A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Diseases of BONES.
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
Extracellular substance of bone tissue consisting of COLLAGEN fibers, ground substance, and inorganic crystalline minerals and salts.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
Breaks in bones.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).
One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.
Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.
Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.
X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.
The bones of the free part of the lower extremity in humans and of any of the four extremities in animals. It includes the FEMUR; PATELLA; TIBIA; and FIBULA.
Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.
Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.
Bones that constitute each half of the pelvic girdle in VERTEBRATES, formed by fusion of the ILIUM; ISCHIUM; and PUBIC BONE.
The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.
The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.
Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.
Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Removal of mineral constituents or salts from bone or bone tissue. Demineralization is used as a method of studying bone strength and bone chemistry.
The TARSAL BONES; METATARSAL BONES; and PHALANGES OF TOES. The tarsal bones consists of seven bones: CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid; navicular; internal; middle; and external cuneiform bones. The five metatarsal bones are numbered one through five, running medial to lateral. There are 14 phalanges in each foot, the great toe has two while the other toes have three each.
The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.
The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.
Fibrous blood-filled cyst in the bone. Although benign it can be destructive causing deformity and fractures.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of BONE formation. It plays additional roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION of non-osteoblastic cell types and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)
The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).
Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.
The bones of the free part of the upper extremity including the HUMERUS; RADIUS; and ULNA.
Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)
A mobile U-shaped bone that lies in the anterior part of the neck at the level of the third CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. The hyoid bone is suspended from the processes of the TEMPORAL BONES by ligaments, and is firmly bound to the THYROID CARTILAGE by muscles.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A bone tumor composed of cellular spindle-cell stroma containing scattered multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts. The tumors range from benign to frankly malignant lesions. The tumor occurs most frequently in an end of a long tubular bone in young adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.
Dissolution of bone that particularly involves the removal or loss of calcium.
Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.
The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.
VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
The shaft of long bones.
Techniques for the removal of subpopulations of cells (usually residual tumor cells) from the bone marrow ex vivo before it is infused. The purging is achieved by a variety of agents including pharmacologic agents, biophysical agents (laser photoirradiation or radioisotopes) and immunologic agents. Bone marrow purging is used in both autologous and allogeneic BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION.
A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.
The constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The CARPAL BONES; METACARPAL BONES; and FINGER PHALANGES. In each hand there are eight carpal bones, five metacarpal bones, and 14 phalanges.
The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.
The spinal or vertebral column.
Bone diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.
Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.
The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A disease marked by repeated episodes of increased bone resorption followed by excessive attempts at repair, resulting in weakened, deformed bones of increased mass. The resultant architecture of the bone assumes a mosaic pattern in which the fibers take on a haphazard pattern instead of the normal parallel symmetry.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A highly glycosylated and sulfated phosphoprotein that is found almost exclusively in mineralized connective tissues. It is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to hydroxyapatite through polyglutamic acid sequences and mediates cell attachment through an RGD sequence.
The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.
Decrease, loss, or removal of the mineral constituents of bones. Temporary loss of bone mineral content is especially associated with space flight, weightlessness, and extended immobilization. OSTEOPOROSIS is permanent, includes reduction of total bone mass, and is associated with increased rate of fractures. CALCIFICATION, PHYSIOLOGIC is the process of bone remineralizing. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed; Nicogossian, Space Physiology and Medicine, 2d ed, pp327-33)
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
A nonhormonal medication for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. This drug builds healthy bone, restoring some of the bone loss as a result of osteoporosis.
Centers for acquiring, characterizing, and storing bones or bone tissue for future use.
A circular structural unit of bone tissue. It consists of a central hole, the Haversian canal through which blood vessels run, surrounded by concentric rings, called lamellae.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is found at high concentrations in a purified osteoinductive protein fraction from BONE. Bone morphogenetic protein 3 is referred to as osteogenin, however it may play a role in variety of developmental processes.
Nodular bones which lie within a tendon and slide over another bony surface. The PATELLA (kneecap) is a sesamoid bone.
A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.
A bone that forms the lower and anterior part of each side of the hip bone.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with high affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They can interact with and undergo PHOSPHORYLATION by BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS, TYPE II. They signal primarily through RECEPTOR-REGULATED SMAD PROTEINS.
The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.
Rods of bone, metal, or other material used for fixation of the fragments or ends of fractured bones.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.
Disorder caused by an interruption of the mineralization of organic bone matrix leading to bone softening, bone pain, and weakness. It is the adult form of rickets resulting from disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
An abnormal hardening or increased density of bone tissue.
The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.
Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.
The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.
The bone which is located most lateral in the proximal row of CARPAL BONES.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Transmission of sound waves through vibration of bones in the SKULL to the inner ear (COCHLEA). By using bone conduction stimulation and by bypassing any OUTER EAR or MIDDLE EAR abnormalities, hearing thresholds of the cochlea can be determined. Bone conduction hearing differs from normal hearing which is based on air conduction stimulation via the EAR CANAL and the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.
The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.
A transcription factor that dimerizes with CORE BINDING FACTOR BETA SUBUNIT to form core binding factor. It contains a highly conserved DNA-binding domain known as the runt domain and is involved in genetic regulation of skeletal development and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.
A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
The bones of the upper and lower ARM. They include the CLAVICLE and SCAPULA.
The bones of the upper and lower LEG. They include the PELVIC BONES.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Excessive formation of dense trabecular bone leading to pathological fractures; OSTEITIS; SPLENOMEGALY with infarct; ANEMIA; and extramedullary hemopoiesis (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
A bone morphogenetic protein that may play a role in CARTILAGE formation. It is a potent regulator of the growth of CHONDROCYTES and the synthesis of cartilage matrix proteins. Evidence for its role in cartilage formation can be seen in MICE, where genetic mutations that cause loss of bone morphogenetic protein 5 function result in the formation of small malformed ears.
Fractures of the femur.
Bone lengthening by gradual mechanical distraction. An external fixation device produces the distraction across the bone plate. The technique was originally applied to long bones but in recent years the method has been adapted for use with mandibular implants in maxillofacial surgery.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.
The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.
An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.
A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.
Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A subtype of bone morphogenetic protein receptors with low affinity for BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS. They are constitutively active PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that can interact with and phosphorylate TYPE I BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN RECEPTORS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A hollow part of the alveolar process of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE where each tooth fits and is attached via the periodontal ligament.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A bone morphogenetic protein family member that includes an active tolloid-like metalloproteinase domain. The metalloproteinase activity of bone morphogenetic protein 1 is specific for the removal of the C-propeptide of PROCOLLAGEN and may act as a regulator of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX deposition. Alternative splicing of MRNA for bone morphogenetic protein 1 results in the production of several PROTEIN ISOFORMS.
Inflammation of the bone.
The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
A scraping, usually of the interior of a cavity or tract, for removal of new growth or other abnormal tissue, or to obtain material for tissue diagnosis. It is performed with a curet (curette), a spoon-shaped instrument designed for that purpose. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Dorland, 27th ed)
Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).
A fracture in which union fails to occur, the ends of the bone becoming rounded and eburnated, and a false joint occurs. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Removal of minerals from bones during bone examination.
A negatively-charged extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in the regulation of BONE metabolism and a variety of other biological functions. Cell signaling by osteopontin may occur through a cell adhesion sequence that recognizes INTEGRIN ALPHA-V BETA-3.
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
Death of a bone or part of a bone, either atraumatic or posttraumatic.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Increase in the mass of bone per unit volume.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Production of a radiographic image of a small or very thin object on fine-grained photographic film under conditions which permit subsequent microscopic examination or enlargement of the radiograph at linear magnifications of up to several hundred and with a resolution approaching the resolving power of the photographic emulsion (about 1000 lines per millimeter).
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)

Abnormal calcium metabolism in normocalcaemic sarcoidosis. (1/8177)

In studies of calcium metabolism in 13 unselected patients with untreated sarcoidosis all were normocalcaemic but five had hypercalcuria. All had normal renal function. Calcium absorption was indexed by a double isotope test. 45Ca hyperabsorption occurred in six patients. Ten kinetic studies were carried out with 47Ca and in six bone turnover was increased. 45Ca absorption correlated well with the calculated bone uptake rate of calcium, and with urine calcium excretion. These results suggest that in sarcoidosis abnormalities in calcium metabolism are fairly common although they rarely result in sustained hypercalcaemia.  (+info)

A Wnt5a pathway underlies outgrowth of multiple structures in the vertebrate embryo. (2/8177)

Morphogenesis depends on the precise control of basic cellular processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation. Wnt5a may regulate these processes since it is expressed in a gradient at the caudal end of the growing embryo during gastrulation, and later in the distal-most aspect of several structures that extend from the body. A loss-of-function mutation of Wnt5a leads to an inability to extend the A-P axis due to a progressive reduction in the size of caudal structures. In the limbs, truncation of the proximal skeleton and absence of distal digits correlates with reduced proliferation of putative progenitor cells within the progress zone. However, expression of progress zone markers, and several genes implicated in distal outgrowth and patterning including Distalless, Hoxd and Fgf family members was not altered. Taken together with the outgrowth defects observed in the developing face, ears and genitals, our data indicates that Wnt5a regulates a pathway common to many structures whose development requires extension from the primary body axis. The reduced number of proliferating cells in both the progress zone and the primitive streak mesoderm suggests that one function of Wnt5a is to regulate the proliferation of progenitor cells.  (+info)

Mechanisms of GDF-5 action during skeletal development. (3/8177)

Mutations in GDF-5, a member of the TGF-beta superfamily, result in the autosomal recessive syndromes brachypod (bp) in mice and Hunter-Thompson and Grebe-type chondrodysplasias in humans. These syndromes are all characterised by the shortening of the appendicular skeleton and loss or abnormal development of some joints. To investigate how GDF-5 controls skeletogenesis, we overexpressed GDF-5 during chick limb development using the retrovirus, RCASBP. This resulted in up to a 37.5% increase in length of the skeletal elements, which was predominantly due to an increase in the number of chondrocytes. By injecting virus at different stages of development, we show that GDF-5 can increase both the size of the early cartilage condensation and the later developing skeletal element. Using in vitro micromass cultures as a model system to study the early steps of chondrogenesis, we show that GDF-5 increases chondrogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. We did not detect changes in proliferation. However, cell suspension cultures showed that GDF-5 might act at these stages by increasing cell adhesion, a critical determinant of early chondrogenesis. In contrast, pulse labelling experiments of GDF-5-infected limbs showed that at later stages of skeletal development GDF-5 can increase proliferation of chondrocytes. Thus, here we show two mechanisms of how GDF-5 may control different stages of skeletogenesis. Finally, our data show that levels of GDF-5 expression/activity are important in controlling the size of skeletal elements and provides a possible explanation for the variation in the severity of skeletal defects resulting from mutations in GDF-5.  (+info)

Elevated carboxy terminal cross linked telopeptide of type I collagen in alcoholic cirrhosis: relation to liver and kidney function and bone metabolism. (4/8177)

BACKGROUND: The carboxy terminal cross linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) has been put forward as a marker of bone resorption. Patients with alcoholic liver disease may have osteodystrophy. AIMS: To assess circulating and regional concentrations of ICTP in relation to liver dysfunction, bone metabolism, and fibrosis. METHODS: In 15 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and 20 controls, hepatic venous, renal venous, and femoral arterial concentrations of ICTP, and bone mass and metabolism were measured. RESULTS: Circulating ICTP was higher in patients with cirrhosis than in controls. No overall significant hepatic disposal or production was found in the patient or control groups but slightly increased production was found in a subset of patients with advanced disease. Significant renal extraction was observed in the controls, whereas only a borderline significant extraction was observed in the patients. Measurements of bone mass and metabolism indicated only a mild degree of osteodystrophy in the patients with cirrhosis. ICTP correlated significantly in the cirrhotic patients with hepatic and renal dysfunction and fibrosis, but not with measurements of bone mass or metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: ICTP is highly elevated in patients with cirrhosis, with no detectable hepatic net production or disposal. No relation between ICTP and markers of bone metabolism was identified, but there was a relation to indicators of liver dysfunction and fibrosis. As the cirrhotic patients conceivably only had mild osteopenia, the elevated ICTP in cirrhosis may therefore primarily reflect liver failure and hepatic fibrosis.  (+info)

Predicting bone loss following orthotopic liver transplantation. (5/8177)

BACKGROUND: Hepatic osteodystrophy occurs in the majority of patients with advanced chronic liver disease with the abnormalities in bone metabolism accelerating following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). AIMS: To examine changes in bone mineral density (BMD) following OLT and to investigate factors that lead to bone loss. METHODS: Twelve patients had BMD (at both the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN)) and biochemical markers measured preoperatively and for 24 months following OLT. RESULTS: BMD was low in 75% of patients prior to OLT and decreased significantly from baseline at the LS at three months and the FN at six months. BMD began to increase thereafter at both sites, approaching baseline values at the LS by 12 months. Bone formation markers, osteocalcin and procollagen type I carboxy propeptide, decreased immediately post-OLT, with a concomitant increase seen in the resorption markers pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline. This resulted in a negative uncoupling index early post-OLT, that rebounded to positive values after six months. There was a significant correlation between the change in the uncoupling index between six and three months which preceded the increase in BMD at 12 months. The decrease in BMD recorded early post-OLT correlated with vitamin D levels at three months. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that increased resorption and inadequate formation are the major contributors to additional bone loss following OLT. Non-invasive biochemical markers precede later changes in BMD in this patient group following OLT and may have a role in investigating and planning intervention strategies to prevent bone loss in future studies.  (+info)

The use of variable lactate/malic dehydrogenase ratios to distinguish between progenitor cells of cartilage and bone in the embryonic chick. (6/8177)

The activities of LDH and MDH have been studied, both in differentiated cartilage and bone from the embryonic chick, and in the pool of mixed osteogenic and chondrogenic stem cells found on the quadratojugal, a membrane bone. In confirmation of the model proposed by Reddi & Huggins (1971) we found that the LDH/MDH ratio was greater than 1 in cartilage and less than 1 in bone. Furthermore we established, for the first time, that ratios occurred in the chondrogenic and osteogenic stem cells, similar to the ratios in their differentiated counterparts. Alteration in LDH/MDH resulted from variations in the level of LDH/mug protein. MDH/mug protein remained constant, even when LDH/MDH was changing. We interpret these results in terms of adaptation of chondrogenic progenitor cells for anaerobic metabolism and anticipate that our model will be applicable to other skeletal systems where stem cells are being studied.  (+info)

Effect of shellfish calcium on the apparent absorption of calcium and bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats. (7/8177)

Fossil shellfish powder (FS) and Ezo giant scallop shell powder (EG) were rendered soluble with lactate and citrate under decompression (FSEx and EGEx, respectively) and we examined the effects of lactate-citrate solubilization of FS and EG on mineral absorption, tissue mineral contents, serum biochemical indices and bone mineral density (BMD) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The apparent absorption ratios of minerals tended to be high in the rats fed with the solubilized mineral sources, those in the FSEx group being significantly higher than in the FS group. There was no significant difference in the tibia mineral content among the OVX groups. BMD at the distal femoral diaphysis was significantly increased by FSEx and EGEx feeding. It is suggested that solubilization with lactate and citrate under decompression increased the solubility and bioavailability of calcium from such natural sources of shellfish calcium as FS and EG.  (+info)

A novel skeletal dysplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans is caused by a Lys650Met mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 gene. (8/8177)

We have identified a novel fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) missense mutation in four unrelated individuals with skeletal dysplasia that approaches the severity observed in thanatophoric dysplasia type I (TD1). However, three of the four individuals developed extensive areas of acanthosis nigricans beginning in early childhood, suffer from severe neurological impairments, and have survived past infancy without prolonged life-support measures. The FGFR3 mutation (A1949T: Lys650Met) occurs at the nucleotide adjacent to the TD type II (TD2) mutation (A1948G: Lys650Glu) and results in a different amino acid substitution at a highly conserved codon in the kinase domain activation loop. Transient transfection studies with FGFR3 mutant constructs show that the Lys650Met mutation causes a dramatic increase in constitutive receptor kinase activity, approximately three times greater than that observed with the Lys650Glu mutation. We refer to the phenotype caused by the Lys650Met mutation as "severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans" (SADDAN) because it differs significantly from the phenotypes of other known FGFR3 mutations.  (+info)

BACKGROUND: Infliximab has been shown to have beneficial effects on bone metabolism in patients with Crohns disease (CD) although as yet the exact mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. AIM: To evaluate the impact of adalimumab therapy on bone metabolism using a combined in vivo and in vitro model. METHODS: Parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, bone formation markers, bone resorption marker, pro-inflammatory cytokines, anti-inflammatory cytokines, osteoprotegerin, and sRANKL were measured in control patients and pre- and post-treatment with adalimumab in CD patients. The effect of control patients and pre- and post-treatment CD patients sera on human osteoblasts (hFOB 1.19) in vitro cell viability and differentiation was also analyzed. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in bone formation markers osteocalcin (P | 0.05) and procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P | 0.01) at 1 and 3 months post-treatment. Moreover, there was a sustained but not significant fall in serum CTx, a bone resorption
|p|Despite an increased availability of non-invasive procedures to assess bone mass, histological examination of undecalcified transiliac bone biopsies remains a very valuable tool in the diagnosis of metabolic or malignant bone disorders. Nonetheless, clinicians are sometimes reluctant to perform this
As osteopenia and osteoporosis deteriorate physical functions, the person becomes less capable of walking and the risk of injuries from a fall increases. An injury from a fall may lead to fracture and hospitalization. As a result, deterioration of osteopenia and osteoporosis causes loss of physical functions even to the point of death. Thus, effective solutions are to be developed (Shahin et al., 2010). One way of preventing and controlling osteopenia and osteoporosis is an exercise therapy to improve the bone density. For example, a type of training that induces physical stress to osseous tissues such as weight or load bearing exercise is recommended. This type of training delays the reduction of bone density and even increases bone mass (Rittweger et al., 2000). Bone mass is an index that reflects the level of bone density. It is not only an important element for diagnosis of osteopenia and osteoporosis but also a predictive factor for the determine the risk of fracture. A bone density test is ...
For Strong Plus Flexible Bones. How Healthy Bones Plus® Works. Increases Calcium Binding Sites. Bone collagen provides the binding sites for calcium. All calcium must bind to collagen in order to become part of bone. Age-related collagen loss leads to diminished calcium content and reduced bone mineral density. Healthy Bones Plus® is clinically proven to generate bone collagen and increase bone mineral density at the critical hip region.. Promotes Vital Bone Flexibility. Collagen gives your bones flexibility and their ability to withstand physical stress, as from impact. Healthy Bones Plus® is clinically proven to increase bone collagen formation.. Increases the Total Strength of Bone. Increasing your bones total strength requires both hardness, determined by the calcium content of your bones and toughness (flexibility), determined by collagen. Healthy Bones Plus® promotes both types of bone strength.. Provides Premium High-Absorbing Calcium. Supplies your bones with a rich source ...
Among a myriad of difficulties, people with diabetes have problems with their bones; after a break, their bones do not heal well. Tevlin et al. use mice to investigate the cause and to devise a solution. In several models of diabetes, skeletal stem cells, which normally multiply to repair a bone injury, failed to do so. The high blood concentrations of TNFα in these diabetic mice inhibited a growth factor within the stem cell niche. The authors succeeded in reversing this deficit; delivery of the missing factor directly to the niche restored the expansion of stem cells after injury and normalized bone healing. Correction of the inhospitable niche environment for skeletal stem cells is a promising approach for this complication of diabetes and perhaps for other stem cell-based diseases. ...
Bone is composed of a living protein framework upon which mineral crystals are placed. As bone breaks down, bits of this living protein framework appear in the urine. Tests of bone breakdown, called bone resorption tests, measure the amount of one specific bone protein in the urine (or in the blood) and thus gauge the current rate of bone breakdown. Urinary markers of bone breakdown (known as markers of bone resorption) are simple urine tests that can help determine if you are currently losing bone or not. Such bone breakdown testing can also indicate if your bone-building program is effective at reducing and normalizing the bone breakdown process.. As bone is broken down certain bone protein by-products are excreted in the urine. Measurement of the amount of these bone breakdown by-products can determine the rate of bone breakdown. A high rate of bone breakdown is strongly suggestive of current, ongoing bone loss and a greater risk for osteoporotic fracture. A low rate of bone resorption would ...
Save 36% Country Life (Biochem) - Bone Solid 240 Capsules Bone Solid Triple Action With Boron, MCHA and Vitamin K With Patented FruiteX-B Clinically Studied MCHA and Vitamin K Clinically Shown to: 1. Increase Mineral Utilization* 2. Strengthen Bones* 3. Support Bone Metabolism* Did you know that bone loss begins for many of us at age 30? Whether you are a man or woman, you will begin to lose bone density year after year. An important step is to regularly replenish and increase your bodys intake of calcium as well as vitamins K1, K2 and D3. Introducing Bone Solid, a specially formulated product that contains a unique natural form of calcium, as well as other minerals that your body recognizes as similar to its own natural bone composition.* Through Bone Solids Triple Action, your bodys calcium will be better replenished and increased:* The calcium contained in Bone Solid is micro-crystalline hydroxyapatite (MCHA), a form of calcium that is closest to the bodys own natural bone composition.* The
Save 29% Country Life (Biochem) - Bone Solid 240 Capsules Bone Solid Triple Action With Boron, MCHA and Vitamin K With Patented FruiteX-B Clinically Studied MCHA and Vitamin K Clinically Shown to: 1. Increase Mineral Utilization* 2. Strengthen Bones* 3. Support Bone Metabolism* Did you know that bone loss begins for many of us at age 30? Whether you are a man or woman, you will begin to lose bone density year after year. An important step is to regularly replenish and increase your bodys intake of calcium as well as vitamins K1, K2 and D3. Introducing Bone Solid, a specially formulated product that contains a unique natural form of calcium, as well as other minerals that your body recognizes as similar to its own natural bone composition.* Through Bone Solids Triple Action, your bodys calcium will be better replenished and increased:* The calcium contained in Bone Solid is micro-crystalline hydroxyapatite (MCHA), a form of calcium that is closest to the bodys own natural bone composition.* The
2 Long bone Anatomy and physiology Cortical bone (Compact bone) - Hard bone Cancellous bone (Spongy bone) - Medulary cavity. Meshwork occupied by bone marrow, fat tissue, nerves and blood vessels. Production of blood cells and provision of a vascular supply to the bone itself. Blood comes out of the bone through venous sinusoids to outgoing veins into the circulation. ...
Spell. In laboratory rodents, osseous metaplasia is most common in the lungs of B6C3F1 mice. STUDY. Bone matrix is deposited by osteocytes in thin layers called. Top Answer. What are the four main tissues found in the body? epiphyses. Osseous tissue is easily identified if … Answer. 2011-10-31 15:52:04 2011-10-31 15:52:04. They lie in spaces called lacunae with up to eight chondrocytes located in each. Wiki User Answered . Osteocytes. Cells in lacunae. answer choices . The lacunae of osseous tissue contain? The matrix of cancellous bone has a sponge-like appearance. Created by. osteoclasts. Chondrocytes rely on diffusion to obtain nutrients as, unlike bone, cartilage is avascular, meaning there are no vessels to carry blood to cartilage tissue. lacunae. Match. Terms in this set (36) What is bone? krn927. ... Q. ... space in the diaphysis of a long bone that contains bone marrow. Bone. Osteocyte, a cell that lies within the substance of fully formed bone.It occupies a small chamber called a ...
Bone Biology and the Role of RANK/RANKL/OPG Pathway. Speaker: Robert G. Josse, MD, Division of Endocrinology & Metabolism, St. Michaels Hospital; Professor of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.. Advances in the understanding of bone biology and the role of the RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway have opened new treatment avenues for osteoporosis. To facilitate understanding of the new biology, Dr. Robert Josse first reviewed determinants of bone strength.. Trabecular bone, a spongy network of delicate plates of bone known as trabeculae, constitutes 20% of skeletal mass but accounts for ~80% of bone turnover. In contrast, cortical bone constitutes 80% of mass but ~20% of turnover. The interior surface of cortical bone, the endosteum, is the primary site of remodeling and metabolic activities while the exterior surface, the periosteum, is the site of new bone formation.. Remodeling, Dr. Josse noted, takes place continuously: tiny packets of bone throughout the skeleton constantly undergo this ...
BioSil Bone Collagenizer Matrix 40 Vegetarian Capsules With ch-OSA Advanced Collagen Generator Collagen is crucial to your bone health. Collagen provides the binding sites for calcium and other bone minerals. When bone collagen diminishes, bone mineral density decreases. In addition, collagen gives bones the vital flexibility they need. New bone research reveals that collagen, in conjunction with deposited calcium, gives bones their ability to withstand physical stress, as with sudden impact. Unlike calcium that you can ingest and receive the benefits, you cannot eat collagen expecting to add collagen to you bones. The key is stimulating the cells that naturally generate bone collagen, called osteoblasts. BioSils new Bone Collagenizer Matrix is clinically proven to increase bone collagen formation (BCF), and increase bone mineral density (BMD) at the critical hip region, in women already taking 1000 mg of calcium and 800 IU of vitamin D daily. BioSil Bone Collagenizer Matrix helps you
海词词典,最权威的学习词典,为您提供After the treatment, the density of the osseous tissue increased by 3.4%, main symptoms improved markedly, the serum calcium increased and the urine pyridine phenol decreased.的在线翻译,After the treatment, the density of the osseous tissue increased by 3.4%, main symptoms improved markedly, the serum calcium increased and the urine pyridine phenol decreased.是什么意思,After the treatment, the density of the osseous tissue increased by 3.4%, main symptoms improved markedly, the serum calcium increased and the urine pyridine phenol decreased.的真人发音,权威用法和精选例句等。
Bone strength and peak bone mass are preliminary determined by genetic factors. Life style, especially exercise, is also considered to have an important effect on bone strength. Bone has the ability to strengthen itself according to Wolffs Law. When bone is subjected to strains and/or strain rates higher than the usual, it responds by remodeling, strengthening its architecture. The ability is greatest in young individuals and decreases with age. In the elderly this ability is largely non-existent and bone mass is lost. Whether this loss leads to osteoporosis is largely a function of the peak bone mass achieved before the decline. 11% of males and 44 % of females over 50 suffer from osteoporosis in later life. To what extent vigorous exercising beginning at a young age can increase bone strength is not known.. The purpose of the proposed research is to quantify the effect of life style on bone strength and general health parameters by comparing two male populations, one sedentary and the other ...
Human bone marrow (BM)-derived stromal cells contain a population of skeletal stem cells (SSCs), with the capacity to differentiate along the osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineages, enabling their application to clinical therapies. However, current methods to isolate and enrich SSCs from human tissues remain, at best, challenging in the absence of a specific SSC marker. Unfortunately, none of the current proposed markers alone can isolate a homogeneous cell population with the ability to form bone, cartilage, and adipose tissue in humans. Here, we have designed DNA-gold nanoparticles able to identify and sort SSCs displaying specific mRNA signatures. The current approach demonstrates the significant enrichment attained in the isolation of SSCs, with potential therein to enhance our understanding of bone cell biology and translational applications ...
Bare Bones bone broth is made with organic ingredients and 100% grass-fed and pasture-raised bones. Discover the everyday benefits of adding our bone broth to your healthy diet and give your body the essential nutrition it craves. Organic Bone Broth - Chicken - 32oz. Jun 28, 2017 · This post may contain links that compensate me. Please read the disclosure. If you like to sip on or cook with bone broth, Costco has a really great price on Imagine chicken bone broth! Theyre selling 6 cartons of Imagine chicken bone broth for $13.99, so just $2.33 a carton! Bone broth … Whats the Best Bone Broth? Heres Three Brands to Try Apr 25, 2018 · The best bone broth, whether homemade or store-bought, comes from slowly simmering good-quality grass-fed beef or pasture-raised poultry bones.. Homemade bone broth is best, but if you dont have the time to make your own, theres some fantastic … What You Need to Know About Pacific Bone Broth , Reformed Jul 06, 2016 · Bone broth is also high in ...
474. A bone scan is a study done to show problem spots on the spine. A radioactive chemical, sometimes called a tracer, is injected into the bloodstream. The chemical quickly attaches itself to sections of the bones that are actively making new bone. Images are taken of the skeleton, several hours after the shot. A bone scan can show problems such as fractures of the spine, infection, and bone tumors. It can also be used to resolve bone density and the bone-thinning condition of osteoporosis.. bone scan, skeleton, osteoporosis, bone tumor, radioactive tracer, bone making, bone cells. This article was written to answer many of the most frequently asked questions on the subject of bone scans. If you have chronic back pain, a bone scan may be one of the scarier tests that you may undergo, but it is actually a fairly safe and relatively painless procedure.. First off, what is a bone scan?. Simply put its a study done to show problem spots on the spine. A radioactive chemical, sometimes called a ...
Bone is constantly being created and replaced in a process known as remodeling. This ongoing turnover of bone is a process of resorption followed by replacement of bone with little change in shape. This is accomplished through osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Cells are stimulated by a variety of signals, and together referred to as a remodeling unit. Approximately 10% of the skeletal mass of an adult is remodelled each year.[42] The purpose of remodeling is to regulate calcium homeostasis, repair microdamaged bones from everyday stress, and to shape the skeleton during growth.[citation needed] Repeated stress, such as weight-bearing exercise or bone healing, results in the bone thickening at the points of maximum stress (Wolffs law). It has been hypothesized that this is a result of bones piezoelectric properties, which cause bone to generate small electrical potentials under stress.[43] The action of osteoblasts and osteoclasts are controlled by a number of chemical enzymes that either promote or ...
We saw a decrease in the level of sclerostin in both of these exercise interventions in men, Hinton said. When sclerostin is expressed at high levels, it has a negative impact on bone formation. In both resistance and jump training, the level of sclerostin in the bone goes down, which triggers bone formation.. The other significant change Hinton observed was an increase in the hormone IGF-1. Unlike sclerostin, IGF-1 triggers bone growth. The decrease of harmful sclerostin levels and the increase in beneficial IGF-1 levels confirmed Hintons prior research that found both resistance training and jump training have beneficial effects on bone growth.. To increase bone mass and prevent osteoporosis, Hinton recommends exercising specifically to target bone health. While exercises such as swimming and cycling are beneficial to overall health, these activities do not strengthen the skeleton. Hinton suggests also doing exercise targeted for bone health, such as resistance training and jump ...
Objectives: The association of bone turnover markers (BTM) with bone loss and fracture risk in men is poorly studied. The morphological basis of such a relationship is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between baseline BTM levels and subsequent bone loss and fracture risk in men.. Methods: This study is a prospective 7.5-year follow-up of the cohort composed of 723 men aged 50-85 years. Serum concentrations of osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP), procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide, C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CTX-I) and urinary excretion of deoxypyridinoline and β-CTX-I were measured at baseline. Every 18 months, incident fractures were recorded and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by DXA (spine, hip, distal forearm, whole body).. Results: Increase in the BTM levels was associated with faster bone loss at the level of the trochanter, whole body and distal forearm. At the level of the distal radius and the ulna, increase ...
The Top 3 Food Ingredients I would recommend are magnesium, vitamin K and boron. Did you know that calcium rich foods are not the only foods that can promote bone health and prevent osteoporosis? The following food nutrients play a significant role in building and maintaining bone health and strength. Magnesium is needed for proper bone development, it plays a role in bone remodelling by influencing 2 types of bone cells: osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Osteoblasts help build bone and osteoclasts break down bone. It helps increase bone density by regulating the transport of calcium. The best way to add magnesium to your diet is to eat more magnesium rich foods. The following foods are rich in magnesium: lentils, spinach, bananas and dark chocolate. Vitamin K Surprised? Well dont be, vitamin K plays a vital role in bone remineralization by working with vitamin D to regulate bone metabolism and calcium balance in the bone. It increases bone density in patients with osteoporosis and can reduce the ...
Dear Editor,. We thank Rossini et al for their comments1 on our recent study on inhibitory effect by denosumab on the progression of bone erosions in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).2 They addressed their observation from point of view of bone in patient with RA. We think their view brings treatment of RA closer to treatment of osteoporosis.. Activated osteoclasts decrease bone mineral density (BMD) and stimulate bone erosion in patients with RA.3 Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) promotes osteoclast differentiation, maturation, and activation.4-7 Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody against RANKL that inhibits osteoclast formation, function, and survival. Denosumab treatment increases BMD in cortical and trabecular bone. In addition, denosumab has been shown to improve cortical bone microstructure in subjects with osteoporosis or low bone mass.8 ,9. Increases in lumbar spine and total hip BMD and inhibition of progression of bone erosion have ...
The invention is directed toward a sterile malleable bone composition for application to a bone defect site to promote new bone growth at the site comprising a mixture of demineralized osteogenic bone powder with a particle size ranging from about 250 to about 750 microns and surface demineralized cortical bone rods having a diameter ranging from 1.0 mm to 5.00 mm or larger bone chips. The surface demineralized cortical bone rods have diameter to length ratio ranging from 1:2 to 1:20. The demineralized bone powder range from about 25 to about 30% of the weight of the composition and the cortical bone rods range from 5% to about 10% of the weight of the composition with the carrier being selected from the high molecular weight hydrogel in aqueous solution having a high molecular weight over 700,000 Daltons and ranging from about 2.0% to about 5.0% by weight of the carrier solution.
Bone grafting is used to repair the site of your dental implant that has poor bone structure due to missing teeth, injuries, or gum disease. For minor bone loss, Dr. Wood may place special membranes that will dissolve under the gums to protect the bone graft and help facilitate bone regeneration using a process called guided bone regeneration. When bone is missing from the upper jaw, a sinus bone graft can be performed to replace it. The bone for bone grafting can be obtained from a variety of locations, including your jaw, hip, or tibia.. For larger bone defects the patients own bone is often used. Large defects are typically the result of congenital defects, trauma, or surgery. The bone for grafting large defects can come from a variety of locations including the hip, knee, and skull.. To learn more about bone grafting in Clovis, visit our office today! ...
Osteolytic bone metastases are frequent in patients with advanced cancer of the breast, lung, and (to a lesser extent) the prostate. Roentgenography, bone scintigraphy, and bone biopsies are commonly used for the early identification and follow-up of these conditions. These methods have though marked shortcomings as they are all static methods giving a picture of the current situation in bone but not telling about rate of changes taking place in bone. Metabolic bone markers have been shown to be a useful tool for monitoring metastatic bone activity.. It has been shown that there are two different pathways of bone resorption: the cathepsin K-mediated pathway, which is active during physiological resorption of bone, and the matrix metalloproteinase pathway, which functions mainly in pathological situations. ICTP specifically reflects matrix metalloproteinase-mediated pathological degradation of bone collagen (1, 2). ICTP is thus a highly specific marker of bone degradation in bone metastasis and ...
Bone is made up of cells that grow and collagen fibres (tough, elastic fibres) as well as minerals like Calcium that give it the hardness. There are two main types of cells within the hard bone tissue that mould the bone. These cells are Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts.. Osteoblasts form the bone by laying down bone material. Osteoclasts dissolve the particles of bone and cause resorption. These cells are active throughout life and work in tandem balance to keep the bone constantly growing and dissolving. There is a slow but constant turnover of bone.. Another type of cell is chondrocytes which make cartilage. These make the hard tissues that cover the ends of bones in joints. In the centre of some larger bones is the soft bone marrow that is the place where blood cells are manufactured.. Although bone cancers are rare, there are four major types of bone cancer of primary origin. These include osteosarcoma, Ewings sarcoma, spindle cell sarcoma and chondrosarcoma.. ...
Rheumatology (Oxford). 2016 Oct;55(10):1714-25. Epub 2016 Jan 20. DOI: 10.1093/rheumatology/kev410 PMID: 26790456 [PubMed - in process]. Traditional BTMs have been used for years to help with fracture risk prediction and in particular for treatment monitoring. Clinical use of the new biochemical markers has not been established so far. Their relationship with fracture risk is still under investigation, and their use as treatment monitoring tools needs to be studied. In fact, their role is probably dependent on a new approach based on our understanding of bone physiology. These new markers will be helpful for exploring the physiological and pathological relations between the bone and other organs, and to monitor joint diseases, chronic kidney disease - mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) and cardiovascular disease. mechanisms in the bone or other organs.. ...
If you followed bone-healthy recommendations when you were younger, you would have maximized your bone density with lots of calcium-rich food and weight-bearing activity. You would have reached your optimum peak bone density about age 30.. If your bones werent weakened by certain medical conditions or medications after that, they would have maintained their density until the years around menopause. Thats when estrogen levels start to wane, causing a loss in bone density. During the five years around menopause, you can lose up to 25% of your bone density and be at increased risk of broken bones. After that rapid bone loss, left unchecked, you will continue to lose about 0.5% of bone mass and 1.0% of muscle mass every year.. Now that you know about the natural occurrence of bone loss that comes with age, you should understand the need to take charge of your bone health. Act now to create a road map to protect yourself by minimizing bone loss and reducing the risk of fractures. ...
Bone homeostasis depends on the interplay between bone resporption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts. Any Imbalance of this tightly regulated process can cause diseases such as osteoporosis. Therefore, the knowledge about the factors that regulate communication between osteoclasts and osteoblasts are critical to bone cell biology.Osteoporosis is a progressive systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass density and deterioration of bone tissue. Mature miRNAs are about 22 nucleotide long non coding RNA molecules that are involved in regulatory processes intracellularly. A number of scientific studies have revealed a comprehensive and evidential knowledge about miRNAs that affect the bone metabolism by influencing bone formation and resorption processes. In this short review we have summrized the regulatory role of some selective miRNAs in bone formation.
The bone is enclosed in a tough, fibrous, connective tissue covering called the periosteum, which is continuous with the ligaments and tendons that anchor bones. The periosteum contains blood vessels that enter the bone and service its cells. At both ends of a long bone is an expanded portion called an epiphysis; the portion between the epiphyses is called the diaphysis. The diaphysis is not solid but has a medullary cavity containing yellow marrow. The medullary cavity is bounded at the sides by compact bone. The epiphyses contain spongy bone. Beyond the spongy bone is a thin shell of compact bone and, finally, a layer of hyaline cartilage called the articular cartilage. The medullary cavity and the spaces of spongy bone are lined with endosteum, a thin, fibrous membrane.. i. Cortical (80 ...
Mature bone tissue is classified as two types: trabecular [also known as spongy] and cortical [also known as compact]. Cortical type bone forms the dense, outer shell that surrounds the inner core of honeycomb-like, trabecular type bone. Blood vessels deliver nourishment to cortical bone; trabecular bone receives nutrients by diffusion from the inner bone marrow. While all trabecular bone is surrounded by cortical bone, the thickness of the cortex differs by location. The ratio of cortical: trabecular bone is higher in long bones like the shaft of the femur, and is lower in vertebral body bones ...
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Diabetes is known to have a number of complications such as atherosclerosis, nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy. However, diabetes may also affect bone and compromise bone biomechanical competence beyond what is revealed through changes in bone mineral density. Bone disease may thus ne a novel hitherto overlooked complication of diabetes. Diabetes may affect bone in a number of ways: 1) glucose may affect collagen by foming advanced glycation end products (AGE) such as pentosidine, which may lower bone biomechanical competence, 2) hyperglycaemia and AGE may affect bone cells leading to a state of low bone turnover and thus osteoporosis, 3) hyperglycaemia may lead to excess loss of calcium in the urine and thus a negative calcium balance. Furthermore many differences between type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) affect bone as patients with T1D are often underweight and lack insulin, which is an anabolic factor, whereas T2D patients are often overweight, and may have high
Bone is living tissue. Like other tissue, bone is constantly being broken down and replaced with new material. Normally, there is a balance between the breakdown of old bone and its replacement with new bone. But when something goes wrong with the process, bone disorders may result.. Osteoporosis is a particular concern for women after menopause, as well as for older men. In osteoporosis, the inside of the bones become porous and thin. Over time, this condition weakens the bones and makes them more likely to break. Osteoporosis is four times more common in women than in men. This is because women have less bone mass than men, tend to live longer and take in less calcium, and need the female hormone estrogen to keep their bones strong. If men live long enough, they are also at risk of getting osteoporosis later in life. Once total bone mass has peaked- around age 35-all adults start to lose it. In women, the rate of bone loss speeds up during menopause, when estrogen levels fall. Bone loss may ...
As a veterinarian with over thirty years of hands-on experience dealing with healthy and sick dogs and cats, and as a veterinarian with a keen interest in nutritional consequences affecting dogs and cats and as a member of a national veterinary nutrition association, I must ask two questions of those who so staunchly believe that RAW BONE consumption is an absolute requirement for dogs:. 1. Could it be that the nutritional benefits seemingly derived from feeding RAW BONES is mostly derived from the meat, fat and connective tissues attached to those raw bones more so than from the actual bone itself? In other words, Is the benefit really coming from bone ... or from the attached muscle, fat, and connective tissue?. 2. How can it be explained that I have seen many very healthy, old dogs in the course of practice that have never eaten a single RAW BONE? (Of course these old, healthy and very fortunate pets have owners who are feeding these dogs meat, fruit and other table scraps. That may be ...
Increased longevity and improved medical management of children with chronic illnesses has led to a focus on the short- and long-term consequences of these conditions on bone health. Bone loss is influenced by diet, malabsorption, and disease-related imbalances in bone turnover. It may be exacerbated by common medications, especially corticosteroids. Assessment of bone mass and quality, calcium absorption, kinetically derived rates of bone turnover, and biochemical markers of bone turnover have increased our knowledge of the pathophysiology of bone loss in these children as well as provided insights into possible therapeutic interventions. Increased intake of calcium and vitamin D, while useful, is unlikely to prevent or resolve bone loss in many chronically ill children. Emphasis on combination of nutritional interventions with exercise and newer bone-sparing therapies may be necessary.
Large bone defects, such as those resulting from tumor excision, critical size defect fractures, or non-union, remain a clinical problem in bone reconstructive surgery. Current treatments involving autologous or allogenic bone grafts present the problem of implant availability and quality, or associated infection and immune response risks, respectively. In addition, as bone formation is highly dependent on the presence of osteogenic cells at the implant site, vascularization is also a major concern, as inadequate bone vascularization is typically associated with decreased bone formation, tissue necrosis, and implant integration failure, leading to impaired bone repair. The bone biology focus area mainly aims to study the cellular mechanisms involved in the different phases of bone healing and their interplay for a better understanding and further monitoring of the process. The induction of vessels within an artificial bone substitute, by co-seeding endothelial progenitors and mesenchymal stromal ...
The method of this invention relates to preparing a bone to secure a prosthesis thereto by improving the mechanical interdigitation of bone cement and the bone and facilitating hemostasis of the bone. First, the bone is mechanically shaped to expose cancellous bone in a desired configuration for reception of a joint prosthesis. A pressurized jet of dry-flowing gas is then applied to the exposed bone, to clean and dry the trabecular interstices of the exposed cancellous bone. To further withdraw debris and liquids dislodged from the interstices of the prepared bone by the pressurized jet of dry-flowing gas, suction is applied to the bone concurrently with the application of the pressurized jet of dry-flowing gas. Bone cement in liquid form is then applied to the bone, with cement penetration into the cleaned and dried interstices of the bone.
A bone graft substitute including a composition of natural selectively deactivated bone material which has been processed to remove associated non-collagenous bone proteins, said bone material containing native collagen materials and naturally associated bone minerals and substantially free from native non-collagenous protein, and a therapeutically effective amount to stimulate bone growth of a bone growth factor in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier in synergistic combination with said bone material. Spacers composed of the bone graft substitute composition methods for using the spacers are also provided.
6.1-6.6 (6-2 (Bone Structure (I.Chemical composition bone. -Organic…: 6.1-6.6 (6-2 (Bone Structure, J.Microscopic Structure of Compact Bone (solid,sense,smooth), K.Microscopic Structure of Spongy Bone), 6-1 (Bone Function), 6-3 (Bone Development and Growth), 6-4 (Bone Remodeling and Repair), 6-5 (Osteopenia: Osteoporosis- Severe bone loss, affects normal function, and over age of 45 it normally occurs.), 6-6 (Skeletal Organization:))
Human Skeletal System Structure - human body skeletal structure, human skeletal system structure, human skeletal system structure and function, internal structure of the human skeletal system, structure and function of human skeletal system, structure of a human skeletal system, structure of human skeletal system, structure of the human skeletal system
In this work, we found that bone mineral formation proceeded very rapidly in mice by 1 day of age, where the degree of mineralization, the tissue mineral density, and the mineral crystallinity reached 36%, 51%, and 87% of the adult values, respectively. However, even though significant mineralization had occurred, the elastic modulus of 1-day-old bone was only 14% of its adult value, indicating that the intrinsic stiffening of the bone lags considerably behind the initial mineral formation.. Introduction: To meet the mechanical challenges during early development, the skeleton requires the rapid accretion of bone quality and bone quantity. Here, we describe early bone development in the mouse skeleton and test the hypothesis that specific compositional properties determine the stiffness of the tissue.. Materials and Methods: Tibias of female BALB mice were harvested at eight time-points (n = 4 each) distributed between 1 and 40 days of age and subjected to morphometric (μCT), chemical (Fourier ...
Bonolive is the first clinically evaluated olive-based bone health supplement that supports two fundamental bone health goals: promoting bone formation and supporting bone strength. Bonolive can also help complete any bone-supporting regimen by addressing an important factor other supplements do not. There are three primary categories of bone health supplements: minerals and proteins, which provide the building blocks for healthy bone; vitamins, which promote the utilization of minerals; and phytoestrogens like lignans and isoflavones, which promote hormonal balance (a factor especially important for women). Bonolive is in a class of its own. It actually works to support healthy bone metabolism and stimulate bone-building at the cellular level. None of the other supplements work in this manner.. ...
Nerves that leave the spine in the area of the sacrum help control the bowels and bladder and provide sensation to the crotch area. There are three types of bone, woven bone, cortical bone, and cancellous bone. In adults, woven bone is found where there is a broken bone that is healing (callus formation). It can also be found with hyperparathyroidism and Pagets disease. It is composed of randomly arranged collagen strands. It is normally remodeled by the body and replaced with cortical or cancellous bone. Cortical bone is called compact or lamellar bone. It forms the inside and outside tables of flat bones and the outside surfaces of long bones. It is dense and makes up 80 percent of our bone mass. The radius (wrist bone), skull, and long bones are made of cortical bone. Cancellous bone is also called trabecular bone. It lies between the cortical bone surfaces. It is the inner supporting structure and is spongy. It makes up 20 percent of our bone mass. Normal cancellous bone is always ...
Bones are rigid, but they do bend or give somewhat when an outside force is applied. However, if the force is too great, the bones will break, just as a plastic ruler breaks when it is bent too far. The severity of a fracture usually depends on the force that caused the break. If the bones breaking point has been exceeded only slightly, then the bone may crack rather than break all the way through. If the force is extreme, such as in an automobile crash or a gunshot, the bone may shatter. If the bone breaks in such a way that bone fragments stick out through the skin, or a wound penetrates down to the broken bone, the fracture is called an open fracture. This type of fracture is particularly serious because once the skin is broken, infection in both the wound and the bone can occur. ...
Many dog owners know not to toss a turkey or chicken bone to their dog; those bones are just too brittle. But the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) says the risk goes beyond that, especially when it comes to the bone treats you may see at the store.. Whats a Bone Treat?. FDA has received about 68 reports of pet illnesses related to bone treats, which differ from uncooked butcher-type bones because they are processed and packaged for sale as dog treats. The reports were received between November 1, 2010 and September 12, 2017. A variety of commercially-available bone treats for dogs-including treats described as ham bones, pork femur bones, rib bones and knuckle bones-were listed in the reports. The products may be dried through a smoking process or by baking, and may contain other ingredients such as preservatives, seasonings, and smoke flavorings.. So if youre planning to give your dog some bone treats, or if you put treats in their holiday stocking, you may want to reconsider. ...
MicoCT data saw significant reductions to cortical thickness (p,0.05), bone mineral density (p,0.001), and increases to medullary area (p,0.05) among HFD males and females compared to LFD. HFD-males also experienced significant increase in cortical porosity (P,0.001) whereas no changes were noted in HFDfemales. Trabecular bone volume was relatively unchanged. HFD increased cortical osteoclast surface (p,0.001) for both sexes. Bone histology saw increased marrow adiposity among HFD-females (p,0.05). Muscle histology exhibited HFD-related reductions in myofiber diameter (p,0.001) for both sexes. Mechanical testing demonstrated reduced youngs modulus (p,0.05) and yield stress (p,0.05) among HFD mice, despite non-significant differences in ultimate strength.. Conclusion and Potential Impact: The changes associated with a long-term HFD differed between sexes but still led to functional impairments of bone and muscle for both sexes, emphasizing the importance of looking further into the mechanisms ...
The long bones are those that are longer than they are wide. They are one of five types of bones: long, short, flat, irregular and sesamoid. Long bones, especially the femur and tibia, are subjected to most of the load during daily activities and they are crucial for skeletal mobility. They grow primarily by elongation of the diaphysis, with an epiphysis at each end of the growing bone. The ends of epiphyses are covered with hyaline cartilage (articular cartilage). The longitudinal growth of long bones is a result of endochondral ossification at the epiphyseal plate. Bone growth in length is stimulated by the production of growth hormone (GH), a secretion of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. The long bones include the femora, tibiae, and fibulae of the legs; the humeri, radii, and ulnae of the arms; metacarpals and metatarsals of the hands and feet, the phalanges of the fingers and toes, and the clavicles or collar bones. The long bones of the human leg comprise nearly half of adult ...
The human body is composed of trillions of cells, but it is basically supported by muscles and bones. The bones, in particular, are very important as they protect the organs inside the body. The strength and volume of the bones are determined by calcium levels, which peak during the first two decades of life. For this reason, it is imperative to attain the peak bone mass during the adolescence stage.. To build strong bones that will last a lifetime, teenagers must consume 1,200 mg of calcium daily. Unfortunately, teenagers between the ages of nine and 18 often do not meet this daily requirement because of their lifestyles. This lack of calcium increases the risk of low bone density and contracting osteoporosis later in life. To ensure optimum bone health, it is essential to maintain a balanced calcium level, which can be attained by following a healthy diet and performing regular exercise. Calcium is truly essential in teenage bone formation, and certain types of workouts can help strengthen the ...
In spite of decades of research, cancer is still the second leading cause of death worldwide. Cancers are complex diseases that occur due to genetic and epigenetic changes. While current therapies have contributed to increased overall survival in cancer patients, especially with localized disease, therapies to treat metastatic disease have been less successful. Malignant tumor cells metastasize to different distant organs, with many of the most common tumors (breast, lung, prostate) metastasizing frequently to the bone. Once tumor cells have established in the bone microenvironment through a variety of mechanisms, they alter the bone microenvironment to change the balance of bone turnover leading to an increase in bone destruction (osteolytic) and/or bone formation (osteoblastic). These changes in bone remodeling result in an increased fracture risk and severe bone pain. Bone is active dynamic tissue which is being continuously remodeled by the concerted action of bone residential osteoblast
Skull bones[edit]. Methods from this group attempt to derive ICP from mechanical properties of the skull bones rather than of ... bone, brain, or fluid). Unfortunately, a reproducible quantitative relationship between the diameter of the cranium and ICP ... In Sinha's [14] method resonant frequency of the skull bones is determined first, then a sinusoidal excitation at the resonant ... as the bones strongly attenuate the transmission of the ultrasound at these frequencies. TCD is primarily a technique for ...
Bones[edit]. Mounting evidence indicates that the amount and type of fat in the diet can have important effects on bone health ... The data from one study indicated that bone mineral density is negatively associated with saturated fat intake, and that men ... Corwin RL, Hartman TJ, Maczuga SA, Graubard BI (2006). "Dietary saturated fat intake is inversely associated with bone density ...
Investigation of bones[edit]. Heating or burning of bones causes recognizable changes in the bone mineral that can be detected ... During the first 15 minutes of heating at 500 °C or above, the bone crystals began to change. At higher temperatures, thickness ... Hiller JC, Thompson TJ, Evison MP, Chamberlain AT, Wess TJ (December 2003). "Bone mineral change during experimental heating: ... and shape of crystals of bones appear stabilized, but when the samples were heated at a lower temperature or for a shorter ...
Lakes wrote that the bones were "apparently a vertebra and a humerus bone of some gigantic saurian."[64] While Lakes sent Marsh ... Port Kennedy Bone Cave. Footnotes[edit]. *^ Davidson found no evidence in any of the surviving Cope correspondence and papers ... Davidson, Jane (1997). The Bone Sharp: The Life of Edward Drinker Cope. Academy of Natural Sciences. ISBN 978-0-910006-53-8.. ... "Bone Wars: The Cope-Marsh Rivalry". The Academy of Natural Sciences. Archived from the original on 2012-04-24. Retrieved 2009- ...
Muscles and bones. The most commonly sought medical attention is for joint pain, with the small joints of the hand and wrist ... and SLE may be associated with an increased risk of bone fractures in relatively young women.[19] ... in contrast to bone marrow-derived DC, neither take it up nor present it via MHC molecules. ...
Bones of upper limb. *Bones of lower limb. A03: Joints (juncturae)[edit]. *General terms [3] ...
... to study bone, muscle, and nerve regeneration, and bone transplantation from one person to another.[9] Sections of bones, ... Bone, muscle, and nerve transplantation experiments. From about September 1942 to about December 1943 experiments were ... Prisoners were also experimented on by having their bone marrow injected with bacteria to study the effectiveness of new drugs ... "Nuremberg - Document Viewer - Deposition concerning medical experiments at Ravensbrueck [bone/muscle/nerve experiments]". ...
5 Bones transferred in 1942. *6 Bone transfer in 2019. *7 Jerusalem ossuaries ... Bone transfer in 2019[edit]. On July 2, 2019, it was announced that Pope Francis had transferred the nine bone fragments which ... Two books were written about the tomb and bones of St. Peter: "The Bones of St Peter" by John Evangelist Walsh and "The ... Bone testing revealed that the remains belonged to a man in his sixties[citation needed]. On June 26, 1968, Pope Paul VI ...
Terms for bones. Notes[edit]. This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918 ... The sternum is a long, flat bone that forms the front of the rib cage. The cartilages of the top seven ribs (the true ribs) ... Bones[edit]. Ribs and vertebrae[edit]. The first rib (the topmost one) is the most curved and usually the shortest of all the ... "Chapter 19 On the Bones of the Thorax". Retrieved 2007-08-23.. [permanent dead link] ...
Each hip bone consists of 3 sections, ilium, ischium, and pubis. During childhood, these sections are separate bones, joined by ... 2-4. Hip bone (os coxae) 1. Sacrum (os sacrum), 2. Ilium (os ilium), 3. Ischium (os ischii) 4. Pubic bone (os pubis) (4a. ... The pelvic girdle consists of the two hip bones. The hip bones are connected to each other anteriorly at the pubic symphysis, ... "In terms of comparative anatomy the human scapula represents two bones that have become fused together; the (dorsal) scapula ...
The phalanges /fəˈlæŋdʒiːz/ (singular: phalanx /ˈfælæŋks/) are digital bones in the hands and feet of most vertebrates. In ... Bone anatomy[edit]. Each phalanx consists of a central part, called the body, and two extremities. ... Moreover, of all the bones of the hand, the distal phalanges are the first to ossify.[3]:6b. 3. The Phalanges of the Hand ... The phalanges are the bones that make up the fingers of the hand and the toes of the foot. There are 56 phalanges in the human ...
The hindfoot is composed of the talus (or ankle bone) and the calcaneus (or heel bone). The two long bones of the lower leg, ... The five irregular bones of the midfoot, the cuboid, navicular, and three cuneiform bones, form the arches of the foot which ... Often absent, the opponens digiti minimi originates near the cuboid bone and is inserted on the fifth metatarsal bone. These ... This arch stretches from the heel bone over the "keystone" ankle bone to the three medial metatarsals. In contrast, the lateral ...
Bones[edit]. Arthralgia is seen in up to half of people, and is usually a non-erosive poly or oligoarthritis primarily of the ... Osteoporotic bone marrow defect. *Paget's disease of bone. *Periapical abscess *Phoenix abscess ...
Unlike other bones, the hyoid is only distantly articulated to other bones by muscles or ligaments. The hyoid is anchored by ... The hyoid bone (lingual bone or tongue-bone) (/ˈhaɪɔɪd/[2][3]) is a horseshoe-shaped bone situated in the anterior midline of ... The hyoid bone is classed as an irregular bone and consists of a central part called the body, and two pairs of horns, the ... Blood is supplied to the hyoid bone via the lingual artery, which runs down from the tongue to the greater horns of the bone. ...
Bones[edit]. Main article: Tubercle (human skeleton). In the human skeleton, a tubercle or tuberosity is a protrusion that ... The muscles attach by tendons, where the enthesis is the connective tissue between the tendon and bone.[4] For example, the ... On bones, they are usually eminences used for muscle connections. Larger tubercles are also known as tuberosities. ...
"The Man with the Bone". Bones (TV series). Season 1. Episode 18. Fox.. ... "Pilot". Bones (TV series). Season 1. Episode 1. Fox.. *^ a b c d "The Parts in the Sum of the Whole". Bones (TV series). Season ... "Bones s01e05 Episode Script , SS". Springfield! Springfield!. Retrieved 2019-12-03.. *^ "The Man in the Fallout Shelter". Bones ... "The Bones that Blew". Bones (TV series). Season 4. Episode 11. Fox.. ...
It was obvious that the sound propagated very well through the bones of the maxilla to the inner ear. This became the starting ... Cochlear Bone Anchored Solutions is a company based in Gothenburg, Sweden, that manufactures and distributes bone conduction ... When Cochlear bought the company in 2005, the name changed to Cochlear Bone Anchored Solutions. The acronym "BAHA" (for bone ... The Baha system is a bone conduction hearing system designed, developed and marketed by Cochlear Bone Anchored Solutions. ...
The triquetral is one of the eight carpal bones of the hand. It is a three-faced bone found within the proximal row of carpal ... The triquetral bone (/traɪˈkwɛtrəl, -ˈkwiː-/; also called triquetrum, pyramidal, three-faced, and formerly cuneiform bone) is ... It connects with the pisiform, hamate, and lunate bones. It is the 3rd most commonly fractured carpal bone. ... The carpal bones function as a unit to provide a bony superstructure for the hand.[1] :708 ...
Bones[edit]. The bones that make up the knee are the femur, patella, tibia, and fibula. In the posterolateral corner, the bony ... J Bone Joint Surg. 1987;69A: 233-242 *^ a b c d Grood ES, Stowers SF, Noyes FR: Limits of movement in the human knee: Effect of ... J Bone Joint Surg. 1988;70A: 88-97 *^ a b Veltri DM, Deng XH, Torzilli PA, et al: The role of the popliteofibular ligament in ... J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010;92:16-22 *^ a b LaPrade RF, Wozniczka JK, Stellmaker MP, Wijdicks CA. Analysis of the static ...
... was the reduction of fractured bones: "...the broken bone had to be splinted, extended and adjusted, and if this was not ... Setting bones[edit]. Examples of healed fractures in prehistoric human bones, suggesting setting and splinting have been found ... Brothwell, D.R. Digging up Bones. 1963:126 *^ La tribu Yanto en el Perú. Manuel Antonio Muñiz y W. J. Mc. Gree. In this study, ... Dupuytren, Guillaume (1847). On the injuries and diseases of bones. Sydenham Society. Retrieved 7 December 2012.. ...
"Palaeos Vertebrates > Bones > Teeth: Tooth Implantation". Bertin, Thomas J. C.; Thivichon-Prince, Béatrice; LeBlanc, Aaron R. H ... dentition is a morphological arrangement in which the base of the tooth is completely enclosed in a deep socket of bone, as ...
Barbaro broke his right hind leg in more than 20 places: a broken cannon bone above the pastern, a broken sesamoid bone behind ... This would allow the right foot to bear more weight, but the procedure was risky, with the major danger being that the bones ... The remaining 20% of his hoof wall was attached to the coffin bone and was still living tissue, but it was unclear how much of ... On May 20, 2006, Barbaro ran in the Preakness Stakes as a heavy favorite, but, after a false start, he fractured three bones in ...
Replacement of the bones provides a possibility for the correction of the hypotelorism at the same time.[42] A bone graft is ... The bone is still more malleable and can be remodelled relatively 'simply' by greenstick fractures of the bone.[42] At ... Most of the bones that collectively form the cranial vault - i.e. the frontal, the parietal and the occipital bones - are ... induced by resorption of the innermost bone layer of the skull with deposition of new bone on the outermost layer, thereby ...
Nearby were discovered the bones of her dead puppies.. *The University of Notre Dame used an Irish Terrier as its mascot until ... when an Irish Terrier is very small and light-boned, it loses the correct racy type. ...
such as giraffes, camels, and cattle, will gnaw on bones to consume particular minerals and nutrients.[37] Also, cats, which ... Hypercarnivores, however, have conical teeth and sharp carnassials meant for slashing, and in some cases strong jaws for bone- ... crushing, as in the case of hyenas, allowing them to consume bones; some extinct groups, notably the Machairodontinae, had ... "Osteophagia and bone modifications by giraffe and other large ungulates". Journal of Archaeological Science. 40 (12): 4139- ...
Due to the linear articulation of bones, the force is able to travel freely across these joints and bones and be dissipated ... means a break in specifically the second metacarpal bone or third metacarpal bone,[12] with "bar room fracture" being specific ... A boxer's fracture is the break of the 5th metacarpal bones of the hand near the knuckle.[4] Occasionally it is used to refer ... creating a dorsal bend in the bone, ultimately causing the fracture when the bone is bent too far. ...
They would have fewer side-effects, while still promoting muscle and bone tissue growth and regeneration. These claims are, ... broken bones and pain. Muscle atrophy results from a co-morbidity of several common diseases, including cancer, AIDS, ... when the patient has a primary injury such as an immobilized broken bone (set in a cast or immobilized in traction), for ...
Nelson, D.E., Radiocarbon dating of bone and charcoal from Divje babe I cave, cited by Morley, p. 47 ... Early examples of artistic expression, such as the Venus of Tan-Tan and the patterns found on elephant bones from Bilzingsleben ... Upper Paleolithic (and possibly Middle Paleolithic)[83] humans used flute-like bone pipes as musical instruments,[38][84] and ... In Africa, bone artifacts and the first art appear in the archaeological record. The first evidence of human fishing is also ...
... bone, and wooden tools were quickly apparent to early humans, and native copper was probably used from near the beginning of ... evidence of burnt animal bones at the Cradle of Humankind suggests that the domestication of fire occurred before 1 Ma;[26] ...
If the markings spread into the usable portion of the pelt, such as into the belly or on the pin bones, it is a ... They have fine bone and a skinny body, and, unlike many other breeds, were never raised primarily for meat. This breed's main ...
... bone shape, skeletal features, fetal heart function, volume evaluation, fetal lung maturity, and general fetus well being. ... TIS for soft tissues in the first trimester and TIB for bones in second and third trimesters) as low as possible, preferably ... across the two parietal bones), the head circumference, the length of the femur, the crown-heel length (head to heel), and ...
Bones are incredibly efficient - more efficient than any man-made structure, says Chris Williams, an architecture professor at ... Bone Structure. Bones are incredibly efficient - more efficient than any man-made structure, says Chris Williams, an ...
... a broken bone can be scary for them and parents alike. Heres the lowdown on what to expect. ... A bone health campaign for girls ages 9 to 12 that teaches how to get and keep strong, healthy bones for life. "Grow strong ... The AAOS provides information for the public on sports safety, and bone, joint, muscle, ligament and tendon injuries or ...
... the single bone surrounding the ear that is formed from the fused pro-otic, epiotic, and opisthotic bones. Source for ... information on periotic bone: A Dictionary of Zoology dictionary. ... periotic bone In Mammalia, the single bone surrounding the ear ... periotic bone A Dictionary of Zoology © A Dictionary of Zoology 1999, originally published by Oxford University Press 1999. ... www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/periotic-bone ...
ATC let us hang out and the BOnes flew under us!. * Category *Howto & Style ...
Boning can get pricey, heres a nifty way to avoid the costs... JUST SO YOU KNOW: This works REALLY WELL if you reinforce with ... How to make a corset adding the bones in part 3 - Duration: 9:59. Des Swags Curtain Maker 15,009 views ... The boning will be sturdy enough to use in legitimate corsets. It will bend and act like spiral steel. I use this in all of my ... Boning can get pricey, heres a nifty way to avoid the costs.... JUST SO YOU KNOW: This works REALLY WELL if you reinforce with ...
Do you know bones? Label these parts of the skeletal system. ...
Bone Loss see Bone Density; Osteoporosis * Bone Transplantation see Bone Grafts * Broken Bones see Fractures ... Bones, Joints and Muscles Topics * Achilles Tendon Injuries see Heel Injuries and Disorders ...
How Do Broken Bones Happen?. Most broken bones in kids happen from a fall. Kids also can break a bone in an accident or while ... How Are Broken Bones Treated?. Most broken bones are treated with a cast, splint, or brace. This keeps the broken bone from ... What Are the Kinds of Broken Bones?. Types of bone fractures include:. *A greenstick fracture: a break on one side of the bone ... A compression fracture: a collapsing of the bone. What Are the Signs of a Broken Bone?. It always hurts to break a bone. There ...
... or other devices to make your bone (or bones) stable again. This can help relieve pain and restore function. ... Surgical options for bone metastasis include: * Surgically placing a support into the bone: A surgeon can place a rod, pins, ... Surgery to remove a bone tumor: In rare cases, if you have just a single area of metastasis in one area of a bone, you have no ... If your bone is so weakened by metastasis that it has fractured or is about to fracture, you may need to have surgery. These ...
New bone forms within a few weeks of the injury, although full healing can take longer. ... Broken bones have an amazing ability to heal. ... How Can I Help My Bone Heal?. To help your broken bone heal:. * ... How Do Casts & Splints Help Broken Bones Heal?. Casts and splints hold broken bones in place while they heal. New hard bone ... Broken bones have an amazing ability to heal, especially in young people. New bone forms within a few weeks of the injury, ...
I have wondered if bony excrescences of some dinosaurs (frills, armour, bone-domes of Pachycephalosaurs etc) might usefully ... How are you going to ID the bones? Cause if there is any Public domain info on the bones of jerboa, gebils and the like Id ... Does owl pellet composition vary during nesting (more calcium needed, from those bones, for making egg-shells) or are the bones ... Are the pelleted bones calcium-depleted relative to fresh-killed (uneaten) small-mammal bones? ...
How could it be? Young Aggie discovers a Brontosaurus bone at Gruesome Gorge ... but no dinosaur fossil has ever been ... You can also try doing a general search for the term dinosaur bones . You can also limit results to books that contain two ... Books tagged: dinosaur bones These results show books which have been specifically tagged with this keyword. ... and in the process unearths a dinosaur bone. (Age Level - 7-10) ...
Worst of all, she is unmindful of her crooked bones.. When Irréelle makes one final, unforgivable mistake by destroying a ... A spooky and adventurous debut illustrated fantasy novel about a girl made of dust and bone and imagination who seeks the truth ... Praise For The Bone Garden…. "Best read aloud on a dark autumn night (under a cozy blanket, of course), this magical story-and ... "Beautifully haunting and elegantly told, The Bone Garden enchanted me from page one and kept me spellbound until the very end. ...
Do iPhone owners love their games as much as dogs love bones? Weve no idea, but peripherals firm 22Moo hopes to find out by ... The Bone can connect into the iPhone or Touch over Bluetooth or through a cable connection, the firm added. Other GameBone ... Firm digs up iPhone 3.0 gaming bone. Fetch?. By James Sherwood 23 Jun 2009 at 11:30 ... shaped like a bone. Were not convinced the controllers dog-proof, mind. ...
... derived the stem cells from bone marrow samples to locate and repair broken bones in mice. Now the work is poised to move to ... "Without that glue, the bone will not be able to heal.". But just creating cartilage is not enough to fix a broken bone. The ... When they extracted bone marrow from these glow-in-the-dark mice, they got glow-in-the-dark stem cells, which the researchers ... The possibility of using a potion like Skelegro to treat severe bone fractures may soon be more than the stuff of wizard tales ...
Women are about four times more likely than men to develop osteoporosis, or weak, porous bones. But a new study links vitamin ... ARS Home » News & Events » News Articles » Research News » 2005 » Fight Osteoporosis: Bone Up on B12 ... Researchers funded by the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) reported the findings in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research ... Fight Osteoporosis: Bone Up on B12. By Rosalie Marion Bliss. March 28, 2005. ...
... postmenopausal women who took 25 mg of a type of aromatase inhibitor called exemestane daily for two years experienced bone ... "Brisk walking several times a day or hopping on a treadmill is an effective way to keep bones strong," said Shockney. "Bone ... While low bone mass offers clues to a womans risk of bone fracture or even osteoporosis, this study was too small and did not ... Bone density is typically measured in doctors offices by a standard bone density test. But the women enrolled in the study, ...
With breaks in larger bones or when the bone breaks into more than two pieces, the doctor may put a metal pin in the bone to ... Most broken bones will need a cast to keep the bone from moving so it can heal. A cast is essentially a big bandage with two ... Broken Bones. The harder kids play, the harder they fall. The fact is, broken bones, or fractures, are common in childhood and ... To set the bone, the doctor will put the pieces of the broken bone in the right position so they can grow back together into ...
Bones, Muscles and joints (orthopaedics). *Brain, Spine and Nervous System (neurology & neurosurgery) ... Bone Cancers. There are different types of bone cancers, which are typically defined as a malignant (cancerous) tumor of the ... Bone Cancers. There are many bone cancers that require clinical care by a physician or other healthcare professional. Listed in ... Bone Cancer (Osteosarcoma). Our multidisciplinary team of specialists provides comprehensive treatment for patients with bone ...
... bones frontal processes. These sit midline to each other to form the bridge of the nose. ... Each human has two nasal bones located in the upper-middle area of the face, between the maxillary (upper jaw) ... Each nasal bone has four bones, which form joints: two cranium and two facial bones. The cranium bones are called the ethmoid ... The facial bones are the maxilla and opposite nasal. Each nasal bone has four borders: the superior, inferior, lateral, and ...
They were told they have osteoporosis but they were unaware of it until they broke a bone. What exactly is osteoporosis, and ... Several of my friends have had falls recently where they have broken a bone. ... Bone is living tissue. To keep bones strong, your body is always breaking down old bone and replacing it with new bone tissue. ... You can have a bone density test to find out how solid your bones are. Your doctor may suggest a type of bone density test ...
It now seems that fluoxetine - the compound in Prozac - depletes bones over time ... Some antidepressants have been linked to an increased risk of bone fractures. ... Antidepressant makes bones weaker by slowing down new growth. Split by light: the antidepressant fluoxetine can cause bone loss ... During the first three weeks, bones grew stronger as the fluoxetine impaired osteoclasts, cells that usually deplete bone ...
The model gives unique insight into the crystals inside our bones ... A blurry brown picture is the most detailed 3D image of bone ... Many research groups are interested in growing bone in the lab as a way to treat bone diseases, or to develop new, tough ... Bone is mostly made of mineral crystals and the protein collagen. While the structure of collagen is well understood, how the ... A blurry brown picture is the most detailed 3D image of bone ever produced. It may look fuzzy, but the model developed from ...
Living in polluted areas increases the risk of brittle bones and devastating fractures in the elderly, a major new study ... Bone health Living in polluted areas increases the risk of brittle bones and devastating fractures in the elderly, a major new ... Among the many benefits of clean air, our research suggests, are improved bone health and a way to prevent bone fractures. Dr ... Among the many benefits of clean air, our research suggests, are improved bone health and a way to prevent bone fractures. ...
Bone of My Bones is the debut album by English singer Ebony Bones, an alias of Ebony Thomas. All tracks are written by Ebony ... Bones, except where noted. "We Know All About U" contains a sample from "Bulgarian Chicks" by Balkan Beat Box. "Dont Fart On ...
... to become a made man Bad Bones, ring name of German professional wrestler John Klinger (born 1984) Bone (disambiguation) Boner ... Bones or The Bones may also refer to: The Bones, a mountain peak in Ireland Bones (nickname), a list of people Bones (rapper), ... "Bones", a character on Star Trek Bones (2001 film), a horror film Bones (soundtrack) Bones (2010 film), a drama film Bones ( ... a novel by Jan Burke Bones, a novella by Pat Murphy Bones, a novel series by Edgar Wallace Bones (Son Lux album) Bones (Young ...
"Flesh and Bone". Fans from across America took to YouTube to debate which Mayhem Festival markets boasted the most brutal ... SkullsN Bones. Retrieved 2 April 2014. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "HATEBREED Announce North American Headline ...
  • Triquetral fractures can occur due to forceful flexion of the wrist, causing an avulsion of the dorsal aspect of the bone that is often hidden on anterior radiographs, but can be seen as a tiny bone fragment on lateral views. (wikipedia.org)
  • This increases the risk of bone pain, fractures , and other life-threatening events. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • These fractures do not heal in the same way that a healthy bone would. (breastcancer.org)
  • The possibility of using a potion like Skelegro to treat severe bone fractures may soon be more than the stuff of wizard tales. (redorbit.com)
  • Children diagnosed with a condition known as brittle bone disease can suffer from multiple, painful fractures over their lifetimes. (redorbit.com)
  • When they extracted bone marrow from these glow-in-the-dark mice, they got glow-in-the-dark stem cells, which the researchers then injected into ordinary mice with bone fractures. (redorbit.com)
  • Doctors will use different methods to repair bone fractures depending on their location, type, and severity. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In this article, we look at how doctors treat bone fractures, the science behind three main stages of bone healing, and home remedies to speed up bone repair. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • People can have bone fractures with different degrees of severity, and while some may be minor, others can lead to serious complications. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If someone fractures a long bone, such as the thigh bone (femur), they might experience a severe complication called a fat embolism. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Doctors often use casts to treat fractures in the leg, foot, arm, and wrist bones. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Your mother, grandmother, or another close relative had osteoporosis or bone fractures. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The majority of fractures in older women are due to cortical bone loss, according to Jane Cauley, a professor in the Department of Epidemiology at the University of Pittsburgh, who wrote an accompanying editorial published in the Lancet Oncology. (go.com)
  • The fact is, broken bones , or fractures, are common in childhood and often happen when kids are playing or participating in sports. (rchsd.org)
  • Because their bones are softer and more likely to bend than break in half, kids are more likely to have incomplete fractures (fractures that go partially through the bone). (rchsd.org)
  • In a large, six-year observational study of over 144,000 postmenopausal women, higher protein intake was linked to a lower risk of forearm fractures and significantly higher bone density in the hip, spine and total body ( 27 ). (healthline.com)
  • In the short term, those who take fluoxetine are less likely to break a bone, but the risk of bone depletion and fractures rises when they have been taking the drug for a year or more. (newscientist.com)
  • Until now, it has been difficult to tell if depression itself may have been causing bone fractures through lifestyle changes such as smoking and drinking more, and eating a poorer diet. (newscientist.com)
  • L iving in polluted areas increases the risk of brittle bones and devastating fractures in the elderly, a major new study suggests. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The greatest morbidity from metastatic bone disease arises from osteolytic disease and gives rise to hypercalcemia, bone pain, and fractures. (nih.gov)
  • Both clodronate and pamidronate decrease the incidence of hypercalcemia, bone pain, and pathological fractures, but do not significantly alter mortality. (nih.gov)
  • If your bone is so weakened by metastasis that it has fractured or is about to fracture, you may need to have surgery. (breastcancer.org)
  • Internal fixation (osteosynthesis) of bone is aimed at restoration of continuity and stability during healing of a fracture , arthrodesis, or osteotomy ( see below ). (britannica.com)
  • Osteotomy is aimed at correction of bony or articular deformity by cutting through bone and letting the fracture heal in the desired position, usually with the aid of internal fixation. (britannica.com)
  • Common indications for transplantation of bone are nonunion of a fracture, a bone cyst , arthrodesis, and structural defects in cancellous bone caused by compression fracture-for example, the heel bone. (britannica.com)
  • A fracture is a broken bone. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Why should you get a bone fracture repaired? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • No matter how severe a bone fracture is, a person should always see their doctor for treatment to avoid future complications, such as abnormal healing, loss of function, or bone weaknesses. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • When a person has a severe bone fracture, doctors may need to perform surgery to correct the break. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The surgeon places metal pins or screws above and below the fracture site to support and immobilize the bone while it heals. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Because of the disruption of blood flow to the bone, some bone cells around the fracture die. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The repairing or reparative phase begins within the first few days after the bone fracture and lasts for about 2 - 3 weeks. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • You have already experienced a bone fracture that may be the result of thinning bones. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • While low bone mass offers clues to a woman's risk of bone fracture or even osteoporosis, this study was too small and did not follow the women long enough to see whether either condition developed. (go.com)
  • The classic signs of a fracture are pain, swelling, and deformity (which looks like a bump or change in shape of the bone). (rchsd.org)
  • A fracture through the growing part of a child's bone (called the growth plate ) may not show up on X-ray. (rchsd.org)
  • A stronger force will also result in a complete fracture of younger bones. (rchsd.org)
  • Molecular geneticist and study author Associate Professor Scott Wilson of the University of Western Australia , says low bone mineral density is the strongest predictor of osteoporotic fracture. (abc.net.au)
  • The DXA test gives you important information to help you understand your risk for a fracture or broken bone. (latimes.com)
  • Fracture, bone - My sister had a humerus bone surgery on 2nd March.25 screwed and a titanium plate? (drugs.com)
  • Fracture, bone - I fell off a roof shoveling snow and ice about 25 years ago, the fall left me with? (drugs.com)
  • Talus bone fracture pain 5 years later? (drugs.com)
  • It's less severe than a bone fracture. (rochester.edu)
  • With a bone fracture, all of the trabeculae in a region of bone have broken. (rochester.edu)
  • But you may be given an X-ray to rule out a bone fracture. (rochester.edu)
  • Without medullary bone deposited in their marrow cavities, the calcium used for egg shells would come from their bones, giving them avian osteoporosis. (newscientist.com)
  • Women are about four times more likely than men to develop osteoporosis, or weak, porous bones. (usda.gov)
  • The scientists examined the relationship between vitamin B12 blood levels and indicators of bone health measured in 2,576 men and women, aged 30 to 87, participating in the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. (usda.gov)
  • This in turn is important for maintaining healthy bones, as the vitamin helps to ensure we take up enough calcium from the food we eat, according to Dr Helen Macdonald, chair of the National Osteoporosis Society's Nutrition and Lifestyle Forum. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Some women are at greater risk for osteoporosis - the decrease of bone mass and density as a result of the depletion of bone calcium and protein - than others. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Your doctor can help you determine your risk of developing osteoporosis by taking your personal and family medical history, and by doing a bone density test or bone mass measurement. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • We know the bone structure matters in terms of strength," said Dr. Angela Cheung, director of the osteoporosis program at University Health Network in Toronto, and lead author of the study. (go.com)
  • Researchers followed 351 women with no history of osteoporosis for two years, and found an 8 percent decrease in thickness and area in the outer shell of the bone - called the cortical bone among the women taking exemestane, also known by the brand name Aromasin -- compared to only a 1 percent loss in the placebo group. (go.com)
  • Scientists have discovered a number of genes linked to the loss of bone mineral density and osteoporosis. (abc.net.au)
  • Osteoporosis develops when an individual's bone mineral density, the mass per cubic metre of bone, falls below a certain level. (abc.net.au)
  • But osteoporosis can develop as people get older and they lose some of those struts and rods, as well as bone mineral density from the shell of the bone, says Wilson. (abc.net.au)
  • Both osteopenia (low bone mass) and osteoporosis (brittle bones) are conditions characterized by low bone density. (healthline.com)
  • One major risk factor for osteoporosis in older adults is increased bone turnover, or the process of breaking down and forming new bone ( 7 ). (healthline.com)
  • It may also help protect against bone loss in younger and older women, including those with osteoporosis, osteopenia or breast cancer ( 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 ). (healthline.com)
  • They were told they have osteoporosis but they were unaware of it until they broke a bone. (latimes.com)
  • Osteoporosis is a disease that weakens bones to the point where they break easily - most often bones in the hip, spine and wrist. (latimes.com)
  • Osteoporosis is called the 'silent disease' because you may not notice any changes until a bone breaks. (latimes.com)
  • Bone loss has started, but you can still take action to keep your bones strong and maybe prevent osteoporosis later in life. (latimes.com)
  • For some people, the first sign of osteoporosis is to realize they are getting shorter or to break a bone easily. (latimes.com)
  • Your doctor may suggest a type of bone density test called a DXA test if you are age 65 or older or if he or she thinks you are at risk for osteoporosis. (latimes.com)
  • Or, it could show that you have low bone mass or even osteoporosis. (latimes.com)
  • They believe that pollution affects the production of key hormones and bone minerals, leading to osteoporosis. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The National Osteoporosis Society advises eating most dairy products, green leafy vegetables, broccoli and baked beans to gain healthy amounts of calcium and vitamin D, which is known to help strengthen bones. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Dr. Karl Insogna, a professor of internal medicine directing the study, said in an interview that the 18-month placebo-controlled study would determine whether raising protein intake to a more normal range could increase bone mineral density and help prevent osteoporosis in people over age 60. (nytimes.com)
  • This constant regeneration means that bone tissue is always healthy and fully functioning. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Medical researchers at University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill announced Monday that they have made strides in the technology to rebuild damaged bone tissue using stem cells. (redorbit.com)
  • If the bone cells of the transplant survive, they can continue to form bone and can stimulate adjacent tissue to form bone. (britannica.com)
  • Without survival, the transplant may function as a scaffold for invasion by tissue from adjacent bone, guided by the microstructure of the dead transplant. (britannica.com)
  • Gross injury to nerves, vessels, and soft tissues and primary tumours of bone or other connective tissue usually affect relatively young individuals. (britannica.com)
  • The tissue forms a soft collar at the broken ends of the bones, and the tissue grows until the two ends meet. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Over the following weeks, a bony callus made of spongy bone called trabecular bone will replace the tissue callus. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Connective tissue cells in the heart turn into bone-producing cells in response to injury, University of California, Los Angeles scientists report November 17 in Cell Stem Cell . (eurekalert.org)
  • Normal skeletons collapse into piles of loose bones if the flesh and connective tissue that joined them in life are removed. (theatlantic.com)
  • There are different types of bone cancers, which are typically defined as a malignant (cancerous) tumor of the bone that destroys normal bone tissue. (massgeneral.org)
  • The Sarcoma Program in the Department of Radiation Oncology uses state-of-the-art radiation therapies to treat soft tissue and bone tumors, both malignant and benign. (massgeneral.org)
  • Bone is living tissue. (latimes.com)
  • To keep bones strong, your body is always breaking down old bone and replacing it with new bone tissue. (latimes.com)
  • During the first three weeks, bones grew stronger as the fluoxetine impaired osteoclasts, cells that usually deplete bone tissue. (newscientist.com)
  • The soft tissue that fills most bone cavities and consists of yellowish fatty tissue or reddish vascular tissue. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The spongy, red tissue that fills the bone cavities of mammals. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Mechanisms include a generalized increase in activation frequency at sites close to metastatic tissue, an imbalance between the amount of bone formed and that resorbed within resorption cavities, and uncoupling of bone formation from bone resorption. (nih.gov)
  • The bone is a dynamic hard tissue that undergoes a continuous remodelling process to maintain skeletal strength and integrity, with 10% of the skeleton being replaced annually. (nih.gov)
  • Surgeons use the location and size of tumour to plan how to completely remove the bone cancer along with a margin of normal tissue. (cancer.ca)
  • What is Bone Tissue? (wisegeek.com)
  • Bone tissue, or osseous tissue, is a type of connective tissue used in forming bones. (wisegeek.com)
  • There are two types of bone tissue, referred to as cortical bone and cancellous bone. (wisegeek.com)
  • There are two types of cortical bone tissue as well, known as lamellar and woven bone. (wisegeek.com)
  • This is the weaker of the two types of bone tissue. (wisegeek.com)
  • It resembles a sponge, and can usually be found inside bones, surrounded by cortical tissue, and at joints at the end of long bones. (wisegeek.com)
  • Although it is much less dense and comparatively weaker than cortical bone tissue, cancellous tissue serves an important purpose. (wisegeek.com)
  • Recent stem cell research has lead to promising work in bone tissue engineering. (wisegeek.com)
  • Scientists at the Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics in Faenza found that by heating rattan wood at high pressures while adding calcium and phosphate, they can create a synthetic for bone that is load-bearing, durable, and structured so much like real bone that blood and tissue cells have no problem treating it as if it were a continuation of the actual bone. (treehugger.com)
  • Bone is made of different kinds of tissue. (rochester.edu)
  • The periosteum is a thin layer of tissue that covers most of a bone. (rochester.edu)
  • It contains the bone marrow and fibrous tissue called trabeculae. (rochester.edu)
  • The research team, led by Dr. Anna Spagnoli, an associate professor of pediatrics at the university, derived the stem cells from bone marrow samples to locate and repair broken bones in mice. (redorbit.com)
  • Twenty percent of broken bones cannot heal on their own, which affects 600,000 people in the United States each year. (redorbit.com)
  • When the picture comes out, it won't look like the ones in your photo album, but doctors know how to look at these pictures to see things like broken bones. (rchsd.org)
  • does ibuprofen slow down the process of healing broken bones? (drugs.com)
  • Do broken bones generate heat? (drugs.com)
  • Cell-rich cancellous bone stimulates bone formation more effectively than does cortical bone , which gives better structural support. (britannica.com)
  • Cortical bone is also known as compact or dense bone, and most of a body's bones are made from this kind of bone. (wisegeek.com)
  • Purposes of cortical bone include protection, support, and storage of minerals . (wisegeek.com)
  • Minerals that the body needs, like calcium , are also stored in cortical bone until the body has a need for them. (wisegeek.com)
  • Milk Matters is a public health education campaign launched by the National Institutes of Health to promote calcium consumption among tweens and teens, especially during the ages of 11 to 15, a time of critical bone growth. (kidshealth.org)
  • Are the pelleted bones calcium-depleted relative to fresh-killed (uneaten) small-mammal bones? (scienceblogs.com)
  • Does owl pellet composition vary during nesting (more calcium needed, from those bones, for making egg-shells) or are the bones regurgitated before much useful calcium/etc absorption takes place? (scienceblogs.com)
  • I have wondered if bony excrescences of some dinosaurs (frills, armour, bone-domes of Pachycephalosaurs etc) might usefully have served (amongst other uses) as storage depots for calcium/other minerals: as reserves of what might otherwise be limiting factors, thus allowing species so endowed to lay larger or oftener-repeated clutches of eggs, and/or to regurgitate calcium-rich material, to give their young a selective advantage ie rapid growth. (scienceblogs.com)
  • A type of bone that female birds use as a calcium reserve for making eggshell has been found inside the fossilised thigh bone of a Tyrannosaurus rex . (newscientist.com)
  • Densely mineralised and rich in blood vessels, medullary bone can be deposited quickly when females ovulate and can quickly release calcium when it is needed to form eggshell, says Mary Schweitzer at North Carolina State University in Raleigh, US, and one of the study team. (newscientist.com)
  • The calcium reserves are critical for female birds because they have strong but lightly-structured bones. (newscientist.com)
  • The study also found that the medication worsened age-related bone loss even for those who took adequate supplements of vitamin D and calcium, which are prescribed to prevent bone loss. (go.com)
  • The discovery helps explain why some people who survive heart damage develop abnormal calcium deposits--the main component of bone--in the valves or walls of the heart. (eurekalert.org)
  • Bone density is a measurement of the amount of calcium and other minerals found in your bones. (healthline.com)
  • Researchers have reported that low protein intake decreases calcium absorption and may also affect rates of bone formation and breakdown ( 22 ). (healthline.com)
  • However, concerns have also been raised that high-protein diets leach calcium from bones in order to counteract increased acidity in the blood. (healthline.com)
  • In a finely balanced, coupled and sequential process (indicated by the dashed arrows), haematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-derived osteoclasts resorb bone (releasing growth factors and calcium) and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived osteoblasts replace the voids with new bone, a process that is dependent on osteoblast commitment, proliferation and differentiation coupled with osteoblast production of type I collagen and its subsequent mineralization to form the calcified matrix of bone. (nih.gov)
  • Its proponents suggest that this menu plan could lead to stronger bones than the typical American diet rich in dairy products and animal protein, often enhanced by calcium supplements. (nytimes.com)
  • Bones are the storage tank for calcium compounds that regulate the acid-base balance of the blood, which must be maintained within a very narrow range. (nytimes.com)
  • When the blood becomes even slightly too acid, alkaline calcium compounds - like calcium carbonate, the acid-neutralizer in Tums - are leached from bones to reduce the acidity. (nytimes.com)
  • Those receiving bicarbonate, in an amount equivalent to nine servings of fruits and vegetables daily, experienced much lower levels of calcium loss in the urine, as well as a loss of N-telopeptide, the biochemical marker of bone resorption. (nytimes.com)
  • By contrast, Dr. Insogna said that although eating more protein raised the loss of calcium in urine, it also improved intestinal absorption of calcium and thus might not result in bone loss. (nytimes.com)
  • Bone meal is used as a source of calcium, phosphorus, and trace elements. (rochester.edu)
  • Calcium makes up the mineral content of your bones and teeth. (rochester.edu)
  • The lead content in bone meal is much higher than that in refined calcium carbonate. (rochester.edu)
  • Bone char possesses a low decoloration capacity and must be used in large quantities, however, it is also able to remove various inorganic impurities, most importantly sulfates and the ions of magnesium and calcium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Now a structure called medullary bone, previously found only inside the leg bones of living female birds, has been identified inside the same T. rex femur which seems to have preserved blood vessels for nearly 70 million years. (newscientist.com)
  • Tissues outside of the bones don't naturally calcify, yet mineralization of organs, including the heart, blood vessels, and kidneys, occurs with age and is exacerbated in people with diabetes or kidney disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • Amputation is usually only necessary when the bone cancer affects vital nerves or blood vessels to the limb or the tumour is so large it affects all of the soft tissues surrounding the bone cancer. (cancer.ca)
  • The study found that those with vitamin B12 concentrations below 148 pM/L had significantly lower average bone mineral density--at the hip in men, and at the spine in women--than those with concentrations above. (usda.gov)
  • Ribbons and struts of bone lock his skull to his spine, span and immobilize his shoulder and hip joints. (theatlantic.com)
  • Our multidisciplinary team provides expert care for patients with chordoma, a slow-growing bone cancer that can occur anywhere along the spine from the base of the skull to the tailbone. (massgeneral.org)
  • In the Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging at Massachusetts General Hospital, musculoskeletal radiologists are recognized internationally for clinical expertise in the diagnosis of bone, joint and spine disorders including sports injury, trauma, arthritis, cancer and other conditions. (massgeneral.org)
  • It is often difficult for doctors to completely remove bone tumours in the spine, pelvis and base of the skull, so they will use other treatments for these tumours. (cancer.ca)
  • ClickPress, Mon Jul 29 2019] The attractive benefits of bone marrow processing systems over manual bone marrow aspiration and analytical chemistry isolation methods, such as consistency, high recoveries in a targeted volume, simultaneous processing, automation, smaller processing times, elimination of cell separation media or sedimentation agents, are driving the adoption of bone marrow processing systems. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • USPRwire, Fri Aug 16 2019] A bone marrow processing system is a functionally closed, sterile system designed for automatically isolating and concentrating stem cells derived from donated bone marrow aspirate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Your wrist is made up of eight small bones (carpal bones) plus two long bones in your forearm - the radius and the ulna. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The circulatory system in long bones is incompletely understood. (nature.com)
  • A new study published in Nature Metabolism unveils the presence of dense vascular networks in long bones that facilitate the egress of bone marrow cells and potentially the exchange of nutrients between the bone marrow and the systemic circulation. (nature.com)
  • Lesions, which may be single or multiple, are preferentially located in long bones, especially in the femur and, more rarely, in the pelvis and vertebrae 4 , 5 , 6 . (isciii.es)
  • It was in 2016 when TMC's first bone marrow transplant was performed successfully. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Our multidisciplinary team of specialists provides comprehensive treatment for patients with bone cancers including osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma and the Ewing Family of Tumors (EFTs). (massgeneral.org)
  • Primary bone lymphoma (PBL) accounts for about 1-5% of malignant bone tumors and accounts for only 5% of extra-nodal lymphomas and less than 1% of lymphomas in general 1 , 2 , 3 . (isciii.es)
  • The variability of different primary tumors in the susceptibility to metastatic bone disease is poorly understood. (nih.gov)
  • The first step in bone healing is to create cartilage as a glue," Spagnoli said. (redorbit.com)
  • But just creating cartilage is not enough to fix a broken bone. (redorbit.com)
  • Epiphysiodesis (the fixing of the epiphysis to the bone shaft) is aimed at temporary or permanent cessation of growth in a metaphyseal cartilage. (britannica.com)
  • The function of each nasal bone is to bind together the cartilage that forms individual nose contours and shapes. (healthline.com)
  • Where bones come together, there is usually a layer of cartilage at the edges. (rochester.edu)
  • An injury might also cause bleeding and swelling in the area between your cartilage and the bone beneath it. (rochester.edu)
  • In contrast to endochondral bone, dermal bone does not form from cartilage that then calcifies, and it is often ornamented. (wikipedia.org)
  • Help the skeleton find himself up to the last bone and become a human again! (steampowered.com)
  • In Just Bones, you play the role of a skeleton who wants to become human again. (steampowered.com)
  • Traction is applied by ropes and pulleys fastened to the skin by adhesive tape or directly to the skeleton with the aid of metal pins drilled into bone . (britannica.com)
  • Fisher hopes to display the bones at the University of Michigan Museum of Natural History, possibly combined with fiberglass casts of bones from other Michigan mammoths to form a complete skeleton. (history.com)
  • A dermal bone or investing bone or membrane bone is a bony structure derived from intramembranous ossification forming components of the vertebrate skeleton including much of the skull, jaws, gill covers, shoulder girdle and fin spines rays (lepidotrichia), and the shell (of tortoises and turtles). (wikipedia.org)
  • This study is the first to use computed tomography (CT) scans to take a detailed look at the exact type of bone loss experienced by women who take aromatase inhibitors. (go.com)
  • This causes a subperiosteal hematoma, a type of bone bruise. (rochester.edu)
  • Any type of bone in your body can get a bone bruise. (rochester.edu)
  • In healthy bones, there is a constant ebb and flow: bone is removed by osteoclasts and rebuilt by osteoblasts. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Osteoclasts can be tricked into destroying too much bone, or osteoblasts may be cajoled into sheltering tumor cells and protecting them from chemotherapy . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Teitelbaum, S. L. Bone resorption by osteoclasts. (nature.com)
  • Because osteolysis is primarily mediated by the activation of osteoclasts, there has been a great deal of interest in the use of agents which primarily affect bone metabolism to alter the natural history of metastatic bone disease. (nih.gov)
  • In fact, in late stage breast cancer , approximately 70 percent of patients experience bone metastasis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The recent investigation was particularly interested in the molecular role of osteoblasts in bone metastasis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In rare cases, if you have just a single area of metastasis in one area of a bone, you have no other evidence of breast cancer in the body, and you're generally in good health, your doctor may consider surgery to remove that single tumor to give you a better chance of having an extended period with no evidence of disease. (breastcancer.org)
  • Doctors have different opinions on the usefulness of surgery for bone metastasis, so check with your doctor to see what he or she recommends. (breastcancer.org)
  • Schematic representation of tumour cell interactions within the bone microenvironment during stages of tumour metastasis to bone - tumour cell homing, dormancy, colonization and expansion. (nih.gov)
  • But a new study links vitamin B12 deficiency with low bone mineral density in men, and confirms similar, previously reported findings in women. (usda.gov)
  • Researchers funded by the Agricultural Research Service ( ARS ) reported the findings in the Journal of Bone and Mineral Research . (usda.gov)
  • This study suggests adequate vitamin B12 intake is important for maintaining bone mineral density. (usda.gov)
  • A bone density test, also known as bone mass measurement or bone mineral density test, measures the strength and density of your bones as you approach menopause and, when the test is repeated sometime later, can help determine how quickly you are losing bone mass and density. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Bone mineral density is influenced by a number of factors including diet, exercise, hormones and genetics. (abc.net.au)
  • They then looked at participant's bone mineral density to work out if clusters of people with similar bone mineral densities also have similar variations in their SNPs, says Wilson. (abc.net.au)
  • In total, the meta-analysis found 20 genetic regions, known as loci, with a strong association to bone mineral density. (abc.net.au)
  • He says factors other than genetics, such as diet, sunlight and exercise, can affect bone mineral density. (abc.net.au)
  • Vegetables also seem to increase bone mineral density, also known as bone density. (healthline.com)
  • Studies in older men and women who performed weight-bearing exercise showed increases in bone mineral density, bone strength and bone size, as well as reductions in markers of bone turnover and inflammation ( 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 ). (healthline.com)
  • Woven bone is made very quickly by the cells called osteoblasts , and it is much weaker than lamellar. (wisegeek.com)
  • Dermal bone is formed within the dermis and grows by accretion only - the outer portion of the bone is deposited by osteoblasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancellous bone is also referred to as trabecular bone, and commonly referred to as spongy bone . (wisegeek.com)
  • A group of archaeologists in England this week lifted the lid on a Roman child's coffin, discovering that it contains fragments of bones and two tiny bangles. (livescience.com)
  • Based on these tests, the surgeon will let you know the types of reconstruction options available following removal of your child's bone cancer. (cancer.ca)
  • A team of scientists has designed a new weapon to use in the war against bone metastases. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Their recent study focused specifically on bone metastases and how cancer cells communicate with bone cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Bone and cancer: pathophysiology and treatment of metastases. (nih.gov)
  • Understanding the crucial components of the bone microenvironment that influence tumour localization, along with the tumour-derived factors that modulate cellular and protein matrix components of bone to favour tumour expansion and invasion, is central to the pathophysiology of bone metastases. (nih.gov)
  • Basic findings of tumour-bone interactions have uncovered numerous therapeutic opportunities that focus on the bone microenvironment to prevent and treat bone metastases. (nih.gov)
  • It is the 3rd most commonly fractured carpal bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most commonly injured carpal bone is the scaphoid bone, located near the base of your thumb. (mayoclinic.org)
  • All of this loss makes your bones weaker. (latimes.com)
  • Some sex-specific traits are preserved in bones, such as differences in size or skull adornment. (newscientist.com)
  • The function of some dermal bone is conserved throughout vertebrates, although there is variation in shape and in the number of bones in the skull roof and postcranial structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fundamental problems in transplantation of bone, as with other tissues, are cell death because of deficient blood supply and a tendency toward rejection. (britannica.com)
  • This may involve removing some of the soft tissues surrounding the bone or a joint next to the affected bone. (cancer.ca)
  • One of the largest bones discovered was a mammoth femur, measuring about 5 feet long, which Davis said could mean the mammoth was anywhere from 14 to 15 feet or more in height according to Clark. (go.com)
  • Tumours produce various factors that regulate bone formation at different levels of osteoblast development. (nih.gov)
  • Ancestral theropods were small animals with hollow bones, while other dinosaurs had very small marrow cavities with no room for such structures. (newscientist.com)
  • Soft red and yellow substances that fill cavities in bone. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Each nasal bone has four bones, which form joints: two cranium and two facial bones. (healthline.com)
  • Each nasal bone has two surfaces: the outer and the inner. (healthline.com)
  • The outer surface of the nasal bone, which is covered by the compressor naris and the procerus muscles, is convex (it curves outward) from one side to the other and concavo-convex (curves in on one side and out on the other, like a contact lens) from the top to bottom. (healthline.com)
  • The inner surface of the nasal bone travels downward and has a groove that lets in one of the branches of the nasociliary nerve. (healthline.com)
  • In the 18th and 19th century, bone char mixed with tallow or wax (or both) were used by soldiers in the field to impregnate military leather equipment, both to increase its lifespan and as the simplest way to obtain pigment for black leatherwares. (wikipedia.org)
  • Procedures used to test bone marrow include the bone marrow aspiration and bone marrow biopsy, according to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (reference.com)
  • This procedure involves attaching special screws or metal plates to the outer surface of the bone. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This helped researchers examine the outer structure of the bone separately from the inner meshwork. (go.com)
  • The outer shell of your bones also gets thinner. (latimes.com)
  • Humerus , long bone of the upper limb or forelimb of land vertebrates that forms the shoulder joint above, where it articulates with a lateral depression of the shoulder blade (glenoid cavity of scapula ), and the elbow joint below, where it articulates with projections of the ulna and the radius . (britannica.com)
  • A class of medication used to prevent and treat breast cancer in postmenopausal women may boost the risk of bone loss, according to a new study published Monday in the journal Lancet Oncology. (go.com)
  • There are 2 main types of bone marrow - red and yellow. (cancer.ca)
  • Getting enough protein is important for healthy bones. (healthline.com)
  • In fact, about 50% of bone is made of protein. (healthline.com)
  • In fact, research suggests that older women, in particular, appear to have better bone density when they consume higher amounts of protein ( 25 , 26 , 27 ). (healthline.com)
  • What's more, diets containing a greater percentage of calories from protein may help preserve bone mass during weight loss. (healthline.com)
  • Now a new hormone has entered the picture-osteocalcin, a protein produced and secreted by bone. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The researchers then knocked out the gene coding for the bone protein in mice and found the animals exhibited a much milder change in physiological fight-or-flight measures, such as increased heart rate, higher levels of blood glucose or a rise in temperature-confirmation that osteocalcin played a critical role in the stress response. (scientificamerican.com)
  • At the same time, researchers at the Yale School of Medicine are studying the possible bone benefits of adding protein supplements to the diets of older Americans who habitually consume low levels of protein. (nytimes.com)
  • It is easy to become lost with Irréelle as she navigates the eerie passages of the graveyard, listening to the hum of human bones. (indiebound.org)
  • If it were human bones, it would've taken a totally different direction," Sissel said. (go.com)
  • Do These Cave Dogs Hunger For Human Bones? (care2.com)
  • But some are now saying that the most dangerous force in Dahab comes not from the sea or car bombs in nearby cities, but from a blood-thirsty pack of rescue dogs who have developed a taste for human bones. (care2.com)
  • The researchers also show that heart calcification can be prevented in mice by blocking an enzyme that regulates bone mineralization with small molecules. (eurekalert.org)
  • A high intake of green and yellow vegetables has been linked to increased bone mineralization during childhood and the maintenance of bone mass in young adults ( 3 , 4 , 5 ). (healthline.com)
  • It is a three-sided bone found within the proximal row of carpal bones. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the study, she shows the T. rex medullary bone is similar to that found in living emus and ostriches - large animals which are close to the evolutionary roots of modern birds. (newscientist.com)
  • But the new study found healthy postmenopausal women who took 25 mg of a type of aromatase inhibitor called exemestane daily for two years experienced bone loss in their wrists and ankles. (go.com)
  • Studies in children, including those with type 1 diabetes, have found that this type of activity increases the amount of bone created during the years of peak bone growth ( 9 , 10 ). (healthline.com)
  • However, one study found little improvement in bone density among older men who performed the highest level of weight-bearing exercise over nine months ( 15 ). (healthline.com)
  • One study in men with low bone mass found that although both resistance training and weight-bearing exercise increased bone density in several areas of the body, only resistance training had this effect in the hip ( 21 ). (healthline.com)
  • There have been discoveries of extinct species about 20 miles away from OSU, but this was the first time ancient bones were found on campus, according to Clark. (go.com)
  • While there were countless pieces of animal bone found, there were no artifacts or human bone discovered. (go.com)
  • Now archaeology students will be identifying bones in class that were found only a few hundred feet away from them. (go.com)
  • But her team have now found that giving mice fluoxetine - the active ingredient in Prozac - for six weeks causes them to lose bone mass. (newscientist.com)
  • Ducy's team found that citalopram didn't have any positive or negative impact on bones. (newscientist.com)
  • Researchers at Columbia University in New York studied the records of more than nine million people and found that even slight rises in airborne particles from vehicle emissions was linked to lower bone density. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • But the new study, published in the Lancet, found that pollution undermined bone strength regardless of lifestyle. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • This is the story of Edwin Drinker Cope and Othniel Charles Marsh, two scientists who found and fought for those bones, and the artist Charles R. Knight who almost single-handedly brought dinosaurs back to life for an awestruck public. (indiebound.org)
  • Stem cells are found in the bone marrow, blood and umbilical cord blood. (cancer.ca)
  • In adults, most stem cells are found in the bone marrow. (cancer.ca)
  • The specimen, nicknamed Kevin, is the first Apatosaurus ajax muzzle ever found, and the discovery is likely to help paleontologists understand how A. ajax is related to other Apatosaurus kin, said Matthew Mossbrucker, the director of the Morrison Natural History Museum in Morrison, Colo., and the paleontologist who first identified the bones. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • A study of around 65,000 people across the U.K., of which nearly 2,000 were vegans, found those not eating meat or fish were 43 percent more likely to suffer any type of broken bone. (newsweek.com)
  • The Franklin County coroner was scheduled to perform an autopsy yesterday on the remains, which were found not intact but rather, "a bone here, a bone there," Barker said. (dispatch.com)
  • Clues to the mystery of why Viking colonies in Greenland thrived and disappeared have been found in the DNA of medieval walrus bones housed in more than a dozen European museums. (smh.com.au)
  • In bony fish, dermal bone is found in the fin rays and scales. (wikipedia.org)
  • Without that glue, the bone will not be able to heal. (redorbit.com)
  • Everyone who experiences a fractured bone will heal differently. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If a person with a fractured bone does not get treatment from a doctor, there is a chance that the bone will heal in an unusual position. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A cast will allow the bone to heal in the correct position. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • You need good cirluation for any broken bone to heal. (drugs.com)
  • davisleevickie, I have never heard of ibuprofen not causing bones to heal properly, but I sure know pain impedes the healing process. (drugs.com)
  • Most bone bruises slowly heal over 1 to 2 months. (rochester.edu)
  • A larger bone bruise may take longer to heal. (rochester.edu)
  • Most bone bruises heal without any problems. (rochester.edu)
  • Brisk walking several times a day or hopping on a treadmill is an effective way to keep bones strong," said Shockney. (go.com)
  • The carpal bones function as a unit to provide a bony superstructure for the hand. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whether your doctor calls it osteopenia or just says you have low bone mass, consider it a warning. (latimes.com)
  • Depending on the type of surgery used to treat bone cancer, a child may need more surgeries later in life. (cancer.ca)
  • It could show that you have normal bone density. (latimes.com)
  • Some of these may delay normal bone healing. (rochester.edu)
  • What is a bone density test? (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • What are some reasons for having a bone density test? (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Bone density is typically measured in doctors' offices by a standard bone density test. (go.com)
  • But the women enrolled in the study, who were, on average, 60 years old, were periodically monitored using both a standard bone density test and a CT scan. (go.com)
  • You can have a bone density test to find out how solid your bones are. (latimes.com)
  • In adult mammals, the bone marrow of certain bones is the location of stem cells that give rise to the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Bone marrow is the source of red blood cells, platelets, and most white blood cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Red bone marrow is where stem cells develop into red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. (cancer.ca)
  • Red bone marrow is almost completely made up of specialized cells that make the majority of the body's red and white blood cells, and platelets. (wisegeek.com)
  • Abnormal counts of red or white blood cells and platelets usually determine whether or not a bone marrow biopsy is necessary. (reference.com)
  • It is very strong and dense, and it makes up the hard exterior of a bone. (wisegeek.com)
  • In reptiles and amphibians, the bone is instead referred to as the ulnare, since (at least in the most primitive fossils) it articulates with the ulna. (wikipedia.org)
  • This elegant work provides a mechanism for how a widely prescribed SSRI affects bone," says René Rizzoli of Geneva University Hospital in Switzerland. (newscientist.com)
  • In contrast, much more is known of the manner in which metastatic disease affects bone remodeling to induce osteolytic bone disease. (nih.gov)
  • Knobby saves Nick and a Navajo boy from an abandoned mine shaft in Southwestern New Mexico, and in the process unearths a dinosaur bone. (smashwords.com)
  • Believing the strange object may have been a dinosaur bone, the farmer contacted the University of Michigan Museum of Paleontology, located just 10 miles away from his field. (history.com)
  • A bone health campaign for girls ages 9 to 12 that teaches how to get and keep strong, healthy bones for life. (kidshealth.org)
  • The findings from the CT study, she wrote, suggest that the negative side effects of aromatase inhibitors on bone health are "substantially underestimated. (go.com)
  • One of the best types of activity for bone health is weight-bearing or high-impact exercise, which promotes the formation of new bone. (healthline.com)
  • Performing weight-bearing and resistance training exercises can help increase bone formation during bone growth and protect bone health in older adults, including those with low bone density. (healthline.com)
  • An alternative theory of bone health may - or may not - explain these apparent contradictions. (nytimes.com)
  • The science behind low-acid eating and the research findings that do, and do not, support it have been spelled out in a new book, " Building Bone Vitality ," by Amy Joy Lanou, an assistant professor of health and wellness at the University of North Carolina at Asheville , and Michael Castleman, a health writer. (nytimes.com)
  • The authors said the study's findings did not account for poor bone health or accidents. (newsweek.com)
  • Age UK's Falls Awareness Week (18-22 June) urges older people to take part in a range of local activities, including exercise sessions and information and advice roadshows to learn how to look after bone health all year round. (ageuk.org.uk)
  • If cancer spreads to the bones, it can be particularly difficult to treat. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Sometimes, cancer enters bones. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Once cancer has put down roots in bone, it can be very difficult to combat. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Rebecca Tang, also in Kang's team, explains, "Previous work in the lab had shown that a molecule called Jagged1 is a critical part of this crosstalk and makes it easier for breast cancer cells to metastasize to bone. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • But in bone cancer , this normal process is hijacked. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Dubai: The distraught parents of a three-year old cancer patient are appealing for help with their little one's chances of survival hinging on an urgent bone marrow transplant procedure. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cancer to bone: a fatal attraction. (nih.gov)
  • When cancer metastasizes to bone, considerable pain and deregulated bone remodelling occurs, greatly diminishing the possibility of cure. (nih.gov)
  • Most children with bone cancer will have surgery. (cancer.ca)
  • A child will need care and support for months to years after surgery for bone cancer. (cancer.ca)
  • Anyone who needs bone replacement, from those who have an accident to cancer patients, are potential candidates for the synthetic material. (treehugger.com)
  • Bone char (Latin: carbo animalis) is a porous, black, granular material produced by charring animal bones. (wikipedia.org)
  • A transformation that begins in childhood and progresses relentlessly throughout life turns the muscles, tendons, and ligaments of FOP sufferers into bone. (theatlantic.com)
  • Other injuries often happen along with a bone bruise, such as damage to nearby ligaments. (rochester.edu)
  • We have cells that resorb damaged bone and cells that rebuild the bone. (abc.net.au)
  • Anterior view of the bones of the right shoulder, showing the clavicle (collarbone), scapula (shoulder blade), and humerus (upper arm bone). (britannica.com)
  • One of the goals of treatment is to restore the normal anatomy so a doctor will manipulate and reset each part of the bone into its correct anatomic position. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Transplantation of bone is aimed at stimulation of bone formation and giving structural support until a defect has been bridged by new bone. (britannica.com)
  • Well-meaning attempts to break free the joints or to carve away excess bone invariably make things worse. (theatlantic.com)
  • Bones are incredibly efficient - more efficient than any man-made structure,' says Chris Williams, an architecture professor at the University of Bath, England. (wired.com)
  • A spooky and adventurous debut illustrated fantasy novel about a girl made of dust and bone and imagination who seeks the truth about the magic that brought her to life. (indiebound.org)
  • The pages of this book are filled with imagination incarnate-in the form of a haunting heroine made from dust, bone, and a heart of gold. (indiebound.org)
  • Poppy swears that she is now being haunted by a china doll - who claims that it is made from the ground-up bones of a murdered girl. (goodreads.com)
  • Blood cells are made in the bone marrow. (cancer.ca)
  • Most of the bones in an adult's body are made of lamellar bone. (wisegeek.com)
  • As a person grows older, more and more red bone marrow is replaced by yellow bone marrow, which is made mostly of fat. (wisegeek.com)
  • Soon facial bones may be replaced with custom made replacement bone. (wisegeek.com)
  • Bone meal is made from defatted, dried animal bones that are ground to a fine powder. (rochester.edu)
  • In severe breaks, the broken bone might poke through the skin. (rchsd.org)
  • How severe your symptoms are and how long they last depend on how severe the bone bruise is. (rochester.edu)
  • So recently when an unexpected bounty arrived from one of the still-functioning hotels who sent over bones and meat scraps, it inadvertently fueled the fires of superstition in some who have long regarded the dogs as predators. (care2.com)
  • Vegans are at higher risk of breaking their bones than meat and fish eaters, according to new research conducted over almost 20 years. (newsweek.com)
  • Anthropology professor Loren Davis was called to the site to excavate the bones. (go.com)
  • See, we helped excavate that very bone several years ago on a very memorable day with Chiappe in the Utah desert. (latimes.com)
  • It is composed mainly of collagen , or ossein, fibers, and bone cells called osteocytes. (wisegeek.com)