Body Surface Potential Mapping
Smoke Inhalation Injury
Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular
Drug Dosage Calculations
Metabolic Clearance Rate
Body Temperature Regulation
Area Under Curve
Ventricular Function, Left
Glomerular Filtration Rate
Trauma Severity Indices
Reproducibility of Results
Aortic Valve Stenosis
Heart Valve Prosthesis
Peritoneal Dialysis, Continuous Ambulatory
Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine
Kidney Failure, Chronic
Predictive Value of Tests
Drug Administration Schedule
Kidney Function Tests
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Severity of Illness Index
Aortic Valve Insufficiency
Tetralogy of Fallot
Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation
Body Mass Index
Analysis of Variance
Heart Conduction System
Ventricular Function, Right
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Mitral Valve Insufficiency
Heart Valve Diseases
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
Gender-specific differences in dialysis quality (Kt/V): 'big men' are at risk of inadequate haemodialysis treatment. (1/455)BACKGROUND: Inadequate dialysis dose is closely related to mortality and morbidity of maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) patients. According to the DOQI guidelines a minimum prescribed dialysis dose of single-pool Kt/V (Kt/Vsp)=1.3, equivalent to equilibrated double pool Kt/V (e-Kt/Vdp)=1.1, is recommended. Knowledge of patient-related risk factors for inadequate delivery of hacmodialysis would be helpful to select patient subgroups for intensive control ofdialysis adequacy. METHODS: A retrospective survey was conducted to assess the prevalence of inadequate dialysis dose according to DOQI criteria during a 7-month period. A total of 320 e-Kt/Vdp measurements in 62 MHD patients were evaluated (mean effective dialysis time 222+/-32 min). Residual renal function (RRF) was expressed as renal weekly Kt/V (r-Kt/Vweek) and included into assessment of total weekly renal and dialytic Kt/V (t-Kt/Vweek). RESULTS: Inadequacy (e-Kt/Vdp<1.10) was prevalent in 37.2% of all measurements and in 22/62 patients (35.5%). In 54% of underdialysed patients r-Kt/Vweek compensated for insufficient dialytic urea removal. Mean weekly Kt/V was inadequate (t-Kt/Vweek<3.30) in 12/62 patients (19.4%) of whom 91.7% (11/12) were male. Body-weight, urea distribution volume (UDV). and body-surface area (BSA) were significantly higher in inadequately is adequately dialysed males. UDV>42.0 litres or BSA>2.0 m2 and a lack of RRF (r-Kt/Vweek<0.3) put 'big men' at increased risk to receive an inadequate dose of dialysis. CONCLUSION: Our data identify patients at risk for inadequate haemodialysis treatment. Special attention should be focused on 'big men' with UDV>42.0 litres or BSA>2.0 m2. In this subset of patients frequent measurements of t-Kt/Vweek and assessment of RRF should be mandatory. (+info)
The diameter of the common femoral artery in healthy human: influence of sex, age, and body size. (2/455)PURPOSE: To determine the relevance of dilatations of the common femoral artery (CFA), knowledge of the normal CFA diameter is essential. The diameter of the CFA in healthy male and female subjects of different ages was investigated. METHODS: The diameter of the CFA was measured in 122 healthy volunteers (59 male, 63 female; 8 to 81 years of age) with echo-tracking B-mode ultrasound scan. The influence of age, sex, height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and systolic blood pressure was analyzed by means of a multiple regression model. RESULTS: The CFA increased steadily in diameter throughout life. From 25 years onwards, the diameter was larger in men than in women. Significant correlations were found between the CFA diameter and weight (r = 0.58 and r = 0.57 in male and female subjects, respectively; P <.0001), height (r = 0.49 and r = 0.54 in male and female subjects, respectively; P <.0001), and BSA (r = 0.60 and r = 0.62 in male and female subjects, respectively; P <.0001). Age and BSA were used to create a model for prediction of the CFA diameter (r = 0.71 and r = 0.77 in male and female subjects, respectively; P <.0001). CONCLUSION: The diameter of the CFA increases with age, initially during growth but also in adults. This is related to age, body size, and sex male subjects have larger arteries than female subjects. It is now possible to predict the normal CFA diameter, and nomograms that may be used in the study of aneurysmal disease are presented. (+info)
Estimation of glomerular filtration rate from plasma creatinine concentration in children. (3/455)The relation between the true plasma creatinine concentration (Pc) and the glomerular filtration rate corrected for body surface area (GFR/SA) was investigated in 108 individuals, and the following formula was derived: GFR/SA (ml/min per 1-73m2SA) = 0-43 Ht (cm)/Pc (mg/100 ml). This formula was tested in a second group of 83 children, and its accuracy and precision was compared to the 24-hour creatinine clearance. It was found to be superior to the creatinine clearance overall, and was as good, even if all results involving suspect 24-hour-urine collections were eliminated from analysis. The formula in SI usage is: GFR/SA (ml/min per 1-73 m2SA) = 38 Ht (cm)1Pc (mumol/l). (+info)
Effect of obesity on red cell mass results. (4/455)Measurement of red cell mass with isotope dilution remains an important diagnostic test in the evaluation of patients with suspected polycythemia vera (PCV). Results and reference ranges are typically expressed in units normalized for body weight (mL/kg). Obesity is common in polycythemic patients, and it is important to know how the various published normative ranges compare across a wide range of body weights. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 51 consecutive patients referred for red cell mass determination with 51Cr red blood cell dilution. Results were expressed in milliliters per kilogram (mL/kg) by using the actual patient weight and after adiposity adjustments using ideal body weight, body mass index (BMI) and combinations of height-weight, including body surface area. Results were classified as normal, elevated or PCV. RESULTS: There was a high prevalence of obesity in our population (28/51 [55%] with BMI > 27 kg/m2, BMI range 16.0-54.8 kg/m2). The method used to compensate for obesity had a dramatic effect on the derived red cell mass, the fraction of patients with elevated measurements and the fraction of patients meeting criteria for PCV. Concordance for categorization as normal, elevated or PCV by all methods was only 47.1%. CONCLUSION: Obesity is a common confounding factor in the interpretation of red cell mass measurements. Currently published reference ranges generate inconsistent results when extrapolated to obese patients. Further normative data on obese subjects are needed to determine which method (if any) is optimal. (+info)
Frequency and causes of discrepancy between Kt/V and creatinine clearance. (5/455)This study examines the frequency of discrepancy between Kt/V urea and creatinine clearance (Ccr) measurements in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) and the reasons for this discrepancy. DESIGN: Nonrandomized, retrospective data analysis. SETTING: Single PD unit of a university teaching hospital. PATIENTS: All adult patients receiving PD at our center from January 1995 to December 1996. METHODS: Actual (a) and desired (d) body weight (BW) were used to calculate urea volume of distribution (V) and body surface area (BSA). Patients were divided into four groups based upon their total small solute clearances (Kt/V and Ccr, normalized by actual weight) and three additional groups based upon actual/desired (a/d) body weight ratio. An additional analysis was performed for the subset of anuric patients. Data collected for all patients included the following: total Kt, total Ccr, 4-hour dialysate/ plasma (D/P) creatinine, serum albumin concentration, duration of PD, actual body weight, age, and height. RESULTS: Twenty-three percent of the clearance measurements in our study were discrepant, defined as having values for either Kt/V or Ccr (but not both) above the accepted targets of Kt/V > or = 2.0/wk and Ccr > or = 60 L/wk/ 1.73 m2. Patients with both values above target are more likely to have higher residual renal function. Patients who are significantly less than BWd and patients on PD for a longer time are more likely to have adequate Kt/V but not Ccr. Furthermore, patients who are less than 90% or greater than 110% of BWd have markedly different values for Kt/V and Ccr when BWa versus BWd values are used. CONCLUSIONS: Kt/V and Ccr values are frequently discrepant; a number of factors affect these two measurements to varying degrees, including weight, degree of residual renal function, and duration of PD. (+info)
Echocardiographic examination of cardiac structure and function in elite cross trained male and female Alpine skiers. (6/455)OBJECTIVE: To assess cardiac structure and function in elite cross-trained male and female athletes (Alpine skiers). METHODS: Sixteen athletes (10 male, six female) and 19 healthy sedentary control subjects (12 male, seven female) volunteered to take part in the study. Basic anthropometry determined height, body mass, body surface area, and fat free mass. Cardiac dimensions and function were determined by two dimensional, M mode, and Doppler echocardiography. Absolute data and data corrected for body size (allometrically determined) were compared by two way analysis of variance and post hoc Scheffe tests. RESULTS: Absolute left ventricular internal dimension in diastole (LVIDd), septal and posterior wall thickness and left ventricular mass were larger in athletes than controls (p < 0.05) and also increased in the men (p < 0.05) compared with women (except for septal thickness in controls). An increased LVIDd, septal thickness, posterior wall thickness, and left ventricular mass in athletes persisted after correction for body size except when LVIDd was scaled by fat free mass. Cardiac dimensions did not differ between the sexes after correction for body size. All functional indices were similar between groups. CONCLUSION: There is evidence of both left ventricular chamber dilatation and wall enlargement in cross trained athletes compared with controls. Differences in absolute cardiac dimensions between the sexes were primarily due to greater body dimensions in the men. (+info)
Cycler adequacy and prescription data in a national cohort sample: the 1997 core indicators report. Health Care Financing Administration Peritoneal Dialysis Core Indicators Study Group. (7/455)BACKGROUND: The Health Care Financing Administration Peritoneal Dialysis Core Indicator Project obtains data yearly in four areas of patient care: dialysis adequacy, anemia, blood pressure, and nutrition. METHODS: Adequacy and dialysis prescription data were obtained using a standardized data abstraction form from a random sample of adult U.S. peritoneal dialysis patients who were alive on December 31, 1996. RESULTS: For the cohort receiving cycler dialysis, 22% were unable to meet the National Kidney Foundation Dialysis Outcome Quality Initiatives (NKF-DOQI) dialysis adequacy guidelines because they did not have at least one adequacy measure during the six-month period of observation. Thirty-six percent of patients met NKF-DOQI guidelines for weekly Kt/V urea, 33% met guidelines for weekly creatinine clearance (CCr), and 24% met guidelines for both urea and creatinine clearances. The mean weekly adequacy values were 2.24 +/- 0.56 for Kt/V urea and 67.5 +/- 24.4 liter/1.73 m2 for CCr, and the median values were 2.20 and 62.25 liter/1.73 m2, respectively. The mean prescribed 24-hour volume was 12,040 +/- 3255 ml, and the median prescribed volume was 11,783 ml. Only 60% of patients were prescribed at least one daytime dwell. By logistic regression analysis, risk factors for an inadequate dose of dialysis included being in the highest quartile of body surface area (odds ratio = 3.3 for CCr and 3.4 for Kt/V urea) and a duration of dialysis greater than two years (odds ratio = 4.2 for CCr and 2.1 for Kt/V urea). CONCLUSION: There is much room for improvement in providing an adequate dose of dialysis to cycler patients. Practitioners should be more aggressive in increasing dwell volumes, adding daytime dwells, and adjusting nighttime dwell times in order to compensate for the loss of residual renal function over time. These changes can only be accomplished if practitioners measure periodically the dose of dialysis as outlined in the NKF-DOQI guidelines. (+info)
The fourth dimension of life: fractal geometry and allometric scaling of organisms. (8/455)Fractal-like networks effectively endow life with an additional fourth spatial dimension. This is the origin of quarter-power scaling that is so pervasive in biology. Organisms have evolved hierarchical branching networks that terminate in size-invariant units, such as capillaries, leaves, mitochondria, and oxidase molecules. Natural selection has tended to maximize both metabolic capacity, by maximizing the scaling of exchange surface areas, and internal efficiency, by minimizing the scaling of transport distances and times. These design principles are independent of detailed dynamics and explicit models and should apply to virtually all organisms. (+info)
First-degree burns are the mildest form of burn and affect only the outer layer of the skin. They are characterized by redness, swelling, and pain but do not blister or scar. Examples of first-degree burns include sunburns and minor scalds from hot liquids.
Second-degree burns are more severe and affect both the outer and inner layers of the skin. They can cause blisters, redness, swelling, and pain, and may lead to infection. Second-degree burns can be further classified into two subtypes: partial thickness burns (where the skin is damaged but not completely destroyed) and full thickness burns (where the skin is completely destroyed).
Third-degree burns are the most severe and affect all layers of the skin and underlying tissues. They can cause charring of the skin, loss of function, and may lead to infection or even death.
There are several ways to treat burns, including:
1. Cooling the burn with cool water or a cold compress to reduce heat and prevent further damage.
2. Keeping the burn clean and dry to prevent infection.
3. Applying topical creams or ointments to help soothe and heal the burn.
4. Taking pain medication to manage discomfort.
5. In severe cases, undergoing surgery to remove damaged tissue and promote healing.
Prevention is key when it comes to burns. Some ways to prevent burns include:
1. Being cautious when handling hot objects or substances.
2. Keeping a safe distance from open flames or sparks.
3. Wearing protective clothing, such as gloves and long sleeves, when working with hot materials.
4. Keeping children away from hot surfaces and substances.
5. Installing smoke detectors and fire extinguishers in the home to reduce the risk of fires.
Overall, burns can be a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention. By understanding the causes, symptoms, and treatments for burns, individuals can take steps to prevent them and seek help if they do occur.
The severity of smoke inhalation injury can vary depending on factors such as the amount and type of smoke inhaled, the duration of exposure, and the individual's overall health. In mild cases, symptoms may include coughing, sneezing, and shortness of breath, while more severe cases can lead to respiratory failure, burns, and even death.
Treatment for smoke inhalation injury typically involves supportive care such as oxygen therapy, hydration, and pain management, as well as medications to help reduce inflammation and open up airways. In severe cases, hospitalization and mechanical ventilation may be necessary.
Long-term effects of smoke inhalation injury can include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchiectasis, and pulmonary fibrosis, among others. These conditions can significantly impact an individual's quality of life and may require ongoing medical care and monitoring.
Prevention of smoke inhalation injury involves taking steps to avoid exposure to smoke, such as evacuating a building during a fire or wearing protective equipment when working with flammable materials. In cases where exposure has already occurred, prompt medical attention can help reduce the risk of long-term health effects and improve outcomes for those affected.
Inhalation burns can damage the lining of the airways, including the throat, windpipe, and lungs, leading to inflammation, scarring, and impaired lung function. The severity of the burn depends on the degree of exposure to the heat or smoke, as well as the duration of exposure.
Inhalation burns can be classified into two categories: thermal and chemical. Thermal inhalation burns are caused by direct exposure to heat or flames, while chemical inhalation burns are caused by inhaling toxic substances, such as gases or fumes.
Symptoms of inhalation burns may include coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and fever. In severe cases, inhalation burns can lead to respiratory failure, which can be life-threatening. Treatment for inhalation burns typically involves supportive care, such as oxygen therapy, hydration, and pain management, as well as medications to reduce inflammation and prevent infection. In severe cases, hospitalization may be required to monitor and treat the burn.
Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.
There are several ways to measure body weight, including:
1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.
It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.
LVH can lead to a number of complications, including:
1. Heart failure: The enlarged left ventricle can become less efficient at pumping blood throughout the body, leading to heart failure.
2. Arrhythmias: The abnormal electrical activity in the heart can lead to irregular heart rhythms.
3. Sudden cardiac death: In some cases, LVH can increase the risk of sudden cardiac death.
4. Atrial fibrillation: The enlarged left atrium can lead to atrial fibrillation, a common type of arrhythmia.
5. Mitral regurgitation: The enlargement of the left ventricle can cause the mitral valve to become incompetent, leading to mitral regurgitation.
6. Heart valve problems: The enlarged left ventricle can lead to heart valve problems, such as mitral regurgitation or aortic stenosis.
7. Coronary artery disease: LVH can increase the risk of coronary artery disease, which can lead to a heart attack.
8. Pulmonary hypertension: The enlarged left ventricle can lead to pulmonary hypertension, which can further strain the heart and increase the risk of complications.
Evaluation of LVH typically involves a physical examination, medical history, electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography, and other diagnostic tests such as stress test or cardiac MRI. Treatment options for LVH depend on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery or other interventions.
The symptoms of SJS typically begin with a fever, sore throat, and general feeling of illness within 1 to 3 weeks after exposure to the causative agent. Over the next few days, the patient develops painful blisters on the skin and mucous membranes, which eventually become crusted and form scabs. The blisters may be more prominent on the face, lips, hands, and feet.
In addition to skin symptoms, SJS can also affect other parts of the body such as the eyes, mouth, and genital area. Patients with SJS may experience eye inflammation, mouth ulcers, and vaginal or penile erosions. In severe cases, the condition can lead to life-threatening complications such as infection, organ failure, and death.
The exact cause of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome is not known, but it is believed to be an autoimmune reaction to certain medications or infections. The disorder is more common in children and young adults, and people with a family history of the condition are at higher risk.
Treatment for SJS typically involves withdrawal of any suspected medications and supportive care to manage symptoms such as fever, pain, and infection. Patients may also receive antiviral or antibacterial medications if an infection is suspected. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat complications.
The prognosis for Stevens-Johnson Syndrome varies depending on the severity of the condition and the presence of any underlying health conditions. Mortality rates range from 5% to 20%, with higher mortality rates associated with more severe cases and delayed treatment. However, with prompt and appropriate treatment, many patients with SJS can recover fully or with minimal scarring.
Psoriasis can affect any part of the body, including the scalp, elbows, knees, and lower back. The symptoms of psoriasis can vary in severity, and the condition can have a significant impact on quality of life. In addition to physical discomfort, psoriasis can also cause emotional distress and stigma.
There is no cure for psoriasis, but there are several treatment options available, including topical creams and ointments, light therapy, and systemic medications such as biologic drugs. With proper treatment, many people with psoriasis are able to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.
Psoriasis is relatively common, affecting approximately 2-3% of the global population, with a higher prevalence in Caucasians than in other races. It can occur at any age, but typically starts in the late teenage years or early adulthood. Psoriasis is often associated with other health conditions, such as diabetes, heart disease, and depression.
Overall, psoriasis is a complex and multifactorial condition that requires a comprehensive approach to management, including both physical and emotional support. With appropriate treatment and self-care, people with psoriasis can lead full and active lives.
Anuria is often associated with other conditions such as chronic kidney disease, sepsis, or bladder outlet obstruction. The symptoms of anuria may include decreased urine output, swelling in the legs and abdomen, nausea, vomiting, and electrolyte imbalances.
Treatment of anuria depends on the underlying cause, and may involve medications to relieve symptoms, drainage of obstructions, or other interventions such as hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. In severe cases, anuria can lead to uremia, a buildup of waste products in the blood that can be life-threatening. Therefore, prompt medical attention is essential for effective management and prevention of complications.
Aortic valve stenosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including aging, calcium buildup, or congenital heart defects. It is typically diagnosed through echocardiography or cardiac catheterization. Treatment options for aortic valve stenosis include medications to manage symptoms, aortic valve replacement surgery, or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), which is a minimally invasive procedure.
In TAVR, a thin tube is inserted through a blood vessel in the leg and guided to the heart, where it delivers a new aortic valve. This can be performed through a small incision in the chest or through a catheter inserted into the femoral artery.
While TAVR has become increasingly popular for treating aortic valve stenosis, it is not suitable for all patients and requires careful evaluation to determine the best course of treatment. It is important to discuss the risks and benefits of TAVR with a healthcare provider to determine the appropriate treatment plan for each individual patient.
Symptoms of wound infection may include:
* Redness, swelling, or increased pain around the wound
* Increased drainage or pus from the wound
* Bad smell or discharge from the wound
* Fever or chills
* Swollen lymph nodes
Treatment of wound infection usually involves antibiotics and may require surgical intervention to remove infected tissue. It is important to practice good wound care, such as keeping the wound clean and dry, changing dressings regularly, and monitoring for signs of infection to prevent the development of a wound infection.
Preventive measures include:
* Proper sterilization and technique during surgery or medical procedures
* Keeping the wound site clean and dry
* Removing any dead tissue or debris from the wound
* Using antibiotic ointment or cream to prevent infection
* Covering the wound with a sterile dressing
If you suspect that you have a wound infection, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare professional can evaluate the wound and provide appropriate treatment to prevent further complications.
A condition in which the kidneys gradually lose their function over time, leading to the accumulation of waste products in the body. Also known as chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Chronic kidney failure affects approximately 20 million people worldwide and is a major public health concern. In the United States, it is estimated that 1 in 5 adults has CKD, with African Americans being disproportionately affected.
The causes of chronic kidney failure are numerous and include:
1. Diabetes: High blood sugar levels can damage the kidneys over time.
2. Hypertension: Uncontrolled high blood pressure can cause damage to the blood vessels in the kidneys.
3. Glomerulonephritis: An inflammation of the glomeruli, the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that filter waste and excess fluids from the blood.
4. Interstitial nephritis: Inflammation of the tissue between the kidney tubules.
5. Pyelonephritis: Infection of the kidneys, usually caused by bacteria or viruses.
6. Polycystic kidney disease: A genetic disorder that causes cysts to grow on the kidneys.
7. Obesity: Excess weight can increase blood pressure and strain on the kidneys.
8. Family history: A family history of kidney disease increases the risk of developing chronic kidney failure.
Early stages of chronic kidney failure may not cause any symptoms, but as the disease progresses, symptoms can include:
1. Fatigue: Feeling tired or weak.
2. Swelling: In the legs, ankles, and feet.
3. Nausea and vomiting: Due to the buildup of waste products in the body.
4. Poor appetite: Loss of interest in food.
5. Difficulty concentrating: Cognitive impairment due to the buildup of waste products in the brain.
6. Shortness of breath: Due to fluid buildup in the lungs.
7. Pain: In the back, flank, or abdomen.
8. Urination changes: Decreased urine production, dark-colored urine, or blood in the urine.
9. Heart problems: Chronic kidney failure can increase the risk of heart disease and heart attack.
Chronic kidney failure is typically diagnosed based on a combination of physical examination findings, medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include:
1. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine: Waste products in the blood that increase with decreased kidney function.
2. Electrolyte levels: Imbalances in electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, and phosphorus can indicate kidney dysfunction.
3. Kidney function tests: Measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to determine the level of kidney function.
4. Urinalysis: Examination of urine for protein, blood, or white blood cells.
Imaging studies may include:
1. Ultrasound: To assess the size and shape of the kidneys, detect any blockages, and identify any other abnormalities.
2. Computed tomography (CT) scan: To provide detailed images of the kidneys and detect any obstructions or abscesses.
3. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): To evaluate the kidneys and detect any damage or scarring.
Treatment for chronic kidney failure depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the disease. The goals of treatment are to slow progression of the disease, manage symptoms, and improve quality of life. Treatment may include:
1. Medications: To control high blood pressure, lower cholesterol levels, reduce proteinuria, and manage anemia.
2. Diet: A healthy diet that limits protein intake, controls salt and water intake, and emphasizes low-fat dairy products, fruits, and vegetables.
3. Fluid management: Monitoring and control of fluid intake to prevent fluid buildup in the body.
4. Dialysis: A machine that filters waste products from the blood when the kidneys are no longer able to do so.
5. Transplantation: A kidney transplant may be considered for some patients with advanced chronic kidney failure.
Chronic kidney failure can lead to several complications, including:
1. Heart disease: High blood pressure and anemia can increase the risk of heart disease.
2. Anemia: A decrease in red blood cells can cause fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
3. Bone disease: A disorder that can lead to bone pain, weakness, and an increased risk of fractures.
4. Electrolyte imbalance: Imbalances of electrolytes such as potassium, phosphorus, and sodium can cause muscle weakness, heart arrhythmias, and other complications.
5. Infections: A decrease in immune function can increase the risk of infections.
6. Nutritional deficiencies: Poor appetite, nausea, and vomiting can lead to malnutrition and nutrient deficiencies.
7. Cardiovascular disease: High blood pressure, anemia, and other complications can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
8. Pain: Chronic kidney failure can cause pain, particularly in the back, flank, and abdomen.
9. Sleep disorders: Insomnia, sleep apnea, and restless leg syndrome are common complications.
10. Depression and anxiety: The emotional burden of chronic kidney failure can lead to depression and anxiety.
There are many different causes of pathological dilatation, including:
1. Infection: Infections like tuberculosis or abscesses can cause inflammation and swelling in affected tissues, leading to dilatation.
2. Inflammation: Inflammatory conditions like rheumatoid arthritis or Crohn's disease can cause dilatation of blood vessels and organs.
3. Heart disease: Conditions like heart failure or coronary artery disease can lead to dilatation of the heart chambers or vessels.
4. Liver or spleen disease: Dilatation of the liver or spleen can occur due to conditions like cirrhosis or splenomegaly.
5. Neoplasms: Tumors can cause dilatation of affected structures, such as blood vessels or organs.
Pathological dilatation can lead to a range of symptoms depending on the location and severity of the condition. These may include:
1. Swelling or distension of the affected structure
2. Pain or discomfort in the affected area
3. Difficulty breathing or swallowing (in the case of dilatation in the throat or airways)
4. Fatigue or weakness
5. Pale or clammy skin
6. Rapid heart rate or palpitations
7. Shortness of breath (dyspnea)
Diagnosis of pathological dilatation typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies like X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests to identify the underlying cause. Treatment depends on the specific condition and may include medications, surgery, or other interventions to address the underlying cause and relieve symptoms.
There are several causes of aortic valve insufficiency, including:
1. Congenital heart defects
2. Rheumatic fever
3. Endocarditis (infection of the inner lining of the heart)
4. Aging and wear and tear on the valve
5. Trauma to the chest
6. Connective tissue disorders such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.
Symptoms of aortic valve insufficiency can include fatigue, shortness of breath, swelling in the legs and feet, and chest pain. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, echocardiogram (ultrasound of the heart), electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG), and chest X-ray.
Treatment options for aortic valve insufficiency depend on the severity of the condition and may include:
1. Medications to manage symptoms such as heart failure, high blood pressure, and arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythms)
2. Lifestyle modifications such as a healthy diet and regular exercise
3. Repair or replacement of the aortic valve through surgery. This may involve replacing the valve with an artificial one, or repairing the existing valve through a procedure called valvuloplasty.
4. In some cases, catheter-based procedures such as balloon valvuloplasty or valve replacement may be used.
It is important to note that aortic valve insufficiency can lead to complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias, and endocarditis, which can be life-threatening if left untreated. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
1. Hypothyroidism: An underactive thyroid gland can cause the gland to become enlarged as it tries to produce more hormones to compensate for the lack of production.
2. Hyperthyroidism: An overactive thyroid gland can also cause the gland to become enlarged as it produces excessive amounts of hormones.
3. Thyroid nodules: These are abnormal growths within the thyroid gland that can cause the gland to become enlarged.
4. Thyroiditis: This is an inflammation of the thyroid gland that can cause it to become enlarged.
5. Iodine deficiency: Iodine is essential for the production of thyroid hormones, and a lack of iodine in the diet can cause the gland to become enlarged as it tries to produce more hormones.
6. Pituitary gland problems: The pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain, regulates the production of thyroid hormones. Problems with the pituitary gland can cause the thyroid gland to become enlarged.
7. Genetic conditions: Some genetic conditions, such as familial goiter, can cause the thyroid gland to become enlarged.
Symptoms of goiter may include:
* A noticeable lump in the neck
* Difficulty swallowing or breathing
* Hoarseness or vocal cord paralysis
* Weight gain
* Cold intolerance
Goiter can be diagnosed through a physical examination, blood tests to measure thyroid hormone levels, and imaging studies such as ultrasound or radionuclide scans to evaluate the size and function of the gland. Treatment options for goiter depend on the underlying cause and may include medication, surgery, or radioactive iodine therapy.
1. Ventricular septal defect (VSD): an opening in the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart, which allows oxygen-poor blood to mix with oxygen-rich blood.
2. Pulmonary stenosis: a narrowing of the pulmonary valve and pulmonary artery, which restricts blood flow to the lungs.
3. Overriding aorta: an aorta that grows over the ventricular septal defect, blocking the flow of oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle to the rest of the body.
4. Right ventricular hypertrophy: enlargement of the right ventricle due to increased pressure caused by the backflow of blood through the VSD.
These abnormalities combine to reduce the amount of oxygen that reaches the body's tissues, leading to cyanosis (blue discoloration of the skin) and fatigue. Tetralogy of Fallot is usually diagnosed at birth or soon after, and treatment typically involves a combination of medications, surgery, and other interventions to repair the defects and improve blood flow to the body.
Types of Kidney Diseases:
1. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI): A sudden and reversible loss of kidney function that can be caused by a variety of factors, such as injury, infection, or medication.
2. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): A gradual and irreversible loss of kidney function that can lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
3. End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD): A severe and irreversible form of CKD that requires dialysis or a kidney transplant.
4. Glomerulonephritis: An inflammation of the glomeruli, the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that filter waste products.
5. Interstitial Nephritis: An inflammation of the tissue between the tubules and blood vessels in the kidneys.
6. Kidney Stone Disease: A condition where small, hard mineral deposits form in the kidneys and can cause pain, bleeding, and other complications.
7. Pyelonephritis: An infection of the kidneys that can cause inflammation, damage to the tissues, and scarring.
8. Renal Cell Carcinoma: A type of cancer that originates in the cells of the kidney.
9. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS): A condition where the immune system attacks the platelets and red blood cells, leading to anemia, low platelet count, and damage to the kidneys.
Symptoms of Kidney Diseases:
1. Blood in urine or hematuria
2. Proteinuria (excess protein in urine)
3. Reduced kidney function or renal insufficiency
4. Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet (edema)
5. Fatigue and weakness
6. Nausea and vomiting
7. Abdominal pain
8. Frequent urination or polyuria
9. Increased thirst and drinking (polydipsia)
10. Weight loss
Diagnosis of Kidney Diseases:
1. Physical examination
2. Medical history
3. Urinalysis (test of urine)
4. Blood tests (e.g., creatinine, urea, electrolytes)
5. Imaging studies (e.g., X-rays, CT scans, ultrasound)
6. Kidney biopsy
7. Other specialized tests (e.g., 24-hour urinary protein collection, kidney function tests)
Treatment of Kidney Diseases:
1. Medications (e.g., diuretics, blood pressure medication, antibiotics)
2. Diet and lifestyle changes (e.g., low salt intake, increased water intake, physical activity)
3. Dialysis (filtering waste products from the blood when the kidneys are not functioning properly)
4. Kidney transplantation ( replacing a diseased kidney with a healthy one)
5. Other specialized treatments (e.g., plasmapheresis, hemodialysis)
Prevention of Kidney Diseases:
1. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
2. Monitoring blood pressure and blood sugar levels
3. Avoiding harmful substances (e.g., tobacco, excessive alcohol consumption)
4. Managing underlying medical conditions (e.g., diabetes, high blood pressure)
5. Getting regular check-ups and screenings
Early detection and treatment of kidney diseases can help prevent or slow the progression of the disease, reducing the risk of complications and improving quality of life. It is important to be aware of the signs and symptoms of kidney diseases and seek medical attention if they are present.
The mitral valve is located between the left atrium and the left ventricle, and it is responsible for regulating blood flow between these two chambers. When the mitral valve does not close properly, blood can leak back into the left atrium, causing a range of symptoms and complications.
There are several causes of mitral valve insufficiency, including:
* Degenerative changes: The mitral valve can wear out over time due to degenerative changes, such as calcium buildup or tearing of the valve flaps.
* Heart muscle disease: Diseases such as cardiomyopathy can cause the heart muscle to weaken and stretch, leading to mitral valve insufficiency.
* Endocarditis: Infections of the inner lining of the heart can damage the mitral valve and lead to insufficiency.
* Heart defects: Congenital heart defects, such as a bicuspid valve or a narrow valve opening, can lead to mitral valve insufficiency.
Treatment for mitral valve insufficiency depends on the severity of the condition and may include medications to manage symptoms, lifestyle changes, or surgery to repair or replace the damaged valve. In some cases, catheter-based procedures may be used to repair the valve without open-heart surgery.
Overall, mitral valve insufficiency is a common condition that can have a significant impact on quality of life if left untreated. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.
Types of Neoplasms
There are many different types of neoplasms, including:
1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.
Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms
The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:
1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.
Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms
The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:
1. Unusual lumps or swelling
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms
The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.
The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:
1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
Prevention of Neoplasms
While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:
1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.
It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.
There are several types of heart valve diseases, including:
1. Mitral regurgitation: This occurs when the mitral valve does not close properly, allowing blood to flow backward into the left atrium.
2. Aortic stenosis: This occurs when the aortic valve becomes narrowed or blocked, restricting blood flow from the left ventricle into the aorta.
3. Pulmonary stenosis: This occurs when the pulmonary valve becomes narrowed or blocked, restricting blood flow from the right ventricle into the pulmonary artery.
4. Tricuspid regurgitation: This occurs when the tricuspid valve does not close properly, allowing blood to flow backward into the right atrium.
5. Heart valve thickening or calcification: This can occur due to aging, rheumatic fever, or other conditions that cause inflammation in the heart.
6. Endocarditis: This is an infection of the inner lining of the heart, which can damage the heart valves.
7. Rheumatic heart disease: This is a condition caused by rheumatic fever, which can damage the heart valves and cause scarring.
8. Congenital heart defects: These are heart defects that are present at birth, and can affect the heart valves as well as other structures of the heart.
Symptoms of heart valve disease can include shortness of breath, fatigue, swelling in the legs or feet, and chest pain. Treatment options for heart valve disease depend on the specific condition and can range from medication to surgery or other procedures.
The causes of alcoholic intoxication are due to the consumption of alcoholic beverages, which contain ethanol, a psychoactive substance that affects the central nervous system. When alcohol is ingested, it is absorbed into the bloodstream and rapidly distributed throughout the body. As the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) rises, it can impair the functioning of various organs and systems, including the brain, liver, and cardiovascular system.
The symptoms of alcoholic intoxication can vary depending on the individual's BAC, but common signs include:
* Slurred speech and poor coordination
* Dizziness and drowsiness
* Decreased inhibitions and impaired judgment
* Memory loss or blackouts
* Nausea and vomiting
* Headaches and hangovers
In severe cases of alcoholic intoxication, individuals may experience more serious symptoms such as:
* Confusion and disorientation
* Agitation and belligerence
* Seizures and loss of consciousness
* Coma and death
Treatment for alcoholic intoxication typically involves supportive care, such as rest, hydration, and monitoring of vital signs. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications such as seizures or respiratory depression.
Prevention of alcoholic intoxication includes responsible drinking practices, such as limiting the amount of alcohol consumed, pacing oneself, and avoiding binge drinking. It is also important to eat before and while drinking, as food can help slow down the absorption of alcohol into the bloodstream.
Overall, alcoholic intoxication is a common condition that can have serious consequences if not managed properly. It is important to be aware of the risks associated with excessive alcohol consumption and to take steps to prevent or manage intoxication.
Body surface area
Total body surface area
Secondary somatosensory cortex
Microbial symbiosis and immunity
Retrograde autologous priming
Cold and heat adaptations in humans
Wallace rule of nines
Samsung Wave 533
Osagyefo Kuntunkununku II
Left atrial volume
Fort Cobb Reservoir
Cranial nerve nucleus
Terrestrial analogue sites
Internal combustion engine cooling
Development of the reproductive system
Quad flat package
List of birds of Palestine
Book of the Law of the Lord
Politicization of science
Body Surface Area (du Bois Method) | Medical Calculator
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- TBSA burns You can quickly estimate the total body surface area of a burn by using the "rule of nines" in adults.In babies and young children, different percentages are used because the ratio of the combined surface area of the head and neck to the surface area of the limbs is typically larger in children than that of an adult(See table below). (hya.kr)
- Recommendations: Starting doses: For … Formula: Child's dose = (BSA of child / 1.73 m 2) x Adult dose Where, BSA - Body Surface Area. (hya.kr)
- In the United States, children ages one through five years eat three to five times more food per kilogram of body weight than the average adult [ 17 ]. (cdc.gov)
- Agarwal S, Singh M, Sinha P, Pujani M.. Relationship between Body Surface Area and Pulmonary Functions in Patients of Silicosis. (who.int)
- The present study aimed at studying the association between body surface area (BSA), pulmonary function indices, and 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) in patients with silicosis. (who.int)
- Body Surface Area (BSA) is very important in pediatric drug dosage calculation. (hya.kr)
- Pediatric usual dose: In combination with other antiretrovirals: 90 mg per m2 of body surface area every 12 hours. (cdc.gov)
- Pediatric dosage range: 90 to 150 mg per m2 of body surface area every 12 hours. (cdc.gov)
- Pediatric dose: 4 mg per kg of body weight twice daily. (cdc.gov)
- Pediatric dose: 1 mg per kg of body weight every 12 hours (up to weight of 30 kg). (cdc.gov)
- Undergoing PDT on greater than 5% body surface area: face and scalp, face and dorsal surface of arms, face and chest, face and back, or dorsal surface of arms alone, chest alone, or back alone. (nih.gov)
- Therefore, adjusting for BSA is not usually necessary for determining drug dosing except in patients whose body size is very different than average. (nih.gov)
- Measurement of GFR using cystatin C, measured creatinine clearance (CrCl), or exogenous filtration markers should be considered for people in whom estimates based on serum creatinine alone may be inaccurate, such as patients with very large or small body sizes, or when prescribing drugs with narrow therapeutic indices. (nih.gov)
- Patients may develop redistribution/accumulation of body fat. (who.int)
- 11. Chemotherapy toxicity in gynecologic cancer patients with a body surface area (BSA)>2 m2. (nih.gov)
- RBP: significant correlation between urinary excretion different in and blood Pb (partial r2=0.046, regression either area. (nih.gov)
- A formula to estimate the approximate surface area if height and weight be known. (pediatriconcall.com)
- This parameter shows the metabolic mass rather than the body weight for clinical purposes. (hya.kr)
- b) if the member has lost more than 10 per cent of his or her usual body weight, $242. (ontario.ca)
- Other examinations performed: clinical signs, body weight, gross findings. (europa.eu)
- Scientists have long used simple measures (such as height and weight) to estimate how much a person s body uses food (calories) as energy, as commonly called the metabolic rate. (nih.gov)
- Diagnosed with diseases thought to alter metabolism or body composition (such as weight loss or gain, diabetes, renal disease, obesity, cancer, etc.) or taking medications thought to alter metabolism or body composition. (nih.gov)
- During ages 18-21 months, infants drink 10 times more water per kilogram of body weight daily than do adults [ 16 ]. (cdc.gov)
- The presentation of dosage should include a measure of body weight or body surface area. (cmaj.ca)
- 30 days): 2 mg per kg of body weight twice daily. (cdc.gov)
- Calculating the total surface body area of burns in rule of nines child calculator aids in finding the severity of burns and providing the favorable treatments. (hya.kr)
- The BSA or body surface area calculator is used to determine the total body surface area of an individual.It's a method typically used in a medical setting and is often preferred over using bodyweight, for a more accurate estimate of a body's energy needs.This is based on an estimate of metabolic mass (mostly fat-free mass) as abnormal fat mass is not metabolically active. (hya.kr)
- They have a larger ratio of surface area to body mass. (cdc.gov)
- Total Body Surface Area. (hya.kr)
- The body surface area (BSA) is a measurement used in many medical tasks, such as medication doses and includes descriptive statistics. (hya.kr)
- Chemotherapeutic drugs are commonly dosed according to body surface area, method which requires an extra verification step (BSA calculation) prior to dosing. (hya.kr)
- Body surface area (BSA) is an important factor when estimating GFR because kidney function is proportional to kidney size, which is proportional to BSA. (nih.gov)
- However, while adjusting for BSA may help assess if a patient's kidney function is proportional to his or her body size, it may distort the association with drug clearance, as clearance of drugs is only related to GFR and not to body size or BSA. (nih.gov)
- Large body size may be of value in protection from developing occupational lung disease. (who.int)
- Which part of the body has a surface area about the same size as a tennis court? (answers.com)
- Body Size Influences the conc. (slideshare.net)
- Absorption 1) The process of absorbing or 'picking up' a liquid hazardous material to prevent enlargement of the contaminated area. (nih.gov)
- To improve this 'Body Surface Area (BSA) Calculator', please fill in questionnaire. (hya.kr)
- 1. Gottron's papules OR Gottron's sign: erythematous to violaceous papules and small plaques over the extensor surfaces of large or interphalangeal joints. (nih.gov)
- The front and back of the head and neck are 21% of the body's surface area. (hya.kr)
- 1. Hematological toxicity of carboplatin for gynecological cancer according to body mass index. (nih.gov)
- The body surface area is the measured or calculated surface area of the human body. (hya.kr)
- The human lungs have roughly the same surface area as a tennis court if they were to be laid out. (answers.com)
- Human skin layers serve as a barrier between the body and the environment, by preventing water loss and blocking the entry of chemicals, allergens, and microbes. (mdpi.com)
- Two weeks after the needlestick injury, the case-patient had pyrexia and whole-body erythema with pruritus ( Figure 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- (5.11) greater than one month of age is based on body surface area and should not exceed 600 mg twice daily with meals. (who.int)
- Height - … Simplified calculation of body-surface area. (hya.kr)
- Swan-Ganz catheterization can also be used to detect abnormal blood flow between two areas of the heart that are not normally connected. (medlineplus.gov)
- 1 Formula to calculate Body surface Area _?2 Sympt. (pediatriconcall.com)
- Male Female Age Under 20 years old 20 years old level 30 years old level 40 years old level 50 years old level 60 years old level or over Occupation Elementary school/ Junior high-school student High-school/ University/ Grad student A homemaker An office worker / A public employee Self-employed people An … Below are the body surface area formula by Dr's Mosteller, DuBois and DuBois, Haycock and Boyd. (hya.kr)
- But if you want to know the exact … Body surface area (BSA) is the method that is mostly used in medicine and physiology. (hya.kr)
- They will lie on a padded table for about 15 minutes while their body is scanned. (nih.gov)
- Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to readers, or important in the respective research area. (mdpi.com)
- 90 days): 50 mg per m2 of body surface area every 12 hours. (cdc.gov)
- The patient does not breathe the oxygen, nor is the remainder of the body pressurized. (medscape.com)
- This natural history study will examine the relationships between metabolism, body composition, and body surface area in a wide range of people. (nih.gov)
- They will have a test to measure how fast an electric signal moves through their body. (nih.gov)
- Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the CMAJ web site. (cmaj.ca)
- The incident to the burn unit of an area hospital. (cdc.gov)
- textbooks recommend that drug dosages for child- ren be calculated according to body surface area (BSA). (hya.kr)
- The three fire fighters were lying in the area of a secondary fire (Figure 1). (cdc.gov)
- To prevent the fire from spreading to fence bordering the area was energized by the brush piles in the adjoining piece of property, the downed power line. (cdc.gov)