Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Fetal Weight: The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Weight Reduction Programs: Services providing counseling and activities that help overweight individuals to attain a more healthy body weight.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Anti-Obesity Agents: Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Litter Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Mice, Inbred C57BLSwine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Infant, Very Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Rats, Inbred F344Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Ideal Body Weight: Expected weight of a healthy normal individual based on age, sex, and height. Thus, a malnourished person would weigh less than their ideal body weight.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Appetite Depressants: Agents that are used to suppress appetite.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Body Constitution: The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.TriglyceridesSex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Sexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Obesity, Morbid: The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.Basal Metabolism: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Hyperphagia: Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Weight Lifting: A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level: The highest dosage administered that does not produce toxic effects.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Diet, Fat-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)Carcinogenicity Tests: Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Animals, Suckling: Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Cachexia: General ill health, malnutrition, and weight loss, usually associated with chronic disease.Receptors, Leptin: Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1000 grams (2.2 lbs), regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE.Anorexia Nervosa: An eating disorder that is characterized by the lack or loss of APPETITE, known as ANOREXIA. Other features include excess fear of becoming OVERWEIGHT; BODY IMAGE disturbance; significant WEIGHT LOSS; refusal to maintain minimal normal weight; and AMENORRHEA. This disorder occurs most frequently in adolescent females. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Gastric Bypass: Surgical procedure in which the STOMACH is transected high on the body. The resulting small proximal gastric pouch is joined to any parts of the SMALL INTESTINE by an end-to-side SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS, depending on the amounts of intestinal surface being bypasses. This procedure is used frequently in the treatment of MORBID OBESITY by limiting the size of functional STOMACH, food intake, and food absorption.Toxicity Tests, Chronic: Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of a long-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.Pro-Opiomelanocortin: A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.Body Surface Area: The two dimensional measure of the outer layer of the body.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Calorimetry, Indirect: Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.Anorexia: The lack or loss of APPETITE accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat. It is the defining characteristic of the disorder ANOREXIA NERVOSA.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)CyclobutanesMice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Toxicity Tests, Acute: Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.Agouti-Related Protein: A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. It is expressed primarily in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the ADRENAL GLAND. As a paracrine signaling molecule, AGRP is known to regulate food intake and body weight. Elevated AGRP has been associated with OBESITY.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Mice, Inbred ICRRabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Fetal Growth Retardation: The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Waist Circumference: The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Weights and Measures: Measuring and weighing systems and processes.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Satiation: Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.Least-Squares Analysis: A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Skinfold Thickness: The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Peptide Hormones: Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 4: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in BRAIN. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH; BETA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.

Strongyle infections in ponies. II. Reinfection of treated animals. (1/26303)

Five of seven ponies whose strongyle worm burdens had previously been removed or markedly reduced by repeated thiabendazole treatments were reinfected with doses ranging from 100,000 to 500,000 small strongyle infective larvae. Reinfection of ponies resulted in the development of clinical signs characterized by abnormal feces, marked loss of weight and delayed shedding of winter hair coats. An abrupt increase in circulating eosinophils occurred during the first three weeks following reinfection. Patent infections developed in all ponies with worm eggs appearing in the feces from 12 to 15 weeks after receiving infective larvae. Worm egg outputs followed a cyclic pattern with approximately four to five peaks in egg output per year. There was an abrupt drop in the high worm egg counts in two untreated ponies approximately two and a half years after reinfection. No worms were recovered in the feces of these animals when they were subsequently treated, suggesting that a depletion in the number of inhibited larvae present in these ponies might have occurred.  (+info)

Decreased liver and lung drug-metabolizing activity in mice treated with Corynebacterium parvum. (2/26303)

Injections of killed suspensions of Corynebacterium parvum (i.p.) in young male mice were followed by time- and dose-dependent decreases in the drug-metabolizing activity of liver microsomes and lung homogenates. In vitro assays with model substrates [aminopyrine, aniline, p-nitroanisole, and benzo(a)pyrene] were used to quantitate drug-metabolizing activity. It is likely that such decreases in mixed function oxidases activity will act to significantly alter the pharmacokinetics of concurrently or subsequently administered drugs. The results provide a possible mechanism to explain several previously reported immunochemotherapeutic interactions.  (+info)

Pregnancy, body weight and human immunodeficiency virus infection in African women: a prospective cohort study in Kigali (Rwanda), 1992-1994. Pregnancy and HIV Study Group (EGE). (3/26303)

OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and body weight in African women during and after pregnancy. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was initiated at the Centre Hospitalier de Kigali in July 1992. Every woman seen at the antenatal clinic and with a gestational age of <28 weeks was offered HIV-1 antibody testing. Comparable numbers of HIV-infected (HIV+) and uninfected (HIV-) women were recruited. At inclusion, socio-demographic characteristics and self-reported pre-pregnancy weight were recorded; height and weight were measured. Each woman enrolled had a monthly follow-up until 9 months after delivery, with a clinical examination including weighing. Three anthropometric indices were used to answer the study objectives: weight, body mass index (BMI), and pregnancy balance. RESULTS: As of April 1994, 101 HIV+ and 106 HIV- women were followed until 5 months after delivery. Weight and BMI during pregnancy were lower in HIV+ women than in HIV- women. After delivery, weight and BMI gains were significantly lower in HIV+ women. Until 5 months after delivery, the mean weight variation was -2.2 kg (standard deviation [SD] = 5.9 kg) in HIV+ women and +0.2 kg (SD = 6.6 kg) in HIV- women (P = 0.007) in comparison to pre-pregnancy weight. Comparisons of the slopes of the weight curves did not show statistical differences throughout the pregnancy, but it did during the post-partum period (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that HIV infection could impair nutritional status in pregnant women, especially during the post-partum period. Family planning and maternal and child health services including HIV testing and counselling, should consider a nutritional assessment and intervention programme targeted to HIV+ pregnant women.  (+info)

Gender-related differences in myocyte remodeling in progression to heart failure. (4/26303)

Gender-related differences responsible for the better prognosis of females with heart failure have not been clearly established. To address this issue, we investigated potential gender-related differences in myocyte remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive heart failure rats. Echocardiograms and myocyte growth were compared between males and females at compensated (2, 4, and 6 months) and decompensated (18 months in males and 24 months in females) stages of cardiac hypertrophy. Although left ventricular diastolic dimensions did not differ significantly between failing male and female rats, fractional shortening declined significantly only in failing males. Myocyte cross-sectional area did not change after 4 months of age in both genders, which is likely to be responsible for the absence of a change in left ventricular wall thickness during the progression to heart failure. Myocyte volume and cross-sectional area were significantly larger in males than females at 2, 4, and 6 months of age, although there were no significant differences at the failing stage. Reduced adaptive hypertrophic reserve was observed in males, which is likely to contribute to the higher morbidity and mortality of males with chronic heart failure.  (+info)

A sustained rat model for studying the long-lasting catabolic state of sepsis. (5/26303)

Most animal models of sepsis induced high mortality or early recovery and do not mimic the long-lasting catabolic state observed in patients. The purpose of this study is to develop a model of sepsis which reproduces these disorders, especially the long-lasting muscle wasting. This report summarizes our observations in a series of seven experiments using this model with rats to study the route of live Escherichia coli administration, dose of bacteria, reproducibility of the model, bacterial count in tissues, comparison of injection of live or dead bacteria, metabolic perturbations linked to infection, and potential role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in muscle wasting. After intravenous infection, animals were anorexic and the catabolic state was long-lasting: body weight loss for 2 to 3 days followed by a chronic wasting state for several days. Liver, spleen, lung protein content, and plasma concentration of alpha2-macroglobulin were increased 2 and 6 days after infection. At 6 days, muscle protein content was substantially (-40%) reduced. The plasma TNF-alpha level measured 1.5 h after infection correlated with body weight loss observed 9 days later. The inhibition of TNF-alpha secretion by administration of pentoxifylline 1 h before infection reduced muscle wasting and activation of proteolysis at day 2 and abolished them at day 6. This septic model mimics in rats the prolonged protein metabolism alterations and muscle atrophy characteristics of infected patients and thus is useful for studying the impact of nutritional support on outcome.  (+info)

Fish oil feeding delays influenza virus clearance and impairs production of interferon-gamma and virus-specific immunoglobulin A in the lungs of mice. (6/26303)

Ingestion of fish oil can suppress the inflammatory response to injury and may impair host resistance to infection. To investigate the effect of a diet containing fish oil on immunity to viral infection, 148 BALB/c mice were fed diets containing 3 g/100 g of sunflower oil with either 17 g/100 g of fish oil or beef tallow for 14 d before intranasal challenge with live influenza virus. At d 1 and d 5 after infection, the mice fed fish oil had higher lung viral load and lower body weight (P < 0.05). In addition to the greater viral load and weight loss at d 5 after infection, the fish oil group consumed less food (P < 0.05) while the beef tallow group was clearing the virus, had regained their preinfection weights and was returning to their preinfection food consumption. The fish oil group had impaired production of lung interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G and lung IgA-specific antibodies (all P < 0. 05) although lung IFN-alpha/beta and the relative proportions of bronchial lymph node CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes did not differ between groups after infection. The present study demonstrates a delay in virus clearance in mice fed fish oil associated with reduced IFN-gamma and antibody production and a greater weight loss and suppression of appetite following influenza virus infection. However, differences observed during the course of infection did not affect the ultimate outcome as both groups cleared the virus and returned to preinfection food consumption and body weight by d 7.  (+info)

Sodium requirement of adult cats for maintenance based on plasma aldosterone concentration. (7/26303)

The sodium requirement of adult cats for maintenance was determined using a randomized block design of eight dietary sodium treatments (0.1, 0.4, 0.5, 0.66, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6 or 2.0 g Na/kg in a casein-lactalbumin-based purified diet) administered for periods of 4 wk. A total of 35 adult specific-pathogen-free domestic shorthaired cats (26 males and 9 females, 1.5-3 y of age) was given an equilibration diet (2 g Na/kg) for 14 d before assignment (or reassignment) to the treatments. A total of 12 cats (8 males, 4 females) was randomly assigned to the lowest six levels of sodium, and four cats to the highest two sodium levels. Cats consuming the diet containing 0.1 g Na/kg had significantly elevated aldosterone concentration in plasma, and packed cell volume. In addition, these cats exhibited anorexia, body weight loss, reduced urinary specific gravity and sodium excretion, and had a negative sodium balance. However, adult cats did not develop polydypsia and polyuria reported in sodium-deficient kittens. Cats given the diet containing 0.66 g Na/kg did not have an increased packed cell volume, but aldosterone concentration in the plasma was significantly elevated. However, cats given diets containing >/=0.8 g Na/kg had plasma aldosterone concentrations +info)

Natural sporting ability and predisposition to cardiovascular disorders. (8/26303)

We tested the hypothesis that people with a natural ability in 'power sports' (a presumed marker for predominance of type 2, glycolytic muscle fibres) might have increased risks of coronary heart disease (CHD) compared to those with a natural ability in 'endurance sports' (as a marker for predominance of type 1, oxidative muscle fibres). We examined subsequent cardiovascular disorders retrospectively in 231 male former soldiers, aged 34-87 years, who had undergone a course in physical training in the Army School of Physical Training, Aldershot, UK, who assessed themselves as having natural ability in either power (n = 107) or endurance (n = 124) sports. The proportion with CHD, defined as angina and/or coronary angioplasty and/or coronary artery bypass graft and/or heart attack was 18.7% in the 'power group' vs. 9.7% in the 'endurance group' (difference: chi 2 = 3.9, p = 0.05). The proportions with CHD and/or risk factors rose to 39.3% in the 'power group' vs. 25.8% in the 'endurance group' (difference: chi 2 = 4.8, p = 0.03). Under logistic regression analysis, compared to the 'endurance group', the 'power group' had 2.2 (95% CI: 1.00-4.63) the risk of developing CHD, and 1.86 (95% confidence interval: 1.06 to 3.25) the risk of developing CHD and/or risk factors. Men with a natural ability in 'power sports' are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disorders, compared to men with a natural ability in 'endurance sports'. A predominance of type 2, glycolytic muscle fibres, presumably of genetic origin, may predispose to cardiovascular disorders.  (+info)

*Management of obesity

... of their body mass maintained or continued to lose weight one year later. An average maintained weight loss of more than 3 kg ( ... "The impact of five-month basic military training on the body weight and body fat of 197 moderately to severely obese ... They subject the body to starvation and produce an average weekly weight loss of 1.5-2.5 kilograms (3.3-5.5 lb). These diets ... Te Morenga, L; Mallard, S; Mann, J (Jan 15, 2012). "Dietary sugars and body weight: systematic review and meta-analyses of ...

*Weight loss

Sumithran, Priya; Proietto, Joseph (2013). "The defence of body weight: A physiological basis for weight regain after weight ... Intentional weight loss is commonly referred to as slimming. Intentional weight loss is the loss of total body mass as a result ... Symptoms of weight loss from ACS include severe weight loss from muscle rather than body fat, loss of appetite and feeling full ... Unintentional weight loss may result from loss of body fats, loss of body fluids, muscle atrophy, or even a combination of ...

*Body composition

Body volume is combined with body weight (mass) in order to determine body density. The technique then estimates the percentage ... "Normal ranges of body weight and body fat". human-kinetics. Retrieved 2015-11-25. "Examples of Body Composition Exercises". ... Body volume index Body mass index "composition of the body - FREE composition of the body information , Encyclopedia.com: Find ... our body composition, as well as our weight, determines leanness. Two people of the same sex and body weight may look ...

*Diet-induced obesity model

The outcome measure of obesity is usually either the gain of body weight or body fat. The body weight gain is quantified using ... Schemmel, R.; Mickelsen, O.; Gill, J. L. (1970-09-01). "Dietary obesity in rats: Body weight and body fat accretion in seven ... Weight put on during the high-fat diet also tends to persist. Changes in the composition of the body are accompanied by ... mice who started the diet at 10 weeks old showed lower increases in body weight and cholesterol than mice who started at 54 ...

*Overweight

Body mass index The body mass index (BMI) is a measure of a person's weight taking into account their height. It is given by ... This weight is then compared with "dry weight" as recorded outside the water to determine overall body density. As fat is less ... BVI measures where a person's weight and the fat are located on the body, rather than total weight or total fat content and ... Gray, D. S.; Fujioka, K. J. (1991). "Use of relative weight and Body Mass Index for the determination of adiposity". Journal of ...

*Complications of pregnancy

... body mechanics. Musculo-Skeletal Mechanics involved in gait and weight bearing activities can be mild to grossly impaired. PGP ... Weight Low weight: Women whose pre-pregnancy weight is less than 45.5 kilograms (100 pounds) are more likely to have ... During birth, babies are exposed to maternal blood and body fluids without the placental barrier intervening and to the ... Hyperemesis gravidarum is the presence of severe and persistent vomiting, causing dehydration and weight loss. It is more ...

*Human body weight

... refers to a person's mass or weight. Body weight is measured in kilograms, a measure of mass, throughout the ... in a body. The Devine formula for calculating ideal body weight in adults is as follows: Male ideal body weight = 50 kilograms ... body weight is the measurement of weight without items located on the person. Practically though, body weight may be measured ... Male ideal body weight = 48 kilograms (106 lb) + 1.1 kilograms (2.4 lb) × (height /cm − 152) Female ideal body weight = 45.4 ...

*Bodyweight exercise

The body is held straight while the arms push the body off the floor until the arms are straight. The entire weight of the ... As bodyweight exercises use the individual's own weight to provide the resistance for the movement, the weight being lifted is ... Bodyweight exercises can be increased in intensity by including additional weights (such as wearing a weighted vest or holding ... The body is kept straight, while the arms are bent and the body lowered until the head is below the hands. The body is then ...

*Health Level 7

Body Height,,1.80,m^Meter^ISO+,,,,,F OBX,2,NM,^Body Weight,,79,kg^Kilogram^ISO+,,,,,F AL1,1,,^ASPIRIN DG1,1,,786.50^CHEST PAIN ...

*Mark Bell (powerlifter)

At the peak of his wrestling career, Mark benched 500 lbs raw at 240 lbs body weight. After professional wrestling, Mark ... He developed his own training routine utilizing various forms of conditioning: hill running; Alligator tango; body weight ... Men's 308 Pound/140 Kg Weight Class Top 20 Men's 308 Pound/140 Kg Weight Class Top 20 2010 Men's Rankings[permanent dead link] ... He began lifting weights at the age of twelve years old , and entered his first powerlifting meet when he was 13. By the time ...

*Osteoarthritis

... for non-weight bearing joints and the loss of body fat is more closely related to symptom relief than the loss of body weight, ... excess body weight; loss of strength in the muscles supporting a joint; and impairment of peripheral nerves, leading to sudden ... For overweight people, weight loss may be an important factor. Patient education has been shown to be helpful in the self- ... Joints on one side of the body are often more affected than those on the other. Usually the symptoms come on over years. It can ...

*Metformin

... has little or no effect on body weight in type 2 diabetes compared with placebo, in contrast to sulfonylureas which ... Golay, A (2007). "Metformin and body weight". International Journal of Obesity. 32 (1): 61-72. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803695. ISSN ... Although modest reversal of clozapine-associated weight gain is found with metformin, primary prevention of weight gain is more ... There is some evidence that metformin is associated with weight loss in obesity in the absence of diabetes. Metformin has a ...

*Nutrition

Sanctorius measured body weight. Physician Herman Boerhaave modeled the digestive process. Physiologist Albrecht von Haller ... Increased weight, especially in the form of belly fat, and high sugar intake are also high risk factors for heart disease. Both ... However, complementary sources of protein do not need to be eaten at the same meal to be used together by the body. Excess ... Most fatty acids are non-essential, meaning the body can produce them as needed, generally from other fatty acids and always by ...

*Aid climbing

Many body weight placements. A4+ May include easier A5 moves but is not hard enough to be rated as such. A5 Serious, hard aid ...

*Gramapriya

Moderate in body weight. =>Better egg production. =>Produce brown shell eggs. List of chicken breeds "ഗ്രാമപ്രിയക്കും വനരാജനും ...

*SMS (gene)

Both displayed decreased grip strength while the males also had decreased body weight, length, bone mineral content and ... "Body weight data for Sms". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Grip strength data for Sms". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. " ...

*Alameda County Study

Maintaining a healthy body weight. Sleeping seven to eight hours per night. (For related research, see Sleep#Optimal.) Limiting ... and maintenance of a healthy weight play an important role in promoting longevity and delaying illness and death." Citing: ...

*Bergmann's rule

Schreider E (1950). "Geographical distribution of the body-weight/body-surface ratio". Nature. 165 (4190): 286. Bibcode: ... Roberts DF (1953). "Body weight, race and climate". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 11 (4): 533-558. doi:10.1002/ ... states that species inhabiting colder climates have a larger heart in relation to body weight than closely related species ... effects of body size on success as a predator, effects of body size on vulnerability to predation, and resource availability. ...

*NSUN2

"Body weight data for Nsun2". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Grip strength data for Nsun2". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute ... Homozygous mutants were subviable and had decreased body weights, length of long bones and decreased circulating glucose levels ... numerous abnormal body composition, X-ray imaging, eye morphology and haematology parameters; males also had a decreased grip ...

*AKAP9

Animals of both sex displayed decreased body fat and body weight, hematopoietic abnormalities and an atypical plasma chemistry ... "Body weight data for Akap9". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Indirect calorimetry data for Akap9". Wellcome Trust Sanger ...

*Four Fs (evolution)

Keesey, R. E.; Powley, T. L. (September 1975). "Hypothalamic regulation of body weight". American Scientist. 63 (5): 558-565. ... which resulted in gaining excess weight rapidly. The hypothalamus consists of clusters of highly similarly functioning nerve ...

*DNASE1L2

Homozygous mutant animals had a decreased body weight, grip strength and bone mineral content; a kinked tail, abnormal indirect ... "Body weight data for Dnase1l2". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Grip strength data for Dnase1l2". Wellcome Trust Sanger ...

*SLC25A21

"Body weight data for Slc25a21". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Dysmorphology data for Slc25a21". Wellcome Trust Sanger ... decreased body weight, absent pinna reflex, abnormal snout, skull, spine and tooth morphology, atypical indirect calorimetry, ... body composition and plasma chemistry data, increased mean platelet volume and moderate elevations in auditory thresholds. ...

*SLX4

Homozygous mutant animals of both sexes were sub-fertile and homozygous females had a reduced body weight, body length, heart ... "Body weight data for Slx4". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Dysmorphology data for Slx4". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. " ... "Heart weight data for Slx4". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Salmonella infection data for Slx4". Wellcome Trust Sanger ... weight, platelet count and lean mass. Homozygotes of both sex had abnormal eye sizes, narrow eye openings, skeletal defects ( ...

*LRIG1

... including decreased body weight and total body fat, scaly skin, abnormal hair shedding, a moderate degree of hearing impairment ... "Body weight data for Lrig1". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Dysmorphology data for Lrig1". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute ...

*Micro drive

The smallest rear sprocket that fits on a freehub body is an 11-tooth, but with the use of a cassette hub, sometimes called a ... Another advantage is the reduction in weight with the reduction in size of all the parts. The disadvantage is increased ...

*ARID4A

"Body weight data for Arid4a". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Grip strength data for Arid4a". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute ... Homozygous mutant male adults has a reduced body weight curve and a decreased grip strength. Homozygous mutant adults of both ... sexes had a decreased body weight as determined by DEXA, displayed vertebral fusion and had clinical chemistry abnormalities ...
Calculate your perfect weight. If you are taller than 6 meters take the number from step 3 and add it to 170 lbs. This will be your ideal weight. So for a man who is 6 feet 2 inches tall the ideal weight 180 kg. If you are shorter than 6 meters take the number from Step 3 and subtract it from 170 lbs. This will be your ideal weight. So for a man who is 5 meters 10 inches tall the ideal weight is 160 kg.. Tips and Warnings. This formula for finding your ideal weight for a person of average medium build. A person with a more muscular build will have a slightly higher ideal weight while a naturally thin person will have a slightly lower ideal weight. Only a doctor can give you an exact ideal weight century after a physical examination. This formula is for an adult age 21 and older. This perfect weight formula should not be used for teenagers and pregnant women." ...
Ideal weight is how much your body needs to weigh for optimal function. Sometimes, theres a big gap between desired and ideal weight, since desired weight can often be unhealthy weight. Scroll down and you can check your body mass index below.. Excessive weight loss is not always the best option for a healthy body. While on one side obesity brings higher risk of hypertension, diabetes, heart problems etc., on the other hand excessive weight loss is no less dangerous. The "golden middle" rule is always the best option.. This chart has been specially designed by doctors and specialists. Plus, its really thorough as it includes several parameters, such as your body shape, age and height, to give you the ideal body weight. The best thing about this chart is that it does not promote unhealthy body proportions, but tells you how much you should weigh according to your specific proportions and age. ...
Free download of Healthy Body Weight 3.0. Your healthy body weight is that weight at which you are strong and healthy. The slower you lose weight, the more likely you are losing fat and not muscle. If you have a high level of body fat, or you have never been able to successfully lose fat,
ABSTRACT. Various studies suggest a strong association between nutrition and clinical outcome in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Several morbidity factors that per se increase the risk of a poor outcome, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and inflammation, may also cause malnutrition. Among laboratory parameters used to assess nutritional status, serum albumin appears to be a particularly strong predictor of morbidity and mortality. This study assessed the importance of nutritional status and inflammation and other comorbidity factors as predictors of mortality in HD patients. Nutritional status was evaluated in 128 HD patients by subjective global nutritional assessment (SGNA) and by measuring several anthropometric markers (actual body weight, percentage of actual body weight to desirable body weight, midarm muscle circumferences, triceps skinfold thickness), and serum albumin, plasma insulin such as insulin growth factor-1 and as a marker of inflammation, serum C-reactive protein (s-CRP) ...
Background: Investigating the validity of the self-reported values of weight allows for the proper assessment of studies using questionnaire-derived data. The study examined the accuracy of gender-specific self-reported weight in a sample of adults. The effects of age, education, race and ethnicity, income, general health and medical status on the degree of discrepancy (the difference between self-reported weight and measured weight) are similarly considered. Methods: The analysis used data from the US Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Self-reported and measured weights were abstracted and analyzed according to sex, age, measured weight, self-reported weight, and body mass index (BMI). A proportional odds model was applied. Results: The weight discrepancy was positively associated with age, and negatively associated with measured weight and BMI. Ordered logistic regression modeling showed age, race-ethnicity, education, and BMI to be associated with the degree of ...
TBW constitutes approximately 50% of lean body weight in healthy females and 60% of lean body weight in males. For clinical purposes, most clinicians generalize that TBW accounts for 60% of lean body weight in adults, regardless of gender. The percentage of TBW decreases as body fat increases and/or with age (75%-85% of body weight is water for newborns). Unless the patient is obese (body weight > 120% of ideal body weight [IBW]), clinicians typically use a patients actual body weight when calculating TBW.2 In obese patients, it is customary to estimate TBW using lean body weight or IBW as calculated by the Devine-Devine method: males lean body weight = 50 kg + (2.3 kg/in ...
How to Gain Weight when You Have Cancer. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential when undergoing treatment for cancer. Whether you start treatment with a low body weight or develop a low body weight as a result of your treatment,...
Deluxe Weight - 2 LB, Wrap Weights, Holding weights can be a challenging task for students with disabilities. With low muscle tone and strength, gripping a weight in a hand can be a struggle. With this Wrist and Ankle Weight you can increase the weight resistance and increase the amount of work done without worrying about weights being dropped., Increase both arm strength and leg strength together or separately through fitness activities and/or weight training with your wrist and ankle weights. The color of the weight allows your students to easily remember which weight to use by having them remember a color rather than a number. Have them keep track of their improvement and progress with the color scale instead of numbers. Fits children and adults! A full range of weights for a full range of workouts! Easy-to-use weights can be worn on wrists and ankles for both upper- and lower-body workout routines. Weights are covered in vinyl and wipe clean with just soap and water. Color-coded and clearly
Watch How Can I Increase My Body Weight Fast And Naturally video online on Rediff Videos. More videos of increase body weight, increase body weight fast, fit o fat Capsule are available. Watch and share videos and updates by Aiden.
Most people are confused about the best way to calculate their current weight and just step on a scale to see how much they weigh. However, there are multiple factors that contribute to a persons weight gain and loss.. Everyones body is different as is every individuals ideal weight. Factors such as environment, genetics, habits, gender, age metabolism, and several other dynamics influence a persons weight. Just as importantly, one must consider ones body type, height, bone density, and fat to muscle ratio. Knowing this information is vital to help implement the right diet and exercise routine.. Following a general work-out and diet plan to become as "ripped" as a professional athlete or as curvaceous as a fashion model is not the best method to become fit, nor is using body mass index (BMI) or waist-hip ratio (WHR) alone the best means for calculating ones weight.. While BMI alone is no longer the best way to measure a persons body-fat ratio, combined with the WHR method one just might ...
Midwest Medical Weight Loss 8 Hour Diet Reviews So when the nearly 40-year-old College Park rap constituent quips "Sippin quavo, ridin offsets, guess Im bout to take off" on the swanky "OG Kush Diet," a stellar filler cut on Pretty Girls Like Trap Music. of an hour and some. Read our review of Bootea. Find out if Bootea Teatox. Who knew that eating MORE carbs was just the ticket to help raise my body temperature and help my thyroid? How I Raised My Body Temperature with Carbs. The filtering organ of the body is Kidney, know about the location of kidneys, hormonal control of kidneys and constituents of urine.. Buy Purina ONE SmartBlend Lamb & Rice Formula Adult Premium Dry Dog Food, 31.1-lb bag at Chewy.com. FREE shipping and the BEST customer service!. For instance, one has to diet according to his blood type, which will help him digest the food more efficiently and manage weight. way the body reacts towards metabolizing a particular food type. I recommend to eat according to your.. Yahoo ...
Authors: James, W.P.T. , Ralph, Ann Article Type: Research Article Abstract: Obesity is an escalating problem in many countries. There is a need to reduce the average body weight of a population, not simply treat the extremes. This requires consideration of societal factors which affect body weight. Weight increases with age, the increase leading to a higher proportion of body fat to lean tissue. Causes include progressive inactivity and dietary fat which often accompany increasing affluence. A body mass index (BMI) of 20-25 is generally advised, but some suggest a BMI of 20-22 for lowest risk of disease. The risk of smoking when thin exceeds the risk of being overweight, so …dietary advice is important on cessation of smoking. Genetic susceptibility to weight gain is strongly influenced by nutrient interactions at all stages of life. Foetal and neonatal nutrition may modify body weight in later life. Familial trends of reduced activity and low metabolic rate need to be addressed, as does the ...
European researchers recently identified six new loci associated with body mass index, highlighting a very interesting neuronal influence on body weight regulation
I havent kept anything down for the last 3 days." If you have a baseline weight to work with, it will help you decide how to approach this patient. Lets say this patients baseline weight was 145 pounds, and her weight today in clinic is 146. In that case, probably her claim of having kept nothing down is an exaggeration. On the other hand, lets say her weight today is 141. She may have lost 3 pounds. I would be much more likely to consider IV hydration in addition to anti-emetics ...
Thus, in order to lose one pound of weight, per week, you should either consume 3,500 fewer calories, or consume 1,500 fewer calories while burning an extra 2,000 calories in extra exercise. To gain one pound of weight, increase your calorie intake by 3,500 calories etc.. Really there is no such thing as an ideal weight for men. At best there is only a healthy weight range. According to doctors the healthy weight range for men is a Body Mass Index of between 19 and 24.9. With a larger frame and greater muscle-fat ratio, you should be in the upper part of the weight range. (See Fig 1. below ...
Healthy Body Weight download - The slower you lose weight, the more likely you are losing fat and not muscle. If you have a high level of body fat, or ...
Ideal body weight calculator for drug dosing, renal function estimation, nutritional assessment, and mechanical ventilation. Calculator includes percent ideal body weight, adjusted and nutritional body weight, lean body weight, BMI, and BSA.
Helpful, trusted answers from doctors: Dr. PENNINGS on what should be the ideal weight: That depends on gender, muscle mass & initial size. For instance a morbidly obese person may be able to still eat a fair amount & still lose weight whereas her or his skinnier counterpart may not get that same impact.
Calculate the ideal weight for your baby using a body-mass index indicator available on websites such as WebMD. This calculator requires the childs sex, birth date, height and weight, as well as...
130 to 140 lbs: The real answer to this question, as with most questions, is it depends. It depends on whether or not you have been close to this weight through most of your life. Ideal weight for a young woman at 57" tall is 135 lbs; at 53, it can be a little higher. But what is your body fat? Are you fit and muscular? If you have been 50+ pounds more than this for years, then 145 to 150 pounds would be great ...Read more ...
What is a healthy body weight? How is fat burned? if I am a 24 year old man 6ft tall,177lb and wonts to weigh 165 in 40 days what is the best way to do that ?.
It depends on what you ate before going on a diet. If you were eating 1800 calories a day, then you`ll be eating 500 calories less each day than normal. For a week, that equates to 3500 calories in one week. That means you would lose one pound each week. Then, you`d lose some weight, and the amount of calories required to maintain your new weight will decrease. So, instead of it being 1800 minus 1200, it would be, say, 1500 minuse 1200. 3500 calories lost is the equivalent of one pound lost. So, you should track what you`d eat naturally, then start the diet to figure out how much weight you want to lose. Adding exercise always helps with calorie deficits. If you walk at a good pace for about an hour, you might burn anywhere from 200 to upwards of 500 calories. All of that depends on your weight, though, because calories are energy. If you have them, you need to use them. The more you weigh, the more you need to stay that weight ...
RIO AMAZON SlimCaps helps to maintain a healthy body weight. May help you feel more energetic and alert. Slimcaps are a blend of two popular South American herbs - Yerba Maté and Guaraná.
The researchers said that during the starter period, feeding chickens with any of the tested additives diminished their body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG) and feed intake (FI) as compared to control diet. "This was also observed during the entire feeding period, except for INU supplementation, that showed similar values to control birds.". The authors noted that none of the treatments affected duodenal histomorphometry.. "Our results also revealed that, as expected, the caeca microbiota composition was influenced by diet at every stage of the productive period, although an association between microbiota and performance was not clear.". At day 21, they said they did not observe any differences in microbiota composition of the control, 60-DWP, 5-CHIT and 20-INU birds although they noted that only the control diet promoted greater body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), and feed intake (FI).. The control and 60-DWP diets did not differ in their caeca communities at day 42, although only ...
Author Summary Body weight and energy balance are under very complex neural, endocrine, and metabolic control. Correspondingly, recent research suggests that hundreds of genes contribute to human obesity and that only a small proportion of them have as yet been identified. Neurobeachin (Nbea) is a protein specifically expressed in nerve and endocrine cells and is important for neurotransmission, apparently by influencing the synaptic targeting of membrane proteins. Here, we show that heterozygous knockout mice, expressing Nbea at 50% of normal levels, display increased adipose tissue mass, abnormal feeding behavior, and modified expression of specific genes in the brainstem and hypothalamus known to be important for body weight control. Moreover, we find that NBEA gene polymorphisms are associated with body-mass index in adult and juvenile human cohorts. Our results demonstrate that variation of Nbea activity critically affects body weight, presumably by influencing the activity of feeding-related
Author Summary Body weight and energy balance are under very complex neural, endocrine, and metabolic control. Correspondingly, recent research suggests that hundreds of genes contribute to human obesity and that only a small proportion of them have as yet been identified. Neurobeachin (Nbea) is a protein specifically expressed in nerve and endocrine cells and is important for neurotransmission, apparently by influencing the synaptic targeting of membrane proteins. Here, we show that heterozygous knockout mice, expressing Nbea at 50% of normal levels, display increased adipose tissue mass, abnormal feeding behavior, and modified expression of specific genes in the brainstem and hypothalamus known to be important for body weight control. Moreover, we find that NBEA gene polymorphisms are associated with body-mass index in adult and juvenile human cohorts. Our results demonstrate that variation of Nbea activity critically affects body weight, presumably by influencing the activity of feeding-related
The notion that an ideal weight exists for every age and gender fails to take into account differences in body fat percentage, height and body shape. An...
Consistent with the previous reports (25) , mice bearing the MAC16 adenocarcinoma displayed cachexia, with progressive weight loss from 13 days after tumor inoculation and a 24% lower final weight than non-tumor-bearing controls. Weight loss seems to be attributable to tumor-related products, because final body weight was negatively correlated with tumor mass although tumor burden only accounted for ,2% of body weight. The marked reductions in both white and brown fat and the moderate decrease in skeletal muscle mass are consistent with potent lipolytic and proteolytic effects of known products of this tumor, LMF and PIF (26) . Despite severe wasting, mice bearing the MAC16 tumor did not show a compensatory increase in appetite, and, indeed, total food intake was decreased, especially during the last few days. Thus, tumor products may also suppress feeding.. In pair-fed animals that consumed the same amount of food as the tumor-bearing animals, body weight was also reduced below controls but to ...
Long formulas may be given in 2 or more lines by breaking them at operation signs outside brackets or parentheses and keeping the indention the same whenever possible (some formulas may be too long to permit indention). If lines begin with an operation sign, they should be lined up with the first character to the right of the relation sign in the line above.Y=[(a1+b1)/(a2−b2)]+[(σ1+σ2)/(σ2−σ1)]+[(s1+s2)/(t1+t2)] However, if a formula loses comprehensibility by being unstacked and broken up, and/or if it fits the width of the column, it is preferable to leave it stacked.Percent Excess Weight Loss =(Baseline Weight − Ideal Weight)−(Follow-up − Ideal Weight)Baseline Weight − Ideal Weight×100 Less ...
Long formulas may be given in 2 or more lines by breaking them at operation signs outside brackets or parentheses and keeping the indention the same whenever possible (some formulas may be too long to permit indention). If lines begin with an operation sign, they should be lined up with the first character to the right of the relation sign in the line above.Y=[(a1+b1)/(a2−b2)]+[(σ1+σ2)/(σ2−σ1)]+[(s1+s2)/(t1+t2)] However, if a formula loses comprehensibility by being unstacked and broken up, and/or if it fits the width of the column, it is preferable to leave it stacked.Percent Excess Weight Loss =(Baseline Weight − Ideal Weight)−(Follow-up − Ideal Weight)Baseline Weight − Ideal Weight×100 , Less ...
Abstract OBJECTIVE: There is increasing evidence for an association between asthma and body weight change. The objectives of these analyses were to examine the temporal relationshi..
Body weights changes during 6 weeks of continuous bathing on seawaters or topical application of DEXA in DNCB-induced AD mice. Significant (p | 0.01) decreas
High-fat diets can lead to weight gain, and excess body weight increases the risk of cancers of the bowel, kidney, pancreas, oesophagus, endometrium, and breast cancer
Fans of Weight can find Weight groups to share their Weight pictures with other fans. A community of Weight fans is a great place to find Weight art, create Weight pictures, start Weight forum discussions and have fun.
A comprehensive review of the science on weight cycling was completed by a group of obesity experts who were convened as a national task force to address the issue. They concluded that reliable evidence does not demonstrate that weight cycling decreases metabolism.2 In other words, repeatedly losing and regaining body weight does not make it harder to lose weight when trying to do so the next time around. Weight cycling also has not been linked to an increase in body fat or accumulating fat around the middle, which is linked to increased health risks. So after a weight cycle, those who return to their original weight have the same amount of body fat and muscle mass as they did prior to weight cycling.3. More recently, while weight cyclers were found to be heavier and have a less favorable metabolic profile, they were able to lose weight and experience improvements in metabolic measures.4 Weight Cycling and Physical Health ...
Features Can lift patient weight upto 200 kg with remote control and noiseless imported motor Digital display of patient weight during treatment Can, Alternative Treatments West Delhi
ஜிம்முக்குப் போகலாம்தான்… ஆனால் நிறுத்திட்டா மறுபடி உடல் எடை அதிகமாயிடுமாமே என்கிற பயத்தின் காரணமாக அதைத் தவிர்ப்பவர்களும் உண்டு.
Body mass index, or BMI, is one means of assessing healthy weights or healthy weight ranges. BMI charts designed for adults are not appropriate for teens. Teens should use a chart with percentile lines to assess weight and growth patterns. Teen girls below the 5th percentile are considered underweight. Girls who fall within the 85th percentile to 95th percentile are overweight, while girls above the 95th percentile are obese, reports KidsHealth.org. Extremely athletic girls with significant muscle mass or girls with a larger body frame may find BMI measurements inaccurate.. ...
best body weight leg exercises, read our guide below : hard body weight leg exercises,best body weight leg exercises,easy body weight leg exercisesbody weight leg building exercises,different body weight leg…. ...
With this study, we hope to take the research a step further to determine which method of losing weight - diet, exercise or a combination of both - is most effective in improving your overall health and lowering your risk for certain diseases, and to understand why.". Study participants will be randomly assigned to one of three groups - exercise, diet or a combination of both - with the goal of losing 6 percent of their body weight over a 12 week period. A 200-pound person, for example, would lose 1 pound per week for a total of 12 pounds. Those who do not reach their goal with in the 12 week time frame will be allowed additional time.. Researchers will use pre- and post-study medical evaluations and risk assessments to measure the effect diet and exercise have on study participants risk for heart disease and diabetes. Researchers also plan to check in with study participants after one and two years to see if they maintain their weight or put the pounds back on.. According to Weiss, ...
The two main axes are the hierarchical axis, running from bottom to top, and the time axis, running from left to right. At the intersection of these two axes is birth weight and early exposures. From that point and moving to the right through time are health behaviors that include energy input (feeding behavior) and energy expenditure (physical activity). From these Health behaviors, continuing across through time, there is body weight change. A line indicates there is a causal connection between birth weight and early exposures and body weight change.. Connected to body weight change is a line showing a feedback loop back and forth to this group of factors: HPA axis, mood, metabolism, appetite, and genes; these also are connected back and forth with health behaviors as causal effects. At the top of the hierarchical axis is a group of risk regulators: cultural norms (eg, food preferences, body-image norms), area deprivation (eg, poverty, crowding), psychosocial hazards (eg, crime, social ...
No specific study was done to investigate this - instead the researchers looked for existing trials that compared normal fat intake vs. reduced fat intake as a study intervention and included studies that followed up participants after at least six months.. The results were: "…diets lower in total fat were associated with lower relative body weight by 1.6 kg". Thats 3.5lbs.. My points are as follows:. 1.6kg is tiny! Many of the interventions (listed in Table 1 in the BMJ paper) required fat intake to be no more than 15% of total calorie intake, as opposed to the more typical intake of 30%. Thats a heck of a dietary change to have an impact of a couple of pounds over several months. My hubby can lose this much in one day when Wales are playing rugby! This really is inconsequential.. What is defined as fat?. There is no detail whatsoever in the BMJ article on precise dietary changes. Let us remember that our government authorities dont know the difference between fats and carbohydrates. The ...
The mens cohorts are based upon stratified, multi-stage random samples with oversamples of blacks. Each case in each interview year is assigned a weight specific to that year. This weight can be interpreted as an estimate of the number of people in the population of interest that the individual in the sample represents. The following is a discussion of the ramifications of the weights when used for data analysis.. To tabulate characteristics of the sample (sample means, totals, or proportions) for a single interview year in order to describe the population being represented, it is necessary to weight the observations using the weights provided. For example, to estimate the average hours worked in 1976 by men born in 1957 through 1964, researchers would simply use the weighted average of hours worked, where weight is the 1976 sample weight. These weights are approximately correct when used in this way, with item nonresponse possibly generating small errors. Other applications for which users may ...
Body weight and caloric intake.Body weight (A) and nominal caloric food intake (B). Data are means ± SEM with n = 13-14 (WT), 10-14 (HDC-KO), and 3-8 (DM
Acknowledgements ----. The views expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.. return to bibliography page ...
Status: Sold as of October 8, 2016. Sex: Male. Name: TBA, Blue boy for now. Sire & Dam: Boku (AKC# NP35183702) & Hadassah (AKC# NP35201902). Birth Date: June 20, 2016. Weight at Birth: 8.5 oz. Weight at 1 week old: 13.8 oz. Weight at 2 weeks old: 1 lb 1.7 oz. Weight at 3 weeks old: 1 lb 9.2 0z. Weight at 4 weeks old: 2 lb 0.9 oz. Weight at 5 weeks old: 2 lb 9.6 oz. Weight at 6 weeks old: 3 lb 1.7 oz. Weight at 7 weeks old: 3 lb 10.4 oz. Weight at 8 weeks old: 4 lb 6.1 oz. Weight at 9 weeks old: 4 lb 11.8 oz. Weight at 10 weeks old: 5 lb 6 oz. Weight at 12 weeks old: 7 lb 0 oz. About: This boy is the one and only male in his litter. He was the 3rd born in his litter. At birth he had the shortest muzzle out of the 4 with nice spacing between his eyes. at 12 weeks, his muzzle is a little bit longer now. He was also the 2nd biggest at birth but at 4 weeks old he was the biggest at 2 lb 0.9 oz. He decided he LOVED food and has learned that if he east faster then his siblings, he can have more food ...
Neural pathways, especially those in the hypothalamus, integrate multiple nutritional, hormonal, and neural signals, resulting in the coordinated control of body weight balance and glucose homeostasis. Nuclear receptors (NRs) sense changing levels of nutrients and hormones, and therefore play essential roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Understanding the role and the underlying mechanisms of NRs in the context of energy balance control may facilitate the identification of novel targets to treat obesity. Notably, NRs are abundantly expressed in the brain, and emerging evidence indicates that a number of these brain NRs regulate multiple aspects of energy balance, including feeding, energy expenditure and physical activity. In this Review we summarize some of the recent literature regarding effects of brain NRs on body weight regulation and discuss mechanisms underlying these effects.. ...
Neural pathways, especially those in the hypothalamus, integrate multiple nutritional, hormonal, and neural signals, resulting in the coordinated control of body weight balance and glucose homeostasis. Nuclear receptors (NRs) sense changing levels of nutrients and hormones, and therefore play essential roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Understanding the role and the underlying mechanisms of NRs in the context of energy balance control may facilitate the identification of novel targets to treat obesity. Notably, NRs are abundantly expressed in the brain, and emerging evidence indicates that a number of these brain NRs regulate multiple aspects of energy balance, including feeding, energy expenditure and physical activity. In this Review we summarize some of the recent literature regarding effects of brain NRs on body weight regulation and discuss mechanisms underlying these effects.. ...
Neural pathways, especially those in the hypothalamus, integrate multiple nutritional, hormonal, and neural signals, resulting in the coordinated control of body weight balance and glucose homeostasis. Nuclear receptors (NRs) sense changing levels of nutrients and hormones, and therefore play essential roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Understanding the role and the underlying mechanisms of NRs in the context of energy balance control may facilitate the identification of novel targets to treat obesity. Notably, NRs are abundantly expressed in the brain, and emerging evidence indicates that a number of these brain NRs regulate multiple aspects of energy balance, including feeding, energy expenditure and physical activity. In this Review we summarize some of the recent literature regarding effects of brain NRs on body weight regulation and discuss mechanisms underlying these effects.. ...
Many people who are trying to lose weight decide to add exercise to their efforts. The trouble is, there are a lot of misconceptions about what exercise can and cant do when it comes to losing weight. Here are some common myths related to exercise and weight loss, and the facts associated with them. 1. […]. ...
Male athletes who participate in endurance activities and maintain low body weight may also be at risk although likely not to the same extent as their female ...
We examine the effects of feeding a high-sucrose diet on body weight gain, plasma triglycerides, and stress tolerance in rats. Feeding a high-sucrose (60%) diet for 2 weeks did not induce a great.... ...
Being at a healthy weight is good for the entire family! When kids with diabetes reach and maintain a healthy weight, they feel better and have more energy. Their diabetes symptoms decrease and their blood sugar levels are better controlled. They also may be less likely to develop complications from diabetes, like heart disease.. Doctors use body mass index (BMI) to determine if a persons weight is healthy. If your doctor recommends that your child lose weight to control diabetes, a weight management plan may be created. Even if your childs BMI is in the healthy range, the doctor can help you come up with a healthy meal and exercise plan.. Your emotional support is an important part of helping your child get to a healthy weight. Overweight kids can have low self-esteem or feel guilty. Try to stay positive and talk about being "healthy" rather than use terms like "fat" or "thin." Help your child understand that all healthy people need to actively manage their weight - even you.. And remember ...
If picked for this group, you will have two individual sessions with a weight management counselor. At the first session, you will receive a scale and other technology to help manage your weight during pregnancy. Each week you will receive information from a weight management counselor via a Smartphone (you can use your own Smartphone or one will be provided to you). The information will cover topics to help manage your weight during pregnancy. You will be taught how to use different tools provided to help you monitor your weight. We will ask you to measure your body weight (using a scale we will provide) as well as monitor your food intake and exercise habits with the Smartphone ...
The dose of ethambutol depends on body weight and will be determined by your doctor.. For adults and children 13 years of age and over who have not used ethambutol before, the recommended dose is 15 mg per kilogram of body weight once daily (to a maximum of 2.5 g).. For adults and children aged 13 years and older who have used ethambutol before, the recommended dose is 25 mg per kilogram of body weight once daily. After 60 days of treatment, or when the infection clears up, the dose can be decreased to 15 mg per kilogram of body weight once daily.. When ethambutol is used in combination with other tuberculosis medications, a dose of 50 mg per kilogram of body weight (to a maximum of 2.5 g) can be taken twice a week. Alternatively, ethambutol can be used at a dose of 25 mg per kilogram of body weight to 30 mg per kilogram of body weight (to a maximum of 2.5 g) 3 times a week.. Childrens dosage: Dosage has not been established for children less than 13 years of age but your doctor may consider ...
To calculate ideal weight of a dog, if your dog weighs two kilos at the time of birth, then you need to double the weight and then triple it in order to get the ideal weight once it reaches adult hood.
Within the study, Seventy eight postmenopausal females were evaluated. Their own typical grow older was 58, and all sorts of participants acquired dropped concerning 12% of these bodyweight via a going on a diet plan. After the load loss plan, the womens change in body mass structure has been written down and also in comparison muscle mass with excess fat components. That has been measured once more 6 months and also 12 months afterwards, and no women have been over a weightloss routine ...
This study investigates the role of Gal-3 in the cardiovascular remodeling associated with obesity. Our data show that obesity upregulates Gal-3 in the cardiovascular system. The pharmacological inhibition of Gal-3 activity decreases fibrosis and inflammation at cardiac and vascular levels in normotensive obese rats without affecting body weight gain. Interestingly, morbidly obese patients show high circulating Gal-3 levels that were independent predictors of diastolic dysfunction. Thus, Gal-3 emerges as one of the factors involved in the cardiovascular damage associated with obesity.. Increased circulating Gal-3 levels have been reported in different conditions, such as HF and obesity that can be considered a stage A of HF.9,10,13,18,19 Accordingly, we found that circulating Gal-3 levels are increased in morbidly obese patients. Interestingly, Gal-3 levels were an independent factor involved in diastolic function supporting a role of Gal-3 in obesity cardiomyopathy. Fibrosis is a common ...
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Couples like Irene and Brian who have decided to lose weight at the same time have probably noticed that the man usually loses more weight and at a faster pace than the woman. Whats going on? The truth is that men do have a physical edge over women in terms of weight loss their body composition enables them to lose more weight than a woman of the same weight. But women have an edge over men in other critical areas of weight management: women tend to be more attentive to whats going on with their weight and are better able to make the connection between food and emotions. This article examines why men and women not only talk about the issue of excess weight differently but why they experience it differently as well ...
Low body weight, also known as failure to thrive in children age 2 or under, can lead to serious repercussions for your toddler. According to experts at...
Anyway, Ive been reading up on body weight exercises and the benefits of integration vs isolation, and Ive decided to focus mainly on free weight and body weight compound exercises (no bicep curls for this guy any more lol). I do supine rows because I dont much like the row machine at my gym and because the supine rows seem like an almost perfect match for push ups - ie the reverse motion which works the exact opposite muscles in a very similar way. I could of course do cable rows (which I have done many times in the past) or bent over rows (which I fear a bit because of past lower back problems), but for now I am trying the supines ...
The rules state that you must move the brush from side to side. It is not clearly stated as to what side-to-side really means only that it should roughly perpendicular to the rocks path. The most effective sweeping motion is approximately 90 degrees to the rocks path and covers an area just wider than the running surface, (remember, its only five inches). A sweeping motion that is shorter than this is subject to scrutiny by the officials and a motion greater than this is waste of energy. The stroke should be away from your body, and then back toward your body. Keep your top arm tight to your body. By staying tight, you will begin to put more and more pressure on the head as you begin to move your weight over the top of the brush.. With experience, you will gradually place more of your bodys weight over the head of the broom.. The power of the sweeping stroke comes from the top shoulder (shoulder driven). The shoulder drives the brush head out and pulls it back. Because of this, most ...
I am a 32 year old 54″ female. I recently weighed myself and found that to my astonishment I now weigh 165 pounds. I put the weight on without really noticing it until I went to do some summer shopping. I was already about 150 pounds before the weight gain. I would like to know what my ideal weight should be for my height and also a healthy diet and exercise regimen to help me reach this desired weight. I also want to add that I had a baby a year ago and during my pregnancy I weighed 175 and I never fully lost all of the weight. Please help me!. Read the rest of this entry ». ...
My MOM is the worst for makin me feel kinda crumy about my weight. When I was first diagnosed I was maybe 90 pounds and size zero.... when I got the disease under control with meds.. etc.. and got rid of my loser boyfriend who was causing me alot of stress... I gained what I like to call HAPPY HEALTHY weight. I was only up to 135 and my mom said I was getting FAT. IMAGINE! I thought I looked good and felt great and was in remission. But recently I fell into a flare.. and have been losing weight on a steady basis. Now I am down to the 115 range again and look very skinny. My mom is like.. Oh look how great you look now and arent you glad ya lost all that extra weight... THATS TERRIBLE! I look sick again.. and AM sick again and shes going on about my weight!! All I can say is.. its a GOOD THING I had that weight to lose because if not I would be a toothpick right now and probably in the freakin hospital !! I cant wait to get back into remission and pack on my HAPPY HEALTHY weight again ...
Studies of Qnexa showed that the average person on Qnexa will lose 10% of their body weight. (Please note that they are talking about losing weight; no one is promising permanent weight removal. Lose it and you will find it …. again.). Do the math. With the help of Qnexa, a person who weighs 600 pounds is likely to lose 60 pounds; a person weighing 200 pounds may lose 20 pounds; and those who weigh 150 pounds and are looking for a quick fix, may lose 15 pounds.. You couldnt possibility think that losing 10% of your body weight is worth the risk; could you?. Again, to be 100% clear, they are offering you all yet another magic bullet whose side effects are hardly magical. These side effects include the potential for heart problems, birth defects and mental effects such as lack of concentration and fogginess.. ...
While at the Bassmaster Classic last year I was introduced to a new drop shot weight made by the Mojo Pro Tackle, Inc. At the Classic, I was just not excited about this new weight. It was the same ol weight with a wire clasp. Once I got home I found one little weight rigged up in my camera bag. Rigged and useless to fish with. Planted, I m sure since I was not that interested in their find at the Classic. This weight laid on my desk for several weeks before I picked it up, took it out of the bag and started playing with it. Remembering their test on the line knot strength testing machine, I hung the hook on one of my desk handles and started pulling on the weight. The light line broke, but not at the weight where I expected it to. Figuring that the line had a slight nick in it I tied the leader to the draw handle and pulled again. The line broke in the middle and not at the weight. Since the weight had showed me it worked, I emailed Mojo and after a few replies a small envelop showed up. Three ...
CiteWeb id: 20090000280. CiteWeb score: 2547. DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199509143331101. The association between body weight and mortality in the United States is examined using data for 115195 women aged 30-55 who were enrolled in the Nurses Health Study and were followed over a 16-year period. "Body weight and mortality from all causes were directly related among these middle-aged women. Lean women did not have excess mortality. The lowest mortality rate was observed among women who weighed at least 15 percent less than the U.S. average for women of similar age and among those whose weight had been stable since early adulthood." (EXCERPT). ...
Delicious Nutritious Meals With A Twist….The relationship you have with food is one of the most important relationships you will ever have in your life. Food comforts, supplies energy and vitality and even has the ability to bring people together. All cultures eat specific foods, all people have specific tastes, likes and dislikes. Your relationship […]. ...
Chicks up for a Challenge - 2% Body Weight Challenge #43 - Here are the rules : The fastest to shed 2 % of their body weight wins. To calculate 2 %
Decreasing sugar consumption has a small but meaningful impact on body weight in adults. The finding, published online in the BMJ, established that althoug
Here are the rules : The fastest to shed 2 % of their body weight wins. To calculate 2 % just multiply .02 with your body weight and round off to the
With regard to body mass, independent loci often controlled weight at different ages, with average additive, dominance, and variance QTL effects generally coinciding. In only one case did a QTL colocalize at more than one age: at 6 and 8 wk of age a significant body mass QTL was observed on MMU6 (36 Mb). The general independence of loci controlling body weight across different ages was not surprising, given previous work on the genetic architecture of growth in mouse populations (1, 8, 10, 45). Cheverud et al. (8) identified numerous independent QTL for body weight at multiple ages, while Rocha et al. (45) identified a comparable number of growth QTL with map locations corresponding generally well with those of Cheverud et al. (8). Although we identified substantially fewer QTL than Cheverud et al. (8) or Rocha et al. (45), we employed lines of mice that were both, in general, relatively small and lean [see Nehrenberg et al. (31)]. In contrast, both Cheverud et al. (8) and Rocha et al. (45) ...
Researchers found that women who do at least 38 minutes of physical activity a day and maintain a healthy weight reduce their risk of womb cancer.
Calculated by dividing your weight (in kilograms) by your height (in metres) squared.. This gives an estimate of whether you are overweight, underweight or in the healthy weight range for your height.. If you are outside of the healthy weight range (BMI 18.5 to 24.9) your health risks may increase.. Find out more about BMI and try this BMI calculator.. ...
Im 13 and in my school, we get 6 weeks off for summer. By the time I go back to school, I want to have least lost a bit of weight or started healthy eating, exercising etc. Please could you give advice on how I can lose weight over Summer? P.S dont suggest joining a gym, I dont want to gain too much muscle so that it stands out. Im not used to healthy eating OR exercising everyday. Im over weight and I need advice. Please help? :)
All number related losses need to be kept for 3 consecutive weigh ins.. *****To be a 30s girl***** 29/6/07. *****To be a 20s girl***** 31/12/09. To be under 125 (third pregnancy weight). To be a teenager. To be a toddler. To be in double digits.. *****To be a size 24*****. *****To be a size 22***** 10/2/09. To be a size 20. to be a size 18. To be a size 16. To go down a cup size. To see face shape. To see collar bones. To not be the fattest in the room. *****To lose 10% of body weight - 14.93*****. To lose 20% of body weight - 29.86. To lose 30% of body weight-44.79. To lose 40% of body weight-59.72. *****To be under 50 BMI***** 4/12/09. To be under 45 BMI. To be under 40 BMI. To be under 35 BMI. To be under 30 BMI, classed as overweight.. To be under 35 BMI, classed as healthy.. ...
All number related losses need to be kept for 3 consecutive weigh ins.. *****To be a 30s girl***** 29/6/07. *****To be a 20s girl***** 31/12/09. To be under 125 (third pregnancy weight). To be a teenager. To be a toddler. To be in double digits.. *****To be a size 24*****. *****To be a size 22***** 10/2/09. To be a size 20. to be a size 18. To be a size 16. To go down a cup size. To see face shape. To see collar bones. To not be the fattest in the room. *****To lose 10% of body weight - 14.93*****. To lose 20% of body weight - 29.86. To lose 30% of body weight-44.79. To lose 40% of body weight-59.72. *****To be under 50 BMI***** 4/12/09. To be under 45 BMI. To be under 40 BMI. To be under 35 BMI. To be under 30 BMI, classed as overweight.. To be under 35 BMI, classed as healthy.. ...
As many as 30 million Americans who are considered of average weight may actually have what scientists call normal weight obesity, according to a recent study by the Mayo Clinic.
Do You Will Lose 30 Percent Of Your Body Weight? Join friendly people sharing true stories in the I Will Lose 30 Percent of My Body Weight group. Find support forums, advice and chat with groups who share this life experience.
Then theres my issue Youngster. My 4yr. aged 92lb. Pit/Lab blend. She has lost just a little body weight over the Merrick food items but is driving me crazy getting hungry. I saw this Organic Harmony Unwanted fat Dogs foods at Petco and arrived dwelling to do some research on "diet program" Canine foods. I understand its designed to own "tummy" filling fiber that can help with the hunger cravings. Doggy Foodstuff Advisor fees it 3 ...
Recommended Ways to Lose Body Fat Quickly. One of the most studied fields today concerns losing body weight. Gaining weight can be attributed to a number of reasons. Some of the reasons that contribute to adding weight are altering of diet, lifestyle and lack of consistent working out. You cannot get rid of fat that has accumulated over a period of time in a day, but there are ways to ensure that you burn the fat quickly. The meaning of this is that regardless of the time it too to put on the weight, it can be reduced in less time. Below are some tips to follow in order to shed off excess body fat quickly. There is a misconception that dieting will always enable you to lose weight, but it is not always right, and the fact is that diets dont always work. Your bodys metabolism activity is ruined by lack of food through dieting. This in turns transmits a signal to the body that it is starved of food. When this signal is sent to the body, it will react by reducing the metabolic activities in the ...
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Liver injuries can be significant in vehicle crashes. In this study, the liver anatomy was quantified in both adult and pediatric populations as a function of gender and age. Five anatomical liver measurements were determined using CT scans of 260 normal livers. These measurements include the area and volume, and the length, width, and girth of the liver (IRB HUM00041441). To characterize geometrical shape, an inscribed sphere and circumscribed ellipsoid were fitted on the measurements. In the pediatric population the liver area and volume continuously increased with age. When normalized by patient weight, volume measurements show a decrease in volume with age, suggesting that the liver occupies a smaller proportion of the body with age. In the adult population, liver measurements varied with gender. The superior and inferior locations of the liver were also recorded with respect to the spine. The lower portion was at the L3 in small children and at L2 as children approached puberty ...
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Certain herbs and foods are found to be very effective to improve body weight. lets see here how to gain body weight safely and naturally. lets start with banana...
Hello neuro buddies. Grant continues to put on weight, and we dont really know the reason why he is doing this. One week ago Grant weighed 51.4 kg which is the same as 113 lbs. This week Grant weighed 52 kg, which is 114 lbs. Grants ideal weight for his weight and age is really no more than 50 kg.
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What Do The Data Mean?. On December 15, I slept a total of 6.5 hours and my waking pulse was 36 BPM. I monitor my waking pulse for variations--if there is a significant spike in my waking pulse, I assess whether I am on the onset of an illness or whether I might be fatigued. If the spike continues for more than a couple of days, I may consider adjusting my training sessions, either decreasing their intensity or their overall duration to assist in recovery. Similarly, I track body weight on a weekly basis to see if there are any emerging patterns that might necessitate attention. Rapid weight loss is a potential flag for over-training, among other possible issues.. My Workout Session column contains my planned workouts. In this example, my planned workout is to do three big gear, low cadence (~50-60 rpm) intervals, each of which is nine minutes in duration. The Comments field confirms whether I completed my workout as planned, along with any additional notes.. The data fields contains the ...
If youre like most people, you might have trouble controlling your weight. Or maybe its under control, but it wont go down to where youd like it to be.. Weight loss, however, doesnt have to be stressful or complicated. A few simple habit changes could make a big difference - over the long term.. Will these changes take you from being 100 pounds overweight to slim and sexy in four weeks? Not at all. These are simple things that are designed to make gradual and sustainable changes.. Create some simple habits, and the weight will come off. Eventually.. This is not a step-by-step guide, and you will probably not want to implement every suggestion. Choose those that would work best for you.. 1. Weigh yourself and chart it. Each morning, weigh yourself on a digital scale and log it immediately. Your weight, of course, will fluctuate from day-to-day, and your sense of accomplishment or disappointment shouldnt hinge on your daily weight. However, your weight can be used as a useful feedback system ...
If youre like most people, you might have trouble controlling your weight. Or maybe its under control, but it wont go down to where youd like it to be.. Weight loss, however, doesnt have to be stressful or complicated. A few simple habit changes could make a big difference - over the long term.. Will these changes take you from being 100 pounds overweight to slim and sexy in four weeks? Not at all. These are simple things that are designed to make gradual and sustainable changes.. Create some simple habits, and the weight will come off. Eventually.. This is not a step-by-step guide, and you will probably not want to implement every suggestion. Choose those that would work best for you.. 1. Weigh yourself and chart it. Each morning, weigh yourself on a digital scale and log it immediately. Your weight, of course, will fluctuate from day-to-day, and your sense of accomplishment or disappointment shouldnt hinge on your daily weight. However, your weight can be used as a useful feedback system ...
Weight management means keeping your body weight at a healthy level. Regular exercise and a healthy diet are crucial when it comes to controlling your weight.
This workout incorporates the treadmill & free weights for a total body workout. If you prefer the ellipital over the treadmill, you can easily utilize
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Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
If youre looking for a way to lose fat without going to the gym or purchasing expensive equipment, then bodyweight training may be the training method for you. The following are some tips Ive used in the past to successfully lose weight using just my own body weight:Tip #1: Less is More - Ive spent up to two hours a time working out, but my best results have come from workouts that last no more than twenty minutes. Ive found that quality is far superior than quantity. All you need is a handful of high intensity body weight exercises that work multiple muscle groups at once to make bodyweight training work for you.Tip #2: Go Hard, or Go Home - Well, you are home. But the creed many people use in the gym, can also be used with your home workouts. Just because youre working out at home, doesnt mean that you should go easy on your workouts. Make the most of those 20 minutes you have to workout, and really push yourself with difficult exercises and intensity techniques.Tip #3: Learn, Learn, ...
Once you ask the concern how much should I weigh typically theres an arrow that suggests the BMI calculations which could be the standard way of measuring...
Losing weight usually takes a lot of time. Other than time, putting in a conscious effort to lose weight can be very annoying. This is why making use of Thin
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There is debate over the casual factors for the rise in body weight in the UK. The present study investigates whether increases between 1986 and 2000 for men and women were a result of increases in mean total energy intake, decreases in mean physical activity levels or both. Estimates of mean total energy intake in 1986 and 2000 were derived from food availability data adjusted for wastage. Estimates of mean body weight for adults aged 19-64 years were derived from nationally representative dietary surveys conducted in 1986-7 and 2000-1. Predicted body weight in 1986 and 2000 was calculated using an equation relating body weight to total energy intake and sex. Differences in predicted mean body weight and actual mean body weight between the two time points were compared. Monte Carlo simulation methods were used to assess the stability of the estimates. The predicted increase in mean body weight due to changes in total energy intake between 1986 and 2000 was 4·7 (95 % credible interval 4·2, 5·3) kg
This study investigated whether a child s first infection with Cryptosporidium parvum had an acute effect on weight gain. Specifically, the authors compared monthly rates of weight gain between C. parvum-infected and noninfected children. Over a 2-year period 1989-1991, a cohort of Peruvian children aged 0-3 months at recruitment were followed...
Our main finding was that weight loss at 12 weeks, age, mental HRQL and employment status had direct effects on weight loss at 1 year. 12 week weight loss had the strongest direct effect.. The impact of initial weight loss on long term weight loss is well described in several studies [19-21]. In a recent American study of 1,685 multi ethnic obese participants, weight loss at 6 months was found to be a consistent predictor of weight loss after 36 months across gender and ethnic groups [22]. The same was reported in a Swedish study of 247 participants undergoing a two-step weight loss program lasting for 8-10 months. The strongest factor for predicting weight loss in the Step II treatment was Step I weight loss. Each 1 kg weight loss in Step I predicted 13% of the variation in Step II weight loss [23]. The randomized multi center Look Ahead-study found that the larger a participants weight loss was after the first year, the larger their loss at year 4. The odds of achieving a loss ≥ 10% of ...
Studies of obesity and related health conditions among the Bhutanese, one of the largest refugee groups resettled in the United States in the past five years, are limited. This study examined the factors associated with excess body weight (body mass index ≥ 23 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 80 cm) in a community-based sample of 18-65 year old Bhutanese refugee women in Northeast Ohio. A Nepali-language questionnaire was used to measure socio-demographic and dietary factors. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured to define excess body weight and abdominal obesity. The mean (±standard deviation) age of the 108 participants was 36.5 (±12.2) years and length of time in the U.S. was 19.4 (±11.9) months. Overall, 64.8% and 69.4% of the women had excess body weight and abdominal obesity, respectively. Age was significantly associated with both excess body weight (odds ratio: 1.10; 95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.16) and abdominal obesity (1.09; 1.04-1.14).
Introduction: Weight loss has been described in 20% to 45% of patients with Alzheimers disease (AD) and has been associated with adverse outcomes. Various mechanisms for weight loss in AD patients have been proposed, though none has been proven. This study aimed to elucidate a mechanism of weight loss in AD patients by examining the hypothesis that weight loss is associated with medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA). Methods: Patients from the Frisian Alzheimers disease cohort study (a retrospective, longitudinal study of 576 community-dwelling AD patients) were included when a brain MRI was performed on which MTA could be assessed. To investigate the hypothesis that weight loss is associated with MTA, we investigated whether the trajectory of body weight change depends on the severity of MTA at the time of diagnosis (that is baseline). We hypothesized that patients with more severe MTA at baseline would have a lower body weight at baseline and a faster decrease in body weight during the course of ...
Introduction: Studies have shown that neighborhood factors (e.g., socioeconomic disadvantage, food sources) have been associated with weight. However, neighborhood factors are often overlooked in weight loss interventions, and few studies examine the influence of neighborhoods on weight change. We examined the neighborhood environment and its association with weight change in a 12-mo. weight loss intervention.. Hypothesis: Individuals who live in obesogenic neighborhood environments (e.g., low income, absence of grocery stores) would be less likely to lose weight over time compared to those who live in healthy environments.. Methods: This analysis included data on body weight assessed at 0 and 6 mos and calculated as percent change. Residential address at baseline was geocoded using ArcGIS software and assigned the appropriate census tract. Key neighborhood measures included grocery store and restaurant density, proportion Black and low income, and an index of neighborhood socioeconomic ...
Overweight, energy expenditure and caloric intake are associated with an increased prevalence of asthma. To measure resting energy expenditure and calculate caloric intake of overweight adolescents with asthma and compare results with those of groups of well-nourished adolescents with asthma and overweight adolescents without asthma. Cross-sectional study with 69 adolescents aged 10 to 18 years divided into three matched groups. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric and body composition measurements. Indirect calorimetry was used to measure energy expenditure; caloric intake was estimated from dietary recalls. In each group, there were 23 adolescents (10 girls) aged 12.39±2.40 years. Results for each group (overweight adolescents with asthma; well-nourished adolescents with asthma; and overweight adolescents without asthma) were, respectively: Body mass index = 24.83±2.73 kg/m2, 19.01±2.10 kg/m2, and 25.35±3.66 kg/m2; resting energy expenditure (REE) = 1550.24±547.23 ...

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Body Weight: MedlinePlusBody Weight: MedlinePlus

Find information and tools to help you learn more about your body weight. ... Do you know what the ideal body weight is for your gender and height? ... ClinicalTrials.gov: Body Weight (National Institutes of Health) * ClinicalTrials.gov: Body Weight Changes (National Institutes ... Media and Body Image (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists) * Whats the Right Weight for My Height? (For Teens) ...
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Body Weight - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlusBody Weight - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

Health Information on Body Weight: MedlinePlus Multiple Languages Collection ... Body Weight: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Peso corporal: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) ... Weight Gain with Cancer Treatment - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF ... Weight Loss with Cancer Treatment - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF ...
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Body Weight | Health TopicsBody Weight | Health Topics

Body Weight. Healthy eating and physical activity are great for everyone.. A healthy weight lowers your chances of getting type ... One way to see if you are at a healthy weight is to check your Body Mass Index (BMI), the calculator to the right is for adults ... and your community to a healthy weight, and tips for keeping a healthy weight. ... Keeping a healthy weight is important for American Indian and Alaska Natives because over 80 percent of our adults, ages 20 to ...
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Body Weight Exercises and ArthritisBody Weight Exercises and Arthritis

Learn how to incorporate body weight exercises into your workout with arthritis. ... Body weight exercises include sit-ups and crunches, planks, push-ups, pull-ups, jumping jacks, lunges and squats to name a few ... Body Weight Exercises. Performing bodyweight exercises - also known as calisthenics - is a simple, effective way to improve ... This is general body weight exercises information. Get personalized results, with specific modifications and tips customized to ...
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Body weight | physiology | Britannica.comBody weight | physiology | Britannica.com

... individual to maintain a normal body weight. A person with anorexia nervosa typically weighs no more than 85 percent of the ... In addition, people with anorexia nervosa have a distorted evaluation of their own weight… ... expected weight for the persons age, height, and sex, and in some cases much less. ... Other articles where Body weight is discussed: anorexia nervosa: … ...
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Ideal body weightIdeal body weight

... (IBW) is the weight that people are expected to weigh based on age, sex, and height. The ideal body weight ... There are two different formulas to determine ideal body weight; one formula for men and another for women. The history of the ... formulas for calculating ideal body weight began in 1871 when Dr. Broca... ... Ideal body weight (IBW) is the weight that people are expected to weigh based on age, sex, and height. The ideal body weight ...
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Body-Weight SquatBody-Weight Squat

Keeping your chest up, lower your body as far as you can by pushing your hips back and bending your knees. Pause, then slowly ... Weekend Challenge: Body-Weight Jump Squat * Body Weight Squat with Knee Press Out ...
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Three Women Lose Half Their Body WeightThree Women Lose Half Their Body Weight

In fact, the three women were so determined that they each lost half their body weight. Their stories are... ... In fact, the three women were so determined that they each lost half their body weight. ... McMillers weight struggles began early. The 28-year-old mother of two had heart surgery when she was 5 years old, and her ... "I hit puberty before my peers did … and the fact that I was bigger with a womans body made me think I was fat," she said, ...
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Body Weight - Exercise & Fitness - MedHelpBody Weight - Exercise & Fitness - MedHelp

My height is around 5 feet 6 inchers and my weight is 84kg. Can you tell me what should be the my normal body weight. ... If youre trying to lose weight, you can track your weight and your BMI with the weight tracker. Just click on the trackers ... A normal body weight for any given height can be different for everyone, depending on their constitution, bone mass, and other ... To conclude, it is often more important to check out your physical stamina and health than your body weight. Hope its helping ...
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body weight  | Health24body weight | Health24

The average weight for a boy of 4 years is 16.5kg. Your sons weight is obviously below this average weight. His weight is on ... Blast fat like a UFC fighter with this bodyweight workout Treating eczema The only 4 cycling workouts you really need Kies lae- ... health and his weight then it would be best to ask your doctor to examine him and see that all is well. ... What happens to your body during sex? ...
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Body Weight Linked to PersonalityBody Weight Linked to Personality

A new study derived from an examination of over 50 years of data shows how personality traits can influence weight gain. In ... Body Weight Linked to Personality. By Rick Nauert PhD Associate News Editor ... psychcentral.com/news/2011/07/19/body-weight-linked-to-personality/27871.html ... The finding that weight tends to increase gradually with age is consistent for all individuals. But researchers found greater ...
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Body Weight ExercisesBody Weight Exercises

These exercises consist of full body workouts that will give you a great workout from top to bottom! This program is FREE by ... These exercises consist of full body workouts that will give you a great workout from top to bottom! This program is FREE by ...
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NIH Body Weight Planner | NIDDKNIH Body Weight Planner | NIDDK

The Body Weight Planner is really about trying to calculate how the body will respond to changes in calories in the diet and ... He discusses how The Body Weight Planner can predict lifestyle changes needed to reach and maintain a particular weight goal. ... And the Body Weight Planner is actually the very first tool that provides people with information about what they have to do ... So one of the things that I think the NIH Body Weight Planner can help with is to allow healthcare professionals to basically ...
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Bodyweight SquatBodyweight Squat

Push your hips back, bend your knees, and lower your body until your upper thighs are parallel to the floor (or as low as you ...
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Body-Weight Power SquatBody-Weight Power Squat

Simultaneously push your hips back and swing your arms backward, lowering your body until your thighs are almost parallel to ... Weekend Challenge: Body-Weight Jump Squat * Body Weight Squat with Knee Press Out ...
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Body Weight Distribution? - Bike ForumsBody Weight Distribution? - Bike Forums

Does anyone know how the body weight is distributed on a bicycle at the five contact points: 2 hands, 2 feet and butt? Every ... time I do a search for weight distribution it gives front/rear tire distribution which is 40/60 or 45/55. I am interested for ... Body Weight Distribution? Does anyone know how the body weight is distributed on a bicycle at the five contact points: 2 hands ... Simple example: Standing to stretch much weight on hands, riding no hands 0 weight on hands. Weight varies continuously between ...
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Body WeightBody Weight

SOURCE: Body Weight ( ) Page printed: . Unofficial document if printed. Please refer to SOURCE for latest information. ... Speak with your health care team about setting reasonable goals for weight loss. ...
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Healthy body weight - Canadian Cancer SocietyHealthy body weight - Canadian Cancer Society

Reduce your risk by getting to and staying at a healthy body weight. ... Whats a healthy body weight?. A healthy body weight will be different for everyone, so check with your doctor about what a ... healthy body weight is for you. Being at a healthy body weight does not mean being skinny like a model, but you might be ... Healthy body weight. Many Canadians weigh too much - more than half of us are overweight or obese. This puts us at increased ...
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Human body weight - WikipediaHuman body weight - Wikipedia

Human body weight refers to a persons mass or weight. Body weight is measured in kilograms, a measure of mass, throughout the ... body weight is the measurement of weight without items located on the person. Practically though, body weight may be measured ... Ideal body weightEdit. Ideal body weight (IBW) was initially introduced by Devine in 1974 to allow estimation of drug ... "Comparative evaluation of atracurium dosed on ideal body weight vs. total body weight in morbidly obese patients". British ...
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Body Weight | STACKBody Weight | STACK

Return to main Body Weight page The Worst 5 Minutes of Your Week Every week, a new STACK Challenge gives you an opportunity to ... STACK Challenge: The Bodyweight Bench Press Every week, a new STACK Challenge gives you an opportunity to test your athletic ... STACK Challenge: TRX Upper-Body Blaster Every week, a new STACK Challenge gives you an opportunity to test your athletic ...
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Body Weight | STACKBody Weight | STACK

Combine Freeweight and Bodyweight Exercises for Easy Supersets Body Weight vs. Free Weight Exercises? Two Tough Workouts Mixing ... Return to main Body Weight page Does Your Pitching Velocity Dip During the Season? Heres Why A high school pitcher trains his ... 10 Things the Strongest Athletes in the Weight Room Have in Common On every team-or in a weight room-theres always a group of ... Test Your Lower-Body Strength With the Goblet Squat Challenge Theres a good chance youre not strong enough to Back Squat. Yet ...
more infohttp://www.stack.com/ta/body-weight?page=1

Body weight - Cancer Council AustraliaBody weight - Cancer Council Australia

Find out information on how your body weight can affect your risk of developing certain types of cancer such as bowel and ... The Body Mass Index, or BMI, is a measurement used to assess peoples body weight - a score over 25 is classed as overweight ... To maintain a healthy body weight, eat a balanced diet that only contains as much energy (kilojoules or calories) as you use ... Waist circumference is another way to measure body weight. Men should aim for a waist circumference below 94cm. Women should ...
more infohttps://www.cancer.org.au/preventing-cancer/nutrition-and-physical-activity/body-weight.html
  • The exercise will be more beneficial if you lift the weights slowly and squeeze your bicep muscle slightly when you reach the top of the arc. (smore.com)
  • The history of the formulas for calculating ideal body weight began in 1871 when Dr. Broca (a French surgeon) created the formula known as Broca's index. (wellness.com)
  • These formulas base their findings on the child's age and tape-based systems of weight estimation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of the many formulas that have been used for estimating body weight, some include the APLS formula, the Leffler formula, and Theron formula. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Devine IBW formula suggests ideal body weight values that may be too low in women, and impossibly low in shorter women. (wellness.com)
  • The early part of pregnancy usually is accompanied by moderate weight loss caused by the woman's lack of appetite and in some cases nausea and vomiting. (britannica.com)
  • I hit puberty before my peers did … and the fact that I was bigger with a woman's body made me think I was fat," she said, adding that she gave up dance and soccer because she was embarrassed about her body. (yahoo.com)
  • Normal Weight Obesity: A Hidden Health Risk? (medlineplus.gov)
  • To find out if your children are at a healthy weight, talk with their health care provider. (ihs.gov)
  • You can also visit the Indian Health Service Healthy Weight for Life website for information about getting you, your family, and your community to a healthy weight, and tips for keeping a healthy weight. (ihs.gov)
  • To conclude, it is often more important to check out your physical stamina and health than your body weight. (medhelp.org)
  • He may simply be following a family pattern where the boys and men in the family tend to be rather thin, but are healthy otherwise.If this is not the case and you are concerned about your son's appetite, health and his weight then it would be best to ask your doctor to examine him and see that all is well. (health24.com)
  • When health professionals are using the NIH Body Weight Planner, it's important to point out to the clients that it's not just the foods that they're eating that are affecting the number of calories but it's also the drinks that they're drinking whether it be alcohol or sugar sweetened beverages. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine published a study of average weights of adult humans in the journal BMC Public Health and at the United Nations conference Rio+20. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the app settings you have the ability to import your gender, age, weight, and height from Apple Health. (apple.com)
  • But none arrive into the body without risk to health. (dietbites.com)
  • Use Home Workout as your personal trainer and see your body improve, fast! (apple.com)
  • Make sure you listen to the bodyweight hotel room workout hygiene tips I give before I workout. (youtube.com)
  • Today, doctors and nurses typically use an equation based on the ideal body weight formula to determine dosing. (wellness.com)
  • To maintain a healthy weight, it is typically necessary to have a healthy diet and a sustained program of physical activity, both of which require commitment and restraint. (psychcentral.com)
  • Eating extra calories within a well-balanced diet and treating any underlying medical problems can help to add weight. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The 3500 calorie per pound rule has been used for decades and decades to try to evaluate the relationship between changes in diet calories and how the body weight will respond. (nih.gov)
  • how does the number of calories that they're burning adapt over time as those folks lose weight? (nih.gov)
  • And so it's important as part of the conversation that can take place surrounding the Body Weight Planner to make people more cognizant of really how many calories they're likely eating now before they've lost weight and how much they're going to have to cut in order to lose the weight that they want in the timeframe that they want and then maintain it afterwards. (nih.gov)
  • To maintain a healthy body weight, eat a balanced diet that only contains as much energy (kilojoules or calories) as you use each day. (cancer.org.au)
  • Today Dr. Robinson's ideal body weight calculator is used for medication dosing. (wellness.com)
  • Other tools of medication dosing may surpass the ideal body weight calculator in the future. (wellness.com)
  • Though doctors and nurses have used ideal body weight charts to measure doses in the past, this technique is no longer in use. (wellness.com)
  • One easy way I use to get a broad idea of my ideal weight is simply to look at myself in the mirror: do I look overweight? (medhelp.org)
  • No. A person less than 10% over ideal weight is at minimal risk. (cancersupportivecare.com)
  • Hindu pushups work the entire chest area and also can increase ur upper body strength. (exrx.net)
  • Although falling on the head, chest, buttocks, and falling backwards can occur, these are far less harmful injuries than dropping a weight on a body part, or having a joint extended beyond its natural range of motion due to a weight being used incorrectly. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in a pushup, the body must form a rigid straight line, and the elbow joint must move from a straight angle to the smallest angle possible, and thus the core muscles, chest muscles, triceps, and legs are all involved in ensuring proper, strict form. (wikipedia.org)
  • Waist circumference is another way to measure body weight. (cancer.org.au)
  • A healthy weight lowers your chances of getting type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, breathing problems, and some types of cancer. (ihs.gov)
  • Most diets fail because staying at a healthy weight depends on more than just cutting down on the amount of food you eat or exercising for a short period of time. (cancer.ca)
  • This type of strength training has grown in popularity for both recreational and professional athletes, with a range of sports disciplines using bodyweight resistance training as part of their fitness programs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strictly speaking, body weight is the measurement of weight without items located on the person. (wikipedia.org)
  • When she reached her goal weight in 2011, she maintained it by eating pre-packaged, pre-measured meals, and never leaves her home without healthy snacks, such as string cheese, baby carrots and homemade brownies with pumpkin. (yahoo.com)
  • Push-ups or planks can be modified by changing your position to bear weight on the forearms rather than hands and wrists, or the position can be changed to bear weight on the knees rather than the feet. (arthritis.org)
  • Support your upper body with your core, not your shoulders. (bikeforums.net)
  • It indicates an imbalance of upper body pushing vs pulling power. (exrx.net)
  • But there is much benefit for upper body endurance, especially in sports. (exrx.net)
  • In particular, people with personality traits of high neuroticism and low conscientiousness are likely to go through cycles of gaining and losing weight throughout their lives. (psychcentral.com)
  • And so we've incorporated that science into a mathematical model that's available as a tool online for people to use to make more accurate predictions about how the body weight will respond. (nih.gov)
  • And the Body Weight Planner is actually the very first tool that provides people with information about what they have to do permanently to keep the weight off over time, in addition to losing it in the first place. (nih.gov)
  • Maintaining a healthy body weight is a goal that most people can reach. (cancer.ca)
  • Professional sports participants may deliberately dehydrate themselves to enter a lower weight class, a practice known as weight cutting . (wikipedia.org)
  • Lower the weights slowly in an arc toward your starting position. (smore.com)
  • The taller the frame, the more the saddle is shoved back toward the rear axle, putting more weight on the rear wheel. (bikeforums.net)
  • On every team-or in a weight room-there's always a group of athletes who are stronger than the pack. (stack.com)
  • Another disadvantage is that bodyweight training may be daunting to novices and seen to be too easy for experienced athletes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The finding that weight tends to increase gradually with age is consistent for all individuals. (psychcentral.com)
  • Newer systems, such as the PAWPER tape, make use of a simple two-step process to estimate weight: the length-based weight estimation is modified according to the child's body habitus to increase the accuracy of the final weight prediction. (wikipedia.org)