Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Fibroins: Fibrous proteins secreted by INSECTS and SPIDERS. Generally, the term refers to silkworm fibroin secreted by the silk gland cells of SILKWORMS, Bombyx mori. Spider fibroins are called spidroins or dragline silk fibroins.Silk: A continuous protein fiber consisting primarily of FIBROINS. It is synthesized by a variety of INSECTS and ARACHNIDS.Nucleopolyhedrovirus: A genus of the family BACULOVIRIDAE, subfamily Eubaculovirinae, characterized by the formation of crystalline, polyhedral occlusion bodies in the host cell nucleus. The type species is Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Sericins: A serine-rich sticky protein secreted by MOTHS. Generally, the term refers to silkworm silk gum protein secreted in the middle section of silk gland cells of SILKWORMS, Bombyx mori. Sericin acts as a cement and coating for the two fibroin filaments in a silk strand and is readily soluble in mild alkaline solution.Hemolymph: The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.Insect Hormones: Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.Pupa: An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Morus: A plant genus of the family MORACEAE that is widely planted for shade.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Molting: Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.Ecdysteroids: Steroids that bring about MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysteroids include the endogenous insect hormones (ECDYSONE and ECDYSTERONE) and the insect-molting hormones found in plants, the phytoecdysteroids. Phytoecdysteroids are natural insecticides.Fat Body: A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.Metamorphosis, Biological: Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Diapause, Insect: Seasonal suspension of insect growth development. It can be either induced by environmental cues (e.g., PHOTOPERIOD) or as a facultative part of the life cycle in order to time development with seasonal changes.RNA, Transfer, Gly: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glycine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Juvenile Hormones: Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.Genome, Insect: The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.Lepidoptera: A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.Alanine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates alanine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.7.Baculoviridae: Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.Ecdysterone: A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Glycine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates glycine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.14.Fatty Alcohols: Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Densovirus: A genus of PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily DENSOVIRINAE, comprising helper-independent viruses containing only two species. Junonia coenia densovirus is the type species.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Moraceae: The mulberry plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. They have milky latex and small, petalless male or female flowers.Sex Attractants: Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.Sebaceous Glands: Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.Bacillus thuringiensis: A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Alkadienes: Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.Insect Viruses: Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Ecdysone: A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Vitellins: Major egg yolk proteins from egg-laying animals such as non-mammalian VERTEBRATES; ARTHROPODS; and others. They are high-density lipoglycoproteins derived from circulating precursors, VITELLOGENINS. Vitellins serve as nutrients for the growing non-mammalian embryos (EMBRYO, NONMAMMALIAN).Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Hemocytes: Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Tribolium: A genus of small beetles of the family Tenebrionidae; T. confusum is the "confused flour beetle".Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Chorion: The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.Genetic Enhancement: The use of genetic methodologies to improve functional capacities of an organism rather than to treat disease.Imino Furanoses: Five-carbon furanose sugars in which the OXYGEN is replaced by a NITROGEN atom.Sense Organs: Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Egg Proteins: Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.Retroelements: Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Laboratory Chemicals: Chemicals necessary to perform experimental and/or investigative procedures and for the preparation of drugs and other chemicals.Catechol Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between catechol and oxygen to yield benzoquinone and water. It is a complex of copper-containing proteins that acts also on a variety of substituted catechols. EC 1.10.3.1.Corpora Allata: Paired or fused ganglion-like bodies in the head of insects. The bodies secrete hormones important in the regulation of metamorphosis and the development of some adult tissues.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.ChitinaseFractional Precipitation: A method which uses specific precipitation reactions to separate or collect substances from a solution.Spodoptera: A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Reoviridae: A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.Tymoviridae: A family of icosahedral, non-enveloped, RNA plant viruses comprised of three genera: TYMOVIRUS, Marafivirus and Maculavirus.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Heavy Ions: Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Benzoic Acid: A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Arthropod Antennae: Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.Bacopa: A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. Members contain bacopaside, bacopasaponins and other dammarane type jujubogenins.Manduca: A genus of sphinx or hawk moths of the family Sphingidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).beta-N-Acetyl-Galactosaminidase: A hexosiminidase that specifically hydrolyzes terminal non-reducing N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminides.Vitellogenesis: The active production and accumulation of VITELLINS (egg yolk proteins) in the non-mammalian OOCYTES from circulating precursors, VITELLOGENINS. Vitellogenesis usually begins after the first MEIOSIS and is regulated by estrogenic hormones.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.Receptors, Odorant: Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.Sf9 Cells: Cell line derived from SF21 CELLS which are a cell line isolated from primary explants of SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA pupal tissue.Chymotrypsin: A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Formycins: Pyrazolopyrimidine ribonucleosides isolated from Nocardia interforma. They are antineoplastic antibiotics with cytostatic properties.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.POU Domain Factors: A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of a bipartite DNA-binding domain known as the POU domain. The POU domain contains two subdomains, a POU-specific domain and a POU-homeodomain. The POU domain was originally identified as a region of approximately 150 amino acids shared between the Pit-1, Oct-1, Oct-2, and Unc-86 transcription factors.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Malpighian Tubules: Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Melanins: Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Spiders: Arthropods of the class ARACHNIDA, order Araneae. Except for mites and ticks, spiders constitute the largest order of arachnids, with approximately 37,000 species having been described. The majority of spiders are harmless, although some species can be regarded as moderately harmful since their bites can lead to quite severe local symptoms. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p508; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, pp424-430)Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Endocrine Glands: Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.1-Deoxynojirimycin: An alpha-glucosidase inhibitor with antiviral action. Derivatives of deoxynojirimycin may have anti-HIV activity.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Fushi Tarazu Transcription Factors: Fushi tarazu transcription factors were originally identified in DROSOPHILA. They are found throughout ARTHROPODS and play important roles in segmentation and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM development.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Receptors, Steroid: Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.WingBiotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis: The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Synteny: The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Trypsin Inhibitors: Serine proteinase inhibitors which inhibit trypsin. They may be endogenous or exogenous compounds.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Gene Knockout Techniques: Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases: A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Monophenol Monooxygenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between L-tyrosine, L-dopa, and oxygen to yield L-dopa, dopaquinone, and water. It is a copper protein that acts also on catechols, catalyzing some of the same reactions as CATECHOL OXIDASE. EC 1.14.18.1.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Olfactory Receptor Neurons: Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Oogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.

The biosynthesis of transfer RNA in insects. II. Isolation of transfer RNA precursors from the posterior silk gland of Bombyx mori. (1/1272)

The occurrence of precursors to tRNA in the post-polysomal fraction of the posterior silk gland of Bombyx mori was demonstrated by pulse-chase labeling and DNA-RNA hybridization competition experiments. These precursors had molecular sizes ranging from 4S to 5S on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Analysis of the incorporation of the methyl group from [methyl-14C]methionine revealed that a radioactive peak on polyacrylamide gel appeared in the 4.5S region during brief labeling. This suggested that some methylation occurred at the 4.5S precursor step.  (+info)

Comparison of Bombyx mori and Helicoverpa armigera cytoplasmic actin genes provides clues to the evolution of actin genes in insects. (2/1272)

The cytoplasmic actin genes BmA3 and BmA4 of Bombyx mori were found clustered in a single genomic clone in the same orientation. As a similar clustering of the two cytoplasmic actin genes Ha3a and Ha3b also occurs in another lepidopteran, Helicoverpa armigera, we analyzed the sequence of the pair of genes from each species. Due to the high conservation of cytoplasmic actins, the coding sequence of the four genes was easily aligned, allowing the detection of similarities in noncoding exon and intron sequences as well as in flanking sequences. All four genes exhibited a conserved intron inserted in codon 117, an original position not encountered in other species. It can thus be postulated that all of these genes derived from a common ancestral gene carrying this intron after a single event of insertion. The comparison of the four genes revealed that the genes of B. mori and H. armigera are related in two different ways: the coding sequence and the intron that interrupts it are more similar between paralogous genes within each species than between orthologous genes of the two species. In contrast, the other (noncoding) regions exhibited the greatest similarity between a gene of one species and a gene of the other species, defining two pairs of orthologous genes, BmA3 and HaA3a on one hand and BmA4 and HaA3b on the other. However, in each species, the very high similarities of the coding sequence and of the single intron that interrupts it strongly suggest that gene conversion events have homogenized this part of the sequence. As the divergence of the B. mori genes was higher than that of the H. armigera genes, we postulated that the gene conversion occurred earlier in the B. mori lineage. This leads us to hypothesize that gene conversion could also be responsible for the original transfer of the common intron to the second gene copy before the divergence of the B. mori and H. armigera lineages.  (+info)

Active transport of calcium across the isolated midgut of Hyalophora cecropia. (3/1272)

1. The net flux of 45Ca from lumen to blood side across the isolated and short-circuited Cecropia midgut was 1-9 +/- 0-2 muequiv. cm-2h-1 in 8 mM Ca and the flux ratio was as high as 56 to 1. 2. The calcium influx was depressed by anoxia; 73% after 30 min. 3. The kinetics of Ca transport were anomalous; the apparent Km varied with Ca concentration from less than 0-2 to greater than 5-6 mM Ca and the apparent Vmax varied from less than 1-3 to greater than 3-3 muequiv. cm-2h-1. 4. The calcium influx showed a delay before the tracer steady state was attained, indicating the existence in the transport route of a calcium pool equivalent to 5-7 muequiv/g. wet weight of midgut tissue. 5 High calcium (16 mM) depressed the short-circuit current and potassium transport from blood to lumen side across the midgut. 6. Calcium depressed magnesium transport, from lumen to blood side across the midgut, and magnesium depressed the calcium transport. 7. Ca transport by the midgut does not regulate the Ca level in the haemolymph in vivo; it merely aids the diffusion of calcium down its electrochemical gradient. However, Ca transport may assist the uptake of the nutrients from the midgut contents.  (+info)

Prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Purification, characterization, and cDNA cloning. (4/1272)

Prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme (PPAE) was purified to homogeneity as judged by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis from larval cuticles of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The purified PPAE preparation was shown to be a mixture of the isozymes of PPAE (PPAE-I and PPAE-II), which were eluted at different retention times in reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. PPAE-I and PPAE-II seemed to be post translationally modified isozymes and/or allelic variants. Both PPAE isozymes were proteins composed of two polypeptides (heavy and light chains) that are linked by disulfide linkage(s) and glycosylated serine proteases. The results of cDNA cloning, peptide mapping, and amino acid sequencing of PPAE revealed that PPAE is synthesized as prepro-PPAE with 441 amino acid residues and is activated from pro-PPAE by cleavage of a peptide bond between Lys152 and Ile153. The homology search showed 36.9% identity of PPAE to easter, which is a serine protease involved in dorso-ventral pattern formation in the Drosophila embryo, and indicated the presence of two consecutive clip-like domains in the light chain. A single copy of the PPAE gene was suggested to be present in the silkworm genome. In the fifth instar larvae, PPAE transcripts were detected in the integument, hemocytes, and salivary glands but not in the fat body or mid gut. A polypeptide cross-reactive to mono-specific anti-PPAE/IgG was transiently detected in the extract of eggs between 1 and 3 h after they were laid.  (+info)

Gene targeting in the silkworm by use of a baculovirus. (5/1272)

The Bombyx mori fibroin light (L)-chain gene was cloned and the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene inserted into exon 7. The chimeric L-chain-GFP gene was used to replace the polyhedrin gene of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcNPV). This recombinant virus was used to target the L-chain-GFP gene to the L-chain region of the silkworm genome. Female moths were infected with the recombinant virus and then mated with normal male moths. Genomic DNA from their progenies was screened for the desired targeting event. This analysis showed that the chimeric gene had integrated into the L-chain gene on the genome by homologous recombination and was stably transmitted through generations. The chimeric gene was expressed in the posterior silk gland, and the gene product was spun into the cocoon layer.  (+info)

Characterization of the 25K FP gene of the baculovirus Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus: implications for post-mortem host degradation. (6/1272)

Mutagenesis experiments on the baculovirus Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine generated five mutants with a 'few polyhedra' (FP) phenotype. Sequence analysis of the 25K gene homologue of the BmNPV FP mutants revealed nucleotide substitutions in the coding region. Rescue experiments indicated that the FP phenotype of the BmNPV mutants resulted from mutations in the 25K coding region. Effects of infection by these FP mutants were analysed following injection of the viruses into silkworm (B. mori) larvae. Compared to infection with wild-type virus, infection with each FP mutant resulted in reduced host degradation (liquefaction). The degree to which liquefaction was blocked corresponded to the degree of functional disruption of the 25K gene product and to the extent to which polyhedron production was reduced. Electron microscopy revealed that (1) polyhedron production was reduced, (2) very few virions were occluded and those that were lacked envelopes, and (3) the basal lamina of fat-body tissue was not destroyed by infection and accumulations of virions occurred along the membrane. Typical NPV-induced liquefaction was observed following infection with a polyhedrin deletion mutant, indicating that host degradation was not related to polyhedron production. These results suggest that (1) the 25K gene product is involved in the host degradation process caused by virus infection and (2) the FP phenotype is an indirect result of disruption of the 25K gene; activation or suppression of a specific host or viral gene related to tissue degradation and polyhedron formation may be involved.  (+info)

Studies on silk fibroin of Bombyx mori. I. Fractionation of fibroin prepared from the posterior silk gland. (7/1272)

1. Fractionation of fibroin prepared from the posterior silk glands of Bombyx mori was carried out. After carboxymethylation of the fibroin, it was fractionated by ammonium sulfate precipitation, Sephadex G-200 gel filtration and DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. 2. The fibroin was composed of at least two protein groups of large molecular size and three or four components of small molecular size, and, in addition, a mixture of proteins ranging in size from about 25,000 to more than 100,000 daltons with almost the same amino acid compositions. 3. The latter proteins contained about 48% glycine, 32% alanine, 11% serine, 4.5% tyrosine, 2% valine, and other minor amino acids. The sum of these main five amino acids accounts for more than 97% of the total amino acid residues of the proteins. 4. The present results indicate major heterogeneity in the molecular size of posterior silk gland fibroin, and, in addition, suggest the possibility of repeating sequences with relatively simple amino acid compositions in major peptide chains of fibroin.  (+info)

A TATA element is required for tRNA promoter activity and confers TATA-binding protein responsiveness in Drosophila Schneider-2 cells. (8/1272)

In contrast to yeast and mammalian systems, which depend principally on internal promoter elements for tRNA gene transcription, insect systems require additional upstream sequences. To understand the function of the upstream sequences, we have asked whether the Bombyx mori tRNACAla and tRNASGAla genes, which are absolutely dependent on these sequences in vitro, also require them for transcription in vivo. We introduced wild-type and mutant versions of the Bombyx tRNAAla genes into Drosophila Schneider-2 cells and found that the tRNACAla gene is efficiently transcribed and that its transcription depends strongly on the distal segment of its upstream promoter. In contrast, the tRNASGAla gene is inefficiently transcribed, and this inefficiency results from lack of a specific sequence within the distal tRNACAla upstream promoter. This sequence, 5'-TTTATAT-3', is sufficient to increase the activity of the tRNASGAla promoter to that of the tRNACAla promoter. Moreover, promoters containing the 5'-TTTATAT-3' element are stimulated by increased levels of cellular TATA-binding protein. Together these results indicate that, in insect cells, a TATA-like element is specifically required to form functional TATA-binding protein-containing complexes that promote efficient transcription of tRNA genes.  (+info)

This study explored food allergy caused by eating silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) pupae, a traditionally accepted food and animal feed in East and Southeast Asia, and identified two new allergens by proteomic and immunological methods. Proteins isolated from silkworm pupae were separated by...
A baculovirus, named BomaNPV S2, was isolated from a diseased larva of the wild silkworm, Bombyx mandarina. Notably, BomaNPV S2 exhibited a distinguishing feature in that its host range covered that of both Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) and Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) in cultured cells. It could replicate in cells of B. mori (Bm5 and BmN), Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) and Trichoplusia ni (Tn-5B1-4). However, occlusion-derived virions of BomaNPV S2 in B. mori cells contained only a single nucleocapsid, whereas they contained multiple nucleocapsids in Tn-5B1-4 cells. The complete genome sequence of BomaNPV S2, including predicted ORFs, was determined and compared with the genome sequence of its close relatives. The comparison results showed that most of the BomaNPV S2 genome sequence was shared with BmNPV (BmNPV T3) or BomaNPV S1, but several regions seemed more similar to regions of AcMNPV. This observation might explain why BomaNPV S2 covers the host
Gopinathan, KP (2012) Welcome to the world of insects! In: CURRENT SCIENCE, 102 (11). p. 1503. Gopinathan, KP (2008) T. Ramakrishnan (1922-2008). In: Current Science, 94 (7). pp. 935-936. Singh, Amit and Singh, Madhuri Kango and Parthasarathy, R and Gopinathan, KP (2007) Larval legs of mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori are prototypes for the adult legs. In: Genesis, 45 (4). pp. 169-176. Dhawan, Sangeeta and Gopinathan, KP (2005) Phylogeny of the Insect Homeobox Gene (Hox) Cluster. In: Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics, 3 (1). pp. 42-46. Dhawan, Sangeeta and Gopinathan, KP (2004) Molecular cloning and expression pattern of an armadillo homologue from the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori. In: Gene Expression Patterns, 4 (1). pp. 15-23. Dhawan, Sangeeta and Gopinathan, KP (2003) Expression profiling of homeobox genes in silk gland development in the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori. In: Development Genes and Evolution, 213 (11). pp. 523-533. Dhawan, Sangeeta and Gopinathan, KP (2003) Cell cycle events ...
Buy Silkworm larvae and cocoon, Bombyx mori, against white background by Lifeonwhite on PhotoDune. Silkworm larvae and cocoon, Bombyx mori, against white background
1. The action of the diapause hormone has been studied by injecting extracts of the heads of male moths or of the brain-suboesophageal ganglion complexes of pupae into pupae expected to produce non-diapause eggs.. 2. The effect of the injection of hormone upon young oocytes is to make them develop into diapause eggs. Older oocytes, which have already acquired non-diapause characters, are not affected.. 3. The hormone is almost completely inactivated when injected on the day of pupation. The hormone is most effective when injected into pupae 2-3 days old, at which stage the ovarioles have started to grow vigorously. It is ineffective 1-2 days before adult emergence, by which time all the oocytes have acquired non-diapause characters.. 4. The hormone is inactivated in all pupae irrespective of whether they are destined to produce diapause eggs or non-diapause eggs. Inactivation of diapause hormone (in contrast to that of juvenile hormone) is partially relieved by exposure to low temperature or by ...
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Buy Silkworm larvae, Bombyx mori, against white background by Lifeonwhite on PhotoDune. Silkworm larvae, Bombyx mori, against white background
Prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4H) is a heterotetramer enzyme consisting of alpha-subunits (P4Halpha) and beta-subunits (P4Hbeta), and is required for collagen biosynthesis. Previously, we generated transgenic silkworms that produced human type III collagen fragments (mini-collagens) in the posterior silk gland (PSG). However, prolyl 4-hydroxylation did not occur on the mini-collagens, because in spite of an abundant expression of P4Hbeta in PSGs, P4Halpha expression was quite low there, thus resulting in an insufficient activity of P4H. In this study we aimed at generating hybrid transgenic silkworms whose PSGs are capable of producing mini-collagens and enough P4H for their prolyl 4-hydroxylation. Isolated PSGs were bombarded with fibroin L-chain gene promoter-driven vectors containing Bombyx mori P4Halpha (BmP4Halpha) cDNAs and were transplanted into the hemolymphatic cavity. The P4H activity in the PSG cells significantly increased, indicating that the expressed BmP4Halpha formed active tetramers with
LOCUS DF090445 668521 bp DNA linear CON 26-OCT-2017 DEFINITION Bombyx mori DNA, scaffold: Bm_scaf130, strain: p50T/Dazao. ACCESSION DF090445 BABH01000000 VERSION DF090445.1 DBLINK BioProject:PRJDA20217 BioSample:SAMD00036537 KEYWORDS WGS. SOURCE Bombyx mori (domestic silkworm) ORGANISM Bombyx mori Eukaryota; Metazoa; Ecdysozoa; Arthropoda; Hexapoda; Insecta; Pterygota; Neoptera; Holometabola; Lepidoptera; Glossata; Ditrysia; Bombycoidea; Bombycidae; Bombycinae; Bombyx. REFERENCE 1 (bases 1 to 668521) AUTHORS Mita,K. and Xia,Q. CONSRTM The international silkworm genome sequencing consortium TITLE Direct Submission JOURNAL Submitted (06-SEP-2007) to the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases. Contact:Kazuei Mita National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Insect Genome Research Unit; 1-2 Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8634, Japan REFERENCE 2 AUTHORS CONSRTM The International Silkworm Genome Consortium TITLE The genome of a lepidopteran model insect, the silkworm Bombyx mori JOURNAL Insect Biochem. Mol. ...
LOCUS DF090416 1310704 bp DNA linear CON 26-OCT-2017 DEFINITION Bombyx mori DNA, scaffold: Bm_scaf101, strain: p50T/Dazao. ACCESSION DF090416 BABH01000000 VERSION DF090416.1 DBLINK BioProject:PRJDA20217 BioSample:SAMD00036537 KEYWORDS WGS. SOURCE Bombyx mori (domestic silkworm) ORGANISM Bombyx mori Eukaryota; Metazoa; Ecdysozoa; Arthropoda; Hexapoda; Insecta; Pterygota; Neoptera; Holometabola; Lepidoptera; Glossata; Ditrysia; Bombycoidea; Bombycidae; Bombycinae; Bombyx. REFERENCE 1 (bases 1 to 1310704) AUTHORS Mita,K. and Xia,Q. CONSRTM The international silkworm genome sequencing consortium TITLE Direct Submission JOURNAL Submitted (06-SEP-2007) to the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases. Contact:Kazuei Mita National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Insect Genome Research Unit; 1-2 Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8634, Japan REFERENCE 2 AUTHORS CONSRTM The International Silkworm Genome Consortium TITLE The genome of a lepidopteran model insect, the silkworm Bombyx mori JOURNAL Insect Biochem. Mol. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sequences of two cDNAs encoding silkworm homologues of Drosophila melanogaster squid gene. AU - Li, Feng Qian. AU - Sun, Guan Cheng. AU - Ueda, Hitoshi. AU - Hirose, Susumu. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - The squid (sqd) gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a few isoforms of a heterogeneous nuclear (hn) RNA-binding protein. We isolated two types of cDNAs coding for homologues of the Sqd protein from the silkworm Bombyx mori. The two predicted amino acid (aa) sequences are identical up to aa 280 and then diverge. The silkworm and fruit fly proteins share 80% homology in the RNA-binding motif region. These cDNAs detect 2.0-, 1.8- and 1-kb mRNAs in the middle and posterior silk glands.. AB - The squid (sqd) gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a few isoforms of a heterogeneous nuclear (hn) RNA-binding protein. We isolated two types of cDNAs coding for homologues of the Sqd protein from the silkworm Bombyx mori. The two predicted amino acid (aa) sequences are identical up to aa 280 ...
Transgenic techniques offer a valuable tool for determining gene functions. Although various promoters are available for use in gene overexpression, gene knockdown, and identification of transgenic individuals, there is nevertheless a lack of versatile promoters for such studies, and this dearth acts as a bottleneck, especially with regard to nonmodel organisms. Here, we succeeded in identifying a novel strong and ubiquitous promoter/enhancer in the silkworm. We identified a unique silkworm strain whose reporter gene showed strong and ubiquitous expression during the establishment of enhancer trap strains. In this strain, the transposon was inserted into the 5′UTR of hsp90, a housekeeping gene that is abundantly expressed in a range of tissues. To determine whether the promoter/enhancer of hsp90 could be used to induce strong gene expression, a 2.9-kb upstream genomic fragment of hsp90 was isolated (hsp90P2.9k), and its transcriptional activation activity was examined. Strikingly, hsp90P2.9k ...
1BOM: Three-dimensional solution structure of bombyxin-II an insulin-like peptide of the silkmoth Bombyx mori: structural comparison with insulin and relaxin.
3UST: Crystal structure of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF75 reveals a pseudo-dimer of thiol oxidase domains with a putative substrate-binding pocket
Serratiopeptidase (Serratia E-15 protease, also known as serralysin, serrapeptase, serratiapeptase, serratia peptidase, serratio peptidase, or serrapeptidase) is a proteolytic enzyme (protease) produced by enterobacterium Serratia sp. E-15. This microorganism was originally isolated in the late 1960s from silkworm Bombyx mori L. (intestine), Serratiopeptidase is present in the silkworm intestine and allows the emerging moth to dissolve its cocoon. Serratiopeptase is produced by purification from culture of Serratia E-15 bacteria. Some alternative medicine proponents claim that serratiopeptidase is beneficial for pain and inflammation but "existing trials [have been] small and generally of poor methodological quality." Online medical journal Bandolier (specializing in evidence-based thinking about healthcare) published an article (in about 2001) in response to a readers enquiry about serratiopeptidase. After searching PubMed and the Cochrane Library "to see if there are any randomised, ...
Bombyx mori. For hatching silkworms. Life cycle takes about 6 to 8 weeks after eggs hatch. Silkworms require fresh mulberry leaves or item #143966 Silkworm Artificial Dry Diet (not included). With instructions.
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Background: The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is one of the most economically important insects in many developing countries owing to its large-scale cultivation for silk production. With the development of genomic and biotechnological tools, B. mori has also become an important bioreactor for production of various recombinant proteins of biomedical interest. In 2004, two genome sequencing projects for B. mori were reported independently by Chinese and Japanese teams; however, the datasets were insufficient for building long genomic scaffolds which are essential for unambiguous annotation of the genome. Now, both the datasets have been merged and assembled through a joint collaboration between the two groups. Description: Integration of the two data sets of silkworm whole-genome-shotgun sequencing by the Japanese and Chinese groups together with newly obtained fosmid- and BAC-end sequences produced the best continuity (~3.7 Mb in N50 scaffold size) among the sequenced insect genomes and provided a high degree
Three structurally related and novel antibacterial peptides have been isolated from the haemolymph of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, immunized with Escherichia coli. These peptides were 32 amino acids long and characteristically rich in proline residues. A unique threonine residue in each peptide was O-glycosylated and the modification seemed to be important for expression of antibacterial activity. The primary structure and antibacterial character of the novel peptides resemble those of abaecin (41% identity in amino acid sequence), an antibacterial peptide of the honeybee, although abaecin is not O-glycosylated. Incubation of the novel peptides with a liposome preparation caused leakage of entrapped glucose under low-ionic-strength conditions, suggesting that a target of the peptides is the bacterial membrane. We propose the name lebocin for the novel peptide family isolated from B. mori. ...
Sackton, T.B. and Corbett-Detig, R.B. and Nagaraju, J. and Vaishna, L. and Arunkumar, K.P. and Hartl, D.L.. (2014) Positive selection drives faster-Z evolution in silkmoths. Evolution, 68 (8). pp. 2331-2342. ISSN 0014-3820 Sah, N.K. and Taneja, T.K. and Pathak, Niteen and Begum, R. and Athar, M. and Hasnain, S.E. (1999) The baculovirus antiapoptotic p35 gene also functions via an oxidant-dependent pathway. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 96 (9). pp. 4838-4843. ISSN 0027-8424 Sharma, A. and Niphadkar, M.P. and Kathirvel, P. and Nagaraju, J. and Singh, Lalji (1999) Brief communication. DNA fingerprint variability within and among the silkworm Bombyx mori varieties and estimation of their genetic relatedness using Bkm-derived probe. Journal of Heredity, 90 (2). pp. 315-319. ISSN 1471-8505 Sharma, G. and Upadhyay, S. and Srilalitha, M. and Nandicoori, V.K. and Khosla, Sanjeev (2015) The interaction of mycobacterial protein Rv2966c with host chromatin is mediated through non-CpG ...
Bombyx mori L.. K M Ponnuvel*, K Ashok Kumar, D Velu, P Somasundaram, R K Sinha and C K Kamble. Biotechnology Laboratory, Central Sericulture Germplasm Resources Centre, Thally Road, Hosur 635 109, India. Received 12 May 2006; revised 18 June 2007; accepted 6 October 2007. N-terminal amino acid sequence of esterase gene was blast searched with Bombyx mori EST (expressed sequence tag) database. EST clone fbpv0006 showed 95% homology with N-terminal sequence of esterase protein. Further, the genomic organization of exons and introns were identified using the EST clone sequence. The results on genomic organization of esterase gene indicated that the blood esterase gene possesses two exons with varying length of 192 and 524 bp, and a long intron of 2124 bp length present between these two exons. The primers were designed to the intron and exon regions and the fragments were PCR amplified using genomic DNA from silk moth as template. The amplicon showed a mol wt 799 bp in the intron region and 547 bp ...
Author Summary The number of larval instars in insects varies greatly across insect taxa and can even vary at the intraspecific level. However, little is known about how the number of larval instars is fixed in each species or modified by the environment. The silkworm, Bombyx mori, provides a unique bioresource for investigating this question, as there are several
Silk is a non-absorbable braided surgical suture composed of an organic protein called fibroin. The protein is derived from the domesticated species Bombyx mori (B mori) of the family Bombycidae. Get a quote today.
diapause hormone: from embryonic stage of Bombyx mori; contains 24-amino acid residues; amino acid sequence given in first source
Read more about Genomic boost to protect Assams muga silkworm on Business Standard. A snapshot of the muga silkworm genome decoded by Indian scientists offers vital clues for imparting disease-resistance to help conserve the economically important insect which spins the distinctive golden yellow fabric synonymous with Assam.
More fun silkworm trivia from Weaving Todays BeWeave It column!. Imagine flowing down the aisle in a darkened room in a silk wedding dress that glows red, orange, and green under a UV light. Scientists in Japan have been experimenting with breeding mutant silkworms that produce silk that glows under a UV light. These silkworms have had genetic material from other organisms inserted into their genomes so they produce a silk with fluorescent qualities. The transgenic critters have a red glowing protein from Discosoma corals, orange from the Fungia concinna coral, or a green fluorescent protein from jellyfish. . . . → Read More: Silkworm Trivia. ...
BOMBYX mori, the domesticated silkworm, is one of the most genetically well-studied insects, with 246 mutations that have been sorted into 27 linkage groups (LGs) (Banno et al. 2005). Genome projects and related work are underway using B. mori as a model organism for Lepidoptera, the most serious group of agricultural pests (for recent review, see Goldsmith et al. 2004). Large-scale sequencing projects of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) (Mita et al. 2003; Cheng et al. 2004) and whole-genome shotgun (WGS) sequences (Mita et al. 2004; Xia et al. 2004) have been performed, and our knowledge of silkworm genes and genome sequence has dramatically increased. However, basic genome research on this insect is still far behind compared with other model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster, and assignment of fundamental information such as genome sequences, ESTs, BAC contigs, mutant phenotypes, and chromosomal locations on detailed linkage maps is an urgent priority.. Two preliminary molecular linkage ...
1982. Sylvia A. Johnson. Humans have been raising silkworms for their precious silk for thousands of years. Because of its long association with man, the silkworm moth is actually …
Bombyx mori BMCHIR1protein: is a chitinase-like gene induced by 20-Hydroxyecdysone in Silkworm; amino acid sequence in first source
Despite Hodmandod Minors somewhat nonchalant attitude to sericulture (throwing in a bit of silkworm diet after being nagged on the phone, then ramming down the lid and running away fast) there were surprisingly few silkworm casualties on my return. The night I got back I spent until midnight picking out withered grey corpses, putting them on fresh paper and grating in more food. Altogether there were about six - mostly in the box that was streaming with condensation - but there have been more casualties since. At one stage there seemed to be so many corpses every time I looked that I was thinking that my little colony was suffering from a plague (like the one that afflicted most of Europe in the nineteenth century) and could understand how desperate the sericulturists must have felt as generation after generation of silkworms succumbed no matter what anyone did ...
Many people ask about Cynthia Robinson Height and Weight 2016, size, age, body statistics and measurements. Cynthia Robinson is an American Trumpet player, her
August 1965: John writing to Cynthia during The Beatles American Tour. ...what he said about it. Its not that much bother really, is it? When you think about it - cause Im sure Dot [the Lennons housekeeper] and Lil [Cynthias mother] and Bennigs, Tommy, Jordy, etc. can understand something as simple as us wanting to be alone for a day - I dont mean Julian - I mean dont pack him off to Dots or anywhere - I really miss him as a person now - do you know what I mean, hes not so much The Baby or My Baby anymore, hes a real living part of me now, you know hes Julian and everything and I cant wait to see him, I miss him more then Ive ever done before - I think its been a slow process my feeling like a real father! I hope all this is clear and understandable. I spend hours in dressing rooms and things thinking about the times Ive wasted not being with him - and playing with him - you know I keep thinking of THOSE stupid bastard times when I keep reading bloody newspapers and other ...
Cynthia Thompson is the Business Development Manager for SGP International, a leading developer of departmental data reconciliation and custom designed data management solutions. Thompson can be reached at (212) 685-0819 or at [email protected]
Cynthia Nixons wife was worried about her being bald on their wedding day.The former Sex and the City actress shaved her head for her role as a cancer sufferer in the stage play Wit before her May nuptials to long-term...
Visit Healthgrades for information on Dr. Samia Malik, MD Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
See what Samia Rasasi (samiarasasi) has discovered on Pinterest, the worlds biggest collection of everybodys favorite things.
Pay attention," the intruder interrupted, and stepped around the desk. "I want you." She slowly raised, then lowered the weapon, and Cynthias head bobbed in perfect rhythm. "Oh... you like my new toy?" the intruder whispered. "Its the very latest in gas-powered automatics. It fires a tiny fl chette loaded with a powerful narcotic, and is quiet as a mild cough. One touch of the needle... and youre out like the proverbial light in less than two seconds." She waved the barrel from side to side, and again, Cynthias head followed. "The only downside... it leaves a nasty bruise." She centered the weapons aim between Cynthias breasts. "You dont want me to have to use this thing, do you?" Cynthia shook her head. "Youre going to do exactly what I tell you to do, arent you?" Cynthia nodded. "Hands behind the chair," she ordered ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Chun Pan, Yan-Fen Hu, Hua-Shan Yi, Juan Song, La Wang, Min-Hui Pan, Cheng Lu].
Private investigator Cormoran Strike returns in a new mystery from Robert Galbraith, author of the #1 international bestseller The Cuckoos Calling. Read the first two chapters of The Silkworm below, and meet Strikes new client. The Silkworm goes on sale June 19th, but you can preorder your copy today at your local independent bookstore or […]
Did you just roll your eyes?) In all seriousness, a colleagues look of disdain or contempt may seem innocuous. But it absolutely is not.. Eye rolling is just one - among many - uncivil behaviors that may contribute to unhealthy or toxic workplaces. And research has proven that such environments in healthcare can have dangerous consequences for patients, including harm, injury, or even death.. So how does one address such a serious issue? For more than two decades, that question has been the lifes work of Cynthia Clark, PhD, RN, ANEF, FAAN, Strategic Nursing Advisor for ATI Nursing Education.. And, she finally found a solution.. For the past year, Dr. Clark has led a team of instructional designers, psychometricians, and computer programmers to address the issue of civility. Their goal? To create an interactive and engaging learning solution that will give nursing students the skills to:. ...
Visit Healthgrades for information on Dr. Cynthia Hom, MD Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
Cynthia Nixon and director Lynne Meadow, both cancer survivors, share the challenge and the music of Margaret Edson's Wit on Broadway.
Cynthia Nixon and director Lynne Meadow, both cancer survivors, share the challenge and the music of Margaret Edson's Wit on Broadway.
Laura Linney and Cynthia Nixon swap the two lead female roles in the latest revival of The Little Foxes. Between performances they talk Tony nominations, sexism, and the wisdom of Stockard Channing.
Cynthia Zelis MD is a Family Practitioner who practices in Strongsville, OH. Get a full report about this doctors background by clicking here.
See what Cynthia Smith (csmith2279) has discovered on Pinterest, the worlds biggest collection of everybodys favorite things.
Real-time PCR analysis of expression profiles of BmNPV binding proteins in B. mori midguts.Columns with different colors indicated the experimental treats to th
3494 Marko Mäkelä 2011-08-15 [merge] Merge mysql-5.1 to mysql-5.5. Add a test case. added: mysql-test/suite/innodb/r/innodb_bug59733.result mysql-test/suite/innodb/t/innodb_bug59733.test modified: storage/innobase/btr/btr0btr.c storage/innobase/btr/btr0cur.c storage/innobase/btr/btr0pcur.c storage/innobase/btr/btr0sea.c storage/innobase/dict/dict0crea.c storage/innobase/dict/dict0dict.c storage/innobase/ibuf/ibuf0ibuf.c storage/innobase/include/btr0btr.h storage/innobase/include/btr0btr.ic storage/innobase/include/sync0sync.h storage/innobase/sync/sync0sync.c 3493 Georgi Kodinov 2011-08-12 Bug #12777649: "OS THREAD ID" REMOVED Pushed Calvins patch. modified: sql/sql_class.cc === added file mysql-test/suite/innodb/r/innodb_bug59733.result --- a/mysql-test/suite/innodb/r/innodb_bug59733.result 1970-01-01 00:00:00 +0000 +++ b/mysql-test/suite/innodb/r/innodb_bug59733.result revid:[email protected] @@ -0,0 +1,18 @@ +CREATE TABLE bug59733(a INT AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY,b ...
Even though I am fond of my silkworms I dont like the thought of them escaping. I imagine them crawling swiftly to my pillow in the night, like that mouse that once brushed my head when a child. Then Id woke dreaming of lying at the bottom of a well, drops of water falling rhythmically onto my face - where, it turned out, the mouse was touching me as it ran around in circles on my pillow ...
Cynthia Marie Has A Rare Genome That Is Impervious To Disease And Toxins Cynthia Marie has a rare genome that is impervious to disease and toxins. When faced with something the body cant handle, instead of dying her body puts her into a coma until it excretes the toxin/germ out in her urine. According to Cynthia her DNA was sold like a commodity through Wall Street and hypothecated through various financial products. She is an extreme case of slave system we all live under and how the... ...
RE: Section 508I agree, that was a smart thing for Cynthia to do. Asif./ -----Original Message----- From: [email protected] [mailto:[email protected]]On Behalf Of Denise Wood Sent: Monday, October 22, 2001 1:13 PM To: Joe Clark; [email protected] Subject: RE: Section 508 Joe I too was initially a little confused/concerned as to why Cynthia felt the need to address these matters via email rather than publicly through a discussion forum. However, I was pleased that she made the offer to respond to individual concerns privately as I respect her opinion. I gave Cynthias response some thought after receiving the email and it occurred to me that she may be concerned about exposing an individual organisation to potential litigation by going into detail about specific cases in a public forum. Any such discussion would have to be vague and full of hypotheticals to protect the individuals seeking advice. Whereas people who are genuinely in need of specific advice would be able to get ...
3214 Vasil Dimov 2010-10-01 [merge] Merge mysql-5.5-innodb -, mysql-5.5-bugteam removed: mysql-test/suite/innodb/r/innodb-system-table-view.result mysql-test/suite/innodb/t/innodb-system-table-view-master.opt mysql-test/suite/innodb/t/innodb-system-table-view.test storage/innobase/COPYING storage/innobase/COPYING.Sun_Microsystems storage/innobase/include/ut0auxconf.h storage/innobase/ut/ut0auxconf_atomic_pthread_t_gcc.c storage/innobase/ut/ut0auxconf_atomic_pthread_t_solaris.c storage/innobase/ut/ut0auxconf_have_gcc_atomics.c storage/innobase/ut/ut0auxconf_have_solaris_atomics.c storage/innobase/ut/ut0auxconf_pause.c storage/innobase/ut/ut0auxconf_sizeof_pthread_t.c modified: mysql-test/r/mysqlshow.result storage/innobase/CMakeLists.txt storage/innobase/Doxyfile storage/innobase/Makefile.am storage/innobase/btr/btr0btr.c storage/innobase/btr/btr0cur.c storage/innobase/btr/btr0pcur.c storage/innobase/btr/btr0sea.c storage/innobase/buf/buf0flu.c storage/innobase/compile-innodb ...
I pop the tab off the bottle and pour the contents of bottle one into bottle two. A quick glance at my image in the mirror and I look like the mad scientist in gray vogue. Although the final promised color is a golden red the wet product is hemorrhage-purple. Shocked, I grab the box and check again - Golden Sienna. Stamped with the Good Housekeeping seal of approval, Clairol, my image rests in your potion ...
On the Rambler, Cynthia and Kate waited, hearts pounding. The interference was too great for cameras; even the intermittent radio contact they received was subject to heavy static, no surprise given the distance and amount of metal between them. They had tried to make small talk early in their vigil, but found it difficult; there was little to discuss, other than the peril their shipmates might be in, and voicing their fears merely seemed to make them that much more real. Theyd lapsed once more into a tense silence, broken only by the crackling of the radio, the sole, tenuous contact linking them with the explorers and the Lonesome Road. Cynthia had brought her rifle with her, the absolute latest and best piece of military equipment the Empire could field, so new that only the Emperors Own was carrying them; she busied herself taking it apart and putting it back together again, checking every moving piece and oiling it twice, working the action until Kate thought the incessant clicking would ...
In 1999, we discovered that removing C. elegansgerm cells extends the lifespan of the whole animal. This life extension requires the presence of the somatic re...
Well, I am at it again. I am asking why the 11 year old Hispanic boy was included in the study. I was amazed at what I found as to what is presently available ...
Dr. Chua focuses on listening carefully to each cancer patient, and applying knowledge and skills to help patients live as well as they can.
I am sure everyone who ever lived could name one food they dreaded seeing when they sat down at the family dinner table. Where I grew up, we had to eat everything on our plates. Mom did not cater to anyones fussiness when it came to eating. And Dad enforced that, oh yes, he did.…
Swamped, the staff scrambles to find empty beds. Dusk arrives and still no room available, we relocate for a temporary stay in recovery. Patients moan and intravenous bags hang on hooks. Tucked in a far cubicle, we order dinner and wait for a vacancy. Flat on her back I spoon feed Mom peas. One disappears down her gown ...
Studio Spence is een grafisch ontwerpburo gespecialiseerd in boeken, affiches, illustraties, brochures, flyers, logos en huisstijlen
Kinesiologist, Your journey to health starts Here. You have tried so many things, yet that persistent health issue lingers. TAKE A DEEP BREATH Together, we will explore your past, assess what your body is trying to...
Username: Daisho1 Email: [email protected] Price: SOLD!!! SOLD!!! Purchased from Japan and I havent not seen the likes of this anywhere. This is a CCP Mothra Larva & Glow-in-the -dark Cocoon on Rock Base. This is a SUPERB piece to add to any G-Collection. The Cocoon is painted or molded out of a pearlescent white that…
Affiliation:九大,農学部,教授, Research Field:蚕糸・昆虫利用学,蚕糸学, Keywords:Bombyx mori,CBP,in situ hybridization,cDNAライブラリー,カイコ,CI-8塩基配列,不眠蚕,中腸組織,キモトリプシンインヒビター,家蚕, # of Research Projects:11, # of Research Products:0
An enzyme that promotes normal, balanced inflammatory response, supports healthy mucus and sinus function, and may be beneficial for cardiovascular he
An enzyme that promotes normal, balanced inflammatory response, supports healthy mucus and sinus function, and may be beneficial for cardiovascular he
When Samia Mandari came to Canada, her challenges werent over. She shares her story of dealing with the loss of her husband and learning to read and write in English.
50 Cocoon Challenge - the Next Generation! Just thought Id provide a quick (but important) update for everyone today. I had a look in the original 50
Ciaran reviewed the Cozy Cocoon back in April 2006 , so I was eager to try it with Cole once he arrived. I got one from Mom4Life and tried it out. Have to say
coco-mat has collaborated with cocoon modules, the container architecture start-up, to design an environmentally friendly container home.
When you want the best features from the top-tier riflescopes but not break the bank, look no further than the new Ares BTR first focal plan SCHEELS
Authors: Flegel, Kerry A.; Pineda, Jaimie M.; Smith, Tasha S.; Laszczyk, Ann M.; Price, Janet M.; Karasiewicz, Kristen M.; Damer, Cynthia K. ...
Marcy Very Much is a lifestyle brand about felines and fashion, with cat-themed merch and conversations between founder Cynthia Mance and her moody cat Marcy.
We are excited to share one of our fave stories from Shape here on FitSugar. This week Shape turns to Cynthia Sass, a registered dietitian with masters
NPR coverage of The Good Earth by Pearl S. Buck, Stephanie Reents, and Cynthia Brantley Johnson. News, author interviews, critics picks and more.
glad you guys were on the same page! I should have known seeing as it was in the K2xx section... but i overlooked that! I wish we had more K2xx action
In order to compare ecdysone metabolism between diapause eggs and non-diapause eggs of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, ^3H-ecdysone and its derivatives (^3H-3-epiecdysone and ^3H-ecdysone 22-phosphate) were injected into the eggs at various stages during early embryogenesis, and the resultant labelled metabolites were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. From the quantitative and qualitative changes in the labelled metabolites between diapause eggs and non-diapause eggs, it was demonstrated that epimerization of ecdysone occurred during early embryogenesis irrespective of the embryonic stage in both diapause eggs and non-diapause eggs, and that phosphorylation of ecdysone was a major metabolic step in diapause eggs, whereas dephosphorylation of ecdysone 22-phosphate and its subsequent hydroxylation at the C-20 and C-26 positions were characteristic in non-diapause eggs.
Using the piggyBac-mediated GAL4/UAS transgenic system established in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, we have previously reported that overexpression of the Ras1CA oncogene specifically in the posterior silk gland (PSG) improved cell growth, fibroin synthesis, and thus silk yield. However, the detailed molecular mechanism remains to be fully elucidated. To achieve this goal, Illumina sequencing was used in the present study to compare the transcriptomes of the Ras1CA-overexpressed and wildtype PSGs. The transcriptomic sequencing results in 56 million reads following filtering steps. Most of the reads (~70%) are successfully mapped to the Bombyx genome. The mapped reads are situated within at least 9,133 predicted genes, covering 62.46% genes of the Bombyx genome. GO annotation shows that 2512 of the 2,636 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) are mostly distributed in metabolic process, cell and cell part, and binding, and KEGG annotation shows that 1,941 DEGs are mapped into 277 pathways. Importantly,
Unscramble sericulture, Unscramble letters sericulture, Point value for sericulture, Word Decoder for sericulture, Word generator using the letters sericulture, Word Solver sericulture, Possible Scrabble words with sericulture, Anagram of sericulture
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AbstractParasitization of silkworm, Bombyx mori by invasive larva of dipteran parasitoid Exorista bombycis caused upto 20% revenue loss in sericulture. The parasitism was successful by suppressing host immune system however mechanism of immune suppression induced by E. bombycis is unknown which is unravelled here. The infestation induced cytotoxic symptoms in host hemocytes, such as vacuolated cytoplasm, porous plasma membrane, indented nuclei with condensed chromatin and dilated RER. One of the markers of necrosis is cell permeabilization, which can be measured as released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). LDH level showed significantly (P<0.01) high release into extracellular medium in vitro after exposure of hemocytes to parasitoid larval tissue protein compared with control revealing membrane permeability and loss of cell integrity. At five minutes after exposure, cytotoxicity was 43% and was increased to 99% at 3h. The cytotoxicity is signalled by increased content of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) causing
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transgenic analysis of the BmBLOS2 gene that governs the translucency of the larval integument of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. AU - Fujii, T.. AU - Daimon, T.. AU - Uchino, K.. AU - Banno, Y.. AU - Katsuma, S.. AU - Sezutsu, H.. AU - Tamura, T.. AU - Shimada, T.. PY - 2010/10/1. Y1 - 2010/10/1. N2 - The larval integument of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, is opaque because urate granules accumulate in the epidermis. Although the biosynthetic pathway of uric acid is well studied, little is known about how uric acid accumulates as urate granules in epidermal cells. In the distinct oily (od) mutant silkworm, the larval integument is translucent because of the inability to construct urate granules. Recently, we have found that the od mutant has a genomic deletion in the B. mori homologue of the human biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex1, subunit 2 (BLOS2) gene (BmBLOS2). Here, we performed a molecular and functional characterization of BmBLOS2. Northern blot analysis showed ...
Mulberry, Morus spp. has a wide range of use, the chief among them is to feed the silk producing caterpillar Bombyx mori L. (Bombycidae; Bombycoidea). As a homeland of mulberry, India has a number of
The chromosome karyotyping of insects included Lepidoptera is very difficult because of the large number of chromosomes, small size, and lack of major constriction structure. This has been a great hindrance to the karyological analysis. In this study, using banding analysis on the pachytene chromosomes, all chromosomes were characterized, and idiograms of Bombyx mori and R mandarina were established. From the testes during meiosis, 81 and 56 cells were examined for the analysis of B. mori and R mandarina, respectively. The best preparation of pachytene chromosomes was obtained on the 3(rd) day of the 3(rd) larva and 2(nd) or 3(rd) day of the 4(th) larva of the B. mori male, and it revealed that there was a characteristic nucleolus structure in the 2(nd) chromosomes, which was supposed to be the Z sex chromosome. The length of the pachytene chromosome was variable during the developmental stage of the cell, so the physical length of each chromosome was relatively converted in comparison to the ...
Title:Neural Network Modeling and Analysis of Turn Duration Time Changing of Silkmoth Using Genetic Algorithm. VOLUME: 2 ISSUE: 2. Author(s):Ryosuke Chiba, Sunao Hashimoto, Tomoki Kazawa, Ryohei Kanzaki and Jun Ota. Affiliation:Department of System Design, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 6-6 Asahigaoka, Hino-shi, Tokyo, 191- 0065, Japan.. Keywords:Genetic algorithm, mobiligence, neural network modeling, silkmoth zig-zag walking.. Abstract:In this study, we investigate the reproductive behavior of the male silkmoth, Bombyx mori. When a male silkmoth senses the sexual pheromones of a female through its antennas, it shows a certain walking pattern by which it approaches the female. Interestingly, the degree of pheromone stimulation influences the turn duration time in this pattern. This walking pattern is considered to be generated in the silkmoth brain, specifically in the lateral accessory lobe (LAL) and the ventral protocerebrum (VPC) domain, which control physical movements However, the system ...
0053]Known amino acid sequences for lytic peptides may be modified to create new peptides that would also be expected to have lytic activity by substitutions of amino acid residues that promote alpha-helical stability and that preserve the amphipathic nature of the peptides (e.g., replacing a polar residue with another polar residue, or a non-polar residue with another non-polar residue, etc.); by substitutions that preserve the charge distribution (e.g., replacing an acidic residue with another acidic residue, or a basic residue with another basic residue, etc.); or by lengthening or shortening the amino acid sequence while preserving its amphipathic character or its charge distribution. Lytic peptides and their sequences are disclosed in Yamada et al., "Production of recombinant sarcotoxin IA in Bombyx mori cells," Biochem. J., vol. 272, pp. 633-666 (1990); Taniai et al., "Isolation and nucleotide sequence of cecropin B cDNA clones from the silkworm, Bombyx mori," Biochimica Et Biophysica ...
Update! From Bobbi: Vicki S and Barb P -Youve won the Valentines Swag!. Congratulations!. Please email me your preferred SNAIL mail to: [email protected] Have a Great Weekend!. Happy Monday, everyone!!! I hope that you enjoyed a fabulous weekend! And speaking of fabulous…guest author Bobbi Romans is at the blog today!. Bobbi is taking over while I am diving into some edits (I am in serious edit land right now as I finish up two stories). Shes going to dish about her new release and the fun contest that shes got going! Welcome to you, Bobbi!. ***. Wheee, Im such a Cynthia Eden fan girl and to be at her place? Im over the moon. When I first spoke with Cynthia, I was vying to pitch to someone at conference. They were slap booked up. Cynthia continued working and as cancellations came in, continued swapping me around the schedule until lo and behold, boom there I was.. While this played out, I knew I recognized Cynthias name…but hadnt placed it. That night I Googled when the next ...
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The vast majority of lepidopterans, about 90%, are moths. Some moths, particularly their caterpillars, are major agricultural and forestry pests in many parts of the world. However, some other members of moths, such as the silkworm Bombyx mori, are famous for their economic value. Fire et al. in 1998 initially found that exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can silence the homolog endogenous mRNA in organisms, which is called RNA interference (RNAi). Soon after, the RNAi technique proved to be very promising not only in gene function determination but also in pest control. However, later studies demonstrate that performing RNAi in moths is not as straightforward as shown in other insect taxa. Nevertheless, since 2007, especially after 2010, an increasing number of reports have been published that describe successful RNAi experiments in different moth species either on gene function analysis or on pest management exploration. So far, more than 100 peer-reviewed papers have reported successful RNAi
Transferrin (Tf) is a multifunctional, iron binding protein found in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Although transferrin has been suggested to play a role in innate immunity, its immunological function during infection has not been characterized. In this study, we identified and characterized Bombyx mori transferrin (BmTf). The promoter region of BmTf has numerous putative NF-κB binding sites, suggesting its possible function in innate immunity. Analysis of BmTf gene expression shows that it is highly inducible in response to a wide variety of pathogens including bacteria, fungus, and viruses. Recombinant BmTf protein produced in a baculovirus system exhibits iron binding capacity and antibacterial activity against various Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Taken together, our results indicate that BmTf is an inducible immune effector molecule that may play an important role in pathogen clearance of insect innate immunity. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved ...
A fluorescent triple staining method was developed to stain the cytoplasm of neurons red, the nuclei of all kinds of cells, including neurons, blue and the nuclei of apoptotic neurons in cyan in the twelve ventral ganglia (VG) of the Bombyx mo...
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Sex and the City actress Cynthia Nixon, 46, has married her girlfriend Christine Marinoni, 45, in New York, People magazine revealed today (May 28, 2012). The couple got engaged three years ago, at a rally to support same sex marriages....
Cynthia assists MPS students in Department of Statistical Science (DSS) with their job search strategies and career decisions. She comes to DSS from Cornells Office of Sponsored Programs, where she was a Grant and Contract Officer. Cynthia has a broad background and a wealth of experience in many facets of Career Services. In her past, she has worked in Human Resources and understands the employer side of the equation. She has also worked with the New York State Department of Labor where she has assisted the job seeker and understands the student side of the equation. Please email her for an appointment.. ...
Dr. Neggazi Samia is currently working at Laboratory of Cellular and Molécular Physiopathology, Institute of Natural Sciences, University of Technological Scie..
Modified: cocoon/branches/BRANCH_2_1_X-dojo1_1/src/java/org/apache/cocoon/transformation/I18nTransformer.java URL: http://svn.apache.org/viewvc/cocoon/branches/BRANCH_2_1_X-dojo1_1/src/java/org/apache/cocoon/transformation/I18nTransformer.java?rev=1573205&r1=1573204&r2=1573205&view=diff ============================================================================== --- cocoon/branches/BRANCH_2_1_X-dojo1_1/src/java/org/apache/cocoon/transformation/I18nTransformer.java (original) +++ cocoon/branches/BRANCH_2_1_X-dojo1_1/src/java/org/apache/cocoon/transformation/I18nTransformer.java Sat Mar 1 18:02:14 2014 @@ -905,6 +905,9 @@ public class I18nTransformer extends Abs // Date and number elements and params formatting attributes with values. private HashMap formattingParams; + + // The namespaces and their prefixes + private Map namespaces; /** * Returns the current locale setting of this transformer instance. @@ -1108,6 +1111,7 @@ public class I18nTransformer extends Abs this.indexedParams = new ...
Diapause is a developmental strategy adopted by insects to survive in challenging environments such as the low temperatures of a winter. This unique process is regulated by diapause hormone (DH), which is a neuropeptide hormone that induces egg diapause in Bombyx mori and is involved in terminating pupal diapause in heliothis moths. An G protein-coupled receptor from the silkworm, B. mori, has bee ...
Programmed cell death [1], as well as cell proliferation and cell differentiation, has a crucial role in biological growth and development. There are two primary programmed cell death signaling pathways [2], apoptosis [3] and autophagy [4], of which apoptosis has been researched more extensively. Apoptosis is characterized by morphological changes and biochemical events such as cytoplasmic and nuclear condensation, phosphatidylserine extrusion, vacuolization, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, and formation of apoptotic bodies that are ultimately engulfed by surrounding cells or macrophages [2]. Cell death by autophagy involves cell degradation by internal lysozymes [4]. There are very important connections between apoptotic cell death and autophagic cell death, as they occur concurrently in many processes [5].. Apoptotic mechanisms are being clarified in model organisms using completed genome sequences, especially in nematodes, fruit flies and humans. Compared to Drosophila and humans, ...
... is a protein database which contains information on transcription factors (TFs) of silkworm.
Silk protein fibroin (SF)-based matrices from non-mulberry, and mulberry silkworms are used for different applications in regenerative medicine. Silk fiber spun by the wild non-mulberry silkworm Antheraea pernyi (Ap) is also a promising biomedical material, due to the presence of the inherent tripeptide sequence of Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic acid (RGD) on the protein fibroin sequences. However, SF derived from the Ap cocoons still lacks exploitation in the healthcare field due to its poor solubility in the conventional solvents. This work addresses the application of green chemistry principles, namely the use of ionic liquids (ILs, 1-butyl-imidazolium acetate) and renewable resources such as Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin (ApSF) and chitin (Ch), for the fabrication of sponges from the blends of ApSF and Ch (APC). The formation of β-sheet in different contents during ApSF/Ch/IL was acquired by exposing gels to methanol/water and ethanol/water. The sponges were then obtained by freeze-drying. This approach
The Analysis of Visual Feedback on Odor-source Searching Behavior of Male Silkworm Moth from the Activity of Neck Motor NeuronsThe Analysis of Visual Feedback on Odor-source Searching Behavior of Male Silkworm Moth from the Activity of Neck Motor Neurons ...
1. A new method for the assay of insect prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) is described, using fourth instar larvae of Manduca sexta. Larvae neck-ligated at a critical time to prevent release of PTTH from the head fail to undergo the next larval moult. Such ligated larvae moult to fifth instar larvae or larval-pupal intermediates after injection of brain homogenates from Manduca larvae, pupae or pharate adults. The degree of response is proportional to the concentration of brain homogenate injected. 2. The source of PTTH in the pupal brain is the dorsal region of the protocerebrum containing the lateral neurosecretory cells. Microhomogennates of single pieces of brain showed activity with this method. 3. PTTH activity in partially purified extracts is water soluable, stable to boiling for 10 min, and is destroyed by Pronase or trypsin.. ...
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While Hyalophora cecropia larvae are large and feed on a wide range of host plants, this species is not considered a serious pest in any parts of its range. Some populations of Hyalophora cecropia may be in decline due to a number of factors, including nontarget effects of introduced biological control agents. Boettner et al. (2000) suggested that the generalist parasitoid fly Compsilura concinnata (Diptera: Tachinidae) may be responsible for such declines in the northeastern U.S. Due to its size and hardiness, Hyalophora cecropia has been used extensively in physiological and biochemical research. Carroll Williams conducted pioneering work on juvenile hormone and its role in molting and metamorphosis using this species. Owing to its impressive size and appearance, Hyalophora cecropia has become a favorite of collectors and amateur Lepidopterists. Eggs and pupae are commercially available, and a small livestock industry has developed around this and other related species. ...
This paper reports the results of studies on a Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus(SiNPV) isolated from the mulberry caterpillar [Sacopolia illoba (Butler)]in Harbin. In most cases there were 4--5 nucleooapsids enveloped within eachvirus bundle of SiNPV. The polyhedra of SiNPV were 2. 06±0. 27μm in diameter,and nucleocapsids were measured about (0.36±0.01)×(0.058±0. 004)μm. SiNPVwas also infectious to the neonate larvae of several other noctuids includingDiscestra stigmosa, Mamestra brassicae, Scotia segetum, S. ips...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Monoubiquitination-dependent chromatin loading of FancD2 in silkworms, a species lacking the FA core complex. AU - Sugahara, Ryohei. AU - Mon, Hiroaki. AU - Lee, Jae Man. AU - Kusakabe, Takahiro. PY - 2012/6/15. Y1 - 2012/6/15. N2 - The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway is required for activation and operation of the DNA interstrand cross-link (ICL) repair pathway, although the precise mechanism of the FA pathway remains largely unknown. A critical step in the FA pathway is the monoubiquitination of FANCD2 catalyzed by a FA core complex. This modification appears to allow FANCD2 to coordinate ICL repair with other DNA repair proteins on chromatin. Silkworm, . Bombyx mori, lacks apparent homologues of the FA core complex. However, BmFancD2 and BmFancI, the putative substrates of the complex, and BmFancL, the putative catalytic E3 ubiquitin ligase, are conserved. Here, we report that the silkworm FancD2 is monoubiquitinated depending on FancI and FancL, and stabilized on chromatin, ...
Melanization is regulated by the prophenoloxidase cascade and functions as a response to intruding microorganisms in invertebrates. When injecting dsRNA of the lepidopteran immune protein hemolin in pupae of Hyalophora cecropia (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), we observed a significant reduction in phenoloxidase activity after 24 h, but not after 72 h. The link between hemolin and the prophenoloxidase system suggests that hemolin is a pattern recognition protein important for the triggering of the prophenoloxidase cascade in the defence against bacterial infections. ...
... from Chinese Bombyx mandarina and paternal inheritance of Antheraea proylei mitochondrial DNA" (PDF). Molecular ... The silkworm is the larva or caterpillar of the domestic silkmoth, Bombyx mori (Latin: "silkworm of the mulberry tree"). It is ... 2004). "The genome sequence of silkworm, Bombyx mori". DNA Research. 11 (1): 27-35. doi:10.1093/dnares/11.1.27. PMID 15141943. ... Many other Lepidoptera produce cocoons, but only a few-the Bombycidae, in particular the genus Bombyx, and the Saturniidae, in ...
Bombyx mori[edit]. An insect two-hybrid (I2H) system was developed in a silkworm cell line from the larva or caterpillar of the ... domesticated silk moth, Bombyx mori (BmN4 cells). This system uses the GAL4 BD and the activation domain of mouse NF-κB P65. ...
Bombyx mori) 56 This is for the species mulberry silkworm, B. mori (2n=56). Probably more than 99% of the world's commercial ... Yoshido A, Yasukochi Y, Sahara K (2011). "Samia cynthia versus Bombyx mori: comparative gene mapping between a species with a ... "The Bombyx mori karyotype and the assignment of linkage groups". Genetics. 170 (2): 675-85. doi:10.1534/genetics.104.040352 ...
The most notable of these is the silkworm, the larva of the domesticated moth Bombyx mori. It is farmed for the silk with which ... Not all silk is produced by Bombyx mori. There are several species of Saturniidae that also are farmed for their silk, such as ...
Bombyx mori". DNA Research. 11 (1): 27-35. doi:10.1093/dnares/11.1.27. PMID 15141943.. ...
Fabricius, Johan Christian (1793). "Bombyx". Entomologia systematica emendata et aucta. Vol 3. Part 1. Copenhagen: C. G. Proft ...
Bombyx mori, named after the mulberry genus Morus), the cocoon of which is used to make silk.[15][16] The wild silk moth also ... "Anatomical and functional analysis of domestication effects on the olfactory system of the silkmoth Bombyx mori". Proceedings ...
Speaking of the bombyx or silk moth, he wrote in his Natural History "They weave webs, like spiders, that become a luxurious ... The species was identified as Bombyx mori, the domesticated silkworm. Fragments of primitive loom can also be seen from the ... the Bombyx mandarina and its domesticated descendent B. mori. Chinese sources claim the existence of a machine to unwind ...
Bombyx Mori (2011). GOLDFISH (2013). The cunning little vixen, an opera by Leoš Janáček at the Bergen National Opera, Norway ( ... 2002 What Good Would the moon be 2004 Armide 2003 Shaker 2006 Armide 2006 Rushes 2007 Hydra 2007 Trout 2008 Toros 2010 Bombyx ...
The International Silkworm Genome (2008). The genome of a lepidopteran model insect, the silkworm Bombyx mori. Insect ...
Bombyx in Merriam Webster. P.C.-Rougeot, P. Viette (1978). Guide des papillons nocturnes d'Europe et d'Afrique du Nord. ...
Bombyx in Merriam Webster. Aristotle, hist.an. 5,19. 551b 13ff. Pliny the Elder, Naturalis historia 11, 26.. ...
Bombyx mandarina, and its Close Relative, the Domesticated Silkmoth, Bombyx mori. Molecular Biology and Evolution 19(8): 1385- ... Bombyx mori from Chinese Bombyx mandarina and paternal inheritance of Antheraea proylei mitochondrial DNA. Molecular ... The silkworm Bombyx mori is fed on mulberry leaves cultivated in plantations. Silkworms are also found wild on forest trees, e. ... Yoshitake, N. (1968): Phylogenetic aspects on the origin of Japanese race of the silkworm, Bombyx mori L.. Journal of ...
"Patient registry". Harano T (1972). "New diaphorases from Bombyx silkworm eggs. NADH/NADPH cytochrome c reductase activity ...
... s from Bombyx mori, a kind of cultivated silkworm, are the most widely investigated silks. Silks derived from Bombyx mori ... The best-known silk is obtained from the cocoons of the larvae of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori reared in captivity ( ... Silk fibers from the Bombyx mori silkworm have a triangular cross section with rounded corners, 5-10 μm wide. The fibroin-heavy ... "Fine organization of Bombyx mori fibroin heavy chain gene". Nucleic Acids Research. 28 (12): 2413-2419. PMC 102737 . PMID ...
120 strains of Bombyx mori. The institution owns a mulberry field, also used for experiments, that provides the leaves ... necessary for the rearing and breeding of the various Bombyx strains. Mario Tirelli. ...
The most notable of these is the silkworm, the larva of the domesticated moth Bombyx mori. It is farmed for the silk with which ... Not all silk is produced by Bombyx mori. There are several species of Saturniidae that also are farmed for their silk, such as ... Bombyx mori), for its silk Wax moths (Galleria mellonella, Achroia grisella), pests of bee hives Duponchelia fovealis, a new ...
"Identification and characteristics of microRNAs from Bombyx mori". BMC Genomics. 9: 248. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-9-248. PMC ...
Bombyx mori) through Varroa destructor mite infestations. The virus causes paralysis in the front two pairs of legs of adult ...
The species Bombyx mori has been domesticated to the point where it is completely dependent on mankind for survival. A number ... The most prominent example is that of the domesticated silkworm moth (Bombyx mori), the larvae of which make their cocoons out ... Goldsmith M. R.; T. Shimada; H. Abe (2005). "The genetics and genomics of the silkworm, Bombyx mori". Annual Review of ... Yoshitake, N. (1968). "Phylogenetic aspects on the origin of Japanese race of the silkworm, Bombyx mori". Journal of ...
ISBN 978-0-309-17656-9. Evans, J. D.; Gundersen-Rindal, D. (2003). "Beenomes to Bombyx: Future directions in applied insect ...
Xylotrupes gideon Gryllotalpa africana Bombyx mori Tessaratoma quadrata Hierodura sp. ? Vespa spp. Hydrophilus affinis ... Isoptera Macrotermes gilvus Lepidoptera Bombyx mori Erionata thrax thrax Omphisa fuscidentalis Homoptera Chremistica sp. ... Bombyx mori (silkworm pupa) Insect species eaten in Indonesia: Hyblaea puera (teak caterpillar; known as enthung jati in ... Bombyx mori (silkworm pupa) Oecophylla smaragdina (weaver ant) Lethocerus indicus (giant water bug) Heterometrus longimanus ( ...
Kawaguchi, Yutaka (1996). ""Comparison of Chorion Structure of Eggs from Bombyx mori, Bombyx mandarina (Lepidoptera:Bombycidae ... Another example of an organism with micropyle is Bombyx mandarina. ...
Bombyx mori, and the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus, as a factor inducing dark color in an albino strain of the locust, Locusta ... the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus and the silkworm Bombyx mori and is now known to be the most common form of this peptide. [His( ... Bombyx mori), corazonin reduces the spinning rate of silk. Nässel DR (2002). "Neuropeptides in the nervous system of Drosophila ... Bombyx mori". Journal of Insect Physiology 48 (7): 707-714. [3] doi:10.1016/S0022-1910(02)00094-X. ...
It is also the sex pheromone in the wild silk moth (Bombyx mandarina). Discovered by Adolf Butenandt in 1959, it was the first ... Butenandt named the substance after the moth's Latin name Bombyx mori. In vivo it appears that bombykol is the natural ligand ... Kuwahara, Yasumasa (1984). "Flight Time of Bombyx mandarina Males to a Pheromone Trap Baited with Bombykol". Applied Entomology ... "Evaluation of Bombykol as the Sex Pheromone of Bombyx mandarina(Lepidoptera : Bombycidae)". Applied Entomology and Zoology. 19 ...
Another well-known species is Bombyx mandarina, also native to Asia. The family consists of 21 genera and about 150 species, ... The best-known species is Bombyx mori (Linnaeus) or silkworm, native to northern China and domesticated for millennia. ...
Silk fibroin from Bombyx mori cocoons was non-allergic and biocompatible in skin and rabbit eye tests. The concentration ...
Bombyx mori from Chinese Bombyx mandarina and paternal inheritance of Antheraea proylei mitochondrial DNA" (PDF). Molecular ... The silkworm is the larva or caterpillar of the domestic silkmoth, Bombyx mori (Latin: "silkworm of the mulberry tree"). It is ... 2004). "The genome sequence of silkworm, Bombyx mori". DNA Research. 11 (1): 27-35. doi:10.1093/dnares/11.1.27. PMID 15141943. ... Many other Lepidoptera produce cocoons, but only a few-the Bombycidae, in particular the genus Bombyx, and the Saturniidae, in ...
annexin B13 [Bombyx mori] annexin B13 [Bombyx mori]. gi,112983539,ref,NP_001036881.1, ... Large scale full-length cDNA sequencing reveals a unique genomic landscape in a lepidopteran model insect, Bombyx mori. [G3 ( ... Transcriptomic analysis of developmental features of Bombyx mori wing disc during metamorphosis.. Ou J, Deng HM, Zheng SC, ... Large scale full-length cDNA sequencing reveals a unique genomic landscape in a lepidopteran model insect, Bombyx mori.. ...
Bombyx horsfieldi (Moore, 1860) Bombyx huttoni Westwood, 1847 Bombyx incomposita van Eecke, 1929 Bombyx lemeepauli Lemée, 1950 ... Bombyx rotundapex Miyata & Kishida, 1990 Bombyx shini Park and Sohn, 2002 Bombyx Hybrid, a hybrid between B. mori and B. ... a semi-natural cross between a female Bombyx mori and a male Bombyx mandarina, and another hybrid the other way around from the ... Bombyx is the genus of true silkmoths or mulberry silkmoths of the family Bombycidae. For a few thousand years, people only ...
Bombyx lemeepauli is a species of Bombycidae in the genus Bombyx. It was described by Lemée, in 1950. It is found in Vietnam ... Bombyx lemeepauli at www.boldsystems.org. Bombyx lemeepauli - BOLD Systems - Taxonomy Browser. ...
Bombyx mori. For hatching silkworms. Life cycle takes about 6 to 8 weeks after eggs hatch. Silkworms require fresh mulberry ... Silkworm Eggs (Bombyx mori). 2 Items Silkworm Eggs (Bombyx mori) is rated 3.7 out of 5 by 6. ... Bombyx mori. For hatching silkworms. Life cycle takes about 6 to 8 weeks after eggs hatch. Silkworms require fresh mulberry ... Bombyx mori. For hatching silkworms. Life cycle takes about 6 to 8 weeks after eggs hatch. Silkworms require fresh mulberry ...
Mass spider silk production through targeted gene replacement in Bombyx mori. Jun Xu, Qinglin Dong, Ye Yu, Baolong Niu, ... Mass spider silk production through targeted gene replacement in Bombyx mori. Jun Xu, Qinglin Dong, Ye Yu, Baolong Niu, ... The silkworm, Bombyx mori, has been the most well known silk producer for thousands of years and has been considered an ideal ... 2012) N-Terminal domain of Bombyx mori fibroin mediates the assembly of silk in response to pH decrease. J Mol Biol 418:197-207 ...
Once upon a time there lived a boy-girl named Cynae. After a series of difficulties, she came to live in a small house in the woods.. Here, our first challenge. Do we address Cynae as she or he? Really, both or neither would be more accurate. More accurate still: it doesnt matter. More accurate still: why does it matter?. And yet, the impasse remains. It would be too inelegant to avoid pronouns altogether, as in Cynae came to live in a small house in the woods. The option to adopt zie is tempting, but will draw attention, and in certain contexts there remains something uncomfortable in addressing a single person as they. After some anxiety, we come to a reasoned decision. There are enough stories where the principal character is a he; thus we will use she.. In the woods there is a house. An old house, a broken-down house, a quiet house. Fine-leaved creepers snarl over the crumbling walls, their waxy fingers tangling, pressing against the window panes and inching down the chimney. This old house ...
A cysteine protease encoded by the baculovirus Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus.. Ohkawa T1, Majima K, Maeda S. ... Sequence analysis of the BamHI F fragment of the genome of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) revealed an open ...
Bombyx mori (Silk moth)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... tr,Q9XXW0,Q9XXW0_BOMMO Endonuclease and reverse transcriptase-like protein OS=Bombyx mori OX=7091 PE=4 SV=1 ...
Location of the Bombyx mori specificity domain on a Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin protein. A Z Ge, N I Shivarova, and ... kurstaki HD-1] was found to be 400 times more active against Bombyx mori than type C protein (from an icpC73, or 6.6-kb gene, ... Location of the Bombyx mori specificity domain on a Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin protein ... Location of the Bombyx mori specificity domain on a Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin protein ...
... properties and to characterize the Bras2 present in the silkworm Bombyx mori. The cDNA of BmBras2 from Bombyx mori consists of ... The mRNA of Bombyx mori Bras2 has 1412 bp. The open reading frame contains 603 bp, which encodes 200 amino acid residues. This ... Bombyx mori has a well-studied genetic background and high developmental synchronization. Because it is susceptible to nuclear ... The Expression, Purification, and Characterization of a Ras Oncogene (Bras2) in Silkworm (Bombyx mori). Zhengbing Lv,1,2 Tao ...
Bombyx mori BMCHIR1protein: is a chitinase-like gene induced by 20-Hydroxyecdysone in Silkworm; amino acid sequence in first ... Bombyx mori BMCHIR1protein. Subscribe to New Research on Bombyx mori BMCHIR1protein is a chitinase-like gene induced by 20- ...
High-resolution structure of Bombyx mori lipoprotein 7: crystallographic determination of the identity of the protein and its ...
This virus infects crustaceans and insects, especially the silkworm (Bombyx mori). ... Bombyx mori densovirus 1 (BmDNV-1), molecular model. This virus infects crustaceans and insects, especially the silkworm ( ... Bombyx mori). In viruses, the capsid is the protein shell that encloses the genetic material. A capsid consists of subunits ...
Bombyx cysteine proteinase inhibitor (BCPI) from the hemolymph of Bombyx mori; alpha and beta are two forms differing only in ... cysteine proteinase inhibitor, Bombyx; BCPI-alpha protein, Bombyx; BCPI-beta protein, Bombyx ... Bombyx cysteine proteinase inhibitor (BCPI) from the hemolymph of Bombyx mori; alpha and beta are two forms differing only in ... Bombyx cysteine proteinase inhibitor. Subscribe to New Research on Bombyx cysteine proteinase inhibitor ...
... Fenghui Zeng,1,2 ... We identified a homologue of the E(spl)m4 gene from Bombyx mori called BmEm4 and examined the expression patterns of BmEm4 mRNA ... Figure 1: Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence for Bombyx mori E(spl)m4 (BmEm4). Conserved GY-box (GTCTTCC), K-box ( ... a) Sequence comparisons of Bombyx mori E(spl)m4 (accession number FJ436408), Drosophila melanogaster E(spl)m4 (accession number ...
Zhou, Q., Y. Li, X. Shen, Y. Yi, Y. Zhang et al., 2006 The scaleless wings mutant in Bombyx mori is associated with a lack of ... Zhou, Q., T. Zhang, W. Xu, L. Yu, Y. Yi et al., 2008 Analysis of four achaete-scute homologs in Bombyx mori reveals new ... Guo, T., J. Wang, X. Guo, S. Wang and C. Lu, 2005 Transient in vivo gene delivery to the silkworm Bombyx mori by EGT-null ... Chen, Y., B. Yao, Z. Zhu, Y. Yi, X. Lin et al., 2004 A constitutive super-enhancer: homologous region 3 of Bombyx mori ...
The silkworm, Bombyx mori, provides a unique bioresource for investigating this question, as there are several ...
... and molecular systematic of a new microsporidian which was isolated from the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori(Lepidoptera: ... and molecular systematic of a new microsporidian which was isolated from the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: ...
The silkworm Bombyx mori L. (B. mori) has a significant impact on the economy by producing more than 80% of the globally ... Keywords: venom; jellyfish; Nemopilema nomurai; toxicity; Bombyx mori L. venom; jellyfish; Nemopilema nomurai; toxicity; Bombyx ... The silkworm Bombyx mori L. (B. mori) has a significant impact on the economy by producing more than 80% of the globally ... Yu H, Li R, Chen X, Yue Y, Xing R, Liu S, Li P. Effect of Venom from the Jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai on the Silkworm Bombyx ...
... Tomohide Uno,1,* Tsubasa Moriwaki,1 Yuri Isoyama,1 ... A cDNA clone (Rab14) from Bombyx mori was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein and ...
The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is a lepidopteran model insect with economic importance. The mechanism of the silkworm sex ...
... functions as a double-switch gene in the final step of the sex-determination cascade in the silkworm Bombyx mori. The P-element ... "P-element Somatic Inhibitor Protein Binding a Target Sequence in dsx Pre-mRNA Conserved in Bombyx mori and Spodoptera litura." ... Bombyx mori doublesex (Bmdsx) functions as a double-switch gene in the final step of the sex-determination cascade in the ... Keywords: Bombyx mori; Spodoptera litura; sex determination; BmPSI; KH_1 motif; electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA); ...
In this study, spermine was used to modify Bombyx mori silk fibroin (BSF) to synthesize cationized BSF (CBSF). BSF and CBSF ... Cationized Bombyx mori silk fibroin as a delivery carrier of the VEGF165-Ang-1 coexpression plasmid for dermal tissue ... Cationized Bombyx mori silk fibroin as a delivery carrier of the VEGF165-Ang-1 coexpression plasmid for dermal tissue ... In this study, spermine was used to modify Bombyx mori silk fibroin (BSF) to synthesize cationized BSF (CBSF). BSF and CBSF ...
  • Infectivity and transmissibility of Nosema sp.CP isolated from Catopsilia pyranthe (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) in the domestic silkworm ( Bombyx mori ) [J]. ACTA ENTOMOLOGICA SINICA, 2017, 60(2): 155-162. (insect.org.cn)
  • In the present study, native ferritin was isolated from the hemolymph of Bombyx mori using native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (native-PAGE) and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). (ovid.com)
  • Fifteen clones obtained from a cDNA library of mock-infected cells and one from a library prepared at 2 h postinfection (p.i.) were found to comprise one distinct gene, which was identified as the Bombyx homolog (bLaminin) of Drosophila laminin β1. (deepdyve.com)
  • Quantitative evaluation of the paralytic activity of an ENF peptide in Bombyx mori ( In English )[J]. ACTA ENTOMOLOGICA SINICA, 2017, 60(10): 1114-1119. (insect.org.cn)
  • In this study, we cloned 1 667 bp cDNAs of Bombyx mori TRH (BmTRH), which contains a 1 632 bp open reading frame (ORF). (bvsalud.org)
  • Bombyx mori Parvo-like virus (China Zhenjiang isolate) had termed as BmDNV-Z.NS3 is one of the three nonstructural proteins that is responsible for the replication of virus DNA. (ccsenet.org)
  • Zhang J, Liu H, Sun Z, Xie J, Zhong G, Yi X. Azadirachtin induced apoptosis in the prothoracic gland in Bombyx mori and a pronounced Ca 2+ release effect in Sf9 cells. (ijbs.com)
  • Divergence and evolution of homologous regions of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus. (asm.org)
  • Interestingly, building a fast distance-based phylogenetic tree (RAxML) from a sequence alignment (MUSCLE) comparing Bombyx and Heliothis CSP amino acid full-sequences shows that moth CSPs clearly segregate into tissue-specific orthologous groups with strong bootstrap support (Figure 1). (scidoc.org)
  • A neuropeptide (s) showing the same activity as a summer-morph-producing hormone of the Asian comma butterfly, P.c-aureum, was found to exist in brain-suboesophageal ganglion (Br-SG) extract of the silkmoths, Bombyx mori. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Tanaka D., Sakurama T., Mitsumasu K., Yamanaka A. and Endo K.: 'Separation of a neuropeptide of Bombyx mori showing summer-morph-producing hormone (SMPH) activity ibn the Asian comma butterfly, Polygonia c-aureum L., from bombyxin. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We found that Bm-ASH2 , one of four Bombyx achaete-scute homologs, is highly expressed in early pupal wings of wild-type silkworms, but its expression is severely reduced in sl pupal wings. (genetics.org)