone targeted therapy for preventing skeletal-related events in metastatic breast cancer. Bone. 2016 Jun. 87:169-75. [QxMD ...
High-dose dual antibiotic-loaded bone cement (ALBC) may reduce the risk of revision after total hip and knee replacements. The ... Risk for re-revision and type of antibiotic-loaded bone cement in hip or knee arthroplasty revisions: report of the Dutch ... Risk for re-revision and type of antibiotic-loaded bone cement in hip or knee arthroplasty ... Patients from the Dutch Arthroplasty Register treated from 2007 to 2018 with first time cemented aseptic hip (n = 2,529) or ...
2 mm in the bone-metal interface or cement-bone); (2) loosening of the components; (3) cement fractures; and (4) subperiosteal ... Antibiotic-impregnated cement spacers for the treatment of infection associated with total hip or knee arthroplasty. J Bone ... An average ten-year follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1998;80:961-968. [PubMed] [DOI] [Cited in This Article: ] ... The significance of its role in clinical sepsis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1985;67:264-273. [PubMed] [DOI] [Cited in This Article: ...
Another broken bone. Lost my way. I cant change. Cemented in fury. I cant change. Bagged eyes. Restless mind. Confined in ...
Bone Cement; Waste Anesthetic Gases ... Cements; Air-sampling; Air-contamination; Anesthetics; Author ...
The pieces can be attached using bone cement or screws.. *Attach the underside of your kneecap. A special bone cement is used ... Upper end of the shin bone, which is the large bone in your lower leg -- This bone is called the tibia. The replacement part is ... Fasten the two parts of the prosthesis to your bones. One part will be attached to the end of your thigh bone and the other ... Lower end of the thigh bone -- This bone is called the femur. The replacement part is usually made of metal. ...
The Application of Carbon Nanotube to Bone Cement By Yu-Hsun Nien ...
Medication-loaded bone cement was also used for patients requiring intramedullary nailing. Patients with PJI were also treated ... and osteotomy and arthrotomy of an infected elbow with extensive use of antimicrobial beads and bone cement. A patient with M. ... Infection of prosthetic arthroplasty by Mycobacterium fortuitum. Two case reports. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1979;61:300-2. DOI ... The clinicopathological spectrum of non-tuberculous mycobacterial osteoarticular infections. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1985;67:925- ...
In vitro tests are available for delayed hypersensitivity to contact allergens (i.e., metals and bone cement). However, routine ... Currently, there are no guidelines or recommendations for symptomatic patients with positive PT to metals or bone cement ... In vitro tests for delayed hypersensitivity to contact allergens (e.g., metals and bone cement)3 ... metals and bone cement). In this regard, the following tests are not considered appropriate in testing for food allergy: 1) ...
Synthetic Bone Graft Substitutes (1) * Orthopedic Bone Cement and Casting Materials(1). ...
1998, Augmentation of inter-trochanteric fractures with acrylic and bio-active bone cements: a biomechanical analysis., in ... Walsh WF; Harrison J; Stanford RE; Bruce WJ; Loefler A; Sonnabend DH, 1997, Bone Graft Substitute and Bone Morphogenic ... Stanford RE; Walsh WF, 1998, Bone Defect Healing in Rabbit Ulnae Using a Composite of Hydroxyapatite and Polylactic Acid., in ... Stanford RE; solomon M; levik M; kohan L; bell S, 1999, Sterilisation Of Contaminated Bone-Tendon Grafts: methods using 10% ...
AD SURGICAL Bone Graft Cements + Oral Bandages Bundle Item #: BUNDLE-Bond-ORA ...
The Exeter V40 cemented femoral component at a minimum 10-year follow-up: the first 540 cases. Bone Joint J. 2018;100-B:1002- ... Once the cement mantle was partially removed with a cement chisel, the fractured distal part of the cemented stem could be ... Technique of windowing the femoral shaft for removal of bone cement. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1981;336-337. [PubMed] [DOI] [Cited ... Structural and cellular assessment of bone quality of proximal femur. Bone. 1993;14:231-242. [PubMed] [DOI] [Cited in This ...
Multiple different materials throughout history have been tested as replacements for bone. ... Do porous tantalum implants help preserve bone?: evaluation of tibial bone density surrounding tantalum tibial implants in TKA ... Silicate coating of cemented titanium-based shafts in hip prosthetics reduces high aseptic loosening]. Z Orthop Unfall. 2009 ... It is available in several forms for bridging bone defects, but its use in the manufacture of femoral stems has yet to be ...
Cobalt® Bone Cement Surgical Discovery® Elbow. Surgical e+™ Surgical EMPOWR Acetabular® System. ...
... acrylic cement and bone. Thus im having two interfaces, the one between implant-cement and another betwenn cement-bone. I ... So, Im working on cemented fixation of orthopaedic implant. My model was consists of three parts: implant, ...
  • What is the risk of death or severe harm due to bone cement implantation syndrome among patients undergoing hip hemiarthroplasty for fractured neck of femur? (
  • The composition of these types of cement is mostly based on calcium phosphate and more recently magnesium phosphate. (
  • Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are extensively used as synthetic bone grafts, but their poor toughness limits their use to non-load-bearing applications. (
  • The aim of the present work was to improve the interfacial adhesion between fibers and matrix to obtain tougher biocompatible fiber-reinforced calcium phosphate cements (FRCPCs). (
  • The set time can be tailored to help the physician safely apply the bone cement into the bone bed to either anchor metal or plastic prosthetic device to bone or used alone in the spine to treat osteoporotic compression fractures. (
  • The application of bone cement in gap nonunion, crushed bone and fragmental fractures is highly recommended. (
  • What is referred to as bone cement implantation syndrome (BCIS) is described in the literature. (
  • Kyphoplasty involves restoring vertebral height and relieving pain by injecting bone cement into fractured vertebrae. (
  • The spine (spinal column) consists of back bones (vertebrae). (
  • Some variation exists, because humans may have different numbers of certain bones (eg, vertebrae and ribs). (
  • The only bones that lack a true cortex are the vertebrae, which are covered by a compact condensation of trabecular bone. (
  • Bone cements have been used very successfully to anchor artificial joints (hip joints, knee joints, shoulder and elbow joints) for more than half a century. (
  • Hip and knee registers for artificial joint replacements such as those in Sweden and Norway clearly demonstrate the advantages of cemented-in anchorage. (
  • Risk for re-revision and type of antibiotic-loaded bone cement in hip or knee arthroplasty revisions: report of the Dutch Arthroplasty Register. (
  • High- dose dual antibiotic -loaded bone cement (ALBC) may reduce the risk of revision after total hip and knee replacements. (
  • Patients from the Dutch Arthroplasty Register treated from 2007 to 2018 with first time cemented aseptic hip (n = 2,529) or knee revisions (n = 7,124) were incorporated into 2 datasets. (
  • Damaged cartilage and bone are removed from the knee joint. (
  • The use of cefuroxime-impregnated cement was shown to be effective in the prevention of early to intermediate deep infection after primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) performed with perioperative systemic antibiotic prophylaxis but without any so-called clean-air measures. (
  • The piece of 3 Cm complete mid-shaft left tibial cortical bone was removed in all animals then they were divided into three groups of 5 animals each. (
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate bone remodeling and implant migration with cemented asymmetrical tibial and uncemented femoral components after TKA with a follow up period of 2 years. (
  • Methods: This was a prospective longitudinal cohort study of 29 patients (number of female/male patients 17/12, mean age 65.2 years), received a hybrid Persona® TKA (Zimmer Biomet, Warsaw, IN, USA) consisting of a cemented tibial, an all-polyethylene patella, and uncemented trabecular metal femoral components. (
  • This is necessary because the human hip is acted on by approximately 10-12 times the body weight and therefore the bone cement must absorb the forces acting on the hips to ensure that the artificial implant remains in place over the long term. (
  • The crude cumulative 7-year THA re-revision and 9-year TKA re-revision rates did not show any difference in implant survival for common cement types used. (
  • The effect that three different radiopacifying agents, two of them inorganic (BaSO 4 , ZrO 2 ) and one organic (an iodine containing monomer, IHQM) have on the static and dynamic mechanical properties of acrylic bone cements was studied. (
  • [ 1 , 2 ] The remainder of the blood supply is through nutrient vessels that pierce the cortex and supply the marrow cavity and the inner two thirds of the cortical bone. (
  • The subchondral bone is not true cortical bone, in that it lacks some of the organization of cortical bone. (
  • Metastatic bone disease occurs when cancer spreads from a primary organ site to bone. (
  • Patients with metastatic bone disease are generally treated with surgery or radiation therapy. (
  • The goals of surgical intervention for spinal surgery in patients with metastatic bone disease includes decreasing or eliminating pain, decompressing neural elements to protect cord function, and mechanically stabilizing the spine. (
  • Metastatic bone tumors eventually cause bone pain, but they may not cause any symptoms for some time. (
  • A person who has or has had cancer and develops bone pain or swelling is evaluated by a doctor for metastatic bone tumors. (
  • Various biological bone grafts have been used for osteogenesis, osteoconduction and even osteoinduction, but due to systemic influences and local factors the outcome of successful incorporation of a bone graft has not been so satisfactory. (
  • So this study was conducted on 15 clinically healthy adult dogs between 1 to 3 years of age and 20 to 30 kg/BW to evaluate the effect of bone cement and autogenous bone graft. (
  • 2015). NaOCl is mechanical instrumentation is not effective, it is a highly cytotoxic, has allergenic potential and harms factor responsible for endodontic treatment failure, the bond of resin cements because it causes changes the aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity to in the collagen fibers of root dentin (MORRIS et al. (
  • Bone cement chemically is nothing more than Plexiglas (i.e. polymethyl methacrylate or PMMA). (
  • The excellent tissue compatibility of PMMA allowed bone cements to be used for anchorage of head prostheses in the 1950s. (
  • Bone cements consist of a powder (i.e., pre-polymerized PMMA and or PMMA or MMA co-polymer beads and or amorphous powder, radio-opacifier, initiator) and a liquid (MMA monomer, stabilizer, inhibitor). (
  • The bone cement fills the free space between the prosthesis and the bone and plays the important role of an elastic zone. (
  • This low polymerization temperature is determined by the relatively thin cement coating, which should not exceed 5 mm, and the temperature dissipation via the large prosthesis surface and the flow of blood. (
  • Fasten the two parts of the prosthesis to your bones. (
  • E. Hansen, Modelling heat transfer in a bone-cement-prosthesis system , Journal of Biomechanics, 36 (2003) pp. 787-795. (
  • Most bones have a thick, well-organized outer shell (cortex) and a less dense mesh of bony struts in the center (trabecular bone) (see the image below). (
  • Trabecular and cancellous bone. (
  • Most commonly associated with joint surfaces, it usually comprises a thin, compact bone shell with a large amount of bony struts (trabecular bone) for support of the cortical shell. (
  • For the management of long-bone metastatic disease accompanied by an impending or completed fracture, open internal fixation is usually the preferred method of treatment. (
  • It is intended to replace a shoulder joint and achieve biological fixation to bone without the use of bone cement. (
  • The bone cement leading to fibrotic capsule formation was quite helpful to delay iliac bone graft resorption and enhancing osteogenic stimulation as to fill the gap with impact callus with normal cortical structure. (
  • Note 1: In situ self-curing can be the source of released reagents that can cause local and/or systemic toxicity as in the case of the monomer released from methacrylics-based bone cement used in orthopedic surgery. (
  • A novel biodegradable, non-exothermic, self-setting orthopedic cement composition based on amorphous magnesium phosphate (AMP) was developed. (
  • Bone cement is considered a reliable anchorage material with its ease of use in clinical practice and particularly because of its proven long survival rate with cemented-in prostheses. (
  • In group I the bone was fixed with suitable intramedullary pin, whereas the gap was filled up with harvested autogenous rib bone in group II animals. (
  • Stabilization with a locked intramedullary device followed by radiation therapy to the entire bone as soon as the surgical wounds have healed is preferred. (
  • More recently bone cement has been used in the spine in either vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty procedures. (
  • The pain usually results from problems with the musculoskeletal system-the spine, including the bones of the. (
  • The sacrum is the large triangular bone at the base of the spine, the lower part of which is the tailbone. (
  • grinding of cemented tungsten carbide via the urine. (
  • Long bones are formed from a cartilage model precursor by endochondral ossification (see the image below) and can range in size from a phalanx to a femur. (
  • Endochondral ossification of long bones through cartilage precursor. (
  • Addressing bone defects during reimplantation is an area that also requires further research. (
  • Fibrotic capsule, periosteal layer, lacunae, osteoblast, osteocyte and well formed bone marrow with RBC and adipose tissue were noted in animals group III. (
  • Biopsies should be obtained from any soft-tissue mass or, if no soft-tissue mass is present, from the most accessible bone in a mechanically safe area (eg, metaphysis vs diaphysis, acetabulum vs subtrochanteric femur). (
  • Lumbar laminectomy surgically treats spinal stenosis by removing bone and tissue to relieve pressure on nerves. (
  • An imaging test, such as x-rays, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography, may show the bone abnormality, or a sample of tissue may need to be removed and tested (biopsy). (
  • [ 1 ] All bones are encased in a soft tissue envelope known as the periosteum, which is vital for perfusion and nutrient supply to the outer third of the bone (see the image below). (
  • Mature long bones have 3 distinct zones: epiphysis, metaphysis, and diaphysis (see the image below). (
  • Like most sections of bone, it is strong, but it lacks the rigidity of the diaphysis. (
  • They are generally cured photochemically using UV radiation in contrast to bone cements. (
  • On 60 days before collection of callus sample, grossly there was granulation and fibrocartilage tissues in group I & II and the thick fibrous capsule around bone cement on 30 days and on 60 days in group III animals. (
  • Decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), as measured by dual-energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA), is related to the breaking strength of the bone, which is measured concurrently by RSA. (
  • The epiphysis also serves as an attachment region in many bones, allowing joint capsular attachments, many ligamentous attachments, and some tendinous attachments as well. (
  • The ground seashells were mixed with the glass ionomer cement at either 1, 5 or 10% concentrations (in weight). (
  • Comprehensive clinical tests of the compatibility of bone cements with the body were conducted before their use in surgery. (
  • Cancer may spread to any bone, although cancers do not commonly spread to bone below the mid forearm or mid calf. (
  • Bones are dynamic structures that are undergoing constant change and remodeling in response to the ever-changing environment. (
  • Kyphoplasty risks are rare and include infection, nerve injury, and cement leakage. (
  • Bones vary widely in size, ranging from the tiny inner ear bones that are responsible for transmitting mechanical sound waves to the sensory organs to the large (nearly 2 ft long) femur bone that is strong enough to withstand 30 times one's body weight. (
  • Bone cements are provided as two-component materials. (
  • The individual components of the bone cement are also known in the area of dental filler materials. (
  • Multiple different materials throughout history have been tested as replacements for bone. (
  • Artificial joints (referred to as prostheses) are anchored with bone cement. (
  • For a long time it was believed that the incompletely converted monomer released from bone cement was the cause of circulation reactions and embolism. (
  • Zones of mature long bone. (
  • The epiphysis is the region at the polar ends of long bones. (
  • Breast cancer is the most common cancer to spread to bone. (
  • The bone cement viscosity changes over time from a runny liquid into a dough like state that can be safely applied and then finally hardens into solid hardened material. (
  • The weakness makes it much easier for the bone to break (fracture) while doing routine activities (called a pathologic fracture). (
  • Bone cement heats up during the exothermic free-radical polymerization process, which reaches temperatures of around 82-86 °C in the body, a temperature higher than the critical level for protein denaturation in the body. (
  • From current knowledge, cured bone cement can now be classified as safe, as originally demonstrated during the early studies on compatibility with the body conducted in the 1950s. (
  • Cancers that begin elsewhere in the body may spread (metastasize) to the bones. (
  • however I did find information on the web that said Palacos is a high contrast bone cement. (
  • The present study examined the possibility of modifying the structural properties of glass ionomer cement by adding seashells to form a possible 'scaffold' material for cases of bone formation. (
  • Today several million procedures of this type are conducted every year all over the world and more than half of them routinely use bone cements - and the proportion is increasing. (
  • While the individual components are not always perfectly safe as pharmaceutical additives and active substances per se, as bone cement the individual substances are either converted or fully enclosed in the cement matrix during the polymerization phase from the increase in viscosity to curing. (
  • Overview of Bone Tumors Bone tumors are growths of abnormal cells in bones. (
  • Upper end of the shin bone, which is the large bone in your lower leg -- This bone is called the tibia. (
  • Although there is a need for biocompatibility and cellular cytotoxicity testing in vitro, as well as in vivo evaluation, seashells could be used in glass ionomer cement aiming at the development of a 'scaffold' material for bone grafting or osseointegration. (