In animals, the social relationship established between a male and female for reproduction. It may include raising of young.
A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.
Severe gender dysphoria, coupled with a persistent desire for the physical characteristics and social roles that connote the opposite biological sex. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)
Sexual activities of animals.
Clinical treatments used to change the physiological sexual characteristics of an individual.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Common name for perch-like fish of the family Cichlidae, belonging to the suborder Labroidei, order PERCIFORMES.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a systemic and contact insecticide.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
A macular lesion on the side of the FACE, involving the CONJUNCTIVA and EYELIDS, as well as the adjacent facial skin, SCLERA; OCULOMOTOR MUSCLES; and PERIOSTEUM. Histological features vary from those of a MONGOLIAN SPOT to those of a BLUE NEVUS.
Sounds used in animal communication.
Acquired and inherited conditions that feature DYSTONIA as a primary manifestation of disease. These disorders are generally divided into generalized dystonias (e.g., dystonia musculorum deformans) and focal dystonias (e.g., writer's cramp). They are also classified by patterns of inheritance and by age of onset.
The act, process, or an instance of narrating, i.e., telling a story. In the context of MEDICINE or ETHICS, narration includes relating the particular and the personal in the life story of an individual.
The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.
Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.
Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)
Pair bonding[edit]. The prairie vole is special for having pair bonding with its partner.[6] The male prairie vole has a ... Young, LJ; Murphy Young, AZ; Hammock, EA (2005). "Anatomy and neurochemistry of the pair bond". The Journal of Comparative ... For this pair bonding to take place, the male must stay one day with the female after they breed. Other species, such as the ... Young, Larry J.; Wang, Zuoxin (2004-10-01). "The neurobiology of pair bonding". Nature Neuroscience. 7 (10): 1048-1054. doi: ...
... such as violence against a beloved partner or problems with social bonding. Pair bonding, or intense social attachment, ... Release of oxytocin is important in the birthing process for the mother-child pair bond to occur in both individuals. Lactation ... Young, Larry J.; Murphy Young, Anne Z.; Hammock, Elizabeth A.D. (5 December 2005). "Anatomy and neurochemistry of the pair bond ... This may provide insight on issues with formation of pair bonds as well as psychological problems from an inefficient ...
Gray PB, Chapman JF, Burnham TC, McIntyre MH, Lipson SF, Ellison PT (June 2004). "Human male pair bonding and testosterone". ... Married men who engage in bond-maintenance activities such as spending the day with their spouse and/or child have no different ... Collectively, these results suggest that the presence of competitive activities rather than bond-maintenance activities are ...
These pair bonds typically last a single breeding season, but can last for the lifetime of a pair. A pair bond begins with the ... Often, the bonded pair is able to produce two groups of offspring in one breeding season. The male will continue to care for ... Once a pair bond is solidified, mating occurs in the water. Nests are usually created out of hollow holes in tree cavities. The ... Pairs easily bond. Their contact calls are a cat-like mee-oowing in ducks, a lingering peewoo in drakes. Most ringed teals ...
... pairs with adenine through hydrogen bonding. When base pairing with adenine, uracil acts as both a hydrogen bond ... Uracil's use in the body is to help carry out the synthesis of many enzymes necessary for cell function through bonding with ... Therefore, if there were an organism that used uracil in its DNA, the deamination of cytosine (which undergoes base pairing ... In RNA, uracil base-pairs with adenine and replaces thymine during DNA transcription. Methylation of uracil produces thymine. ...
In a Limerent-Limerent bond, both partners are limerent. Affectional bonding characterize those affectionate sexual ... pair-forming stage" of human affectionate bonding. The concept of limerence "provides a particular carving up of the semantic ... limerent-nonlimerent bonding. These bonds are characterized by unequal reciprocation. Lastly, those relationship bonds in which ... With an affectional bond, neither partner is limerent. With a Limerent-Nonlimerent bond, one partner is limerent. ...
It is likely involved in pair bonding. The chatter call is used to advertise nest sites (the reason it is also known as the " ... although a 2007 study did find that older males with brighter plumage were more likely to mate outside of the pair bond). ... Another theory suggests that extra-pair paternity is context dependent, with extra-pair young outperforming within-pair young ... The tree swallow has high rates of extra-pair paternity, 38% to 69% of nestlings being a product of extra-pair paternity, and ...
It may influence pair-bonding in voles. The high-density distributions of vasopressin receptor AVPr1a in prairie vole ventral ... Lim MM, Young LJ (2004). "Vasopressin-dependent neural circuits underlying pair bond formation in the monogamous prairie vole ... critical for pair bond formation. A very similar substance, lysine vasopressin (LVP) or lypressin, has the same function in ... sexual motivation and pair bonding, and maternal responses to stress. Vasopressin induces differentiation of stem cells into ...
Vasopressin and pair-bond formation: genes to brain to behavior (2006) Anatomy and neurochemistry of the pair bond (2005) The ... Johnson, Z. V.; Young, L. J. (2015). "Neurobiological mechanisms of social attachment and pair bonding". Current Opinion in ... Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) "Vasopressin and pair-bond formation: genes to brain to behavior". PubMed. PMID 16565480 ... Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) "Anatomy and neurochemistry of the pair bond". PubMed. PMID 16255009. Cite journal ...
Past studies have reported other social organizations in ruffed lemurs including monogamous pair bonding. This may have been ... Females typically have many affiliates and bond strongly with other females both within and outside their core areas, but do ... This can be misinterpreted as monogamous pair bonding. Ranging behavior can also exhibit seasonal variability. During the hot, ... Mating pairs often copulate many times during the course of a mating bout. The mating season lasts from May through July, ...
Homosexual pair-bonding can be established several ways; two of the main ways are pair bonding as partners or as companions. As ... Having created this bond with the male, they will share food with each other and not compete with each other. All members of ... Apart from sexual activity, it can refer to homosexual pair-bonding, homosexual parenting and homosexual acts of affection. ... These bonds made between females are for protection against male bonobos. If a male bonobo attempts to harass a female bonobo, ...
Newly formed pairs spend more time singing than an established pair. Advertising the presence of a strong bond is advantageous ... Testing the Pair-Bonding Hypothesis during a Partner Exchange". Behaviour. 8 (136): 1005-1039. doi:10.1163/156853999501694. ... Palombit, Ryne A. (1996). "Pair Bonds in Monogamous Apes: A Comparison of the Siamang, Hylobates syndactylus, and the White- ... Pairs copulate during four to five months at intervals of two to three years. The peak of their reproductive activity is often ...
... and is bonded to four oxygen atoms, one of them through a double bond, arranged as the corners of a tetrahedron. Two or more of ... Hydrogen Bonding, Ion Pairing, and Metal Phosphates". Chemical Reviews. 114 (18): 9047-9153. doi:10.1021/cr5001496. PMID ... The single-bonded oxygen atoms that are not shared are completed with acidic hydrogen atoms. The general formula of a ... The phosphoric acid units can be bonded together in rings (cyclic structures) forming metaphosphoric acid molecules. The ...
After bonding, the pair accept each other as family. Katie was kidnapped after "the blackout" by Vince Keeler and is badly ... The both bond over a game of Catan and end up kissing. Otis, then, asks Severide for his blessing as he wants to take Katie on ... He also gives her a goodbye gift from her recent ex-partner: a photo of the pair together, on the back of which is written a ... In the episode "The Last One for Mom", Pouch bonds with Detective Holloway's son JJ, who Kelly is watching over while she is ...
A pair of gang-gang cockatoos in NSW, Australia (male with red head feathers). Cockatoos make lasting pair bonds. ... possibly due to the strength of the pair-bond.[56] Like most parrots, the cockatoos are cavity nesters, nesting in holes in ... Cockatoos are monogamous breeders, with pair bonds that can last many years. Many birds pair up in flocks before they reach ... particularly for established pairs, with the black cockatoos alone engaging in courtship feeding. Established pairs do engage ...
... 足 counter for pairs of footwear; 札 counter for bonds, tickets; 杯 counter for cupfuls; 軒 counter for houses; 戸 counter for ... bond; 貯 savings; 税 tax; 租 tax; 賦 levy, installment; 賄 bribe; 賂 bribe; 賭 gamble; 芸 art; 絵 picture, painting; 画 picture; 楽 music ... 双 pair; 多 many; 少 few; 半 half; 両 both; 各 each; 毎 every; 次 next; 翌 the following; 番 numerical order; 順 sequence; 序 sequence 個 ...
Amanda C.J. Vincent & Laila M. Sadler (1995). "Faithful pair bonds in wild seahorse, Hippocampus whitei". Animal Behaviour. 50 ... The daily greetings help to cement the bond between the pair.[27] ... "Faithful pair bonds in wild seahorses, Hippocampus whitei" (PDF ... Amanda C.J. Vincent (1995). "A role for daily greetings in maintaining seahorse pair bonds". Animal Behaviour. 49: 258-260. doi ... Kvarnemo C; Moore G.I; Jones A.G; Nelson W.S; Avise J.C. (2000). "Monogamous pair bonds and mate switching in the Western ...
White lines indicate base pairing by hydrogen bonds. In the orientation shown, the acceptor stem is on top and the anticodon on ... Once the peptide bond is formed, the tRNA in the P/P site is deacylated, or has a free 3' end, and the tRNA in the A/A site ... Some anticodons can pair with more than one codon due to a phenomenon known as wobble base pairing. Frequently, the first ... The acceptor stem is a 7- to 9-base pair (bp) stem made by the base pairing of the 5'-terminal nucleotide with the 3'-terminal ...
The pair bonds of the parrots and cockatoos are strong and a pair remains close during the nonbreeding season, even if they ... Allopreening is used by the pair to help maintain the bond. Cooperative breeding, where birds other than the breeding pair help ... As with many birds, pair bond formation is preceded by courtship displays; these are relatively simple in the case of cockatoos ... Brazil now has only a very small number of breeding pairs left in the wild.[100] ...
Grebe, Nicholas M.; Sarafin, Ruth E.; Strenth, Chance R.; Zilioli, Samuele (2019). "Pair-bonding, fatherhood, and the role of ... The maternal and paternal bond manifest particularly in response to the infant cry. Its mechanism has been partly elucidated by ...
After the discovery of the hydrogen bonded A:T and C:G pairs, Watson and Crick soon had their anti-parallel, double helical ... Crick proposed that there was a corresponding set of small "adaptor molecules" that would hydrogen bond to short sequences of a ... The base pairs are held together by hydrogen bonds. The phosphate backbones are anti-parallel. ... The base pairs are held together by hydrogen bonds, the same non-covalent interaction that stabilize the protein α-helix. The ...
After establishment of the pair bond, the male defends the pair from other intruding males. The purpose of such pair bonds may ... The members of the pair are usually within 15-20 ft of each other and run together when approached by intruders. The pair bond ... Its pair bond is most evident during the breeding season. ... Another sound, emitted by males in a pair when approached by an ... A conspicuous trait of the white-sided jackrabbit is its tendency to be found in pairs, usually one male and one female. ...
Like the other carbon-halogen bonds, the C-Cl bond is a common functional group that forms part of core organic chemistry. ... It readily protonates electrophiles containing lone-pairs or π bonds. Solvolysis, ligand replacement reactions, and oxidations ... Chlorine tends to react with compounds including M-M, M-H, or M-C bonds to form M-Cl bonds.[30] ... Halogen bond energies (kJ/mol)[30] X XX HX BX3 AlX3 CX4 ... 2) due to the very weak hydrogen bonding between hydrogen and ...
... this is known as a wide pair of hydrogen bonds. By contrast, residue j may hydrogen-bond to different residues altogether, or ... Spelled out explicitly, β-strand 2 is H-bonded to β-strand 1, which is H-bonded to β-strand 3, which is H-bonded to β-strand 4 ... j are adjacent in two hydrogen-bonded β-strands, then they do not hydrogen bond to each other; rather, one residue forms ... j are adjacent in two hydrogen-bonded β-strands, then they form two mutual backbone hydrogen bonds to each other's flanking ...
... but also includes the capacity for pair bond formation and romantic love.[23]:73, 75[2]:20-21[33] ... the desire for sex reassignment among some natal males is a form of internalized pair-bonding; (4) autogynephilia is a type of ...
Single-stranded DNA segments of both species are allowed to form complementary pair bonding with each other. More closely ... It involves attaching a generic sequence to every single strand that generic primers can bond to, and thus all of the DNA ... Some issues with PCR is that it requires overlapping primer pairs for ancient DNA due to the short sequences. There can also be ... Extension occurs when Taq polymerase is added to the sample and matches base pairs to turn the two single strands into two ...
This approach was first used by Linus Pauling in his seminal work The Nature of the Chemical Bond.[4] Bondi also conducted a ... The molecules in a molecular crystal are held together by van der Waals forces rather than chemical bonds. In principle, the ... from measurements of atomic spacing between pairs of unbonded atoms in crystals or from measurements of electrical or optical ... Pauling, Linus (1945). The Nature of the Chemical Bond. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-0333-2.. ...
Pair at nest at Healesville Sanctuary near Melbourne. Brolgas are monogamous and usually bond for life, though new pairings may ... A feature of a bonded couple is the synchronous calling which the female usually initiates. She stands with her wings folded ... Breeding success of 80 territorial pairs (estimated as percentage of pairs that successfully fledged at least one chick) was 59 ... He also recorded that it was easy to tame, and that James Macarthur had kept a pair at his home in Camden. Calling it the ...
Hence, the larger alkali metal atoms (further down the group) will be less electronegative as the bonding pair is less strongly ... The bond between a water molecule and the metal ion is a dative covalent bond, with the oxygen atom donating both electrons to ... For instance, ionic bonding gives way to metallic bonding along the series NaCl, Na2O, Na2S, Na3P, Na3As, Na3Sb, Na3Bi, Na.[10] ... In elements with even atomic numbers, protons are paired, with each member of the pair offsetting the spin of the other, ...
Frustrated Lewis pairEdit. Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane is a key reagent leading to the concept of frustrated Lewis pairs. The ... C6F5)3B was used to prepare a compound containing a Xe-C bond: (C6F5)3B + XeF2 → [C6F5Xe]+[(C6F5)2BF2]−. Upon reaction with ... Related fluoro-substituted boron compounds, such as those containing B-CF3 groups, decompose with formation of B-F bonds. Tris( ... Stephan, D. W., ""Frustrated Lewis Pairs": A New Strategy to Small Molecule Activation and Hydrogenation Catalysis", Dalton ...
It was not until the following century, with Gilbert N. Lewis's valence bond theory (1916) and Irving Langmuir's octet theory ... Newlands noted that many pairs of similar elements existed, which differed by some multiple of eight in mass number, and was ... of chemical bonding (1919), that the importance of the periodicity of eight would be accepted.[18][19][20] The Royal Chemistry ...
α-Phellandrene and β-phellandrene are cyclic monoterpenes and are double-bond isomers. In α-phellandrene, both double bonds are ... Phellandrene is the name for a pair of organic compounds that have a similar molecular structure and similar chemical ...
In ester lipids this is an ester bond, whereas in ether lipids this is an ether bond. Ether bonds are chemically more resistant ... Archaea usually have a single circular chromosome,[129] with as many as 5,751,492 base pairs in Methanosarcina acetivorans,[130 ... The tiny 490,885 base-pair genome of Nanoarchaeum equitans is one-tenth of this size and the smallest archaeal genome known; it ... The difference is the type of bond that joins the lipids to the glycerol moiety; the two types are shown in yellow in the ...
The first NMR spectrum of a double-helical DNA was published in 1977[9] using a synthetic, 30-base-pair double helix. To ... The presence or absence of imino proton resonances, or of coupling between 15N atoms across a hydrogen bond, indicates the ... Kearns, David; Patel, Dinshaw; Shulman, Robert (1971). "High Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of Hydrogen Bonded ... For exchangeable protons, which are for the most part the protons involved in base pairing, NOESY can be used to find through- ...
... valence bond/Lewis structure) bonding pairs and lone pairs.[5] For the hydrogen fluoride molecule, for example, two F lone ... Molecules with lone pairs[edit]. For molecules with lone pairs, the bonding orbitals are isovalent hybrids. For example, the ... 2014). "Chapter 3: The NBO View of Chemical Bonding". The Chemical Bond: Fundamental Aspects of Chemical Bonding. John Wiley & ... May 2014). "Chapter 7: Chemical bonding in Transition Metal Compounds". The Chemical Bond: Chemical Bonding Across the Periodic ...
Bonding and the hierarchy of esteem[edit]. As a buffer against the stressful conditions of their training, the trainee group ... Another example is milling, an exercise used for infantry training in which pairs of recruits wearing boxing gloves punch each ... an official report on Australian Defence Force training explained the importance of the group bond:. "Willingness to apply ... The toughness and bonding required increases the closer the contact with the enemy."[2] ...
In 1943, with the help of Arda Green, the pair illustrated that glycogen phosphorylase existed in either the a or b forms ... Finally, the deprotonated inorganic phosphate acts as a nucleophile and bonds with the carbocation, resulting in the formation ... 4-glycosidic bond. Glycogen phosphorylase is also studied as a model protein regulated by both reversible phosphorylation and ...
Consequently, compounds containing Si-H bonds are much more reactive than is H2. The strength of the Si-H bond is modestly ... Hence, MIISi with their zigzag chains of Si2 − anions (containing two lone pairs of electrons on each Si anion that can accept ... The Si-H bond strength is around 384 kJ/mol, which is about 20% weaker than the H-H bond in H2. ... this Si-H bond polarity is the opposite of that in the C-H bonds of methane. One consequence of this reversed polarity is the ...
One common form of polar interaction is the hydrogen bond, which is also known as the H-bond. For example, water forms H-bonds ... or as a result of an asymmetric arrangement of nonpolar covalent bonds and non-bonding pairs of electrons known as a full ... Carbon dioxide (CO2) has two polar C=O bonds, but the geometry of CO2 is linear so that the two bond dipole moments cancel and ... For example, the water molecule (H2O) contains two polar O−H bonds in a bent (nonlinear) geometry. The bond dipole moments do ...
Beasley Tim Beckham Albert Belle Mookie Betts Junius Bibbs Jim Bibby Joe Black Paul Blair Vida Blue Barry Bonds Bobby Bonds ... actor Cora Ann Pair Thomas, missionary T-Mo, rapper Leon Thomas III, actor Treach, rapper Michelle Thomas, actress, comedian ... civil rights activist Julian Bond, civil rights activist, professor and writer Ruby Bridges, civil rights activist Ralph Bunche ... actor De'Aundre Bonds, actor Joy Bryant, actress Chadwick Boseman, actor Sterling K. Brown, actor Mehcad Brooks, actor Neil ...
... the tungsten-selenium pair has been speculated to function analogously to the molybdenum-sulfur pairing of some molybdenum ... One of these enzymes is a radical SAM, a family of enzymes often associated with C-X bond-forming reactions (X = S, N). This ... However, if molybdenum is present, it is directly bonded to other metal atoms. Unlike many other cofactors, molybdenum cofactor ...
After Seth is paired with Jules during home economics class, she invites him to a party at her house that night. Their friend ... Meanwhile, Slater and Michaels take Fogell on a ride-along and then bond with him. Despite being on duty, they start drinking, ... To make it up to him, they pretend to arrest Fogell to make him look "badass." They resume their bonding, eventually destroying ... Becca and Seth apologize for their drunken behavior the previous night, and the boys pair off with the girls. Seth takes Jules ...
For example, a polymer film may be imaged to examine its bond to a multi-channel plastic plate used in blood analysis. SAM can ... In many industries, products that involve tubing, ceramic materials, composite materials or various types of bonded joints, ... with a confocal pair of 50 MHz ultrasonic lenses for focusing and detecting the ultrasonic energy. In 1974, this concept was ... The depth of interest may involve an internal bond between materials, or a depth at which a defect may occur in a homogeneous ...
... chemical bonding: Lewis formulation of a covalent bond: …electron pair is called a bonding pair; the three other pairs of ... electrons on the chlorine atom are called lone pairs and play no direct role in holding the two atoms together. ... In chemical bonding: Lewis formulation of a covalent bond. …electron pair is called a bonding pair; the three other pairs of ... In chemical bonding: Molecules with multiple bonds. All four pairs are bonding, so the ion is predicted to be a regular ...
The pair bonds of X. rotundiventralis may improve the survival rate of the young. Maintenance of the pair bond allows the ... Because pair bonds are generally identified from direct observations of pairs that maintain physical proximity, pair bonds may ... because pairs are not recognized in the schools, the question arises of whether the mating pairs maintain pair bonds so that ... although pair bonds do not necessarily reflect the genetic mating system [3,4]. Pair bonds are generally identified from direct ...
... there are several varieties of pair bonds: Short-term pair-bond: a transient mating or associations Long-term pair-bond: bonded ... These bonds can be temporary or last a lifetime. Pair bonding is a behavioral and physiological bond between two mated ... mated for life Social pair-bond: attachments for territorial or social reasons Clandestine pair-bond: quick extra-pair ... "Social Pair-Bonding and Resource Defense in Wild Red-Bellied Lemurs (Eulemur rubriventer)". "On Marriage and Pair Bonds". ...
Pair of replacement molds with mounting parts designed for the installation of jumper bonds to the head of the rail ... Joint Bond Mold Pair with Mounting Parts and Clips, Signal. Joint Bond Mold Pair Only, Power ...
Drinking alcohol has sex-dependent effects on pair bond formation in prairie voles ... Genetic variation in the vasopressin receptor 1a gene (AVPR1A) associates with pair-bonding behavior in humans. Hasse Walum, ... Mean score for the Partner Bonding Scale in the three groups. Partner Bonding Scale. 48.0 (6.50). 46.3 (6.16). 45.5 (6.71). 2, ... Genetic variation in the vasopressin receptor 1a gene (AVPR1A) associates with pair-bonding behavior in humans ...
Alcohol and pair bonding in prairie voles. Allison M. J. Anacker, Todd H. Ahern, Caroline M. Hostetler, Brett D. Dufour, ... Alcohol and pair bonding in prairie voles. Allison M. J. Anacker, Todd H. Ahern, Caroline M. Hostetler, Brett D. Dufour, ... Drinking alcohol has sex-dependent effects on pair bond formation in prairie voles. Allison M. J. Anacker, Todd H. Ahern, ... analysis suggests that the effects of alcohol on social bonding are mediated by neural mechanisms regulating pair bond ...
n A pair of electrons shared between two atoms and constituting a covalent bond model). (Whitten KW, Davis RE, Davis E, Peck LM ... n A pair of electrons shared between two atoms and constituting a covalent bond model). (Whitten KW, Davis RE, Davis E, Peck LM ... Gooch J.W. (2011) Bonding Pair. In: Gooch J.W. (eds) Encyclopedic Dictionary of Polymers. Springer, New York, NY. * .RIS Papers ...
Silicone wire is not easy to bond but Turnigy are now producing a bonded pair. This keeps the cable pair together making it ... Bonded pair. • Super flexible. • High strand count. • Pure silicone outer. Specs:. Type: Bonded Pair. Color: Black/Red. ... Turnigy High Quality 14AWG Silicone Wire 5M Bonded Pair (Black/Red). Turnigy High Quality 14AWG Silicone Wire 5M Bonded Pair ( ... Turnigy High Quality 14AWG Silicone Wire 2M Bonded Pair (Black/Red). Now save Speichern 0,00 € 0,00 € ...
... so your bond will be even stronger! I have no proof, but I swear cats like that are truly grateful. ...
For the H-bond acceptor, the ureido oxygen has two lone pairs of electrons with an H-bonding capability of 14.3 per lone pair. ... C) Difference between (A) and (B), which is a competing H-bond pairing process. (D) H-bond pairing process in which the H-bond ... 6 based on the definition of H-bonding capability.. (A) A competing H-bond pairing process shows the binding of two H-bonding ... To address the first issue of competing H-bonds in bulk water, we propose a new H-bond pairing principle to evaluate the ΔG in ...
pair′-bond′ v. n the exclusive relationship formed between... ... English dictionary definition of Pairbond. n. The temporary or ... Define Pairbond. Pairbond synonyms, Pairbond pronunciation, Pairbond translation, ... pair bonding n. Want to thank TFD for its existence? Tell a friend about us, add a link to this page, or visit the webmasters ... pair bond. (redirected from Pairbond). Also found in: Medical. pair bond. n.. The temporary or permanent association formed ...
Show all bonding valence electron pairs as l.... Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation ... Draw a line-bond structure for propene, CH3CH=CH2. Indicate the hybridization of the orbitals on each carbon, a.... Organic ...
The status of the pair bond now, in the modern world, is not addressed. Throughout I use pair bonding to mean a long-lasting ... 7. Evolution of the Pair Bond. So we come to the main event: the role of emotion in human pair bonding. ... 8. The asymmetric pair bond. The pair bond is bidirectional, but its two directions are different: it is asymmetric. The ... A.7 Sexual Crypsis Driving the Pair Bond. One could take the view that sexual crypsis arose simply because, in a pair bond, it ...
Genetics of Pair-Bond Formation. Two common alleles for the avpr1 microsatellite region, which differ by only 19 basepairs, but ... Wang et al. (2006) found that the pair-bonding hormone in the female, oxytocin (OT, see mechanism for more details) is released ... They then mate with the male for 24-48 hours (if able to), and as a result of the mating they develop a pair bond. This ... Therefore, it is thought that the hormone associated with the act, and not the act of sex itself, that produces a pair bond ...
Disulfide bond assignments by mass spectrometry of native natural peptides: cysteine pairing in disulfide bonded conotoxins. ... Disulfide bond assignments by mass spectrometry of native natural peptides: cysteine pairing in disulfide bonded conotoxins. ... Disulfide bond assignments by mass spectrometry of native natural peptides: cysteine pairing in disulfide bonded conotoxins ( ...
Physical Origins of CS Bonding. Global Behavior of Electron-Pair Bonds. Additional Factors of CS Bonding. Can a Covalent Bond ... The Pauling-Lewis VB Perspective of the Electron-Pair Bond. A Preamble to the Modern VB Perspective of the Electron-Pair Bond. ... The Effect of Electronic Interaction in the Covalent Electron Pair Bond: H2. Covalent Bonding in Molecules with More than Two ... Bonding in the Diatomic Molecules E2 of the First Octal Row E=Li-F. Bonding in the Dihalogens F2 -. I2. Carbon-Element Bonding ...
That would contribute to an overall bond order of zero or the bonding electrons being on either side of the bond as lone pairs. ... Thus, if one bond is created, it is actually a double bond, while no bond means only the underlying single bond. ... bonding electrons to each bond or a bond order of ½.. The second orbital is not really bonding as it has a perpendicular nodal ... Which lone pairs/bonding pairs go into which pi molecular orbitals?. Ask Question ...
Extra-pair mating: Copulations with individuals outside of the pair bond.. Fission-fusion community: A large social group that ... Female bonded: Characterized by strong bonds among females.. Female-female bonds: Strong social relationships among females, ... Fuentes, A. Patterns and trends in primate pair bonds. International Journal of Primatology 23, 953-978 (2002). ... Male-female bonds: Strong social relationships between males and females.. Male-male bonds: Strong social relationships among ...
In this type of bond, one of the atoms is stronger than the other... ... A polar covalent bond is a type of bond between two or more atoms in which the atoms do not share their pair of electrons ... What kind of bond is formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons?. A: When atoms share one pair of their valence ... It is one of the most common covalent bonds on Ea... Full Answer , Filed Under: * Atoms & Molecules ...
... but do not impair the ability to form a pair bond [20]. Thus, nonapeptides modulate pair bonding in only two of the four ... The antagonist produced significant and selective effects on pair bonding (latency to pair; number of sessions paired; stable ... the site most extensively studied in relation to pair bonding in male voles. However, VP promotes pair bond formation in male ... whereas endogenous OT does not mediate pair bonding in males, exogenous OT can nonetheless induce pair bond formation, ...
Chemical Structure and Hydrogen Bonds in Base Pairs Draw the chemical structure of a correctly base paired G-C pair, then re- ... In Organic Chemistry, Bonding refers to the process of a carbon-based molecule forming a chemical bond due to the attractive ... This creates a new covalent bond which renders the carbon more stable. However, bonding can take place at a different rate in ... Carbon-Carbon Triple Bond. Compounds containing a carbon-carbon triple bond undergo the Diels-Alder reaction. Formulate the ...
Prevent inappropriate pair bonding. If you spend a lot of time bonding with your cockatiel, you may not realize that she might ... Talking to your cockatiel and having her in the room with you are ways in which you can bond without her seeing you as her mate ... You need to let the male and female bond for a month or two before introducing them in the same cage; otherwise, they will ... I have one pair of birds but they do not breed. What could be the problem? ...
Devoted Pair an Inspiration to Co-Workers ED BOND, SPECIAL TO THE TIMES. ... Santa Monica City Council to Issue Bonds to Help Finance Public Safety Building. ...
Chemical Bonding of Main-Group Elements. Multiple Bonding of Heavy Main-Group Atoms. The Role of Recoupled Pair Bonding in ... The NBO View of Chemical Bonding. The EDA Perspective of Chemical Bonding. The Valence Bond Perspective of the Chemical Bond. ... Chemical Bonding in Solids. Dispersion Interaction and Chemical Bonding. Hydrogen Bonding. Directional Electrostatic Bonding. ... The ELF Perspective of chemical bonding. Relativity and Chemical Bonding. CHEMICAL BONDING -. ACROSS THE PERIODIC TABLE. ...
Municipal bonds are a specific corner of the bond market that has its own nuances to be wary of, such as costs and tracking ... but this pair of ETFs eliminates the guess work involved-the Vanguard Tax-Exempt Bond ETF (NYSEArca: VTEB) and iShares National ... Muni Bond ETF (NYSEArca: MUB). With bond market mavens warning investors [...] ...
"Of the roughly 5,000 species of mammals, only 3 to 5 percent are known to form lifelong pair bonds. This select group includes ...
Detecting bonding wire breakages as they occur allows manufacturers to halt assembly, correct issues, and minimize the number ... To help correctly and quickly identify a break, the thru-beam fiber pair is set up below the bond wire. When the broken wire ... Fast and consistent detection of bonding wire breaks is possible with a 10 microsecond response time and the 10mm wide housing ... Consistent Quality Control - Accurately detecting bonding wire breakage ensures that high quality products are being produced, ...
... and it will attempt to find existing base pairs by analyzing hydrogen bonds. If your geometry is still a little screwy, the ... Previous message: [phenixbb] hydrogen-bond restraints for Watson-Crick base pairs *Next message: [phenixbb] hydrogen-bond ... Previous message: [phenixbb] hydrogen-bond restraints for Watson-Crick base pairs *Next message: [phenixbb] hydrogen-bond ... phenixbb] hydrogen-bond restraints for Watson-Crick base pairs. Nathaniel Echols nechols at Tue Jun 22 14:37:47 PDT ...
Show us your bonded pairs and tell us your pet love stories. ... he was our first so we heard to block her to bond. She squeezed ... Bonded Pair: Kopi and Kona. Their Story: Kopi and Kona are a bonded pair of sisters who have been at Bun Bun Brigade in KY ... Bonded Pair: Robin and Wren. Their Story: Robin and Wren are a sweet bonded pair who have been at Bun Bun Brigade in KY since ... Bonded Pair: Harlow and Matild. Their Story: I bought my sweet girls from a breeder as a bonded pair. While they may not be bio ...
Nitrogen, three bonding pairs and one lone pair and bonding pairs and two lone pairs by. Water filled balloons ( diffused ... 2. How a Lone Pair Affects Bond Angles. The Difference in the Space Occupied by a Lone Pair of Electrons and by a Bonding Pair ... The angle between the lone pair and bonding pairs would increase, the angle between the bonding pairs must therefore decrease. ... It more stable pairs affect the bond angle is 90 0 are bonding pairs and two lone pairs and lone! Directing each hydrogen has a ...
... suggesting there must be non-reproductive adaptive benefits of pair bonding. Here, we examined whether pair bonding ... Pair bonding is generally linked to monogamous mating systems, where the reproductive benefits of extended mate guarding and/or ... 2018) Pair bond endurance promotes cooperative food defense and inhibits conflict in coral reef butterflyfish. Scientific ... Pair bond endurance promotes cooperative food defense and inhibits conflict in coral reef butterflyfish. ...
non-bonded pair-non-bonded pair > non-bonded pair-bond pair > bond pair-bond pair ... There is evidence for this in the inter-bond angles in molecules. For example, in water and. Author(s): The Open University. ...
... analysis in conjunction with implications for the thermodynamic stability of the base pairs suggests that C-H.O hydrogen bonds ... A.U and certain non-Watson-Crick base pairs is examined. A geometrical ... The possible formation of inter-base C-H.O hydrogen bonds in A.T, ... arise if an unsatisfied hydrogen-bond acceptor were present and mediate secondary hydrogen-bonding effects in these base pairs ...
Break the Pair Bond If your bird becomes jealous of your interactions with other people, you will need to enlist the help of ... This plays on the natural "pair bonding" instinct many bird species have and, in captivity, you may be seen as your birds ... For instance, you might need to work on bonding with your bird or train it to enjoy petting. You can even teach it how to do ...
The Shaughnessys hosted au pair Laura in 2015 and instantly grew to love her. Now, Laura has returned to the States to reunite ... German Au Pair Reunites with her Host Family. A story of a host family and au pairs lasting bond.. 3 minutes ... In just a few short weeks, Laura became an extended member of the family, instantly bonding with and caring for 7-year-old Huck ... What can au pairs do-can they help with chores? One of the really great advantages about having an au pair is that they can ...
Pairing Bonds With Advances. FHLBank Chicago can provide attractive funding to purchase municipal bonds, and offers a unique ... by supporting local municipalities through tax-exempt bond purchases. The premium would be amortized over the life of the bonds ... Table 1: Municipal Bond Portfolio Example. Members would pay a weighted average rate of 1.28%, or 1.06% net of the dividend ... Municipal bonds have a risk weighting of 20%. Therefore, the net return on risk-weighted assets is 4.44%. See Table 3 for the ...
The H-N-H bond angles in NH3 are slightly smaller than the 109.5° angle in a regular tetrahedron because the lone pair-bonding ... lone pair-lone pair , lone pair-bonding pair , bonding pair-bonding pair ... lone pair , triple bond , double bond , single bond. In the ammonia molecule, the three hydrogen atoms attached to the central ... pair repulsion is greater than the bonding pair-bonding pair repulsion.. According to VSEPR theory, the terminal atom locations ...
... pairing) your phone and your headset. See for details. Mercury 17:36, 5 September ... You may also have to bond (commonly known as pairing) your phone and your headset. See ... Pairing mode # none - Pairing disabled # multi - Allow pairing with already paired devices # once - Pair once and deny ... Pairing mode # none - Pairing disabled # multi - Allow pairing with already paired devices # once - Pair once and deny ...
The results suggest that the evolution of pair bonds may have improved reproductive fitness in this species, and may even shed ... emotional bond between two individuals that is widespread among human societies," Fernandez-Duque said. ... But every so often, drifters butt in on the pair-bonded couple. Those "floater" monkeys may be male or female, and the ... Owl monkeys typically live in a nuclear family with a pair-bonded couple and their young living together. Youngsters leave the ...
The worlds most visited unofficial James Bond 007 website with daily updates, news & analysis of all things 007 and an ... are ordered to kill Bond and Tiffany on the ship. But Bond just manages to outwit the villainous pair. ... Bond sees the jockey punished when his face is covered in boiling mud from a mud-bath. Bond does pick up his payment of $5,000 ... Bond meeting Leiter again; mud bath scene. Capsule Synopsis Bond s assignment is to infiltrate a diamond smuggling operation, ...
Adolescent attachment hierarchies and the search for an adult pair bond. New Directions in Child and Adolescent Development, ... We know little about whether subsequent attachment bonds offer the same protective features as attachments with family of ... However, subsequent reviews suggest that even very young children can form attachment bonds to multiple caregivers ... suggests that very young children can form attachment bonds to multiple caregivers simultaneously. The literature on cultural ...
These two cross paths with another pair. Bonds are formed, friendships and rivalries come into being. Fate then draws more ... At the thought of his fellow archaeologists, new energy pumped into his veins, stemming from his friendship with them, a bond ... Through the Draik, shed managed to convince him, and the distant sound of two pairs of feet walking the path down to Seraphs ... It could be his quill that guided them, a tale to span the ages of how the misfortune-fraught pair finally achieved their ...
A covalent bond is formed when two atoms share a pair of electrons. ... For example, covalent bonding can happen between a hydrogen atom and a chlorine atom to make hydrogen chloride. ...
... and are a bonded pair. They recently had to be given up for tragic personal reasons by a loving owner and are very anxious to ... Like all Conures, they are nervous around strangers, but they WILL bond with someone, and were very loving and affectionate ... and are a bonded pair. They recently had to be given up for tragic personal reasons by a loving owner and are very anxious to ... and are a bonded pair. They recently had to be given up for tragic personal reasons by a loving owner and are very anxious to ...
Ethernet-Based xDSL Multi-Pair Bonding (G.Bond/Ethernet) MIB (Internet-Draft, 2010) ... Internet-Draft G.Bond/Ethernet MIB November 2010 1. Introduction The Ethernet-based xDSL Multi-Pair Bonding, a.k.a. G.Bond/ ... Relationship to Interfaces Group MIB module A G.Bond/Ethernet port is a private case of a Bonded multi-pair xDSL interface and ... objects common for all Bonded multi-pair xDSL interfaces. In particular it describes the bonding management, bonded port and ...
A simple covalent bonding explanation with lewis dot diagrams. ... covalent bond chemical bond covalent bonding (1 more) Single ... Single Covalent Bonds Only one pair of electrons is shared between atoms.. ...
One of the pair must be 11 purine and the other a pyrimidine for bonding to occur. The hydrogen bonds are made as follows: ... Hydrogen Bond (3) , Identical (53) , Join (26) , Lie (364) , Must (1526) , Novel (32) , Occur (150) , Other (2236) , Pair (9) ... They are joined together in pairs, a single base from one chain being hydrogen-bonded to a single base from the other chain, so ... One is almost tempted to say... at last I can almost see a bond. But that will never be, for a bond does not really exist at ...
Bonds: Calculates bond lengths and angles between specified atom pairs.. *Pattern: Produces a PDF or postscript drawing of the ... A range like Cu-O=1.5-1.7 does not find compounds with bonds in that range and also shorter bonds. ... The pairs of atoms between which distance calculations are to be made according to the optional Distance Range and/or Co- ... The range of distances to be considered for the Distance Select atom pairs (also required).. Example Distance Range : *1.8-2.2 ...
Bonds: Calculates bond lengths and angles between specified atom pairs.. *Pattern: Produces a PDF or postscript drawing of the ... A range like Cu-O=1.5-1.7 does not find compounds with bonds in that range and also shorter bonds. ... The pairs of atoms between which distance calculations are to be made according to the optional Distance Range and/or Co- ... The range of distances to be considered for the Distance Select atom pairs (also required).. Example Distance Range : *1.8-2.2 ...
Two strands of DNA line up and link by bonding these pairs, and end up looking kind of like a ladder with the bonds being the ... They found that DNA employs Hoogsteen bonds when theres a protein bond to a DNA site - or the bases suffered chemical damage. ... So these bonds were called Watson-Crick base pairs. But researchers struggled to find evidence that the pairs were binding in ... DNA (left) can form Hoogsteen bonding to incorporate damaged base-pairs, while RNA (right) falls apart in the same case.. Image ...
Natural Law: Pair Bonding and the New World Order 6 days ago ... My James Bond Villain Couch Allow me to tell you how Ikea ... But after a month passed, and I still had yet to receive a notification that the remaining half of my James Bond Villain couch ... Ikea claimed unto me they had my James Bond Villain couch. Why else would they advertise it, let alone allow me to purchase it ... My house was designed to look like a Mission Impossible, late-50s, schwank bachelor pad, and I had found the James Bond ...
Researchers now believe adults pair bond in order to help each other soothe and regulate our emotions. In fact, neuroscience ... 2. EFT helps couples restore and build new attachment bonds. Attachment bonds that are the glue that hold relationships ... Humans are biologically wired to pair bond and to help their partner navigate the emotional ups and downs of life. ... EFT therapists help coupes establish the emotional communication that creates adult attachment bonds. Once these bonds are ...
TAMPA, Fla. - Vikki and Catherine Pinkos dont share your typical mother/daughter bond. The pair underwent a cancer diagnosis ... Moffitt Nurse Bonds with Daughter during Cancer Diagnosis and Chemotherapy Before Giving Birth May 04, 2016 ... Moffitt Nurse Bonds with Daughter during Cancer Diagnosis and Chemotherapy Before Giving Birth ...
... follows several pairs of mothers and daughters with boundary-pushing close bonds. Mondays episode (9 p.m.), called... ... And a grandmother already has a close bond with the baby. * TLCs sMothered finale recap: Babies, blowups close Season 2 July ... TLCs hit reality series "sMothered," co-produced by The Post, follows mother-and-daughter duos with intensely close bonds. The ... This season will see several returning pairs from previous seasons, including Las Vegas bath-sharing duo Sunhe and Angelica, ...
  • The geometric arrangement of atoms linked by two shared pairs of electrons in a double bond (top) can be simulated by treating the double bond as the result of the sharing of a single superpair of electrons (bottom). (
  • the three other pairs of electrons on the chlorine atom are called lone pairs and play no direct role in holding the two atoms together. (
  • n A pair of electrons shared between two atoms and constituting a covalent bond model). (
  • To understand the types of compounds which can be formed and the properties of those compounds, we have to understand how atoms bond together to form molecules. (
  • In this module, we develop a model for the bonding of non-metal atoms to non-metal atoms, called a covalent bond. (
  • with other atoms in pairs. (
  • On the basis of theoretical and experimental correlations between H-bond pairings and their effects on ligand binding affinity, we demonstrate that H-bonds enhance receptor-ligand interactions when both the donor and acceptor have either significantly stronger or significantly weaker H-bonding capabilities than the hydrogen and oxygen atoms in water. (
  • 20. If two atoms are bonded together, one with six valence electrons, the other with four, how many electrons must they share for both to achieve a full octet? (
  • The first is fully bonding and has contributions by all three atoms. (
  • A polar covalent bond is a type of bond between two or more atoms in which the atoms do not share their pair of electrons equally. (
  • In this type of bond, one of the atoms is stronger than the other and attracts the electrons so that they spend more time closer to the stronger atom. (
  • In a polar covalent bond, one atom is stronger than the other due to the electronegativity difference between the two and the geometrical structure of the atoms. (
  • A valence electron is a type of electron present in an atom that works to aid in the process of chemical bond formation with other atoms. (
  • What kind of bond is formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons? (
  • When atoms share one pair of their valence electrons, a single covalent bond is formed between the atoms. (
  • Electrons are shared in a covalent bond when each of the participating atoms has roughly the same ability to attract electrons. (
  • the linkage between atoms or radicals of a chemical compound, or the symbol representing this linkage and indicating the number and attachment of the valencies of an atom in constitutional formulas, represented by a pair of dots or a line between atoms, e.g. (
  • coordinate covalent bond a covalent bond in which one of the bonded atoms furnishes both of the shared electrons. (
  • covalent bond a chemical bond between two atoms or radicals formed by the sharing of a pair (single bond), two pairs (double bond), or three pairs of electrons (triple bond). (
  • a bond is electrovalent if it consists of the attraction between oppositely charged groups, or covalent if it results from the sharing of one, two, or three pairs of electrons by the bonded atoms. (
  • The process of formation of these compounds, by combination of two or more atoms of the same or different elements to form molecules, is known as Chemical Bonding . (
  • A single bond binds two atoms, though multiple bonds may exist between two atoms. (
  • A single bond binds two atoms. (
  • For example, in a water molecule, where the oxygen atom is bonded with two hydrogen atoms, the O-H bond acts as a unit(water molecule has two such units). (
  • What might be the reason that the atoms combine with each other by means of chemical bonds? (
  • Another question which arises is that when the atoms are neutral in their ground state, what is the agent which is responsible for the force, called the bond, between them? (
  • A chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms. (
  • We also consider the properties of pure metals and of metal compounds, leading to a model which explains the bonding between metals atoms. (
  • The influence of substituent on the stability of complexes is investigated by atoms in molecules and natural bond orbital analyses. (
  • The atoms in molecules theory were also used to get the most exact understanding to the nature of H-bond interactions. (
  • 11 Halides and Halogen Atoms as Hydrogen-Bond Acceptors. (
  • by sharing three pairs of electrons. (
  • How do I know which pair of electrons occupies which orbital? (
  • The other delocalized pair of electrons is the pi electrons in the C=O double bond, and I get that maybe they have different energies, but I can't think of any reason one pair should occupy one particular orbital over the other. (
  • begingroup$ I think what the (bad) test question is suggesting is that HOMO electrons are delocalized and the bulk of the density is on O and N because there is a node at C. I don't think they should refer to it as a 'lone pair' for the purposes of this question. (
  • Since it is fully bonding across two bonds but only contains two electrons, we can say that it contributes $\frac22$ bonding electrons to each bond or a bond order of ½. (
  • In this bond, the oxygen atom has a stronger pull, so it gets the larger share of the electrons, giving it a partial negative charge. (
  • ionic bond a chemical bond in which electrons are transferred from one atom to another so that one bears a positive and the other a negative charge, the attraction between these opposite charges forming the bond. (
  • Show all bonding valence electrons pairs as lines and all nonbonding valence electron pairs as dots. (
  • It states the fact, which we now know, that electrons are responsible for the chemical bonding. (
  • In female prairie voles, exposure to a male or to male sensory cues is essential for estrus induction, and the subsequent mating facilitates pair bond formation. (
  • In the present study, we examined the role of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in estrus induction and pair bonding in female prairie voles. (
  • Dynamic corticostriatal activity biases social bonding in monogamous female prairie voles. (
  • The current study investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on pair bonds in female prairie voles. (
  • Pair bonds in female prairie voles were tested using the partner preference test (PPT). (
  • Walcott, AT & Ryabinin, AE 2019, ' Effects of Alcohol Consumption on Pair Bond Maintenance and Potential Neural Substrates in Female Prairie Voles ', Alcohol and Alcoholism , vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 353-360. (
  • Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) having four-hydrogen-bonding (H-bonding) unnatural base pairs have been developed. (
  • Beijer FH, Sijbesma RP, Kooijman H et al (1998) Strong dimerization of ureidopyrimidones via quadruple hydrogen bonding. (
  • Dictated by specific hydrogen bonding patterns, Watson-Crick base pairs ( guanine - cytosine and adenine - thymine ) allow the DNA helix to maintain a regular helical structure that is subtly dependent on its nucleotide sequence . (
  • Hydrogen bonding is the chemical interaction that underlies the base-pairing rules described above. (
  • Hydrogen Bonding in Biological Structures by Wolfram Saenger, 9783540579038. (
  • Hydrogen Bonding in Biological Structures is informative and eminently usable. (
  • 3 Experimental Studies of Hydrogen Bonding. (
  • 5 Effect of Hydrogen Bonding on Molecular Structure. (
  • 10 Weak Hydrogen-Bonding Interactions Formed by C-H Groups as Donors and Aromatic Rings as Acceptors. (
  • II Hydrogen Bonding in Small Biological Molecules. (
  • 13 Hydrogen Bonding in Carbohydrates. (
  • 13.2 Influence of Hydrogen Bonding on Configuration and Conformation in Cyclic Monosaccharides. (
  • 13.3 Rules to Describe Hydrogen-Bonding Patterns in Monosaccharides. (
  • 13.5 The Disaccharide Crystal Structures Provide an Important Source of Data About Hydrogen-Bonding Patterns in Polysaccharides. (
  • 13.6 Hydrogen Bonding in the Tri- and Tetrasaccharides Is More Complex and Less Well Defined. (
  • Show all bonding valence electron pairs as l. (
  • Furthermore, according to the movement of electron pairs in the resonance structures of f) (which were all correct according to the answer key), the third structure suggests the lone N pair is shared between the carbon and the nitrogen, not the oxygen and the nitrogen. (
  • The charge-ordered spin-gapped state and the pressure-induced superconducting state are discussed through the paired-electron crystal (PEC) model, where the spin-bonded electron pairs stay and become mobile in the crystal, namely the valence-bond solid (VBS) and the resonant valence bonded (RVB) state in the quarter-filled band structure. (
  • In humans and other vertebrates, pair bonds are created by a combination of social interaction and biological factors including neurotransmitters like oxytocin, vasopressin, and dopamine. (
  • Basal urinary oxytocin levels varied ten-fold across pairs and pair-mates displayed similar oxytocin levels . (
  • Affiliative behavior (contact, grooming, sex) also varied greatly across the sample and explained more than half the variance in pair oxytocin levels. (
  • 2006) found that the pair-bonding hormone in the female, oxytocin (OT, see mechanism for more details) is released during sex and then influences her future behavior. (
  • A significant amount of research in animal models as well as in humans suggests that oxytocin (OT) plays an important role in the development of the capacity to form social bonds, the mediation of the positive aspects of early-life nurturing on adult bonding capacity, and the maintenance of social bonding. (
  • Two important neuropeptides that mediated pair bond formation were oxytocin and arginine vasopressin (AVP). (
  • Even though both males and females have both molecules, oxytocin was shown to be predominantly in females and vasopressin predominantly promoted pair bonding in males. (
  • Specifically, current research also suggests components, such as the hypothalamus, as playing a role in romantic love because it possesses the penchant for bonding in mammals by secreting the neuropeptides, oxytocin and vasopressin. (
  • In this species, pair bonding is strongly dependent upon the nonapeptides oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin, in females and males, respectively. (
  • Results from this study suggest that individual differences in chemical messenger systems, such as oxytocin, "could underlie how strongly this circuit is activated to promote an enduring bond," suggest the researchers. (
  • The prairie vole is a notable animal model for studying monogamous behavior and social bonding because male and female partners form lifelong pair bonds, huddle and groom each other, share nesting and pup-raising responsibilities, and generally show a high level of affiliative behavior. (
  • Importantly, infusions of OT into the striatum of adults prevents the onset of depressive-like behavior following partner loss, and evoking endogenous OT release using melanocortin agonists during neonatal social isolation rescues impairments in social bonding in adulthood. (
  • We here review what is actually known about the social behavior functions of nonapeptide cell groups, with a focus on aggression, affiliation, bonding, social stress, and parental behavior, and discuss recent studies that demonstrate a diversity of sex-specific contributions of VP-OT cell groups to gregariousness and pair bonding. (
  • Other examples of polar covalent bonds include amines and peptide bonds. (
  • It is one of the most common covalent bonds on Ea. (
  • How many covalent bonds will bromine normally form? (
  • Learn how living things depend on molecular compounds, how covalent bonds form, and the diversity of biochemical compounds that result. (
  • These properties reveal the existence of ionic bonds, which contrast to covalent bonds. (
  • 2.3 Hydrogen Bonds Are Very Different from Covalent Bonds. (
  • These examples of nucleobase modification have been designed and prepared to address the fundamental question: why did Watson-Crick base pairs come to contain two or three H-bonds during the evolution of life? (
  • As the first generation of four-H-bonding base pairs, imidazo[5′,4′:4,5]pyrido[2,3- d ]pyrimidine ( Im ) was selected as an aglycon to append a fourth H-bonding site to nucleobases. (
  • Dhami K, Malyshev DA, Ordoukhanian P et al (2014) Systematic exploration of a class of hydrophobic unnatural base pairs yields multiple new candidates for the expansion of the genetic alphabet. (
  • Deuterium isotope effects and fractionation factors of hydrogen-bonded A:T base pairs of DNA. (
  • Deuterium isotope effects and fractionation factors of N1.H3-N3 hydrogen bonded Watson-Crick A:T base pairs of two DNA dodecamers are presented here. (
  • We anticipate that (2)delta(13)C2, (2)delta(13)C4 and Phi values can be useful gauges of hydrogen bond strength of A:T base pairs. (
  • Intramolecular base pairs can occur within single-stranded nucleic acids. (
  • This is particularly important in RNA molecules (e.g., transfer RNA ), where Watson-Crick base pairs (guanine-cytosine and adenine- uracil ) permit the formation of short double-stranded helices, and a wide variety of non-Watson-Crick interactions (e.g. (
  • The size of an individual gene or an organism's entire genome is often measured in base pairs because DNA is usually double-stranded. (
  • Hence, the number of total base pairs is equal to the number of nucleotides in one of the strands (with the exception of non-coding single-stranded regions of telomeres ). (
  • [5] The total amount of related DNA base pairs on Earth is estimated at 5.0 × 10 37 and weighs 50 billion tonnes . (
  • Among other things, it is stabilized by stacking forces between base pairs. (
  • Scientists at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have succeeded at measuring these forces for the very first time on the level of single base pairs. (
  • The rungs of this ladder consisted of guanine/cytosine and thymine/adenine base pairs. (
  • For another, there are what experts call base pair stacking forces, which act between the stacked base pairs along the spiral axis. (
  • Directly measuring the weak stacking forces between base pairs was a big technical challenge for the researchers, who worked on the problem for six years. (
  • In solution, the base pairs on the end of one of the beam can now interact with the base pairs on the end of the other beam. (
  • This also makes it possible to measure how long a stacking bond between them lasts before they fall apart again, as well as the force acting between the base pairs. (
  • The strength and the lifetime of the interactions depends to a great extent on which base pairs are stacked on each other. (
  • For example, the short life of the stacking interactions could mean that an enzyme tasked with separating the base pairs during this process just needs to wait for the stacking bonds break up on their own - instead of having to apply force to separate them. (
  • :NaO O pair was replicated with the highest efficiency and selectivity among the series of Im:Na pairs using in vitro replication systems owing to the synergistic effect of favorable thermal and thermodynamic contributions from base pairing and specific H-bonding geometries. (
  • 4 Theoretical Calculations of Hydrogen-Bond Geometries. (
  • 4.1 Calculating Hydrogen-Bond Geometries. (
  • 12 Hydrogen-Bond Acceptor Geometries. (
  • A focus on pair bonds between males and females is fundamental to study the evolution of social organization. (
  • However, it remains a mystery whether the mating pairs maintain pair bonds so that the females can transfer the young to their mates. (
  • A focus on pair bonds between males and females is critical for the study of the evolution of social organization [ 1 , 2 ], although pair bonds do not necessarily reflect the genetic mating system [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • Pair bonds are generally identified from direct observations of pairs that maintain physical proximity between males and females [ 2 ]. (
  • However, because pairs are not recognized in the schools, the question arises of whether the mating pairs maintain pair bonds so that the females can transfer the young to their mates. (
  • However, they are not sexually faithful, and though pair-bonded females usually show aggression toward unfamiliar males, both sexes will occasionally mate with other voles if the opportunity arises. (
  • Although, in field studies, prairie voles are usually found in communal burrows with a single breeding pair, 45% of males and 24% of females do adopt a "wandering strategy" and do not settle down with a single partner ( Nair and Young, 2006 ). (
  • Copulation is typically required for pair bond formation in this species, although intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of OT or VP facilitates pair bond formation in the absence of mating [ 12 , 13 ], and does so in both males and females [ 11 ]. (
  • Despite the fact that all subjects displayed similar levels of mating, social contact and locomotor activities, VNO lesioned females failed to show mating-induced pair bonding whereas intact and sham-lesioned females displayed a robust preference for the familiar partner. (
  • Females behave much as in chimpanzee society (and some human), with less same-sex bonding than the male. (
  • These species-specific differences have shown to correlate with social behaviors, and in monogamous prairie voles are important for facilitation of pair bonding. (
  • It is important that these receptors are in the reward centers of the brain because that could lead to a conditioned partner preference in the prairie vole compared to the montane vole which would explain why the prairie vole forms pair bonds and the montane vole does not. (
  • We propose the apparent pairbond formed by male prairie voles is an attempt to mate-guard to insure paternity. (
  • Studies using monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) showed that forming a pair bond stimulated the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway. (
  • Although many species form socially monogamous pair bonds, relevant neural mechanisms have been described for only a single species, the prairie vole ( Microtus ochrogaster ). (
  • Despite the broad effects of nonapeptides on affiliation, evidence that these peptides act within the brain to promote pair bonding is limited to the prairie vole ( Microtus ochrogaster ) [ 11 - 13 ]. (
  • The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) is a highly social, monogamous species and displays pair bonding that can be assessed by the presence of selective affiliation with the familiar partner versus a conspecific stranger. (
  • Our data not only support previous findings that the VNO is important for estrus induction but also indicate that this structure is crucial for mating-induced pair bonding, suggesting an important role for the VNO in reproductive success in prairie voles. (
  • Methods: Female and male prairie voles established pair bonds during 1 week of cohabitation. (
  • 29. How many lone pairs are present in the Lewis structure for NF 3 ? (
  • Which lone pairs/bonding pairs go into which pi molecular orbitals? (
  • Guckian KM, Krugh TR, Kool ET (1998) Solution structure of a DNA duplex containing a replicable difluorotoluene-adenine pair. (
  • Further support for the H-bond pairing principle is provided by the discovery and optimization of lead compounds targeting dietary melamine and Clostridium difficile toxins, which are not realized by traditional drug design methods. (
  • Please see the attached file for the complete problem description ** For the attached pairs of compounds, predict which is the stronger acid and briefly explain why (acidic proton marked in bold type). (
  • All elements combine with each other, according to the way their properties permit them to bond, by means of these chemical bonds giving rise to more than 7 million known compounds. (
  • In this module, we extend our model of bonding by observing properties of compounds formed between metals and non-metals. (
  • disulfide bond a strong covalent bond, -S-S-, important in linking polypeptide chains in proteins, the linkage arising as a result of the oxidation of the sulfhydryl (SH) groups of two molecules of cysteine. (
  • Throughout Inorganic Chemistry, the term bond may be presumed to be synonymous with force . (
  • The most common example of a polar covalent bond is H2O, or water, which is made up of two hydrogen molecules and one oxygen molecule. (
  • high-energy sulfur bond an energy-rich sulfur linkage, the most important of which occurs in the acetyl-CoA molecule, the main source of energy in fatty acid biosynthesis. (
  • hydrogen bond a weak, primarily electrostatic, bond between a hydrogen atom bound to a highly electronegative element (such as oxygen or nitrogen) in a given molecule, or part of a molecule, and a second highly electronegative atom in another molecule or in a different part of the same molecule. (
  • More comprehensively, a Chemical Bond can also be defined as a force of attraction which holds together a group of two or more different types of atom in such a way that one chemical bond gives rise to a diatomic unit which is itself the new molecule or is a part of the newly formed species called a molecule or a compound. (
  • Hence this would add more confusion and therefore, the definition of valency was concluded as the number of chemical bonds the atom of an element can form in a molecule or compound. (
  • 6.3 The Problems of Measuring Hydrogen-Bond Lengths and Angles in Small Molecule Crystal Structures. (
  • Some avians such as swans, bald eagles, California condors, and the Atlantic Puffin are not only monogamous, but also form lifelong pair bonds. (
  • OT facilitates mating-induced pair bonds in adults through interaction with the mesolimbic dopamine system. (
  • Djurdjevic S, Leigh DA, McNab H et al (2007) Extremely strong and readily accessible AAA-DDD triple hydrogen bond complexes. (
  • 4.3 Application to Hydrogen-Bonded Complexes. (
  • Before this time, as well as after-that is, when her eggs are not ripe, and again after his genes are safely tucked away inside the shells-he goes seeking extra-pair copulations with the mates of other males…who, of course, are busy with defensive mate-guarding of their own. (
  • Many DNA-binding proteins can recognize specific base-pairing patterns that identify particular regulatory regions of genes. (
  • Some other developing factors concerning monogamy involve finding that special someone with whom to form a pair bond. (
  • Pair bonding, or intense social attachment, normally initiates partner preference in sexual situations and monogamy in many mammalian species. (
  • Because monogamy has evolved many times in multiple lineages, data from additional species are required to determine whether similar peptide mechanisms modulate bonding when monogamy evolves independently. (
  • Hint: the octet structure places a double bond between the B and a Cl atom. (
  • Instead, the atom is $\mathrm{sp^2}$ hybridised and the lone pair (if it is there) occupies a p-type orbital. (
  • The second orbital is not really bonding as it has a perpendicular nodal plane through the central atom (carbon). (
  • Hydrogen and chlorine are another example of molecules that form a polar covalent bond, with chlorine being the stronger atom in this situation. (
  • This is the perfect complement to "Chemical Bonding - Across the Periodic Table" by the same editors, who are two of the top scientists working on this topic, each with extensive experience and important connections within the community. (
  • Written by top researchers in the field, this two-volume set provides a valuable overview of the whole field, including the theories and models as well as examples of chemical bonding across the periodic table. (
  • In the present work, the substituent effect on the strength of H-bonds in the guanine - cytosine base pair was studied when the substituents are connected to the guanine base through a phenyl ring. (
  • Notably, the closely related montane vole ( Microtus montanus ), a promiscuous species that does not form pair bonds, exhibits significantly lower levels of OTR expression in the NAcc [ 17 ] and lower V1aR expression in the ventral pallidum [ 18 ]. (
  • 3) Does the convergent evolution of pair bonding across vertebrates rely on similar neural mechanisms? (
  • The mechanism and the extent to which H-bonds regulate molecular interactions are a largely unresolved problem in biology because the H-bonding process continuously competes with bulk water. (
  • We advance this concept by showing that H-bonds regulate molecular interactions via a hitherto unappreciated donor-acceptor pairing mechanism that minimizes competition with water. (
  • The regular structure and data redundancy provided by the DNA double helix make DNA well suited to the storage of genetic information, while base-pairing between DNA and incoming nucleotides provides the mechanism through which DNA polymerase replicates DNA and RNA polymerase transcribes DNA into RNA. (
  • Despite extensive investigations, there remain many challenges that prevent us from completely understanding how H-bonds modulate molecular function. (
  • In biology, a pair bond is the strong affinity that develops in some species between a mating pair, often leading to the production and rearing of offspring and potentially a lifelong bond. (
  • The majority of monogamous avians form long-term pair bonds which typically result in seasonal mating: these species breed with a single partner, raise their young, and then pair up with a new mate to repeat the cycle during the next season. (
  • Our claim instead is simply that the pair bond is the most common setting for sex and reproduction in our species, that it has been for a long time, and that this has left a deep imprint on our evolved nature. (
  • These data provide evidence for both convergent evolution and species diversity in the neuroendocrine mechanisms of pair bonding. (
  • Hence, a Chemical Bond is defined as the strong force of attraction which can hold a group of two or more atomic species together. (
  • Bernoulli's law dictates that a crystal lattice is more stable than separated ion pairs. (
  • stable pairing) and the associated behaviour of allopreening. (
  • Paired DNA and RNA molecules are comparatively stable at room temperature, but the two nucleotide strands will separate above a melting point that is determined by the length of the molecules, the extent of mispairing (if any), and the GC content. (
  • They then optogenetically stimulated neurons in the female's circuit during a social interaction that does not normally lead to pair bonding. (
  • Our findings may also guide wider applications of competing H-bond pairings in lead compound design and in determining the origin of enzymatic catalytic power. (
  • Bonds with larger dipoles tend to be stronger than those without dipoles. (
  • Downfield-shifted imino protons associated with larger values of (2)delta(13)C2 and (2)delta(13)C4 and smaller Phi values, which together suggested that the effective H3-N3 vibrational potentials were more anharmonic in the stronger hydrogen bonds of these DNA molecules. (
  • Increasing activity in the circuit caused a shift toward stronger social bonding. (
  • 28. What is the formal charge on a triply-bonded oxygen? (
  • Aragona BJ, Liu Y, Yu YJ, Curtis JT, Detwiler JM, Insel TR, Wang Z (2006) Nucleus accumbens dopamine differentially mediates the formation and maintenance of monogamous pair bonds. (
  • Contrasting with the primary goal of romantic love, copulation can occur without two individuals being in romantic love or having a monogamous bond. (
  • What are the primary types of chemical bond changes which occur during polymer synthesis employing alkenes monomers? (
  • The GU pairing, with two hydrogen bonds, does occur fairly often in RNA (see wobble base pair ). (
  • Why does Chemical Bonding occur? (
  • How does the chemical bond occur? (
  • 7.1.1 Very Strong and Strong OH *** O Hydrogen Bonds Occur with Oxyanions, Acid Salts, Acid Hydrates, and Carboxylic Acids. (
  • Neural correlates of pairbonding in a monogamous primate (basic similarities between rodents and primates in the formation and maintenance of selective social bonds. (
  • A base pair ( bp ) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds . (
  • Appropriate geometrical correspondence of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors allows only the "right" pairs to form stably. (
  • This work has important translational implications relevant to the disruptions of social bonds in childhood and in adults. (
  • that is, they interact with one another frequently, engage in a variety of types of social interactions, and typically form and maintain social bonds (strong social relationships) with other individuals (Dunbar 1988, Silk 2007). (
  • Social bonds, such as pair bonds, are critical for mental health. (
  • The resulting book is a unique overview of the different approaches used for describing a chemical bond, including molecular-orbital based, valence-bond based, ELF, AIM and density-functional based methods. (
  • The RWAF does not support any 'stress bonding' methods. (
  • By contrast, mixed strong-weak H-bond pairings decrease ligand binding affinity due to interference with bulk water, offering mechanistic insight into why indiscriminate strengthening of receptor-ligand H-bonds correlates poorly with experimental binding affinity. (
  • Synergistic H-bond pairings have therefore evolved in the natural design of high-affinity binding and provide a new conceptual framework to evaluate the H-bonding process in biological systems. (
  • We compare the sex-ratio shift in simulations of the grandmother hypothesis to demographic data from chimpanzees and human hunter-gatherers then connect the expanded proportions of older men to benefits for mate guarding, the evolution of pair bonds, and the long recognized importance of male alliances in human social life. (
  • The evolution of distinctively human life history and social organization is generally attributed to paternal provisioning based on pair bonds. (
  • Here we develop an alternative argument that connects the evolution of human pair bonds to the male-biased mating sex ratios that accompanied the evolution of human life history. (
  • We call attention to evidence that connects the evolution of human pair bonds to the male-biased sex ratios in fertile ages that characterize human populations. (
  • Our distinctive life history thus supplies previously unrecognized support for a mate-guarding hypothesis for the evolution of human pair bonds. (
  • Because bulk water interferes with reversible biological processes and enthalpy-entropy compensation occurs during H-bond formation, the mechanisms and the extent to which H-bonds contribute to molecular function are not well understood. (
  • In particular, whether H-bonds regulate receptor-ligand binding remains a long-standing problem with poorly defined mechanisms ( 5 - 9 ). (
  • In order to identify generalizable and thus translatable principals, we are studying the underlying mechanisms of pair bonding across phylogenically diverse taxa, including butterflyfish, poison frogs, skinks, quail, and voles. (
  • chemical bond Figure 9: Double bonds. (
  • Specifically, two-bond deuterium isotope effects on the chemical shifts of (13)C2 and (13)C4, (2)delta(13)C2 and (2)delta(13)C4, and equilibrium deuterium/protium fractionation factors of H3, Phi, were measured and seen to correlate with the chemical shift of the corresponding imino proton, delta(H3). (
  • Draw the chemical structure of a correctly base paired G-C pair, then re-draw the pair with a propeller twist (these answers should all be on one page following box 'G'). Identify which hydrogen bonds are strengthened, weakened or left unchanged and why. (
  • The result of this phenomenon is called a Chemical Bond . (
  • Hence, a chemical bond is the force which results in such a unit. (
  • Units like these, similar or dissimilar, will combine with each other, accordingly, again with the help of the chemical bonds, to give rise to a compound. (
  • Just as grammar gives the rules which govern the formation of the words and sentences in the language, there are also conditions which govern the formation of chemical bonds between different elements. (
  • These three are the fundamental questions of chemical bonding. (
  • Here we test the hypothesis that OT-like receptor activation is required for pair bond formation in the socially monogamous zebra finch ( Taeniopygia guttata ). (
  • Despite this, the ecological factors driving pair-bond stability and divorce have received much less attention in humans as they have in studies of other pair-bonding organisms, such as birds. (
  • Humans also engage in social pair bonding, where two individuals will form a close relationship that does not involve sex. (
  • Fortunately, humans are not completely dependent on those early moments and have many opportunities to bond appropriately throughout the first year of life. (