Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
The two types of spaces between which water and other body fluids are distributed: extracellular and intracellular.
Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
Unstable isotopes of potassium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. K atoms with atomic weights 37, 38, 40, and 42-45 are radioactive potassium isotopes.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Disturbances in the body's WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)
Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The consumption of liquids.
The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)
A technique of measuring the dielectric properties of materials, which vary over a range of frequencies depending on the physical properties of the material. The technique involves measuring, over a range of frequencies, ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE and phase shift of an electric field as it passes through the material.
The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.
Activation analysis in which the specimen is bombarded with neutrons. Identification is made by measuring the resulting radioisotopes. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
The two dimensional measure of the outer layer of the body.
Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.
A drive stemming from a physiological need for WATER.
The fluid of the body that is outside of CELLS. It is the external environment for the cells.
Liquid components of living organisms.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
The fluid inside CELLS.
An anti-infective agent most commonly used in the treatment of urinary tract infections. Its anti-infective action derives from the slow release of formaldehyde by hydrolysis at acidic pH. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p173)
Inorganic compounds that contain sodium as an integral part of the molecule.
Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
Errors in metabolic processing of STEROIDS resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.
Aquaporin 2 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. The translocation of aquaporin 2 to the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE is regulated by VASOPRESSIN, and MUTATIONS in AQP2 have been implicated in a variety of kidney disorders including DIABETES INSIPIDUS.
An analgesic and antipyretic that has been given by mouth and as ear drops. Antipyrine is often used in testing the effects of other drugs or diseases on drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p29)
A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.
Dialysis fluid being introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity as either a continuous or an intermittent procedure.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Loss of water by diffusion through the skin and by evaporation from the respiratory tract.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.
The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.
'Water softening' is a water treatment process that reduces the hardness of water by removing calcium, magnesium, and certain other metal cations (such as iron and manganese) through the use of ion-exchange resins or other methods like nanofiltration or reverse osmosis.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A family of nonbiting midges, in the order DIPTERA. Salivary glands of the genus Chironomus are used in studies of cellular genetics and biochemistry.
Portable peritoneal dialysis using the continuous (24 hours a day, 7 days a week) presence of peritoneal dialysis solution in the peritoneal cavity except for periods of drainage and instillation of fresh solution.
Surgical creation of an external opening into the ILEUM for fecal diversion or drainage. This replacement for the RECTUM is usually created in patients with severe INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES. Loop (continent) or tube (incontinent) procedures are most often employed.
The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Water that is intended to be ingested.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.

Acute renal failure caused by nephrotoxins. (1/1766)

Renal micropuncture studies have greatly changed our views on the pathophysiology of acute renal failure caused by nephrotoxins. Formerly, this type of renal insufficiency was attributed to a direct effect of the nephrotoxins on tubule epithelial permeability. According to that theory, glomerular filtration was not greatly diminished, the filtrate formed being absorbed almost quantitatively and nonselectively across damaged tubule epithelium. Studies in a wide variety of rat models have now shown glomerular filtration to be reduced to a level which will inevitably cause renal failure in and of itself. Passive backflow of filtrate across tubular epithelium is either of minor degree or nonexistent even in models where frank tubular necrosis has occurred. This failure of filtration cannot be attributed to tubular obstruction since proximal tubule pressure is distinctly subnormal in most models studied. Instead, filtration failure appears best attributed to intrarenal hemodynamic alterations. While certain facts tend to incriminate the renin-angiotensin system as the cause of the hemodynamic aberrations, others argue to the contrary. The issue is underactive investigation.  (+info)

Lung fluid transport in aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-4 knockout mice. (2/1766)

The mammalian lung expresses water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) in microvascular endothelia and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in airway epithelia. To test whether these water channels facilitate fluid movement between airspace, interstitial, and capillary compartments, we measured passive and active fluid transport in AQP1 and AQP4 knockout mice. Airspace-capillary osmotic water permeability (Pf) was measured in isolated perfused lungs by a pleural surface fluorescence method. Pf was remarkably reduced in AQP1 (-/-) mice (measured in cm/s x 0.001, SE, n = 5-10: 17 +/- 2 [+/+]; 6.6 +/- 0.6 AQP1 [+/-]; 1.7 +/- 0.3 AQP1 [-/-]; 12 +/- 1 AQP4 [-/-]). Microvascular endothelial water permeability, measured by a related pleural surface fluorescence method in which the airspace was filled with inert perfluorocarbon, was reduced more than 10-fold in AQP1 (-/-) vs. (+/+) mice. Hydrostatically induced lung interstitial and alveolar edema was measured by a gravimetric method and by direct measurement of extravascular lung water. Both approaches indicated a more than twofold reduction in lung water accumulation in AQP1 (-/-) vs. (+/+) mice in response to a 5- to 10-cm H2O increase in pulmonary artery pressure for five minutes. Active, near-isosmolar alveolar fluid absorption (Jv) was measured in in situ perfused lungs using 125I-albumin as an airspace fluid volume marker. Jv (measured in percent fluid uptake at 30 min, n = 5) in (+/+) mice was 6.0 +/- 0.6 (37 degrees C), increased to 16 +/- 1 by beta-agonists, and inhibited to less than 2.0 by amiloride, ouabain, or cooling to 23 degrees C. Jv (with isoproterenol) was not affected by aquaporin deletion (18.9 +/- 2.2 [+/+]; 16.4 +/- 1.5 AQP1 [-/-]; 16.3 +/- 1.7 AQP4 [-/-]). These results indicate that osmotically driven water transport across microvessels in adult lung occurs by a transcellular route through AQP1 water channels and that the microvascular endothelium is a significant barrier for airspace-capillary osmotic water transport. AQP1 facilitates hydrostatically driven lung edema but is not required for active near-isosmolar absorption of alveolar fluid.  (+info)

The sodium concentration of enteral diets does not influence absorption of nutrients but induces intestinal secretion of water in miniature pigs. (3/1766)

Contradictory opinions exist as to whether the sodium concentration of enteral diets influences absorption of macronutrients and transepithelial movement of sodium and water. Therefore, we investigated the effects of various sodium concentrations of enteral diets on absorption of macronutrients and on net fluxes of sodium and water. In unanesthetized miniature pigs, a 150-cm jejunal segment was perfused with an oligopeptide (Peptisorb), an oligomeric and a polymeric diet. The polymeric diet was supplemented with pancreatic enzymes. The sodium concentrations varied between 30 and 150 mmol/L. The energy density was 3.4 MJ/L. The sodium concentration of the diets did not influence absorption of macronutrients and of total energy. However, increasing sodium concentrations of the diets were associated with increasing osmolality of the solutions, resulting in a linear increase in net secretion of water and flow rate of chyme. With all diets and sodium concentrations net secretion of sodium occurred. The sodium secretion was independent of the initial sodium concentration of the diets. It was linearly correlated with net flux of water and was largest in miniature pigs infused with the oligomeric diet. The sodium concentration of the jejunal effluent did not correspond to the initial sodium concentration of the diets. The present results indicate that enteral feeding of diets with high energy density inevitably increases net secretion of water and sodium as sodium concentration increases. Therefore, the sodium concentration of diets should be as low as possible to meet only the minimal daily requirement of sodium. Low sodium concentrations of diets have no negative effects on absorption of macronutrients.  (+info)

Renal and hemodynamic effects of losartan in conscious dogs during controlled mechanical ventilation. (4/1766)

In 12 conscious dogs, we investigated whether the angiotensin II-receptor antagonist losartan increases renal sodium excretion and urine volume during controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) with positive end-expiratory pressure. In four experimental protocols, the dogs were extracellular volume (ECV) expanded (electrolyte solution, 0.5 ml. kg-1. min-1 iv) or not and received losartan (100 micrograms. kg-1. min-1 iv) or not. They breathed spontaneously during the 1st and 4th hour and received CMV with positive end-expiratory pressure (mean airway pressure 20 cmH2O) during the 2nd and 3rd hours. In the expansion group, dogs with losartan excreted approximately 18% more sodium (69 +/- 7 vs. 38 +/- 5 micromol. min-1. kg-1) and 15% more urine during the 2 h of CMV because of a higher glomerular filtration rate (5.3 +/- 0.3 vs. 4.5 +/- 0.2 ml. min-1. kg-1) and the tubular effects of losartan. In the group without expansion, sodium excretion (2.0 +/- 0.6 vs. 2.6 +/- 1.0 micromol. min-1. kg-1) and glomerular filtration rate (3.8 +/- 0.3 vs. 3.8 +/- 0.4 ml. min-1. kg-1) did not change, and urine volume decreased similarly in both groups during CMV. Plasma vasopressin and aldosterone increased in both groups, and plasma renin activity increased from 4.9 +/- 0.7 to 7.8 +/- 1.3 ng ANG I. ml-1. h-1 during CMV in nonexpanded dogs without losartan. Mean arterial pressure decreased by 10 mmHg in nonexpanded dogs with losartan. In conclusion, losartan increases sodium excretion and urine volume during CMV if the ECV is expanded. If the ECV is not expanded, a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure and/or an increase in aldosterone and vasopressin during CMV attenuates the renal effects of losartan.  (+info)

Regulation of renal urea transporters. (5/1766)

Urea is important for the conservation of body water due to its role in the production of concentrated urine in the renal inner medulla. Physiologic data demonstrate that urea is transported by facilitated and by active urea transporter proteins. The facilitated urea transporter (UT-A) in the terminal inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) permits very high rates of transepithelial urea transport and results in the delivery of large amounts of urea into the deepest portions of the inner medulla where it is needed to maintain a high interstitial osmolality for concentrating the urine maximally. Four isoforms of the UT-A urea transporter family have been cloned to date. The facilitated urea transporter (UT-B) in erythrocytes permits these cells to lose urea rapidly as they traverse the ascending vasa recta, thereby preventing loss of urea from the medulla and decreasing urine-concentrating ability by decreasing the efficiency of countercurrent exchange, as occurs in Jk null individuals (who lack Kidd antigen). In addition to these facilitated urea transporters, three sodium-dependent, secondary active urea transport mechanisms have been characterized functionally in IMCD subsegments: (1) active urea reabsorption in the apical membrane of initial IMCD from low-protein fed or hypercalcemic rats; (2) active urea reabsorption in the basolateral membrane of initial IMCD from furosemide-treated rats; and (3) active urea secretion in the apical membrane of terminal IMCD from untreated rats. This review focuses on the physiologic, biophysical, and molecular evidence for facilitated and active urea transporters, and integrative studies of their acute and long-term regulation in rats with reduced urine-concentrating ability.  (+info)

Physiology and pathophysiology of renal aquaporins. (6/1766)

The discovery of aquaporin membrane water channels by Agre and coworkers answered a long-standing biophysical question of how water specifically crosses biologic membranes, and provided insight, at the molecular level, into the fundamental physiology of water balance and the pathophysiology of water balance disorders. Of nine aquaporin isoforms, at least six are known to be present in the kidney at distinct sites along the nephron and collecting duct. Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is extremely abundant in the proximal tubule and descending thin limb, where it appears to provide the chief route for proximal nephron water reabsorption. AQP2 is abundant in the collecting duct principal cells and is the chief target for vasopressin to regulate collecting duct water reabsorption. Acute regulation involves vasopressin-regulated trafficking of AQP2 between an intracellular reservoir and the apical plasma membrane. In addition, AQP2 is involved in chronic/adaptational regulation of body water balance achieved through regulation of AQP2 expression. Importantly, multiple studies have now identified a critical role of AQP2 in several inherited and acquired water balance disorders. This concerns inherited forms of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and several, much more common acquired types of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus where AQP2 expression and/or targeting are affected. Conversely, AQP2 expression and targeting appear to be increased in some conditions with water retention such as pregnancy and congestive heart failure. AQP3 and AQP4 are basolateral water channels located in the kidney collecting duct, and AQP6 and AQP7 appear to be expressed at lower abundance at several sites including the proximal tubule. This review focuses mainly on the role of AQP2 in water balance regulation and in the pathophysiology of water balance disorders.  (+info)

Oxygen consumption of cerebral cortex fails to increase during continued vibrotactile stimulation. (7/1766)

The coupling of oxidative metabolism to the blood flow of the sensory motor hand area is uncertain. The authors tested the hypothesis that continued vibrotactile stimulation ultimately must lead to increased oxygen consumption consumption. Twenty-two healthy right-handed young volunteers underwent positron emission tomography (PET) with the [(15)O]water bolus injection method to measure water clearance (K1H2O an index of blood flow (CBF), and with the [(15)O]oxygen bolus inhalation method to measure CMR(O2). The CMR(O2) was measured 30 seconds and 20 minutes after onset of intermittent (1 second on, 1 second off) vibrotactile stimulation (110 Hz) and compared with baseline measurements without stimulation. The K1H2O and CMR(O2) changes (delta K1H2O and delta CMR(O2)) were determined using intersubject averaging, together with magnetic resonance imaging based stereotaxic registration technique. The K1H2O increase was 21 +/- 4% and 12 +/- 4% at 30 seconds and 20 minutes after onset of stimulation, respectively. No significant increase of CMR(O2) was found until 30 minutes after the onset of stimulation. The authors conclude that blood flow and oxidative metabolism undergo uncoupling during sustained phasic stimulation of the sensory hand area. Therefore, neuronal activity stimulated in this manner does not rely on significantly increased oxidative phosphorylation.  (+info)

Changes in the diffusion of water and intracellular metabolites after excitotoxic injury and global ischemia in neonatal rat brain. (8/1766)

The reduction of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of brain tissue water in acute cerebral ischemia, as measured by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, is generally associated with the development of cytotoxic edema. However, the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Our aim was to elucidate diffusion changes in the intracellular environment in cytotoxic edematous tissue. The ADC of intracellular metabolites was measured by use of diffusion-weighted 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy after (1) unilateral N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) injection and (2) cardiac arrest-induced global ischemia in neonatal rat brain. The distinct water ADC drop early after global ischemia was accompanied by a significant reduction of the ADC of all measured metabolites (P < 0.01, n = 8). In the first hours after excitotoxic injury, the ADC of water and the metabolites taurine and N-acetylaspartate dropped significantly (P < 0.05, n = 8). At 24 and 72 hours after NMDA injection brain metabolite levels were diminished and metabolite ADC approached contralateral values. Administration of the NMDA-antagonist MK-801 1.5 hours after NMDA injection completely normalized the water ADC but not the metabolite ADC after 1 to 2 hours (n = 8). No damage was detected 72 hours later and, water and metabolite ADC had normal values (n = 8). The contribution of brain temperature changes (calculated from the chemical shift between the water and N-acetylaspartate signals) and tissue deoxygenation to ischemia-induced intracellular ADC changes was minor. These data lend support to previous suggestions that the ischemia-induced brain water ADC drop may partly be caused by reduced diffusional displacement of intracellular water, possibly involving early alterations in intracellular tortuosity, cytoplasmic streaming, or intracellular molecular interactions.  (+info)

Body water refers to the total amount of water present in the human body. It is an essential component of life and makes up about 60-70% of an adult's body weight. Body water is distributed throughout various fluid compartments within the body, including intracellular fluid (water inside cells), extracellular fluid (water outside cells), and transcellular fluid (water found in specific bodily spaces such as the digestive tract, eyes, and joints). Maintaining proper hydration and balance of body water is crucial for various physiological processes, including temperature regulation, nutrient transportation, waste elimination, and overall health.

Medical definitions of water generally describe it as a colorless, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for all forms of life. It is a universal solvent, making it an excellent medium for transporting nutrients and waste products within the body. Water constitutes about 50-70% of an individual's body weight, depending on factors such as age, sex, and muscle mass.

In medical terms, water has several important functions in the human body:

1. Regulation of body temperature through perspiration and respiration.
2. Acting as a lubricant for joints and tissues.
3. Facilitating digestion by helping to break down food particles.
4. Transporting nutrients, oxygen, and waste products throughout the body.
5. Helping to maintain healthy skin and mucous membranes.
6. Assisting in the regulation of various bodily functions, such as blood pressure and heart rate.

Dehydration can occur when an individual does not consume enough water or loses too much fluid due to illness, exercise, or other factors. This can lead to a variety of symptoms, including dry mouth, fatigue, dizziness, and confusion. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening if left untreated.

Deuterium oxide, also known as heavy water, is a compound consisting of two atoms of deuterium (a heavy isotope of hydrogen) and one atom of oxygen. Its chemical formula is D2O. Deuterium oxide has physical and chemical properties similar to those of regular water (H2O), but its density and boiling point are slightly higher due to the increased atomic weight. It is used in various scientific research applications, including as a tracer in biochemical and medical studies.

Electric impedance is a measure of opposition to the flow of alternating current (AC) in an electrical circuit or component, caused by both resistance (ohmic) and reactance (capacitive and inductive). It is expressed as a complex number, with the real part representing resistance and the imaginary part representing reactance. The unit of electric impedance is the ohm (Ω).

In the context of medical devices, electric impedance may be used to measure various physiological parameters, such as tissue conductivity or fluid composition. For example, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) uses electrical impedance to estimate body composition, including fat mass and lean muscle mass. Similarly, electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a medical imaging technique that uses electric impedance to create images of internal organs and tissues.

Body fluid compartments refer to the distribution of body fluids in the human body, which are divided into two main compartments: the intracellular fluid compartment and the extracellular fluid compartment. The intracellular fluid compartment contains fluid that is inside the cells, while the extracellular fluid compartment contains fluid that is outside the cells.

The extracellular fluid compartment is further divided into two sub-compartments: the interstitial fluid compartment and the intravascular fluid compartment. The interstitial fluid compartment is the space between the cells, while the intravascular fluid compartment is the fluid inside the blood vessels.

These body fluid compartments are essential for maintaining homeostasis in the human body, as they help to regulate the balance of water and electrolytes, transport nutrients and waste products, and provide a medium for immune cells to travel through the body. Abnormalities in the distribution of body fluids can lead to various medical conditions, such as edema, dehydration, and heart failure.

Indicator dilution techniques are a group of methods used in medicine and research to measure various physiological variables, such as cardiac output or cerebral blood flow. These techniques involve introducing a known quantity of an indicator substance (like a dye or a radioactive tracer) into the system being studied and then measuring its concentration over time at a specific location downstream.

The basic principle behind these techniques is that the concentration of the indicator substance will be inversely proportional to the flow rate of the fluid through which it is moving. By measuring the concentration of the indicator substance at different points in time, researchers can calculate the flow rate using mathematical formulas.

Indicator dilution techniques are widely used in clinical and research settings because they are relatively non-invasive and can provide accurate and reliable measurements of various physiological variables. Some common examples of indicator dilution techniques include thermodilution, dye dilution, and Fick principle-based methods.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "water supply" is not a medical term per se. It is a general term used to describe the system or arrangement providing water for consumption or use, such as a public water supply system or a private well. However, in a medical context, it could refer to the source of water used in a healthcare facility for drinking, cooking, cleaning, and patient care, which must meet certain quality standards to prevent infection and ensure safety.

Deuterium is a stable and non-radioactive isotope of hydrogen. The atomic nucleus of deuterium, called a deuteron, contains one proton and one neutron, giving it an atomic weight of approximately 2.014 atomic mass units (amu). It is also known as heavy hydrogen or heavy water because its hydrogen atoms contain one neutron in addition to the usual one proton found in common hydrogen atoms.

Deuterium occurs naturally in trace amounts in water and other organic compounds, typically making up about 0.015% to 0.018% of all hydrogen atoms. It can be separated from regular hydrogen through various methods such as electrolysis or distillation, and it has many applications in scientific research, particularly in the fields of chemistry and physics.

In medical contexts, deuterium is sometimes used as a tracer to study metabolic processes in the body. By replacing hydrogen atoms in specific molecules with deuterium atoms, researchers can track the movement and transformation of those molecules within living organisms. This technique has been used to investigate various physiological processes, including drug metabolism, energy production, and lipid synthesis.

Body composition refers to the relative proportions of different components that make up a person's body, including fat mass, lean muscle mass, bone mass, and total body water. It is an important measure of health and fitness, as changes in body composition can indicate shifts in overall health status. For example, an increase in fat mass and decrease in lean muscle mass can be indicative of poor nutrition, sedentary behavior, or certain medical conditions.

There are several methods for measuring body composition, including:

1. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This method uses low-level electrical currents to estimate body fat percentage based on the conductivity of different tissues.
2. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This method uses low-dose X-rays to measure bone density and body composition, including lean muscle mass and fat distribution.
3. Hydrostatic weighing: This method involves submerging a person in water and measuring their weight underwater to estimate body density and fat mass.
4. Air displacement plethysmography (ADP): This method uses air displacement to measure body volume and density, which can be used to estimate body composition.

Understanding body composition can help individuals make informed decisions about their health and fitness goals, as well as provide valuable information for healthcare providers in the management of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease.

Oxygen isotopes are different forms or varieties of the element oxygen that have the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei, which is 8, but a different number of neutrons. The most common oxygen isotopes are oxygen-16 (^{16}O), which contains 8 protons and 8 neutrons, and oxygen-18 (^{18}O), which contains 8 protons and 10 neutrons.

The ratio of these oxygen isotopes can vary in different substances, such as water molecules, and can provide valuable information about the origins and history of those substances. For example, scientists can use the ratio of oxygen-18 to oxygen-16 in ancient ice cores or fossilized bones to learn about past climate conditions or the diets of ancient organisms.

In medical contexts, oxygen isotopes may be used in diagnostic tests or treatments, such as positron emission tomography (PET) scans, where a radioactive isotope of oxygen (such as oxygen-15) is introduced into the body and emits positrons that can be detected by specialized equipment to create detailed images of internal structures.

Dehydration is a condition that occurs when your body loses more fluids than it takes in. It's normal to lose water throughout the day through activities like breathing, sweating, and urinating; however, if you don't replenish this lost fluid, your body can become dehydrated.

Mild to moderate dehydration can cause symptoms such as:
- Dry mouth
- Fatigue or weakness
- Dizziness or lightheadedness
- Headache
- Dark colored urine
- Muscle cramps

Severe dehydration can lead to more serious health problems, including heat injury, urinary and kidney problems, seizures, and even hypovolemic shock, a life-threatening condition that occurs when your blood volume is too low.

Dehydration can be caused by various factors such as illness (e.g., diarrhea, vomiting), excessive sweating, high fever, burns, alcohol consumption, and certain medications. It's essential to stay hydrated by drinking plenty of fluids, especially during hot weather, exercise, or when you're ill.

The Radioisotope Dilution Technique is a method used in nuclear medicine to measure the volume and flow rate of a particular fluid in the body. It involves introducing a known amount of a radioactive isotope, or radioisotope, into the fluid, such as blood. The isotope mixes with the fluid, and samples are then taken from the fluid at various time points.

By measuring the concentration of the radioisotope in each sample, it is possible to calculate the total volume of the fluid based on the amount of the isotope introduced and the dilution factor. The flow rate can also be calculated by measuring the concentration of the isotope over time and using the formula:

Flow rate = Volume/Time

This technique is commonly used in medical research and clinical settings to measure cardiac output, cerebral blood flow, and renal function, among other applications. It is a safe and reliable method that has been widely used for many years. However, it does require the use of radioactive materials and specialized equipment, so it should only be performed by trained medical professionals in appropriate facilities.

Water-electrolyte balance refers to the regulation of water and electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate) in the body to maintain homeostasis. This is crucial for various bodily functions such as nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, fluid balance, and pH regulation. The body maintains this balance through mechanisms that control water intake, excretion, and electrolyte concentration in various body fluids like blood and extracellular fluid. Disruptions in water-electrolyte balance can lead to dehydration or overhydration, and imbalances in electrolytes can cause conditions such as hyponatremia (low sodium levels) or hyperkalemia (high potassium levels).

Potassium radioisotopes refer to unstable isotopes or variants of the element potassium that emit radiation as they decay towards a stable form. A common example is Potassium-40 (40K), which occurs naturally in small amounts in potassium-containing substances. It decays through beta decay and positron emission, as well as electron capture, with a half-life of approximately 1.25 billion years.

Radioisotopes like 40K have medical applications such as in dating archaeological artifacts or studying certain biological processes. However, exposure to high levels of radiation from potassium radioisotopes can be harmful and potentially lead to health issues like radiation sickness or cancer.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Fresh Water" is not a medical term. It is a term used to describe water that contains low concentrations of dissolved salts and other dissolved minerals. It is distinguished from saline water, which includes saltwater found in the ocean and brackish water found in estuaries. Fresh water is essential for many biological processes and is the primary source of water for human consumption, agriculture, and industrial use.

Water-electrolyte imbalance refers to a disturbance in the balance of water and electrolytes (such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate) in the body. This imbalance can occur when there is an excess or deficiency of water or electrolytes in the body, leading to altered concentrations in the blood and other bodily fluids.

Such imbalances can result from various medical conditions, including kidney disease, heart failure, liver cirrhosis, severe dehydration, burns, excessive sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, and certain medications. Symptoms of water-electrolyte imbalance may include weakness, fatigue, muscle cramps, seizures, confusion, and in severe cases, coma or even death. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause and correcting the electrolyte and fluid levels through appropriate medical interventions.

In medical terms, "bromides" refer to salts or compounds that contain bromine, a chemical element. Historically, potassium bromide was used as a sedative and anticonvulsant in the 19th and early 20th centuries. However, its use has largely been discontinued due to side effects such as neurotoxicity and kidney damage.

In modern medical language, "bromides" can also refer to something that is unoriginal, dull, or lacking in creativity, often used to describe ideas or expressions that are trite or clichéd. This usage comes from the fact that bromide salts were once commonly used as a sedative and were associated with a lack of excitement or energy.

The extracellular space is the region outside of cells within a tissue or organ, where various biological molecules and ions exist in a fluid medium. This space is filled with extracellular matrix (ECM), which includes proteins like collagen and elastin, glycoproteins, and proteoglycans that provide structural support and biochemical cues to surrounding cells. The ECM also contains various ions, nutrients, waste products, signaling molecules, and growth factors that play crucial roles in cell-cell communication, tissue homeostasis, and regulation of cell behavior. Additionally, the extracellular space includes the interstitial fluid, which is the fluid component of the ECM, and the lymphatic and vascular systems, through which cells exchange nutrients, waste products, and signaling molecules with the rest of the body. Overall, the extracellular space is a complex and dynamic microenvironment that plays essential roles in maintaining tissue structure, function, and homeostasis.

Water pollution is defined medically as the contamination of water sources by harmful or sufficient amounts of foreign substances (pathogens, chemicals, toxic compounds, etc.) which tend to interfere with its normal functioning and can have negative effects on human health. Such pollutants can find their way into water bodies through various means including industrial waste disposal, agricultural runoff, oil spills, sewage and wastewater discharges, and accidental chemical releases, among others.

Exposure to polluted water can lead to a range of health issues, from minor problems like skin irritation or stomach upset, to severe conditions such as neurological disorders, reproductive issues, cancer, and even death in extreme cases. It also poses significant risks to aquatic life, disrupting ecosystems and leading to the decline or extinction of various species. Therefore, maintaining clean and safe water supplies is critical for both human health and environmental preservation.

Water purification is the process of removing or reducing contaminants in water to make it safe and suitable for specific uses, such as drinking, cooking, irrigation, or medical purposes. This is typically achieved through physical, chemical, or biological methods, or a combination thereof. The goal is to eliminate or reduce harmful substances like bacteria, viruses, parasites, heavy metals, pesticides, and other pollutants that can cause illness or negatively impact human health, aquatic life, or the environment.

The specific purification methods used may vary depending on the nature of the contaminants and the desired level of purity for the intended use. Common techniques include filtration (using various types of filters like activated carbon, ceramic, or reverse osmosis), disinfection (using chemicals like chlorine or UV light to kill microorganisms), sedimentation (allowing particles to settle and be removed), and distillation (heating water to create steam, which is then condensed back into pure water).

Body weight is the measure of the force exerted on a scale or balance by an object's mass, most commonly expressed in units such as pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg). In the context of medical definitions, body weight typically refers to an individual's total weight, which includes their skeletal muscle, fat, organs, and bodily fluids.

Healthcare professionals often use body weight as a basic indicator of overall health status, as it can provide insights into various aspects of a person's health, such as nutritional status, metabolic function, and risk factors for certain diseases. For example, being significantly underweight or overweight can increase the risk of developing conditions like malnutrition, diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

It is important to note that body weight alone may not provide a complete picture of an individual's health, as it does not account for factors such as muscle mass, bone density, or body composition. Therefore, healthcare professionals often use additional measures, such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and blood tests, to assess overall health status more comprehensively.

The term "drinking" is commonly used to refer to the consumption of beverages, but in a medical context, it usually refers to the consumption of alcoholic drinks. According to the Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary, "drinking" is defined as:

1. The act or habit of swallowing liquid (such as water, juice, or alcohol)
2. The ingestion of alcoholic beverages

It's important to note that while moderate drinking may not pose significant health risks for some individuals, excessive or binge drinking can lead to a range of negative health consequences, including addiction, liver disease, heart disease, and increased risk of injury or violence.

Skinfold thickness is a measurement of the thickness of the subcutaneous fat layer (the layer of fat directly beneath the skin) at specific sites on the body. It's typically measured using calipers and is expressed in millimeters (mm). This measurement is often used in health assessments to estimate body fat percentage and overall health status. The most commonly used sites for skinfold thickness measurements are the triceps, biceps, suprailiac (just above the iliac crest), subscapular (underneath the shoulder blade), and abdominal areas.

Dielectric spectroscopy is a type of material characterization technique that measures the dielectric properties of a material as a function of frequency. The dielectric property of a material refers to its ability to store electrical energy in the form of polarization when an external electric field is applied. In dielectric spectroscopy, the material's response to an alternating electric field is measured, and the resulting complex permittivity (which includes both real and imaginary components) is used to characterize the material's dielectric behavior.

The technique involves applying a small amplitude AC voltage to the material while measuring the current flow through it. The frequency of the applied voltage can be varied over a wide range, typically from millihertz to gigahertz. By analyzing the phase shift and amplitude of the resulting current, the complex permittivity of the material can be determined as a function of frequency.

Dielectric spectroscopy is widely used in materials science, physics, chemistry, and biology to study the structure, dynamics, and composition of various materials, including polymers, ceramics, glasses, colloids, and biological tissues. The technique can provide valuable information about the material's molecular mobility, relaxation processes, conductivity, and other dielectric properties, which can be used for quality control, process monitoring, and fundamental research.

Water deprivation is a condition that occurs when an individual is deliberately or unintentionally not given access to adequate water for a prolonged period. This can lead to dehydration, which is the excessive loss of body water and electrolytes. In severe cases, water deprivation can result in serious health complications, including seizures, kidney damage, brain damage, coma, and even death. It's important to note that water is essential for many bodily functions, including maintaining blood pressure, regulating body temperature, and removing waste products from the body. Therefore, it's crucial to stay hydrated by drinking an adequate amount of water each day.

Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is not strictly a medical definition, but it's a technique used in the field of nuclear medicine and forensic medicine for material analysis and identification. Here's a general definition:

Neutron Activation Analysis is a non-destructive analytical method that uses nuclear reactions to identify and determine the concentration of elements within a sample. The sample is irradiated with neutrons, which induce nuclear reactions that produce radioactive isotopes of the elements present in the sample. The gamma radiation emitted by these radioisotopes is then measured and analyzed to quantify the elemental composition of the sample. This technique is particularly useful for detecting and measuring trace elements and isotopes, making it valuable in various fields such as archaeology, geology, nuclear medicine, and forensic science.

Anthropometry is the scientific study of measurements and proportions of the human body. It involves the systematic measurement and analysis of various physical characteristics, such as height, weight, blood pressure, waist circumference, and other body measurements. These measurements are used in a variety of fields, including medicine, ergonomics, forensics, and fashion design, to assess health status, fitness level, or to design products and environments that fit the human body. In a medical context, anthropometry is often used to assess growth and development, health status, and disease risk factors in individuals and populations.

Chemical water pollutants refer to harmful chemicals or substances that contaminate bodies of water, making them unsafe for human use and harmful to aquatic life. These pollutants can come from various sources, including industrial and agricultural runoff, sewage and wastewater, oil spills, and improper disposal of hazardous materials.

Examples of chemical water pollutants include heavy metals (such as lead, mercury, and cadmium), pesticides and herbicides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and petroleum products. These chemicals can have toxic effects on aquatic organisms, disrupt ecosystems, and pose risks to human health through exposure or consumption.

Regulations and standards are in place to monitor and limit the levels of chemical pollutants in water sources, with the aim of protecting public health and the environment.

Urea is not a medical condition but it is a medically relevant substance. Here's the definition:

Urea is a colorless, odorless solid that is the primary nitrogen-containing compound in the urine of mammals. It is a normal metabolic end product that is excreted by the kidneys and is also used as a fertilizer and in various industrial applications. Chemically, urea is a carbamide, consisting of two amino groups (NH2) joined by a carbon atom and having a hydrogen atom and a hydroxyl group (OH) attached to the carbon atom. Urea is produced in the liver as an end product of protein metabolism and is then eliminated from the body by the kidneys through urination. Abnormal levels of urea in the blood, known as uremia, can indicate impaired kidney function or other medical conditions.

Body Surface Area (BSA) is a calculated value that is often used in medicine, pharmacology, and physiology to adjust dosages of medications or to estimate parameters based on body size. It is the total area of the exterior surface of the human body. The most widely used formula for estimating BSA in adults is the Mosteller formula:

BSA (m²) = √([height (cm)] x [weight (kg)] / 3600)

This formula uses the person's height and weight to estimate the body surface area. It's important to note that this formula, like all BSA formulas, is an approximation and may not be accurate for every individual. Other more complex formulas exist, such as the DuBois & DuBois formula or the Haycock formula, but the Mosteller formula is considered to be sufficiently accurate for most clinical purposes.

Water pollutants refer to any substances or materials that contaminate water sources and make them unsafe or unsuitable for use. These pollutants can include a wide range of chemicals, microorganisms, and physical particles that can have harmful effects on human health, aquatic life, and the environment as a whole. Examples of water pollutants include heavy metals like lead and mercury, industrial chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins, agricultural runoff containing pesticides and fertilizers, sewage and wastewater, oil spills, and microplastics. Exposure to water pollutants can cause a variety of health problems, ranging from minor irritations to serious illnesses or even death in extreme cases. Additionally, water pollution can have significant impacts on the environment, including harming or killing aquatic life, disrupting ecosystems, and reducing biodiversity.

Thirst, also known as dry mouth or polydipsia, is a physiological need or desire to drink fluids to maintain fluid balance and hydration in the body. It is primarily regulated by the hypothalamus in response to changes in osmolality and volume of bodily fluids, particularly blood. Thirst can be triggered by various factors such as dehydration, excessive sweating, diarrhea, vomiting, fever, burns, certain medications, and medical conditions affecting the kidneys, adrenal glands, or other organs. It is a vital homeostatic mechanism to ensure adequate hydration and proper functioning of various bodily systems.

Extracellular fluid (ECF) is the fluid that exists outside of the cells in the body. It makes up about 20-25% of the total body weight in a healthy adult. ECF can be further divided into two main components: interstitial fluid and intravascular fluid.

Interstitial fluid is the fluid that surrounds the cells and fills the spaces between them. It provides nutrients to the cells, removes waste products, and helps maintain a balanced environment around the cells.

Intravascular fluid, also known as plasma, is the fluid component of blood that circulates in the blood vessels. It carries nutrients, hormones, and waste products throughout the body, and helps regulate temperature, pH, and osmotic pressure.

Maintaining the proper balance of ECF is essential for normal bodily functions. Disruptions in this balance can lead to various medical conditions, such as dehydration, edema, and heart failure.

Body fluids refer to the various liquids that can be found within and circulating throughout the human body. These fluids include, but are not limited to:

1. Blood: A fluid that carries oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and waste products throughout the body via the cardiovascular system. It is composed of red and white blood cells suspended in plasma.
2. Lymph: A clear-to-white fluid that circulates through the lymphatic system, helping to remove waste products, bacteria, and damaged cells from tissues while also playing a crucial role in the immune system.
3. Interstitial fluid: Also known as tissue fluid or extracellular fluid, it is the fluid that surrounds the cells in the body's tissues, allowing for nutrient exchange and waste removal between cells and blood vessels.
4. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF): A clear, colorless fluid that circulates around the brain and spinal cord, providing protection, cushioning, and nutrients to these delicate structures while also removing waste products.
5. Pleural fluid: A small amount of lubricating fluid found in the pleural space between the lungs and the chest wall, allowing for smooth movement during respiration.
6. Pericardial fluid: A small amount of lubricating fluid found within the pericardial sac surrounding the heart, reducing friction during heart contractions.
7. Synovial fluid: A viscous, lubricating fluid found in joint spaces, allowing for smooth movement and protecting the articular cartilage from wear and tear.
8. Urine: A waste product produced by the kidneys, consisting of water, urea, creatinine, and various ions, which is excreted through the urinary system.
9. Gastrointestinal secretions: Fluids produced by the digestive system, including saliva, gastric juice, bile, pancreatic juice, and intestinal secretions, which aid in digestion, absorption, and elimination of food particles.
10. Reproductive fluids: Secretions from the male (semen) and female (cervical mucus, vaginal lubrication) reproductive systems that facilitate fertilization and reproduction.

Adipose tissue, also known as fatty tissue, is a type of connective tissue that is composed mainly of adipocytes (fat cells). It is found throughout the body, but is particularly abundant in the abdominal cavity, beneath the skin, and around organs such as the heart and kidneys.

Adipose tissue serves several important functions in the body. One of its primary roles is to store energy in the form of fat, which can be mobilized and used as an energy source during periods of fasting or exercise. Adipose tissue also provides insulation and cushioning for the body, and produces hormones that help regulate metabolism, appetite, and reproductive function.

There are two main types of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). WAT is the more common form and is responsible for storing energy as fat. BAT, on the other hand, contains a higher number of mitochondria and is involved in heat production and energy expenditure.

Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue can lead to obesity, which is associated with an increased risk of various health problems such as diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

Intracellular fluid (ICF) refers to the fluid that is contained within the cells of the body. It makes up about two-thirds of the total body water and is found in the cytosol, which is the liquid inside the cell's membrane. The intracellular fluid contains various ions, nutrients, waste products, and other molecules that are necessary for the proper functioning of the cell.

The main ions present in the ICF include potassium (K+), magnesium (Mg2+), and phosphate (HPO42-). The concentration of these ions inside the cell is different from their concentration outside the cell, which creates an electrochemical gradient that plays a crucial role in various physiological processes such as nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and cell volume regulation.

Maintaining the balance of intracellular fluid is essential for normal cell function, and any disruption in this balance can lead to various health issues. Factors that can affect the ICF balance include changes in hydration status, electrolyte imbalances, and certain medical conditions such as kidney disease or heart failure.

Methenamine is a medication that is used as a urinary antiseptic. It's a chemical compound that, when ingested and enters the urine, releases formaldehyde, which helps to kill bacteria in the urinary tract. Methenamine is often combined with other medications, such as sodium phosphate or hydroxyzine, to make it more effective.

It's important to note that methenamine is not typically used as a first-line treatment for urinary tract infections (UTIs) and is usually reserved for preventing recurrent UTIs in people who are prone to them. Additionally, methenamine should be taken in adequate amounts and under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as excessive formaldehyde release can cause adverse effects.

Sodium compounds are chemical substances that contain the element sodium (Na) combined with one or more other elements. Sodium is an alkali metal and is highly reactive, so it rarely exists in its pure form in nature. Instead, it is typically found combined with other elements in the form of various sodium compounds.

Some common examples of sodium compounds include:

* Sodium chloride (NaCl), also known as table salt, which is a compound formed from the reaction between sodium and chlorine.
* Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), also known as baking soda, which is used as a leavening agent in baking and as a household cleaner.
* Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, which is a strong alkali used in industrial applications such as the manufacture of soap and paper.
* Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), also known as washing soda, which is used as a water softener and cleaning agent.

Sodium compounds have a variety of uses in medicine, including as electrolytes to help maintain fluid balance in the body, as antacids to neutralize stomach acid, and as laxatives to relieve constipation. However, it is important to use sodium compounds as directed by a healthcare professional, as excessive intake can lead to high blood pressure and other health problems.

Plasma volume refers to the total amount of plasma present in an individual's circulatory system. Plasma is the fluid component of blood, in which cells and chemical components are suspended. It is composed mainly of water, along with various dissolved substances such as nutrients, waste products, hormones, gases, and proteins.

Plasma volume is a crucial factor in maintaining proper blood flow, regulating body temperature, and facilitating the transportation of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other essential components throughout the body. The average plasma volume for an adult human is approximately 3 liters, but it can vary depending on factors like age, sex, body weight, and overall health status.

Changes in plasma volume can have significant effects on an individual's cardiovascular function and fluid balance. For example, dehydration or blood loss can lead to a decrease in plasma volume, while conditions such as heart failure or liver cirrhosis may result in increased plasma volume due to fluid retention. Accurate measurement of plasma volume is essential for diagnosing various medical conditions and monitoring the effectiveness of treatments.

"Body height" is a measure of the vertical length of a person's body from the top of their head to the bottom of their feet. It is typically measured in units such as centimeters (cm) or inches (in). In medical settings, body height is often used as a basic anthropometric measurement to assess overall health status, growth and development, nutritional status, and aging-related changes.

There are different methods for measuring body height, but the most common one involves having the person stand upright against a vertical surface (such as a wall or a stadiometer) with their heels, buttocks, shoulders, and head touching the surface. The measurement is taken at the point where the top of the person's head meets the surface.

Body height can be influenced by various factors, including genetics, nutrition, health status, and environmental conditions. Changes in body height over time can provide important insights into a person's health trajectory and potential health risks. For example, a significant decrease in body height may indicate bone loss or spinal compression, while a rapid increase in height during childhood or adolescence may suggest optimal growth and development.

Inborn errors of steroid metabolism refer to genetic disorders that affect the synthesis or degradation of steroid hormones in the body. Steroids are a group of hormones that include cortisol, aldosterone, sex hormones (estrogens and androgens), and bile acids. These hormones are produced through a series of biochemical reactions called steroidogenesis, which involves several enzymes.

Inborn errors of steroid metabolism occur when there is a mutation in the gene encoding for one or more of these enzymes, leading to impaired steroid synthesis or degradation. This can result in an accumulation of abnormal steroid metabolites or deficiency of essential steroid hormones, causing various clinical manifestations depending on the specific steroid hormone affected and the severity of the enzyme deficiency.

Examples of inborn errors of steroid metabolism include congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), which is caused by defects in the genes encoding for enzymes involved in cortisol synthesis, such as 21-hydroxylase and 11-beta-hydroxylase. CAH can lead to impaired cortisol production, increased production of androgens, and abnormal genital development in affected individuals.

Another example is lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (LCAH), which is caused by a deficiency in the enzyme steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). LCAH results in impaired transport of cholesterol into the mitochondria, leading to deficient synthesis of all steroid hormones and accumulation of lipids in the adrenal glands.

Inborn errors of steroid metabolism can be diagnosed through various tests, including blood and urine tests to measure steroid levels and genetic testing to identify mutations in the relevant genes. Treatment typically involves replacement therapy with the deficient hormones or inhibition of excessive hormone production.

Aquaporin 2 (AQP2) is a type of aquaporin, which is a water channel protein found in the membranes of cells. Specifically, AQP2 is located in the principal cells of the collecting ducts in the kidneys. It plays a crucial role in regulating water reabsorption and urine concentration by facilitating the movement of water across the cell membrane in response to the hormone vasopressin (also known as antidiuretic hormone). When vasopressin binds to receptors on the cell surface, it triggers a cascade of intracellular signals that lead to the translocation of AQP2 water channels from intracellular vesicles to the apical membrane. This increases the permeability of the apical membrane to water, allowing for efficient reabsorption of water and concentration of urine. Dysfunction in AQP2 has been implicated in various kidney disorders, such as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

Antipyrine is a chemical compound that was commonly used as a fever reducer and pain reliever in the past. It is a type of phenylpyrazole antipyretic and analgesic. However, due to its potential for causing liver damage and other side effects, it has largely been replaced by other medications and is not widely used in modern medicine.

The medical definition of Antipyrine refers to this specific chemical compound with the formula C11H13N3O2, and not to any broader category of drugs or substances. It is a white crystalline powder that is soluble in alcohol, chloroform, and ether, but insoluble in water.

Antipyrine was first synthesized in 1883 and was widely used as a fever reducer and pain reliever until the mid-20th century. However, its use declined due to concerns about its safety profile, including the potential for liver damage, skin reactions, and other side effects.

Today, Antipyrine is still used in some medical applications, such as in the measurement of earwax conductivity as a way to assess hearing function. It may also be used in some topical creams and ointments for pain relief. However, its use as a systemic medication is generally not recommended due to its potential for causing harm.

Bromine is a chemical element with the symbol "Br" and atomic number 35. It belongs to the halogen group in the periodic table and is a volatile, reddish-brown liquid at room temperature that evaporates easily into a red-brown gas with a strong, chlorine-like odor.

Bromine is not found free in nature, but it is present in many minerals, such as bromite and halite. It is produced industrially through the treatment of brine with chlorine gas. Bromine has a wide range of uses, including as a disinfectant, fumigant, flame retardant, and intermediate in the production of various chemicals.

In medicine, bromine compounds have been used historically as sedatives and anticonvulsants, although their use has declined due to the availability of safer and more effective drugs. Bromine itself is not used medically, but some of its compounds may have therapeutic applications in certain contexts. For example, bromide salts have been used as a mild sedative and anticonvulsant in veterinary medicine. However, their use in humans is limited due to the risk of toxicity.

Peritoneal dialysis is a type of renal replacement therapy used to treat patients with severe kidney dysfunction or end-stage renal disease. It is a process that utilizes the peritoneum, a membranous sac lining the abdominal cavity, as a natural semipermeable membrane for filtering waste products, excess fluids, and electrolytes from the bloodstream.

In peritoneal dialysis, a sterile dialysate solution is infused into the peritoneal cavity via a permanently implanted catheter. The dialysate contains various substances such as glucose or other osmotic agents, electrolytes, and buffer solutions that facilitate the diffusion of waste products and fluids from the blood vessels surrounding the peritoneum into the dialysate.

There are two primary types of peritoneal dialysis: continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and automated peritoneal dialysis (APD). CAPD is performed manually, several times a day, while APD is carried out using a cycler machine overnight.

Peritoneal dialysis offers certain advantages over hemodialysis, such as better preservation of residual renal function, fewer dietary restrictions, and greater flexibility in scheduling treatments. However, it also has potential complications, including peritonitis (inflammation of the peritoneum), catheter-related infections, fluid imbalances, and membrane failure over time.

Potassium is a essential mineral and an important electrolyte that is widely distributed in the human body. The majority of potassium in the body (approximately 98%) is found within cells, with the remaining 2% present in blood serum and other bodily fluids. Potassium plays a crucial role in various physiological processes, including:

1. Regulation of fluid balance and maintenance of normal blood pressure through its effects on vascular tone and sodium excretion.
2. Facilitation of nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction by participating in the generation and propagation of action potentials.
3. Protein synthesis, enzyme activation, and glycogen metabolism.
4. Regulation of acid-base balance through its role in buffering systems.

The normal serum potassium concentration ranges from 3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L (milliequivalents per liter) or mmol/L (millimoles per liter). Potassium levels outside this range can have significant clinical consequences, with both hypokalemia (low potassium levels) and hyperkalemia (high potassium levels) potentially leading to serious complications such as cardiac arrhythmias, muscle weakness, and respiratory failure.

Potassium is primarily obtained through the diet, with rich sources including fruits (e.g., bananas, oranges, and apricots), vegetables (e.g., leafy greens, potatoes, and tomatoes), legumes, nuts, dairy products, and meat. In cases of deficiency or increased needs, potassium supplements may be recommended under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Insensible water loss is the unnoticeable or unperceived loss of water from the body through processes such as respiration, evaporation from the skin, and perspiration that is too fine to be seen or felt. It is a normal physiological process and typically accounts for about 400-800 milliliters (ml) of water loss per day in a healthy adult at rest. However, this amount can increase with factors such as environmental temperature, humidity, and altitude, as well as physical activity or illness that increases metabolic rate or alters body temperature regulation.

Insensible water loss is an important factor to consider in maintaining fluid balance in the body, particularly in individuals who are unable to regulate their own fluid intake, such as critically ill patients or those with impaired consciousness. Prolonged or excessive insensible water loss can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalances, which can have serious consequences on various organ systems and overall health.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

Photon Absorptiometry is a medical technique used to measure the absorption of photons (light particles) by tissues or materials. In clinical practice, it is often used as a non-invasive method for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). This technique uses a low-energy X-ray beam or gamma ray to penetrate the tissue and then measures the amount of radiation absorbed by the bone. The amount of absorption is related to the density and thickness of the bone, allowing for an assessment of BMD. It can be used to diagnose osteoporosis and monitor treatment response in patients with bone diseases. There are two types of photon absorptiometry: single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA). SPA uses one energy level, while DPA uses two different energy levels to measure BMD, providing more precise measurements.

Nutrition disorders refer to conditions that result from eating, drinking, or absorbing nutrients in a way that is not consistent with human physiological needs. These disorders can manifest as both undernutrition and overnutrition. Undernutrition includes disorders such as protein-energy malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies, and mineral deficiencies, while overnutrition includes conditions such as obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases like diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer.

Malnutrition is the broad term used to describe a state in which a person's nutrient intake is insufficient or excessive, leading to negative consequences for their health. Malnutrition can be caused by a variety of factors, including poverty, food insecurity, lack of education, cultural practices, and chronic diseases.

In addition to under- and overnutrition, disordered eating patterns such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and other specified feeding or eating disorders can also be considered nutrition disorders. These conditions are characterized by abnormal eating habits that can lead to serious health consequences, including malnutrition, organ damage, and mental health problems.

Overall, nutrition disorders are complex conditions that can have significant impacts on a person's physical and mental health. They require careful assessment, diagnosis, and treatment by healthcare professionals with expertise in nutrition and dietetics.

I'm not aware of a medical definition for the term "water movements." It is possible that it could be used in a specific context within a certain medical specialty or procedure. However, I can provide some general information about how the term "water" is used in a medical context.

In medicine, "water" often refers to the fluid component of the body, which includes all the fluids inside and outside of cells. The movement of water within the body is regulated by various physiological processes, such as osmosis and hydrostatic pressure. Disorders that affect the regulation of water balance can lead to dehydration or overhydration, which can have serious consequences for health.

If you could provide more context or clarify what you mean by "water movements," I may be able to give a more specific answer.

Water softening is not a medical term, but rather a process used in water treatment. It refers to the removal of minerals such as calcium, magnesium, and certain iron compounds that make water "hard." These minerals can cause scaling and other problems when water is heated or used in appliances and plumbing systems.

In a medical context, softened water may have implications for skin health, as hard water can leave deposits on the skin that can lead to dryness and irritation. However, there is no specific medical definition associated with 'water softening.'

Sodium is an essential mineral and electrolyte that is necessary for human health. In a medical context, sodium is often discussed in terms of its concentration in the blood, as measured by serum sodium levels. The normal range for serum sodium is typically between 135 and 145 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).

Sodium plays a number of important roles in the body, including:

* Regulating fluid balance: Sodium helps to regulate the amount of water in and around your cells, which is important for maintaining normal blood pressure and preventing dehydration.
* Facilitating nerve impulse transmission: Sodium is involved in the generation and transmission of electrical signals in the nervous system, which is necessary for proper muscle function and coordination.
* Assisting with muscle contraction: Sodium helps to regulate muscle contractions by interacting with other minerals such as calcium and potassium.

Low sodium levels (hyponatremia) can cause symptoms such as confusion, seizures, and coma, while high sodium levels (hypernatremia) can lead to symptoms such as weakness, muscle cramps, and seizures. Both conditions require medical treatment to correct.

Chironomidae is a family of nematoceran flies, also known as non-biting midges or lake flies. They are often mistaken for mosquitoes due to their similar appearance, but they do not bite and are not vectors for disease. Chironomidae species can be found in various aquatic habitats such as lakes, rivers, and wetlands. The larvae of these flies are an important food source for many fish and other aquatic organisms. Adult chironomids are also known to emerge in large numbers in a synchronized fashion, particularly near bodies of water, which can be a nuisance to nearby human populations.

Peritoneal dialysis, continuous ambulatory (CAPD), is a type of renal replacement therapy used to treat patients with end-stage kidney disease. It is a form of peritoneal dialysis that is performed continuously, without the need for machines or hospitalization. CAPD uses the patient's own peritoneum, a thin membrane that lines the abdominal cavity, as a natural filter to remove waste products and excess fluids from the bloodstream.

In CAPD, a sterile dialysis solution is introduced into the peritoneal cavity through a permanent catheter implanted in the patient's abdomen. The solution remains in the peritoneal cavity for a dwell time of several hours, during which diffusion occurs across the peritoneal membrane, allowing waste products and excess fluids to move from the bloodstream into the dialysis solution.

After the dwell time, the used dialysis solution is drained from the peritoneal cavity and discarded, and a fresh batch of dialysis solution is introduced. This process is typically repeated four to five times a day, with each exchange taking about 30 minutes to complete. Patients can perform CAPD exchanges while going about their daily activities, making it a convenient and flexible treatment option for many patients with end-stage kidney disease.

Overall, CAPD is a highly effective form of dialysis that offers several advantages over other types of renal replacement therapy, including improved quality of life, better preservation of residual kidney function, and lower costs. However, it does require careful attention to sterile technique and regular monitoring to ensure proper functioning of the peritoneal membrane and adequate clearance of waste products and fluids.

An ileostomy is a surgical procedure in which the end of the small intestine, called the ileum, is brought through an opening in the abdominal wall (stoma) to create a path for waste material to leave the body. This procedure is typically performed when there is damage or removal of the colon, rectum, or anal canal due to conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis), cancer, or trauma.

After an ileostomy, waste material from the small intestine exits the body through the stoma and collects in a pouch worn outside the body. The patient needs to empty the pouch regularly, typically every few hours, as the output is liquid or semi-liquid. Ileostomies can be temporary or permanent, depending on the underlying condition and the planned course of treatment. Proper care and management of the stoma and pouch are essential for maintaining good health and quality of life after an ileostomy.

Densitometry is a medical technique used to measure the density or degree of opacity of various structures, particularly bones and tissues. It is often used in the diagnosis and monitoring of osteoporosis, a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones. Bone densitometry measures the amount of calcium and other minerals in a segment of bone to determine its strength and density. This information can help doctors assess a patient's risk of fractures and make treatment recommendations. Densitometry is also used in other medical fields, such as mammography, where it is used to measure the density of breast tissue to detect abnormalities and potential signs of cancer.

Chronic kidney failure, also known as chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5 or end-stage renal disease (ESRD), is a permanent loss of kidney function that occurs gradually over a period of months to years. It is defined as a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 15 ml/min, which means the kidneys are filtering waste and excess fluids at less than 15% of their normal capacity.

CKD can be caused by various underlying conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, and recurrent kidney infections. Over time, the damage to the kidneys can lead to a buildup of waste products and fluids in the body, which can cause a range of symptoms including fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, and confusion.

Treatment for chronic kidney failure typically involves managing the underlying condition, making lifestyle changes such as following a healthy diet, and receiving supportive care such as dialysis or a kidney transplant to replace lost kidney function.

Impedance plethysmography is a non-invasive method used to measure changes in blood volume or flow in a particular area of the body. It works by passing a small electrical current through the tissue and measuring the opposition (impedance) to that current, which varies with the amount of blood present in the area.

In impedance cardiography, this technique is used to estimate cardiac output, stroke volume, and other hemodynamic parameters. The changes in impedance are measured across the chest wall, which correlate with the ventricular ejection of blood during each heartbeat. This allows for the calculation of various cardiovascular variables, such as the amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute (cardiac output) and the resistance to blood flow in the systemic circulation (systemic vascular resistance).

Impedance plethysmography is a safe and reliable method for assessing cardiovascular function, and it has been widely used in clinical settings to evaluate patients with various cardiovascular disorders, including heart failure, hypertension, and peripheral arterial disease.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Renal dialysis is a medical procedure that is used to artificially remove waste products, toxins, and excess fluids from the blood when the kidneys are no longer able to perform these functions effectively. This process is also known as hemodialysis.

During renal dialysis, the patient's blood is circulated through a special machine called a dialyzer or an artificial kidney, which contains a semi-permeable membrane that filters out waste products and excess fluids from the blood. The cleaned blood is then returned to the patient's body.

Renal dialysis is typically recommended for patients with advanced kidney disease or kidney failure, such as those with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). It is a life-sustaining treatment that helps to maintain the balance of fluids and electrolytes in the body, prevent the buildup of waste products and toxins, and control blood pressure.

There are two main types of renal dialysis: hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Hemodialysis is the most common type and involves using a dialyzer to filter the blood outside the body. Peritoneal dialysis, on the other hand, involves placing a catheter in the abdomen and using the lining of the abdomen (peritoneum) as a natural filter to remove waste products and excess fluids from the body.

Overall, renal dialysis is an essential treatment option for patients with kidney failure, helping them to maintain their quality of life and prolong their survival.

Basal metabolism, also known as basal metabolic rate (BMR) or resting metabolic rate (RMR), is the amount of energy expended by an organism at rest, in a neutrally temperate environment, while in the post-absorptive state. It is the minimum amount of energy required to maintain basic bodily functions such as breathing, heartbeat, and maintenance of body temperature.

The BMR is typically measured in units of energy per unit time, such as kilocalories per day (kcal/day) or watts (W). In humans, the BMR is usually around 10-15% of a person's total daily energy expenditure. It can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, body size and composition, and genetics.

The BMR can be measured in a variety of ways, including direct calorimetry, indirect calorimetry, or by using predictive equations based on factors such as age, weight, and height. It is an important concept in the study of energy balance, nutrition, and metabolism.

Nutritional status is a concept that refers to the condition of an individual in relation to their nutrient intake, absorption, metabolism, and excretion. It encompasses various aspects such as body weight, muscle mass, fat distribution, presence of any deficiencies or excesses of specific nutrients, and overall health status.

A comprehensive assessment of nutritional status typically includes a review of dietary intake, anthropometric measurements (such as height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure), laboratory tests (such as serum albumin, total protein, cholesterol levels, vitamin and mineral levels), and clinical evaluation for signs of malnutrition or overnutrition.

Malnutrition can result from inadequate intake or absorption of nutrients, increased nutrient requirements due to illness or injury, or excessive loss of nutrients due to medical conditions. On the other hand, overnutrition can lead to obesity and related health problems such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer.

Therefore, maintaining a good nutritional status is essential for overall health and well-being, and it is an important consideration in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of various medical conditions.

Blood volume refers to the total amount of blood present in an individual's circulatory system at any given time. It is the combined volume of both the plasma (the liquid component of blood) and the formed elements (such as red and white blood cells and platelets) in the blood. In a healthy adult human, the average blood volume is approximately 5 liters (or about 1 gallon). However, blood volume can vary depending on several factors, including age, sex, body weight, and overall health status.

Blood volume plays a critical role in maintaining proper cardiovascular function, as it affects blood pressure, heart rate, and the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues throughout the body. Changes in blood volume can have significant impacts on an individual's health and may be associated with various medical conditions, such as dehydration, hemorrhage, heart failure, and liver disease. Accurate measurement of blood volume is essential for diagnosing and managing these conditions, as well as for guiding treatment decisions in clinical settings.

Isotope labeling is a scientific technique used in the field of medicine, particularly in molecular biology, chemistry, and pharmacology. It involves replacing one or more atoms in a molecule with a radioactive or stable isotope of the same element. This modified molecule can then be traced and analyzed to study its structure, function, metabolism, or interaction with other molecules within biological systems.

Radioisotope labeling uses unstable radioactive isotopes that emit radiation, allowing for detection and quantification of the labeled molecule using various imaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). This approach is particularly useful in tracking the distribution and metabolism of drugs, hormones, or other biomolecules in living organisms.

Stable isotope labeling, on the other hand, employs non-radioactive isotopes that do not emit radiation. These isotopes have different atomic masses compared to their natural counterparts and can be detected using mass spectrometry. Stable isotope labeling is often used in metabolic studies, protein turnover analysis, or for identifying the origin of specific molecules within complex biological samples.

In summary, isotope labeling is a versatile tool in medical research that enables researchers to investigate various aspects of molecular behavior and interactions within biological systems.

Energy metabolism is the process by which living organisms produce and consume energy to maintain life. It involves a series of chemical reactions that convert nutrients from food, such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, into energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

The process of energy metabolism can be divided into two main categories: catabolism and anabolism. Catabolism is the breakdown of nutrients to release energy, while anabolism is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler ones using energy.

There are three main stages of energy metabolism: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), and oxidative phosphorylation. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell and involves the breakdown of glucose into pyruvate, producing a small amount of ATP and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The citric acid cycle takes place in the mitochondria and involves the further breakdown of pyruvate to produce more ATP, NADH, and carbon dioxide. Oxidative phosphorylation is the final stage of energy metabolism and occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It involves the transfer of electrons from NADH and other electron carriers to oxygen, which generates a proton gradient across the membrane. This gradient drives the synthesis of ATP, producing the majority of the cell's energy.

Overall, energy metabolism is a complex and essential process that allows organisms to grow, reproduce, and maintain their bodily functions. Disruptions in energy metabolism can lead to various diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Reference values, also known as reference ranges or reference intervals, are the set of values that are considered normal or typical for a particular population or group of people. These values are often used in laboratory tests to help interpret test results and determine whether a patient's value falls within the expected range.

The process of establishing reference values typically involves measuring a particular biomarker or parameter in a large, healthy population and then calculating the mean and standard deviation of the measurements. Based on these statistics, a range is established that includes a certain percentage of the population (often 95%) and excludes extreme outliers.

It's important to note that reference values can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, race, and other demographic characteristics. Therefore, it's essential to use reference values that are specific to the relevant population when interpreting laboratory test results. Additionally, reference values may change over time due to advances in measurement technology or changes in the population being studied.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Regression analysis is a statistical technique used in medicine, as well as in other fields, to examine the relationship between one or more independent variables (predictors) and a dependent variable (outcome). It allows for the estimation of the average change in the outcome variable associated with a one-unit change in an independent variable, while controlling for the effects of other independent variables. This technique is often used to identify risk factors for diseases or to evaluate the effectiveness of medical interventions. In medical research, regression analysis can be used to adjust for potential confounding variables and to quantify the relationship between exposures and health outcomes. It can also be used in predictive modeling to estimate the probability of a particular outcome based on multiple predictors.

Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to consume and meets the health-based standards established by regulatory agencies for human consumption. It is free from harmful levels of contaminants, including microorganisms, chemicals, radiological elements, and aesthetic factors such as taste, odor, and appearance.

Drinking water can come from various sources, including surface water (e.g., rivers, lakes), groundwater (e.g., wells), and treated wastewater that has undergone advanced purification processes. The treatment of drinking water typically involves several steps, such as coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection, to remove or inactivate pathogens and other contaminants.

Access to safe drinking water is essential for human health, as it helps prevent various waterborne diseases and ensures proper hydration. Regular monitoring and testing of drinking water sources and distribution systems are necessary to maintain the quality and safety of the water supply.

Hematocrit is a medical term that refers to the percentage of total blood volume that is made up of red blood cells. It is typically measured as part of a complete blood count (CBC) test. A high hematocrit may indicate conditions such as dehydration, polycythemia, or living at high altitudes, while a low hematocrit may be a sign of anemia, bleeding, or overhydration. It is important to note that hematocrit values can vary depending on factors such as age, gender, and pregnancy status.

Aquaporins are a type of membrane protein that function as water channels, allowing the selective and efficient transport of water molecules across biological membranes. They play crucial roles in maintaining fluid homeostasis, regulating cell volume, and supporting various physiological processes in the body. In humans, there are 13 different aquaporin subtypes (AQP0 to AQP12) that have been identified, each with distinct tissue expression patterns and functions. Some aquaporins also facilitate the transport of small solutes such as glycerol and urea. Dysfunction or misregulation of aquaporins has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including neurological disorders, cancer, and water balance-related diseases.

The percentages of body water contained in various fluid compartments add up to total body water (TBW). This water makes up a ... The usual way of adding water to a body is by drinking. Water also enters the body with foods, especially those rich in water, ... In physiology, body water is the water content of an animal body that is contained in the tissues, the blood, the bones and ... The water in individual compartments can be measured with different substances: total body water: tritiated water or heavy ...
This means that climate change has pressure on water bodies. Bodies of water can be categorized into: Rain water Surface water ... Land alongside a body of water Water mass - Body of water with common formation history Water pollution - Contamination of ... A body of water or waterbody (often spelled water body) is any significant accumulation of water on the surface of Earth or ... Bodies of water that are navigable are known as waterways. Some bodies of water collect and move water, such as rivers and ...
"Body of Water (Syvälle salattu)". Cineuropa - the best of european cinema. Retrieved 18 June 2020. Body of Water at IMDb v t e ... Body of Water (Finnish: Syvälle salattu, lit. 'Deep encrypted') is a 2011 Finnish drama film directed by Joona Tena. Krista ...
"Body of Water" - 6/22/14". Talkinbroadway.com. Retrieved 5 July 2018. "Body of Water (San Francisco)". Forallevents.com. ... Body of Water is a indie-rock musical created by Tony Kienitz and Tanna Herr with music by Jim Walker. It entails the life of ... "Body Of Water - A World Premiere Musical Presented by A Theatre Near U". Brownpapertickets.com. 28 March 2014. Retrieved 2 May ... "Body of Water (Original Cast Recording) by Various Artists". Itunes.apple.com. 12 October 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2018. " ...
Body of water is an accumulation of water on the surface of a planet. Body of water may also refer to: Body of Water (film), a ... a 2014 musical Bodies of Water, an American band Phytotelma, a body or reservoir of water held by a plant Bodies of Water, an ... Look up body of water in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... page lists articles associated with the title Body of water. If ... 2011 Finnish drama film Body of Water (musical), ...
A kill is a body of water, most commonly a creek, but also a tidal inlet, river, strait, or arm of the sea. The term is derived ... is also joined with a noun to create a composite name for a place or body of water: Catskill, New York Catskill Mountains, New ... Bodies of water, Rivers of New Jersey, Rivers of New York (state), Rivers of Pennsylvania). ... from the Middle Dutch kille (kil in modern Dutch), meaning "riverbed" or "water channel". It is found in areas of Dutch ...
The SRTM Water Body Data (SWBD) is a geographical dataset (2003) encoding high-resolution worldwide coastline outlines in a ...
Bodies of Water's first full-length album Ears Will Pop & Eyes Will Blink was originally released on Bodies of Water's own ... "Record Reviews: Bodies of Water Ears Will Pop & Eyes Will Blink; Pitchfork Aug. 10, 2007 "Bodies of Water: Ears Will Pop & Eyes ... Bodies of Water (2005) Bodies of Water official website eMusic Feb. 2008 interview Popmatters Aug. 2007 interview Alarm ... Bodies of Water is a band from the Highland Park neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, signed to independent record label ...
... water comprises approximately 41% of the total area of the city. It was founded on the harbor of Elliott Bay, home to the Port ...
... , Lists of bodies of water, Lists of landforms of Azerbaijan). ... The water bodies of Azerbaijan were formed over a long geological timeframe and changed significantly throughout that period. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bodies of water in Azerbaijan. Scientific-Research Institute for Hydrometeorology ( ... The Kura River basin area (86,000 km²) up to the junction with the Aras River is smaller than the Aras water basin (101,937 km² ...
... include: List of bodies of water by salinity List of oceans List of seas List of gulfs Lists of bays ... Lists of bodies of water, Bodies of water). ... United States List of straits List of brackish bodies of water ... portal Water portal List of countries bordering on two or more oceans List of rowing venues Lists of waterways Bodies of water ...
Bodies of water of brackish nature are found around the world in a wide variety of settings, shapes and sizes. The following is ... List of bodies of water by salinity Last, William M.; Slezak, Laurie A. (1988). "The salt lakes of western Canada: A ... a list of notable bodies of brackish water. Baltic Sea (the world's largest inland brackish sea) Black Sea Hudson Bay and James ... Retrieved 2015-11-29.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "Lowcountry Estuarium - Window on the Waters". ...
Lost Lagoon is an artificial, captive 17-hectare body of water, west of Georgia Street, near the entrance to Stanley Park. It ... Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada is home to several bodies of water within and around its boundaries. Of over 30 ... The Hastings Mill, on the south side of the Inlet and running more than 20 hours a day, needed a lot of water, so built a flume ... This lake is being reclaimed by the forest because of the water lilies that have been added. The lily pads reduce the amount of ...
This is a list of bodies of water by salinity that is limited to natural bodies of water that have a stable salinity above 0.05 ... Lists of bodies of water, Oceans, Saline water). ... List of brackish bodies of water "Lake Elton , Volga River, ... New Record for the Most Saline Water Body on Earth". Aquatic Geochemistry. 23 (2): 109-117. doi:10.1007/s10498-017-9312-z. ... Collector of Drainage Water - the Past, the Present, and the Future". The Turkmen Lake Altyn Asyr and Water Resources in ...
It is popular with white-water rafters, but its rapids do not exceed Level III. The Ayung has a relatively small drainage area ... There are at least 31 temples around the 115 hectares of Tamblingan lake, but recently the lake's water level frequently rise ... "Eceng Gondok Kian Luas" [Increase in Water Hyacinth Size]. Bali: Denpost Theme. November 14, 2014. Archived from the original ...
"Hume Dam" (PDF brochure). State Water Corporation. 2009. Retrieved 19 April 2013. "Hume Dam". Water delivery: dams. State Water ... The following is a list of naturally occurring lakes and other water bodies in Victoria, Australia; outside the Greater ... "Lake Boga: Recreational Guide" (PDF). Goulburn-Murray Water (PDF). October 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 March ... "Lake Narracan". Southern Rural Water. Archived from the original on 30 October 2014. Retrieved 27 October 2014. "Map of Lake ...
This is a List of bodies of water in the Canadian province of New Brunswick, including waterfalls. New Brunswick receives ... Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Lists of rivers of Canada, Bodies of water of ... Map of New Brunswick Watershed Groups and Provisional Water Classification "Watersheds". Union of New Brunswick Indians. Map of ... "New Brunswick Watershed Groups and Provisional Water Classification". Watershed Caucus. New Brunswick Environmental Network. ...
The rivers and water bodies of Montreal are few and mostly artificial. Hydrography of the island of Montreal remained intact ... Below is a partial list of current waters bodies of the island: Rivière à l'Orme Bertrand Brook Saint-Pierre River (Montreal) ... Within a few centuries, as and when these waters recede, the Mount Royal and its three summits are emerged into islands. With ... the complete withdrawal of the sea, water is retained in some depression of the island. This is the case among other Beaver ...
1-109 Environment Agency (2021). "Ems Water Body". Department of Environment and Rural Affairs. Retrieved 24 August 2023. ... There is little or no surface water in prolonged dry periods as the downstream springs have lowered the level of the water- ...
Her poem "K-E-R-O-U-A-C" was nominated for a Pushcart Prize, and her fifth collection, titled Body of Water, was nominated for ... Hamill, Janet (October 2008). Body of Water. ISBN 0980050863. "Fiction Book Review: Tales from the Eternal Cafe by Janet Hamill ... Body of Water, Bowery Books (2008) Knock, Spuyten Duyvil (2016) Real Fire, Alexandria Quarterly Press (2017) A Map of the ... New England College Body of Water on Amazon.com. "Best Books of 2014 , Publishers Weekly". PublishersWeekly.com. Retrieved 2016 ...
Water tower. Body of water. Communes of the Somme department "Répertoire national des élus: les maires". data.gouv.fr, ...
"Dalch Water Body". Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs. Retrieved 1 November 2022. v t e v t e (Articles needing ...
"Tanner's Brook Water Body". Catchment Data Explorer. Environment Agency. Retrieved 10 November 2021. Burgess, Lawrence (1982). ... Originally the river was joined on the mudflats of Southampton Water by Wimpson Stream but with the mudflats being reclaimed by ... river that rises in North Baddesley and flows to Southampton Water. The brook's name comes from a 19th-century tannery that ... the expanding docks the Wimpson Stream now joins Tanner's Brook before it reaches Southampton Water. " ...
Water quality of the brook in 2019, according to the Environment Agency, a non-departmental public body sponsored by the United ... "Brookhouse Brook Water Body". Environment Agency. Retrieved 24 August 2022. Benton, Edward; Benton, Ted (1988). The Dragonflies ... "District Council of Epping Forest in the Hertfordshire and North London Water Management Area" (PDF). Environment Agency. ...
He further developed the existing colour symbolism for physical maps: green = soil; red = cities; blue = body of water; brown ...
Articles using infobox body of water without alt, Articles using infobox body of water without pushpin map alt, Articles using ... ISBN 978-3-642-15178-1. "Unique body of water". Black Sea Scene. Retrieved 5 March 2018. "Ice Conditions". bww.irk.ru. ... At some locations, hydrothermal vents with water that is about 50 °C (122 °F) have been found. These are mostly in deep water ... The goal was to export 190 million liters of water to China even though the lake had been experiencing historically low water ...
"Peasey Beck Water Body". Catchment Data Explorer. Environment Agency. Lancaster Canal Media related to Peasey Beck at Wikimedia ... Many of the buildings still stand, as well as parts of the water management system. The weir by Gatebeck Bridge provided water ... The water wheel and internal machinery remain in situ. The beck passes under the A590 road and Wath Sutton Bridge at Wath ... The water quality of the Peasey Beck was as follows in 2019. The data only includes a short section above Killington Reservoir ...
"Stainton Beck Water Body". Catchment Data Explorer. Environment Agency. (Articles with short description, Short description is ... The water quality of the Stainton Beck system was as follows in 2019. The data covers St Sunday's Beck and Stainton Beck, as ... At Halfpenny, a hamlet that is part of the parish of Stainton, a weir channelled water into a race on the left bank, which fed ... A weir and sluices channelled water to a mill, and the A65 road crosses both the tail leat and the main channel at Mill Bridge ...
I'm the body ... My husband's the water; I'm a fish in it. How can I survive? ... Why should the stone god Vitthal (Vithoba) ... Bahinabai's wisdom can be summed up in her words as: "A woman's body is a body controlled by somebody else. Therefore the path ... Following this, the calf and the cow gave up food and water leading to the former's death. At its burial, Bahinabai fainted and ... "If a woman's body is so harmful, How in this world will I reach Truth?" At times, Bahinabai's abhangas call out to her god ...
"Water Body Historical Data" (PDF). Alaska Resources Library & Information Services. June 10, 1979. "Yukon Pioneers". ... She was 175 feet long, but drew only 4 feet of water when fully loaded (and a mere 16 inches without freight aboard), allowing ...
The percentages of body water contained in various fluid compartments add up to total body water (TBW). This water makes up a ... The usual way of adding water to a body is by drinking. Water also enters the body with foods, especially those rich in water, ... In physiology, body water is the water content of an animal body that is contained in the tissues, the blood, the bones and ... The water in individual compartments can be measured with different substances: total body water: tritiated water or heavy ...
This dataset includes the latest objectives of all water bodies in the Dorset catchment. Water body objectives consist of two ... Water body status objectives describe the long term aim for specific parts of the water environment. ... Download Resource locator , Format: N/A, Dataset: Water Body Status Objectives Dorset N/A 23 March 2016 Not available ... This data supports the Water Framework Directive river basin management plans that can be found here: https://www.gov.uk/ ...
Water serves many important purposes in your body. Your body is 60% water. Water functions to filter toxins out of your vital ... Besides the "eight-a-day" guideline, Ive found the easiest method to calculate your water needs is to drink half your body ... Drinking plenty of water is also crucial when you are sick, since fluids help regulate body temperature. ... If you exercise (which you should!), you need to consume more water to compensate for the water lost through sweating. Drinking ...
We offer the Wheat Stem Temporary Tattoo Water Resistant Fake Body Art Set Collection for $9.99 with free shipping available. ... Wheat Stem Temporary Tattoo Water Resistant Fake Body Art Set Collection. Item. # 250323877407899677 ... Wheat Stem Temporary Tattoo Water Resistant Fake Body Art Set Collection. .css-fyhb53{color:#757575;font-family:inherit;font- ...
Evelyn has suffered a nervous breakdown and finds herself treated by the Water Doctors in the imposing Wakewater House, ... Decrease quantity for Bodies of Water Increase quantity for Bodies of Water ... Bodies Of Water is a solid article. Its well-researched and it puts a different spin on a well-used format. Its got enough of ... Bodies of Water is a modern Gothic masterpiece, a haunting and moving story filled with rich, tender writing and an ending that ...
How much water do you need?. More than 50 percent of your body weight is water. Without water, you couldnt maintain a normal ... Water keeps your body in balance. Published Sep 13, 2018. in For the Health of It Author: Janet Handrigan,MD Author: Janet ... Although drinking bottled water is healthier than drinking sodas and other sugary drinks, tap water is more affordable and can ... However you say it, water is essential to maintain optimal hydration.. Promoting water consumption is an important strategy for ...
Body Language Exposes Deception in Irvine Safe Water Presentation. Matt Coker , Posted on November 28, 2008. ... Then, he said, "There are no detectable levels of TCE in Irvines drinking water." My neighbors analysis of Pauls body ... Last week we blogged that Navy and Irvine Ranch Water District (IRWD) officials had declared Irvines drinking water safe at a ... But according to our water expert, you just cant "turn off" a contaminated well because it gets its water from the same ...
Fewer than one in 10 Brits are drinking enough water. Naughty, naughty. ... What Not Drinking Enough Water Does To Your Body And Brain. Fewer than one in 10 Brits are drinking enough water. Naughty, ... Most (80%) said they choose tap water over bottled water, and on average, those who do choose tap water drink it more often ( ... More than half your body weight comes from water. So if your levels are off, it can show up in a few different ways. Mild ...
Byredo Body Lotion Gypsy Water nourishes while giving off key notes of pine needle, sandalwood, and vanilla to amplify an ... Byredos Gypsy Water is one of my favourite scents - ever. I have the perfume, love the body cream and the shower gel so I ... GYPSY WATER BODY LOTION is one of my favourites Byrdeo fragranced lotions. It smells amazing and nourishes my skin. I also use ... Experience the unique mix of an indulgent formula and a down-to-earth scent, with the magic of Byredo Body Lotion Gypsy Water. ...
... the abnormally high levels of bacteria found in the water this season could make you... ...
UK - Farmed ducks are not legally required access to bathing water in the UK, an animal rights group has stressed after a ... Most Ducks Farmed Without Full Body Access to Water UK - Farmed ducks are not legally required access to bathing water in the ... "Ducks are waterfowl, therefore they should be provided with water that allows them full body access," said Dr Cooper. "This is ... Red Tractor standards require ducks to be able to cover their heads in water, stated the RSPCA. ...
Police divers removed the body of an adult male from the water, authorities said. ... The reservoir was immediately disconnected from the public water supply, with plans to drain and clean it. ... prompting city officials to advise residents to boil their water before consuming. ... A human body was found Tuesday in a western New York reservoir that supplies drinking water to parts of Rochester, ...
Fluid balance in the body. The human body consists largely of water. Every day we lose 2 to 2.5 liters of water via defecation ... Water Knowledge // The mineral calculator You can see which and how many minerals a mineral water contains on label of the ... Mineral Water and Apple Spritzer The Gerolsteiner range not only includes the popular mineral water but also Apple Spritzer. ... Why minerals are important for your body and which minerals Gerolsteiner mineral water provides. ...
Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Bodies_of_water_by_continent&oldid=8737789" ...
These data support the efficacy of Cinnulin PF® supplementation on reducing FBG and SBP, and improving body composition in men ... Main outcome measures were changes in FBG, SBP, and body composition measured after 12-weeks of supplementation. The primary ... Additionally, within-group analyses uncovered small, but statistically significant decreases in body fat (-0.7%: 37.9 ± 9.2% [ ... on body composition and features of the metabolic syndrome. Twenty-two subjects with prediabetes and the metabolic syndrome ( ...
Do not drink the water even if treated, as this may purify the water of algae but not the toxins they potentially produce. ... Do not drink the water even if treated, as this may purify the water of algae but not the toxins they potentially produce. ... "Open water" blooms according the the DEC means the "sample was collected near the center of the lake and may indicate that the ... "Open water" blooms according the the DEC means the "sample was collected near the center of the lake and may indicate that the ...
Body water composition. The percentage of the body composed of water is higher for a term neonate than it is for an adult, with ... Prevalence and Loss of Body Water. Principles of fluid and electrolyte balancing include the following:. * Total body water ( ... Insensible water loss. Insensible water loss (IWL) is water loss that is not readily measured. It consists mostly of water lost ... Preterm neonates have proportionally more water (at 23 weeks gestation, the body is 90% water; 60% ECF and 30% ICF), and they ...
The 24/7 Moisturizing Body Wash delivers a dual-action system with exfoliation + moisturization to help guys feel good, look ... Introducing the newest addition to the GentleMans Blend lineup - GentleMans Blend Exfoliating Body Wash. ...
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Water-based lubes are usually the most body-friendly, though lubes with glycerine or sugar might lead to yeast infections when ... All water-based lubes eventually dry up because the water evaporates; some last longer than others. ... Earthly Body Water Based Lubricant All water-based lubes eventually dry up because the water evaporates; some last longer than ... Water-based lubes are usually the most body-friendly, though lubes with glycerine or sugar might lead to yeast infections when ...
... the surface extent covered by water on a permanent basis like lakes, the water level of lakes and rivers and ice occurrences in ... The Water product group provides information about water quality (turbidity, trophic state) of medium and large-sized lakes, ... Lake Water Quality in various resolutions; Water Bodies datasets for surface extent; Lake and River Water Level information; ... Water Bodies:. Detects the areas covered by inland water along the year providing the maximum and the minimum extent of the ...
Our bodies are also very active during REM, and besides our eyes moving side to side, we usually toss and turn quite a bit. of ... This means that the bodys internal clock is out of sync with the twenty-four-hour day. The jet lag we feel after changing ... Ancient humans believed that the soul left the body during sleep, and the well-known prayer that includes the words, if I ... Neurons in the brain receive and transmit information and are able to communicate with the rest of the body. When they are ...
Test your students knowledge of geography with Turtle Diarys US Bodies of Water quiz. Prepare them to get excited about ... www.turtlediary.com/quiz/us-bodies-of-water.html?app=.... To know more about different quizzes, please visit www.turtlediary. ...
... the Jal Shakti Ministry had designated it as one of Indias 75 water heritage monuments ... out of the total of 72 water bodies. The receiver lakes sandstone aquifers and the more than 329 wells that take water from ... The main components of the Hamirsar lake system are 72 water bodies ranging in size, three main feeder canals that increase the ... The creation of numerous water bodies and rivers, as well as their connection to arterial reservoirs and canals, allowed Bhuj ...
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About 60 per cent of Ghanas water bodies are polluted, with many in critical condition, the Water Resources Commission (WRC) ... "60% of Ghanas water bodies polluted - Water Resources Commission", 13 May 2017 ... Ben Ampomah, Executive Secretary of the Commission at a workshop in Ho, said the polluted water bodies were mostly in the south ... Ghana: 60% of water bodies polluted due to illegal mining and other activities; say authorities. ...
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This article talks about the 7 incredible things that happen to your body when you drink lemon water everyday. ... 6. The body gets alkalised:. This is one of the biggest benefits of sipping lemon water. It balances the bodys PH levels by ... 7 Incredible Things That Happen To Your Body When You Drink Lemon Water. Zahra Motorwala. ... A glass of lemon water doesnt just quench your thirst but also refuels your body and replenishes the system with vitamins and ...
... shake body puffs its feathers out and poo, small brook cascades in background Stock Video and explore similar videos at Adobe ... Download Motacilla alba bird or white wagtail resting on stone peeking out of the water, ... Motacilla alba bird or white wagtail resting on stone peeking out of the water, shake body puffs its feathers out and poo, ...
  • In Netter's Atlas of Human Physiology (2002), body water is broken down into the following compartments: Intracellular fluid (2/3 of body water) is fluid contained within cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular fluid: inulin blood plasma: Evans blue Intracellular fluid may then be estimated by subtracting extracellular fluid from total body water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extracellular fluid (1/3 of body water) is fluid contained in areas outside of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is important to keep yourself and your pets or livestock out of water that shows signs of a cyanobacterial bloom. (cdc.gov)
  • Most animal body water is contained in various body fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually, people can drink enough fluids to compensate for excess water loss. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Morning sickness can cause your body to not have as much water and fluids as it should. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some blooms make toxins (poisons), which can still be in the water even when you can't see a bloom. (cdc.gov)
  • Pets may have harmful algae, cyanobacteria, or related toxins on their fur if they swim or play in water with a bloom. (cdc.gov)
  • The water could contain algal or cyanobacterial toxins or unsafe levels of germs. (cdc.gov)
  • Boiling water does not remove toxins and can concentrate the toxin. (cdc.gov)
  • If you are notified of cyanobacteria or their toxins in your public drinking water supply, follow guidance from your local or state government or water utility to reduce the chances of you or your animals getting sick. (cdc.gov)
  • Although many water treatment plants can remove these toxins, tap water can be contaminated in certain situations. (cdc.gov)
  • This first recipe will boost your immune system, speed up your metabolism and help you lose weight while flushing all the toxins out of your body. (healthymindmagazine.com)
  • Do not boil and consume water that may contain cyanobacteria because boiling may concentrate toxins. (cdc.gov)
  • It consists mostly of water lost via evaporation through the skin (two thirds) or respiratory tract (one third). (medscape.com)
  • Profuse sweating-which may be caused by vigorous exercise, hot weather, or a high body temperature-can dramatically increase the amount of water lost through evaporation. (msdmanuals.com)
  • What physiological changes occur during a 3-day water-only fast in terms of body, brain, and breath? (flamme.app)
  • Embarking on a 3-day water-only fast triggers significant physiological changes in the body, affecting various systems including the brain and respiratory system. (flamme.app)
  • Tobacco farming also leads to deforestation, soil erosion and polluted water bodies. (who.int)
  • If you see signs of a bloom, stay out of the water and keep your pets out of the water. (cdc.gov)
  • If you notice signs of a bloom in the water, stay out! (cdc.gov)
  • Do not fill pools with water directly from lakes, rivers, or ponds. (cdc.gov)
  • Cyanobacterial blooms are mostly found in fresh water, such as lakes, rivers, and streams. (cdc.gov)
  • There can be considerable variation in body water percentage based on a number of factors like age, health, water intake, weight, and sex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another method of determining total body water percentage (TBW%) is via bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). (wikipedia.org)
  • T B W = w e i g h t ∗ C {\displaystyle TBW=weight*C} C is a coefficient for the expected percentage of weight made up of free water. (wikipedia.org)
  • The percentage of the body composed of water is higher for a term neonate than it is for an adult, with a newborn being 75% water (40% ECF, 35% ICF) and an adult being 60% water (20% ECF, 40% ICF). (medscape.com)
  • The percentage of body weight that is water is also lower in older people and in obese people. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The percentage of body weight that is water is higher (70%) at birth and in early childhood. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Some of the chemicals found in fuel oils may be broken down slowly in air, water, and soil by sunlight or small mixtures that come from crude petroleum. (cdc.gov)
  • Some chemicals found in fuel oils may evaporate into the air from open containers or contaminated soil or water. (cdc.gov)
  • Endosulfan can be released into the air, water, and soil in areas where it is applied as a pesticide. (cdc.gov)
  • By weight, the average adult human is approximately 60% water, and the average child is approximately 65% water. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a large study of adults of all ages and both sexes, the adult human body averaged ~65% water. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, this varied substantially by age, sex, and adiposity (amount of fat in body composition). (wikipedia.org)
  • The body water constitutes as much as 75% of the body weight of a newborn infant, whereas some obese people are as little as 45% water by weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is due to how fat tissue does not retain water as well as lean tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, total body water can be estimated based on the premorbid (or ideal) body weight and correction factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depression in humans is correlated with higher body temperature, and cold-water swimming mitigates menopause symptoms. (harpers.org)
  • Nevertheless, water with glucose consumption did not change body weight. (bvsalud.org)
  • I consider the place of resistances articulated in strategies to shift water consumption practices at the level of habit, suggesting that these invoke a more rigid notion of habit and its involvement in reproducing dominant hierarchies of power and inclusion. (open.ac.uk)
  • I explore these ideas in relation to the Thames Water smart meter, which sought to reduce water consumption of households in London. (open.ac.uk)
  • In physiology, body water is the water content of an animal body that is contained in the tissues, the blood, the bones and elsewhere. (wikipedia.org)
  • The total body water is then accurately measured from the increase in breath deuterium content in relation to the volume of D2O ingested. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small for gestational age (SGA) preterm infants may also have a particularly high body water content (90% for SGA infants vs 84% for appropriate for gestational age [AGA] infants at 25-30 weeks' gestation). (medscape.com)
  • Water intake must balance water loss. (msdmanuals.com)
  • However, when the kidneys are functioning normally, the body can handle wide variations in fluid intake. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Do not fish, swim, boat, or play water sports in areas where this is possible harmful algae or cyanobacteria. (cdc.gov)
  • Protect your pets and livestock from getting sick by keeping them away from water with possible harmful algae or cyanobacteria. (cdc.gov)
  • Harmful algae and cyanobacteria can make the water look or smell bad. (cdc.gov)
  • Harmful cyanobacteria may grow in water bodies that supply tap water. (cdc.gov)
  • Cyanobacteria can also produce substances that are not harmful, but can change the taste or smell of tap water. (cdc.gov)
  • If you or your pets do go in water that may have a bloom, rinse yourself and your pets immediately afterward with tap water from a sink, shower, hose, or outdoor spigot. (cdc.gov)
  • ious with a tray ceiling, huge walk-in closet, and bath with dual sink vanity, linen closet, water closet, and beautifully tiled shower with built-in seat. (terravistarealty.com)
  • If you think you may have been exposed, remove your clothing, rapidly wash your entire body with soap and water, and get medical care as quickly as possible. (cdc.gov)
  • Wash your pet with clean water immediately and call your veterinarian if you suspect they may have come in contact with a bloom. (cdc.gov)
  • The vet asked if Max went swimming in the lake and instructed Brian to rinse Max immediately with clean water and then bring him into the office. (cdc.gov)
  • Additionally, a small amount of water is produced when the body processes (metabolizes) certain nutrients. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Additionally, the process of autophagy, wherein the body breaks down and recycles damaged cells, is initiated, offering potential benefits for cellular repair and longevity. (flamme.app)
  • This water makes up a significant fraction of the human body, both by weight and by volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • The figure for water fraction by weight in this sample was found to be 58 ±8% water for males and 48 ±6% for females. (wikipedia.org)
  • Term newborns usually lose 5-10% of their weight in the first week of life, almost all of which is water loss. (medscape.com)
  • Water accounts for about one half to two thirds of an average person's weight. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A metal scar on the surface of the white dwarf WD 0816-310 indicated that it has cannibalized other bodies in its orbit. (harpers.org)
  • Surface water concentrations are highly variable, but are generally highest in water bodies that drain areas of high agricultural use (0.21-54 nanograms/liter [ng/L] for α-endosulfan). (cdc.gov)
  • The body loses water primarily by excreting it in urine from the kidneys. (msdmanuals.com)
  • An individual's total body water can be determined using flowing-afterglow mass spectrometry (FA-MS) to measure the abundance of deuterium in breath samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then, the FA-MS instrument measures the ratio D:H of deuterium to hydrogen in the water vapour in exhaled breath. (wikipedia.org)
  • The percentages of body water contained in various fluid compartments add up to total body water (TBW). (wikipedia.org)
  • The water in individual compartments can be measured with different substances: total body water: tritiated water or heavy water. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 154-pound (70-kilogram) man has a little over 10.5 gallons (42 liters) of water in his body: 7 gallons (28 liters) inside the cells, 2.5 gallons (about 10.5 liters) in the space around the cells, and slightly less than 1 gallon (3.5 liters, or about 8% of the total amount of water) in the blood. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A known dose of deuterated water (heavy water, D2O) is ingested and allowed to equilibrate within the body water. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you have concerns about the appearance, smell, or taste of tap water that you are using, contact your water utility or health department . (cdc.gov)
  • Bad smell coming from the water. (cdc.gov)
  • Proven to improve the water balance of cells, their metabolism and communication between them. (inarisbeautystore.eu)
  • Some chemicals found in fuel oils may stick to particles in water, which will eventually cause them to settle to the (Pronounced fy6! (cdc.gov)
  • Some of the chemicals found in fuel oils may build up more easily dissolve in water. (cdc.gov)
  • Cyanobacteria, sometimes called blue-green algae, are simple, plant-like organisms that live in all types of water, including fresh, salt, and brackish (mixture of fresh and salt). (cdc.gov)
  • Insensible water loss (IWL) is water loss that is not readily measured. (medscape.com)
  • Ensuring the right amount of body water is part of fluid balance, an aspect of homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cucumber will hydrate your body, while lemons will establish the alkaline balance. (healthymindmagazine.com)
  • This AC waveform allows the creation of a current inside the body via the very capacitive skin without causing a DC flow or burns, and limited in the ~20mA range current for safety. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amiporine®ER* - a restructuring active ingredient from pomegranate that restores natural water flow by stimulating specific skin aquaporins (AQP3). (inarisbeautystore.eu)
  • If phosgene liquid is released into water, people may be exposed by touching or drinking water that contains phosgene. (cdc.gov)
  • It comes with strong ABS Plastic Body along with 2 core 15 meter free copper wire and a stainless stell sensor which is totally free of cost. (meesho.com)
  • It is recommended to drink 8 glasses of water a day, so if you do not want to drink plain water all the time, we have prepared some amazing recipes for you that will shake you up. (healthymindmagazine.com)
  • You should just squeeze half a lemon into a glass of water and drink it right after getting up. (healthymindmagazine.com)
  • Health or environmental protection departments often post advisories on their websites, near the water, or both. (cdc.gov)
  • If you are worried about the way recreational water looks or smells, contact your local park authority, environmental protection authority, state environmental protection department , or health department . (cdc.gov)
  • If you are worried about the way your tap water looks, smells, or tastes, contact your water utility or health department . (cdc.gov)
  • Results suggest that modification of caloric concentration in water affects feeding behavior. (bvsalud.org)
  • Visit your state government website to find out more information about water testing and beach closures in your area. (cdc.gov)
  • Levels of endosulfan in drinking water sources are regularly monitored through federal and state government programs. (cdc.gov)
  • This hydrating, anti-inflammatory and refreshing strawberry water will make you glow from the inside out, by enhancing your whole face and body complexion. (healthymindmagazine.com)

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