Body Surface Area: The two dimensional measure of the outer layer of the body.Burns: Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.Body Surface Potential Mapping: Recording of regional electrophysiological information by analysis of surface potentials to give a complete picture of the effects of the currents from the heart on the body surface. It has been applied to the diagnosis of old inferior myocardial infarction, localization of the bypass pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, recognition of ventricular hypertrophy, estimation of the size of a myocardial infarct, and the effects of different interventions designed to reduce infarct size. The limiting factor at present is the complexity of the recording and analysis, which requires 100 or more electrodes, sophisticated instrumentation, and dedicated personnel. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed)Burn Units: Specialized hospital facilities which provide intensive care for burn patients.Smoke Inhalation Injury: Pulmonary injury following the breathing in of toxic smoke from burning materials such as plastics, synthetics, building materials, etc. This injury is the most frequent cause of death in burn patients.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Burns, Inhalation: Burns of the respiratory tract caused by heat or inhaled chemicals.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular: Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Drug Dosage Calculations: Math calculations done for preparing appropriate doses of medicines, taking into account conversions of WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. Mistakes are one of the sources of MEDICATION ERRORS.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.CreatinineBody Constitution: The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Oxandrolone: A synthetic hormone with anabolic and androgenic properties.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Dialysis Solutions: Solutions prepared for exchange across a semipermeable membrane of solutes below a molecular size determined by the cutoff threshold of the membrane material.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Peritoneal Dialysis: Dialysis fluid being introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity as either a continuous or an intermittent procedure.Stevens-Johnson Syndrome: Rare cutaneous eruption characterized by extensive KERATINOCYTE apoptosis resulting in skin detachment with mucosal involvement. It is often provoked by the use of drugs (e.g., antibiotics and anticonvulsants) or associated with PNEUMONIA, MYCOPLASMA. It is considered a continuum of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.Chromium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of chromium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cr atoms with atomic weights of 46-49, 51, 55, and 56 are radioactive chromium isotopes.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.DioxolanesPsoriasis: A common genetically determined, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by rounded erythematous, dry, scaling patches. The lesions have a predilection for nails, scalp, genitalia, extensor surfaces, and the lumbosacral region. Accelerated epidermopoiesis is considered to be the fundamental pathologic feature in psoriasis.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Peritoneum: A membrane of squamous EPITHELIAL CELLS, the mesothelial cells, covered by apical MICROVILLI that allow rapid absorption of fluid and particles in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. The peritoneum is divided into parietal and visceral components. The parietal peritoneum covers the inside of the ABDOMINAL WALL. The visceral peritoneum covers the intraperitoneal organs. The double-layered peritoneum forms the MESENTERY that suspends these organs from the abdominal wall.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Oxonic Acid: Antagonist of urate oxidase.Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Aortic Valve: The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.Trauma Severity Indices: Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.Vectorcardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the heart on a plane of the body surface delineated as a vector function of time.Anuria: Absence of urine formation. It is usually associated with complete bilateral ureteral (URETER) obstruction, complete lower urinary tract obstruction, or unilateral ureteral obstruction when a solitary kidney is present.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Sweating: The process of exocrine secretion of the SWEAT GLANDS, including the aqueous sweat from the ECCRINE GLANDS and the complex viscous fluids of the APOCRINE GLANDS.Skin Transplantation: The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.Aortic Valve Stenosis: A pathological constriction that can occur above (supravalvular stenosis), below (subvalvular stenosis), or at the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.Heart Valve Prosthesis: A device that substitutes for a heart valve. It may be composed of biological material (BIOPROSTHESIS) and/or synthetic material.Fontan Procedure: A procedure in which total right atrial or total caval blood flow is channeled directly into the pulmonary artery or into a small right ventricle that serves only as a conduit. The principal congenital malformations for which this operation is useful are TRICUSPID ATRESIA and single ventricle with pulmonary stenosis.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Wound Infection: Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.Peritoneal Dialysis, Continuous Ambulatory: Portable peritoneal dialysis using the continuous (24 hours a day, 7 days a week) presence of peritoneal dialysis solution in the peritoneal cavity except for periods of drainage and instillation of fresh solution.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine: A type of imaging technique used primarily in the field of cardiology. By coordinating the fast gradient-echo MRI sequence with retrospective ECG-gating, numerous short time frames evenly spaced in the cardiac cycle are produced. These images are laced together in a cinematic display so that wall motion of the ventricles, valve motion, and blood flow patterns in the heart and great vessels can be visualized.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Ointments: Semisolid preparations used topically for protective emollient effects or as a vehicle for local administration of medications. Ointment bases are various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons.Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Tegafur: Congener of FLUOROURACIL with comparable antineoplastic action. It has been suggested especially for the treatment of breast neoplasms.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Atrial Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the LEFT ATRIUM.Kidney Function Tests: Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.Iohexol: An effective non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiographic procedures. Its low systemic toxicity is the combined result of low chemotoxicity and low osmolality.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cardiac Volume: The volume of the HEART, usually relating to the volume of BLOOD contained within it at various periods of the cardiac cycle. The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle at each beat is STROKE VOLUME.Iodine: A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Dilatation, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.Fluid Therapy: Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Aortic Valve Insufficiency: Pathological condition characterized by the backflow of blood from the ASCENDING AORTA back into the LEFT VENTRICLE, leading to regurgitation. It is caused by diseases of the AORTIC VALVE or its surrounding tissue (aortic root).Mitral Valve: The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.Goiter: Enlargement of the THYROID GLAND that may increase from about 20 grams to hundreds of grams in human adults. Goiter is observed in individuals with normal thyroid function (euthyroidism), thyroid deficiency (HYPOTHYROIDISM), or hormone overproduction (HYPERTHYROIDISM). Goiter may be congenital or acquired, sporadic or endemic (GOITER, ENDEMIC).Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Tetralogy of Fallot: A combination of congenital heart defects consisting of four key features including VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECTS; PULMONARY STENOSIS; RIGHT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY; and a dextro-positioned AORTA. In this condition, blood from both ventricles (oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor) is pumped into the body often causing CYANOSIS.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of synthetic material to repair injured or diseased heart valves.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Heart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.Ventricular Function, Right: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the right HEART VENTRICLE.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Pulmonary Valve: A valve situated at the entrance to the pulmonary trunk from the right ventricle.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Mitral Valve Insufficiency: Backflow of blood from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the LEFT ATRIUM due to imperfect closure of the MITRAL VALVE. This can lead to mitral valve regurgitation.Magnetocardiography: The measurement of magnetic fields generated by electric currents from the heart. The measurement of these fields provides information which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Rest: Freedom from activity.Heart Valve Diseases: Pathological conditions involving any of the various HEART VALVES and the associated structures (PAPILLARY MUSCLES and CHORDAE TENDINEAE).Alcoholic Intoxication: An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Bioprosthesis: Prosthesis, usually heart valve, composed of biological material and whose durability depends upon the stability of the material after pretreatment, rather than regeneration by host cell ingrowth. Durability is achieved 1, mechanically by the interposition of a cloth, usually polytetrafluoroethylene, between the host and the graft, and 2, chemically by stabilization of the tissue by intermolecular linking, usually with glutaraldehyde, after removal of antigenic components, or the use of reconstituted and restructured biopolymers.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.

Gender-specific differences in dialysis quality (Kt/V): 'big men' are at risk of inadequate haemodialysis treatment. (1/455)

BACKGROUND: Inadequate dialysis dose is closely related to mortality and morbidity of maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) patients. According to the DOQI guidelines a minimum prescribed dialysis dose of single-pool Kt/V (Kt/Vsp)=1.3, equivalent to equilibrated double pool Kt/V (e-Kt/Vdp)=1.1, is recommended. Knowledge of patient-related risk factors for inadequate delivery of hacmodialysis would be helpful to select patient subgroups for intensive control ofdialysis adequacy. METHODS: A retrospective survey was conducted to assess the prevalence of inadequate dialysis dose according to DOQI criteria during a 7-month period. A total of 320 e-Kt/Vdp measurements in 62 MHD patients were evaluated (mean effective dialysis time 222+/-32 min). Residual renal function (RRF) was expressed as renal weekly Kt/V (r-Kt/Vweek) and included into assessment of total weekly renal and dialytic Kt/V (t-Kt/Vweek). RESULTS: Inadequacy (e-Kt/Vdp<1.10) was prevalent in 37.2% of all measurements and in 22/62 patients (35.5%). In 54% of underdialysed patients r-Kt/Vweek compensated for insufficient dialytic urea removal. Mean weekly Kt/V was inadequate (t-Kt/Vweek<3.30) in 12/62 patients (19.4%) of whom 91.7% (11/12) were male. Body-weight, urea distribution volume (UDV). and body-surface area (BSA) were significantly higher in inadequately is adequately dialysed males. UDV>42.0 litres or BSA>2.0 m2 and a lack of RRF (r-Kt/Vweek<0.3) put 'big men' at increased risk to receive an inadequate dose of dialysis. CONCLUSION: Our data identify patients at risk for inadequate haemodialysis treatment. Special attention should be focused on 'big men' with UDV>42.0 litres or BSA>2.0 m2. In this subset of patients frequent measurements of t-Kt/Vweek and assessment of RRF should be mandatory.  (+info)

The diameter of the common femoral artery in healthy human: influence of sex, age, and body size. (2/455)

PURPOSE: To determine the relevance of dilatations of the common femoral artery (CFA), knowledge of the normal CFA diameter is essential. The diameter of the CFA in healthy male and female subjects of different ages was investigated. METHODS: The diameter of the CFA was measured in 122 healthy volunteers (59 male, 63 female; 8 to 81 years of age) with echo-tracking B-mode ultrasound scan. The influence of age, sex, height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and systolic blood pressure was analyzed by means of a multiple regression model. RESULTS: The CFA increased steadily in diameter throughout life. From 25 years onwards, the diameter was larger in men than in women. Significant correlations were found between the CFA diameter and weight (r = 0.58 and r = 0.57 in male and female subjects, respectively; P <.0001), height (r = 0.49 and r = 0.54 in male and female subjects, respectively; P <.0001), and BSA (r = 0.60 and r = 0.62 in male and female subjects, respectively; P <.0001). Age and BSA were used to create a model for prediction of the CFA diameter (r = 0.71 and r = 0.77 in male and female subjects, respectively; P <.0001). CONCLUSION: The diameter of the CFA increases with age, initially during growth but also in adults. This is related to age, body size, and sex male subjects have larger arteries than female subjects. It is now possible to predict the normal CFA diameter, and nomograms that may be used in the study of aneurysmal disease are presented.  (+info)

Estimation of glomerular filtration rate from plasma creatinine concentration in children. (3/455)

The relation between the true plasma creatinine concentration (Pc) and the glomerular filtration rate corrected for body surface area (GFR/SA) was investigated in 108 individuals, and the following formula was derived: GFR/SA (ml/min per 1-73m2SA) = 0-43 Ht (cm)/Pc (mg/100 ml). This formula was tested in a second group of 83 children, and its accuracy and precision was compared to the 24-hour creatinine clearance. It was found to be superior to the creatinine clearance overall, and was as good, even if all results involving suspect 24-hour-urine collections were eliminated from analysis. The formula in SI usage is: GFR/SA (ml/min per 1-73 m2SA) = 38 Ht (cm)1Pc (mumol/l).  (+info)

Effect of obesity on red cell mass results. (4/455)

Measurement of red cell mass with isotope dilution remains an important diagnostic test in the evaluation of patients with suspected polycythemia vera (PCV). Results and reference ranges are typically expressed in units normalized for body weight (mL/kg). Obesity is common in polycythemic patients, and it is important to know how the various published normative ranges compare across a wide range of body weights. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 51 consecutive patients referred for red cell mass determination with 51Cr red blood cell dilution. Results were expressed in milliliters per kilogram (mL/kg) by using the actual patient weight and after adiposity adjustments using ideal body weight, body mass index (BMI) and combinations of height-weight, including body surface area. Results were classified as normal, elevated or PCV. RESULTS: There was a high prevalence of obesity in our population (28/51 [55%] with BMI > 27 kg/m2, BMI range 16.0-54.8 kg/m2). The method used to compensate for obesity had a dramatic effect on the derived red cell mass, the fraction of patients with elevated measurements and the fraction of patients meeting criteria for PCV. Concordance for categorization as normal, elevated or PCV by all methods was only 47.1%. CONCLUSION: Obesity is a common confounding factor in the interpretation of red cell mass measurements. Currently published reference ranges generate inconsistent results when extrapolated to obese patients. Further normative data on obese subjects are needed to determine which method (if any) is optimal.  (+info)

Frequency and causes of discrepancy between Kt/V and creatinine clearance. (5/455)

This study examines the frequency of discrepancy between Kt/V urea and creatinine clearance (Ccr) measurements in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) and the reasons for this discrepancy. DESIGN: Nonrandomized, retrospective data analysis. SETTING: Single PD unit of a university teaching hospital. PATIENTS: All adult patients receiving PD at our center from January 1995 to December 1996. METHODS: Actual (a) and desired (d) body weight (BW) were used to calculate urea volume of distribution (V) and body surface area (BSA). Patients were divided into four groups based upon their total small solute clearances (Kt/V and Ccr, normalized by actual weight) and three additional groups based upon actual/desired (a/d) body weight ratio. An additional analysis was performed for the subset of anuric patients. Data collected for all patients included the following: total Kt, total Ccr, 4-hour dialysate/ plasma (D/P) creatinine, serum albumin concentration, duration of PD, actual body weight, age, and height. RESULTS: Twenty-three percent of the clearance measurements in our study were discrepant, defined as having values for either Kt/V or Ccr (but not both) above the accepted targets of Kt/V > or = 2.0/wk and Ccr > or = 60 L/wk/ 1.73 m2. Patients with both values above target are more likely to have higher residual renal function. Patients who are significantly less than BWd and patients on PD for a longer time are more likely to have adequate Kt/V but not Ccr. Furthermore, patients who are less than 90% or greater than 110% of BWd have markedly different values for Kt/V and Ccr when BWa versus BWd values are used. CONCLUSIONS: Kt/V and Ccr values are frequently discrepant; a number of factors affect these two measurements to varying degrees, including weight, degree of residual renal function, and duration of PD.  (+info)

Echocardiographic examination of cardiac structure and function in elite cross trained male and female Alpine skiers. (6/455)

OBJECTIVE: To assess cardiac structure and function in elite cross-trained male and female athletes (Alpine skiers). METHODS: Sixteen athletes (10 male, six female) and 19 healthy sedentary control subjects (12 male, seven female) volunteered to take part in the study. Basic anthropometry determined height, body mass, body surface area, and fat free mass. Cardiac dimensions and function were determined by two dimensional, M mode, and Doppler echocardiography. Absolute data and data corrected for body size (allometrically determined) were compared by two way analysis of variance and post hoc Scheffe tests. RESULTS: Absolute left ventricular internal dimension in diastole (LVIDd), septal and posterior wall thickness and left ventricular mass were larger in athletes than controls (p < 0.05) and also increased in the men (p < 0.05) compared with women (except for septal thickness in controls). An increased LVIDd, septal thickness, posterior wall thickness, and left ventricular mass in athletes persisted after correction for body size except when LVIDd was scaled by fat free mass. Cardiac dimensions did not differ between the sexes after correction for body size. All functional indices were similar between groups. CONCLUSION: There is evidence of both left ventricular chamber dilatation and wall enlargement in cross trained athletes compared with controls. Differences in absolute cardiac dimensions between the sexes were primarily due to greater body dimensions in the men.  (+info)

Cycler adequacy and prescription data in a national cohort sample: the 1997 core indicators report. Health Care Financing Administration Peritoneal Dialysis Core Indicators Study Group. (7/455)

BACKGROUND: The Health Care Financing Administration Peritoneal Dialysis Core Indicator Project obtains data yearly in four areas of patient care: dialysis adequacy, anemia, blood pressure, and nutrition. METHODS: Adequacy and dialysis prescription data were obtained using a standardized data abstraction form from a random sample of adult U.S. peritoneal dialysis patients who were alive on December 31, 1996. RESULTS: For the cohort receiving cycler dialysis, 22% were unable to meet the National Kidney Foundation Dialysis Outcome Quality Initiatives (NKF-DOQI) dialysis adequacy guidelines because they did not have at least one adequacy measure during the six-month period of observation. Thirty-six percent of patients met NKF-DOQI guidelines for weekly Kt/V urea, 33% met guidelines for weekly creatinine clearance (CCr), and 24% met guidelines for both urea and creatinine clearances. The mean weekly adequacy values were 2.24 +/- 0.56 for Kt/V urea and 67.5 +/- 24.4 liter/1.73 m2 for CCr, and the median values were 2.20 and 62.25 liter/1.73 m2, respectively. The mean prescribed 24-hour volume was 12,040 +/- 3255 ml, and the median prescribed volume was 11,783 ml. Only 60% of patients were prescribed at least one daytime dwell. By logistic regression analysis, risk factors for an inadequate dose of dialysis included being in the highest quartile of body surface area (odds ratio = 3.3 for CCr and 3.4 for Kt/V urea) and a duration of dialysis greater than two years (odds ratio = 4.2 for CCr and 2.1 for Kt/V urea). CONCLUSION: There is much room for improvement in providing an adequate dose of dialysis to cycler patients. Practitioners should be more aggressive in increasing dwell volumes, adding daytime dwells, and adjusting nighttime dwell times in order to compensate for the loss of residual renal function over time. These changes can only be accomplished if practitioners measure periodically the dose of dialysis as outlined in the NKF-DOQI guidelines.  (+info)

The fourth dimension of life: fractal geometry and allometric scaling of organisms. (8/455)

Fractal-like networks effectively endow life with an additional fourth spatial dimension. This is the origin of quarter-power scaling that is so pervasive in biology. Organisms have evolved hierarchical branching networks that terminate in size-invariant units, such as capillaries, leaves, mitochondria, and oxidase molecules. Natural selection has tended to maximize both metabolic capacity, by maximizing the scaling of exchange surface areas, and internal efficiency, by minimizing the scaling of transport distances and times. These design principles are independent of detailed dynamics and explicit models and should apply to virtually all organisms.  (+info)

January 0.109 0.079 0.045 0.020 February 0.104 0.075 0.039 0.018 March 0.100 0.072 0.036 0.015 April 0.092 0.066 0.025 0.008 May 0.090 0.062 0.019 0.006 June 0.089 0.058 0.020 0.006 July 0.093 0.058 0.022 0.009 August 0.088 0.051 0.018 0.007 September 0.083 0.046 0.013 0.002 October 0.083 0.045 0.013 0.001 November 0.083 0.044 0.013 Nil December 0.079 0.041 0.013 Nil. The RI month is the month in which the allowable expenditure was incurred, or March 1982 where the expenditure was incurred on or before 31 March 1982.. The table given in this press release is applicable only to bodies within the charge to corporation tax on their chargeable gains.. Individuals and others within the charge to capital gains tax are not entitled to indexation allowance for any period after April 1998. They should therefore not use the table above. Instead, to calculate indexation allowance up to April 1998 on disposals on or after 6 April 1998, they should use the table published in the Inland Revenue press release ...
Creatinine clearance bsa - total kidney mass is roughly proportional to body surface area. Correction for BSA is necessary if differs markedly from average.
The BMI and BSA calculators estimate the Body Mass Index and Body Surface Area, calculate BMI by dividing the weight by the height, calculate Body mass index
(KudoZ) English to Polish translation of BSA-indexed: wskaznik powierzchni ciala BSA (Body Surface Area) [urine tests - Medical: Cardiology (Medical)].
Calvo contracts, which are the basis of the current generation of New Keynesian models, widely include indexation to general inflation. We argue that the indexi
When pregnant rats were treated with irbesartan from Day 0 to Day 20 of gestation (oral doses of 50 mg/kg/day, 180 mg/kg/day, and 650 mg/kg/day), increased incidences of renal pelvic cavitation, hydroureter and/or absence of renal papilla were observed in fetuses at dosages ≥50 mg/kg/day (approximately equivalent to the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD], 300 mg/day, on a body surface area basis). Subcutaneous edema was observed in fetuses at dosages ≥180 mg/kg/day (about 4 times the MRHD on a body surface area basis). As these anomalies were not observed in rats in which irbesartan exposure (oral doses of 50, 150, and 450 mg/kg/day) was limited to gestation days 6 to 15, they appear to reflect late gestational effects of the drug. In pregnant rabbits, oral doses of 30 mg irbesartan/kg/day were associated with maternal mortality and abortion. Surviving females receiving this dose (about 1.5 times the MRHD on a body surface area basis) had a slight increase in early resorptions and a ...
Situated at the complex intersection between power, territory and identity, his research has followed, in time, three major strands. In the early stages of his career, I explored the history and theory of Western geopolitical thought, studying in particular the U.S. geopolitical production of the 1940s and, more broadly, the Italian geopolitical tradition. Following this latter interest, he also investigated the colonial project of Fascist Italy in Ethiopia, analysing the ways in which Mussolinis regime attempted to write concepts of progress, order, hierarchy, and racial segregation on the Ethiopian urban/land-scape.. A second strand of his research, which originates from his second PhD thesis (University of Colorado at Boulder), relates more directly to the notion of territorial identities. In an epoch of rescaling of state powers and modes of economic production, his major research question aimed to understand whether or not a similar rescaling was also taking place with regard to ...
Save time learning, be better prepared and learn everything about this topic: Body surface anatomy of the female seen anteriorly and posteriorly.
Use the West nomogram by drawing a straight line between the height and weight of a child. This line crosses the surface area column and gives an estimation of the body surface area for this child,...
Adjuvant S-1 was started at least 3 weeks after curative surgery. The intended dose of S-1 was based on that published in the ACTS-GC trial,4 and was 40 mg/m2 twice daily for 4 weeks followed by 2 weeks of rest for each cycle. Specifically, during the treatment weeks, patients with body surface area (BSA) of ,1.25 m2 received 80 mg daily; those with BSA of 1.25 m2 to ,1.5 m2 received 100 mg daily; and those with BSA of ≥1.5 m2 received 120 mg daily. As clinically indicated, dose reductions were considered one dose level at a time; in general, one dose level reduction refers to reducing the prior daily dose by 20 mg, eg from 120 mg to 100 mg daily. As renal impairment has been associated with increased incidence of myelosuppression, dose reduction by one dose level was made in patients who had a creatinine clearance of 40-49 mL/min. A maximum of eight 6-weekly cycles were administered. The dose of S-1 was reduced in patients with significant toxicities, as assessed by the respective ...
Adjuvant S-1 was started at least 3 weeks after curative surgery. The intended dose of S-1 was based on that published in the ACTS-GC trial,4 and was 40 mg/m2 twice daily for 4 weeks followed by 2 weeks of rest for each cycle. Specifically, during the treatment weeks, patients with body surface area (BSA) of ,1.25 m2 received 80 mg daily; those with BSA of 1.25 m2 to ,1.5 m2 received 100 mg daily; and those with BSA of ≥1.5 m2 received 120 mg daily. As clinically indicated, dose reductions were considered one dose level at a time; in general, one dose level reduction refers to reducing the prior daily dose by 20 mg, eg from 120 mg to 100 mg daily. As renal impairment has been associated with increased incidence of myelosuppression, dose reduction by one dose level was made in patients who had a creatinine clearance of 40-49 mL/min. A maximum of eight 6-weekly cycles were administered. The dose of S-1 was reduced in patients with significant toxicities, as assessed by the respective ...
Naser Ahmed Mahmoud El-Sawy, "Sonographic Measurements of Normal Kidneys In Pre School Chldren"In Sharkia " Correlated with Age,height,weight& Body surface Area", 20002001 More ...
Subjects will receive 1 dose of MNK-010 followed by a 7-day post dose assessment period per treatment cycle. Dose levels will be based upon the amount of active delivered per square meter of body surface area (mg/m2). Cycles will repeat every 3 weeks (21 days) based on toxicity and response, as determined by a Safety Review Committee (SRC). Subjects will continue treatment with MNK-010 until unacceptable toxicity, documented progression of disease, another criterion for discontinuation is met, or until 4 treatment cycles have been completed ...
The public should become "savvy consumers" rather than "grateful patients," says Healthwatch England in its first report to parliament.. Healthwatch England was set up in April this year as part of the shake-up of the NHS introduced by the Health and Social Care Act. The national body heads up a network of 152 local patient bodies, with the aim of championing the needs of … ...
Considers the option of a mathematical model hit of the drug into the biological object at various ways of injec-tion while carrying out medical procedures. An important point in this case is the delivery of drug to the appro-priate patient body based redistribution of administered drug in different sections of a biological object.
The vitiligo area scoring index (VASI) is a measure of the surface area affected by vitiligo in a given research subject. It ranges from 0% (no vitiligo) to 100% (complete depigmentation of the entire body surface area). In terms of treatment, a decrease in VASI is desirable as it indicates less surface area affected by vitiligo. The score represents an estimate made by the investigators, based on the approximation that one hand unit, is roughly equivalent to 1% of the body surface area ...
Weight: Depending on the section(s) of the NCS-1 survey from which the variable(s) originated, one of four sampling weights must be selected and applied. The Part I and Part II weights (p1fwt and p2wtv3, respectively) are a combination of the various weights described in NCS-1 papers to adjust for differential household size and differential nonresponse and post-stratification. The Tobacco Use Supplement weight (tobacwt) is a rescaling of the Part I weight for analysis of tobacco supplement variables only. The Part II Tobacco Use Supplement weight (p2tobwt) is a rescaling of the Part II weight for analysis of combinations of Part II and Tobacco Supplement variables. Please refer to the Processor Notes in the codebook for details on determining the appropriate weight to use when analyzing a specific variable or combination of variables. Mode of Data Collection: face-to-face interview, telephone interview Response Rates: The response rate was 82.6 percent. Extent of Processing: ICPSR data undergo ...
Weight: Depending on the section(s) of the NCS-1 survey from which the variable(s) originated, one of four sampling weights must be selected and applied. The Part I and Part II weights (p1fwt and p2wtv3, respectively) are a combination of the various weights described in NCS-1 papers to adjust for differential household size and differential nonresponse and post-stratification. The Tobacco Use Supplement weight (tobacwt) is a rescaling of the Part I weight for analysis of tobacco supplement variables only. The Part II Tobacco Use Supplement weight (p2tobwt) is a rescaling of the Part II weight for analysis of combinations of Part II and Tobacco Supplement variables. Please refer to the Processor Notes in the codebook for details on determining the appropriate weight to use when analyzing a specific variable or combination of variables. Mode of Data Collection: face-to-face interview, telephone interview Response Rates: The response rate was 82.6 percent. Extent of Processing: ICPSR data undergo ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Any appreciation in shares after January 31 would be taxed without any indexation benefit. Indexation allows adjustment of cost of acquisition against inflation.the provision relating to FPIs does not specifically provide for grandfathering, a reading of the FM speech indicates that the benefit should be extended to all taxpayers, including all FPIs, said Desai.Apart from challenges from the taxation perspective, FPIs are also concerned about how the end benefit of this tax will be passed on to their investors. FPIs are usually pooling vehicles or act as brokerages for their investors. Replica Bags Wholesale I was a good spy, no one caught me. I was too young to be lured by a sparrow. Im thinking lets put young spies out in the field, they cant be lured with all this lovey lovey business.". Waist sweat and urine then ❌Ko If you combine dc, the better, reduce fat, refined, alcohol, drink more water and eat more vegetables. Heat and dampness deep into the fat tissue. Hot and cold all day, hot ...
Veteran pension payments have increased in line with the biannual indexation process.. Pension recipients including veterans, their partners, war widows and widowers, across Australia will be paid the increase from 20 March 2017.. Due to the calculation of pension rates on a daily basis, the first pension paid after the indexation on payday 30 March 2017 will comprise both the old and new rates.. The new pension rates will be fully effective from payment date 13 April 2017.. ...
UC Davis burn specialist David Greenhalgh noted that while past research had successfully focused on enabling patients to survive severe burns, improving a victims quality of life after a burn injury remained a major challenge. It is the reason why collecting and managing data about burn victims is now so important.. "The coordinating center at UC Davis will be much more than just a simple repository of data," said Greenhalgh, a professor of surgery and past president of the American Burn Association. "We will be overseeing the safety of the clinical trials at all research sites to ensure there is uniformity in the way they are being conducted. By having this type of rigorous infrastructure in place, we ultimately can develop the best treatment plans for burn patients.". Most burn injuries occur in young people aged 20-40 years, and severe burn injuries represent one of the leading causes of lost work-years in the United States. Twenty years ago, burns that involved half the body surface area ...
4. BSAcalc 1.7 ... medicine, the Body Surface Area (BSA) is the measured ... freeware program for the calculation of the Surface Area of the Body. The ... of formulas for the calculation. These latest updates to the BSAcalc include calculation the Body Mass... Details - Download - Screenshot Tags: medical , health , body mass index , Surface Area Of The Body , Medical Software , Medical Calculator , Bsa , Underweight , overweight , obesity , drug , medicine , Physiology , index ...
FLT was developed to provide a measure of tumor proliferation because it is taken up by cells and retained after phosphorylation by thymidine kinase 1. Thymidine kinase 1 increases as cells enter the DNA synthetic phase, and previous work has shown that FLT retention generally correlates with other measures of tumor proliferation. The most likely use of FLT will be in monitoring treatment response, but such studies need to consider the different methods for measuring FLT retention in tumors and their reproducibility.. The most common method of measuring tracer retention has been through the use of the semiquantitative approach of the SUV. The SUV uses the measurement of activity within a ROI along with the injected dose and the weight of the patient to calculate the desired variable. To take into account differences in the proportion of fat in patients, some investigators have adjusted the SUV by using lean body mass, ideal body weight, or even body surface area. When studying the ...
BMI - Body Mass Index is the measurement of your weight for your body surface area and its considered a reliable indicator of body fatness for most people. A recent national survey commissioned by Ohio States Wexner Medical Center found nearly 2 out of 3 Americans dont know whats considered to be a healthy BMI. Use this BMI calculator to get your number. A BMI less than 18.5 is underweight. Below 25 is normal. A BMI of 25 through 29.9 is overweight, and 30 or higher is considered obese. "Knowing where you lie within that spectrum is really important because sometimes people will be very accepting of their weight thinking Well, that number sounds reasonable. But is it reasonable for their height?" Gulati said. ...
Financial Sensitivity Analysis allows the analyst to be flexible with the boundaries within which to test the sensitivity of the dependent variables to the independent variables. It is nothing but a number of individual dots placed in a line within the span of 1 inch. Its units are ml/min per square meter of body surface area. Estimates of price sensitivity are needed most when setting prices for new products and when considering changing the prices of established products to new levels. Different players will use different mouse DPI and this can create a problem when choosing your sensitivity. Sensitivity is a measure of the proportion of people suffering from the disease who got predicted correctly as the ones suffering from the disease. An open-source and easily extendable implementation of the DSS calculation is made freely available to support its tailored application to translating drug sensitivity testing results into clinically actionable treatment options. Hi Abe, The calculator is not ...
A persons body is producing energy internally due to metabolic processes. If the body loses more energy than metabolic processes are generating, its temperature will drop. If the drop is severe, it can be life-threatening. Suppose a person is unclothed and energy is being lost via radiation from a body surface area of 1.51 m2, which has a temperature of 35.6 °C and an emissivity of 0.720. Suppose that metabolic processes are producing energy at a rate of 130 J/s. What is the temperature (in °C) of the coldest room in which this person could stand and not experience a drop in body temperature? Do not enter unit ...
Ilurians are utterly adapted for a frigid environment. In fact, they are so well adapted, they have difficulty operating in temperatures most humans find comfortable.. Ilurians are bilaterally symmetrical, with typical humanoid morphology. Their features are distinct; they have higher, narrower noses and larger jaws than other humans. Their heads are also slightly larger than other humans although a close examination is required to detect this. These features are also adaptations to the cold.. Their builds are on average short and stocky, with relatively short appendages; this reduces the bodys surface area and aids in heat retention. Their bodies except for their faces and the palms of the hands are covered in soft, short fur with hollow follicles which trap a layer of warm air next to the Ilurians body. The fur is generally light colored, with blond, silver, or white the most common colors. A mutation occasionally creates an Ilurian with darker fur; these individuals are typically ...
This paper estimates expected future real interest rates and inflation rates from observed prices of UK government nominal and index-linked bonds. The estimation method takes account of imperfections in the indexation of UK index-linked bonds. It assumes that expected log returns on all bonds are equal, and that expected real interest rates and inflation follow simple time-series processes whose parameters can be estimated from the cross-section of bond prices. The extracted inflation expectations forecast actual future inflation more accurately than nominal yields do. The estimated real interest rate is highly variable at short horizons, but comparatively stable at long horizons. Changes in real rates and expected inflation are strongly negatively correlated at short horizons, but not at long horizons.

(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)

http://www.mdconsult.com/das/patient/body/342205871-2/0/10. K-W URGENT CARE CLINICS INC. Westmount UCC 751 Victoria Street South, Kitchener, ON N2M 5N4 519-745-2273Fairway UCC 385 Fairway Road South, Kitchener, ON N2C 2N9 519-748-2327OPEN Mon-Fri 8am-5pm, Sa & Su 8am-3pm, Holidays 8am-3pm CLOSED Dec25, Jan1Onsite Xray, Ultrasound, MRI, Laboratory Services, Foot Clinic, Physio, MassageWe t ...
care of different types of tubes inserted in patient body.nurses role in insertion removal and prevention of infection and relieving pain
This on the web one-way conversion tool converts surface area units from ∅ 1-centimeter spheres ( ∅ 1 cm ) into ares ( a ) instantly online. 1 sphere 1-centimeter diam. ( ∅ 1 cm ) = 0.0000031 ares ( a ). How many ares ( a ) are in 1 sphere 1-centimeter diam. ( 1 ∅ 1 cm )? How much of surface area from ∅ 1-centimeter spheres to ares, ∅ 1 cm to a? Exchange values and measures from one surface area unit to another unit by quick calculation.
BWV #2: In this experiment, you will Use agar cubes cut into various size blocks to simulate cells. Use a Conductivity Probe to measure the quantity of ions in a solution. Determine the relationship between the surface area and volume of a cell.
A smooth, slightly elevated area on the body surface, which is redder or paler than the surrounding skin. It is the typical lesion of urticaria, the dermal evidence of allergy, and in sensitive persons may be provoked by mechanical irritation of the skin.
d) Decomposed organic materials are absorbed through body surface. 100) The process by which absorbed nutrient materials are used for the synthesis of body building molecules or energy yielding molecules is called ...
For the Heat Sink Fan, we want to add a second fan to the PCR machine. The reason for adding an addtional fan would be cool the heat sink down more rapidly. We also want to change the heat sink in general by add more surface area to the metal sheets in the center. We would increase the number of sheets vertically. We would add sheets horizontally, reducing space between sheets, to increase the surface area even more. Instructions ...
Females are more vulnerable / prone to getting sexually transmitted infections due to their anatomy (surface area of exposure is larger in women).
Krishna, S. G., Zhao, W., Grazziutti, M. L., Sanathkumar, N., Barlogie, B. and Anaissie, E. J. (2011), Incidence and risk factors for lower alimentary tract mucositis after 1529 courses of chemotherapy in a homogenous population of oncology patients. Cancer, 117: 648-655. doi: 10.1002/cncr.25633 ...
To account for differences in body size in patients with aortic stenosis, aortic valve area (AVA) is divided by body surface area (BSA) to calculate indexed AVA (AVAindex). Cut-off values for severe stenosis are ...
The Wallace rule of nines is a tool used in pre-hospital and emergency medicine to estimate the total body surface area (BSA) affected by a burn. In addition to determining burn severity, the measurement of burn surface area is important for estimating patients fluid requirements and determining hospital admission criteria. The rule of nines was devised by Pulaski and Tennison in 1947, and published by AB Wallace in 1951. To the estimate body surface area of a burn, the rule of nines assigns BSA values to each major body part: This allows the emergency medical provider to obtain a quick estimate of how much body surface area is burned. For example, if a patients entire back (18%) and entire left leg (18%) are burned, about 36% of the patients BSA is affected. The BSAs assigned to each body part refer to the entire body part. So, for example, if half of a patients left leg were burned, it would be assigned a BSA value of 9% (half the total surface area of the leg). Thus, if a patients entire ...
MONDAY, April 10, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Big or tall women are nearly three times as likely to develop the dangerous irregular heart rhythm known as atrial fibrillation as smaller women, a preliminary study says.. The larger a womans body size as a young adult, the more likely she is to develop the heart disorder later in life, according to the researchers.. "There was a stepwise elevation in risk with increasing body size," said study author Dr. Annika Rosengren.. "The group with the highest body surface area had nearly three times the risk as those with the lowest body surface area," added Rosengren, a professor of internal medicine at the University of Gothenburg in Sweden. Atrial fibrillation is an irregular heartbeat that develops in the atria -- the two upper chambers of the heart. The quivering heartbeat increases risk of stroke, heart failure and other heart rhythm problems, according to the American Heart Association.. Its the most common heart rhythm disorder, and everyone has a 1 ...
In treating psoriasis, many factors must be taken into account, including the extent of involvement, areas of involvement, the patients lifestyle, and other health problems and concomitant medications.. In sunny climates, sun exposure can be added to the therapeutic regimen.. It is essential to identify alternative treatment methods for patients receiving medications such as lithium, which are known to exacerbate psoriasis. In patients who have had multiple skin cancers, PUVA and cyclosporine should be avoided. These treatments increase the tendency to develop skin cancers. The possibility of using acitretin, which suppresses the development of skin cancers, should be considered for these patients.. One particularly important factor when selecting patients treatment is the affected body surface area. In individuals with less than 5% body surface area involvement, initially topical therapy is usually applied, unless the patient has previously failed topical therapy or the psoriasis is ...
Animal reproductive and development studies were done in rats, rabbits and cynomolgus macaques. Moxifloxacin was not teratogenic when administered to pregnant rats during organogenesis (gestation days 6 to 17) at oral doses as high as 500 mg/kg/day or 0.24 times the maximum recommended human dose based on systemic exposure (AUC), but decreased fetal body weights and slightly delayed fetal skeletal development were observed. Intravenous administration of 80 mg/kg/day (approximately 2 times the maximum recommended human dose based on body surface area) to pregnant rats resulted in maternal toxicity and a marginal effect on fetal and placental weights and the appearance of the placenta (Gestation days 6 to 17). There was no evidence of teratogenicity at intravenous doses as high as 80 mg/kg/day (approximately 2 times the maximum recommended human dose based on body surface area) in pregnant rats during organogenesis (Gestation days 6 to 17). Intravenous administration of 20 mg/kg/day (approximately ...
Type: Guaranteed rate whole-of-life plan. Minimum sum assured/premium: No minimum/10 a month or 100 a year Minimum-maximum ages: 16-84 Options: Indexation of cover in line with average earnings index, waiver of premium, guaranteed insurability option allowing for increase in cover without further medical evidence. Charges: Implicit. Commission: Subject to negotiation. Tel: 0845 273 0010. Legal & Generals whole of life plan offers guaranteed premium rates and has been designed for inheritance tax planning. There is no investment element to the product.. Independent Personal Financial Management director Luke Gibbon says: "This could be attractive for some clients, as unit-linked products with an investment element do not guarantee future costs, which could be high.". Gibbon feels the indexation option, where the sum assured will be raised by the retail prices index, is a good feature. However, he points out that the premium will be increased by twice the RPI to reflect the greater mortality ...
The EDHEC-Risk Days conference 2015 will take place on March 24-25, 2015 at the Brewery in London and will present the results of EDHEC-Risk research on themes of great interest to the institutional investment and fund manager communities. The 2015 conference is a two-day event focusing on new frontiers in risk allocation and investment management that will allow investment professionals to review major industry challenges, explore state-of-the-art investment techniques and benchmark practices to research advances. On the first day, the Indexation and Passive Investment Conference will focus on fixed income investing, smart beta strategies and indexation and reporting. The conference will also be the occasion to discover the results of the latest European ETF survey and research on factor-based investment strategies, smart beta and multi-index allocation. On day two, the Global Institutional Investment Conference will present research of great interest to institutional investors on risk ...
On review of admissions over a 12-month period, we noted a significant number of women presenting with gypsy skirt burns. We describe all six cases to highlight the unique distribution of the wounds and the circumstances in which the accidents occurred. Four skirts were ignited by open fire heaters: two skirts ignited whilst the women were standing nearby, distracted with a telephone conversation; one brushed over the flame as she was walking past the heater; other whilst dancing in the lounge. One skirt was ignited by decorative candles placed on the floor during a social gathering. Another skirt was set alight by cigarette ember, whilst smoking in the toilet. Percentage surface area burned, estimated according to the rule of nines, showed that gypsy skirt burns were significant ranging from 7 to 14% total body surface area (TBSA) and averaging 9% TBSA. Two patients required allogenic split-skin grafts. Common sense care with proximity to naked flame is all that is needed to prevent this ...
This occurs when the residual effect of a central demonstration viagra venous pressure only, fluid replacement, the fluid status normal volumes total body surface area available for both acute and chronic renal failure, again as recorded in children cool and mottled peripheries progressing distal to the childa s forearm until either a much lower risk of both molecules are important considerations.tell my patients on peritoneal dialysis have an uncomplicated recovery from arf, and appreciate the features of gitelmana s syndromes annu rev med a matamis d and van velzen d human gata trans activation dnabinding and transactivation activities hewitt and distinct subnuclear. This is especially so when the patient is in the induced mesenchyme expression of the wt gene expression become restricted to the glomerulus and summarizes what is termed colloid osmosis. The access physician understands the importance of which is found in the superi cial cortex some of the neck a cervical spine tenderness a ...
We attempted to monitor the healing process of burn injuries by multiwavelength photoacoustic (PA) measurement. Deep dermal burn with 20% total body surface area was made in the dorsal skins of rats. The wavelengths of 532 nm, 556 nm, 576 nm and 600 nm were used: 532 nm is isosbestic point for oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxyhemoglobin (HHb); 576 nm is HbO2 absorption dominant; and 556 nm and 600 nm are HHb absorption dominant. At 532 nm, 556 nm and 576 nm, the depths of PA signal peak were shifted to the shallower region of the wound with the elapse of time, which was found to reflect angiogenesis due to wound healing by histological analysis. The amplitudes of PA signals increased at all the wavelengths until 24 h postburn time. At 48 h postburn time, the signal amplitude continued to increase at 532 nm and 576 nm, while it decreased at 556 nm and 600 nm. This is attributable to the change from a shock phase to the phase of hyperdynamic state, which is accompanied by increases in cardiac output ...
Over the last decade, the estimated incidence of burn injuries in the United States has declined steadily; however, >1 million burn injuries are brought to medical attention each year. Although many burn injuries are minor and require little or no intervention, 50,000 persons are hospitalized for these injuries, 60% of whom require intensive care in a specialized burn center and 20,000 of whom have major burns involving at least 25% of the total body surface area. The majority of burn patients are men. Infants account for ~10% of all reported cases. Scalds, structural fires, and flammable liquids and gases are the major causes of burns, but electrical, chemical, and smoking-related sources are also important. Burns predispose to infection by damaging the protective barrier function of the skin, thus facilitating the entry of pathogenic microorganisms, and by inducing systemic immunosuppression. It is therefore unsurprising that multiorgan failure and infectious complications are the major causes ...
Shriners Hospitals for Children, along with the American Burn Association, have participated in a long standing unique program in burn outcome research. The study utilizes a parent/patient centered outcome assessment model with the main focus on quality of life improvements of the burn patient. Today survival is expected in most children with a burn covering 90% of total body surface area or less. . Shriners Hospitals for Children has been nationally recognized by Press Ganey Associates for excellence in patient satisfaction.
Case: An 84 year old female presents with five days of a diffuse rash. She had a seizure and was started on phenytoin 2 weeks ago. Her mouth, labia, and medial canthi are involved. There are scattered areas of desquamation comprising less than a tenth of her total body surface area. She is tachycardic and febrile. Her complete blood count differential is normal. What is the diagnosis?. (more…). ...
Belgium Surface area Stats", NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Belgium/Geography/Surface-area. "Belgium Surface area Stats, NationMaster." 1961-2005. ,http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Belgium/Geography/Surface-area,.. Belgium Surface area Stats, NationMaster, ,http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Belgium/Geography/Surface-area, [assessed 1961-2005]. "Belgium Surface area Stats", NationMaster [Internet]. 1961-2005. Avaliable from: ,http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Belgium/Geography/Surface-area,.. "Belgium Surface area Stats", NationMaster. Avaliable at: nationmaster.com. Assessed 1961-2005.. "Belgium Surface area Stats, NationMaster," http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Belgium/Geography/Surface-area (assessed 1961-2005). "Belgium Surface area Stats", NationMaster, http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Belgium/Geography/Surface-area (last visited 1961-2005). "Belgium Surface ...
Manufacturer of Thermal Imaging - TP-U Unit Type Body Surface Temperature Checker, Portable Thermal Imager offered by Chino Corporation India Private Limited, Mumbai, Maharashtra.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Size and shape of steady seawater intrusion and sharp-interface wedge. T2 - The polubarinova-kochina analytical solution to the dam problem revisited. AU - Kacimov, A. R.. AU - Obnosov, Y. V.. PY - 2016/8/1. Y1 - 2016/8/1. N2 - Rescaling of the geometrical sizes and the value of hydraulic conductivity in the classical problem of steady two-dimensional (2D) potential seepage through a rectangular earth dam with an empty tailwater is shown to result in a mathematically equivalent problem of seawater intrusion with a sharp interface into a confined horizontal aquifer, which discharges fresh groundwater to the sea through a vertical segment of the beach. The shape of the interface, the vertical and horizontal sizes of the static intrusion wedge, and its cross-sectional area are written in an explicit form, using the Polubarinova-Kochina formulas, rectified. The densities of the two liquids and the aquifers hydraulic conductivity and thickness, as well as the incident hydraulic ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Mustapha Amrani.. Mathematics and Physics of Anderson localization: 50 Years After. We show the square amplitude of a tight binding wave packet propagating in a sufficiently weak time dependent potential which evolves according to a stationary Markov proces converges, after diffusive rescaling, to a solution of a heat equation.. This talk is part of the Isaac Newton Institute Seminar Series series.. ...
A 54-year-old man was admitted through the emergency department of a local hospital with fever and large cutaneous necrotic lesions covering 20% of the body surface area, followed by rapid onset of se...
Learn how the indexation of powder X-ray diffraction patterns using the WinXPOW software was applied to crystals of layered transition metal dichalcogenides.. ...
A Magnetic Resonance Imaging apparatus having an open U-or C-shaped magnet structure, wherein the magnet structure has at least one vertical connection member for joining two horizontal wall members which lie one above the other and are supported in a cantilever fashion and in a predetermined spaced relationship by said vertical member, the latter being eccentrically connected to said two wall members, particularly at a side edge thereof, which horizontal wall members and which vertical member delimit the upper and lower sides and at least a vertical lateral band of a space for receiving at least one part of a patient body, and which horizontal wall members support means for generating a staticmagnetic field that permeates said patient receiving space, which apparatus further comprises a patient table, supported in an intermediate position between the two horizontal wall members, and lies slightly above the lower horizontal wall part, said table being displaceable in at least one displacement
Spermatozoon surface area was measured by micrometric methods and was also measured from electron micrographs using a stereological method. Micrometric methods gave surface area above. Stereology methods gave surface area of 106.5µm^2. Sperm volumes were estimated by stereology and by radiolabel volume exclusion methods ...
A reliable endocardial map is obtained by constructing a matrix relationship between a small number of endocardial points and a large number of external receiving points using a multi-electrode chest panel. Inversion of the matrix yields information allowing the endocardial map to be constructed. Subsequent maps are obtained noninvasively using the multi-electrode chest panel, applying new electrical signals to the matrix relationship, and again inverting the matrix to generate new endocardial electrical maps.
The distribution of malignant melanoma among the 4 major body sites (head, upper limb, lower limb and remainder (trunk) was investigated for 37 white populations. Although UV radiation is generally considered to be the major aetiological agent, it was found that approximately 75% of the tumours occu …
Article Successful Evaluation of Ten IFAS and MMBR Facilities by Applying the Unified Model to Quantify Biofilm Surface Area Requirements for Nitrification, Determine Its Accuracy in Predicting Effluent Characteristics, and Understand the Contributio...
The problem here is that if pharmacies receive prescriptions for 60g of the ointment, once its gone, they will be able to properly supply the 120g and be paid for it...but the clinical indication for this product is clear - it shouldnt be used in a casual manner. Indeed the BNF states "apply once a day to a maximum of 30% of the body surface for 4 weeks (max of 15g daily); If necessary treatment may be continued beyond the 4 weeks or repeated on the advice of a specialist ...
Background: Acute renal failure (ARF) is not a rare occurrence in severe burns and is an important complication leading to an increase in mortality. The severity of the burn is largely determined by the burn size, and severe burns are likely to cause enough loss of extracellular fluid and albumin from plasma volume to produce shock and hypoalbuminemia. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that initial serum albumin level may be useful as an indicator of prognosis and severity of injury in burned patients. Methods: The clinical characteristics of 147 adult patients with second- and third-degree burns covering 30% or more of their body surface area were analyzed retrospectively. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relative risks of ARF and mortality associated with the larger burn size and the lower serum albumin level at admission. Results: Mean burned body surface was 60.0 +/- 21.8% (range 30-100%). Twenty-eight (19.0%) out of 147 patients experienced ARF, defined as a serum creatinine ,/=2 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cost-efficacy of cultured epidermal autografts in massive pediatric burns. AU - Barret, Juan P.. AU - Wolf, Steven E.. AU - Desai, Manubhai H.. AU - Herndon, David N.. PY - 2000/6. Y1 - 2000/6. N2 - Objective: To assess the efficacy of cultured epidermal autografts (CEA) for closure of burn wounds in pediatric burn patients with full-thickness burns of more than 90% total body surface area. Summary Background Data: Paucity of donor sites in massive burns makes the use of expanded skin of paramount importance. CEA techniques have been used in burned patients with differing and controversial results. The true impact and the efficacy of such techniques in massive burns remain uncertain. Methods: Patients with full- thickness burns of more than 90% body surface area treated between May 1988 and May 1998 were studied. Patients grafted with CEA were compared with patients grafted with conventional meshed autografts. Rates of death and complications, length of hospital stay (LOS), ...
PURPOSE: It is not known if the recovery of pediatric burn patients is age-dependent. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of age on the recovery of body composition of severely burned children. PROCEDURES: Pediatric patients with massive burns, ,or= 40% of total body surface area, were followed over 2 years. Patients were divided into two age groups: 0-3.9 years old and 4-17.9 years old at the time of burn. Body composition was determined at hospital discharge, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months after burn using dual-X-ray absorptiometry. Data analysis was performed using a two way ANOVA followed by Tukeys correction when appropriate. Significance was accepted at p,0.05. FINDINGS: Twenty-four patients were enrolled (age 0-3.9: n=9; age 4-17.9: n=15). Percent changes in height and bone mineral content were significantly increased in the younger age group, p,0.05. In contrast, percent changes in lean body mass were significantly lower in younger patients, p,0.05. Percent changes in total ...
Rationale: Health related quality of life (HRQoL) is defined as the impact an injury or illness has on quality of life, including the individuals perception of his or her injury or illness. The aim of this study was to investigate changes over time in HRQoL in burn-injured adults using the EQ-5D instrument.. Methods: Participants were 88 consecutively included burn patients treated at the Uppsala University Hospital Burn Center. Their mean age was 43.3 (SD 15.5), total body surface area burned 24.4 (SD 19.8) and full-thickness burn 10.7 (SD 14.5). The participants completed the EQ-5D during hospitalisation, and at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after injury. The EQ-5D includes five dimensions: Mobility, Self-care, Usual activities, Pain/Discomfort and Anxiety/Depression. Within each dimension there are three severity levels: no problems, moderate problems or severe problems. In addition the participants rate their health state on a VAS scale from 0 to 100. In a follow-up study the participants ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Calcium and ER stress mediate hepatic apoptosis after burn injury. AU - Jeschke, Marc G.. AU - Gauglitz, Gerd G.. AU - Song, Juquan. AU - Kulp, Gabriela A.. AU - Finnerty, Celeste C.. AU - Cox, Robert A.. AU - Barral, José M.. AU - Herndon, David N.. AU - Boehning, Darren. PY - 2009/8. Y1 - 2009/8. N2 - A hallmark of the disease state following severe burn injury is decreased liver function, which results in gross metabolic derangements that compromise patient survival. The underlying mechanisms leading to hepatocyte dysfunction after burn are essentially unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the underlying mechanisms leading to hepatocyte dysfunction and apoptosis after burn. Rats were randomized to either control (no burn) or burn (60% total body surface area burn) and sacrificed at various time-points. Liver was either perfused to isolate primary rat hepatocytes, which were used for in vitro calcium imaging, or liver was harvested and processed for ...
RESULTS: The sample comprised 66 patients; 59 were children ,14 years old, and 38 were ,4 years. There were 34 males and 32 females; scalds and flame injuries accounted for 68% and 17% of cases respectively. The majority (85%) sustained burns ranging from 11% to 40% total body surface area (TBSA). The body areas injured were the left upper limb (60%), chest (58%), abdomen (49%) and right upper limb (48%). All sustained major burns, and skin grafts were performed on 39%. Complications included respiratory distress syndrome, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, protein energy malnutrition, infection and contracture deformities. The mean hospital stay was 3.7 days/% TBSA burn, and the overall mortality rate was 17 ...
http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/121509623/abstract. Ever been taught a simple way of predicting mortality from burns based on age and total body surface area burned (BSAB)? Examples include if age + BSAB , 75, there is a ,50% probability of death. Well now theres a complicated one but it has a catchy acronym: The FLAMES score (Fatality by Longevity, APACHE II score, Measured Extent of burn, and Sex) was derived and (retrospectively) validated. The authors argue that a new more accurate predictive tool is needed because burns mortality has improved over the last few decades as a result of better management of burn shock, use of more effective topical antimicrobials, better systemic antibiotics, organization of regional burn units, earlier excision, and alternative measures for wound closure. Clearly this is tool for hospital use, catches on remember you heard it here first ...
Introduction: The local treatment in burns larger than 50% of total body surface area is still the great challenge for surgeons. Aim: This paper presents a review of different solutions for deep burn wound healing in children and the early outcomes of treatment with combined autologous...
Vericel Corporation (formerly Aastrom Biosciences) is the leader in developing patient-specific expanded cellular therapies for use in the treatment of patients with severe diseases and conditions. The company markets two cell therapy products in the United States, Carticel® (autologous cultured chondrocytes), an autologous chondrocyte implant for the treatment of cartilage defects in the knee, and Epicel® (cultured epidermal autografts), a permanent skin replacement for the treatment of patients with deep dermal or full thickness burns comprising greater than or equal to 30% of total body surface area. Vericel is also developing MACI, a third-generation autologous chondrocyte implant for the treatment of cartilage defects in the knee, and ixmyelocel-T, a patient specific multicellular therapy for the treatment of advanced heart failure due to ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). ...
Scaling left ventricular (LV) mass and other cardiac dimensions to account for individual body size is important. The traditional method of simple ratio scaling using, for example, body surface area (BSA) assumes a linear and proportional relationship and accurate measurement of both LV mass and BSA. These assumptions can be questioned; hence, we examined the appropriateness of methods and different indices using highly accurate magnetic resonance imaging scans. Cardiac and whole-body scans were performed in 172 young, healthy, male subjects (age range, 17-28 years) to assess LV mass, volume, linear dimensions, lean body mass and fat mass. Height, body mass and BSA were determined anthropometrically. Relationships were examined for linearity and closeness of fit using log-log least-squares linear regression to determine the slope exponent b (where 1.0 indicates linearity). The relationship between LV mass and lean body mass (b=.90+/-.15; r(2)=.66) was linear and geometrically consistent. This was also
Grants Pass, OR (PRWEB) April 13, 2016 -- One frequently overlooked effect of climate change is the health impact on our personal body surface microenvironment
Inverse correlations were established between the percentage of iron-laden macrophages (heart-failure cells), found in the sputum of patients with various types of heart ailment, and cardiac index. Less than 2% iron-laden macrophages were seen when cardiac index was in the region of 3 liter/min/sq mm of body surface area (BSA). This fraction increased to approximately 75% when the cardiac index attained 1 liter/min/sq mm of BSA. Since there was noticeable heterogeneity of data when the cardiac index was below 3 liters/min/sq mm of BSA and above 1 liter/min/sq mm of BSA, it was concluded that a second factor was probably at play: this was the degree of activity of the reticuloendothelial system of the subjects concerned.
D6556 - 17 Standard Test Method for Carbon Black-Total and External Surface Area by Nitrogen Adsorption , Brunauer/Emmett/Teller, carbon black, B.E.T., nitrogen adsorption, nitrogen surface area, statistical thickness surface area, surface area by multipoint B.E.T. method, external surface area,,
Background Guidelines recommend estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) prior to iodine contrast media (CM) examinations. It is also recommended that absolute eGFR in mL/min, not commonly used relative GFR (adjusted to body surface area; mL/min/1.73?m(2)), should be preferred when dosing and evaluating toxicity of renally excreted drugs. Purpose To validate the absolute Lund-Malmö equation (LM-ABS) in comparison with the absolute Cockcroft-Gault (CG) equation and the relative equations, revised Lund-Malmö (LM-REV), MDRD, and CKD-EPI, after converting relative estimates to absolute values, and to analyze change in eGFR classification when absolute instead of relative eGFR was used. Material and Methods A total of 3495 plasma clearance of iohexol to measure GFR (mGFR) served as reference test. Bias, precision, and accuracy (percentage of estimates ±30% of mGFR; P30) were compared overall and after stratification for various mGFR, eGFR, age, and BMI subgroups. Results The overall P30 ...
The Corrected Count Increment (CCI) and Percentage Platelet Recovery (PPR) can be calculated using the body surface area, and one can be estimated from the other.
... ,DrDrugs®: Drug Guide for Physicians - now with over 760 Integrated Calculators - combines the most comprehensive, up-to-date and practical drug resource with built in drug dosing calculation tools for most weight or body surface area based dosing.,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
The present invention relates generally to improvements in protective shields for application to a body surface area in which an infusion needle has been inserted. An embodiment of the invention discl
Services; etc.; value added (% of GDP) in Indonesia was last measured at 43.32 in 2015, according to the World Bank. Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator.This
Indeed, as J.C. said this has to do with the renormalization group (RG) which in the present context is a transformation $\mu\rightarrow \mu\ast\mu$ followed by rescaling by $\sqrt{2}$ to keep the variance the same. The "orbits" are the trajectories or sequences of iterates of a given probability measure by that RG transformation. The standard Gaussian is an attractive fixed point to which all these trajectories converge. This is one way to understand the central limit theorem. See this MO question for more info on this and in particular the paper by Anshelevich mentioned in the comment therein by Yemon Choi.. Also, one of the first references in this circle of ideas is the article "The renormalization group: A probabilistic view" by Jona-Lasinio. Finally you can find more explanations about the RG in my answer to this MO question.. ...
Disclosed are immunological methods and materials for detection of antigens associated with breast or prostate cancer disease states. Presently preferred antibody preparations (e.g., PR92 monoclonal antibodies produced by hybridoma cell line ATCC HB 9390) are employed in immunoassays performed on patient body fluids and for purification of tumor-associated antigen compositions.
An intraluminal graft includes a tubular graft body extending along a cylindrical axis, a plurality of wires spaced apart from each other and arranged to circumferentially reinforce said tubular graft body along a substantial portion of its length, and a body surface including an inner surface region and an outer surface region. The body surface defines a plurality of apertures extending from an exterior space, and a first portion of a first wire is in the interior space while a second portion of the first wire is in the exterior space.
The Micrometrics VacPrep 061 Sample Degas System prepares samples for surface area and pore structure analysis. It offers two methods for removing contaminants such as water vapor and adsorbed gases from samples to avoid interference with surface area measurements: flowing gas method, and a vacuum mode which prepares samples by heating and evacuation. ...
An apparatus and method of controlling freezing in a liquid system is disclosed. The apparatus includes a heat exchanger having a initial zone characterized by a surface area to volume ratio. The apparatus also includes means for initiating freezing of a fluid from the initial zone to facilitate volume expansion during freezing in the direction of a final zone characterized by a final zone surface area to volume ratio. The apparatus can further include a plurality of zones located between the initial zone and the final zone, wherein a zone surface area to volume ratio is calculated for each zone. Preferably, the zone surface area to volume ratio of each zone progressively decreases from the initial zone in the direction of the final zone. Preferably, the final freezing zone has the lowest surface area to volume ratio and has sufficient elasticity to accommodate the volume expansion of all the fluid that has frozen from the initial zone.
Surface area is proportional to the square of the radius. So surface area grows more rapidly than the diameter of the cell. If the radius doubles, the surface area quadruples. Volume grows even more rapdily than surface area. Volume is proportional to the cube of the radius, so if the radius doubles, the cell volume increases by a factor of 8 ...
Getting humans to the vicinity of an exploration target - such as the moon, Mars or an asteroid - could allow us to operate robots on the bodys surface much more efficiently, scientists say.
This dataset (dPPG PFT) is associated with the article "Depth-based Whole Body Photoplethysmography in Pulmonary Function Testing". dPPG PFT dataset presents body surface depth ...
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SURFACE IS THE AREA OF ANY OBJECT. AND HOW IT WORKS IS IF YOU HAVE A SQUARE AND YOU WANT TO FIND THE PERIMITIER THEN YOU HAVE TO MAKE ALL SIDES THE SAME. SO IF YOU HAVE A SQUARE AND THE BASE IS 10FT AND THE HEIGHT IS 9 FT THEN THE OTHER BASE IS 10FT AND THE OTHER HEIGHT WOULD BE 9FT AND THEN YOU ADD BASE+HEIGHT+BASE+HEIGHT ...
Standard apical 2- and 4-chamber views were obtained. LV end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes were obtained by planimetry with the biplane method of discs as described (9). The LVEF was calculated as (end-diastolic volume − end-systolic volume)/end-diastolic volume.. Left and right atrial volumes were obtained at end-ventricular systole by manual planimetry with the biplane method of discs for the left atrium and single plane method of discs for the right atrium, as previously described and validated (10). All chamber volumes were subsequently indexed to body surface area.. LV mass was calculated with a truncated ellipsoid equation and indexed to body surface area as previously described and validated (9,11).. The tricuspid regurgitation jet was visualized with color flow mapping, and continuous wave Doppler was used to capture the flow signal from measurement of peak tricuspid regurgitant velocity. The peak tricuspid regurgitant velocity for the current study was the highest measurement ...
In two 24-month carcinogenicity studies in rats, omeprazole at daily doses of 1.7, 3.4, 13.8, 44.0 and 140.8 mg/kg/day (about 0.4 to 34 times a human dose of 40 mg/day, as expressed on a body surface area basis) produced gastric ECL cell carcinoids in a dose-related manner in both male and female rats; the incidence of this effect was markedly higher in female rats, which had higher blood levels of omeprazole. Gastric carcinoids seldom occur in the untreated rat. In addition, ECL cell hyperplasia was present in all treated groups of both sexes. In one of these studies, female rats were treated with 13.8 mg omeprazole/kg/day (about 3.4 times a human dose of 40 mg/day, based on body surface area) for one year, and then followed for an additional year without the drug. No carcinoids were seen in these rats. An increased incidence of treatment-related ECL cell hyperplasia was observed at the end of one year (94% treated vs 10% controls). By the second year the difference between treated and control ...
Vericel Corporation (formerly Aastrom Biosciences) is the leader in developing patient-specific expanded cellular therapies for use in the treatment of patients with severe diseases and conditions. The company markets two cell therapy products in the United States, Carticel® (autologous cultured chondrocytes), an autologous chondrocyte implant for the treatment of cartilage defects in the knee, and Epicel® (cultured epidermal autografts), a permanent skin replacement for the treatment of patients with deep dermal or full thickness burns comprising greater than or equal to 30% of total body surface area. Vericel is also developing MACI, a third-generation autologous chondrocyte implant for the treatment of cartilage defects in the knee, and ixmyelocel-T, a patient specific multicellular therapy for the treatment of advanced heart failure due to ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). ...
The Ideal body weight of a person is the amount of pounds that he should weigh depending upon his height, age, and gender. It is a function of nourishment and thus a malnourished person will weigh less than his ideal body weight.
How Do I Calculate My Ideal Body Weight? By setting goals and calculating your ideal body weight, you can measure if you are on the right track.
The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care. 52(5):971-978, MAY 2002. PMID: 11988667. Issn Print: 0022-5282. Publication Date: May 2002. ...
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to specifically assess the outcome implication of DI in a large population of patients with AS and preserved EF irrespective of mean pressure gradient. According to our results, DI independently predicts the occurrence of events (death or aortic valve replacement) and cardiac death after AS diagnosis. The prognostic impact of DI was powerful, because after adjustment for age, sex, comorbidity, coronary artery disease, EF, LVOT size, and other variables of prognostic importance, each 0.05 DI decrement was associated with an approximately 25% increase in the risk of all-cause death or need for aortic surgery. Moreover, we observed an abrupt increase in the risk of events below the 0.25 cutoff, suggesting that from a prognostic point of view, DI ≤0.25 truly defines severe AS. Finally, the DI performs well in subgroups of patients with AS, with no interaction between its prognostic power and sex, body surface area, LVOT size, or stroke ...
A patient receives electrocardiogram (ECG)-synchronized CTA of the chest. An algorithm retrieves input for the imaging data set and relevant electronic medical record data, including age, gender, and body surface area (mL/m2). The algorithm then determines the best single diastolic and single systolic phases of CT with the least motion artifact and performs the measurements defined below on systolic phases. Once the maximum aortic valve opening area is measured, all measurements are returned to the radiologist ...
Our study shows that low LBM is a significant predictor of toxicity in female patients administered 5-FU using the convention of dosing per unit of body surface area. We conclude that variation in toxicity between females and males may be partially explained by this feature of body composition.
See also Body surface area. Because of the variety of methods to select when determining a patient's body surface area, studies ... There are approximately 25 different formulae for measuring a patient's body surface area, none of them exact. ... Redlarski, Grzegorz; Palkowski, Aleksander; Krawczuk, Marek (2016-06-21). "Body surface area formulae: an alarming ambiguity". ... drug dosages for treatment for more serious diseases like cancer is commonly done through measuring the Body Surface Area of ...
Body shape is another factor that affects thermal comfort. Heat dissipation depends on body surface area. A tall and skinny ... "the proportion of the total skin surface area of the body covered with sweat." The wetness of skin in different areas also ... which is equal to the energy produced per unit surface area of an average person seated at rest. The surface area of an average ... usually expressed in terms of unit area of the total body surface. Metabolic rate is expressed in met units, which are defined ...
The body surface area largely bald and shiny. The abdomen has a typical, slightly diamond-shaped outline. Panurgus have one ...
These models use whole body surface area rather than the surface area of specific parts for the mathematical input. c. The ... The surface area of skin exposed. The surface area of an adult is about 20,900 cm2 and the surface area of a child of 6 years ... Human body surface area database and estimation formula. Burns. 2010 Aug;36(5):616-29.. Wester; et al. (1987). "In vivo and ... concentration of chemical x surface area exposed x permeability coefficient / body weight. Models for this can be found in the ...
Estimate total body surface area (TBSA) burned to nearest 10%. Cover burned areas with dry, sterile dressings. For burns >20% ... Get casualty onto insulated surface ASAP. Use a hypothermia prevention kit with active rewarming. If none above is available, ...
... the largest body surface area exposed to the external environment. The intestine offers nutrients and protection to microbes, ... and other important microflora work similarly to support homeostasis and general health in areas all over the human body such ... The human immune system's primary home is in the gut; so gastrointestinal microbiota has a direct effect on the human body's ... In a process called immune exclusion, IgA coats pathogenic bacterial and viral surfaces. This prevents their attachment to ...
Helmuth H (1998). "Body height, body mass and surface area of the Neanderthals". Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Anthropologie ... Modern humans have the slowest body growth of any mammal during childhood (the period between infancy and puberty) with lack of ... It was observed that the pattern of vertebral maturation and extended brain growth might reflect the broad Neandertal body form ... Arthritis was common in the older Neanderthal population, specifically targeting areas of articulation such as the ankle ( ...
Donald Pinkel (August 1958). "The Use of Body Surface Area as a Criterion of Drug Dosage in Cancer Chemotherapy". Cancer Res. ... Baker SD; Verweij J; Rowinsky EK; Donehower RC; Schellens JH; Grochow LB; Sparreboom A (2002). "Role of body surface area in ... Saam J; Critchfield GC; Hamilton SA; Roa BB; Wenstrup RJ; Kaldate RR (2011). "Body Surface Area-based Dosing of 5-Fluorouracil ... The standard method of determining chemotherapy dosage is based on calculated body surface area (BSA). The BSA is usually ...
Limb length affects the body's surface area, which helps with thermoregulation. Shorter limbs help to conserve heat, while ... The human body has two methods of thermogenesis, which produces heat to raise the core body temperature. The first is shivering ... Individuals with larger bodies are better suited for colder climates because larger bodies produce more heat due to having more ... The human body always works to remain in homeostasis. One form of homeostasis is thermoregulation. Body temperature varies in ...
They then flatten their body laterally, to create more surface area. To propel themselves forward they bend their body from ... The body of M. leonina is translucent and is usually colorless to pale yellow or green. The average body dimensions are 102mm ... Two rows containing three to six pairs of flat, paddle-shaped cerata run along the body. The cerata range in size, with the ... Adults feed by pulling back their oral hood until it is almost perpendicular to the body, and then thrust it forward until ...
Donald Pinkel (August 1958). "The Use of Body Surface Area as a Criterion of Drug Dosage in Cancer Chemotherapy". Cancer Res. ... Baker SD; Verweij J; Rowinsky EK; Donehower RC; Schellens JH; Grochow LB; Sparreboom A (2002). "Role of body surface area in ... Saam J; Critchfield GC; Hamilton SA; Roa BB; Wenstrup RJ; Kaldate RR (2011). "Body Surface Area-based Dosing of 5-Fluorouracil ... Beumer JH, Chu E, Salamone SJ (Nov 2012). "Body-surface area-based chemotherapy dosing: appropriate in the 21st century?". ...
Area of the human body surface innervated by each spinal nerve. Even mammals, including humans, show the segmented bilaterian ... each giving rise to motor and sensory nerves that innervate a portion of the body surface and underlying musculature. On the ... many neurons have cell bodies that are positioned at the edge of the brain and are electrically passive-the cell bodies serve ... Earthworms have dual nerve cords running along the length of the body and merging at the tail and the mouth. These nerve cords ...
Areas PV and S2 both map the body surface. Functional neuroimaging in humans has revealed that in areas PV and S2 the face is ... Individual neurons in areas PV and S2 receive input from wide areas of the body surface (they have large "receptive fields"), ... and stimulation on one side of the body will activate area S2 in both hemispheres. Brodmann area 5 Brodmann area 7 Adrian, ED ( ... area. Posterior to PV is the secondary somatosensory area (area S2, which must not be confused with "region S2" which ...
For example, body surface area is a function of height and width). Similarly, there may be "constraints" that must be true for ... a standard now managed by the Apache Foundation and employed in areas such as natural language processing. Software that ...
"Predictability of peak serum gentamicin concentration with dosage based on body surface area". The Journal of Pediatrics. 94 (1 ... and N4-acetylsulfamethoxazole in body fluids". Journal of Chromatography. 278 (2): 337-45. doi:10.1016/s0378-4347(00)84793-3. ...
Saam, J; Critchfield G. C.; Hamilton S. A.; Roa B. B.; Wenstrup R. J.; Kaldate R. R. (2011). "Body surface area-based dosing of ... the bad and body-surface area". Eur J Cancer. 38 (13): 1677-84. doi:10.1016/s0959-8049(02)00151-x. Baker S. D.; Verweij J.; ... body surface area (BSA). The limitations of BSA-based dosing prevent oncologists from being able to accurately titer the dosage ... "Role of body surface area in dosing of investigational anticancer agents in adults, 1991-2001". J Natl Cancer Inst. 94 (24): ...
3.5 g per 1.73 m2 body surface area per day,[6] or , 40 mg per square meter body surface area per hour in children), ... Prednisone is usually prescribed at a dose of 60 mg/m² of body surface area/day in a first treatment for 4-8 weeks. After this ... Microcytic hypochromic anaemia: iron deficiency caused by the loss of ferritin (compound used to store iron in the body). It is ... A total of 35 kcal/kg body weight/day is normally recommended.[40] This diet should also comply with two more requirements: the ...
The westernmost two ice bodies are roughly equal in surface area. All bodies of ice located in these cirques are separated by ... The Cameron Glaciers are several ice bodies located on Mount Cameron in the Olympic Mountains in Olympic National Park. These ... The ice bodies in the easternmost, northeast-oriented cirque are the smallest, while the glacier just to the west is the ...
"Simplified calculation of body-surface area". N Engl J Med 1987; 317:1098. PMID 3657876. Baixench M; Aoun N; Desnos-Ollivier M ... Dosing is based on body surface area (BSA) as calculated by the Mosteller formula. Compared to amphotericin B, caspofungin ... headache Whole body: fever, phlebitis or thrombophlebitis, complications at the intravenous cannulation site (e.g. induration ...
A number commonly used as the average body surface area of a human[27]. ... Total surface area of Earth[82]. 1015 to 1026 square metres[edit]. List of orders of magnitude for areas 1015 to 1026 square ... Cross-sectional area of a nuclear pore complex in vertebrates[9]. 10−12. 1 square micrometre (μm2). 6 μm2. Surface area of an E ... Jupiter,[86] the "surface" area of the spheroid (calculated from the mean radius as reported by NASA). The cross-sectional area ...
... some authors replace the body weight by the lean body weight or the body surface area. Also for c(t) from a region of interest ... body surface area correction is preferable to body weight correction". Journal of Nuclear Medicine. 35: 164-167. Vesa Oikonen ... For the SUVR, the injected activity, the body weight and the volume to mass conversion factor that are all part of the SUV ... The unit of cinj is MBq/g or equivalent, based on the measured radioactivity and the subject's body weight. This would give SUV ...
The folds in the skin increase the surface area and help in regulating the body temperature. The thick skin does not protect ... Males have a head and body length of 368-380 cm (12.07-12.47 ft) with a shoulder height of 170-186 cm (5.58-6.10 ft), while ... It has very little body hair, aside from eyelashes, ear fringes and tail brush. Males have huge neck folds. Its skull is heavy ... When poor farmers from the mid-hills moved to the Chitwan Valley in search of arable land, the area was subsequently opened for ...
... one calculation used for insensible fluid loss is 400 ml/m2 body surface area. In addition, an adult loses approximately 100 ml ... Deficits to body water result in volume contraction and dehydration. Diarrhea is a threat to both body water volume and ... Fluid can leave the body in many ways. Fluid can enter the body as preformed water, ingested food and drink and to a lesser ... If the body is becoming fluid-deficient, there will be an increase in the secretion of these hormones, causing fluid to be ...
It is the larger half of Lake Michigan-Huron, which is the largest body of fresh water in the world by surface area. It is 307 ... Counted together, it is the largest body of fresh water in the world by surface area. The Mackinac Bridge is generally ... It is the second-largest of the Great Lakes by volume and the third-largest by surface area, after Lake Superior and Lake Huron ... Lake Michigan has a surface area of 22,404 sq.mi (58,026 km2); (13,237 square miles, 34,284 km2 lying in Michigan state, 7,358 ...
Being homeothermic (warm-blooded) marine mammals, pinnipeds need a low surface area to body mass ratio. Otherwise, they would ... Their small body size is a secondary trait-the primitive body form of the arctoids was large, not small. Recent molecular ... The body is usually insulated with a thick layer of fat called blubber and typically covered with hair. The digits are not ... Following the extinction of nimravids, only three taxa originated, two of which were relatively small in body size. Disparity ...
Since small mammals have a high ratio of heat-losing surface area to heat-generating volume, they tend to have high energy ... Fungi digest organic matter outside their bodies as opposed to animals that digest their food inside their bodies. For humans, ... the body starts to produce the feeling of hunger. The body also stimulates eating by detecting a drop in cellular lipid levels ... As time passes between meals, the body starts to take nutrients from long-term reservoirs.[20] When the glucose levels of cells ...
Body surface area of female swine.. Kelley KW, Curtis SE, Marzan GT, Karara HM, Anderson CR. ...
In physiology and medicine, the body surface area (BSA) is the measured or calculated surface area of a human body. For many ... Sardinha, LB; Silva, AM; Minderico, CS; Teixeira, PJ (2006). "Effect of body surface area calculations on body fat estimates in ... Gehan EA, George SL, Cancer Chemother Rep 1970, 54:225-235 Boyd, Edith (1935). The Growth of the Surface Area of the Human Body ... Shuter, B; Aslani, A (2000). "Body surface area: Du bois and Du bois revisited". European Journal of Applied Physiology. 82 (3 ...
... of the body surface area. For children and infants, the Lund and Browder chart is used to assess the burned body surface area. ... Different percentages are used because the ratio of the combined surface area of the head and neck to the surface area of the ... Total body surface area (TBSA) is an assessment of injury to or disease of the skin, such as burns or psoriasis. In adults, the ... In burn cases that involve partial body areas, or when dermatologists are evaluating the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index ( ...
Body Surface Area) [urine tests - Medical: Cardiology (Medical)]. ... wskaznik powierzchni ciala BSA (Body Surface Area). Entered by: ... wskaznik powierzchni ciala BSA (Body Surface Area). Explanation:. --------------------------------------------------. Note ... wskaznik powierzchni ciala BSA (Body Surface Area). Explanation:. --------------------------------------------------. Note ...
While they are both indicators of body size, they provide very different information. What exactly do each of these measures ... Body Mass Index and Body Surface Area: Whats the Difference? Body mass index (BMI) and body surface area (BSA) are two ... Body Surface Area (BSA). BSA measures the total surface area of the body and is used to calculate drug dosages and medical ... To minimize variation in patient size, dosing for most chemotherapeutic agents use mg of drug per m2 of body surface area.2 ...
Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that body surface area (BSA) and renal volume grow proportionally from birth to adulthood. ... Body-Surface-Area Related Renal Volume: A Common Normal Range from Birth to Adulthood. ... Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that body surface area (BSA) and renal volume grow proportionally from birth to adulthood. ... These metabolic requirements are correlated with the body surface area (BSA) [11, 12]. ...
Interdependence Between Body Surface Area and UVB Dose in Vitamin D Production: A Randomized Controlled Trial. ... The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation between vitamin D production after UVB and exposed body surface areas ... The Relation Between Vitamin D Production and UVB Exposed Body Surface Area. This study has been completed. ... The Relation Between Vitamin D Production and UVB Exposed Body Surface Area. ...
... an increase in body surface area (BSA) affected by the disease may be associated with a greater risk of type 2 diabetes ... Body Surface Area Affected by Psoriasis May Be Linked to T2DM Risk. * ... For patients with psoriasis, an increase in body surface area (BSA) affected by the disease may be associated with a greater ... Body Surface Area Affected by Psoriasis May Be Linked to T2DM Risk ...
One can either use the body weight (BW) or the body-surface-area (BSA) for normalization the drug dose. Both parameters have to ... be measured (BW) and calculated (BSA). The first question is: how precise are body weight measurements and how precise are ...
Toxic epidermal necrolysis - mucosal involvement and total body surface area affects mortality Meeting Abstract ...
2 The abbreviations used are: BSA, body-surface area; AUC, area under the plasma concentration-time curves; CV, coefficient of ... Ratain M. J. Body-surface area as a basis for dosing of anticancer agents: science, myth, or habit? (Editorial). J. Clin. Oncol ... Anticancer drugs still are dosed based on the body-surface area (BSA) of the individual patient, although the BSA is not the ... Implications for Body-Surface Area Dosage Regimens. Walter J. Loos, Hans Gelderblom, Alex Sparreboom, Jaap Verweij and Maja J. ...
Values for body surface area (BSA) are commonly used in medicine, particularly to calculate doses of chemotherapeutic agents ... Effect of Body Surface Area Calculations on Body Fat Estimates in Non-Obese and Obese Subjects LB Sardinha et al. Physiol Meas ... Body Surface Area in Normal-Weight, Overweight, and Obese Adults. A Comparison Study Johan Verbraecken 1 , Paul Van de Heyning ... Body Surface Area in Normal-Weight, Overweight, and Obese Adults. A Comparison Study Johan Verbraecken et al. Metabolism. Apr ...
Estimation of body surface area from height and weight. Cancer Chemother Rep. 1970;54:225-35. [PubMed] ... Simplified calculation of body surface area. N Engl J Med. 1987;317:1098. [PubMed] ... Verbraecken J, Van de Heyning P, De Backer W, Van Gaal L. Body surface area in normal-weight, overweight, and obese adults. A ... Geometric method for measuring body surface area: a height weight formula validated in infants, children and adults. J Pediatr ...
Lack of relationship between blood groups and clinical outcome (body surface area affected) in patients with pemphigus vulgaris ... Lack of relationship between blood groups and clinical outcome (body surface area affected) in patients with pemphigus vulgaris ... body surface area affected) of the patients studied. There were no positive or negative correlation between ABO groups and ... suggesting the authors to conduct a study involving other areas of global demographic. ...
Aortic Size Assessment by Noncontrast Cardiac Computed Tomography: Normal Limits by Age, Gender, and Body Surface Area ... Ascending and Descending Aortic Cross-Sectional Area for BSA by Gender and Age (cm2/m2)⁎ ...
... and most were treated with body surface area (BSA)-adapted dosage of medication. B-cell repopulation was defined as the first ... Body surface area and B-cell repopulation. Josep Dalmau. Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm Jul 2018, 5 (4) e472; DOI: 10.1212/ ...
A Phase II Double Blind Randomized Trial Comparing Standard Dosing Based on Body Surface Area Versus Dosing Based on ... Personalized Lean Body Mass in Patients With Stage IIIB or IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Receiving First Line Cisplatin Based ... A Study Comparing Chemotherapy Dosing Based on Either Standard Body Surface Area or Lean Body Mass in Patients With Advanced ... dosing scaled to 3.1 mg/kg lean body mass compared with standard dosing of 75 mg/m2 based on body surface area. ...
... Today I deployed my first Google application developed with the Google app engine (GAE). You have to be ... Physicians regularly use body surface area to calculate drug doses for their patients. Notably, the dosing of chemotherapeutic ... BSA Calculator is a body surface area (BSA) calculator with a simple layout in font that the visually challenged like me can ... Boyd E (1935) The growth of the surface area of the human body. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. ...
BSA formula and how to calculate body surface area. ... Online Body Surface Area (BSA) calculator - estimate your BSA ... Body Surface Area (BSA) is simply a measurement of the surface area of your body. Since the body is a complex figure, making an ... Estimating Body Surface Area (BSA). To estimate your body surface area our BSA calculator uses the following formula[1]:. ... Body Surface Area Calculator. Use this calculator to estimate your body surface area (BSA) in square feet and square meters. ...
Body adiposity index calculator helps check if you are obese. ... Body adiposity index or body fat percentage calculator gives ... you the fat percentage in your body using your height and hip circumference. ... Body Surface Area. Here is a simple calculator for you to find out the total body surface area for adults, based on their ... Body Adiposity Index , Body Fat Percentage Calculator. Body Adiposity Index , Body Fat Percentage Calculator. .rate-avg {font- ...
... body surface area and weight is curvilinear but a reasonable approximation is that a 70 kg human has a body surface area of 1.8 ... It is usual then to calculate the dose according to body weight. Adjustment according to body surface area is also used and may ... or body surface area, among other factors (see p. 126).. Blood Pressure Health. Your heart pumps blood throughout your body ... A combination of body weight and height gives a more precise value for surface area (which can be obtained from standard ...
The BMI and BSA calculators estimate the Body Mass Index and Body Surface Area, calculate BMI by dividing the weight by the ... Body Mass Calculator , Macro Calculator , Calorie Calculator , Body Fat Calculator ... Heart Rate Calculator , BSA Calculator , Pregnancy Calculator , Body Water Calculation , QTC Calculator , Bmi And Bsa ... Free Online Calculators for math, finance, health, fitness, body Mass, Basal Metabolic Rate, Heart Rate, calories, statistics, ...
How do you calculate body surface area?. * Q: What do you say to someone who is dying?. ...
... total kidney mass is roughly proportional to body surface area. Correction for BSA is necessary if differs markedly from ... Total kidney mass is roughly proportional to body surface area. Correction for BSA is necessary if the BSA of the patient ...
The study in this issue of JAMA Oncology by Bandera et al evaluated the association of body mass index (BMI) and chemotherapy ... Ovarian Cancer Survival and Chemotherapy Dosing, Body Mass Index, and Body Surface Area : Are We There Yet? JAMA Oncol. 2015;1( ... Ovarian Cancer Survival and Chemotherapy Dosing, Body Mass Index, and Body Surface Area : Are We There Yet?. ... The study in this issue of JAMA Oncology by Bandera et al1 evaluated the association of body mass index (BMI) and chemotherapy ...
  • For many clinical purposes BSA is a better indicator of metabolic mass than body weight because it is less affected by abnormal adipose mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is some evidence that BSA values are less accurate at extremes of height and weight, where Body Mass Index may be a better estimate (for hemodynamic parameters). (wikipedia.org)
  • The most widely used is the Du Bois, Du Bois formula, which has been shown to be equally as effective in estimating body fat in obese and non-obese patients, something the Body mass index fails to do. (wikipedia.org)
  • Body Mass Index and Body Surface Area: What's the Difference? (nursingcenter.com)
  • Body mass index (BMI) and body surface area (BSA) are two measures used frequently in health care, however, they are not well understood. (nursingcenter.com)
  • Calculated based on height and weight, 1 BMI is easy to measure, reliable, and correlated with percentage of body fat mass. (nursingcenter.com)
  • this was after adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index. (empr.com)
  • Some patients tend to gain fat and lose muscle (or lean body mass) at the same time. (canadiancancertrials.ca)
  • One potential explanation for this is that patients with sarcopenia have a reduced volume of lean body mass into which chemotherapy drugs are distributed, resulting in a higher concentration and greater toxicity. (canadiancancertrials.ca)
  • This study will randomize lung cancer patients to either the standard dosing strategy based on body surface area or experimental, personalized dosing based on lean body mass. (canadiancancertrials.ca)
  • Based on retrospective findings in this patient population, the investigators expect to find that severe toxicity will be reduced for sarcopenic patients on the personalized dosing arm based on lean body mass. (canadiancancertrials.ca)
  • Retrospective findings of NSCLC patients treated with a cisplatin based chemotherapy regimen show that although all were given cisplatin at the standard rate of 75 mg/m2 according to lean body mass, when this was expressed in relation to individual lean body mass, there was a high degree of variation. (canadiancancertrials.ca)
  • The relatively muscular subset of patients with higher lean body mass had a reduced level of severe toxicity compared to those at the median dose. (canadiancancertrials.ca)
  • If the expected level of dose limiting toxicity in sarcopenic patients is 80% based on the standard method of dosing, this could be expected to be reduced to the median value of 41% dose limiting toxicity by the administration of cisplatin scaled to individual lean body mass. (canadiancancertrials.ca)
  • Hypothesis: Levels of severe toxicity in sarcopenic patients may be reduced to clinically acceptable levels by cisplatin dosing scaled to 3.1 mg/kg lean body mass compared with standard dosing of 75 mg/m2 based on body surface area. (canadiancancertrials.ca)
  • From these studies we have understanding of the relationship between height (stature) and body weight (mass) and a formula through which we can calculate a persons body surface area based in their weight and height. (gigacalculator.com)
  • While the body mass index requires your body weight, BAI requires only your height and hip circumference. (medindia.net)
  • The quickest way to reduce body fat might simply be to increase your muscle mass. (medindia.net)
  • Ovarian Cancer Survival and Chemotherapy Dosing, Body Mass Index, and Body Surface Area : Are We There Yet? (jamanetwork.com)
  • The study in this issue of JAMA Oncology by Bandera et al 1 evaluated the association of body mass index (BMI) and chemotherapy dosing, and the authors related relative dose intensity (RDI) to overall and ovarian cancer-specific mortality. (jamanetwork.com)
  • 2 CHEM 1406 page 2 BMI/BSA reference: Fad Diets and Obesity -- Part I: Measuring Weight in a Clinical Setting, see: from this article Body Mass Index (BMI) Also Known as 'Quetelet's Index' BMI is one of the better methods to determine who is potentially overweight or obese (Kuczmarski, Carroll, Flegal, & Troiano, 1997). (docplayer.net)
  • Thus, a patient who lifts weights or engages in resistance exercises may actually experience a slight increase in BMI due to an increase in lean body mass which weighs more than fat tissue. (docplayer.net)
  • Since the weights of different bodies at the same location are proportional to their masses, weight is often used as a measure of mass mass, in physics, the quantity of matter in a body regardless of its volume or of any forces acting on it. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • mass is a measure of the amount of matter present in a body and thus has the same value at different locations, and weight varies depending upon the location of the body in the earth's gravitational field (or the gravitational field of some other astronomical body). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A given body will have the same mass on the earth and on the moon, but its weight on the moon will be only about 16% of the weight as measured on the earth. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A body of mass m has a weight mg , where g is the acceleration of gravity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The weight of a body P is numerically equal to the gravitational force acting upon it-that is, P = mg , where m is the mass of the body and g is the acceleration of free fall (or the acceleration of gravity). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Since the mass of a body is a constant quantity (under ordinary conditions), but the value g changes on earth with latitude and altitude above sea level, the weight of a body changes correspondingly. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Within a small field near the earth's surface the value g may be considered constant and the weight of a body may be considered proportional to its mass. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Using a United Kingdom database, they surveyed general practitioners about BSA affected by psoriasis and looked at data on 8,124 adults with psoriasis and 76,599 adults without psoriasis over the course of four years, and they adjusted the samples to account for any differences in age, sex, and body mass index and other diabetes risk factors. (newswise.com)
  • therefore no data exists to present biochemical, structural, cellular and molecular changes in the myocardium resulting from the HARPS protocol interventions, changes in systemic inflammation, circulating progenitor cells and growth factors, or DEXA scan based data: changes in body mass, lean muscle mass, muscle strength and maximal and submaximal exercise capacity. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • These size metrics are often utilized clinically and include body mass index (BMI), body surface area (BSA), ideal bodyweight (IBW), percent IBW, adjusted bodyweight, lean bodyweight (LBW) and predicted normal weight (PNWT). (springer.com)
  • Because of their high body-surface-area-to-mass ratio, children are more vulnerable to poisons absorbed transdermally. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, since the RMR is also dependent on body mass in a similar way, it is assumed that the ratio of this energy cost to the RMR of each person will remain more or less stable for the specific activity and thus independent of each person's weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Body mass varies clinally from about 1,600 grams (3.5 lb) in southern Victoria to about 600 grams (1.3 lb) in north Queensland. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is reported in energy units per unit time ranging from watt (joule/second) to ml O2/min or joule per hour per kg body mass J/(h·kg). (wikipedia.org)
  • BMR generally decreases with age and with the decrease in lean body mass (as may happen with aging). (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies also showed that by eliminating the sex differences that occur with the accumulation of adipose tissue by expressing metabolic rate per unit of "fat-free" or lean body mass, the values between sexes for basal metabolism are essentially the same. (wikipedia.org)
  • 494 There is a negative association between body mass index and mean annual temperature for indigenous human populations,:490 meaning that people who originate from colder regions have a heavier build for their height and people who originate from warmer regions have a lighter build for their height. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the mass spring mechanism can be more energetically favorable at higher speeds, it also results in an increase in ground reaction forces and is less stable because there is more movement and pitching of the limbs and core of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ground forces and body pitching movement is less of an issue in the walking gait, where the position of the body's center of mass varies less, making walking an inherently more stable gait. (wikipedia.org)
  • In response to the destabilization of the running gait, the human body appears to have evolved adaptations to increase stabilization, as well as for the mass-spring mechanism in general. (wikipedia.org)
  • Limb length and mass: Homo has longer legs relative to body mass, which helps to decrease the energetic costs of running, as time in contact with the ground increases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, the mass of the upper body limbs in Homo has decreased considerably, relative to total body mass, which is important to reduce the effort of stabilizing the arms in running. (wikipedia.org)
  • To reduce this stress humans have increased joint surfaces relative to body mass to spread force over larger surface areas, particularly in the lower body. (wikipedia.org)
  • the force with which a body at rest in a gravitational field acts on a suspension or horizontal support that obstructs the body's free fall. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Limb length affects the body's surface area, which helps with thermoregulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It forms a protective barrier over the body's surface, responsible for keeping water in the body and preventing pathogens from entering, and is a stratified squamous epithelium, composed of proliferating basal and differentiated suprabasal keratinocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because cardiac output is related to the quantity of blood delivered to various parts of the body, it is an important indicator of how efficiently the heart can meet the body's demands for perfusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • These acanthopodia are continuously formed and reabsorbed, protrude from every area of the body's surface, and are usually, though not without exception, short and fine. (wikipedia.org)
  • In burn cases that involve partial body areas, or when dermatologists are evaluating the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score, the patient's palm can serve a reference point roughly equivalent to 1% of the body surface area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different percentages are used because the ratio of the combined surface area of the head and neck to the surface area of the limbs is typically larger in children than that of an adult. (wikipedia.org)
  • Allen's rule is an ecogeographical rule formulated by Joel Asaph Allen in 1877, broadly stating that animals adapted to cold climates have shorter limbs and body appendages than animals adapted to warm climates. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Peru, individuals who lived at higher elevations tended to have shorter limbs, whereas those from the same population who inhabited the more low-lying coastal areas generally had longer limbs and larger trunks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Steegman said that the experimental results had similarities with the Arctic Mongoloids, particularly the Eskimo and Aleut, because these have similar morphological features in accordance with Allen's rule: a narrow nasal passage, relatively large heads, long to round heads, large jaws, relatively large bodies, and short limbs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most commonly, electric injuries primarily damage the outer limbs, but more critical portions of the body may be affected as well causing severe complications. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a slight variation of the DuBois & DuBois body surface area formula, derived in 1916 , modified for easier calculation with height expressed in meters instead of centimeters and the results are practically identical. (gigacalculator.com)
  • 1 CHEM 1406 BSA/BMI (revised 01/03//06) BSA, Body Surface Area See pages of dosage text for equations, calculations and adult nomogram See pages of dosage calculation text for pediatric nomogram and calculations (You do not need to memorize the equations for BSA. (docplayer.net)
  • 2D measurement of the diameter (d) of the aortic annulus allows calculation of the flow cross-sectional area (CSA), which is then multiplied by the VTI of the Doppler flow profile across the aortic valve to determine the flow volume per beat (stroke volume, SV). (wikipedia.org)
  • Aortic valve area calculation is an indirect method of determining the area of the aortic valve (aortic valve area or AVA). (wikipedia.org)
  • An area at the entrance to the lateral sulcus, adjoining the primary somatosensory cortex (S1), is called the parietal ventral (PV) area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deeper in the lateral sulcus lies the ventral somatosensory (VS) area, whose outer edge adjoins areas PV and S2 and inner edge adjoins the insular cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intraparietal sulcus and adjacent gyri are essential in guidance of limb and eye movement, and-based on cytoarchitectural and functional differences-is further divided into medial (MIP), lateral (LIP), ventral (VIP), and anterior (AIP) areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ventral intraparietal (VIP) area receives input from a number of senses (visual, somatosensory, auditory, and vestibular). (wikipedia.org)
  • Heat management in the greater glider is performed by licking extremities and the ventral body surface, with direct evaporation being the main method of the cooling. (wikipedia.org)
  • This dilemma should also be examined as no human studies are available on the vitamin D production in the skin after UV-radiation showing the frequency and dose necessary for sufficient production of vitamin D. The lowest exposure frequency, the smallest body surface area and the lowest UV dose should therefore be established to be exposed in order to minimize the risk of skin-cancer by unnecessary UV-radiation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Systemic therapy is often used in conjunction with other modalities that constitute local therapy (i.e. treatments whose efficacy is confined to the anatomic area where they are applied) for cancer such as radiation therapy, surgery or hyperthermia therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infrared heating uses infrared lamps, commonly called heat lamps to transmit infrared radiation to the body that is being heated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, the small intestine has a finely wrinkled internal surface, allowing the body to absorb nutrients efficiently. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endoparasites have a readily available and renewable supply of nutrients inside the host, which in some cases is pre-digested by the host, so mechanisms of nutrient absorption across their body surface is a common feature. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many parasites the tegument structure has folds or microvilli to maximise the surface area available for diffusion and uptake of nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some endoparasites have both a gut and anus, some lack an anus and some have neither-i.e., those that live in the alimentary canal, which instead diffuse pre-digested host nutrients across their body surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • These "bumps" on the parasite's body bulge into bigger sacs to create a larger surface area for absorbing nutrients from the host via pinocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experiments involving ablation of the second somatosensory cortex in primates indicate that this cortical area is involved in remembering the differences between tactile shapes and textures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immediately posterior to the central sulcus, and the most anterior part of the parietal lobe, is the postcentral gyrus (Brodmann area 3), the primary somatosensory cortical area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Mosteller's formula is recommended based on its simplicity and suitability for laboratory and clinical work in adults, accuracy studies in whites with 3-dimensional one-pass whole-body scanning are needed. (nih.gov)
  • Using a unique organization of material, this full-color text is divided into three distinct areas which show you how to first gather clinical data, then formulate assessments, make objective evaluations, identify desired outcomes, design a safe and effective treatment plan, and finally document all steps. (elsevier.com)
  • A medical guideline (also called a clinical guideline, clinical protocol, or clinical practice guideline) is defined as, "a document with the aim of guiding decisions and criteria regarding diagnosis, management, and treatment in specific areas of healthcare" ( 4 ) (italics added). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 9 % body surface area, loss to follow-up, lack of biologic treatment, biologic treatment via a clinical trial, and lack of health insurance. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that body surface area (BSA) and renal volume grow proportionally from birth to adulthood. (hindawi.com)
  • By contrast, objects with tiny spikes will have very large surface area for a given volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an example, a cube with sides of length 1 cm will have a surface area of 6 cm2 and a volume of 1 cm3. (wikipedia.org)
  • More contact with the environment through the surface of a cell or an organ (relative to its volume) increases loss of water and dissolved substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The surface to volume ratios of organisms of different sizes also leads to some biological rules such as Bergmann's rule and gigantothermy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deficits to body water result in volume contraction and dehydration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diarrhea is a threat to both body water volume and electrolyte levels, which is why diseases that cause diarrhea are great threats to fluid balance. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the second-largest of the Great Lakes by volume and the third-largest by surface area, after Lake Superior and Lake Huron (and is slightly smaller than the U.S. state of West Virginia). (wikipedia.org)
  • Airships and some bodies of revolution use the volumetric drag coefficient, in which the reference area is the square of the cube root of the airship volume (volume to the two-thirds power). (wikipedia.org)
  • Among other things, Schwarz improved the proof of the Riemann mapping theorem, developed a special case of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, and gave a proof that the ball has less surface area than any other body of equal volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar to cardiac index, is a method of relating the stroke volume (SV) to the size of the person Body surface area (BSA). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is efficient, for example, with the most volume for the least surface area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Allen's rule predicts that endothermic animals with the same body volume should have different surface areas that will either aid or impede their heat dissipation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because animals living in cold climates need to conserve as much heat as possible, Allen's rule predicts that they should have evolved comparatively low surface area-to-volume ratios to minimize the surface area by which they dissipate heat, allowing them to retain more heat. (wikipedia.org)
  • For animals living in warm climates, Allen's rule predicts the opposite: that they should have comparatively high ratios of surface area to volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because animals with low surface area-to-volume ratios will overheat quickly, animals in warm climates should have high surface area-to-volume ratios to maximize the surface area through which they dissipate heat, allowing them to dissipate more heat. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dose of yttrium-90 to be infused is calculated with the manufacturer's formula based on lung shunting, body surface area, liver and tumor volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • The flow through the LVOT, or LV Stroke Volume (cm3 or cc), can be calculated by measuring the LVOT diameter (cm), squaring that value, multiplying the value by 0.78540 giving cross sectional area of the LVOT (cm2)and multiplying that value by the LVOT VTI(cm), measured on the spectral Doppler display using pulsed-wave Doppler. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calculating drug dosages for treatment for more serious diseases like cancer is commonly done through measuring the Body Surface Area of the patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • In animals and humans chronic intake of silver products commonly leads to gradual accumulation of silver compounds in various parts of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • A commonly used value for O2 consumption at rest is 125 ml O2 per minute per square meter of body surface area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Appendix 14 Body Surface Area Nomogram for Adults. (wiley.com)
  • Adults feed by pulling back their oral hood until it is almost perpendicular to the body, and then thrust it forward until contact is made with a prey organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proportion of subjects with ≥4-point reduction (improvement) from baseline in the whole-body itch NRS score at Week 16 among subjects with baseline whole body itch NRS ≥ 4. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • They cause raised, red patches covered by silvery scales when they reach the surface of the skin and die. (newswise.com)
  • Skin absorption is a route by which substances can enter the body through the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Absorption of substances through the skin depends on a number of factors, the most important of which are concentration, duration of contact, solubility of medication, and physical condition of the skin and part of the body exposed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Skin (percutaneous, dermal) absorption is the transport of chemicals from the outer surface of the skin both into the skin and into circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Skin absorption relates to the degree of exposure to and possible effect of a substance which may enter the body through the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individual neurons in areas PV and S2 receive input from wide areas of the body surface (they have large "receptive fields"), and respond readily to stimuli such as wiping a sponge over a large area of skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has also been given topically (on the skin) for actinic keratoses, skin cancers and Bowen's disease and as eye drops for treatment of ocular surface squamous neoplasia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Local argyria shows in limited regions of the body, such as patches of skin, parts of the mucous membrane or the conjunctiva. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since at least the mid-19th century, doctors have known that silver or silver compounds can cause some areas of the skin and other body tissues to turn grey or blue-grey. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cortical functions of the parietal lobe are: Two point discrimination through touch alone without other sensory input (i.e., visual) Graphesthesia - recognizing writing on skin by touch alone Touch localization (bilateral simultaneous stimulation) The parietal lobe plays important roles in integrating sensory information from various parts of the body, knowledge of numbers and their relations, and in the manipulation of objects. (wikipedia.org)
  • A few days later the skin begins to blister and peel forming painful raw areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The skin is thick and leathery and the tube feet are scattered rather than being in orderly rows, protruding as soft finger-like projections from the body wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the skin plays a key role in protecting the body against pathogens and excessive water loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans for example, the skin located under the eyes and around the eyelids is the thinnest skin in the body at 0.5 mm thick, and is one of the first areas to show signs of aging such as "crows feet" and wrinkles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The skin on the palms and the soles of the feet is 4 mm thick and is the thickest skin on the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dermis is the layer of skin beneath the epidermis that consists of connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, the glider can use its gliding membranes to reduce heat loss by increasing the layer of insulation at the skin surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • The skin is the largest organ in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Substantial collagen bundles anchor the dermis to the hypodermis in a way that permits most areas of the skin to move freely over the deeper tissue layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of the skin on the body is keratinized. (wikipedia.org)
  • The only skin on the body that is non-keratinized is the lining of skin on the inside of the mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exposures can be to small area of the skin or over the whole body surface, like in a tanning bed. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, they use their wings to cover the naked skin of the upper legs and flanks to conserve heat, or leave these areas bare to release heat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Haptic memory is best for stimuli applied to areas of the skin that are more sensitive to touch. (wikipedia.org)
  • They can exclusively cause surface damage, but more often tissues deeper underneath the skin have been severely damaged. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the burns on the skin are largely superficial and cover a large area, tissues beneath the skin are generally undamaged and unaffected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surface piercings are any body piercings that take place on the surface sewn into the body through areas which are not particularly concave or convex, where the piercing canal transverses a surface flap of skin, rather than running completely through a piece of body tissue from one side to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • A surface bar follows the plane of skin, while a standard piercing is pierced through the plane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rejection occurs when it is "easier" for the body to push the piercing out like a splinter than it is to heal a fistula (skin tunnel) around it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adjustment according to body surface area is also used and may be more appropriate, for this correlates better with many physiological phenomena, e.g. metabolic rate . (clicktocurecancer.info)
  • While they are both indicators of body size, they provide very different information. (nursingcenter.com)
  • BSARV is normally distributed irrespective of body side and body size from birth to 18 years ( P = 0.822 and 0.727 for left and right BSARV, resp. (hindawi.com)
  • We have already learnt that obstructions, area changes, bends, etc. also contribute loss in pressure of air flowing through mine airways besides shape and size of mine airways and their corresponding roughness. (scribd.com)
  • Long, gracile pelvic pubis (superior pubic ramus) Some people thought that the large Neanderthal noses were an adaptation to the cold, but primate and arctic animal studies have shown sinus size reduction in areas of extreme cold rather than enlargement in accordance with Allen's rule. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anterior intraparietal (AIP) area contains neurons responsive to shape, size, and orientation of objects to be grasped as well as for manipulation of hands themselves, both to viewed and remembered stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has a large helmet and a long tailspine, usually longer than the length of its body, that fluctuates in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lake is a major wetland for the region because of its size and is utilised as a recreational area for boating, fishing and camping. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their body is covered with a shaggy coat of fur that increases their apparent size, and the tail is long and bushy, ranging from 44 to 53 centimetres (17 to 21 in). (wikipedia.org)
  • LAE has been found to be correlated to body size, independent of obesity, meaning that LAE is more common in people with a naturally large body size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Large ectotherms displaying the same body size as large endotherms have the advantage of a slow metabolic rate, meaning it takes reptiles longer to digest their food. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mammals' bodies have roughly four times as much surface area occupied by mitochondria as reptiles, necessitating larger energy demands, and consequently producing more heat to use in thermoregulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bergmann's rule states that endothermic animal subspecies living in colder climates have larger bodies than that of the subspecies living in warmer climates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individuals with larger bodies are better suited for colder climates because larger bodies produce more heat due to having more cells, and have a smaller surface area compared to smaller individuals, which reduces heat loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the larger half of Lake Michigan-Huron, which is the largest body of fresh water in the world by surface area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Larger bodies of water in the Lake District are generally named as mere or water, whilst smaller ones are denoted by tarn. (wikipedia.org)
  • Greater gliders have a head and body about 39 to 43 centimetres (15 to 17 in) long, with the females being generally larger than the males. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, while it can be determined that China has a larger area excluding coastal and territorial waters, it is unclear which country has a larger area including coastal and territorial waters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolic rate is expressed in met units, which are defined as follows: 1 met = 58.2 W/m² (18.4 Btu/h·ft²), which is equal to the energy produced per unit surface area of an average person seated at rest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Australian aborigines undergo a similar process, where the body cools but the metabolic rate does not increase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The posterior parietal cortex can be subdivided into the superior parietal lobule (Brodmann areas 5 + 7) and the inferior parietal lobule (39 + 40), separated by the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). (wikipedia.org)
  • It passes obliquely upward, forward, and to the right, in the direction of the heart's axis, as high as the upper border of the second right costal cartilage, describing a slight curve in its course, and being situated, about 6 centimetres (2.4 in) behind the posterior surface of the sternum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The front legs are attached just posterior to the eyes, while the middle legs are attached closer to the back legs which attach midthorax but extend beyond the terminal end of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The calculated aortic valve orifice area is currently one of the measures for evaluating the severity of aortic stenosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Gorlin equation states that the aortic valve area is equal to the flow through the aortic valve during ventricular systole divided by the systolic pressure gradient across the valve times a constant. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting simplified formula is: Aortic Valve area (cm 2 ) ≈ Cardiac Output ( litre min ) Peak to Peak Gradient (mmHg) {\displaystyle {\text{Aortic Valve area (cm}}^{2}{\text{)}}\approx {\frac {{\text{Cardiac Output}}({\frac {\text{litre}}{\text{min}}})}{\sqrt {\text{Peak to Peak Gradient (mmHg)}}}}} The Agarwal-Okpara-Bao equation is a new form of AVA evaluation equation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Functional neuroimaging in humans has revealed that in areas PV and S2 the face is represented near the entrance to the lateral sulcus, and the hands and feet deeper in the fissure. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, not all of them distinguish specific Neanderthal populations from various geographic areas, evolutionary periods, or other extinct humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Culture enabled humans to expand their range to areas that would otherwise be uninhabitable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans have been able to occupy areas of extreme cold by creating microclimates, such as clothing, buildings, and manipulation of fire. (wikipedia.org)
  • Joint surface: Humans have evolved to absorb great shock and force on the skeletal structure while running. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells with visual receptive fields also fire with head-centered reference frames but possibly also with eye-centered coordinates The medial intraparietal (MIP) area neurons encode the location of a reach target in nose-centered coordinates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The calyx of Held is a part of the auditory system, connecting the globular bushy cells (GBCs) of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus to the principal neurons of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB). (wikipedia.org)
  • Endoparasites are parasites that live inside the body of the host, whereas ectoparasites are parasites that live on the outer surface of the host and generally attach themselves during feeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consider a body with fins on its outer surface, with air flowing around it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigravity - Antimatter - Antineutron - Antiparticle - Antiproton - Arc length - Archimedes' principle - Area moment of inertia - Astronomical unit - Astrophysics - The branch of astronomy that deals with the physics of the universe, especially with "the nature of the heavenly bodies, rather than their positions or motions in space Attenuation coefficient - Atom - A basic unit of matter that consists of a dense central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons. (wikipedia.org)
  • In physiology and medicine, the body surface area (BSA) is the measured or calculated surface area of a human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Estimating human body surface is not trivial. (blogspot.com)
  • Boyd E (1935) The growth of the surface area of the human body. (blogspot.com)
  • The human body always works to remain in homeostasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • however it is unlikely that non-human dispersal mechanisms, such as smaller invertebrates moving between bodies of water, have contributed to its widespread distribution. (wikipedia.org)
  • These areas usually have no human inhabitants, excluding scientists. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shoulder and head stabilization: The human skeleton is different from early hominins as there is less of a connection between the pectoral girdle parts of the shoulders and upper back and head, which would be advantageous for climbing but would hinder the movements of the upper body needed to counter leg movement and therefore stabilize the body and head when running. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal studies have been conducted in which pregnant rats and rabbits were exposed to 12 and 8 times the human equivalent dose based on body surface area respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • BSA calculations are useful when determining different body characteristics, for example energy expenditure in the form of BMR, RMR (REE), RDEE, TDEE, which are in turn used when determining dietary and nutritional needs. (gigacalculator.com)
  • For certain body shapes, the drag coefficient C d {\displaystyle \scriptstyle C_{\mathrm {d} }\,} only depends on the Reynolds number R e {\displaystyle \scriptstyle Re\,} , Mach number M a {\displaystyle \scriptstyle Ma\,} and the direction of the flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • This should provide a function S ↦ A ( S ) {\displaystyle S\mapsto A(S)} which assigns a positive real number to a certain class of surfaces that satisfies several natural requirements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus the area of SD is obtained by integrating the length of the normal vector r → u × r → v {\displaystyle {\vec {r}}_{u}\times {\vec {r}}_{v}} to the surface over the appropriate region D in the parametric uv plane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Valve Area (cm 2 ) = Cardiac Output ( ml min ) Heart rate ( beats min ) ⋅ Systolic ejection period (s) ⋅ 44.3 ⋅ mean Gradient (mmHg) {\displaystyle {\text{Valve Area (cm}}^{2}{\text{)}}={\frac {{\text{Cardiac Output }}({\frac {\text{ml}}{\text{min}}})}{{\text{Heart rate }}({\frac {\text{beats}}{\text{min}}})\cdot {\text{Systolic ejection period (s)}}\cdot 44.3\cdot {\sqrt {\text{mean Gradient (mmHg)}}}}}} The Gorlin equation is related to flow across the valve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Globular bushy cells in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) send axons to the contralateral medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), where they synapse via these calyces on MNTB principal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, a number of indirect measures to assess body composition have been developed. (springer.com)
  • Studies of energy metabolism using both methods provide convincing evidence for the validity of the respiratory quotient (R.Q.), which measures the inherent composition and utilization of carbohydrates, fats and proteins as they are converted to energy substrate units that can be used by the body as energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • For verification purposes of the obtained valve area using echocardiogram and doppler measures, especially if the obtained valve area is in the range requiring surgery and cardiac output is low, the Gold standard of left heart catheterization for true hemodynamics should be obtained for validation using the Gorlin formula, so patient does not go for unneeded surgery. (wikipedia.org)