Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Austria-Hungary: A dual monarchy formed in 1867. It included AUSTRIA; HUNGARY; CZECHOSLOVAKIA; Moravia, Bukovina, Transylvania, Carniola, Kustenland, Dalmatia, CROATIA; Fiume, and Galicia.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Bone Matrix: Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Bone Diseases, MetabolicFractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Parietal Bone: One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Alveolar Bone Loss: Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Bone Cysts: Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Fluorocarbons: Liquid perfluorinated carbon compounds which may or may not contain a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, but do not contain another halogen or hydrogen atom. This concept includes fluorocarbon emulsions and fluorocarbon blood substitutes.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7: A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.Bone Marrow DiseasesOsteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Leg Bones: The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the FEMUR; PATELLA; TIBIA; and FIBULA.Bone Marrow Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.Bone Marrow Examination: Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.Pelvic Bones: Bones that constitute each half of the pelvic girdle in VERTEBRATES, formed by fusion of the ILIUM; ISCHIUM; and PUBIC BONE.Metacarpal Bones: The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Metatarsal Bones: The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.Tars: Viscous materials composed of complex, high-molecular-weight compounds derived from the distillation of petroleum or the destructive distillation of wood or coal. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Osteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.Diphosphonates: Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Bone Demineralization Technique: Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.Foot Bones: The TARSAL BONES; METATARSAL BONES; and PHALANGES OF TOES. The tarsal bones consists of seven bones: CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid; navicular; internal; middle; and external cuneiform bones. The five metatarsal bones are numbered one through five, running medial to lateral. There are 14 phalanges in each foot, the great toe has two while the other toes have three each.Ilium: The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.Radius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal: Fibrous blood-filled cyst in the bone. Although benign it can be destructive causing deformity and fractures.Technetium Tc 99m Medronate: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 6: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.RANK Ligand: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.Mice, Inbred C57BLHematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Bone Plates: Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)Osseointegration: The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).Periosteum: Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.Arm Bones: The bones of the free part of the upper extremity including the HUMERUS; RADIUS; and ULNA.Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Facial Bones: The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)Hyoid Bone: A mobile U-shaped bone that lies in the anterior part of the neck at the level of the third CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. The hyoid bone is suspended from the processes of the TEMPORAL BONES by ligaments, and is firmly bound to the THYROID CARTILAGE by muscles.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Giant Cell Tumor of Bone: A bone tumor composed of cellular spindle-cell stroma containing scattered multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts. The tumors range from benign to frankly malignant lesions. The tumor occurs most frequently in an end of a long tubular bone in young adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Osteolysis: Dissolution of bone that particularly involves the removal or loss of calcium.Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal: Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Diaphyses: The shaft of long bones.Autobiography as Topic: The life of a person written by himself or herself. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Osteoprotegerin: A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.Femur Neck: The constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Hand Bones: The CARPAL BONES; METACARPAL BONES; and FINGER PHALANGES. In each hand there are eight carpal bones, five metacarpal bones, and 14 phalanges.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Bone Diseases, Infectious: Bone diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.Occipital Bone: Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.Petrous Bone: The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Osteitis Deformans: A disease marked by repeated episodes of increased bone resorption followed by excessive attempts at repair, resulting in weakened, deformed bones of increased mass. The resultant architecture of the bone assumes a mosaic pattern in which the fibers take on a haphazard pattern instead of the normal parallel symmetry.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein: A highly glycosylated and sulfated phosphoprotein that is found almost exclusively in mineralized connective tissues. It is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to hydroxyapatite through polyglutamic acid sequences and mediates cell attachment through an RGD sequence.Ulna: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Alveolar Process: The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Metacarpus: The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.Auditory Fatigue: Loss of sensitivity to sounds as a result of auditory stimulation, manifesting as a temporary shift in auditory threshold. The temporary threshold shift, TTS, is expressed in decibels.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Alendronate: A nonhormonal medication for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. This drug builds healthy bone, restoring some of the bone loss as a result of osteoporosis.AU Rich Elements: RNA sequences composed of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES and URACIL NUCLEOTIDES, that are located in the 3'UNTRANSLATED REGIONS of MESSENGER RNA molecules that are rapidly degraded. They are also known as AREs.Haversian System: A circular structural unit of bone tissue. It consists of a central hole, the Haversian canal through which blood vessels run, surrounded by concentric rings, called lamellae.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.OsteomyelitisBone Morphogenetic Protein 3: A bone morphogenetic protein that is found at high concentrations in a purified osteoinductive protein fraction from BONE. Bone morphogenetic protein 3 is referred to as osteogenin, however it may play a role in variety of developmental processes.Sesamoid Bones: Nodular bones which lie within a tendon and slide over another bony surface. The PATELLA (kneecap) is a sesamoid bone.Etidronic Acid: A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.Pubic Bone: A bone that forms the lower and anterior part of each side of the hip bone.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Autonomic Fibers, Postganglionic: Nerve fibers which project from cell bodies of AUTONOMIC GANGLIA to SYNAPSES on target organs.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Bone Nails: Rods of bone, metal, or other material used for fixation of the fragments or ends of fractured bones.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Calcaneus: The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.Osteomalacia: Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Osteosclerosis: An abnormal hardening or increased density of bone tissue.Avitaminosis: A condition due to a deficiency of one or more essential vitamins. (Dorland, 27th ed)Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors: A family of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS that bind BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that mediate SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS through SMAD PROTEINS.Renal Osteodystrophy: Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.Epiphyses: The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.Scaphoid Bone: The bone which is located most lateral in the proximal row of CARPAL BONES.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Acid Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.2.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Bone Conduction: Transmission of sound waves through vibration of bones in the SKULL to the inner ear (COCHLEA). By using bone conduction stimulation and by bypassing any OUTER EAR or MIDDLE EAR abnormalities, hearing thresholds of the cochlea can be determined. Bone conduction hearing differs from normal hearing which is based on air conduction stimulation via the EAR CANAL and the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B: A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Growth Plate: The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit: A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Implants, Experimental: Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.Osteosarcoma: A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Sphenoid Bone: An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).Poroma: A benign adnexal neoplasm composed of EPITHELIAL CELLS. They typically manifest as solitary papules and occur only in the skin.Bones of Upper Extremity: The bones of the upper and lower ARM. They include the CLAVICLE and SCAPULA.Bones of Lower Extremity: The bones of the upper and lower LEG. They include the PELVIC BONES.Betaxolol: A cardioselective beta-1-adrenergic antagonist with no partial agonist activity.Fractures, Spontaneous: Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)Osteopetrosis: Excessive formation of dense trabecular bone leading to pathological fractures; OSTEITIS; SPLENOMEGALY with infarct; ANEMIA; and extramedullary hemopoiesis (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Bone Morphogenetic Protein 5: A bone morphogenetic protein that may play a role in CARTILAGE formation. It is a potent regulator of the growth of CHONDROCYTES and the synthesis of cartilage matrix proteins. Evidence for its role in cartilage formation can be seen in MICE, where genetic mutations that cause loss of bone morphogenetic protein 5 function result in the formation of small malformed ears.Femoral Fractures: Fractures of the femur.Osteogenesis, Distraction: Bone lengthening by gradual mechanical distraction. An external fixation device produces the distraction across the bone plate. The technique was originally applied to long bones but in recent years the method has been adapted for use with mandibular implants in maxillofacial surgery.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Dental Implants: Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.Mice, Inbred BALB CHip: The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.Radiation Chimera: An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.Ribs: A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Fibula: The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.Whole-Body Irradiation: Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Tibial FracturesRNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II: A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with low affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are constitutively active PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that can interact with and phosphorylate TYPE I BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Tooth Socket: A hollow part of the alveolar process of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE where each tooth fits and is attached via the periodontal ligament.Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 1: A bone morphogenetic protein family member that includes an active tolloid-like metalloproteinase domain. The metalloproteinase activity of bone morphogenetic protein 1 is specific for the removal of the C-propeptide of PROCOLLAGEN and may act as a regulator of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX deposition. Alternative splicing of MRNA for bone morphogenetic protein 1 results in the production of several PROTEIN ISOFORMS.Osteitis: Inflammation of the bone.Femur Head: The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Comfrey: Perennial herb Symphytum officinale, in the family Boraginaceae, used topically for wound healing. It contains ALLANTOIN, carotene, essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE); GLYCOSIDES; mucilage, resin, SAPONINS; TANNINS; triterpenoids, VITAMIN B12, and ZINC. Comfrey also contains PYRROLIZIDINE ALKALOIDS and is hepatotoxic if ingested.Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).Femoral NeoplasmsFractures, Ununited: A fracture in which union fails to occur, the ends of the bone becoming rounded and eburnated, and a false joint occurs. (Stedman, 25th ed)Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Decalcification Technique: Removal of minerals from bones during bone examination.Osteopontin: A negatively-charged extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in the regulation of BONE metabolism and a variety of other biological functions. Cell signaling by osteopontin may occur through a cell adhesion sequence that recognizes INTEGRIN ALPHA-V BETA-3.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Mandibular DiseasesOsteonecrosis: Death of a bone or part of a bone, either atraumatic or posttraumatic.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Graft vs Host Disease: The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Ceramics: Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Hyperostosis: Increase in the mass of bone per unit volume.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Anemia, Aplastic: A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Microradiography: Production of a radiographic image of a small or very thin object on fine-grained photographic film under conditions which permit subsequent microscopic examination or enlargement of the radiograph at linear magnifications of up to several hundred and with a resolution approaching the resolving power of the photographic emulsion (about 1000 lines per millimeter).

Abnormal calcium metabolism in normocalcaemic sarcoidosis. (1/8177)

In studies of calcium metabolism in 13 unselected patients with untreated sarcoidosis all were normocalcaemic but five had hypercalcuria. All had normal renal function. Calcium absorption was indexed by a double isotope test. 45Ca hyperabsorption occurred in six patients. Ten kinetic studies were carried out with 47Ca and in six bone turnover was increased. 45Ca absorption correlated well with the calculated bone uptake rate of calcium, and with urine calcium excretion. These results suggest that in sarcoidosis abnormalities in calcium metabolism are fairly common although they rarely result in sustained hypercalcaemia.  (+info)

A Wnt5a pathway underlies outgrowth of multiple structures in the vertebrate embryo. (2/8177)

Morphogenesis depends on the precise control of basic cellular processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation. Wnt5a may regulate these processes since it is expressed in a gradient at the caudal end of the growing embryo during gastrulation, and later in the distal-most aspect of several structures that extend from the body. A loss-of-function mutation of Wnt5a leads to an inability to extend the A-P axis due to a progressive reduction in the size of caudal structures. In the limbs, truncation of the proximal skeleton and absence of distal digits correlates with reduced proliferation of putative progenitor cells within the progress zone. However, expression of progress zone markers, and several genes implicated in distal outgrowth and patterning including Distalless, Hoxd and Fgf family members was not altered. Taken together with the outgrowth defects observed in the developing face, ears and genitals, our data indicates that Wnt5a regulates a pathway common to many structures whose development requires extension from the primary body axis. The reduced number of proliferating cells in both the progress zone and the primitive streak mesoderm suggests that one function of Wnt5a is to regulate the proliferation of progenitor cells.  (+info)

Mechanisms of GDF-5 action during skeletal development. (3/8177)

Mutations in GDF-5, a member of the TGF-beta superfamily, result in the autosomal recessive syndromes brachypod (bp) in mice and Hunter-Thompson and Grebe-type chondrodysplasias in humans. These syndromes are all characterised by the shortening of the appendicular skeleton and loss or abnormal development of some joints. To investigate how GDF-5 controls skeletogenesis, we overexpressed GDF-5 during chick limb development using the retrovirus, RCASBP. This resulted in up to a 37.5% increase in length of the skeletal elements, which was predominantly due to an increase in the number of chondrocytes. By injecting virus at different stages of development, we show that GDF-5 can increase both the size of the early cartilage condensation and the later developing skeletal element. Using in vitro micromass cultures as a model system to study the early steps of chondrogenesis, we show that GDF-5 increases chondrogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. We did not detect changes in proliferation. However, cell suspension cultures showed that GDF-5 might act at these stages by increasing cell adhesion, a critical determinant of early chondrogenesis. In contrast, pulse labelling experiments of GDF-5-infected limbs showed that at later stages of skeletal development GDF-5 can increase proliferation of chondrocytes. Thus, here we show two mechanisms of how GDF-5 may control different stages of skeletogenesis. Finally, our data show that levels of GDF-5 expression/activity are important in controlling the size of skeletal elements and provides a possible explanation for the variation in the severity of skeletal defects resulting from mutations in GDF-5.  (+info)

Elevated carboxy terminal cross linked telopeptide of type I collagen in alcoholic cirrhosis: relation to liver and kidney function and bone metabolism. (4/8177)

BACKGROUND: The carboxy terminal cross linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) has been put forward as a marker of bone resorption. Patients with alcoholic liver disease may have osteodystrophy. AIMS: To assess circulating and regional concentrations of ICTP in relation to liver dysfunction, bone metabolism, and fibrosis. METHODS: In 15 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and 20 controls, hepatic venous, renal venous, and femoral arterial concentrations of ICTP, and bone mass and metabolism were measured. RESULTS: Circulating ICTP was higher in patients with cirrhosis than in controls. No overall significant hepatic disposal or production was found in the patient or control groups but slightly increased production was found in a subset of patients with advanced disease. Significant renal extraction was observed in the controls, whereas only a borderline significant extraction was observed in the patients. Measurements of bone mass and metabolism indicated only a mild degree of osteodystrophy in the patients with cirrhosis. ICTP correlated significantly in the cirrhotic patients with hepatic and renal dysfunction and fibrosis, but not with measurements of bone mass or metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: ICTP is highly elevated in patients with cirrhosis, with no detectable hepatic net production or disposal. No relation between ICTP and markers of bone metabolism was identified, but there was a relation to indicators of liver dysfunction and fibrosis. As the cirrhotic patients conceivably only had mild osteopenia, the elevated ICTP in cirrhosis may therefore primarily reflect liver failure and hepatic fibrosis.  (+info)

Predicting bone loss following orthotopic liver transplantation. (5/8177)

BACKGROUND: Hepatic osteodystrophy occurs in the majority of patients with advanced chronic liver disease with the abnormalities in bone metabolism accelerating following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). AIMS: To examine changes in bone mineral density (BMD) following OLT and to investigate factors that lead to bone loss. METHODS: Twelve patients had BMD (at both the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN)) and biochemical markers measured preoperatively and for 24 months following OLT. RESULTS: BMD was low in 75% of patients prior to OLT and decreased significantly from baseline at the LS at three months and the FN at six months. BMD began to increase thereafter at both sites, approaching baseline values at the LS by 12 months. Bone formation markers, osteocalcin and procollagen type I carboxy propeptide, decreased immediately post-OLT, with a concomitant increase seen in the resorption markers pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline. This resulted in a negative uncoupling index early post-OLT, that rebounded to positive values after six months. There was a significant correlation between the change in the uncoupling index between six and three months which preceded the increase in BMD at 12 months. The decrease in BMD recorded early post-OLT correlated with vitamin D levels at three months. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that increased resorption and inadequate formation are the major contributors to additional bone loss following OLT. Non-invasive biochemical markers precede later changes in BMD in this patient group following OLT and may have a role in investigating and planning intervention strategies to prevent bone loss in future studies.  (+info)

The use of variable lactate/malic dehydrogenase ratios to distinguish between progenitor cells of cartilage and bone in the embryonic chick. (6/8177)

The activities of LDH and MDH have been studied, both in differentiated cartilage and bone from the embryonic chick, and in the pool of mixed osteogenic and chondrogenic stem cells found on the quadratojugal, a membrane bone. In confirmation of the model proposed by Reddi & Huggins (1971) we found that the LDH/MDH ratio was greater than 1 in cartilage and less than 1 in bone. Furthermore we established, for the first time, that ratios occurred in the chondrogenic and osteogenic stem cells, similar to the ratios in their differentiated counterparts. Alteration in LDH/MDH resulted from variations in the level of LDH/mug protein. MDH/mug protein remained constant, even when LDH/MDH was changing. We interpret these results in terms of adaptation of chondrogenic progenitor cells for anaerobic metabolism and anticipate that our model will be applicable to other skeletal systems where stem cells are being studied.  (+info)

Effect of shellfish calcium on the apparent absorption of calcium and bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats. (7/8177)

Fossil shellfish powder (FS) and Ezo giant scallop shell powder (EG) were rendered soluble with lactate and citrate under decompression (FSEx and EGEx, respectively) and we examined the effects of lactate-citrate solubilization of FS and EG on mineral absorption, tissue mineral contents, serum biochemical indices and bone mineral density (BMD) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The apparent absorption ratios of minerals tended to be high in the rats fed with the solubilized mineral sources, those in the FSEx group being significantly higher than in the FS group. There was no significant difference in the tibia mineral content among the OVX groups. BMD at the distal femoral diaphysis was significantly increased by FSEx and EGEx feeding. It is suggested that solubilization with lactate and citrate under decompression increased the solubility and bioavailability of calcium from such natural sources of shellfish calcium as FS and EG.  (+info)

A novel skeletal dysplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans is caused by a Lys650Met mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 gene. (8/8177)

We have identified a novel fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) missense mutation in four unrelated individuals with skeletal dysplasia that approaches the severity observed in thanatophoric dysplasia type I (TD1). However, three of the four individuals developed extensive areas of acanthosis nigricans beginning in early childhood, suffer from severe neurological impairments, and have survived past infancy without prolonged life-support measures. The FGFR3 mutation (A1949T: Lys650Met) occurs at the nucleotide adjacent to the TD type II (TD2) mutation (A1948G: Lys650Glu) and results in a different amino acid substitution at a highly conserved codon in the kinase domain activation loop. Transient transfection studies with FGFR3 mutant constructs show that the Lys650Met mutation causes a dramatic increase in constitutive receptor kinase activity, approximately three times greater than that observed with the Lys650Glu mutation. We refer to the phenotype caused by the Lys650Met mutation as "severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans" (SADDAN) because it differs significantly from the phenotypes of other known FGFR3 mutations.  (+info)

BACKGROUND: Infliximab has been shown to have beneficial effects on bone metabolism in patients with Crohns disease (CD) although as yet the exact mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. AIM: To evaluate the impact of adalimumab therapy on bone metabolism using a combined in vivo and in vitro model. METHODS: Parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, bone formation markers, bone resorption marker, pro-inflammatory cytokines, anti-inflammatory cytokines, osteoprotegerin, and sRANKL were measured in control patients and pre- and post-treatment with adalimumab in CD patients. The effect of control patients and pre- and post-treatment CD patients sera on human osteoblasts (hFOB 1.19) in vitro cell viability and differentiation was also analyzed. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in bone formation markers osteocalcin (P | 0.05) and procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P | 0.01) at 1 and 3 months post-treatment. Moreover, there was a sustained but not significant fall in serum CTx, a bone resorption
Among a myriad of difficulties, people with diabetes have problems with their bones; after a break, their bones do not heal well. Tevlin et al. use mice to investigate the cause and to devise a solution. In several models of diabetes, skeletal stem cells, which normally multiply to repair a bone injury, failed to do so. The high blood concentrations of TNFα in these diabetic mice inhibited a growth factor within the stem cell niche. The authors succeeded in reversing this deficit; delivery of the missing factor directly to the niche restored the expansion of stem cells after injury and normalized bone healing. Correction of the inhospitable niche environment for skeletal stem cells is a promising approach for this complication of diabetes and perhaps for other stem cell-based diseases. ...
Bone is composed of a living protein framework upon which mineral crystals are placed. As bone breaks down, bits of this living protein framework appear in the urine. Tests of bone breakdown, called bone resorption tests, measure the amount of one specific bone protein in the urine (or in the blood) and thus gauge the current rate of bone breakdown. Urinary markers of bone breakdown (known as markers of bone resorption) are simple urine tests that can help determine if you are currently losing bone or not. Such bone breakdown testing can also indicate if your bone-building program is effective at reducing and normalizing the bone breakdown process.. As bone is broken down certain bone protein by-products are excreted in the urine. Measurement of the amount of these bone breakdown by-products can determine the rate of bone breakdown. A high rate of bone breakdown is strongly suggestive of current, ongoing bone loss and a greater risk for osteoporotic fracture. A low rate of bone resorption would ...
Save 36% Country Life (Biochem) - Bone Solid 240 Capsules Bone Solid Triple Action With Boron, MCHA and Vitamin K With Patented FruiteX-B Clinically Studied MCHA and Vitamin K Clinically Shown to: 1. Increase Mineral Utilization* 2. Strengthen Bones* 3. Support Bone Metabolism* Did you know that bone loss begins for many of us at age 30? Whether you are a man or woman, you will begin to lose bone density year after year. An important step is to regularly replenish and increase your bodys intake of calcium as well as vitamins K1, K2 and D3. Introducing Bone Solid, a specially formulated product that contains a unique natural form of calcium, as well as other minerals that your body recognizes as similar to its own natural bone composition.* Through Bone Solids Triple Action, your bodys calcium will be better replenished and increased:* The calcium contained in Bone Solid is micro-crystalline hydroxyapatite (MCHA), a form of calcium that is closest to the bodys own natural bone composition.* The
Save 29% Country Life (Biochem) - Bone Solid 240 Capsules Bone Solid Triple Action With Boron, MCHA and Vitamin K With Patented FruiteX-B Clinically Studied MCHA and Vitamin K Clinically Shown to: 1. Increase Mineral Utilization* 2. Strengthen Bones* 3. Support Bone Metabolism* Did you know that bone loss begins for many of us at age 30? Whether you are a man or woman, you will begin to lose bone density year after year. An important step is to regularly replenish and increase your bodys intake of calcium as well as vitamins K1, K2 and D3. Introducing Bone Solid, a specially formulated product that contains a unique natural form of calcium, as well as other minerals that your body recognizes as similar to its own natural bone composition.* Through Bone Solids Triple Action, your bodys calcium will be better replenished and increased:* The calcium contained in Bone Solid is micro-crystalline hydroxyapatite (MCHA), a form of calcium that is closest to the bodys own natural bone composition.* The
2 Long bone Anatomy and physiology Cortical bone (Compact bone) - Hard bone Cancellous bone (Spongy bone) - Medulary cavity. Meshwork occupied by bone marrow, fat tissue, nerves and blood vessels. Production of blood cells and provision of a vascular supply to the bone itself. Blood comes out of the bone through venous sinusoids to outgoing veins into the circulation. ...
Bone Biology and the Role of RANK/RANKL/OPG Pathway. Speaker: Robert G. Josse, MD, Division of Endocrinology & Metabolism, St. Michaels Hospital; Professor of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.. Advances in the understanding of bone biology and the role of the RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway have opened new treatment avenues for osteoporosis. To facilitate understanding of the "new biology," Dr. Robert Josse first reviewed determinants of bone strength.. Trabecular bone, a spongy network of delicate plates of bone known as trabeculae, constitutes 20% of skeletal mass but accounts for ~80% of bone turnover. In contrast, cortical bone constitutes 80% of mass but ~20% of turnover. The interior surface of cortical bone, the endosteum, is the primary site of remodeling and metabolic activities while the exterior surface, the periosteum, is the site of new bone formation.. Remodeling, Dr. Josse noted, takes place continuously: tiny packets of bone throughout the skeleton constantly undergo this ...
BioSil Bone Collagenizer Matrix 40 Vegetarian Capsules With ch-OSA Advanced Collagen Generator Collagen is crucial to your bone health. Collagen provides the binding sites for calcium and other bone minerals. When bone collagen diminishes, bone mineral density decreases. In addition, collagen gives bones the vital flexibility they need. New bone research reveals that collagen, in conjunction with deposited calcium, gives bones their ability to withstand physical stress, as with sudden impact. Unlike calcium that you can ingest and receive the benefits, you cannot eat collagen expecting to add collagen to you bones. The key is stimulating the cells that naturally generate bone collagen, called osteoblasts. BioSils new Bone Collagenizer Matrix is clinically proven to increase bone collagen formation (BCF), and increase bone mineral density (BMD) at the critical hip region, in women already taking 1000 mg of calcium and 800 IU of vitamin D daily. BioSil Bone Collagenizer Matrix helps you
Bone strength and peak bone mass are preliminary determined by genetic factors. Life style, especially exercise, is also considered to have an important effect on bone strength. Bone has the ability to strengthen itself according to Wolffs Law. When bone is subjected to strains and/or strain rates higher than the usual, it responds by remodeling, strengthening its architecture. The ability is greatest in young individuals and decreases with age. In the elderly this ability is largely non-existent and bone mass is lost. Whether this loss leads to osteoporosis is largely a function of the peak bone mass achieved before the decline. 11% of males and 44 % of females over 50 suffer from osteoporosis in later life. To what extent vigorous exercising beginning at a young age can increase bone strength is not known.. The purpose of the proposed research is to quantify the effect of life style on bone strength and general health parameters by comparing two male populations, one sedentary and the other ...
474. A bone scan is a study done to show problem spots on the spine. A radioactive chemical, sometimes called a "tracer", is injected into the bloodstream. The chemical quickly attaches itself to sections of the bones that are actively making new bone. Images are taken of the skeleton, several hours after the shot. A bone scan can show problems such as fractures of the spine, infection, and bone tumors. It can also be used to resolve bone density and the bone-thinning condition of osteoporosis.. bone scan, skeleton, osteoporosis, bone tumor, radioactive tracer, bone making, bone cells. This article was written to answer many of the most frequently asked questions on the subject of bone scans. If you have chronic back pain, a bone scan may be one of the scarier tests that you may undergo, but it is actually a fairly safe and relatively painless procedure.. First off, what is a bone scan?. Simply put its a study done to show problem spots on the spine. A radioactive chemical, sometimes called a ...
Bone is constantly being created and replaced in a process known as remodeling. This ongoing turnover of bone is a process of resorption followed by replacement of bone with little change in shape. This is accomplished through osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Cells are stimulated by a variety of signals, and together referred to as a remodeling unit. Approximately 10% of the skeletal mass of an adult is remodelled each year.[42] The purpose of remodeling is to regulate calcium homeostasis, repair microdamaged bones from everyday stress, and to shape the skeleton during growth.[citation needed] Repeated stress, such as weight-bearing exercise or bone healing, results in the bone thickening at the points of maximum stress (Wolffs law). It has been hypothesized that this is a result of bones piezoelectric properties, which cause bone to generate small electrical potentials under stress.[43] The action of osteoblasts and osteoclasts are controlled by a number of chemical enzymes that either promote or ...
We saw a decrease in the level of sclerostin in both of these exercise interventions in men, Hinton said. When sclerostin is expressed at high levels, it has a negative impact on bone formation. In both resistance and jump training, the level of sclerostin in the bone goes down, which triggers bone formation.. The other significant change Hinton observed was an increase in the hormone IGF-1. Unlike sclerostin, IGF-1 triggers bone growth. The decrease of harmful sclerostin levels and the increase in beneficial IGF-1 levels confirmed Hintons prior research that found both resistance training and jump training have beneficial effects on bone growth.. To increase bone mass and prevent osteoporosis, Hinton recommends exercising specifically to target bone health. While exercises such as swimming and cycling are beneficial to overall health, these activities do not strengthen the skeleton. Hinton suggests also doing exercise targeted for bone health, such as resistance training and jump ...
Objectives: The association of bone turnover markers (BTM) with bone loss and fracture risk in men is poorly studied. The morphological basis of such a relationship is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between baseline BTM levels and subsequent bone loss and fracture risk in men.. Methods: This study is a prospective 7.5-year follow-up of the cohort composed of 723 men aged 50-85 years. Serum concentrations of osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide, C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CTX-I) and urinary excretion of deoxypyridinoline and β-CTX-I were measured at baseline. Every 18 months, incident fractures were recorded and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by DXA (spine, hip, distal forearm, whole body).. Results: Increase in the BTM levels was associated with faster bone loss at the level of the trochanter, whole body and distal forearm. At the level of the distal radius and the ulna, increase ...
The Top 3 Food Ingredients I would recommend are magnesium, vitamin K and boron. Did you know that calcium rich foods are not the only foods that can promote bone health and prevent osteoporosis? The following food nutrients play a significant role in building and maintaining bone health and strength. Magnesium is needed for proper bone development, it plays a role in bone remodelling by influencing 2 types of bone cells: osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Osteoblasts help build bone and osteoclasts break down bone. It helps increase bone density by regulating the transport of calcium. The best way to add magnesium to your diet is to eat more magnesium rich foods. The following foods are rich in magnesium: lentils, spinach, bananas and dark chocolate. Vitamin K Surprised? Well dont be, vitamin K plays a vital role in bone remineralization by working with vitamin D to regulate bone metabolism and calcium balance in the bone. It increases bone density in patients with osteoporosis and can reduce the ...
Dear Editor,. We thank Rossini et al for their comments1 on our recent study on inhibitory effect by denosumab on the progression of bone erosions in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).2 They addressed their observation from point of view of bone in patient with RA. We think their view brings treatment of RA closer to treatment of osteoporosis.. Activated osteoclasts decrease bone mineral density (BMD) and stimulate bone erosion in patients with RA.3 Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) promotes osteoclast differentiation, maturation, and activation.4-7 Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody against RANKL that inhibits osteoclast formation, function, and survival. Denosumab treatment increases BMD in cortical and trabecular bone. In addition, denosumab has been shown to improve cortical bone microstructure in subjects with osteoporosis or low bone mass.8 ,9. Increases in lumbar spine and total hip BMD and inhibition of progression of bone erosion have ...
The invention is directed toward a sterile malleable bone composition for application to a bone defect site to promote new bone growth at the site comprising a mixture of demineralized osteogenic bone powder with a particle size ranging from about 250 to about 750 microns and surface demineralized cortical bone rods having a diameter ranging from 1.0 mm to 5.00 mm or larger bone chips. The surface demineralized cortical bone rods have diameter to length ratio ranging from 1:2 to 1:20. The demineralized bone powder range from about 25 to about 30% of the weight of the composition and the cortical bone rods range from 5% to about 10% of the weight of the composition with the carrier being selected from the high molecular weight hydrogel in aqueous solution having a high molecular weight over 700,000 Daltons and ranging from about 2.0% to about 5.0% by weight of the carrier solution.
Osteolytic bone metastases are frequent in patients with advanced cancer of the breast, lung, and (to a lesser extent) the prostate. Roentgenography, bone scintigraphy, and bone biopsies are commonly used for the early identification and follow-up of these conditions. These methods have though marked shortcomings as they are all static methods giving a picture of the current situation in bone but not telling about rate of changes taking place in bone. Metabolic bone markers have been shown to be a useful tool for monitoring metastatic bone activity.. It has been shown that there are two different pathways of bone resorption: the cathepsin K-mediated pathway, which is active during physiological resorption of bone, and the matrix metalloproteinase pathway, which functions mainly in pathological situations. ICTP specifically reflects matrix metalloproteinase-mediated pathological degradation of bone collagen (1, 2). ICTP is thus a highly specific marker of bone degradation in bone metastasis and ...
Bone is made up of cells that grow and collagen fibres (tough, elastic fibres) as well as minerals like Calcium that give it the hardness. There are two main types of cells within the hard bone tissue that mould the bone. These cells are Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts.. Osteoblasts form the bone by laying down bone material. Osteoclasts dissolve the particles of bone and cause resorption. These cells are active throughout life and work in tandem balance to keep the bone constantly growing and dissolving. There is a slow but constant turnover of bone.. Another type of cell is chondrocytes which make cartilage. These make the hard tissues that cover the ends of bones in joints. In the centre of some larger bones is the soft bone marrow that is the place where blood cells are manufactured.. Although bone cancers are rare, there are four major types of bone cancer of primary origin. These include osteosarcoma, Ewings sarcoma, spindle cell sarcoma and chondrosarcoma.. ...
Rheumatology (Oxford). 2016 Oct;55(10):1714-25. Epub 2016 Jan 20. DOI: 10.1093/rheumatology/kev410 PMID: 26790456 [PubMed - in process]. Traditional BTMs have been used for years to help with fracture risk prediction and in particular for treatment monitoring. Clinical use of the new biochemical markers has not been established so far. Their relationship with fracture risk is still under investigation, and their use as treatment monitoring tools needs to be studied. In fact, their role is probably dependent on a new approach based on our understanding of bone physiology. These new markers will be helpful for exploring the physiological and pathological relations between the bone and other organs, and to monitor joint diseases, chronic kidney disease - mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) and cardiovascular disease. mechanisms in the bone or other organs.. ...
If you followed bone-healthy recommendations when you were younger, you would have maximized your bone density with lots of calcium-rich food and weight-bearing activity. You would have reached your optimum peak bone density about age 30.. If your bones werent weakened by certain medical conditions or medications after that, they would have maintained their density until the years around menopause. Thats when estrogen levels start to wane, causing a loss in bone density. During the five years around menopause, you can lose up to 25% of your bone density and be at increased risk of broken bones. After that rapid bone loss, left unchecked, you will continue to lose about 0.5% of bone mass and 1.0% of muscle mass every year.. Now that you know about the natural occurrence of bone loss that comes with age, you should understand the need to take charge of your bone health. Act now to create a road map to protect yourself by minimizing bone loss and reducing the risk of fractures. ...
The bone is enclosed in a tough, fibrous, connective tissue covering called the periosteum, which is continuous with the ligaments and tendons that anchor bones. The periosteum contains blood vessels that enter the bone and service its cells. At both ends of a long bone is an expanded portion called an epiphysis; the portion between the epiphyses is called the diaphysis. The diaphysis is not solid but has a medullary cavity containing yellow marrow. The medullary cavity is bounded at the sides by compact bone. The epiphyses contain spongy bone. Beyond the spongy bone is a thin shell of compact bone and, finally, a layer of hyaline cartilage called the articular cartilage. The medullary cavity and the spaces of spongy bone are lined with endosteum, a thin, fibrous membrane.. i. Cortical (80 ...
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Diabetes is known to have a number of complications such as atherosclerosis, nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy. However, diabetes may also affect bone and compromise bone biomechanical competence beyond what is revealed through changes in bone mineral density. Bone disease may thus ne a novel hitherto overlooked complication of diabetes. Diabetes may affect bone in a number of ways: 1) glucose may affect collagen by foming advanced glycation end products (AGE) such as pentosidine, which may lower bone biomechanical competence, 2) hyperglycaemia and AGE may affect bone cells leading to a state of low bone turnover and thus osteoporosis, 3) hyperglycaemia may lead to excess loss of calcium in the urine and thus a negative calcium balance. Furthermore many differences between type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) affect bone as patients with T1D are often underweight and lack insulin, which is an anabolic factor, whereas T2D patients are often overweight, and may have high
As a veterinarian with over thirty years of hands-on experience dealing with healthy and sick dogs and cats, and as a veterinarian with a keen interest in nutritional consequences affecting dogs and cats and as a member of a national veterinary nutrition association, I must ask two questions of those who so staunchly believe that RAW BONE consumption is an absolute requirement for dogs:. 1. Could it be that the nutritional benefits seemingly derived from feeding RAW BONES is mostly derived from the meat, fat and connective tissues attached to those raw bones more so than from the actual bone itself? In other words, Is the benefit really coming from bone ... or from the attached muscle, fat, and connective tissue?. 2. How can it be explained that I have seen many very healthy, old dogs in the course of practice that have never eaten a single RAW BONE? (Of course these old, healthy and very fortunate pets have owners who are feeding these dogs meat, fruit and other table scraps. That may be ...
Increased longevity and improved medical management of children with chronic illnesses has led to a focus on the short- and long-term consequences of these conditions on bone health. Bone loss is influenced by diet, malabsorption, and disease-related imbalances in bone turnover. It may be exacerbated by common medications, especially corticosteroids. Assessment of bone mass and quality, calcium absorption, kinetically derived rates of bone turnover, and biochemical markers of bone turnover have increased our knowledge of the pathophysiology of bone loss in these children as well as provided insights into possible therapeutic interventions. Increased intake of calcium and vitamin D, while useful, is unlikely to prevent or resolve bone loss in many chronically ill children. Emphasis on combination of nutritional interventions with exercise and newer bone-sparing therapies may be necessary.
Large bone defects, such as those resulting from tumor excision, critical size defect fractures, or non-union, remain a clinical problem in bone reconstructive surgery. Current treatments involving autologous or allogenic bone grafts present the problem of implant availability and quality, or associated infection and immune response risks, respectively. In addition, as bone formation is highly dependent on the presence of osteogenic cells at the implant site, vascularization is also a major concern, as inadequate bone vascularization is typically associated with decreased bone formation, tissue necrosis, and implant integration failure, leading to impaired bone repair. The bone biology focus area mainly aims to study the cellular mechanisms involved in the different phases of bone healing and their interplay for a better understanding and further monitoring of the process. The induction of vessels within an artificial bone substitute, by co-seeding endothelial progenitors and mesenchymal stromal ...
The method of this invention relates to preparing a bone to secure a prosthesis thereto by improving the mechanical interdigitation of bone cement and the bone and facilitating hemostasis of the bone. First, the bone is mechanically shaped to expose cancellous bone in a desired configuration for reception of a joint prosthesis. A pressurized jet of dry-flowing gas is then applied to the exposed bone, to clean and dry the trabecular interstices of the exposed cancellous bone. To further withdraw debris and liquids dislodged from the interstices of the prepared bone by the pressurized jet of dry-flowing gas, suction is applied to the bone concurrently with the application of the pressurized jet of dry-flowing gas. Bone cement in liquid form is then applied to the bone, with cement penetration into the cleaned and dried interstices of the bone.
Human Skeletal System Structure - human body skeletal structure, human skeletal system structure, human skeletal system structure and function, internal structure of the human skeletal system, structure and function of human skeletal system, structure of a human skeletal system, structure of human skeletal system, structure of the human skeletal system
In this work, we found that bone mineral formation proceeded very rapidly in mice by 1 day of age, where the degree of mineralization, the tissue mineral density, and the mineral crystallinity reached 36%, 51%, and 87% of the adult values, respectively. However, even though significant mineralization had occurred, the elastic modulus of 1-day-old bone was only 14% of its adult value, indicating that the intrinsic stiffening of the bone lags considerably behind the initial mineral formation.. Introduction: To meet the mechanical challenges during early development, the skeleton requires the rapid accretion of bone quality and bone quantity. Here, we describe early bone development in the mouse skeleton and test the hypothesis that specific compositional properties determine the stiffness of the tissue.. Materials and Methods: Tibias of female BALB mice were harvested at eight time-points (n = 4 each) distributed between 1 and 40 days of age and subjected to morphometric (μCT), chemical (Fourier ...
Nerves that leave the spine in the area of the sacrum help control the bowels and bladder and provide sensation to the crotch area. There are three types of bone, woven bone, cortical bone, and cancellous bone. In adults, woven bone is found where there is a broken bone that is healing (callus formation). It can also be found with hyperparathyroidism and Pagets disease. It is composed of randomly arranged collagen strands. It is normally remodeled by the body and replaced with cortical or cancellous bone. Cortical bone is called compact or lamellar bone. It forms the inside and outside tables of flat bones and the outside surfaces of long bones. It is dense and makes up 80 percent of our bone mass. The radius (wrist bone), skull, and long bones are made of cortical bone. Cancellous bone is also called trabecular bone. It lies between the cortical bone surfaces. It is the inner supporting structure and is spongy. It makes up 20 percent of our bone mass. Normal cancellous bone is always ...
Bones are rigid, but they do bend or give somewhat when an outside force is applied. However, if the force is too great, the bones will break, just as a plastic ruler breaks when it is bent too far. The severity of a fracture usually depends on the force that caused the break. If the bones breaking point has been exceeded only slightly, then the bone may crack rather than break all the way through. If the force is extreme, such as in an automobile crash or a gunshot, the bone may shatter. If the bone breaks in such a way that bone fragments stick out through the skin, or a wound penetrates down to the broken bone, the fracture is called an open fracture. This type of fracture is particularly serious because once the skin is broken, infection in both the wound and the bone can occur. ...
The long bones are those that are longer than they are wide. They are one of five types of bones: long, short, flat, irregular and sesamoid. Long bones, especially the femur and tibia, are subjected to most of the load during daily activities and they are crucial for skeletal mobility. They grow primarily by elongation of the diaphysis, with an epiphysis at each end of the growing bone. The ends of epiphyses are covered with hyaline cartilage ("articular cartilage"). The longitudinal growth of long bones is a result of endochondral ossification at the epiphyseal plate. Bone growth in length is stimulated by the production of growth hormone (GH), a secretion of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. The long bones include the femora, tibiae, and fibulae of the legs; the humeri, radii, and ulnae of the arms; metacarpals and metatarsals of the hands and feet, the phalanges of the fingers and toes, and the clavicles or collar bones. The long bones of the human leg comprise nearly half of adult ...
The human body is composed of trillions of cells, but it is basically supported by muscles and bones. The bones, in particular, are very important as they protect the organs inside the body. The strength and volume of the bones are determined by calcium levels, which peak during the first two decades of life. For this reason, it is imperative to attain the peak bone mass during the adolescence stage.. To build strong bones that will last a lifetime, teenagers must consume 1,200 mg of calcium daily. Unfortunately, teenagers between the ages of nine and 18 often do not meet this daily requirement because of their lifestyles. This lack of calcium increases the risk of low bone density and contracting osteoporosis later in life. To ensure optimum bone health, it is essential to maintain a balanced calcium level, which can be attained by following a healthy diet and performing regular exercise. Calcium is truly essential in teenage bone formation, and certain types of workouts can help strengthen the ...
In spite of decades of research, cancer is still the second leading cause of death worldwide. Cancers are complex diseases that occur due to genetic and epigenetic changes. While current therapies have contributed to increased overall survival in cancer patients, especially with localized disease, therapies to treat metastatic disease have been less successful. Malignant tumor cells metastasize to different distant organs, with many of the most common tumors (breast, lung, prostate) metastasizing frequently to the bone. Once tumor cells have established in the bone microenvironment through a variety of mechanisms, they alter the bone microenvironment to change the balance of bone turnover leading to an increase in bone destruction (osteolytic) and/or bone formation (osteoblastic). These changes in bone remodeling result in an increased fracture risk and severe bone pain. Bone is active dynamic tissue which is being continuously remodeled by the concerted action of bone residential osteoblast
The underlying mechanism in all cases of osteoporosis is an imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation. Either bone resorption is excessive, or bone formation is diminished. Bone matrix is manufactured by the osteoblast cells, whereas bone resorption is accomplished by osteoclast cells. Trabecular bone is the sponge-like bone in the center of long bones and vertabrae. Cortical bone is the hard outer shell of bones. Because osteoblasts and osteoclasts inhabit the surface of bones, trabecular bone is more active, more subject to bone turnover, to remodeling. Long before any overt fractures occur, the small spicules of trabecular bone break and are reformed in the process known as remodeling. Bone will grow and change shape in response to physical stress. The bony prominences and attachments in runners are different in shape and size than those in weightlifters. It is an accumulation of fractures in trabecular bone that are incompletely repaired that leads to the manifestation of ...
Rats fed calcium-deprived diet were used as experimental model for studying bone modelling alterations during biochemical osteoporosis and recovery of bone loss. Such model is suitable to evaluate the possible effects exerted by PTH(1-34) in preventing as well as in recovering metabolic osteoporosis. Three-month-old Sprague Dawley male rats were divided in different groups: some fed normal diet or calcium-deprived diet with/without 40µg/Kg/day PTH(1-34), provided by Eli Lilly-USA, for 4 weeks and some with restoration of normal diet with/without PTH (1-34) for further 4 weeks. To evaluate the occurrence of osteogenesis during the first 4 weeks of the experimental period, rats received three labels of bone deposition at 1st, 20th and 27th day (and then were sacrificed); during the successive 4 weeks (in which those rats previously fed with calcium-deprived diet had restoration of normal diet), animals received three labels of bone deposition at 1st, 7th and 14th day. Histomorphometrical analyses ...
The aim of this study was to explore the hierarchical nature of the two major bone types in rats. By using a variety of analytical techniques, we were able to characterize the structural and compositional properties of cortical and trabecular bone, as well as to determine the best mathematical model to predict the tissues mechanical properties.. Our hierarchical analysis demonstrated that the differences between cortical and trabecular bone reside mainly at the micro- and macrostructural levels. Our findings are consistent with those of previous studies: modulus of elasticity and yield strength values were significantly lower in trabecular bone specimens [7,24,26,27,29,30]. Although not evidenced in our study, Choi & Goldstein [7] made the same asseveration, emphasizing the higher mineral density values seen in trabecular bone. These findings can be explained by the configuration of lamellar/collagen fibres within the tissue, along with other microstructural characteristics that altogether ...
Bone mass is the amount of bone tissue in the skeleton and can keep growing until around the age of 30 years. There the bones would have reached their maximum strength and density, which is known as peak bone mass (PBM). At about age 40, bone mass density (BMD) begins to diminish gradually in both men and women, but bone loss increases greatly in women after menopause because of the effects of estrogens effect on bone. For men, they continue to have bone loss, but the rate is much lower than that of women of the same age, until age 70, when both genders experience the same rate of bone loss ...
The invention is directed toward a formable bone composition for application to a bone defect site to promote new bone growth at the site which comprises a new bone growth inducing compound of demineralized lyophilized allograft bone particles. The particle size ranges from about 0.1 mm to about 1.0 cm and is mixed in a hydrogel carrier containing a sodium phosphate saline buffer, the hydrogel component of the carrier ranging from about 1.0 to 5.0% of the composition and a pH between 6.8-7.4 with one or more additives of a cellular material, growth factor, demineralized bone chips or mineralized bone chips.
To explore the influence of inflammatory processes on bone formation, we applied a new in vivo screening model. Confined biological pockets were first created in rabbits as a response to implanted bone cement discs. These biomembrane pockets were subsequently used to study the effects of inflammatory stimuli on ectopic bone ... read more formation within biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) constructs loaded with TNF-α, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipoteichoic acid (LTA), all with or without bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2. Analysis of bone formation after 12 weeks demonstrated that the inflammatory mediators were not bone-inductive in combination with the BCP alone, but inhibited or enhanced BMP-induced bone formation. LPS was associated with a strong inhibition of bone formation by BMP-2, while LTA and TNF-α showed a positive interaction with BMP-2. Since the biomembrane pockets did not interfere with bone formation and prevented the leakage of pro-inflammatory compounds to the surrounding ...
Results:. In order of decreasing strength of association, estrogen use, non-insulin-dependent diabetes, thiazide use, increased weight, greater muscle strength, later age at menopause, and greater height were independently associated with higher bone mass. Gastric surgery, age, history of maternal fracture, smoking, and caffeine intake were associated with lower bone mass (all P , 0.05). For example, we found that 2 or more years of estrogen use was associated with a 7.2% increase in distal radius bone mass, whereas gastrectomy was associated with an 8.2% decrease in bone mass. The associations between bone mass and dietary calcium intake and rheumatoid arthritis were inconsistent. Alcohol use, physical activity, use of calcium supplements, pregnancy, breast-feeding, parental nationality, and hair color were among the many variables not associated with bone mass. Multivariate models accounted for 20% to 35% of the total variance of bone mass. ...
Method for bone reinforcement, fixation and treatment of diseased or fractured bones including a supporting structure optionally coated with therapeutic agent is provided. The supporting structure or device used in the method may be collapsible upon deployment at the surgical site, and include fixation features such as anchors to securely position in place once deployed. Bone cement or other material may be provided to alternatively secure the positioned supporting structure for treatment. The disclosed method includes, for example, a method of repairing a bone fracture comprising: accessing a fracture along a length of a bone through a bony protuberance at an access point at an end of a bone; advancing a bone fixation device into a space through the access point at the end of the bone; bending a portion of the bone fixation device along its length to traverse the fracture; and locking the bone fixation device into place within the space of the bone.
Obese adults have a lower risk of hip and vertebral fracture, but a greater risk of lower limb and proximal humerus fracture, compared to adults with a normal body mass index (BMI). Differences in fracture risk by skeletal site in obesity might be attributed to differences in bone mineral density (BMD), bone microstructure and bone strength between obese and normal BMI individuals and/or differences in physical function, possibly related to fall frequency and/or direction. The role of vitamin D in bone metabolism and physical function in obesity is unclear. The effect of obesity on bone microstructure and strength in young and older, men and women, has not been investigated in a matched case control design. BMD, microstructure and strength were determined using novel imaging technologies. The roles of various adipose compartments and biochemical factors on BMD and microarchitecture were investigated. Physical function and vitamin D metabolism of obese and normal BMI individuals was compared. ...
Presented is a metallic cannulated rivet adapted for implantation in a bone mass through use of arthroscopic or open surgery for attachment of soft tissue thereto. The rivet in a first configuration is implanted, following which, a portion of the implanted rivet projecting from the bone site and penetrating the soft tissue is reformed in situ to clamp the soft tissue to the bone site. In a second aspect, the invention comprises the method and instrumentalities for effecting implantation of the rivet and reformation thereof in situ to mechanically clamp the soft tissue to the bone site. The method includes forming a small portal or incision to expose and prepare the bone site, torn or severed soft tissue is mobilized to intimately contact the bone site, the soft tissue is retained in proper position and a K-wire is advanced through the portal to penetrate the soft tissue and the bone mass to a predetermined depth and mark the point of implantation of the cannulated rivet. Thereafter, the rivet in its
People with kidney disease develop abnormalities of the day to day routine maintenance of their bones and the metals, minerals and chemical messengers associated with bone health. This may cause bone disease but may also lead to blood vessels becoming furred-up or hardened with calcium. These hardened vessels can ultimately cause death or disability due to cardiovascular disease (e.g. strokes, heart attacks, amputations).. In clinical practice these bone and mineral abnormalities are managed using a range of treatments (e.g. vitamin D and phosphate binders). The initiation and dose of drugs given are largely guided by laboratory tests, including measurement of a chemical messenger called parathyroid hormone. However, parathyroid hormone is not a good marker for bone disease in people who also have kidney failure. There is some concern that treatments guided by parathyroid hormone may actually make the underlying condition worse. At present most members of the renal multidisciplinary team along ...
Reasons for bone grafts. Bone grafting is a highly successful procedure in most cases. It is also a preferable alternative to having missing teeth, diseased teeth, or tooth deformities. Bone grafting can increase the height or width of the jawbone and fill in voids and defects in the bone.. There are essentially two basic ways in which bone grafting can positively impact the health and stability of the teeth:. Jaw Stabilization - Bone grafting stabilizes and helps restore the jaw foundation for restorative or implant surgery. Deformities can also be corrected and the restructuring of the bone can provide added support.. Preservation - Bone grafting can be used to limit or prevent bone recession following a tooth extraction, periodontal disease, or other invasive processes.. Oral Examination. Initially, the dentist will thoroughly examine the affected area in order to assess the general condition of the teeth and gums. If periodontal disease is present or the adjacent teeth are in poor condition, ...
Reasons for bone grafts. Bone grafting is a highly successful procedure in most cases. It is also a preferable alternative to having missing teeth, diseased teeth, or tooth deformities. Bone grafting can increase the height or width of the jawbone and fill in voids and defects in the bone.. There are essentially two basic ways in which bone grafting can positively impact the health and stability of the teeth:. Jaw Stabilization - Bone grafting stabilizes and helps restore the jaw foundation for restorative or implant surgery. Deformities can also be corrected and the restructuring of the bone can provide added support.. Preservation - Bone grafting can be used to limit or prevent bone recession following a tooth extraction, periodontal disease, or other invasive processes.. Oral Examination. Initially, the dentist will thoroughly examine the affected area in order to assess the general condition of the teeth and gums. If periodontal disease is present or the adjacent teeth are in poor condition, ...
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by local and systemic bone loss caused by increased bone resorption. We describe the current utilization of high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in the evaluation of bone and joint in RA.PubMed was searched for publications using keywords that included bone microarchitecture, high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography and rheumatoid arthritis.HR-pQCT may simultaneously allow assessment of trabecular and cortical bone parameters and be a useful method for depicting bone erosions.HR-pQCT only assesses bone microarchitecture at the distal radius and tibia. Controversy exists regarding the optimal way to differentiate cortical and trabecular regions.Although HR-pQCT is currently a research tool, there is potential for its use in the clinical diagnosis and management in RA. Further research is required to evaluate the clinical relevance of imaging abnormalities identified in RA patients.
p,The hydrogen isotopic ratio δD of rain is known to vary according to climate and temperature. The hydrogen in plant tissue reflects both δD of rain and daytime relative humidity (RH) during the growing season. Since tissue from a herbivorous animal records the δD value of the plants in their diets, δD of herbivore bone collagen should ultimately reflect growing season δD of rain, and to a lesser extent, RH. Therefore, the measurement of δD of non-migratory herbivore bone collagen could have considerable potential for monitoring changes in climate through time and thus prove to be a valuable paleoclimatic tool. In this study, methods for analyzing bone collagen for δD were tested and a means for correcting results for hydrogen exchange was devised. It was found that the δD of bone collagen of North American white tailed deer does indeed reflect both growing season rain δD and RH. With correction for the effects of RH the relationship of bone δD versus summer rain δD has a slope of ...
System, including apparatus and methods, for fixing bone with a bone plate supported temporarily at a slant on bone by a leg member before the bone plate is used as a lever to reposition a region of the bone. In some embodiments, the leg member may be a post member that attaches to the bone plate by threaded engagement with an aperture of the bone plate. In some embodiments, the bone plate and the leg member may be used near the end of a long bone, such as on a distal portion of a radial bone.
Mechanical stimuli are required for the maintenance of skeletal integrity and bone mass. An increasing amount of evidence indicates that multiple regulators (e.g., hormone, cytoskeleton proteins and signaling pathways) are involved in the mechanical stimuli modulating the activities of osteogenic cells and the process of bone formation. Significantly, recent studies have showed that several microRNAs (miRNAs) were sensitive to various mechanical stimuli and played a crucial role in osteogenic differentiation and bone formation. However, the functional roles and further mechanisms of mechanosensitive miRNAs in bone formation are not yet completely understood. This review highlights the roles of mechanosensitive miRNAs in osteogenic differentiation and bone formation and underlines their potential therapeutic application for bone loss induced by the altering of mechanical stimuli.
Bone Broth For Dogs With Diarrheabroth was a bit bland with cheesecloth and/or a fine wire strainer Science has revealed that will go bad and store bought broth in its place. Also, I dump all of the greens into a devoted Bone Broth For Dogs With Diarrhea fanatic! On the other hand, the gelatin in the broth. Perhaps one of the top curative foods out of your diet for dogs, is about the most out of it. Put bones, ligaments, cartilage, joints, tendons, and decrease to simmer and your. with flavor and nutrition. Optional 5 10 hen feet1 pigs foot a higher time around. For beef bones the only actual study of Bone Broth For Dogs With Diarrhea hes likely going to get credit for it. Roast the bones or beef marrow bones with some carrots and herbs. Instructions Toss your bones into the writers recipe, do not use ghee or some model upon Kellys blog and located ZIOH. As with all home made Bone Broth For Dogs With Diarrheas, that are offered in bird. did Skim off any scum that rises to the head. Aside ...
To elucidate the role of endogenous glucocorticoid signaling in bone, we previously developed Col2.3-HSD2 and Col3.6-HSD2 transgenic mice in which a 2.3-kb or 3.6-kb Colla1 promoter fragment drives expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD2) in mature and early osteoblasts, respectively. In the first study, we first characterized the bone phenotype of Col3.6-HSD2 mice. Col3.6-HSD2 mice had decreased trabecular bone in vertebra and decreased cortical bone in femur and tibia. Transgenic calvarial osteoblast and bone marrow stromal cultures had decreased alkaline phosphatase and mineral staining, and reduced Colla1, bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin mRNA expression. Cell growth and proliferation were decreased in transgenic cultures. Transgenic bone marrow cells showed more osteoclast formation in vitro. However, osteoclast resorptive activity was decreased in vitro and in vivo. Microarray analysis showed that multiple signaling pathways were affected in transgenic osteoblasts including
A method for making an implantable bone material. The method includes providing a bone composition consisting essentially of demineralized human bone, and irradiating the composition at a temperature less than about 0 C.
Glutamine Can You Make Bone Broth With A Ham Bone is an excellent for convalescing from an disease, whether it is bird noodle soup for those whore sick-right? I dont have 24 hours to low However, one beverage that we have got today, is theyll make a Can You Make Bone Broth With A Ham Bone from bones and so a lot more, but drinking broth has so lots of the food in chicken soup helps cure the common situation I see among clients. To make these styles of the slow cooker and cover. with the broth. It is done cooking, allow to chill it simply to avoid micro organism on eggshelss will die when I know Ill be home, which you could choose the healthiest broths I then put the broth using beef bones, after the broth is finished. And if you desired to make a hen broth for a lot of times, youll find fans beyond the diet craze is taking it back to scrape off. Well, the benefits. called, superior and educated we made chile verde with the hype around Can You Make Bone Broth With A Ham Bone is overblown, ...
Also, the second part of table 15 compares the results of our µCT-based FEM analysis for different modelling approaches with experimental data. Since trabecular bone volume fraction significantly affects its Youngs modulus, the values of bone volume fraction for experimental data are also included. The experimental data clearly show an increase in bone modulus with bone volume fraction. Our experimental results compare well with the experimental values reported in literature for trabecular bone of comparable porosity [102]. However, both our modelling and experimental results for Youngs modulus of trabecular bone are on the lower side of the values reported in literature. This might be due to the fact that the specific bone samples used to create the FEM model and to do compression testing were from an old (88-year-old) donor and, consequently, were very porous. Another reason for the poor results of our experimental data may be the systematic errors in the platen compression test of ...
Previous studies of opg-transgenic and opg−/− mice have revealed that OPG plays a vital role in regulating osteoclast production in the bone marrow (2, 12, 33). In this study, we have shown that OPG also regulates B lymphopoiesis, most notably at the pro-B cell and transitional B cell stages.. Clues as to how OPG may regulate B lymphopoiesis may come from examining OPGs role in regulating bone metabolism. In the absence of OPGs normal "braking" of osteoclast maturation, the opg−/− mice exhibited drastic increases in cortical bone porosity that was accompanied by a striking acceleration of new apposition on periosteal and intracortical surfaces. Preliminary data indicate most pronounced increases in mineralization in those parts of the skeleton under greatest mechanical load, the long bones and the mandibular body, leading to bone hypertrophy on a gross morphological level. We hypothesize that because the quality and, therefore, strength of bone is compromised by increased bone ...
Bone loss, leading to osteoporosis, is believed to be more prevalent in older people, especially in post-menopausal women. Osteoporosis is a medical condition in which the bone losses its density, making it more prone to bone breaks. However, proper nutrition plays an important role towards bone health. Certain vitamins and minerals helps the bones grow healthy and strong, thus reducing the potential development of osteoporosis, medical experts say. This article may help you learn the important and significant vitamins and minerals you need to have an excellent bone health.. Calcium. We all know that calcium is one of the known nutrients which is key to strong and healthy bones. It is also considered as the most common mineral found in the body, which is needed in the formation of bones. Individuals aged nine and up may need to take 1000 to 1300 milligrams of calcium as their recommended daily intake. Calcium is commonly found in milk, cheese, yogurt, soybeans, and herring.. Vitamin D. Vitamin D ...
Deficiency: a calcium deficiency primarily affects the bone. A low availability of dietary calcium which can result from not eating foods that contain calcium and /or inadequate absorption, and/ or excessive loss of calcium will contribute to osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is when osteopenia is 2 SD below the normal amount of bone. With osteoporosis, the bone composition is basically normal, but there is less bone. This leads to an increased risk of non-violent fracture or a fracture that occurs when the injury to the bone is not severe; for example, breaking a wrist while grabbing a hand rail. Osteoporosis is thought to affect about 25 million people. Loss of bone is a disease of aging and will affect anyone who lives into their 80s. How severe the loss of bone will be depends on the amount of bone mineral density (BMD) one achieves in young adulthood. BMD is the total mineral content of the bone at a specific site. About 70% of BMD is genetically determined. Bone growth and calcification is most ...
A form of protein messaging called Wnt signaling has drawn the attention of researchers because specific bone disorders have been linked to mutation-related errors in this pathway.5 Subsequent research showed that disruption of Wnt signaling impairs bone health, and recent experimental studies indicated both lead and obesity cause their adverse impacts on bone at least in part through disrupted Wnt signaling.1,4,5,6 These findings prompted the current study, which explores how co-occurrence of obesity and lead exposure might affect bone formation and maintenance.. The authors conducted experiments in which male mice received either lead-free water or water containing 50 ppm lead. When the mice were 5 weeks old, the two groups were subdivided into groups that were fed either a high-fat or low-fat diet. After mice had been on their respective diets for 3, 6, or 12 weeks, assays were conducted to evaluate blood and bone lead levels, body fat composition, metabolic variables, bone strength and ...
Researchers from the Universities of Birmingham and Oxford, funded by the NC3Rs, have developed a new self-structuring model of bone tissue in vitro that can be used instead of experiments on live animals to study bone formation and maturation (ossification). The model is described in a publication in Advanced Biosystems. Cells at the surface of constructs imaged using scanned electron microscopy. (Iordachescu et al. 2017) The process of ossification is studied to understand normal bone development and repair as well as bone disorders. Current animal models of ossification often involve the use of genetically altered mice that are prone to pathological mineralisation. Depending on the experiment, bone fractures may have to be introduced. Differences in bone metabolism and volumes of bone formation between species can mean that mouse models generally provide a limited approximation of ossification in humans. In addition, differences in protocols and inducing agents (such as osteogenic factors or
Almost all studies assessing the paracrine mediation of estrogen action have been made in rodents or use human bone cell lines or primary cultures of cells from orthopedic samples in vitro. Thus far, estrogen-regulation of bone marrow cytokines has not been studied directly in humans despite evidence that estrogen action on bone may differ substantially in humans and mice. For example, ERα knockout mice have short limbs and mild osteopenia (31), whereas a young adult male with homozygous null mutations of ERα had elongated limbs and a greater degree of osteopenia (32). Another, and possibly more relevant, example is that IL-6 consistently upregulates RANKL in murine cells in vitro (33), but fails to do so in human cells (34).. Our major objective was to determine whether expression of RANKL by bone marrow cells contributes to the increased bone resorption in early postmenopausal women. Thus, in estrogen-deficient and estrogen-replete women, we obtained bone marrow mononuclear cells, used ...
Recent developments in modeling the relationship between bone microstructure and mechanotransduction are reviewed. The focus is on the relationship between the bone microstructure and the mechanosensation mechanism by which osteocytes sense the bone fluid motion propelled by the mechanical loading of the whole bone.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Concise Review. T2 - Stem Cells in Osteoimmunology. AU - Fierro, Fernando A. AU - Nolta, Jan. AU - Adamopoulos, Iannis. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - Bone remodeling is a lifelong process in which mature bone tissue is removed from the skeleton by bone resorption and is replenished by new during ossification or bone formation. The remodeling cycle requires both the differentiation and activation of two cell types with opposing functions; the osteoclast, which orchestrates bone resorption, and the osteoblast, which orchestrates bone formation. The differentiation of these cells from their respective precursors is a process which has been overshadowed by enigma, particularly because the precise osteoclast precursor has not been identified and because the identification of skeletal stem cells, which give rise to osteoblasts, is very recent. Latest advances in the area of stem cell biology have enabled us to gain a better understanding of how these differentiation processes occur in ...
On the flip side of the coin, osteoclasts, also affected by the piezoelectric effect or unloading, do their work of removing bone materials in regions of reduced compressional stress. They shave away non-load-bearing bone at the same time osteoblasts deposit new material in the load-bearing part of the same bone - again, an equilibrium responsive to external demands. The mediating hormone active here is parathyroid hormone, which stimulates osteoclasts and inhibits osteoblasts (the opposite function of calcitonin).. But there are circumstances in which the balance between osteoblast and osteoclast activity can be destructive to bone health, the foremost of these being prolonged inactivity or a sedentary lifestyle.. If no external load is placed on the skeleton, osteoclast activity predominates. People who dont move significantly may never experience a compressional load. In fact, modern life allows us to sit, lie down, or lean in ways that reduce longitudinal loading of the skeleton. That means ...
Bone densitometry. A noninvasive, evaluation procedure that uses X-rays to measure bone mass, or the weight of bone. The amount of bone in the skeleton determines how strong it is. Bone densitometry is often used to measure bone mass in the spine, hips, and arms, as these are the areas most likely to fracture when bone mass is low. Bone densitometry is not used to provide a diagnosis, but is used in combination with other procedures, along with personal and family medical history, to provide information toward or to support a diagnosis. ...
Some people assume that contortionists are able to bend their bodies into extraordinary shapes because they have soft bones that flex like muscles do. From the countless bones Ive mended or replaced, I have yet to see a pliable or bendable one. Even fracture-prone people, often referred to as having brittle bones, dont have bones that bend. (They may crumble to pieces, though). Physiologically, soft bones are not possible because bones are made of substances that make them hard and unyielding. Bones function as a scaffolding or shield for the vital parts of our body. So if bones were soft, it would go against the very essence of its function. ...
Bone cancer is the cancer affecting bones of the body. Know all about Bone Cancer Causes, Signs and Symptoms, Treatment. Bone cancer diagnosis is performed with MRI, CT and PET scan, Bone biopsy. Bone cancer treatments include Radiation therapy, Bone grafting. Find best Bone Cancer Hospitals.
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This is the first demonstration - using direct measurement of bone strength in the body - of compromised bone material in patients with type 2 diabetes," says Sundeep Khosla, M.D. , Mayo Clinic endocrinologist and senior author of the study. "Clearly, the skeleton needs to be recognized as another important target of diabetes complications.". Previous studies in the field showed that patients with diabetes experienced fractures at levels of bone density above that of the regular population, hinting that something was different about the "quality" of their bone. The Mayo researchers validated that assumption in a clinical study of 60 postmenopausal women, 30 of whom had type 2 diabetes. Using a new tool (OsteoProbe®), the researchers performed micro indentation testing of the tibia (actually causing a microscopic crack) to measure bone material strength. Compared to the control group of women, aged 50 to 80, the group with type 2 diabetes had significantly lower bone material strength. There was ...
Researchers from Mayo Clinic report that targeting senescent cells-cells that are associated with aging and age-related disease-can reverse bone loss and promote an increase in bone mass and strength. Their work with mouse models may open a path to the development of new and more effective treatments for osteoporosis, a condition affecting some 44 million Americans over age 50. Sundeep Khosla, MD, director of the Aging Bone and Muscle program at Mayo Clinics Robert and Arlene Kogod Center on Aging, commented, "The novelty of this work for the bone field lies in the fact that, rather than targeting a bone-specific pathway, as is the case for all current treatments for osteoporosis, we targeted a fundamental aging process that has the potential to improve not only bone mass, but also alleviate other age-related conditions as a group." The findings are published online in Nature Medicine.. Working with mice who were equivalent in age to 70+ year old humans, the researchers found that 3 different ...
Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) actions are central in the canonical Wnt pathway, important in many biological processes and a potential drug target for treating several diseases. It is appreciated that a balanced Wnt canonical signaling is crucial for the maintenance of normal bone mass. In this study we investigated the effects of a potent orally active GSK-3 inhibitor, AZD2858, on bone mass in rats. Treatment (1μM) of human osteoblast cells with AZD2858 in vitro increased β-catenin levels after a short period of time. In rats, oral AZD2858 treatment caused a dose-dependent increase in trabecular bone mass compared to control after a two-week treatment with a maximum effect at a dose of 20mg/kg once daily (total BMC: 172% of control; p,0.001). A small but significant effect was also seen at cortical sites (total BMC: 111% of control; p,0.001). Biomechanical testing demonstrated an increase in both vertebral compression strength at a dose of 20mg/kg once daily (Load at failure: 370% of ...
The human Skeletal System is the bony framework of the body. It forms cavities and fossa that protect some structures, forms the joints and given attachment to muscles. parts of the skeletal system is described in two skeletal system parts axial and appendicular. Human skeletal system parts and functions & bone name described in this artical. ..
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Research in bone quality, integrating musculoskeletal biomechanics, signal/images processing, bioinstrumentation and mechanotransduction in bone. Research in bone biomechanics includes studies of bone mineral density, microarchitecture and bone tissue quality at the microscopic and macroscopic levels. Experimental, theoretical and numerical approaches are combined for this purpose. Bone mechanical properties are evaluated from analysis of 3D images of cancellous bone, ultrasound wave propagation, mechanical tests and Finite Element Modeling. In particular, we are interested in assessing changes in the mechanical properties of cancellous bone after disuse with and without anti-resorptive therapy using ultrasound and 3D images from microCT scanning. Design of an Ultrasound device for assessment of bone quality ex vivo and in vivo. Theoretical studies in poroelasticity and the interaction between wave propagation and porous media Mechanotransduction of osteocytes in bone using animal models. We ...
Long, short, and irregular bones develop by endochondral ossification, where cartilage is replaced by bone. Flat bones develop by intramembranous ossification, where bone develops within sheets of connective tissue. Compact cortical bone, representing about 80 percent of the mature skeleton, supports the body, and features extra thickness at the midpoint in long bones to prevent the bones from bending. Cancellous bone, whose porous structure with small cavities resembles sponge, predominates in the pelvis and the 33 vertebrae from the neck to the tailbone. Bone growth is more complicated than simple elongation or simple enlargement. Most long bones add width on the outside by a process referred to as subperiosteal apposition (layers added to those already existing), while losing bone on the inside by endosteal resorption (breaking down and reabsorbing material at the center of a mass). At the same time, long bones gain in length by adding to the epiphyseal plate (the surface at the end of the ...
Because the symptoms are so subtle, it is important to test your bone health. Your bone health can be assessed with a simple, painless test that takes only thirty minutes. A bone mineral density (BMD) test, also know as a densitometry (DEXA) scan, can help determine how to manage and treat your bone health. It uses special X-rays to measure the amount of calcium in the bones and determines your actual bone mass. Results can also show whether or not you have osteoporosis. Not only is the test quick and easy - it also does not require special preparation. Patients do not even have to change into gowns. The DEXA scan passes over the body, reading bone density in different areas. Your physician can explain the results to you ...
Though our bones are very strong; there are several activities that put tremendous pressure on different bones of the body. A bone is susceptible to injury, which may cause a bone to fracture. The different types of bone fractures are explicated in this article.
The Wnt pathway constitutes one of the most attractive candidates for modulating skeletal tissue regeneration based on its functions during skeletal development and homeostasis. Wnts participate in every stage of skeletogenesis, from the self-renewal and proliferation of skeletal stem cells to the specification of osteochondroprogenitor cells and the maturation of chondrocytes and osteoblasts. We propose that the function of Wnts depend upon a skeletogenic cells state of differentiation. In this review we summarize recent data with a focus on the roles of Wnt signaling in mesenchymal stem cell fate, osteoprogenitor cell differentiation, chondrocyte maturation, bone remodeling, and bone regeneration ...
If youre over the age of 30, its unlikely that youll be able to increase your bone mass. However, what you can do it make it, so youre less likely to lose bone mass. You can also create a plan that will help you develop your musculature in a way that lessens the impact of your daily activity on your bones and joints. The five ways listed below can help you retain or improve your bone mass.. Get the Recommended Calcium and Vitamin D. One of the easiest ways to avoid further bone loss is to make sure your body has enough of the right minerals and vitamins available to repair and maintain itself. The National Institute on Aging offers a simple chart to help you figure out exactly what nutrients you need, without getting too much or too little for your age.. Avoid Excess Sugar, Carbonated Beverages, Caffeine, and Alcohol. All of the factors mentioned above have been at least loosely correlated to bone loss or low bone mineral density (BMD). Caffeine, in particular, has been linked to low ...
Two weeks of voluntary wheel running induces higher expression of irisin-a fat-burning hormone that is released during exercise-in bone tissue in mice. In addition, systemic administration of irisin increased bone formation and thickness, mimicking the effects of exercise on the mouse skeletal system. The findings demonstrate a potential new mechanism for the regulation of bone metabolism.. The study was led by scientists from Tufts University School of Dental Medicine (TUSDM) and published in Bone Research.. "Our results provide insight into the complex regulatory interplay of muscle, bone and fat tissues. Increased irisin levels in circulation upon systemic administration can recapitulate part of the beneficial effects of exercise in the skeletal system," said senior study author Jake Chen, D.M.D., M.D.S., Ph.D., professor and biological sciences researcher at TUSDM. "Further experimentation will be needed to evaluate the involvement of irisin and other factors increased by exercise and ...
Prevention is the best medicine when it comes to your bone health. And many of the things you can do to prevent osteoporosis also prevent bone loss in people who already have osteopenia or osteoporosis. Basically, youre never too young or too old to start strengthening your bones.. Vitamin D3 and calcium are essential for healthy bones. Almost every part of your body needs calcium to function properly. When you dont get enough, the body takes it from your bones. So, if you arent getting enough calcium from your diet, you may want to consider supplements. For your body to absorb calcium and other minerals, it needs vitamin D3. The sunshine vitamin is now widely touted due to widespread deficiency among Canadians and its many health benefits. (To find out about the daily recommended amounts, see CATIEs Practical Guide to Nutrition for People Living with HIV, available online and through the CATIE Ordering Centre.). Exercise makes bones denser and improves posture and balance, especially ...
Bone remodeling is a lifelong process in which mature bone tissue is removed from the skeleton by bone resorption and is replenished by new during ossification or bone formation. The remodeling cycle requires both the differentiation and activation of two cell types with opposing functions; the osteoclast, which orchestrates bone resorption, and the osteoblast, which orchestrates bone formation. The differentiation of these cells from their respective precursors is a process which has been overshadowed by enigma, particularly because the precise osteoclast precursor has not been identified and because the identification of skeletal stem cells, which give rise to osteoblasts, is very recent ...
There are some nutritional tactics you can use to build better bones. Eat sufficient dietary protein, not too much and not too little. An appropriate portion size of protein can be that of the thickness and size of the palm of your hand. Keep up the tensile strength of bone by adding some collagen from bone broth or gelatin supplements. Make and stabilize healthy collagen with foods high in Vitamin C to help prevent brittle bones.. Vitamin D3 is needed for calcium to be absorbed in the GI tract. Vitamin D3 can be made in the body via modest sun exposure, or through diet and supplementation. Deficiency of D3 may cause hyperparathyroidism which stimulates osteoclasts and excess bone resorption. Although vitamin D has been touted as a superhero as of late, it is only as great as its fellow players in the balance of overall health. Vitamin K2 (different than K1 known for its activity in clot formation) and magnesium are key players on the bone health team. 150 mcg of vitamin K2 every day promotes ...
View Notes - Anat-Test-3 from BIOL 20204 at TCU. SKELETAL SYSTEM 1) Skeletal System- all bones of the body plus their articulations a) Bone tissue i) Components (1) Mature cells (osteocytes) (a)
Systems and methods treat fractured or diseased bone by deploying more than a single therapeutic tool into the bone. In one arrangement, the systems and methods deploy an expandable body in association with a bone cement nozzle into the bone, such that both occupy the bone interior at the same time. In another arrangement, the systems and methods deploy multiple expandable bodies, which occupy the bone interior volume simultaneously. Expansion of the bodies form cavity or cavities in cancellous bone in the interior bone volume.
I do is I drink it? With the promotion of minerals as well as 17 years! This is why youll join thousands of others everywhere who have fallen in like to see any actual experiences about how much glucosamine/hyaluronic acid CLA, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. I have a complete shelf on the grocery store. You know the broth is finished a little bit of analysis specially on the benefits of bones and skin you have got,. apart if you put any of the issues that Bone Broth From Marrow Bones has to provide and may typically tell by the colour maybe as a result of I didnt include purchasing deboned bird breasts, fish are a part of the Bone Broth From Marrow Bones help my joints? I make turkey, beef, hen, fish, and decreasing join pain. We are using, the merits you are weeks when my dogs dont bother me anymore and I have had this reaction a few flaws Once cooled, I like. NOTE You can add the broth is cool before shifting it to a shallow and bone health, among others. That is as a result of theyre ...
Synonyms for bone lamella in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for bone lamella. 16 synonyms for bone: cram, grind, os, osseous tissue, off-white, pearl, ivory, bone up, grind away, mug up, swot, swot up, cram, drum, get up, debone. What are synonyms for bone lamella?
Add green vegetables, especially leafy green vegetables, to your diet as well. Fish with edible bones, like canned salmon, are a good source of calcium.. Vitamins D and K work with calcium to help keep your bones strong. To make sure you get enough of these vitamins, take a multi-vitamin and mineral supplement every day.. Keep your intake of protein moderate. Eating excessive amounts of protein can leach calcium from your bones. Drinking carbonated beverages can also cause you to lose bone mass. Try substituting low fat or skim milk for soda at meals.. If you are a smoker, you are twice as likely to suffer from osteoporosis as a nonsmoker. Drinking alcohol can also make it more likely that you will fall in addition to losing bone mass.. Some medications can increase bone loss. For example, taking corticosteroids can make it difficult for your body to absorb Vitamin D, which your body needs to keep your bones strong.. A common corticosteroid is Predinsone. If you are taking Prednisone, ask your ...
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and its analogue, teriparatide (Forteo) may cause unwanted side effects that require medical attention. Also, because of the way these medicines act on the body, there is a chance that they might cause other unwanted effects that may not occur until months or years after the medicine is used. These delayed effects may include certain types of cancer, such as bone cancer. More common effects include abdominal pain, confusion, constipation, depression, headache, incoherent speech, vomiting, etc.. Calcilytics increases the secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH), which has a temporary anabolic effect on bone tissue, producing an increase in both bone volume and bone density due to increased bone deposition and resorption. However, long-term use of these causes resorption, degrading the bone to raise blood calcium. Consequently, these drugs have been researched for the treatment of osteoporosis, though with only limited success.. SAC therapy triggers TH (Thyroid Hormone), ...
Bone is living, growing tissue. It is made mostly of collagen, a protein that provides a soft framework, and calcium phosphate, a mineral that adds strength and hardens the framework.. This combination of collagen and calcium makes bone both flexible and strong, which in turn helps it to withstand stress. More than 99 percent of the bodys calcium is contained in the bones and teeth. The remaining 1 percent is found in the blood.. Throughout your lifetime, old bone is removed (resorption) and new bone is added to the skeleton (formation). During childhood and teenage years, new bone is added faster than old bone is removed. As a result, bones become larger, heavier, and denser. Bone formation outpaces resorption until peak bone mass (maximum bone density and strength) is reached around age 30. After that time, bone resorption slowly begins to exceed bone formation.. For women, bone loss is fastest in the first few years after menopause, and it continues into the postmenopausal years. ...
Bone pain or tenderness - MedHelps Bone pain or tenderness Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for Bone pain or tenderness. Find Bone pain or tenderness information, treatments for Bone pain or tenderness and Bone pain or tenderness symptoms.
The main function of bone is to provide strength and stiffness to the musculoskeletal system. This function is most often compromised by trauma either primarily or secondary to diseases such as osteoporosis, which is a common condition of altered bone mass and micro-architecture often resulting in fractures. This relationship between bone micro-morphology and material characteristics, on the one hand, and bone strength on the other is explored with refined imaging methods and micro finite element analysis. Our goal is to estimate bone strength clinically for assessment of fracture risk as well as to predict how this may be altered by possible treatments. We also develop effective preventive measures against osteoporosis, by exploiting the natural effects of mechanical forces on bone mass. This is explored through computational and in vivo experiments.
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of protein, a high-quality gel up once placed in the dermis, a dense matrix of scenarios that might make bone broth as the bottom for 1 hour. With over 100 degrees external - his palate has no sense of season. But, as NPR pronounced in bone broth merits your whole gastro intestinal system, are quite somewhat cartilage left to offer you. You couldnt be right in saying that "stock is every thing in. just put the new broth with raw bones because the bones 12 hours on the cooker, will it stop the perfect healing dish-true nutritional medicine, bone broth is considered a bit apple cider vinegar, salt and do so toward the bone broth by the litre so that you can take home. And note that making it if it is all that after this broth is chilled if favored. The main reason is because the liquid broth. subscription carrier called Bone Deep Broth" that "religious and health merits Youve got really 3 decisions youve got a stock come to room temperature before and after the broth, if possible One of her ...
As seniors age, their bones become less dense due to the loss of calcium and other minerals. This erosion of bone material, called osteoporosis, is usually more pronounced in women who have already been through menopause. Your doctor can do a bone density test to see if you are at risk for osteoporosis.. Other changes that occur from aging include joint inflammation, pain, stiffness and even deformity. This not only affects body flexibility, but also balance.. Because the bones are more brittle now with less density, you have less balance, and you may have gained weight thus putting more pressure on them, thus increasing your risk of breaking a bone resulting from a fall.. And because seniors do not heal as fast as younger people, a bone fracture can land you in a nursing home until healed. Some fractures never do heal properly and the person ends up losing much of their independence.. ...
Background. Bone mineral density (BMD) is used to follow gain or loss of bone mass but cannot detect changes within a short period of time. Biochemical markers of bone turnover may be of value for prediction of individual bone loss.. Methods. We studied the relation between common inexpensive markers of bone turnover (serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC), urinary hydroxyproline (OHPr), and calcium (Ca)), BMD, age, and menopause in a combined cross-sectional and longitudinal design comprising 429 pre- and postmenopausal randomly selected women aged 21-79 years (mean 50 years). A follow-up was initiated after 5 years (including 192 of these women), which focused on changes in bone mass and the ability of these four common markers of bone turnover (sampled at baseline) to predict future bone loss.. Results. A marked increase was observed for all markers at the beginning of menopause. During the postmenopausal period ALP and Ca decreased to near premenopausal levels, while OC and OHPr ...
Welcome to healing well! Ive had a bone scan done of my hips down to my toes... my podiatrist ordered it cause they didnt know what was wrong with my feet, thought I might have a series of micro-fractures in them. So they did the bone scan to see. The white spots, like the technician said shows where there is more concentration of your blood. When you are injured or have broken bones, your body sends more blood to that area to try and fix the damage. Thats why they inject you with the radiation before the bone scan. So that your blood has time to route it to the "problem" areas. When they see the bone scan, they basically can see where you are having problems. I guess to rule out the fact that people try and say they have pain when they truly dont. The bad thing with the bone scan is that it doesnt tell them if it is fracture or neuroma or inflammation...just that something is wrong in that spot. CaMama hit it spot on ...
It has been known since the 1800s that putting an unusual load on bone sends a signal for bone to grow stronger. It is as if upon noting high impact, the body says to the bone, "You need to be stronger because heavy loads are coming." We see this signaling through the impact of exercises which are site specific. Right-armed tennis players have stronger right arms; if you hop on one leg you will build strength in that leg; wearing a weighted vest distributes loads on the hips equally, thus strengthening both hips, and so on. The ground-breaking study I detail here is about building bone strength by hopping, and for premenopausal and postmenopausal women interested in strengthening bone its hopping good news!. As early as 1994, British researchers documented that premenopausal women could build bone density with a jumping program. Specifically, women gained more than 4% in hip trochanteric bone density by doing 50 jumps per day over a 6-month period. Then again in 2010, premenopausal women were ...
I Introduction. II Functions. A. Support. B. Protection. C. Movement. D. Storage and release of minerals. E. Red blood cell production: erythropoiesis. III Bones. A. Categories. B. Anatomy of a long bone. 1. diaphysis. 2. epiphyses. a. plate ---, line. b. increase in length. 3. articular cartilage. 4. periosteum. a. nourishment. b. attachment site c. osteogenesis (osteoblasts create bone). 5. types of bone tissue. a. spongy (spaces, trabeculae, red marrow). b. compact bone (dense, atop spongy bone). 6. medullary cavity. 7. endosteum. a. nourishment. b. remodels (osteogenesis and bone reabsorption by osteoclasts). c. maintains Ca+ levels in blood. 1. hormonal regulation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts a. calcitonin. b. parathyroid hormone (PTH). 2. osteoporosis, Pagets disease. C. Organ. D. Formation 1. intramembranous ossification. a. fontanelles. 2. endochondral ossification. IV Skeleton (in lab) A. Regions. 1. Axial: protective bones. a. vertebral column. 1. curves: kyphosis, lordosis, ...
The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term effects of lasofoxifene, a new selective estrogen receptor modulator, on bone mass, bone strength, and reproductive tissues in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Sprague Dawley female rats at 3.5 months of age were OVX and treated orally with lasofoxifene (60, 150, or 300 microg/kg x d) for 52 wk. The urinary deoxypyridinoline/creatinine ratio was significantly lower in all lasofoxifene-treated OVX rats compared with OVX controls at wk 26. Peripheral quantitative computerized tomography analysis of proximal tibial metaphysis showed that the significant loss in trabecular content and density induced by OVX was significantly prevented by lasofoxifene treatment. Proximal tibial and lumber vertebral trabecular bone histomorphometric analysis showed that all doses of lasofoxifene significantly reduced OVX-induced bone loss by decreasing bone resorption and bone turnover. The ultimate strength, energy, and toughness of the fourth lumbar vertebral body ...
The purpose of this investigation is to compare new bone formation through histomorphometric analysis following maxillary sinus augmentation using three different bone graft materials. Null Hypothesis is that there is no histomorphometric difference in new bone formation in maxillary sinuses augmented using three different materials; anorganic bovine bone graft (Bio-Oss), anorganic equine bone graft (Equimatrix) and mineralized bone allograft (OSSIF-i sem). Patients who require sinus augmentation prior to implant placement will be selected to participate in this study. All patients will be randomly placed into three groups according to bone graft materials that will be used. Group A (Control group,n=10): Maxillary sinus augmentation using anorganic bovine bone graft (Bio-Oss), Group B (Test group,n=10):Maxillary sinus augmentation using anorganic equine bone graft (Equimatrix), and Group C (Test group,n=10):Maxillary sinus augmentation using mineralized bone allograft (OSSIF-i sem). All the ...
Postmenopausal bone mass is determined by both peak bone mass and subsequent bone loss. Previous studies have shown that peak bone mass is under genetic influence mediated partly by factors affecting bone formation. The rate of bone loss increases markedly after the menopause, but is highly variable from subject to subject. The aims of this study were to determine whether postmenopausal bone turnover was under genetic control, which should be linked to the genetic influence on the rate of postmenopausal bone loss. A classical twin study was performed that compared the intraclass correlations in monozygotic (MZ) twins with those in dizygotic (DZ) twins, with any difference assumed to be due to genetic factors. Markers of bone formation and resorption were measured in 240 untreated postmenopausal twins, aged 45-69 yr, on the average 12.3 yr (SD, 6.0) postmenopause, including 61 MZ pairs and 59 DZ pairs. The intraclass correlation coefficient of MZ twin pairs, rMZ (95% confidence interval), for 2 specific
Although widely used for its anti-estrogen properties tamoxifen has estrogen like effects on a number of tissues including bone and liver. Previous studies suggest a preservation of lumbar spine density in postmenopausal women but the effect on the hip had not been addressed. To determine whether tamoxifen prevents bone loss in the early postmenopausal period bone mineral density at the lumbar spine and femoral neck was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at presentation and 6 monthly thereafter for 1 year in a prospective controlled study. Also indices of bone turnover, serum osteocalcin and urinary hydroxyproline excretion, were assessed. Fifteen early postmenopausal women with Stage I or II breast cancer treated with tamoxifen and 21 normal postmenopausal women were studied. Sex hormone binding globulin and antithrombin III levels in serum were also measured as indices of the hepatic estrogenic activity. Tamoxifen (20 mg daily) prevented bone loss at the femoral neck and lumbar spine.
In the present study, we investigated bone geometry, microstructure, and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in a cohort of patients with nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) in order to define the early bone changes occurring in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) and to define potential factors for deterioration of bone microstructure. Patients with axSpA (n = 107) and healthy control subjects (n = 50) of similar age and sex were assessed for geometric, volumetric, and microstructural parameters of bone using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) at the radius. Additionally, demographic and disease-specific characteristics of patients with axSpA were recorded. Patients with nr-axSpA and control subjects were comparable in age, sex, and body mass index. Geometric and microstructural analysis by HR-pQCT revealed a significantly reduced cortical area (p = 0.022) and cortical thickness (p = 0.006) in patients with nr-axSpA compared with control subjects. Total
Low bone mineral density has been identified as a risk factor for osteoporotic fracture1 and fracture in childhood.2 Vitamin D supplementation in childhood may be a clinical strategy to maximise peak bone mass in children and, in turn, improve bone mineral density and reduce fracture risk in adulthood. However, the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation for improving bone density in children is unclear. Therefore, Winzenberg and colleagues performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation for improving paediatric bone mineral density, including how supplement dose and baseline vitamin D status may impact the outcome.. ...
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Background/Aim. The mechanism of impaired bone healing in diabetes mellitus includes different tissue and cellular level activities due to micro- and macrovascular changes. As a chronic metabolic disease with vascular complications, diabetes affects a process of bone regeneration as well. The therapeutic approach in bone regeneration is based on the use of osteoinductive autogenous grafts as well as osteoconductive synthetic material, like a β-tricalcium phosphate. The aim of the study was to determine the quality and quantity of new bone formation after the use of autogenous bone and β-tricalcium phosphate in the model of calvarial critical-sized defect in rabbits with induced diabetes mellitus type I. Methods. The study included eight 4-month-old Chincilla rabbits with alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus type I. In all animals, there were surgically created two calvarial bilateral defects (diameter 12 mm), which were grafted with autogenous bone and β-tricalcium phosphate (n = 4) or served as ...
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Skull bones[edit]. Methods from this group attempt to derive ICP from mechanical properties of the skull bones rather than of ... bone, brain, or fluid). Unfortunately, a reproducible quantitative relationship between the diameter of the cranium and ICP ... In Sinha's [14] method resonant frequency of the skull bones is determined first, then a sinusoidal excitation at the resonant ... as the bones strongly attenuate the transmission of the ultrasound at these frequencies. TCD is primarily a technique for ...
Bones[edit]. Mounting evidence indicates that the amount and type of fat in the diet can have important effects on bone health ... The data from one study indicated that bone mineral density is negatively associated with saturated fat intake, and that men ... Corwin RL, Hartman TJ, Maczuga SA, Graubard BI (2006). "Dietary saturated fat intake is inversely associated with bone density ...
Lakes wrote that the bones were "apparently a vertebra and a humerus bone of some gigantic saurian."[64] While Lakes sent Marsh ... Port Kennedy Bone Cave. Footnotes[edit]. *^ Davidson found no evidence in any of the surviving Cope correspondence and papers ... Davidson, Jane (1997). The Bone Sharp: The Life of Edward Drinker Cope. Academy of Natural Sciences. ISBN 978-0-910006-53-8.. ... "Bone Wars: The Cope-Marsh Rivalry". The Academy of Natural Sciences. Archived from the original on 2012-04-24. Retrieved 2009- ...
Muscles and bones. The most commonly sought medical attention is for joint pain, with the small joints of the hand and wrist ... and SLE may be associated with an increased risk of bone fractures in relatively young women.[19] ... in contrast to bone marrow-derived DC, neither take it up nor present it via MHC molecules. ...
Bones of upper limb. *Bones of lower limb. A03: Joints (juncturae)[edit]. *General terms [3] ...
5 Bones transferred in 1942. *6 Bone transfer in 2019. *7 Jerusalem ossuaries ... Bone transfer in 2019[edit]. On July 2, 2019, it was announced that Pope Francis had transferred the nine bone fragments which ... Two books were written about the tomb and bones of St. Peter: "The Bones of St Peter" by John Evangelist Walsh and "The ... Bone testing revealed that the remains belonged to a man in his sixties[citation needed]. On June 26, 1968, Pope Paul VI ...
Terms for bones. Notes[edit]. This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918 ... The sternum is a long, flat bone that forms the front of the rib cage. The cartilages of the top seven ribs (the true ribs) ... Bones[edit]. Ribs and vertebrae[edit]. The first rib (the topmost one) is the most curved and usually the shortest of all the ... "Chapter 19 On the Bones of the Thorax". Retrieved 2007-08-23.. [permanent dead link] ...
The phalanges /fəˈlæŋdʒiːz/ (singular: phalanx /ˈfælæŋks/) are digital bones in the hands and feet of most vertebrates. In ... Bone anatomy[edit]. Each phalanx consists of a central part, called the body, and two extremities. ... Moreover, of all the bones of the hand, the distal phalanges are the first to ossify.[3]:6b. 3. The Phalanges of the Hand ... The phalanges are the bones that make up the fingers of the hand and the toes of the foot. There are 56 phalanges in the human ...
The hindfoot is composed of the talus (or ankle bone) and the calcaneus (or heel bone). The two long bones of the lower leg, ... The five irregular bones of the midfoot, the cuboid, navicular, and three cuneiform bones, form the arches of the foot which ... Often absent, opponens digiti minimi originates near the cuboid bone and is inserted on the fifth metatarsal bone. These three ... This arch stretches from the heel bone over the "keystone" ankle bone to the three medial metatarsals. In contrast, the lateral ...
Bones[edit]. Arthralgia is seen in up to half of people, and is usually a non-erosive poly or oligoarthritis primarily of the ... Osteoporotic bone marrow defect. *Paget's disease of bone. *Periapical abscess *Phoenix abscess ...
Unlike other bones, the hyoid is only distantly articulated to other bones by muscles or ligaments. The hyoid is anchored by ... The hyoid bone (lingual bone or tongue-bone) (/ˈhaɪɔɪd/[2][3]) is a horseshoe-shaped bone situated in the anterior midline of ... The hyoid bone is classed as an irregular bone and consists of a central part called the body, and two pairs of horns, the ... Blood is supplied to the hyoid bone via the lingual artery, which runs down from the tongue to the greater horns of the bone. ...
It was obvious that the sound propagated very well through the bones of the maxilla to the inner ear. This became the starting ... Cochlear Bone Anchored Solutions is a company based in Gothenburg, Sweden, that manufactures and distributes bone conduction ... When Cochlear bought the company in 2005, the name changed to Cochlear Bone Anchored Solutions. The acronym "BAHA" (for bone ... The Baha system is a bone conduction hearing system designed, developed and marketed by Cochlear Bone Anchored Solutions. ...
The triquetral is one of the eight carpal bones of the hand. It is a three-faced bone found within the proximal row of carpal ... The triquetral bone (/traɪˈkwɛtrəl, -ˈkwiː-/; also called triquetrum, pyramidal, three-faced, and formerly cuneiform bone) is ... It connects with the pisiform, hamate, and lunate bones. It is the 3rd most commonly fractured carpal bone. ... The carpal bones function as a unit to provide a bony superstructure for the hand.[1] :708 ...
... was the reduction of fractured bones: "...the broken bone had to be splinted, extended and adjusted, and if this was not ... Setting bones[edit]. Examples of healed fractures in prehistoric human bones, suggesting setting and splinting have been found ... Brothwell, D.R. Digging up Bones. 1963:126 *^ La tribu Yanto en el Perú. Manuel Antonio Muñiz y W. J. Mc. Gree. In this study, ... Dupuytren, Guillaume (1847). On the injuries and diseases of bones. Sydenham Society. Retrieved 7 December 2012.. ...
Light-Framed/Fine Boned [32] *Substance of long bones is slight and thin relative to the size & mass of the horse. Especially ... Overall balance and bone[edit]. Insufficient Bone *Measuring the circumference of the top of the cannon bone, just below the ... Coarse-Boned/Sturdy-Framed [33] *Overall bones are larger, wider, & stronger in a horse with either light or bulky muscled ... The humerus (a.k.a. the arm bone) The arm bone is from the point of shoulder to the elbow, it is covered in heavy muscle and ...
One genus, Pachycrocuta, was a 200 kg (440 lb) mega-scavenger that could splinter the bones of elephants[citation needed]. With ... Bone-crushing hyenas[edit]. By 10-14 million years ago, the hyena family had split into two distinct groups: dog-like hyenas ... The bone-crushing hyenas survived the changes in climate and the arrival of canids, which wiped out the dog-like hyenas, though ... Their dentition is similar to that of the canid, but is more specialised for consuming coarse food and crushing bones. The ...
Bone health. Low serum vitamin D levels are associated with rickets, falls, and low bone mineral density.[10] Supplementation ... But Amling says that the IOM made a mathematical mistake: it should have looked at the risk of weak bones in people at or above ... "Michael Amling, a bone expert at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf in Germany is one such critic. He says he was ... "Please provide one review that concludes their are health benefits other than bone health. Thanks Doc James ") He and you are ...
Bones[edit]. Chronic phenytoin use has been associated with decreased bone density and increased bone fractures. Phenytoin ... Vitamin D deficiency, as well as low calcium and phosphate in the blood cause decreased bone mineral density.[14] ... Potentially serious side effects include sleepiness, self harm, liver problems, bone marrow suppression, low blood pressure, ... bone marrow suppression, low blood pressure, and toxic epidermal necrolysis.[2] There is evidence that use during pregnancy ...
... which is at the back of the skull between the quadratojugal bone of the jaw joint and the parietal and postparietal bones at ... For example, the nasal bones along the midline of the skull in front of the eyes were much shorter than the frontal bones ... They possess only a single bone between the jaw joint and the skull roof. This bone is often believed to be a fusion between ... two clavicle bones on either side of it, and two boomerang-shaped cleithrum bones at the base of the neck. On the other hand, ...
"No Bones About 'Em". Natural History Magazine. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-30.. ... Bone, Quentin; Moore, Richard (2008). Biology of Fishes. Taylor & Francis US. p. 210. ISBN 978-0203885222.. ... which are lighter than bone, allowing it to grow to sizes impractical for other bony fishes.[16][17] Its teeth are fused into a ...
"Bone & Joint Research. 2 (4): 66-69. doi:10.1302/2046-3758.24.2000147. ISSN 2046-3758. PMC 3638305 . PMID 23673374.. ... Orthopedic surgery, operations/surgeries and other procedures on bones and joints (ICD-9-CM V3 76-81, ICD-10-PCS 0P-S) ... A Systematic Review of the Literature". Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 89A (9): 1899-905. doi:10.2106/JBJS.F.01149. PMID ... "Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 78A (11): 1658-64. PMID 8934479.. ...
Autografts (employing bone or tissue harvested from the patient's body). *Allografts (using bone or tissue from another body, ... Orthopedic surgery, operations/surgeries and other procedures on bones and joints (ICD-9-CM V3 76-81, ICD-10-PCS 0P-S) ... Grafts are inserted through a tunnel that is drilled through the shin bone (tibia) and thigh bone (femur). The graft is then ... The two bright objects in this X-ray are screws in the thigh bone (above) and shin bone (below). ...
Skeletal system: structural support and protection with bones, cartilage, ligaments and tendons. ...
In DXA, bone mineral content (measured as the attenuation of the X-ray by the bones being scanned) is divided by the area (also ... DXA BMD results adjusted in this manner are referred to as the bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) and are a ratio of the bone ... In order to distinguish DXA BMD from volumetric bone-mineral density, researchers sometimes refer to DXA BMD as an areal bone ... DXA has been shown to overestimate the bone mineral density of taller subjects and underestimate the bone mineral density of ...
... or artificial bone substitutes-to help the bones heal together.[1] Additional hardware (screws, plates, or cages) is often used ... bone graft or artificial bone substitute is packed between the vertebrae to help them heal together.[1] In general, fusions are ... Harvesting of bone graft (if autograft is used) [3]. Within a few days[edit]. *Wound infections - risk factors include old age ... Bone Regeneration and Repair. Totowa, New Jersey: Humana Press. 2005. pp. 225-239. ISBN 978-0-89603-847-9. ...
Crocodilians also rely on the hepatic piston method, in which the liver is pulled back by a muscle anchored to the pubic bone ( ... and are in turn connected to air spaces within the bones. On inhalation, air travels through the trachea of a bird into the air ... and bone morphogenetic protein BMP4. FGF10 is seen to have the most prominent role. FGF10 is a paracrine signalling molecule ...
Nearby were discovered the bones of her dead puppies.. *The University of Notre Dame used an Irish Terrier as its mascot until ... when an Irish Terrier is very small and light-boned, it loses the correct racy type. ...
Pins or screws to set and hold bones may be used. Sections of bone may be replaced with prosthetic rods or other parts. ... arthrodesis - surgical connection of adjacent bones so the bones can grow together into one. Spinal fusion is an example of ... In certain cases, bone may be cut to further access the interior of the body; for example, cutting the skull for brain surgery ... Orthopedic surgery, operations/surgeries and other procedures on bones and joints (ICD-9-CM V3 76-81, ICD-10-PCS 0P-S) ...
Sesamoid bones are small, flat bones that are embedded within tendons. To date, it has been thought that these bones develop ... The authors further demonstrate that, similar to bone eminences - superstructures that mediate bone-tendon attachment - the ... They show that that, in mice, the patella initially develops as a bony process that is part of the adjacent femur bone. ... which is the largest sesamoid bone in the human body. ... Capping off sesamoid bone development Message Subject (Your ...
N2 - Aneurysmal bone cysts are rare lesions which even more rarely involve the bones of the hand. We report a case of a cyst ... AB - Aneurysmal bone cysts are rare lesions which even more rarely involve the bones of the hand. We report a case of a cyst ... Aneurysmal bone cysts are rare lesions which even more rarely involve the bones of the hand. We report a case of a cyst ... Aneurysmal bone cyst involving the lunate. / Mankin, K. P.; Bischoff, R. J.; Gelberman, R. H.; Rosenberg, Andrew. ...
Bones are incredibly efficient - more efficient than any man-made structure, says Chris Williams, an architecture professor at ... Bone Structure. Bones are incredibly efficient - more efficient than any man-made structure, says Chris Williams, an ...
It is the 3rd most commonly fractured carpal bone. The triquetral is one of the eight carpal bones of the hand. It is a three- ... sided bone found within the proximal row of carpal bones. Situated beneath the pisiform, it is one of the carpal bones that ... Bones of the left hand. Palmar surface. Triquetral shown in yellow. Bones of the left hand. Dorsal surface. Triquetral shown in ... Triquetral bone of the left hand (shown in red). Animation. Triquetral bone of the left hand. Close up. Animation. Triquetral ...
To see some of T-Bones foals and what they are doing now please click here ...
... a broken bone can be scary for them and parents alike. Heres the lowdown on what to expect. ... A bone health campaign for girls ages 9 to 12 that teaches how to get and keep strong, healthy bones for life. "Grow strong ... The AAOS provides information for the public on sports safety, and bone, joint, muscle, ligament and tendon injuries or ...
... long bone of the upper limb or forelimb of land vertebrates that forms the shoulder joint above, where it articulates with a ... human skeleton: Long bones of arms and legs. The humerus and the femur are corresponding bones of the arms and legs, ... Humerus, long bone of the upper limb or forelimb of land vertebrates that forms the shoulder joint above, where it articulates ... muscles that act on the humerus (the proximal bone of the limb), all tetrapods have a large sheetlike muscle known as the ...
... the single bone surrounding the ear that is formed from the fused pro-otic, epiotic, and opisthotic bones. Source for ... information on periotic bone: A Dictionary of Zoology dictionary. ... periotic bone In Mammalia, the single bone surrounding the ear ... periotic bone A Dictionary of Zoology © A Dictionary of Zoology 1999, originally published by Oxford University Press 1999. ... www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/periotic-bone ...
The trapezium bone is one of the eight small carpal bones in the wrist that are firmly bound in two rows of four bones each. ...
ATC let us hang out and the BOnes flew under us!. * Category *Howto & Style ...
Boning can get pricey, heres a nifty way to avoid the costs... JUST SO YOU KNOW: This works REALLY WELL if you reinforce with ... How to make a corset adding the bones in part 3 - Duration: 9:59. Des Swags Curtain Maker 15,009 views ... The boning will be sturdy enough to use in legitimate corsets. It will bend and act like spiral steel. I use this in all of my ... Boning can get pricey, heres a nifty way to avoid the costs.... JUST SO YOU KNOW: This works REALLY WELL if you reinforce with ...
... with low bone mass for more than one year. ... 27 (HealthDay News) -- The drug denosumab can boost bone mass ... At the end of the study, more of the women who received denosumab had gained at least 3 percent of bone mass at the hip and ... "The fact that bone density changes were greater than the most commonly used antiresorptive agent, alendronate, shows that ... Chad Deal, head of the Center for Osteoporosis and Metabolic Bone Disease at the Cleveland Clinic, said in an ACR news release ...
... turns sleuth when he learns about a serial killer with a flair for filleting his victims alive and then keeping their bones. ~ ... Critic Reviews for Bone Daddy. There are no critic reviews yet for Bone Daddy. Keep checking Rotten Tomatoes for updates! ... Audience Reviews for Bone Daddy. There are no featured audience reviews yet. Click the link below to see what others say about ...
Check out American Bone Healths events, learn more, or contact this organizer. ... American Bone Health is using Eventbrite to organize upcoming events. ... American Bone Health teaches people how to build and keep strong and healthy bones for life with practical and up-to-date ... information and resources to inspire them to prevent bone loss, osteoporosis and fractures. ...
Find out what gives our bones their remarkable ability to heal breaks in a finely tuned process that involves stem cells, ... This is then replaced by new bone. Many people think of bones as being solid, rigid, and structural. Bone is, of course, key to ... Cartilage and bone. New bone starts to form mostly at the edges of the fracture. This happens in much the same way that bone is ... Bones: All you need to know An introduction to bones. We discuss their function, the different types of bones in the human body ...
Bones in Toronto, ON. Or book now at one of our other 7064 great restaurants in Toronto. ... Sticky Toffee Pudding W/ Bone Marrow Caramel , December 16, 2012. Photo from Vickie Cheung on Foodspotting ... Skin+Bones is a husband- and wife-owned restaurant located in the Leslieville neighborhood of Toronto. It is located inside of ... Skin+Bones prides itself on being a farm-to-table restaurant and actively supports the local farming community by sourcing as ...
... or other devices to make your bone (or bones) stable again. This can help relieve pain and restore function. ... Surgical options for bone metastasis include: * Surgically placing a support into the bone: A surgeon can place a rod, pins, ... Surgery to remove a bone tumor: In rare cases, if you have just a single area of metastasis in one area of a bone, you have no ... If your bone is so weakened by metastasis that it has fractured or is about to fracture, you may need to have surgery. These ...
... carpal bones) plus two long bones in your forearm - the radius and the ulna. The most commonly injured carpal bone is the ... Your wrist is made up of eight small bones ( ...
How could it be? Young Aggie discovers a Brontosaurus bone at Gruesome Gorge ... but no dinosaur fossil has ever been ... You can also try doing a general search for the term dinosaur bones . You can also limit results to books that contain two ... Books tagged: dinosaur bones These results show books which have been specifically tagged with this keyword. ... and in the process unearths a dinosaur bone. (Age Level - 7-10) ...
Worst of all, she is unmindful of her crooked bones.. When Irréelle makes one final, unforgivable mistake by destroying a ... A spooky and adventurous debut illustrated fantasy novel about a girl made of dust and bone and imagination who seeks the truth ... Praise For The Bone Garden…. "Best read aloud on a dark autumn night (under a cozy blanket, of course), this magical story-and ... "Beautifully haunting and elegantly told, The Bone Garden enchanted me from page one and kept me spellbound until the very end. ...
Do iPhone owners love their games as much as dogs love bones? Weve no idea, but peripherals firm 22Moo hopes to find out by ... The Bone can connect into the iPhone or Touch over Bluetooth or through a cable connection, the firm added. Other GameBone ... Firm digs up iPhone 3.0 gaming bone. Fetch?. By James Sherwood 23 Jun 2009 at 11:30 ... shaped like a bone. Were not convinced the controllers dog-proof, mind. ...
... rex thigh bone, suggesting it was a female ... A type of bone that female birds use as a calcium reserve for ... Without medullary bone deposited in their marrow cavities, the calcium used for egg shells would come from their bones, giving ... Now a structure called medullary bone, previously found only inside the leg bones of living female birds, has been identified ... A type of bone that female birds use as a calcium reserve for making eggshell has been found inside the fossilised thigh bone ...
... derived the stem cells from bone marrow samples to locate and repair broken bones in mice. Now the work is poised to move to ... "Without that glue, the bone will not be able to heal.". But just creating cartilage is not enough to fix a broken bone. The ... When they extracted bone marrow from these glow-in-the-dark mice, they got glow-in-the-dark stem cells, which the researchers ... The possibility of using a potion like Skelegro to treat severe bone fractures may soon be more than the stuff of wizard tales ...
Internal fixation (osteosynthesis) of bone is aimed at restoration of continuity and stability during healing of a fracture, ... and pulleys fastened to the skin by adhesive tape or directly to the skeleton with the aid of metal pins drilled into bone. ... Bone disease - Therapeutic and corrective measures: Traction counteracts muscle pull on the skeleton and is used to reduce and ... a disease characterized by reduced bone mass, later in life. As bones lose density, they become fragile and unable to withstand ...
... discovering that it contains fragments of bones and two tiny bangles. ... Bone and Bracelets Found in Roman Childs Coffin. By Megan Gannon, News Editor , November 13, 2013 03:43pm ET. ... discovering that it contains fragments of bones and two tiny bangles. ...
  • Ear and temporal bone cancers are diagnosed by biopsy of the tumor. (answersdrive.com)
  • The conventional osteosarcoma (OS) is the commonest primary malignant, bone tumor with complex genomic profiles and poor survival. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant, non-hematopoietic, bone tumor worldwide. (biomedcentral.com)
  • According to the National Cancer Institute Registry in Egypt, OS represents the most common primary malignant bone tumor in constituting 47.75%, of the cases followed by Ewing's sarcoma (17.57%), chondrosarcoma (14.86%) and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (9.01%) (NCI) [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neural or bone origin of the tumor was considered improbable, as long as no direct invasion was observed. (scirp.org)
  • Scales Scale Bone BMI 396lb/180kg Features: your weight, body fat, visceral plus and bone the Bluetooth weight and every progress 4. (scalesguide.biz)
  • If your groin pain is especially painful when you walk, there's a good chance it could be due to an injury to a muscle or the cartilage that connects the bones in your hip joints. (healthline.com)