Nephrogenic Fibrosing Dermopathy
A chronic, acquired, idiopathic, progressive eruption of the skin that occurs in the context of RENAL FAILURE. It is sometimes accompanied by systemic fibrosis. The pathogenesis seems to be multifactorial, with postulated involvement of circulating fibrocytes. There is a strong association between this disorder and the use of gadolinium-based contrast agents.
The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine
A type of imaging technique used primarily in the field of cardiology. By coordinating the fast gradient-echo MRI sequence with retrospective ECG-gating, numerous short time frames evenly spaced in the cardiac cycle are produced. These images are laced together in a cinematic display so that wall motion of the ventricles, valve motion, and blood flow patterns in the heart and great vessels can be visualized.
Americium. A completely man-made radioactive actinide with atomic symbol Am, atomic number 95, and atomic weight 243. Its valence can range from +3 to +6. Because of its nonmagnetic ground state, it is an excellent superconductor. It is also used in bone mineral analysis and as a radiation source for radiotherapy.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Magnetic Resonance Angiography
Heterocyclic Compounds, 1-Ring
Sensitivity and Specificity
Predictive Value of Tests
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Metabolic Clearance Rate
Reproducibility of Results
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).
Transmission of energy or mass by a medium involving movement of the medium itself. The circulatory movement that occurs in a fluid at a nonuniform temperature owing to the variation of its density and the action of gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed; Webster, 10th ed)
Spectroscopy, Electron Energy-Loss
A technique for analysis of the chemical composition of molecules. A substance is bombarded with monochromatic ELECTRONS. Some of the electrons passing through the specimen will lose energy when they ionize inner shell electrons of the atoms in the specimen. The energy loss is element dependent. Analysis of the energy loss spectrum reveals the elemental composition of a specimen. ENERGY-FILTERED TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY is a type of electron energy loss spectroscopy carried out in electron microscopes specially outfitted to analyze the spectrum of electron energy loss.
Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted
Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).
A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease, characterized by left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR; HYPERTROPHY, RIGHT VENTRICULAR), frequent asymmetrical involvement of the HEART SEPTUM, and normal or reduced left ventricular volume. Risk factors include HYPERTENSION; AORTIC STENOSIS; and gene MUTATION; (FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY).
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Myocardial Perfusion Imaging
Reduction of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID pressure characterized clinically by HEADACHE which is maximal in an upright posture and occasionally by an abducens nerve palsy (see ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES), neck stiffness, hearing loss (see DEAFNESS); NAUSEA; and other symptoms. This condition may be spontaneous or secondary to SPINAL PUNCTURE; NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES; DEHYDRATION; UREMIA; trauma (see also CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA); and other processes. Chronic hypotension may be associated with subdural hematomas (see HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL) or hygromas. (From Semin Neurol 1996 Mar;16(1):5-10; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp637-8)
Renal Artery Obstruction
Lanthanoid Series Elements
Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid
Ventricular Function, Left
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
... and then gadolinium is injected (usually as an intravenous bolus at a dose of 0.05-0.1 mmol/kg) before further T1-weighted ... Tofts, PS; Buckley, DL (1997). "Modeling tracer kinetics in dynamic Gd-DTPA MR imaging". Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging ... Interaction with the gadolinium (Gd) contrast agent (commonly a gadolinium ion chelate) causes the relaxation time of water ... induced by a gadolinium contrast bolus Arterial spin labelling (ASL): Magnetic labeling of arterial blood below the imaging ...
Index of oncology articles
Bolus (medicine) - bolus infusion - bone marrow - bone marrow ablation - bone marrow aspiration - bone marrow biopsy - bone ... motexafin gadolinium - moxifloxacin - MPNST - MRI - MRSI - MS 209 - MS-275 - mucinous carcinoma - mucosa-associated lymphoid ... tin Sn 117m DTPA - tinidazole - tioguanine - tipifarnib - tirapazamine - tissue plasminogen activator - TLK286 - TM - ...
A bolus dose of 0.1 mmol/kg (body weight) of gadolinium-based contrast agent (gadodiamide; Gd-DTPA-BMA; Omniscan; GE Healthcare ... Modeling tracer kinetics in dynamic Gd-DTPA MR imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging 1997;7:91-101 doi:10.1002/jmri.1880070113 pmid: ... Pharmacokinetic analysis of glioma compartments with dynamic Gd-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Magn Reson Imaging ...
Cerebral blood flow: assessment with dynamic contrast-enhanced T2*-weighted MR imaging at 1.5 T. - PubMed - NCBI
Dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MRI in the detection of spinal arteriovenous malformations
... were then obtained during bolus injection of gadolinium-DTPA. Abnormalities were seen in all seven patients with AVFs or AVMs. ... Collecting T2*-weighted MR images during the passage of a gadolinium bolus gives information about perfusion and blood volume. ... Dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MRI in the detection of spinal arteriovenous malformations Neuroradiology. 1994 Oct;36(7):522-9. ... the five with dural AVFs transient signal reduction was seen within the perimedullary venous plexus during passage of the bolus ...
Abstract 4707: Non-invasive assessment of Coronary Artery Disease: a comparison of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Perfusion...
Frontiers | Perfusion imaging of the right perisylvian neural network in acute spatial neglect | Human Neuroscience
... were obtained with gadolinium diethyl triamineene pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) bolus power injected at a rate of 3-5 ml/s. The ... Calamante, F., Gadian, D. G., and Connelly, A. (2002). Quantification of perfusion using bolus tracking magnetic resonance ... amount of bolus used depended on the body-weight of the subject. To detect possible brain areas of dysfunction we analysed two ...
MR contrast patterns predict breast cancer therapy response
The permeability of gadolinium and the morphology of breast cancer can reliably predict whether those tumors will benefit from ... Oana Craciunescu, Ph.D., a radiation oncologist at Duke University Medical Center, and colleagues injected gadolinium-DTPA into ... A T1-weighted 3D fast gradient-echo technique was used over 30 minutes following bolus injection. ... The permeability of gadolinium and the morphology of breast cancer can reliably predict whether those tumors will benefit from ...
Pacing-Induced Regional Differences in Adenosine Receptors mRNA Expression in a Swine Model of Dilated Cardiomyopathy
... obtained after a bolus injection of gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (0.05 mmol/Kg at 4 ml/s of infusion velocity ... iv Gd-DTPA; Magnevist, Schering, Berlin, Germany) in a peripheral vein , . ... No changes between LV PS and OS were reported for gadolinium-delayed enhancement, suggesting lack of significant tissue ... To regionally assess the presence of tissue fibrosis, gadolinium-delayed contrast-enhanced images were acquired in two- ...
Tissue distribution and magnetic resonance spin lattice relaxation effects of gadolinium-DTPA
Gd-DTPA) is a potential clinical magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent that enhances images primarily by decreasing spin- ... An intravenous bolus of Gd-DTPA with a tracer quantity of Gd-153 was administered to three groups of rabbits at the following ... Gadolinium-DTPA complex (Gd-DTPA) is a potential clinical magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent that enhances images primarily ... Tissue distribution and magnetic resonance spin lattice relaxation effects of gadolinium-DTPA Radiology. 1985 Mar;154(3):723-6. ...
Is Volume Transfer Coefficient (Ktrans) Related to Histologic Grade in Human Gliomas? | American Journal of Neuroradiology
Gadolinium-based contrast agent (Gd-DTPA-BMA; Omniscan, Amersham Health, Oslo, Norway) was injected as a bolus for 4 seconds at ... In the current study, we have used a pharmacokinetic model based on the first passage of the contrast bolus described by Li et ... In addition, contrast agent was administered as a short-lived bolus with a duration shorter than the sampling time of the ... Ludemann L, Hamm B, Zimmer C. Pharmacokinetic analysis of glioma compartments with dynamic Gd-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance ...
Magnetic resonance imaging of the coronary arteries: clinical results from three dimensional evaluation of a respiratory gated...
24 25 Gadolinium-DTPA, the contrast agent most often used, diffuses rapidly extravascularly and it is therefore not possible to ... The use of bolus injections of contrast agents, given over a 20 second period, has dramatically improved magnetic resonance ... 1995) Breath-hold gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography of the abdominal aorta and its major branches. Radiology 197:785-792. ...
10-s bolus of gadolinium-DTPA contrast agent (Magnevist, Berlex Laboratories) was administered i.v. Gadolinium is a ... The permeability of the endothelium to current clinically approved paramagnetic contrast agents, such as Gd-DTPA is not low ... administered as an IV bolus on a daily x 5 schedule every 21 days. Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res., 41: 544 2000. ... also measured from the arrival of the contrast agent bolus; and value of the proportional enhancement (E) measured at tgp10 ( ...
Increased blood-brain barrier permeability in type II diabetes demonstrated by gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging | Journal...
Iwata and colleagues found that a region of the basal ganglia enhanced with gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) before the onset of ... Then an intravenous bolus injection of a gadolinium containing compound, gadopentetate dimeglumine ... Magnetic resonance (MR) brain imaging with intravenous gadolinium (Gd) diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) was used ... The T1W image before Gd-DTPA was subtracted from the images at each time point after Gd-DTPA. Net signal intensity was plotted ...
Frontiers of cerebral perfusion magnetic resonance imaging
Gd-DTPA), is injected using a power injector into a peripheral vein at 5 mL/sec, and the passage of this bolus through the ... Imaging with traditional gadolinium (Gd)-based compounds after the blood contrast is more uniform can avoid some of these ... Susceptibility contrast, dynamic ("bolus") and steady-state Belliveau and coworkers 15 described the first approach to the use ... Also, it is often difficult to estimate the precise arrival time of the bolus in an area with low flow, because SNR is poor in ...
... whereas Gd-DTPA is a negative control. Contrast agents (25 mg gadolinium/kg) were given in a bolus after three baseline scans ... Gd-EOB-DTPA (Eovist), Gd-BOPTA (MultiHance), and gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) (Magnevist). Gd-EOB-DTPA and Gd-BOPTA are ... Gd-EOB-DTPA, 97.9%) than Slco1a/1b−/−mice (Gd-BOPTA, 119.1%; Gd-DTPA, 126.5%; Gd-EOB-DTPA, 55.0%). ... Gd-DTPA injections had similarly low PSE for both FVB and Slco1a/1b−/− mice. The nonhepatospecific contrast agent Gd-DTPA is ...
Assessment of coronary flow reserve: comparison between contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission...
A rapid bolus (3 ml/s) of 0.05 mmol/l gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) (Magnevist, Schering-AG, Berlin ... Gd-DTPA. gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid. LAD. left anterior descending. LCX. left circumflex. LV. left ... Conversely, Gd-DTPA bolus concentrations below 0.05 mmol/l are associated with increasing noise in the tissue SI curves. Thus, ... 10,998 ± 2,092; p , 0.001). In a subset of 14 volunteers an additional 0.005 mmol/l bolus of Gd-DTPA was injected prior to the ...
Assessment of Advanced Coronary Artery Disease | JACC: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
... in which the AIF and TF are acquired during separate boluses of gadolinium-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA), has ... For our gadolinium injections, the volumes of the AIF bolus and TF bolus were not identical. Ideally, the low AIF doses should ... bolus technique uses high enough doses of Gd-DTPA to visually assess and measure tissue perfusion and very low doses of Gd-DTPA ... Gd-DTPA. gadolinium-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid. GRE-EPI. hybrid gradient echo/echo planar imaging. PR. perfusion ...
Myocardial Extracellular Volume Expansion and the Risk of Recurrent Atrial Fibrillation After Pulmonary Vein Isolation | JACC:...
... pulse sequence for LGE was used starting 10 to 15 min after a 0.15 mmol/kg single bolus dose of gadolinium DTPA (Magnevist, ... CMR = cardiac magnetic resonance; Gd = gadolinium; LGE = late gadolinium enhancement; MRV = magnetic resonance venography. ... The slope of the linear relationship (the partition coefficient for gadolinium, λGd) was calculated, and the ECV for all 6 ... The cohort underwent CMR that included gadolinium between July 2009 and January 2012. Patients were referred for a CMR study ...
US-localized diffuse optical tomography in breast cancer: comparison with pharmacokinetic parameters of DCE-MRI and with...
Modeling tracer kinetics in dynamic Gd-DTPA MR imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging. 1997;7(1):91-101.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar ... The saline flush was given as a fast bolus. All MR images were transferred from the MR-console to a personal computer for post- ... Each frame took 66 s resulting in a total imaging time of approximately 7 min and 42 s. Gadolinium diethylene triaminepenta ... The total injection time of the contrast agent was maintained between 15 and 20 s for every patient to make the bolus length as ...
Pyogenic liver abscess: Contrast-enhanced MR imaging in rats<...
Bolus administration of Gd-DTPA using a fast spin-echo sequence with repetition time of 250 msec and echo time of 20 msec (SE ... Rats were examined before and after IV administration of either gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA), ... Bolus administration of Gd-DTPA using a fast spin-echo sequence with repetition time of 250 msec and echo time of 20 msec (SE ... Bolus administration of Gd-DTPA using a fast spin-echo sequence with repetition time of 250 msec and echo time of 20 msec (SE ...
US20030208252A1 - Mri ablation catheter - Google Patents
Following this imaging series (30 minutes post ablation), 0.3 ml/kg of gadolinium-DTPA was administered as a bolus injection ... Gadolinium-DTPA exerts its signal-enhancing effect by interacting with water protons and inducing a shorter T1 relaxation time ... In this study we injected contrast 30 minutes post-ablation and observed a rapid uptake of gadolinium in the affected area of ... A similar method was used following gadolinium injection on T1-weighted imaging. Additionally, IEGMs were analyzed pre and post ...
ISMRM 20th Annual Meeting
Perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) performed using bolus injection of Gd-DTPA is traditionally analyzed based on changes in brain ... Susceptibility-Based Analysis Of Dynamic Gadolinium Perfusion MRI. David Bonekamp1, Xu Li1,2, Richard Leigh3, Peter C. van Zijl ... Cerebral MR Signal Changes Induced by Ferumoxytol and Saline Dilution Boluses: Initial Human Experience. Wendy W Ni1,2, Deqiang ... vbw data were used in a two-compartment ASL model to estimate cerebral blood flow (CBF), bolus arrival time (BAT) and capillary ...
Search | Global Index Medicus
Then a second bolus of 0.15 mmol/kg gadolinium DTPA was given at a rate of 2 ml/s. Ten minutes later, delayed contrast enhanced ... A first-pass perfusion scan was acquired simultaneously with a bolus injection. A second bolus of 0.3 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA was given ... Adult , Aged , Contrast Media , Female , Gadolinium DTPA , Humans , Image Enhancement , Methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , ... the patients received an intravenous bolus of 0.1 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA at a rate of 5 ml/s. ...
Comparison of written reports of mammography, sonography and magnetic resonance mammography for preoperative evaluation of...
0.1 mmol gadolinium-DTPA/kg body weight (Magnevist; Schering, Berlin, Germany) was used and injected as a bolus. One unenhanced ... Heywang SH, Hahn D, Schmidt H, Krischke I, Eiermann W, Bassermann R, Lissner J: MR imaging of the breast using gadolinium-DTPA ... Heywang SH, Wolf A, Pruss E, Hilbertz T, Eiermann W, Permanetter W: MR imaging of the breast with Gd-DTPA: use and limitations ... Criteria for malignancy were signal enhancement of 90% or more within the first 2 min after bolus injection and signal plateau ...
Multiparametric cardiovascular magnetic resonance surveillance of acute cardiac allograft rejection and characterisation of...
... recovery gradient echo sequence was acquired during adenosine stress and at rest following a 0.05 mmol/kg bolus of gadolinium- ... based contrast agent (gadopentetate dimeglumine; Gd-DTPA; Magnevist; Bayer Healthcare, Germany). Following rest perfusion image ... Standard late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging was performed at least 10 minutes following the contrast agent top-up. ... Due to concerns over cumulative gadolinium contrast agent dose, the parts of the protocol requiring contrast agent were ...
Silent myocarditis in systemic sclerosis detected by cardiovascular magnetic resonance using Lake Louise criteria | BMC...
... and late gadolinium enhanced (LGE) images. Eighty-two asymptomatic SSc, diagnosed according to American College of Rheumatology ... Measurements were performed after 1 min of injection of Gd-DTPA for early gadolinium enhancement (EGE) in the same area as in ... were also obtained in axial orientation with identical parameters before and after an intravenous bolus of 0.1 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA ... 0.1 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA was given again and late gadolinium-enhanced images (LGE) were taken 15 min later, using an a 3D-T1-TFE ...
Evaluation of liver function using gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid enhanced magnetic resonance...
"Evaluation of liver function using gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid enhanced magnetic resonance ... Gd-EOB-DTPA gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid; LSR liver-to-spleen signal intensity ratio Grading ... by rapid intravenous bolus injection 3D volumetric analysis system was used to measure the using a power injector (SONIC SHOT ... Gd-EOB-DTPA gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid; LSR liver-to-spleen signal intensity ratio Grading ...
Increased myocardial extracellular volume assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance T1 mapping and its determinants in type...
... and short-axes for the left ventricle was performed 10 min after a bolus injection of intravenous gadolinium-diethylenetriamine ... pentaacetic acid (DTPA) (0.2 mmol/kg, Magnevist; Bayer Healthcare; Germany) with a phase-sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) ... Late gadolinium enhancement imaging with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) can accurately detect regional myocardial ... T1 mapping of the gadolinium-enhanced myocardium: adjustment for factors affecting interpatient comparison. Magn Reson Med. ...
Utility of Cardiac Magnetic Resonance to assess association between admission hyperglycemia and myocardial damage in patients...
First-pass images (FP), providing assessment of microvascular obstruction and Late Gadolinium Enhanced images (DE), reflecting ... between 3 and 7 days after reperfusion to evaluate left ventricular function and perfusion data after injection of gadolinium- ... during first pass of a bolus of gadolinium-DTPA, showing a localized microvascular obstruction in the antero-septal territory. ... segmented Inversion Recovery gradient echo MR images 10 minutes after bolus injection of Gadolinium-DTPA, showing a large ...
Hepatobiliary MRI contrast agents | Radiology Reference Article | Radiopaedia.org
They are separated into three categories: gadolinium-based agents, manganese-based agents and superparamagnetic iron oxide ... These agents initially act like non-specific extracellular gadolinium chelates post bolus injection and show three primary ... b. Gadoxetate disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA): has protein binding of ,10%. It has almost equal biliary and renal excretion (~50% each ... Gadolinium-based agents. Gadolinium (Gd) based contrast agents are classified into:. *non-specific extracellular gadolinium ...
Pentaacetic acidPerfusionMmolDiethylenetriaminepentaacetic acidGadoxetate disodiumAcidEnhancementChelatesParamagneticFollowed by a 20-ml salineTumorsLate gadolinium-enhancedExtracellular spaceTumorSpin lattice relaxationGBCAsSingle bolusInfusionInjectionsLiverIntravenous injectionGBCAPrimovistGadobenatePassageLesionsPharmacokineticMethodsMyocardial blood flowGadopentetateAbstractDoseDiabeticSignal intensityChelateSequenceArterialIntravenouslyAdministrationGradient-echoParticlesCerebralCurve
- Magnetic resonance (MR) brain imaging with intravenous gadolinium (Gd) diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) was used to identify increased BBB permeability. (bmj.com)
- Evaluation of liver function using gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid. (deepdyve.com)
- Hayashi, Ryuichi 2018-06-02 00:00:00 Background Magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (EOB-MRI) is a diagnostic modality for liver tumors. (deepdyve.com)
- Keywords Magnetic resonance imaging Gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid Three-dimensional volumetric analysis system Liver function Liver steatosis Introduction After major hepatectomy, the reported incidence of liver Electronic supplementary material The online version of this failure is 3-8%, and the reported rate of mortality associ- article (https://doi.org/10.1007/s12072-018-9874-x) contains ated with liver failure is approximately 5% . (deepdyve.com)
- Recently, the introduction of hepatobiliary contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) agents including gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Eovist in the United States, Primovist in Europe, or Gd-EOB-DTPA) has proved to be a sensitive method for detection of hepatic metastases. (hindawi.com)
- The patient was examined by liver dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using the Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) hepatocyte-specific MRI contrast agent. (kowsarpub.com)
- gadoliniumвdiethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA)] may be used Sale Cobra-120 Boston die with Susstinex amplitude-echo and gradient-echo approaches and has been fully valuable for viability assessment of myo- cardial fibrosisscar, for sequence of recovery myocardial dysfunction, and for characterization of tumorsmasses. (raisrf.ru)
- Collecting T2*-weighted MR images during the passage of a gadolinium bolus gives information about perfusion and blood volume. (nih.gov)
- For CMR, first-pass perfusion and delayed enhancement images were obtained in the short-axis plane following IV Gadolinium-DTPA bolus injections. (ahajournals.org)
- We conclude that because of its extracellular distribution and linear relaxation rate versus concentration relationship, Gd-DTPA enhancement in MR images may be a good marker of relative organ perfusion. (nih.gov)
- Contrast-enhanced CMR was performed between 3 and 7 days after reperfusion to evaluate left ventricular function and perfusion data after injection of gadolinium-DTPA. (biomedcentral.com)
- Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) with a gadolinium-based contrast agent is considered to accurately assess myocardial perfusion and function abnormalities after STEMI. (biomedcentral.com)
- With perfusion studies we monitor the first pass of an iodinated contrast agent bolus through the cerebral vasculature. (radiologyassistant.nl)
- There are 3 main techniques for perfusion MRI: Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC): Gadolinium contrast is injected, and rapid repeated imaging (generally gradient-echo echo-planar T2 weighted) quantifies susceptibility-induced signal loss. (wikipedia.org)
- Dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE): Measuring shortening of the spin-lattice relaxation (T1) induced by a gadolinium contrast bolus Arterial spin labelling (ASL): Magnetic labeling of arterial blood below the imaging slab, without the need of gadolinium contrast It can also be argued that diffusion MRI models, such as intravoxel incoherent motion, also attempt to capture perfusion. (wikipedia.org)
- A saturation recovery (SR) sequence was used for myocardial perfusion imaging during the passage of a bolus of gadolinium based contrast agent as depicted in Fig. 1 which is illustrated for a subject with single vessel disease. (welchezufall.icu)
- The study of myocardial tissue perfusion in first pass MRI exploits the modifications in T1 relaxation time generated by the arrival of Gadolinium chelates in myocardial extracellular space. (welchezufall.icu)
- Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) involves sequentially acquiring T1-weighted images through an organ of interest during the passage of a bolus administration of CA. It is a particularly flexible approach to perfusion imaging as the signal intensity time course allows not only rapid qualitative assessment, but also quantitative measures of intrinsic perfusion and permeability parameters. (elsevier.com)
- The majority of the different brands of gadolinium contrast agents all have similar properties when it comes to myocardial perfusion, differing predominantly in their chelation preparation around the gadolinium. (jaocr.org)
- Coronary perfusion is the primary factor affecting the concentration of the gadolinium compound in the myocardial tissue. (jaocr.org)
- Dynamic MRI was performed using a multi-slice ultra-fast hybrid sequence and a rapid gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid bolus injection (0.05 mmol/l). (onlinejacc.org)
- Early (EGE) was based on ECG-triggered T1-W multislice spin-echo images obtained in axial orientation with identical parameters before and after an intravenous bolus of 0.1 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA within 1 min of injection in the same area as in STIRT2 images. (biomedcentral.com)
- Finally, late gadolinium-enhanced images (LGE) were assessed from images taken 15 min later after another injection of 0.1 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA using an inversion recovery sequence. (biomedcentral.com)
- After sequence initiation, a bolus injection of 0.1mmol/kg of Gd- DTPA at 2 mils (followed by a 20-ml saline flush) was administered. (avmi.net)
- The common procedure for a DCE-MRI exam is to acquire a regular T1-weighted MRI scan (with no gadolinium), and then gadolinium is injected (usually as an intravenous bolus at a dose of 0.05-0.1 mmol/kg) before further T1-weighted scanning. (wikipedia.org)
- MR angiography was performed using a 1.5-T system after bolus injection of 0.1 mmol/kg of gadodiamide. (nih.gov)
- Fat-saturated, T1-weighted multiphasic contrast-enhanced dynamic series were obtained both immediately before and during rapid bolus intravenous injection of 0.1 mmol/kg (0.5 mmol/mL) gadopentetate dimeglumine per kilogram of body weight, while the patient was in the bore of the magnet, followed by a 20 mL saline flush. (thefreedictionary.com)
- 87 s) before and five times after standardized bolus of 0.2 mmol Gd-DTPA/kg. (semanticscholar.org)
- The authors assessed regional cerebral blood flow dynamics with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging enhanced with gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). (nih.gov)
- Rats were examined before and after IV administration of either gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA), ferrite particles, or both contrast agents together. (elsevier.com)
- From this work, two quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods have been identified as possible predictors of BBB injury and HT: 1) magnetization transfer MRI (MT-MRI), particularly the T1sat parameter;and 2) MRCA enhanced MRI of the blood-to-brain distribution of gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA), with the influx rate assayed by Patlak plots. (labome.org)
- Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the low-molecular-weight contrast agent, gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (GdDTPA), was used to evaluate tumor vascular parameters. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
- Ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid is the moiety that chelates with a gadolinium ion and forms a stable complex with it to make up the drug. (drugbank.com)
- OATP1A1 and OATP1B2 both transport endogenous substrates such as bile acids and hormone conjugates as well as numerous drugs including gadoxetate disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Among them are two MRI gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs), gadoxetate disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA) ( 5 , 6 ) and gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA) ( 7 , 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Hepatobiliary specific gadolinium agents include two of the high relaxivity agents: gadobenate disodium (Gd-BOPTA) and gadoxetate disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA). (radiopaedia.org)
- Gadoxetic acid (gadoxetate) is a paramagnetic gadolinium-containing contrast agent in which its salt form, gadoxetate disodium, is used for intravenous injection. (drugbank.com)
- Consequently, gadoxetate disodium has a biphasic mode of action in which it first distributes into the extracellular space after bolus injection and then hepatocytes selectively takes up the drug. (drugbank.com)
- Because it is more protein bound than other gadolinium-based contrast agents, gadoxetate disodium has increased T1 relaxivity. (drugbank.com)
- This prospective multi-institutional study included 1993 patients (1201 men, mean age 66.4 ± 12.8 years), who received dynamic MRI with gadoxetate disodium (gadoxetate group, n = 1646) or extracellular gadolinium-based contrast agents (other-GBCAs group, n = 347) between January and November 2016. (springer.com)
- Contrast agent-induced dyspnea in arterial phase and adverse reactions are rare in Japan, without showing differences between gadoxetate disodium or other extracellular gadolinium-based contrast agents. (springer.com)
- In this technique, a rapidly administered dose of an intravascular contrast agent, such as gadolinium diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA), is injected using a power injector into a peripheral vein at 5 mL/sec, and the passage of this bolus through the brain is monitored using rapid T2*-sensitive MR imaging. (appliedradiology.com)
- Finally, a subgroup of all 112 patients who Gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pen- underwent liver resection was used to analyze the corre- taacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) is a liver-speciﬁc magnetic lations between the LSR and histological parameters (pa- resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. (deepdyve.com)
- Using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, the pharmacokinetics of gadolinium-diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA), a small MRI contrast agent, were imaged in rodents bearing orthotopic RG-2 malignant gliomas. (biomedcentral.com)
- Generation 5 (G5) through generation 8 (G8) polyamidoamine dendrimers were labeled with gadolinium (Gd)-diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid, an anionic MRI contrast agent. (biomedcentral.com)
- PURPOSE: To compare the enhancement patterns of 24-gadolinium-tetrazacyclodode-cane tetracetic acid (DOTA)-dendrimer (Gadomer-17) with those of gadopentetate dimeglumine (Magnevist) in postoperative scars in rabbits. (koreamed.org)
- Gadoxetic acid is a gadolinium-based contrast agent used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to help characterize lesions in the liver. (drugbank.com)
- It has been suggested that dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) with gadolinium diethylene-triamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-DTPA) as contrast agent may provide useful information on the IFP of cervical carcinomas. (biomedcentral.com)
- Bolus administration of Gd-DTPA using a fast spin-echo sequence with repetition time of 250 msec and echo time of 20 msec (SE 250/20) showed transient selective enhancement of normal hepatic tissue and increased lesion conspicuity, quantitatively assessed by the contrast-to-noise ratio, which increased from -35.7 to -59.0. (elsevier.com)
- Gd-DTPA increases abscess-liver contrast by rim enhancement of the abscess wall, and ferrite increases the abscess-liver contrast by selectively decreasing the signal intensity of surrounding normal liver. (elsevier.com)
- These agents initially act like non-specific extracellular gadolinium chelates post bolus injection and show three primary phases of vascular and tissue enhancement (arterial, blood pool and extracellular phases). (radiopaedia.org)
- In this pilot study we describe dynamic Gd-EOB-DTPA MRI as a segmental liver function test, where we compare traditional contrast enhancement parameters such as time to peak and relative peak value with the hepatic extraction fraction (HEF). (ismrm.org)
- This combination of arterial and portal venous blood supply explains the differential rates of enhancement of the pituitary gland on dynamic scans after bolus administration of intravenous (i.v.) contrast agents ( Fig. 17.2 ) ( 2 ). (radiologykey.com)
- The Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI now commonly is used to demonstrate the acute phase of inflammation and the breakdown of BBB in MS. Using this technique, several studies have demonstrated a substantial reduction of enhancement using high-dose IV MP. (tripod.com)
- 1 Gadolinium chelates are water-soluble and are able to diffuse rapidly into the extracellular space across the capillary membrane. (jaocr.org)
- Gadolinium-based chelates are among the safest injectable contrast agents in current medical use and have a reputation for being safer than their X-ray contrast counterparts. (jaocr.org)
- abstract = "To detect abnormal regional myocardial coronary flow reserve, serial spin‐echo MR tomograms of four control dogs and six with a partial balloon occlusion of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery were acquired before and after dipyridamole infusion and during the paramagnetic effect of a bolus plus infusion of gadolinium‐DTPA. (elsevier.com)
- While there are other paramagnetic metal ions, gadolinium is accepted as the standard MRI contrast agent. (jaocr.org)
Followed by a 20-ml saline1
- Schering, Berlin, and Germany) in all the patients was administered intravenously at a weight-based dosing of 0.2 ml/kg with a bolus injection rate of 2 ml/sec using an automatic injector, which was followed by a 20-ml saline bolus injection. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The permeability of gadolinium and the morphology of breast cancer can reliably predict whether those tumors will benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy, according to research presented at the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium in December. (diagnosticimaging.com)
- In these tumors, the gadolinium tended to wash into and out of the tumor slowly. (diagnosticimaging.com)
- We hypothesized that myocarditis may be diagnosed in asymptomatic SSc, undergoing routine cardio-vascular magnetic resonance (CMR) for fibrosis assessment, using the Lake Louise criteria: T2 ratio, early (EGE) and late gadolinium enhanced (LGE) images. (biomedcentral.com)
- First-pass images (FP), providing assessment of microvascular obstruction and Late Gadolinium Enhanced images (DE), reflecting the extent of infarction, were investigated and the extent of transmural tissue damage was determined by visual scores. (biomedcentral.com)
- Bladder tumor staging: comparison of contrast-enhanced CT, T1- and T2- weighted MR imaging, dynamic gadolinium-enhanced imaging, and late gadolinium-enhanced imaging. (medscape.com)
- In damaged tissues or tissues with a lower cell density, the gadolinium stays in the extracellular space longer. (wikipedia.org)
- Baseline blood and brain tumor tissue pharmacokinetics were imaged with the 1st bolus of Gd-DTPA over the first hour, and then re-imaged with a 2nd bolus of Gd-DTPA over the second hour, during which normal saline or a bradykinin B2 receptor agonist was infused intravenously for 15 minutes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Metabolically stable bradykinin B2 agonists, methionine-lysine-bradykinin and labradimil, had differential effects on the transvascular flow rate of Gd-DTPA across the blood-brain tumor barrier. (biomedcentral.com)
- Both methionine-lysine-bradykinin and labradimil increased the blood half-life of Gd-DTPA sufficiently enough to increase significantly the tumor tissue Gd-DTPA area under the time-concentration curve. (biomedcentral.com)
- Dynamic MRI experiments demonstrated slower recovery of MRI signal following an intravenous bolus injection of GdDTPA, higher vascular flow and volume obtained by T-2*-weighted MRI, as well as enhanced uptake of the contrast agent in the brain tumor compared with normal brain detected by T-1-weighted MRI. (forskningsdatabasen.dk)
- CK-160 human cervical carcinoma xenografts were subjected to DCE-MRI with Gd-DTPA (MW of 0.55 kDa) or gadomelitol (MW of 6.5 kDa) as contrast agent before tumor IFP was measured invasively with a Millar SPC 320 catheter. (biomedcentral.com)
- A solitary bolus of AC or DEX increases the [ 111 In]AC uptake within a breast tumor in vivo . (springer.com)
Spin lattice relaxation1
- Gadolinium-DTPA complex (Gd-DTPA) is a potential clinical magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent that enhances images primarily by decreasing spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) in tissues in which it localizes. (nih.gov)
- Here, we report a method to noninvasively measure OATP activity in T2D mice by quantifying the transport of hepatobiliary-specific gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) within the liver and kidneys using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI). (diabetesjournals.org)
- By comparing GBCA uptake in control and OATP knockout mice, we confirmed liver clearance of the hepatobiliary-specific GBCAs, Gd-EOB-DTPA, and gadobenate dimeglumine, primarily though OATP transporters. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) increase the risk for NSF among patients with impaired elimination of the drugs. (nih.gov)
- Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) have been in use since the late 1980s. (appliedradiology.com)
- The purpose of this study was to define an optimal injection protocol for 5-10 min duration navigator-based coronary MR angiography using an intravascular gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA), which is better suited for steady-state coronary MR angiography than conventional GBCAs. (biomedcentral.com)
- Owing to work investigating alternate infusion techniques with GBCAs with low intravascular residence time [ 11 ], the same techniques have not been investigated with gadofosveset, which may be further optimized by a dual injection technique rather than with a single bolus infusion. (biomedcentral.com)
- Using DA, one thus estimates a hepatic extraction/time curve as if a single bolus contrast passage was used. (ismrm.org)
- Pharmacokinetic models for a bolus plus slow infusion technique at a 5, 10, and 15 min steady state intravascular concentration was compared to single bolus curves. (biomedcentral.com)
- The 70 %/30 % bolus/slow infusion technique resulted in the highest intravascular concentration over a 5 min scan duration. (biomedcentral.com)
- Similarly, the 60 %/40 % bolus/slow infusion technique was projected to be ideal for image acquisition duration of 5-10 min. (biomedcentral.com)
- Gadofosveset injection is optimized for the lowest intravascular T1 time for 5-10 min duration MR angiography by bolus injection of 60-70 % of the total dose followed by slow infusion of the remainder of the total dose. (biomedcentral.com)
- BACKGROUND: In humans, dynamic contrast CMR of the first pass of a bolus infusion of Gadolinium-based contrast agent has become a standard technique to identify under-perfused regions of the heart and can accurately demonstrate the severity of myocardial infarction. (ox.ac.uk)
- The evident lack of toxicity of NG29 was supported by the outcomes of preliminary toxicity analyses consisting of repeated everyday bolus injections of single suprapharmacological dose of the peptide NG29 (fifty mg/kg, i.v. tail-vein) in excess of a time period of three times in regular Fischer rats. (glyt1inhibitor.com)
- samples of serum, lung, heart, kidney, liver, and spleen were analyzed in a 0.25 T MR spectrometer to measure T1, and then in a gamma well counter to determine tissue concentration of Gd-DTPA. (nih.gov)
- Gd-EOB-DTPA has a well-known metabolic MRI protocol pathway, and several studies have suggested that EOB- MRI is useful to evaluate liver function [3, 4]. (deepdyve.com)
- Gd-EOB-DTPA-Enhanced MRI for Detection of Liver Metastases from Colorectal Cancer: A Surgeon's Perspective! (hindawi.com)
- Recently, multiple studies have demonstrated the superiority of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR over CT for detection of liver metastases [ 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Chung YE, Kim MJ, Kim YE, Park MS, Choi JY, Kim KW (2013) Characterization of incidental liver lesions: comparison of multidetector CT versus Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging. (springer.com)
- Kyung Lim H, Il Ha H, Min K. Usefulness of Gd-EOB-DTPA Liver Dynamic MRI for Diagnosing Peliosis Hepatis Mimicking a Solitary Hepatic Mass with Central Necrosis: A Case Report, Iran J Radiol. (kowsarpub.com)
- We also review the literature on PH in relation to its pathology and the imaging findings of Gd-EOB-DTPA liver MRI. (kowsarpub.com)
- The gadolinium contrast agent is delivered as a bolus intravenous injection. (jaocr.org)
- How can PC-AKI be prevented after administration of Gadolinium-Based (Gd) Contrast Agents (GBCA)? (richtlijnendatabase.nl)
- Is administration of Gadolinium-Based (Gd) Contrast Agents (GBCA) associated with an increased risk of post contrast acute kidney injury (PC-AKI) compared to placebo/unenhanced imaging? (richtlijnendatabase.nl)
- Additional information concerning all Gadolinium- based contrast agents Primovist contains the rare earth metal gadolinium as active ingredient. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) vs gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA) for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA): improvement in intravascular signal intensity and contrast to noise ratio. (thefreedictionary.com)
- In the patient with an intramedullary AVM and four of the five with dural AVFs transient signal reduction was seen within the perimedullary venous plexus during passage of the bolus. (nih.gov)
- Delayed leakage of Gd-DTPA into the abscess center partially obscured small lesions at 30-60 min. (elsevier.com)
- Pharmacokinetic modelling of gadolinium in DCE-MRI is complex and requires choosing a model. (wikipedia.org)
- Accurate measurement of T1 is required for some pharmacokinetic models, which can be estimated from 2 pre-gadolinium images of varying excitation pulse flip angle, though this method is not intrinsically quantitative. (wikipedia.org)
- Methods Forty-one patients with an abnormal nuclear stress scheduled for X-ray angiography underwent dual-bolus adenosine CMR. (onlinejacc.org)
Myocardial blood flow1
- The percentage changes in gadolinium‐enhanced MR signal and microsphere myocardial blood flow were significantly correlated (r2 = 0.93). (elsevier.com)
- To optimize findings at dynamic gadolinium-enhanced hepatic magnetic resonance imaging in the hepatic arterial phase, a timing examination was performed after injection of a 0.5-mL timing bolus of gadopentetate dimeglumine. (elsevier.com)
- abstract = "Background-MRI can identify patients with obstructive coronary artery disease by imaging the left ventricular myocardium during a first-pass contrast bolus in the presence and absence of pharmacologically induced myocardial hyperemia. (elsevier.com)
- This study was designed to determine the immediate tissue distribution of intravenously administered Gd-DTPA in selected organs of interest as a function of administered dose and tissue Gd-DTPA concentration. (nih.gov)
- Relaxation rate (1/T1) varied linearly with injected dose and with tissue Gd-DTPA concentration (r greater than 0.97 for all tissues). (nih.gov)
- Szopinski K, Szopinska M, Borowka A, Jakubowski W. Magnetic resonance urography: initial experience of a low-dose Gd-DTPA- enhanced technique. (medscape.com)
- The signal intensity/time curves showed that brain signal intensity increased more in the diabetic group than controls during the first 15 minutes after Gd-DTPA, particularly in the basal ganglia (p=0.018). (bmj.com)
- Subjects with more white matter hyperintensities had greater signal increase after Gd-DTPA, whether diabetic or not (p=0.001). (bmj.com)
- Interaction with the gadolinium (Gd) contrast agent (commonly a gadolinium ion chelate) causes the relaxation time of water protons to decrease, and therefore images acquired after gadolinium injection display higher signal in T1-weighted images indicating the present of the agent. (wikipedia.org)
- Sixteen male patients (mean age, 66 years +/- 13 [standard deviation]) with myocardial infarction were imaged with the same sequence by the same operator at 1.5 and 3.0 T. After cine imaging, a bolus of gadodiamide was administered. (ox.ac.uk)
- 5 New approaches to perform this deconvolution, particularly in the presence of delay and dispersion of the arterial profile of the bolus, may increase the accuracy of measurements in pathological brain tissue. (appliedradiology.com)
- Arterial-venous mixing of contrast was achieved within 90 s of the beginning of the bolus. (biomedcentral.com)
- In Dynamic susceptibility contrast MR imaging (DSC-MRI, or simply DSC), Gadolinium contrast agent (Gd) is injected (usually intravenously) and a time series of fast T2*-weighted images is acquired. (wikipedia.org)
- After bolus administration of Gd-DTPA, rapid T2*-weighted gradient-echo images were acquired. (nih.gov)
- Contrast-en- conventional method to measure the LSR using two-di- hanced 3D fat-suppressed T1-weighted images were mensional (2D) regions of interest might be affected by obtained 20 min after intravenous administration of Gd- sampling errors or inter-evaluator variability . (deepdyve.com)
- 2 Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a very rare irreversible disease linked with gadolinium administration in the setting of advanced renal function impairment. (jaocr.org)
- Strict screening protocols of renal function prior to gadolinium administration have been put in place in to eliminate occurrence of this disease. (jaocr.org)
- They are separated into three categories: gadolinium-based agents, manganese-based agents and superparamagnetic iron oxide particles. (radiopaedia.org)
- Measurements of task-induced changes in cerebral blood volume (CBV) have been demonstrated using VAscular Space Occupancy (VASO) techniques (noninvasive and newly developed) and a contrast agent-based (Gd- DTPA) method (invasive but well-established) with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). (openneuroimagingjournal.com)
- DCE-MRI can also provide model-independent parameters, such as T1 (which is not technically part of the contrast scan and can be acquired independently) and (initial) area under the gadolinium curve (IAUGC, often given with number of seconds from injection - i.e. (wikipedia.org)