Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Fetal Weight: The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Weight Reduction Programs: Services providing counseling and activities that help overweight individuals to attain a more healthy body weight.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Weights and Measures: Measuring and weighing systems and processes.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Anti-Obesity Agents: Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Mice, Inbred C57BLUnited StatesLitter Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Infant, Very Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Rats, Inbred F344Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Body Constitution: The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.TriglyceridesKidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.Ideal Body Weight: Expected weight of a healthy normal individual based on age, sex, and height. Thus, a malnourished person would weigh less than their ideal body weight.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Appetite Depressants: Agents that are used to suppress appetite.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Obesity, Morbid: The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Basal Metabolism: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Sexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Hyperphagia: Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Weight Lifting: A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level: The highest dosage administered that does not produce toxic effects.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Diet, Fat-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Animals, Suckling: Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Anorexia Nervosa: An eating disorder that is characterized by the lack or loss of APPETITE, known as ANOREXIA. Other features include excess fear of becoming OVERWEIGHT; BODY IMAGE disturbance; significant WEIGHT LOSS; refusal to maintain minimal normal weight; and AMENORRHEA. This disorder occurs most frequently in adolescent females. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Waist Circumference: The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.Carcinogenicity Tests: Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Body Surface Area: The two dimensional measure of the outer layer of the body.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Least-Squares Analysis: A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Cachexia: General ill health, malnutrition, and weight loss, usually associated with chronic disease.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Gastric Bypass: Surgical procedure in which the STOMACH is transected high on the body. The resulting small proximal gastric pouch is joined to any parts of the SMALL INTESTINE by an end-to-side SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS, depending on the amounts of intestinal surface being bypasses. This procedure is used frequently in the treatment of MORBID OBESITY by limiting the size of functional STOMACH, food intake, and food absorption.Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1000 grams (2.2 lbs), regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Receptors, Leptin: Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Calorimetry, Indirect: Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Toxicity Tests, Chronic: Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of a long-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Pro-Opiomelanocortin: A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Skinfold Thickness: The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Anorexia: The lack or loss of APPETITE accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat. It is the defining characteristic of the disorder ANOREXIA NERVOSA.CyclobutanesDrug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.

Decreased expression and function of adipocyte hormone-sensitive lipase in subcutaneous fat cells of obese subjects. (1/871)

Decreased lipolytic effect of catecholamines in adipose tissue has repeatedly been demonstrated in obesity and may be a cause of excess accumulation of body fat. However, the mechanisms behind this lipolysis defect are unclear. The role of hormone-sensitive lipase was examined using abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes from 34 obese drug-free and otherwise healthy males or females and 14 non-obese control subjects. The enzyme catalyzes the rate-limiting step of the lipolysis pathway. The maximum lipolytic capacity of fat cells was significantly decreased in obesity when measured using either a non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor agonist (isoprenaline) or a phosphodiesterase resistant cyclic AMP analogue (dibutyryl cyclic AMP). Likewise, enzyme activity, protein expression, and mRNA of hormone-sensitive lipase were significantly decreased in adipocytes of obese subjects. The findings were not influenced by age or gender. The data suggest that a decreased expression of hormone-sensitive lipase in subcutaneous fat cells, which in turn causes decreased enzyme function and impaired lipolytic capacity of adipocytes, is present in obesity. Impaired expression of the hormone-sensitive lipase gene might at least in part explain the enzyme defect.  (+info)

Human body composition: in vivo methods. (2/871)

In vivo methods used to study human body composition continue to be developed, along with more advanced reference models that utilize the information obtained with these technologies. Some methods are well established, with a strong physiological basis for their measurement, whereas others are much more indirect. This review has been structured from the methodological point of view to help the reader understand what can be examined with each technique. The associations between the various in vivo methods (densitometry, dilution, bioelectrical impedance and conductance, whole body counting, neutron activation, X-ray absorptiometry, computer tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging) and the five-level multicompartment model of body composition are described, along with the limitations and advantages of each method. This review also provides an overview of the present status of this field of research in human biology, including examples of reference body composition data for infants, children, adolescents, and adults.  (+info)

Relationship between gibbosity and Cobb angle during treatment of idiopathic scoliosis with the SpineCor brace. (3/871)

The objective of this study was to quantify the relationship between gibbosity and spinal deformation expressed by the angle of Cobb before and during treatment with a brace for different classes of idiopathic scoliosis patients. As part of the standard treatment with the Dynamic Corrective Brace (SpineCor), 89 idiopathic scoliosis patients underwent an initial radiological examination and gibbosity measurement with a scoliometer wearing and not wearing the brace. The 89 patients were classified in relation to the apex of the scoliosis curves: thoracic (n = 29); thoracolumbar (n = 40); lumbar (n = 7) and double (n = 13). With the dynamic corrective brace, the patients showed a mean decrease of 8.3 degrees for the major Cobb angle, and a mean decrease of 2.3 degrees for their gibbosity. There was a significant positive relationship between gibbosity and Cobb angle with and without the brace for the thoracic and thoracolumbar curves. A linear regression analysis identified a small mean estimation error for the thoracic curves (7.4 degrees no-brace; 2.7 degrees with brace) and thoracolumbar curves (5.2 degrees no-brace; 5.3 degrees with brace), indicating a predictive potential of the scoliometer. The measure of gibbosity with the scoliometer provides a fairly reliable estimation of Cobb angle at the initial clinical examination of a scoliosis patient. However, when initial Cobb angle and gibbosity are considered, the measure of gibbosity when wearing a brace provides the clinician with a highly reliable estimation of the Cobb angle while in a brace. This relationship also exists for the follow-up with a brace, permitting a judgement of the patient's evolution under the treatment with SpineCor.  (+info)

Why should diagnostic benign breast biopsies weight less than twenty grams? (4/871)

To reduce the cosmetic deformity resulting from diagnostic biopsies, current breast screening guidelines recommend that 80% of biopsy specimens that subsequently prove to be benign should weigh less than 20 g. The relationship between specimen weight and cosmesis is unknown and evidence to support a 20 g upper limit is lacking. Patient satisfaction following all benign biopsies weighing more than 20 g (n = 49) and a random sample of 30 of those weighing less than 20 g (n = 103) performed by one screening unit, over a 6 year period, was assessed by a postal questionnaire. Overall, 32% of patients were unhappy with the cosmetic outcome of their surgery. Patient dissatisfaction appeared to increase with specimen weight (6/23 [26%] < 20 g versus 13/36 [36%] > 20 g) but no statistically significant relationship between weight and cosmesis was apparent (P = 0.57). Reducing benign breast biopsy specimen weights to a minimum is a desirable objective. However, the current quality standard is not evidence-based, is too stringent and should be revised. Strategies need to be introduced to improve patient satisfaction following breast wire-localisation biopsies. In particular, patients should be counselled pre-operatively regarding possible adverse cosmetic outcome.  (+info)

Injury to the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve during harvest of iliac bone graft, with reference to the size of the graft. (5/871)

In patients who underwent autogenous iliac bone grafting we studied prospectively injury to the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN) in relation to the size (length, depth, width) of the graft. We also examined the neurological deficit, by questioning them about numbness and/or pain in the lateral thigh. The risk of injury was significantly higher in those in whom the depth of the graft was more than 30 mm. With regard to the length of the graft the incidence of nerve injury was 20% when the graft was 45 mm long or more, 16% when it was between 30 mm and 45 mm long, and 8% when it was less than 30 mm long. We should inform patients of the possibility of such injury, and take size into consideration when harvesting grafts from the ilium.  (+info)

Migration of the femoral stem after impaction bone grafting. First results of an ongoing, randomised study of the exeter and elite plus femoral stems using radiostereometric analysis. (6/871)

We report the initial results of an ongoing randomised, prospective study on migration of the Exeter and Elite Plus femoral stems after impaction allografting, as measured by radiostereometry. Clinically, the impaction technique gave good results for both stems. The mean subsidence in the first year was 1.30 mm and 0.20 mm for the Exeter and the Elite Plus stems, respectively. In the second year, the Exeter stem continued to subside further by a mean of 0.42 mm, while the Elite Plus stem did not do so. Subsidence of the Exeter stem correlated with deficiency of bone stock as graded on the Gustilo and Pasternak scale. This correlation was not found for the Elite Plus stem. None of the other parameters which were studied predisposed to subsidence. There was no significant association between the amount of subsidence and the radiological appearance of the graft for either stem. Our findings do not support the theory that radial compression, due to subsidence of the Exeter stem, is the essential stimulus for remodelling in impaction allografting.  (+info)

Tourniquet-induced restriction of the quadriceps muscle mechanism. Fact or fiction? (7/871)

Many knee surgeons flex the knee and sometimes also extend the hip before inflating a tourniquet on the thigh. This practice stems from the belief that these manoeuvres prevent excessive strain on the quadriceps during surgery, the assumption being that movement of the muscle is restricted by an inflated tourniquet. We therefore examined, using ultrasound, the movement of the quadriceps muscle above and below the tourniquet before and after inflation. We applied a tourniquet of standard size to the thigh of five volunteers for approximately five minutes. A bubble of air was injected into the quadriceps muscle above the tourniquet and was the proximal point of reference. The musculotendinous junction was the distal point. The movement of the reference point was measured by ultrasound before and after inflation of the tourniquet. Each measurement was repeated with either the knee flexed and the hip extended, or the hip flexed and the knee extended. The mean and standard deviation were recorded. Before inflation the mean amount of passive movement was 1.1 +/- 0.13 cm proximal and 4.0 +/- 0.08 cm distal to the tourniquet, with a range of movement of the knee of 0 degrees to 137 degrees (6.7 degrees). After inflation the mean passive movement was 1.0 +/- 0.07 cm proximal and 4.0 +/- 0.08 cm distal to the tourniquet with a range of 0 degrees to 132 degrees (+/- 7.6 degrees). The ultrasound findings therefore have shown no evidence of restriction of the quadriceps muscle by an inflated tourniquet.  (+info)

Extramedullary or intramedullary tibial alignment guides: a randomised, prospective trial of radiological alignment. (8/871)

We undertook a prospective, randomised study of 135 total knee arthroplasties to determine the most accurate and reliable technique for alignment of the tibial prosthesis. Tibial resection was guided by either intramedullary or extramedullary alignment jigs. Of the 135 knees, standardised postoperative radiographs suitable for assessment were available in 100. Correct tibial alignment was found in 85% of the intramedullary group compared with 65% of the extramedullary group (p = 0.019). We conclude that intramedullary guides are superior to extramedullary instruments for alignment of the tibial prosthesis.  (+info)

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When oil and gas wells are drilled, the geologists and drill rig personnel need to know the nature and characteristics of the formations that they are encountering downhole. To help them obtain this vital information, drilling is periodically halted and logging tools packed with sophisticated, and very expensive analytical equipment are lowered into the well. These tools carry out chemical and physical measurements on the various downhole strata and capture the data for evaluation.. The tools are lowered into a well attached to a wireline. Wireline comes in two basic forms: "slick" and "electric" line. Slick lines are solid, load-bearing metallic wires which are commonly available in diameters of 1.83-4.06mm. Electric wirelines consist of insulated electrical signal wires surrounded by braided metallic wires for protection that make up the essential load-bearing cable which supports the weight of the measuring tool.. In addition to suspending measuring tools, slick lines are used to place ...
FLW, Inc. specializes in the sales of physical measurement, control and calibration products. We carry over 40 top product lines and can calibrate & service most of the brands we sell. Were happy to help.. ...
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Attempts to measure segmental vibration are discussed as well as the problems encountered. Since actual physical measurements are important to the study of shock and vibration response of the users of hand-held power tools, and accurate set of acceleration readings at typical input amplitudes and frequencies would aid in determining the vibration absorption characteristics of the hand and arm, and
in Energy and Buildings (2017), 148. tComplete knowledge about habits of the occupants, including their opinions regarding ventilation sys-tems is an important condition for reducing the consumption of natural resources and improving ... [more ▼]. tComplete knowledge about habits of the occupants, including their opinions regarding ventilation sys-tems is an important condition for reducing the consumption of natural resources and improving indoorcomfort. In addition, uncomforted occupants tend to take measures to improve their situation, whichmay increase energy consumption. Advanced thermal models for buildings can perhaps predict interac-tions between the IAQ determinants, e.g. energy consumption, ventilation and comfort, but do not takeinto account the behavior of residents. By questionnaires and physical measurements this study evalu-ated dwellings equipped partly with centralized and partly with decentralized ventilation systems withheat recovery. This field study involved two ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Scoliosis Examination, Forward Bending Test, Scoliometer, Adams Test, Adams Position, Adams Forward Bend Test.
Participants complete up to two study visits of approximately 3-4 hours each. The first study visit involves an interview about life experiences and emotions. If the participant is eligible for the second assessment, the average length of time between visit 1 and visit 2 will be 1-7 days. The second visit included physical measurements such as cholesterol and blood pressure, performing math and speaking tasks, and surveys to help us learn about healthy behaviors and emotions. No further follow-up of participants is conducted beyond the two study visits ...
Further down the page we see a house totally upside down, with the roof immersed in the ground. It looks so realistic and believable, you could almost believe it for a second, if someone told you there was a bad hurricane.. As you scroll down even more, you see people in a house with everything out of proportion. There is even a magical bathroom where the floor is the sky. These are clever editing skills used to manipulate a photo, but how do real optical illusions work?. An illusion is a distortion of the senses, it confuses the brain and interrupts its normal organization. In visual illusions, peoples depth and motion perception changes. This is misinterpreted by the brain to give us a false image.. The information gathered by the eye is then processed by the brain, but it does not represent the real physical measurement.. Our brains are incredible, but they can be fooled sometimes. The brain constructs a whole world, using previous sights and pieces of the surrounding environment. ...
Is the patient suffering from blood poisoning? To answer this question, the doctor draws a blood sample and sends it to a central laboratory for testing. This takes up valuable time, which could cost the patient his life. In future, physicians will be able to analyze blood there and then and have the results within twenty minutes. This is made possible by a biochip, developed by scientists at the Fraunhofer Institute for Physical Measurement Techniques IPM in Freiburg. "To analyze the biochip we have also designed a fully automatic device to carry out all the examination steps," explains Dr. Albrecht Brandenburg, group manager at the IPM. "All the doctor has to do is place the sample in the apparatus and wait for the results.". Meanwhile, within the device theres plenty going on: it starts by preparing the blood sample. Red blood cells are separated from the blood and the plasma that remains is guided onto the biochip. When patients are suffering from sepsis, their immune system reacts by ...
Mucic acid salts of a compound represented by the following structural formula: are disclosed. In particular, single crystalline mucic acid salts of the compound represented by structural formula (I) are characterized by a variety of properties and physical measurements. Methods of producing the mucic acid salts, using the salts to antagonize one or more aspartic proteases, and methods of treating a number of aspartic protease mediated disorders using the salts are described herein.
After reviewing my daughters medical records, I noticed back in march of 2008 he reported a mid thoracic scoliometer reading of 18 degrees, also stating that clearly her rotational scoliometer reading is significantly worse as well as the radiographic Cobb angle. She still has ope triradiate cartilages when measured from T6-L1 today was 51 degrees. Note this was march of 2009 report. So my question is would someone please explain all of this to me?? Thank you:(
C: Stromal thickness of the Fb was found to be significantly smaller than for ASC in presence of urothelial cells. The UTS of the Fb group was significantly higher compared to the ASC. The failure strains were not significantly different between the two constructions. Tests were performed using 3 different cellular populations (N) for Fbs and ASCs and each construct was produced in triplicate (n). Each column represents mean +/-standard error of the mean, with p,0.05 indicating significance (*p,0.05, ** p,0.005 ...
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Facchinello, Yann, Brailovski, Vladimir, Petit, Yvan et Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc. 2014. « Monolithic superelastic rods with variable flexural stiffness for spinal fusion: modeling of the processing-properties relationship ». Medical Engineering and Physics, vol. 36, nº 11. pp. 1455-1463 ...
The researchers worked with 90 men between the ages of 18 and 30 who already had established exercise habits. They separated these participants into three groups: lean men who weight trained at least four times each week, overweight men who also weight trained at least four times each week, and overweight men who had no structured exercise regimen. The researchers took some basic physical measurements from the volunteers, including height and weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, and body composition. They tested the volunteers muscle strength and their carotid artery thickness (a sign of heart disease), and they took a blood sample. The researchers analyzed that sample for a variety of different molecules present, including cholesterol, insulin, various markers for heart disease including triglycerides and C-reactive protein, and sex hormones. They also checked the volunteers HDL to see how well it functioned as an antioxidant, a sign of how well their HDL works in general ...
Background: The state of Hypertension disease is universally under diagnosed and/or inadequately treated resulting in extensive target-organ damage and premature deaths. Therefore, sustainable and aggressive population-based programs for hypertension awareness, prevention, treatment, and control are keys of success in limiting this epidemic. The study aims to determine the Kang Adult populations hypertension prevalence and the relationship between high blood pressure, anthropometric measures and their life style factors such as diet, use of tobacco products and alcohol consuming habits. Methodology: The study, a population based cross-sectional trial, was conducted on adult residents of Kang (18 year-old and above) from November to December 2008. Data was collected using the questionnaire, through physical measurements of weight, height and BP using a modified protocol based on World Health Organization (WHO) STEP wise instruments on chronic disease (Bonita, 2001). The sample consisted of 161 ...
When the pharmacist entered the prescription into the pharmacy computer, a level one (severe) drug interaction warning appeared on the screen. Bonuses March 11, 2016. Knowledge Based Errors Brennan TA, Lee TH, ONeil AC, Petersen LA. What Is A Latent Error In Nursing Human factors methods can be classified as: (1) general methods (e.g., direct observation of work), (2) collection of information about people (e.g., physical measurement of anthropometric dimensions), (3) analysis and design The case study of a radical change in a medical device manufacturer described by Vicente (2003) shows how improvements in the design of a medical device for patient safety did not BMJ. 2000;320:745-9. [PMC free article] [PubMed]31. Identifying complications of care using administrative data. Preoperative assessment of patients with known or suspected coronary disease. Understanding The Swiss Cheese Model For Explaining Error Thus, latent failures are "accidents waiting to happen." Adverse events often happen ...
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1. Respiratory water loss and rectal temperature were measured in domestic fowl running for 10 min on a treadmill at speeds of 1.24-4.3 km h-1 in air temperatures of 20 +/− 2 degrees C or 32 +/− 2 degrees C. 2. At given speeds the water loss at 32 +/− 2 degrees C was approximately twice that at 20 +/− 2 degrees C and the end-exercise rectal temperature was 0.5-0.8 degrees C higher. 3. At 20 +/− 2 degrees C, respiratory evaporation accounted for 10-12% of the total metabolic energy used at all speeds. At 32 +/− 2 degrees C, the fractional respiratory heat loss fell from 26.5% at 1.24 km h-1 to 17% at 3.6 km h-1. The fraction of the total metabolic energy stored as body heat rose progressively with air temperature. ...
During contact, antennal bending is determined by its flexural stiffness and the applied load. From estimates of the second moment of area and measurements of the resistance-to-bending forces along the flagellum, we determined that the flexural stiffness of the cockroach antennal flagellum decreases rapidly from base to tip (Fig. 1A-C). We found that the forces decreased exponentially, whereas the elastic modulus did not change significantly within the measured length, suggesting that geometrical properties, i.e. tapering, are the main determinant of flexural stiffness (Fig. 1D).. Using a physical model of an arthropod antenna, we tested the hypotheses that a decreasing flexural stiffness profile enables effective mapping of the point of bend and/or point of contact to body-to-wall distance and increases the preview distance. By testing different stiffness profiles, we found that the point of bend maps better to the body-to-wall distance for a decreasing stiffness compared with a constant ...
With the recent increase in womens representation in the military, baseline physical measurement data are needed to help set appropriate accession and retention standards and to design useful prevention and intervention programs in the areas of physical fitness and health. This study incorporated several body composition indices to obtain anthropometric data for a representative sample of 1,292 active duty Navy and Marine Corps women and men. It also assessed the extent to which personnel met weight-for-height and body fat standards.
Plancks theory remained mystifying until Einstein showed how it could be used to explain the photoelectric effect, in which the speed of ejected electrons was related not to the intensity of light but to its frequency. This relationship was consistent with Plancks theory, which suggested that a photons energy was related to its frequency. During the next two decades scientists recast all of physics to be consistent with Plancks theory. The result was a picture of the physical world that was different from anything ever before imagined. Its essential feature is that all matter appears in physical measurements to be made of quantum bits, which are something like particles. Unlike the particles of Newtonian physics, however, a quantum particle cannot be viewed as having a definite path of movement that can be predicted through laws of motion. Quantum physics only permits the prediction of the probability of where particles may be found. The probability is the squared amplitude of a wave field, ...
Springer, ISBN-10: 3319659235. From the cover:. This book provides a selection of essential knowledge on the image-based quantification of biophysical parameters for the purpose of clinical diagnosis. The authors regard clinical imaging scanners as physical measurement systems capable of quantifying intrinsic parameters for depiction of the constitution and biophysical properties of in vivo tissue. On the one hand, this approach supports the development of new methods of imaging highly reproducible, system-independent, and quantitative biomarkers, and these methods receive detailed attention in the book. On the other hand, the reader will also gain a deeper understanding of how physical tissue properties interact with the generation of signals in medical imaging, opening new windows on the intricate and fascinating relationship between the structure and function of living tissues. The book will be of interest to all who recognize the limitations of basing clinical diagnosis primarily on visual ...
AN AUSTRALIAN turtle has learned to breathe through its bottom. The freshwater Fitzroy River turtle (Rheodytes leukops) breathes normally above water, ...
Exercise apparatus incorporating lift assistance mechanism for pull-up and/or dip stand exercising including one or more interchangeable extensible, elastomeric links of various extensil resistances, arranged to upwardly bias a pivotally mounted lift bar, and having arranged in parallel therewith a hydraulic shock absorber type fluid cylinder functioning to limit the extent of downward movement of the lift bar when the cylinder is extended to its maximum length and limiting the rate of upward movement of the lift bar in the event of the user falling off. The elastomeric link is preferably longitudinally bifurcated with two lengthwise parts so that if one part breaks the other part is likely to remain intact and provide some degree of extensil resistance. Other exercise components can be included as well as parts of the apparatus, such as push-up handles, and padded cross bars for sit-up exercising and the like.
Its a elementary vocabulary related to Ancient Egypt for 1º ESO students who study Social Science: Geography and History as a billingual subject.
Load cells measure mass. In addition to level, ECLIPSE GWR technology measures volume. For ECLIPSE transmitters to measure volume, our customers tanks were first strapped, which is a procedure of precise physical measurement of the tank geometry and calculation of capacity tables. Since the density was precisely known, our customer could then multiply the volume by the specific gravity to obtain an inferred mass. This is how volume measurement obtained through the ECLIPSE device was able to replace a load cells mass measurement.. Our customer was impressed that the replacement resulted in benefits to the bottom line, because the upfront cost for the ECLIPSE units was 75 percent less compared to load cells. In addition, yearly dry calibration verification costs were 10 percent lower than the cost required to calibrate load cells.. However, based on the fact there was not an installed base and history of GWR technology at this facility, our ECLIPSE solution was first installed on a trial basis. ...
1. Abalone: Predict the age of abalone from physical measurements. 2. Activity Recognition from Single Chest-Mounted Accelerometer: The dataset collects data from a wearable accelerometer mounted on the chest. The dataset is intended for Activity Recognition research purposes.. 3. Acute Inflammations: The data was created by a medical expert as a data set to test the expert system, which will perform the presumptive diagnosis of two diseases of the urinary system. 4. Adult: Predict whether income exceeds $50K/yr based on census data. Also known as "Census Income" dataset.. 5. Annealing: Steel annealing data. 6. Anuran Calls (MFCCs): Acoustic features extracted from syllables of anuran (frogs) calls, including the family, the genus, and the species labels (multilabel). 7. Arcene: ARCENEs task is to distinguish cancer versus normal patterns from mass-spectrometric data. This is a two-class classification problem with continuous input variables. This dataset is one of 5 datasets of the NIPS 2003 ...
The relationship and precision of four methods for measuring the low-contrast detail detectability in fluoroscopic imaging were studied. These included the physical measurement of the accumulation rate of the square of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNRrate2), two-alternative forced-choice (2-AFC) experiments, sixteen-alternative forced-choice (16-AFC) experiments and subjective determination of the threshold contrast. The precision and sensitivity of the threshold contrast measurement were seen to be modest in the constancy testing of fluoroscopic equipment: only large changes in system performance could be reliably detected by that method. The measurement of the SNRrate2 is suggested instead. The relationship between the results of the various methods were studied, and it was found that human performance can be related to SNRrate2 by introducing the concept of the effective image information integration time (teff). When measured for an unlimited observation time, it depicts the saturation of ...
One of the skeletons in the Progressive Education closet is Scientific Racism, otherwise known as Eugenics, which the leaders of the Progressive movement enthusiastically espoused until the Nazis in Germany gave it a bad name. The Eugenics movement had been founded by Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911), a cousin of Charles Darwins, who became concerned with the low birthrate of the British elite which, he believed, endangered the future of civilization. He decided that ways had to be found to encourage the fertility of the superior stock and to discourage the fertility of the inferior stock.. To determine which individuals had superior traits, he devised a series of tests. In 1884 he formed an Anthropometric Laboratory in which he could make physical measurements of individuals. But he also needed a means of investigating psychological differences in human beings. In 1886, Galton was introduced to James McKeen Cattell, a young American who had just spent two years studying in the laboratories of ...
Rolf Gleiter is professor of chemistry at the Universität Heidelberg. He studied chemistry and finished his doctoral thesis under the supervision of F. Effenberger in Stuttgart in 1964. From 1965 - 1968 he did postdoctoral work in the US, one year with P. v. R. Schleyer at Princeton and two years with R. Hoffmann at Cornell. He completed his habilitation with E. Heilbronner in Basel in 1972. In 1973 he moved as full professor to TU Darmstadt. In 1979 he took his present position. R. Gleiter is interested in intra- and intermolecular bonding properties by synthesizing model systems and investigation of their interactions by physical measurements supported by quantum chemical calculations ...
In July 2009, a 14-yr-old male caracal (Caracal caracal) at the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa was found, on abdominal ultrasound, to have a single large cystolith. The cystolith was removed, and the composition was determined to be 100% cystine. Blood and urine samples were also collected from three other apparently healthy caracals at the zoo and were submitted, together with the sa ...
The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).. Alternatively, you can also download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link below.. If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.. ...
Members of the order Neogastropoda are mostly gonochoric and broadcast spawners. Life cycle: Embryos develop into planktonic trocophore larvae and later into juvenile veligers before becoming fully grown adults (Ref. 833). ...
Members of the order Neogastropoda are mostly gonochoric and broadcast spawners. Life cycle: Embryos develop into planktonic trocophore larvae and later into juvenile veligers before becoming fully grown adults (Ref. 833). ...
Scoliosis screening has been practiced worldwide for several decades and has offered dependable data about the prevalence, etiology and natural course of idiopathic scoliosis [1]. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), in which abnormal structural curvature of the spine is the exclusive diagnosis, is reported only when other causes of scoliosis have been ruled out [2]. The gold standard to diagnose scoliosis is through radiographic examination, although several studies have indicated a relationship with surface back deformities measured by topography [3], a scoliometer, an integrated shape imaging system [4], and other methods. In terms of school screening, not only is radiographic examination expensive, but parents also worry about their children being exposed to too much radiation.. Vertebral rotations with subsequent rib deformity will cause trunk asymmetry. Adams bending test will display more prominent back hump. The Nash-Moe method [5] is one of the methods used to assess the extent of ...
To date, GWAS in humans have identified 27 CCT-associated loci,13,16,23-25 and QTL analysis in mice has identified 6 CCT-associated loci. Some of the genes identified in GWAS were independently identified as CCT regulators because of their association with rare connective tissue disorders (i.e., brittle cornea syndrome and osteogenesis imperfecta).11,12,15 The genes identified by GWAS show an enrichment of pathways involving collagen and extracellular matrix (ECM), which might be expected since the cornea is composed largely of an ECM-rich stroma. Other CCT-influencing genes (e.g., Twist2, Bnc1, Bcl-2, and Bax) have been identified through studies that used candidate-driven approaches.44-46 A comparison of the syntenic regions of Cctq4 indicated that this locus overlaps partially with Tiparp, a locus previously reported to be associated with CCT in humans based on a meta-analysis by Lu et al.16 However, Tiparp is unlikely to be the gene underlying the association between Cctq4 and CCT because it ...
In 2003, the breakthrough papers on Spectral Domain and Fourier Domain were published.,br /, In this presentation I will take you on a personal journey through these exciting beginning years between 1997 and 2003.. © 2016 OSA. PDF Article ...
Higher SBP per standard deviation of each adiposity measure among men. The differences in SBP per 1 SD of each adiposity measure were calculated, with SBP regre
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Looking for online definition of Fourier domain in the Medical Dictionary? Fourier domain explanation free. What is Fourier domain? Meaning of Fourier domain medical term. What does Fourier domain mean?
The Chicago Community Adult Health Study (CCAHS) consists of four interrelated components that were conducted simultaneously: (1) a survey of adult health on a probability sample of 3,105 Chicago adults, including direct physical measurements of their blood pressure and heart rate and of height, weight, waist and hip circumference, and leg length; (2) a biomedical supplement which collected blood and/or saliva samples on a subset of 661 survey respondents; (3) a community survey in which individuals described aspects of the social environment of all survey respondents neighborhoods; and (4) a systematic social observation (SSO) of the blocks in which potential survey respondents resided, including a lost letter drop (Milgram et al. 1965) as an unobtrusive measure of neighborhood social capital/sense of responsibility to help others. The latter two extend a community survey and SSO of neighborhoods carried out by the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) in 1995. The ...
The Chicago Community Adult Health Study (CCAHS) consists of four interrelated components that were conducted simultaneously: (1) a survey of adult health on a probability sample of 3,105 Chicago adults, including direct physical measurements of their blood pressure and heart rate and of height, weight, waist and hip circumference, and leg length; (2) a biomedical supplement which collected blood and/or saliva samples on a subset of 661 survey respondents; (3) a community survey in which individuals described aspects of the social environment of all survey respondents neighborhoods; and (4) a systematic social observation (SSO) of the blocks in which potential survey respondents resided, including a lost letter drop (Milgram et al. 1965) as an unobtrusive measure of neighborhood social capital/sense of responsibility to help others. The latter two extend a community survey and SSO of neighborhoods carried out by the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) in 1995. The ...
In a sub-group of children, activity was measured using a monitor worn around the waist.. When analysing the findings the researchers attempted to account for the effects of confounding factors such as socioeconomic status, physical activity and pubertal status.. What were the basic results?. The analysis focused on the 4,495 children (2,337 girls and 2,158 boys) who had screen time data, all physical measurements and a fasting blood sample. More than 2,000 children had physical activity data collected from the waist monitor.. The most commonly reported screen time duration was one hour or less (37%), with 18% reporting more than three hours and 4% reporting no screen time at all.. Boys were more likely to have more than three hours of screen time a day, 22% compared to 14% of girls.. Differences were seen between ethnic groups, a higher proportion of black African-Caribbean children (23%) had more than three hours of daily screen time compared with white Europeans (16%) and South Asians ...
Researcher Sarah Jobbins works in a CARACAL field laboratory in Chobe, Botswana, testing for leptospirosis.: "Human waste in these systems … can be ubiquitous and can influence contact between humans and wildlife and disease transmission in these systems." "CARACAL is committed to the conservation of wildlife and improving the livelihoods of communities that must live with this resource in Chobe Botswana. Through a combination of research, outreach and education, we work closely with local communities to secure a sustainable future." Photograph courtesy of I. Moore, CARACAL and caption text is from the CARACAL Web site available at http://www.caracal.info/CARACAL/Welcome_1.html."Given this high prevalence in the mongoose, we believe that Botswana possesses an as-yet-unidentified burden of human leptospirosis," said Jobbins.. "There is an urgent need to look for this disease in people who have clinical signs consistent with infection.". Because banded mongoose have an extended range across ...
While a graduate student at Berkeley, Gofman co-discovered protactinium-232, uranium-232, protactinium-233, and uranium-233, and proved the slow and fast neutron fissionability of uranium-233. Post-doctorally, he continued work related to the chemistry of plutonium and the atomic bomb development. At that early period, less than a quarter of a milligram of plutonium-239 existed, but a half-milligram was urgently needed for physical measurements in the Manhattan Project. At the request of J. Robert Oppenheimer, Gofman and Robert Connick irradiated a ton of uranyl nitrate by placing it around the Berkeley cyclotron (to capture neutrons), for a total exposure period of six weeks, with operation night and day. In 110 Gilman Hall, they scaled up Gofmans previous test-tube-sized sodium uranyl acetate process for the plutoniums chemical extraction. Dissolving 10-pound batches of the "hot" ton in big Pyrex jars, and working around the clock with the help of eight or ten others, they reduced the ton to ...
With ruddy coats and tufted ears, caracals are incredibly striking animals. They are also the heaviest of the small African cats. These agile hunters range along the African continent, up into the Arabian Peninsula through northwest India.
Purpose : To determine the prevalence of eating disorders anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and partial syndromes in students in a Madrid school district during the 1993-1994 academic period. The results were compared with those of an earlier study performed in 1985-1986 and with findings in other countries. Methods : In the first phase, 1314...
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The catchall sub-family of the family Felidae, containing most of the medium-sized and small cats: lynxes, cougars, caracals, and the various smaller sp...
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The African wild ass (Equus africanus) is a species within the Equidae family that is thought to be that ancestor of the domestic donkey. This species resides in arid habitats in a range that includes the Horn of Africa, Somalia, Ethiopia, and Eritrea. This species hold four subspecies, including the Somali wild ass and the Nubian wild ass.. The African wild ass reaches an average body length of 6.6 feet, a height between 12.1 and 14.1 hands at the shoulders, and a weight between 510 and 610 pounds. Its fur is short and smooth and can vary from fawn to light grey in color, which fades into white on the legs and underbelly. All of the subspecies hold a thin, dark dorsal stripe. The Nubian wild ass holds a stripe along the shoulders and the Somali wild ass holds stripes on its lower legs, similar to those of zebras.. Because it lives in arid regions, the African wild ass is primarily active during the cooler hours of the morning and afternoon and rest in the shade of trees or rocks during the day. ...
Purpose : To compare central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal endothelial cell density, and lens capsule thickness in normotensive patients with and without pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXS) Methods : This was a prospective, comparative, descriptive study. Normotensive candidates for cataract surgery with (study group) and without (control group) PXS were enrolled in the study. CCT ...
Holocene archaeological (n = 12) and historic museum (n = 11) samples of Nubian wild ass, Somali wild ass and donkey were obtained for this study (electronic supplementary material, table S1) through the comprehensive evaluation of a significant portion of all specimens in existence including: annual camel-based surveys of critically endangered African wild ass conducted by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), approximately 12 skeletons of African wild ass held in world museums, and a survey of isolated donkey bones from African archaeological sites. Appropriate permits were obtained for all specimens including CITES permits for all wild ass specimens owing to their status as critically endangered (see electronic supplementary material, Background for more historical and taxonomic information on the historic samples).. Faecal samples from Somali wild ass from Ethiopia (n = 6) and Eritrea (n = 27) were collected across the species habitat range after observation of the ...
A total of 383 children aged less than 5 years suffering from acute watery diarrhoea or dysentery were studied in hospital to determine the rate of persistent diarrhoea. Altogether 335 (87.5%) recovered within 13 days. Only in 48 (12.5%) did the diarrhoea continue for 14 days or more, and they were considered as having persistent diarrhoea. Children aged between 7 and 18 months had a significantly increased incidence of persistent diarrhoea. Children suffering from grade II-IV malnutrition constituted the majority (70.8%) of those with persistent diarrhoea. Higher rates of isolation of Shigella flexneri, Shigella dysenteriae 1, and Salmonella typhimurium were observed among patients with persistent diarrhoea than in those with diarrhoea of shorter duration. No positive correlations were observed between the clinical severity of disease at hospital admission and measles. Breast fed babies were not prone to persistent diarrhoea.. ...
Purpose: : To determine choroidal thickness in normal eyes using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to evaluate association between choroidal thickness and age, axial length and gender. Methods: : Spectral domain OCT images (Bioptigen, Bioptigen, inc., Durham, NC) were obtained in 293 eyes of 157 healthy volunteers without retinal diseases. The choroidal thickness at the fovea was manually measured from the outer border of the retinal pigment epithelium to the chorioscleral interface. Only the images with acceptable quality to visualize chorioscleral interface were included. The IOL master (Carl Zeiss Meditech) was used to measure the axial length of the eye. Statistical analyses using paired t-test and Pearson correlation were performed to evaluate the correlation between choroidal thickness and age, axial length, and gender. Results: : The mean and median age of the 157 subjects were 33.3 and 29 years old, respectively (range, 7 to 83 years). There were 60 males and 97 females. Of the 293 ...
A glider is a underwater vehicle that uses small changes in its buoyancy in order to move up and down in the ocean. Unlike a float, a glider uses wings to convert that vertical motion to horizontal, propelling itself forward with very low power consumption.The high efficiency of the propulsion system enables gliders to be operated for several months, during which they can cover thousands of kilometers. They allow the autonomous and sustained collection of physical measurements such as pressure, temperature and conductivity data, and depending on the model, some biogeochemical measurements (like fluorescence, oxygen or optical backscattering) of the upper 1km of the ocean.Registred measurements are transmitted by satellite every time the gliders comes up to surface. The same communication channel is used to transmit navigation commands to the gliders (heading, angle of ascent/dive, max depth,…).. Although they are a relatively new platform in oceanography, in the Medtierranean Sea gliders are ...
Looking for online definition of anthropometric measurements in the Medical Dictionary? anthropometric measurements explanation free. What is anthropometric measurements? Meaning of anthropometric measurements medical term. What does anthropometric measurements mean?
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Among girls with identical body weights, those with lower WHRs show earlier pubertal endocrine activity, as measured by high ... Genazzani, AR; Gambacciani, M (2006). "Effect of climacteric transition and hormone replacement therapy on body weight and body ... The body fat percentage is considered to be an even more accurate measure of relative weight. Of these three measurements, only ... or their combination on body weight and anthropometric measure". Fertility and Sterility. 88 (6): 1603-1608. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Today only the stone continues in customary use for measuring personal body weight. The present stone is 14 pounds (~6.35 kg), ... Measures and Weights in the Islamic World. An English Translation of Professor Walther Hinz's Handbook "Islamische Maße und ... Weights and measures have taken a great variety of forms over the course of history, from simple informal expectations in ... Weights and measures from the oldest societies can often be inferred at least in part from archaeological specimens, often ...
It featured a multi-spot metering system (shared with the OM-4) in addition to the centre-weighted metering of the earlier body ... The finder coverage was measured to be 93%. Exposure control was aperture priority AE using center-weighted light metering. ... Automatic controlon camera body 2.8-32 0.2 m 3.6×2.4 cm Driven by AF/PF coupler on camera body 340 g 57 mm 66 mm Built-in 49 mm ... Automatic control on camera body 2.8-22 0.3 m 27×18 cm Driven by AF/PF coupler on camera body 170 g 32 mm 62 mm Built-in 49 mm ...
"Body Weights of Birds: A Review" (PDF). The Condor. 81 (2): 193-202. doi:10.2307/1367288.. ... "What do different bill measures measure and what is the best method to use in granivorous birds?" (PDF). J. Field Ornithol. 71 ... Weight[edit]. The weights of birds are notoriously variable and cannot be used as indication of size. They are however useful ... Even during the course of a day, the weight can vary by 5 to 10%. The male emperor penguin loses 40% of its weight during the ...
Sanctorius measured body weight. Physician Herman Boerhaave modeled the digestive process. Physiologist Albrecht von Haller ... Increased weight, especially in the form of belly fat, and high sugar intake are also high risk factors for heart disease. Both ... However, complementary sources of protein do not need to be eaten at the same meal to be used together by the body. Excess ... Some of the structural material can be used to generate energy internally, and in either case it is measured in Joules or ...
This test measures the changes in body weight, urine output, and urine composition when fluids are withheld to induce ... The body's normal response to dehydration is to conserve water by concentrating the urine. Those with DI continue to urinate ... Signs of dehydration may also appear in some individuals, since the body cannot conserve much (if any) of the water it takes in ... In children, DI can interfere with appetite, eating, weight gain, and growth, as well. They may present with fever, vomiting, ...
BMI, or "body mass index," is a measure of weight and height used to estimate body fat.)[60] ... This refers to a measure of percent by weight of total dried solids and, although not technically the same as Brix degrees ... Diabetes mellitus, a disease that causes the body to metabolize sugar poorly, occurs when either: *the body attacks the cells ... which prevents excretion of uric acid from the body. As the concentration of uric acid in the body increases, so does the ...
Chapter XIII: Offences Relating to Weights and Measures. Chapter XIV: Offences Affecting the Public Health, Safety, Convenience ... Chapter XVI: Offences Affecting the Human Body. Offences Affecting Life. Causing Miscarriage; Injuries to Unborn Children; ... The stated quantities are the net weight of the substances after they have been isolated by laboratory analysis. Between 1991 ...
Chapter XIII: Offences Relating to Weights and Measures. Chapter XIV: Offences Affecting the Public Health, Safety, Convenience ... Chapter XVI: Offences Affecting the Human Body. Offences Affecting Life. Causing Miscarriage; Injuries to Unborn Children; ... and which act or omission causes or is likely to cause damage or harm to that person in body, mind, reputation or property, is ... or causes it to be believed that the body of that person is in a loathsome state, or in a state generally considered as ...
Fear of even the slightest weight gain; taking all precautionary measures to avoid weight gain or becoming "overweight".[22] ... weight loss, or growth failure; and also routinely ask celiac patients about weight or body shape concerns, dieting or vomiting ... A low body mass index for one's age and height.. *Amenorrhea, a symptom that occurs after prolonged weight loss; causes ... Low weight, fear of gaining weight, strong desire to be thin, food restrictions[1]. ...
Body weight is regulated through energy balance, the amount of energy taken in versus the amount of energy expended over an ... Both active and total ghrelin can be measured.[50] Circulating ghrelin concentrations rise before eating and fall afterward,[46 ... Ghrelin and synthetic ghrelin mimetics (growth hormone secretagogues) increase body weight and fat mass[32][33][34] by ... Karasu SR, Karasu TB (2010). The gravity of weight: a clinical guide to weight loss and maintenance (1st ed.). Washington, DC: ...
... measures of basal metabolic rate and resting metabolic rate are becoming essential tools for maintaining a healthy body weight. ... The body's generation of heat is known as thermogenesis and it can be measured to determine the amount of energy expended. BMR ... where LBM is the lean body mass in kg.. According to this formula, if the woman in the example has a body fat percentage of 30 ... The difference in BMR for men and women is mainly due to differences in body weight. For example, a 55-year-old woman weighing ...
... in weight and 2 m (6.6 ft) long.[28] Some specimens have even reportedly been measured at a body weight of greater than 20 lb ( ... When frightened by a predator, green iguanas will attempt to flee, and if near a body of water, they dive into it and swim away ... though a few in the genus Cyclura may match or exceed it in weight.[26] Adults typically grow to 1.2 to 1.7 m (3.9 to 5.6 ft) ... which helps regulate their body temperature.[16] This dewlap is used in courtships and territorial displays.[7][15][22] ...
... and promotion of the Union Standards began in 1918 after introduction of the international systems of weights and measures. ... The first body for standardization was created by the Council of Labor and Defense in 1925 and was named the Committee for ...
"OECD.StatExtracts, Health, Non-Medical Determinants of Health, Body weight, Obese population, self-reported and measured, Total ... Body weight, Overweight or obese population, self-reported and measured, Total population" (Online Statistics). OECD's iLibrary ... maintaining a healthy body weight, limiting alcohol use, and avoiding smoking.[23] Health and illness can co-exist, as even ... insufficient sleep may also play a role in weight gain or, conversely, in impeding weight loss.[46] Additionally, in 2007, the ...
... body fat, and other obesity-related measures. Some of these TV-reduction trials have been implemented into schools. One of the ... People who become obese by watching TV more, not only they gain weight but they also increase the risk of weight-related ... the link between exposure to TV food advertising and children's body weight. Annals of Spiru Haret University". Journalism ... A small research of 36 men and women would suggest that an electronic TV lock out could help them with weight control. The way ...
One example of the use of a BCG is a ballistocardiographic scale, which measures the recoil of the persons body who is on the ... A BCG scale is able to show a persons heart rate as well as their weight. ... The ballistocardiograph (BCG) is a measure of ballistic forces on the heart.[1] Ballistocardiography is a technique for ... Measuring the Heart's Kick. *Simultaneous Monitoring of Ballistocardiogram and Photoplethysmogram Using a Camera Dangdang Shao ...
The individual measures are weighted according to their relative importance. A cumulative score is then generated, typically by ... Much of the original research has been evaluated by Lino Briguglio and presenters at Oxford, providing a body of secondary ... A vulnerability index is a measure of the exposure of a population to some hazard. Typically, the index is a composite of ... It utilizes eight key health indicators that measure a chronically homeless person's vulnerability to early death. The model is ...
... s are also a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure, as well as increase in body weight and obesity ... The consumption of added sugars has been positively associated with multiple measures known to increase the risk of ... with excess weight and obesity. Added sugars are also known as extrinsic, with naturally occurring sugars known as intrinsic. ...
To apply these result to any body weight, any of the values BLs, BLH and ANHH or PRBC given in the table need to be multiplied ... The arm-leg (blood pressure) gradient is the difference between the blood pressure measured in the arms and that measured in ... patient's weight in kg. 70. {\displaystyle T={\frac {\text{patient's weight in kg}}{70}}}. Basically, the model considered ... How much blood is to be removed is usually based on the weight, not the volume. The number of units that need to be removed to ...
... and attempted to measure the mass lost by a human when the soul departed the body. MacDougall attempted to measure the mass ... One of the patients lost weight but then put the weight back on, and two of the other patients registered a loss of weight at ... MacDougall later measured the changes in weight from fifteen dogs after death. MacDougall said he wished to use dogs that were ... let alone that they measured the weight of the soul as 21 grams." The fact that MacDougall likely poisoned and killed fifteen ...
He was chairman of the Committee on Coinage, Weights, and Measures (Forty-first Congress). After his nomination as a Republican ... His body was returned to New Bern, where he was interred in the National Cemetery. Biography portal 40th United States Congress ...
Iantromathematicians considered the bodies functioning to be measured by quantifiable numbers, weights, and measures. The field ... while iatrochemists measured the detrimental problems of the body by chemical means. Several individuals contributed to this ... The star body of an individual is often referred to by astrologists as an energetic matrix and is believed to be spawned by ... Iatromathematicians study these conceptions and try to regulate the path of the star body of individuals so that it will give a ...
The longest recorded flat needlefish measured 140 cm. Measurements for flat needlefish body length do not include their caudal ... The largest recorded weight for a flat needlefish was 4.8 kg. Flat needlefish are found worldwide in tropical and temperate ...
He can find the weight and measure of any solid body. He is clever at arithmetic, and skilled "in writing smaule, after the ... He began to practise as a surveyor in about 1566, and has been described as "one of the leaders of the emerging body of skilled ... He adds that "the measure attendinge uppon this instrument is of steele wier toe pole longe lincked foote by foote, excepte the ... It is entitled "A Noate for the Perfection of Lande Measure, and exact Plattinge of Cities, Castels, Honors, Lordshippes, ...
Over the first 5-7 days following birth, the body weight of a term neonate decreases by 3-7%,[3] and is largely a result of the ... and the arms and legs are relatively long with respect to the rest of their body. The Apgar score is a measure of a newborn's ... Weight. In developed countries, the average birth weight of a full-term newborn is approximately 3.4 kg (7 1⁄2 lb), and is ... A newborn's head is very large in proportion to the body, and the cranium is enormous relative to his or her face. While the ...
The trophic pyramid roughly represents the biomass (usually measured as total dry-weight) at each level. Plants generally have ... To maintain their bodies, grow, develop, and to reproduce, autotrophs produce organic matter from inorganic substances, ... which can be measured as the dry weight of an organism.[39] Autotrophs may have the highest global proportion of biomass, but ... Complexity is a measure of an increasing number of permutations and it is also a metaphorical term that conveys the mental ...
The Authority is also the custodian of the Weights and Measures Decree (NRCD 326, 1975). The board's functions are: to ... The body was established by the Standards Decree, 1967 (NLCD 199) which has been superseded by the Standards Decree, 1973 (NRCD ... International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) ASTM International ... International Standards Organisation International Bureau of Weights and Measures ASTM International African Organisation for ...
... or sham-operation body weight-matched (n=8). Energy expenditure was measured in an open circuit calorimetry system. RESULTS: ... or sham-operation body weight-matched (n=8). Energy expenditure was measured in an open circuit calorimetry system. RESULTS: ... Body weight after 70 days was lower after gastric bypass compared to sham ad libitum fed rats (p,0.0001). Sham-operated body ... Body weight after 70 days was lower after gastric bypass compared to sham ad libitum fed rats (p,0.0001). Sham-operated body ...
... Summary. Summary: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal ... body size*body height*biometry*geography*socioeconomic factors*phenotype*reproduction*body weight*environment*cadaver*reference ... Total lean body mass (LEAN-tot) is one of the three major components of body weight. Its deterioration is a risk factor for ... Body weight, early growth and antler size influence antler bone mineral composition of Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus ...
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  • Main outcome measures Cumulative incidence of arm lymphoedema and time to develop arm lymphoedema, defined as an increase in arm volume of 200 mL or more in the value before surgery. (bmj.com)
  • However, it should be kept in mind that this method, among other methods, should be used as a tool, and only a physician can best determine and diagnose weight status in your child. (obesityaction.org)
  • There are several different methods to estimate body fat. (blogspot.com)
  • Online body fat calculators vary, so without knowing which specific calculator you used, I will comment on them in general as well as go over several other methods of body fat testing. (cnn.com)
  • Methods- We included 13 patients with acute cerebral ischemia in the anterior circulation who underwent diffusion- (DWI) and perfusion (PWI)-weighted imaging within 8 hours after symptom onset and exhibited DWI lesion expansion between baseline and follow-up. (ahajournals.org)
  • Underwater weighing is the most accurate method for determining your percent body fat, but it's the least practical because it's done with sophisticated equipment at university research facilities. (blogspot.com)
  • At the upper end, hydrostatic weighing, various body pods and DEXA scanning are extremely accurate in determining your body fat, but these devices are usually only found in spas, high level training facilities or a lab. (healthstatus.com)
  • Weighing more than once/day is NOT a good idea, because your weight will fluctuate due to fluid retention, undigested food, etc. (medhelp.org)
  • Electronic identification (EID) and automated weighing crates enable weight data to have greater practical potential with the use of precision livestock farming techniques. (sruc.ac.uk)
  • So while it may not be getting the right %, as I do lose body fat, it does measure that change is happening. (macrumors.com)
  • So, weight increase because of muscles gained is fine as long as you lose your body fat. (munfitnessblog.com)
  • Learning how to measure your body fat percentages at home is one of the most economical ways you can determine how much weight and fat to lose. (b-boron.info)
  • Ive seen many people not lose the weight theyd like to lose in the first month of personal training. (b-boron.info)
  • In addition, research on body dissatisfaction indicates that adolescents are often split between those who desire to lose weight versus those who desire to gain weight [ 9 ], therefore body weight dissatisfaction is associated with perceived under- or overweight. (biomedcentral.com)
  • What made you decide to lose weight? (shapefit.com)
  • What were the most important changes you made to lose weight? (shapefit.com)
  • He concluded: "Hypertensive patients with glucose intolerance and a high BMI should lose weight and restore their BMI to normal range. (medindia.net)
  • Currently, continuous or daily energy restriction is the main form of restriction used by individuals wishing to lose weight via dietary means. (mdpi.com)
  • And I've beaten the odds: 90% of people who lose weight gain it back within a year. (slashdot.org)
  • Something as simple as jogging for half an hour every day can cause you to lose quite a bit of weight, but it only works if you keep your intake at the same level. (slashdot.org)
  • I have been trying to lose some weight. (cnn.com)
  • Choose to Lose , community-based weight management programmes are delivered across NI and might be of interest. (nidirect.gov.uk)
  • Here, the aim was to assess the possibility of retraining gait, improving cardiopulmonary capacity, and challenging balance during gait in SCA using a partial body weight support (BWS) and a treadmill. (hindawi.com)
  • A number of previous studies tried to explain the racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent weight outcomes by examining racial/ethnic differences in household socioeconomic status (SES) and differences in economic and environmental contexts. (hindawi.com)
  • For children and adolescents, an inverse relationship between whole grain intake and body weight measures were reported less consistently. (medindia.net)
  • Family dietary coaching improves nutritional intake in free-living children and parents, with beneficial effects on weight control in parents. (nih.gov)
  • Then he or she converts the millimeters that the calipers measure and places those numbers in a formula to arrive at the percent body fat of your entire body. (blogspot.com)
  • A person trained to use skin calipers or handheld scanners that use bioelectrical impedance analysis, or BIA, can also measure your body fat. (livestrong.com)
  • Go to your local sports store and buy some body fat calipers to test your fat levels. (shapefit.com)
  • A 2 (group) × 2 (time) repeated measures ANOVA showed there was a significant main effect on time for increase in the composite strength score ( p = .002, ŋp2 = .18). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Multivariate analyses of variance were calculated for clinical and nutrient measures, followed by univariate analyses of variance, to determine the significance of differences between groups in changes over time. (nih.gov)
  • The overall aim of this project is to investigate the clinical utility of the Andago System, a CE certified mobile bodyweight supporting walking robot, in children with neuromotor disorders. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Compared to their black counterparts, higher proportions of white and Hispanic adolescent females misperceived themselves to be heavier than their clinical weight status. (hindawi.com)
  • However, if you're struggling with a pelvic floor disorder, there are a number of self-help measures you can take to supplement your clinical plan. (massgeneral.org)
  • A high BMI can indicate high body fatness, and a low BMI can indicate too low body fatness. (cdc.gov)
  • In the end, The report introduced Weight Body Fat Measuring Device new project SWOT analysis Investment feasibility analysis investment return analysis and also give related research conclusions and development trend analysis on Global and China Weight Body Fat Measuring Device industry. (sbwire.com)
  • Among overweight/obese individuals all measures failed to predict CVD in women, whereas WHHR was the strongest predictor after adjustments for CVD risk factors in men. (diva-portal.org)
  • There was a significant difference in the mean eGFR among person with normal weight compared with obese individuals and a negative association between eGFR and BMI (-.339, p = 0.000). (ghrnet.org)
  • A trained technician takes readings from a machine that delivers a harmless amount of electrical current through your body to estimate total body water, which reflects the amount of muscle or lean tissue you have. (blogspot.com)
  • If you're looking for a relatively easy estimate, try the Department of Defense's method for estimating body fat. (livestrong.com)
  • Using simulation analyses, the study showed that the racial/ethnic variation in overweight remained even when adolescents had similar SES, which suggests that other factors beside SES might be responsible for the weight disparities [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Analyses of weight-related behaviour from 2010 survey data included indicators of dietary habits, screen time (ST) and physical activity. (mja.com.au)
  • all remaining analyses used repeated-measures analysis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Stored fats are excess amounts not used or burned off by your body. (healthstatus.com)
  • I feel very blessed to be able to do this, as not many women get the opportunity to get rid of the excess "whatever" that hangs around after losing so much weight. (shapefit.com)
  • There is an increasing interest in the relationship between excess weight and the occurrence of kidney disease. (ghrnet.org)
  • These findings showed that excess weight has a significant association with glomerular filtration rate and should be considered an important risk factor for CKD. (ghrnet.org)
  • Excess weight puts pressure on the pelvic area. (massgeneral.org)