Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Body Weight Changes: A clinical manifestation consisting of alterations in an individual's weight from his or her norm.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Weight Reduction Programs: Services providing counseling and activities that help overweight individuals to attain a more healthy body weight.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Clinical Trials, Phase IV as Topic: Planned post-marketing studies of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques that have been approved for general sale. These studies are often conducted to obtain additional data about the safety and efficacy of a product. This concept includes phase IV studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Ideal Body Weight: Expected weight of a healthy normal individual based on age, sex, and height. Thus, a malnourished person would weigh less than their ideal body weight.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Body Constitution: The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.Anti-Obesity Agents: Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Fetal Weight: The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Litter Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.CyclobutanesAging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Waist Circumference: The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Appetite Depressants: Agents that are used to suppress appetite.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Hunger: The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Diet, Fat-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of CARBOHYDRATES. This is in distinction to a regular DIET.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Basal Metabolism: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.United StatesLipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Animals, Suckling: Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.Nizatidine: A histamine H2 receptor antagonist with low toxicity that inhibits gastric acid secretion. The drug is used for the treatment of duodenal ulcers.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Obesity, Morbid: The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Body Fat Distribution: Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Waist-Hip Ratio: The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)Glycemic Index: A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Bariatric Surgery: Surgical procedures aimed at affecting metabolism and producing major WEIGHT REDUCTION in patients with MORBID OBESITY.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Benzodiazepines: A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)TriglyceridesBody Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Eating Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Mice, Inbred C57BLInsulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated: Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Hawaii: A group of islands in Polynesia, in the north central Pacific Ocean, comprising eight major and 114 minor islands, largely volcanic and coral. Its capital is Honolulu. It was first reached by Polynesians about 500 A.D. It was discovered and named the Sandwich Islands in 1778 by Captain Cook. The islands were united under the rule of King Kamehameha 1795-1819 and requested annexation to the United States in 1893 when a provisional government was set up. Hawaii was established as a territory in 1900 and admitted as a state in 1959. The name is from the Polynesian Owhyhii, place of the gods, with reference to the two volcanoes Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, regarded as the abode of the gods. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p493 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p2330)Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Metformin: A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p289)Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Infant, Very Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Smoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.JapanSocioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Rats, Inbred F344Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.EuropeDiet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.NorwaySexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Intervention Studies: Epidemiologic investigations designed to test a hypothesized cause-effect relation by modifying the supposed causal factor(s) in the study population.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hyperphagia: Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Twins, Dizygotic: Two offspring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from two OVA, fertilized at about the same time by two SPERMATOZOA. Such twins are genetically distinct and can be of different sexes.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Twins, Monozygotic: Two off-spring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from a single fertilized OVUM that split into two EMBRYOS. Such twins are usually genetically identical and of the same sex.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Confounding Factors (Epidemiology): Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.

The intestinal fatty acid binding protein is not essential for dietary fat absorption in mice. (1/1)

The intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) belongs to a family of 15 kDa clamshell-like proteins that are found in many different tissues. So far, nine types have been identified. Their primary structures are highly conserved between species but somewhat less so among the different types. The function of these proteins, many of which are highly expressed, is not well understood. Their ability to bind lipid ligands suggests a role in lipid metabolism, but direct evidence for this idea is still lacking. We tested the hypothesis that I-FABP serves an essential role in the assimilation of dietary fatty acids by disrupting its gene (Fabpi) in the mouse. We discovered that Fabpi-/- mice are viable, but they display alterations in body weight and are hyperinsulinemic. Male Fabpi-/- mice had elevated plasma triacylglycerols and weighed more regardless of the dietary fat content. In contrast, female Fabpi-/- mice gained less weight in response to a high-fat diet. The results clearly demonstrate that I-FABP is not essential for dietary fat absorption. We propose that I-FABP functions as a lipid-sensing component of energy homeostasis that alters body weight gain in a gender-specific fashion.  (+info)

*Human body weight

... refers to a person's mass or weight. Body weight is measured in kilograms, a measure of mass, throughout the ... in a body. The Devine formula for calculating ideal body weight in adults is as follows: Male ideal body weight = 50 kilograms ... body weight is the measurement of weight without items located on the person. Practically though, body weight may be measured ... Male ideal body weight = 48 kilograms (106 lb) + 1.1 kilograms (2.4 lb) × (height /cm − 152) Female ideal body weight = 45.4 ...

*Bodyweight exercise

The body is held straight while the arms push the body off the floor until the arms are straight. The entire weight of the ... As bodyweight exercises use the individual's own weight to provide the resistance for the movement, the weight being lifted is ... Bodyweight exercises can be increased in intensity by including additional weights (such as wearing a weighted vest or holding ... The body is kept straight, while the arms are bent and the body lowered until the head is below the hands. The body is then ...

*Health Level 7

Body Height,,1.80,m^Meter^ISO+,,,,,F OBX,2,NM,^Body Weight,,79,kg^Kilogram^ISO+,,,,,F AL1,1,,^ASPIRIN DG1,1,,786.50^CHEST PAIN ...

*Mark Bell (powerlifter)

At the peak of his wrestling career, Mark benched 500 lbs raw at 240 lbs body weight. After professional wrestling, Mark ... He developed his own training routine utilizing various forms of conditioning: hill running; Alligator tango; body weight ... Men's 308 Pound/140 Kg Weight Class Top 20 Men's 308 Pound/140 Kg Weight Class Top 20 2010 Men's Rankings[permanent dead link] ... He began lifting weights at the age of twelve years old , and entered his first powerlifting meet when he was 13. By the time ...

*Osteoarthritis

... for non-weight bearing joints and the loss of body fat is more closely related to symptom relief than the loss of body weight, ... excess body weight; loss of strength in the muscles supporting a joint; and impairment of peripheral nerves, leading to sudden ... For overweight people, weight loss may be an important factor. Patient education has been shown to be helpful in the self- ... Joints on one side of the body are often more affected than those on the other. Usually the symptoms come on over years. It can ...

*Metformin

... has little or no effect on body weight in type 2 diabetes compared with placebo, in contrast to sulfonylureas which ... Golay, A (2007). "Metformin and body weight". International Journal of Obesity. 32 (1): 61-72. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803695. ISSN ... Although modest reversal of clozapine-associated weight gain is found with metformin, primary prevention of weight gain is more ... There is some evidence that metformin is associated with weight loss in obesity in the absence of diabetes. Metformin has a ...

*Nutrition

Sanctorius measured body weight. Physician Herman Boerhaave modeled the digestive process. Physiologist Albrecht von Haller ... Increased weight, especially in the form of belly fat, and high sugar intake are also high risk factors for heart disease. Both ... However, complementary sources of protein do not need to be eaten at the same meal to be used together by the body. Excess ... Most fatty acids are non-essential, meaning the body can produce them as needed, generally from other fatty acids and always by ...

*Aid climbing

Many body weight placements. A4+ May include easier A5 moves but is not hard enough to be rated as such. A5 Serious, hard aid ...

*Gramapriya

Moderate in body weight. =>Better egg production. =>Produce brown shell eggs. List of chicken breeds "ഗ്രാമപ്രിയക്കും വനരാജനും ...

*SMS (gene)

Both displayed decreased grip strength while the males also had decreased body weight, length, bone mineral content and ... "Body weight data for Sms". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Grip strength data for Sms". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. " ...

*Alameda County Study

Maintaining a healthy body weight. Sleeping seven to eight hours per night. (For related research, see Sleep#Optimal.) Limiting ... and maintenance of a healthy weight play an important role in promoting longevity and delaying illness and death." Citing: ...

*Bergmann's rule

Schreider E (1950). "Geographical distribution of the body-weight/body-surface ratio". Nature. 165 (4190): 286. Bibcode: ... Roberts DF (1953). "Body weight, race and climate". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 11 (4): 533-558. doi:10.1002/ ... states that species inhabiting colder climates have a larger heart in relation to body weight than closely related species ... effects of body size on success as a predator, effects of body size on vulnerability to predation, and resource availability. ...

*NSUN2

"Body weight data for Nsun2". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Grip strength data for Nsun2". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute ... Homozygous mutants were subviable and had decreased body weights, length of long bones and decreased circulating glucose levels ... numerous abnormal body composition, X-ray imaging, eye morphology and haematology parameters; males also had a decreased grip ...

*AKAP9

Animals of both sex displayed decreased body fat and body weight, hematopoietic abnormalities and an atypical plasma chemistry ... "Body weight data for Akap9". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Indirect calorimetry data for Akap9". Wellcome Trust Sanger ...

*Four Fs (evolution)

Keesey, R. E.; Powley, T. L. (September 1975). "Hypothalamic regulation of body weight". American Scientist. 63 (5): 558-565. ... which resulted in gaining excess weight rapidly. The hypothalamus consists of clusters of highly similarly functioning nerve ...

*DNASE1L2

Homozygous mutant animals had a decreased body weight, grip strength and bone mineral content; a kinked tail, abnormal indirect ... "Body weight data for Dnase1l2". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Grip strength data for Dnase1l2". Wellcome Trust Sanger ...

*SLC25A21

"Body weight data for Slc25a21". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Dysmorphology data for Slc25a21". Wellcome Trust Sanger ... decreased body weight, absent pinna reflex, abnormal snout, skull, spine and tooth morphology, atypical indirect calorimetry, ... body composition and plasma chemistry data, increased mean platelet volume and moderate elevations in auditory thresholds. ...

*SLX4

Homozygous mutant animals of both sexes were sub-fertile and homozygous females had a reduced body weight, body length, heart ... "Body weight data for Slx4". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Dysmorphology data for Slx4". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. " ... "Heart weight data for Slx4". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Salmonella infection data for Slx4". Wellcome Trust Sanger ... weight, platelet count and lean mass. Homozygotes of both sex had abnormal eye sizes, narrow eye openings, skeletal defects ( ...

*LRIG1

... including decreased body weight and total body fat, scaly skin, abnormal hair shedding, a moderate degree of hearing impairment ... "Body weight data for Lrig1". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Dysmorphology data for Lrig1". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute ...

*ARID4A

"Body weight data for Arid4a". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Grip strength data for Arid4a". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute ... Homozygous mutant male adults has a reduced body weight curve and a decreased grip strength. Homozygous mutant adults of both ... sexes had a decreased body weight as determined by DEXA, displayed vertebral fusion and had clinical chemistry abnormalities ...

*FAM73B

Homozygous mutant animals had a decreased body weight, altered body composition, abnormal tooth morphology, hypoalbuminemia, ... "Body weight data for Fam73b". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "DEXA data for Fam73b". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. " ...

*DLG4

"Body weight data for Dlg4". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Indirect calorimetry data for Dlg4". Wellcome Trust Sanger ... Homozygous mutant animals had decreased body weight, atypical indirect calorimetry and DEXA data and a skin phenotype. Males ...

*GRXCR1

Homozygous mutant animals of both sex displayed decreased body weights, grip strength, body fat, body length and plasma ... "Body weight data for Grxcr1". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Anxiety data for Grxcr1". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. " ... "Body temperature data for Grxcr1". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Clinical chemistry data for Grxcr1". Wellcome Trust Sanger ...

*American Society for Metabolic & Bariatric Surgery

Kaplan, L. M. (2003). Body weight regulation and obesity. Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery. 7(4) pp. 443-51. Doi:10.1016/ ... 2009). Durable resolution of diabetes after roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery associated with maintenance of weight loss. ...

*ZC3HC1

"Body weight data for Zc3hc1". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Anxiety data for Zc3hc1". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. " ... Males also had a decreased body weight, an abnormal posture and atypical indirect calorimetry data. Females also had an ... Mutants appear to be subfertile, had decreased vertical activity in an open field, decreased lean body mass, decreased rib ...

*Micro drive

The smallest rear sprocket that fits on a freehub body is an 11-tooth, but with the use of a cassette hub, sometimes called a ... Another advantage is the reduction in weight with the reduction in size of all the parts. The disadvantage is increased ...
Body weights changes during 6 weeks of continuous bathing on seawaters or topical application of DEXA in DNCB-induced AD mice. Significant (p | 0.01) decreas
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
1ICM: Escherichia coli-derived rat intestinal fatty acid binding protein with bound myristate at 1.5 A resolution and I-FABPArg106Gln with bound oleate at 1.74 A resolution.
1KZW: Solution structure of human intestinal fatty acid binding protein with a naturally-occurring single amino acid substitution (A54T) that is associated with altered lipid metabolism
Insulin resistance is a characteristic feature in FCHL.9 10 Since genetic variation in the FABP2 gene could be the cause of insulin resistance, we screened for variants in this gene in patients with FCHL. According to our study, the FABP2 gene is not likely to be a major gene for FCHL. However, the polymorphism in codon 54 of this gene (Ala→Thr) may contribute to abnormalities in lipid metabolism in FCHL, although it does not have a significant effect on insulin resistance.. Complex segregation analysis has suggested a major gene effect on apoB28 and on triglycerides29 in FCHL. Although some uncommon variants in the lipoprotein lipase gene26 could cause FCHL, no gene that could explain a major part of this disease has yet been found. We found one novel nucleotide substitution in the 3′ noncoding region (A→G) of the FABP2 gene in patients with FCHL. In addition, we found nucleotide substitutions in codon 54 (GCT→ACT) and in codon 118 (GTA→GTG) described previously in Pima Indians.13 ...
The small intestine is a dynamic and complex organ that is characterized by constant epithelium turnover and crosstalk among various cell types and the microbiota. Lymphatic capillaries of the small intestine, called lacteals, play key roles in dietary fat absorption and the gut immune response; however, little is known about the molecular regulation of lacteal function. Here, we performed a high-resolution analysis of the small intestinal stroma and determined that lacteals reside in a permanent regenerative, proliferative state that is distinct from embryonic lymphangiogenesis or quiescent lymphatic vessels observed in other tissues. We further demonstrated that this continuous regeneration process is mediated by Notch signaling and that the expression of the Notch ligand delta-like 4 (DLL4) in lacteals requires activation of VEGFR3 and VEGFR2. Moreover, genetic inactivation of ...
The advantage of daily weigh ins is that it helps you learn how your body reacts to various things that life throws at it. You start to see how your bodys weight changes and how/when those changes occur. For example, a 90 minute sweat-a-thon on the exercise bike can yield me a kilo loss but that number is a soft number because most of that loss is made up of sweat/water. If I do an exercise that I havent done for a while like a good hour jog or weeding the garden - that exercise doesnt show up straight away. The next day my weight is the same or even a bit more and my muscles are stiff and aching but I know from experience in the next couple of days I will get real good results because of what Ive done ...
MINNEAPOLIS - Members of Minnesotas Somali community are condemning the attack on a Kenya mall and are waiting anxiously to see if any Americans are linked to the violence.. Several groups have called a news conference for 2 p.m. Monday in solidarity with the victims and to warn about the dangers of extremism. Meanwhile, A Somali woman in Minnesota is worrying about two nieces injured in the attacks. Hodan Hassan of Minnetonka says her 17-year-old and 16-year-old nieces were shopping when the attackers struck. She said the older one is in critical condition with severe leg injuries, while the other was not as seriously hurt. She says theyre Canadian citizens who moved to Nairobi three years ago. Hassan says it would be sad if Somali-Americans were responsible but she doubts its true.. ...
We have analyzed two gene products expressed in the early endoderm of Xenopus laevis: Xlhbox-8, a pancreas-specific transcription factor and intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP), a marker of small intestinal epithelium. Expression of the pancreas marker relies on cell signaling mediated by both the TGF-beta and FGF classes of secreted peptide growth factors, whereas, expression of the more posterior small intestinal marker does not. Endodermal explants devoid of mesoderm express both markers in a regionalized manner. Cortical rotation is required for the expression of the more anterior marker, Xlhbox-8, but not for the small intestinal marker, IFABP. These findings suggest that endodermal patterning is dependent, in part, on the same events and signals known to play important roles in mesodermal development. Furthermore, inhibition of TGF-beta signaling in the endoderm leads to ectopic expression of both mesodermal and ectodermal markers, suggesting the TGF-beta signaling may play a ...
While a low body mass index (BMI) of less than 20 kg/m2 has been shown to be an independent risk factor for hip fractures, far less is known about the relationship of body weight changes on hip fracture risk.. Read the original ...
Elina Helander, a postdoctoral researcher at Tampere University of Technology in Finland, and her colleagues set out to answer a simple question: how does a persons body weight change over the course of the year? To find out, they used internet-connected scales to collect daily body weight data from nearly 3,000 volunteers in the United States, Germany, and Japan. After crunching the data, a striking pattern emerged: no matter what you celebrate, at any time of year, the holidays are likely to be your period of greatest weight gain ...
Alright Gents! Im going to be a ranch-hand this summer for just under 4 months with no dumbells and benches for miles. Other than some random creative lifts I will be doing calisthenics and body weight changes. I will be training using no AAS. Any thoughts, advice, ideas or experiences to help plan or what to expect would be greatly appreciated! Stats: 21 60 220 My profile pic was taken only 2 weeks ago
The current results with empagliflozin confirm the benefits of SGLT2 inhibition in patients with T2DM shown in previous studies (meta-analyzed in Vasilakou et al. [26]). In our patient cohort (rather typical for age, BMI, and glycemic control), 90 weeks of therapy led to a significant and sustained decrease in HbA1c and FPG. The initial decrease in eGFR, which averaged 4 ± 10 mL ⋅ min−1 ⋅ 1.73 m−2 and did not differ by sex or previous treatment, is likely a hemodynamic effect that has been observed with other members of this class of agents (26) and has been shown to be fully reversible upon interrupting the treatment (32,33).. With regard to body weight changes, the reduction seen in these patients is in line with the findings of virtually all trials using SGLT2 inhibitors: a rapid decrement, typically averaging 2-3 kg and made up by roughly two-thirds of fat tissue, which is maintained as long as treatment is continued (Fig. 1). Using the mathematical model, one can calculate that the ...
Alterations of the small-intestinal permeability (s-IP) might play an essential role in both diarrhoea-predominant IBS (D-IBS) and celiac disease (CD) patients. Our aims were to analyse in D-IBS patients the symptom profile along with the levels of urinary sucrose (Su), lactulose (La), mannitol (Ma), and circulating biomarkers (zonulin, intestinal fatty acid binding protein - I-FABP, and diamine oxidase - DAO) of the gastrointestinal (GI) barrier function. The pro-inflammatory interleukins 6 and 8 (IL-6 and IL-8), the plasma values of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) were also investigated. Besides, these biomarkers were compared with those in CD and healthy controls (HC). Finally, comparisons were performed between D-IBS patients with [D-IBS(+)] and without [D-IBS(−)] increased s-IP according to normal or altered La/Ma ratio. The study included 39 D-IBS patients, 32 CD patients, and 20 HC. GI permeability was assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography determination in
Women in high protein diet will be stimulate to consumption of high protein foods and restrict the consumption of carbohydrates in the experimental group. The women in the intervention group will be incentivized to substitute breads and pastas for high protein foods (legumes, milk and its derivatives, eggs, fish, and lean meats). The experimental groups will also receive six cans of sardine to increase the womens commitment to the study.. Both women group will receive a nutritional plan based on an 1800 kcal diet. ...
Clinical signs, behavioural assessments, body weight change, food and water consumption were monitored during the study. Pairing of non-recovery animals within each dose group was undertaken on a one male: one female basis within each treatment group on Day 15 of the study, with females subsequently being allowed to litter and rear their offspring to Day 5 of lactation. During the lactation phase, daily clinical observations were performed on all surviving offspring, together with evaluations of litter size and offspring weights and assessment of surface righting reflex. Extensive functional observations were performed on five selected males from each dose group after the completion of the pairing phase, and for five selected parental females from each dose group on Day 4post partum. Five non-recovery males and females from each dose group were selected for haematology and blood chemistry assessments prior to termination. Adult non-recovery males were terminated on Day 43, followed by the ...

Weight Watchers Digital Scale Battery  Weight Watcher Scale Battery Replacement Toughened Glass Body Weight Watcher Scale...Weight Watchers Digital Scale Battery Weight Watcher Scale Battery Replacement Toughened Glass Body Weight Watcher Scale...

... weight watchers weight scale weight watchers weight scale battery weight watchers weight scale weight watchers scales by glass ... weight watchers scale reset weight watchers scale battery weight weight watchers scale reset weight watchers scale battery ... Full size weight-watchers-digital-scale-battery--weight-watcher-scale-battery-replacement-toughened-glass-body-weight-watcher- ... weight watchers digital scale battery weight watcher scale battery replacement toughened glass body weight watcher scale ...
more infohttp://jaxforeclosurelaw1.info/weight-watchers-digital-scale-battery/weight-watchers-digital-scale-battery--weight-watcher-scale-battery-replacement-toughened-glass-body-weight-watcher-scale-battery-replacement-battery/

Body-Weight BlitzBody-Weight Blitz

Youll perform three moves-the burpee to broad jump, the bicycle crunch, and the cross-body mountain climber-back-to-back with ... Use natures best barbell-your own body-for this weekends fitness challenge. ... The Body-Weight Blitz. This challenge works all of your muscles, and you never have to lift a weight-except your own ... No weights, no nonsense. "You dont need dumbbells, barbells, or machines to prove youre fit," says Todd Durkin, C.S.C.S., ...
more infohttps://www.menshealth.com/fitness/a19533693/weekend-challenge-body-weight-blitz/

Body Weight - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlusBody Weight - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

Health Information on Body Weight: MedlinePlus Multiple Languages Collection ... Body Weight: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Peso corporal: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) ... Weight Gain with Cancer Treatment - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF ... Weight Loss with Cancer Treatment - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/languages/bodyweight.html

Body Weight | Health TopicsBody Weight | Health Topics

Body Weight. Healthy eating and physical activity are great for everyone.. A healthy weight lowers your chances of getting type ... One way to see if you are at a healthy weight is to check your Body Mass Index (BMI), the calculator to the right is for adults ... and your community to a healthy weight, and tips for keeping a healthy weight. ... Keeping a healthy weight is important for American Indian and Alaska Natives because over 80 percent of our adults, ages 20 to ...
more infohttps://www.ihs.gov/forpatients/healthtopics/Bodyweight/

Body Weight Exercises and ArthritisBody Weight Exercises and Arthritis

Learn how to incorporate body weight exercises into your workout with arthritis. ... Body weight exercises include sit-ups and crunches, planks, push-ups, pull-ups, jumping jacks, lunges and squats to name a few ... Body Weight Exercises. Performing bodyweight exercises - also known as calisthenics - is a simple, effective way to improve ... This is general body weight exercises information. Get personalized results, with specific modifications and tips customized to ...
more infohttps://www.arthritis.org/living-with-arthritis/exercise/arthritis-friendly/body-weight-exercises.php

Body weight | physiology | Britannica.comBody weight | physiology | Britannica.com

... individual to maintain a normal body weight. A person with anorexia nervosa typically weighs no more than 85 percent of the ... In addition, people with anorexia nervosa have a distorted evaluation of their own weight… ... expected weight for the persons age, height, and sex, and in some cases much less. ... Other articles where Body weight is discussed: anorexia nervosa: … ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/body-weight

Ideal body weightIdeal body weight

... (IBW) is the weight that people are expected to weigh based on age, sex, and height. The ideal body weight ... There are two different formulas to determine ideal body weight; one formula for men and another for women. The history of the ... formulas for calculating ideal body weight began in 1871 when Dr. Broca... ... Ideal body weight (IBW) is the weight that people are expected to weigh based on age, sex, and height. The ideal body weight ...
more infohttps://www.wellness.com/reference/diet/ideal-body-weight

Body-Weight SquatBody-Weight Squat

Keeping your chest up, lower your body as far as you can by pushing your hips back and bending your knees. Pause, then slowly ... Weekend Challenge: Body-Weight Jump Squat * Body Weight Squat with Knee Press Out ...
more infohttps://www.womenshealthmag.com/fitness/a20697851/body-weight-squat/

Three Women Lose Half Their Body WeightThree Women Lose Half Their Body Weight

In fact, the three women were so determined that they each lost half their body weight. Their stories are... ... In fact, the three women were so determined that they each lost half their body weight. ... McMillers weight struggles began early. The 28-year-old mother of two had heart surgery when she was 5 years old, and her ... "I hit puberty before my peers did … and the fact that I was bigger with a womans body made me think I was fat," she said, ...
more infohttps://www.yahoo.com/gma/blogs/abc-blogs/three-women-lose-half-body-weight-133434343.html

Body Weight - Exercise & Fitness - MedHelpBody Weight - Exercise & Fitness - MedHelp

My height is around 5 feet 6 inchers and my weight is 84kg. Can you tell me what should be the my normal body weight. ... If youre trying to lose weight, you can track your weight and your BMI with the weight tracker. Just click on the trackers ... A normal body weight for any given height can be different for everyone, depending on their constitution, bone mass, and other ... To conclude, it is often more important to check out your physical stamina and health than your body weight. Hope its helping ...
more infohttps://www.medhelp.org/posts/Exercise--Fitness/Body-Weight/show/493326

body weight  | Health24body weight | Health24

The average weight for a boy of 4 years is 16.5kg. Your sons weight is obviously below this average weight. His weight is on ... Blast fat like a UFC fighter with this bodyweight workout Treating eczema The only 4 cycling workouts you really need Kies lae- ... health and his weight then it would be best to ask your doctor to examine him and see that all is well. ... What happens to your body during sex? ...
more infohttp://www.health24.com/Medical/childhood-diseases/Experts/Question/body-weight-20120903

Body Weight Linked to PersonalityBody Weight Linked to Personality

A new study derived from an examination of over 50 years of data shows how personality traits can influence weight gain. In ... Body Weight Linked to Personality. By Rick Nauert PhD Associate News Editor ... psychcentral.com/news/2011/07/19/body-weight-linked-to-personality/27871.html ... The finding that weight tends to increase gradually with age is consistent for all individuals. But researchers found greater ...
more infohttps://psychcentral.com/news/2011/07/19/body-weight-linked-to-personality/27871.html

Body Weight ExercisesBody Weight Exercises

These exercises consist of full body workouts that will give you a great workout from top to bottom! This program is FREE by ... These exercises consist of full body workouts that will give you a great workout from top to bottom! This program is FREE by ...
more infohttps://gumroad.com/l/Pibpv

Body Weight: MedlinePlusBody Weight: MedlinePlus

Find information and tools to help you learn more about your body weight. ... Do you know what the ideal body weight is for your gender and height? ... ClinicalTrials.gov: Body Weight (National Institutes of Health) * ClinicalTrials.gov: Body Weight Changes (National Institutes ... Weight gain - unintentional (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Weight loss - unintentional (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/bodyweight.html

NIH Body Weight Planner | NIDDKNIH Body Weight Planner | NIDDK

The Body Weight Planner is really about trying to calculate how the body will respond to changes in calories in the diet and ... He discusses how The Body Weight Planner can predict lifestyle changes needed to reach and maintain a particular weight goal. ... And the Body Weight Planner is actually the very first tool that provides people with information about what they have to do ... So one of the things that I think the NIH Body Weight Planner can help with is to allow healthcare professionals to basically ...
more infohttps://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/professionals/diabetes-discoveries-practice/nih-body-weight-planner

Bodyweight SquatBodyweight Squat

Push your hips back, bend your knees, and lower your body until your upper thighs are parallel to the floor (or as low as you ...
more infohttps://www.menshealth.com/fitness/a20694619/body-weight-squat/

Body-Weight Power SquatBody-Weight Power Squat

Simultaneously push your hips back and swing your arms backward, lowering your body until your thighs are almost parallel to ... Weekend Challenge: Body-Weight Jump Squat * Body Weight Squat with Knee Press Out ...
more infohttps://www.womenshealthmag.com/fitness/a20699509/body-weight-power-squat/

Body Weight & Cancer Risk | American Cancer SocietyBody Weight & Cancer Risk | American Cancer Society

This infographic highlights growing data suggesting a strong relationship between cancer risk and excess body weight, as well ... Body Weight & Cancer Risk. There is growing data suggesting a strong relationship between excess body weight and increased risk ... PDF Download for Body Weight & Cancer Risk. Text Alternative for Body Weight & Cancer Risk ... This infographic highlights current research that shows the significant cancer risk of excess body weight, poor nutrition and ...
more infohttps://www.cancer.org/research/infographics-gallery/body-weight-and-cancer-risk-infographic.html

Body Weight Distribution? - Bike ForumsBody Weight Distribution? - Bike Forums

Does anyone know how the body weight is distributed on a bicycle at the five contact points: 2 hands, 2 feet and butt? Every ... time I do a search for weight distribution it gives front/rear tire distribution which is 40/60 or 45/55. I am interested for ... Body Weight Distribution? Does anyone know how the body weight is distributed on a bicycle at the five contact points: 2 hands ... Simple example: Standing to stretch much weight on hands, riding no hands 0 weight on hands. Weight varies continuously between ...
more infohttps://www.bikeforums.net/road-cycling/747649-body-weight-distribution.html

Body WeightBody Weight

SOURCE: Body Weight ( ) Page printed: . Unofficial document if printed. Please refer to SOURCE for latest information. ... Speak with your health care team about setting reasonable goals for weight loss. ...
more infohttp://www.bccancer.bc.ca/health-info/prevention/body-weight

Healthy body weight - Canadian Cancer SocietyHealthy body weight - Canadian Cancer Society

Reduce your risk by getting to and staying at a healthy body weight. ... Whats a healthy body weight?. A healthy body weight will be different for everyone, so check with your doctor about what a ... healthy body weight is for you. Being at a healthy body weight does not mean being skinny like a model, but you might be ... Healthy body weight. Many Canadians weigh too much - more than half of us are overweight or obese. This puts us at increased ...
more infohttp://www.cancer.ca/en/prevention-and-screening/live-well/nutrition-and-fitness/healthy-body-weight/?region=ns

Lift Body Weight - Lightinthebox.comLift Body Weight - Lightinthebox.com

Lift Body Weight is on sale, shop now before its too late! ... Buy Lift Body Weight at wholesale prices from leading Chinese ... Heart Weight Body WeightLeg Lifts WeightsLift Lifts Car LiftLift Kits Body LiftsLift Lose WeightLift Weight IronLift Weights ... StrengthLose Weight WeightsLosing Weight WeightsLower Body Lift Recommended Categories. Fashion & JewelryHome & GardenSports & ... this page makes it possible for you to select Lift Body Weight you want very much. Really convenient for that Lift Body Weight ...
more infohttps://www.lightinthebox.com/Popular/Lift_Body_Weight.html

Human body weight - WikipediaHuman body weight - Wikipedia

Human body weight refers to a persons mass or weight. Body weight is measured in kilograms, a measure of mass, throughout the ... body weight is the measurement of weight without items located on the person. Practically though, body weight may be measured ... Ideal body weightEdit. Ideal body weight (IBW) was initially introduced by Devine in 1974 to allow estimation of drug ... "Comparative evaluation of atracurium dosed on ideal body weight vs. total body weight in morbidly obese patients". British ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_weight

Body Weight | STACKBody Weight | STACK

Return to main Body Weight page The Worst 5 Minutes of Your Week Every week, a new STACK Challenge gives you an opportunity to ... STACK Challenge: The Bodyweight Bench Press Every week, a new STACK Challenge gives you an opportunity to test your athletic ... STACK Challenge: TRX Upper-Body Blaster Every week, a new STACK Challenge gives you an opportunity to test your athletic ...
more infohttps://www.stack.com/ta/body-weight?page=6

Body Weight | STACKBody Weight | STACK

Combine Freeweight and Bodyweight Exercises for Easy Supersets Body Weight vs. Free Weight Exercises? Two Tough Workouts Mixing ... Return to main Body Weight page Does Your Pitching Velocity Dip During the Season? Heres Why A high school pitcher trains his ... 10 Things the Strongest Athletes in the Weight Room Have in Common On every team-or in a weight room-theres always a group of ... Test Your Lower-Body Strength With the Goblet Squat Challenge Theres a good chance youre not strong enough to Back Squat. Yet ...
more infohttp://www.stack.com/ta/body-weight?page=1
  • The early part of pregnancy usually is accompanied by moderate weight loss caused by the woman's lack of appetite and in some cases nausea and vomiting. (britannica.com)
  • I hit puberty before my peers did … and the fact that I was bigger with a woman's body made me think I was fat," she said, adding that she gave up dance and soccer because she was embarrassed about her body. (yahoo.com)
  • To find out if your children are at a healthy weight, talk with their health care provider. (ihs.gov)
  • You can also visit the Indian Health Service Healthy Weight for Life website for information about getting you, your family, and your community to a healthy weight, and tips for keeping a healthy weight. (ihs.gov)
  • To conclude, it is often more important to check out your physical stamina and health than your body weight. (medhelp.org)
  • He may simply be following a family pattern where the boys and men in the family tend to be rather thin, but are healthy otherwise.If this is not the case and you are concerned about your son's appetite, health and his weight then it would be best to ask your doctor to examine him and see that all is well. (health24.com)
  • Normal Weight Obesity: A Hidden Health Risk? (medlineplus.gov)
  • When health professionals are using the NIH Body Weight Planner, it's important to point out to the clients that it's not just the foods that they're eating that are affecting the number of calories but it's also the drinks that they're drinking whether it be alcohol or sugar sweetened beverages. (nih.gov)
  • Excess fat around the waist and upper body (an "apple" body shape) is associated with a greater health risk than having more fat in the hip and thigh areas (a "pear" body shape). (cancer.ca)
  • The greater, the excess weight, the greater the health risk. (cancersupportivecare.com)
  • Researchers at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine published a study of average weights of adult humans in the journal BMC Public Health and at the United Nations conference Rio+20. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the app settings you have the ability to import your gender, age, weight, and height from Apple Health. (apple.com)
  • But none arrive into the body without risk to health. (dietbites.com)
  • Eating extra calories within a well-balanced diet and treating any underlying medical problems can help to add weight. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The 3500 calorie per pound rule has been used for decades and decades to try to evaluate the relationship between changes in diet calories and how the body weight will respond. (nih.gov)
  • how does the number of calories that they're burning adapt over time as those folks lose weight? (nih.gov)
  • And so it's important as part of the conversation that can take place surrounding the Body Weight Planner to make people more cognizant of really how many calories they're likely eating now before they've lost weight and how much they're going to have to cut in order to lose the weight that they want in the timeframe that they want and then maintain it afterwards. (nih.gov)
  • Hindu pushups work the entire chest area and also can increase ur upper body strength. (exrx.net)
  • Although falling on the head, chest, buttocks, and falling backwards can occur, these are far less harmful injuries than dropping a weight on a body part, or having a joint extended beyond its natural range of motion due to a weight being used incorrectly. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in a pushup, the body must form a rigid straight line, and the elbow joint must move from a straight angle to the smallest angle possible, and thus the core muscles, chest muscles, triceps, and legs are all involved in ensuring proper, strict form. (wikipedia.org)
  • When she reached her goal weight in 2011, she maintained it by eating pre-packaged, pre-measured meals, and never leaves her home without healthy snacks, such as string cheese, baby carrots and homemade brownies with pumpkin. (yahoo.com)
  • Push-ups or planks can be modified by changing your position to bear weight on the forearms rather than hands and wrists, or the position can be changed to bear weight on the knees rather than the feet. (arthritis.org)
  • Support your upper body with your core, not your shoulders. (bikeforums.net)
  • It indicates an imbalance of upper body pushing vs pulling power. (exrx.net)
  • But there is much benefit for upper body endurance, especially in sports. (exrx.net)
  • It also highlights ways to reduce that risk by following American Cancer Society guidelines for achieving and maintaining a healthy weight. (cancer.org)
  • When you're on the road or don't have access to a gym, your own weight provides more than enough resistance to give you a hard-core workout. (menshealth.com)
  • Use Home Workout as your personal trainer and see your body improve, fast! (apple.com)
  • Make sure you listen to the bodyweight hotel room workout hygiene tips I give before I workout. (youtube.com)
  • Most diets fail because staying at a healthy weight depends on more than just cutting down on the amount of food you eat or exercising for a short period of time. (cancer.ca)
  • You'll perform three moves-the burpee to broad jump, the bicycle crunch, and the cross-body mountain climber-back-to-back-to-back with no rest. (menshealth.com)
  • Does anyone know how the body weight is distributed on a bicycle at the five contact points: 2 hands, 2 feet and butt? (bikeforums.net)
  • In particular, people with personality traits of high neuroticism and low conscientiousness are likely to go through cycles of gaining and losing weight throughout their lives. (psychcentral.com)
  • And so we've incorporated that science into a mathematical model that's available as a tool online for people to use to make more accurate predictions about how the body weight will respond. (nih.gov)
  • And the Body Weight Planner is actually the very first tool that provides people with information about what they have to do permanently to keep the weight off over time, in addition to losing it in the first place. (nih.gov)
  • Use nature's best barbell-your own body-for this weekend's fitness challenge. (menshealth.com)
  • This type of strength training has grown in popularity for both recreational and professional athletes, with a range of sports disciplines using bodyweight resistance training as part of their fitness programs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The taller the frame, the more the saddle is shoved back toward the rear axle, putting more weight on the rear wheel. (bikeforums.net)
  • On every team-or in a weight room-there's always a group of athletes who are stronger than the pack. (stack.com)
  • Another disadvantage is that bodyweight training may be daunting to novices and seen to be too easy for experienced athletes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The finding that weight tends to increase gradually with age is consistent for all individuals. (psychcentral.com)
  • Newer systems, such as the PAWPER tape, make use of a simple two-step process to estimate weight: the length-based weight estimation is modified according to the child's body habitus to increase the accuracy of the final weight prediction. (wikipedia.org)