The two dimensional measure of the outer layer of the body.
Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.
Recording of regional electrophysiological information by analysis of surface potentials to give a complete picture of the effects of the currents from the heart on the body surface. It has been applied to the diagnosis of old inferior myocardial infarction, localization of the bypass pathway in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, recognition of ventricular hypertrophy, estimation of the size of a myocardial infarct, and the effects of different interventions designed to reduce infarct size. The limiting factor at present is the complexity of the recording and analysis, which requires 100 or more electrodes, sophisticated instrumentation, and dedicated personnel. (Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed)
Specialized hospital facilities which provide intensive care for burn patients.
Pulmonary injury following the breathing in of toxic smoke from burning materials such as plastics, synthetics, building materials, etc. This injury is the most frequent cause of death in burn patients.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Burns of the respiratory tract caused by heat or inhaled chemicals.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
Math calculations done for preparing appropriate doses of medicines, taking into account conversions of WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. Mistakes are one of the sources of MEDICATION ERRORS.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.
The physical measurements of a body.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
A synthetic hormone with anabolic and androgenic properties.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Solutions prepared for exchange across a semipermeable membrane of solutes below a molecular size determined by the cutoff threshold of the membrane material.
The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Dialysis fluid being introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity as either a continuous or an intermittent procedure.
Rare cutaneous eruption characterized by extensive KERATINOCYTE apoptosis resulting in skin detachment with mucosal involvement. It is often provoked by the use of drugs (e.g., antibiotics and anticonvulsants) or associated with PNEUMONIA, MYCOPLASMA. It is considered a continuum of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.
Unstable isotopes of chromium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cr atoms with atomic weights of 46-49, 51, 55, and 56 are radioactive chromium isotopes.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
A common genetically determined, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by rounded erythematous, dry, scaling patches. The lesions have a predilection for nails, scalp, genitalia, extensor surfaces, and the lumbosacral region. Accelerated epidermopoiesis is considered to be the fundamental pathologic feature in psoriasis.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
A membrane of squamous EPITHELIAL CELLS, the mesothelial cells, covered by apical MICROVILLI that allow rapid absorption of fluid and particles in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. The peritoneum is divided into parietal and visceral components. The parietal peritoneum covers the inside of the ABDOMINAL WALL. The visceral peritoneum covers the intraperitoneal organs. The double-layered peritoneum forms the MESENTERY that suspends these organs from the abdominal wall.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.
Antagonist of urate oxidase.
The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.
Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the heart on a plane of the body surface delineated as a vector function of time.
Absence of urine formation. It is usually associated with complete bilateral ureteral (URETER) obstruction, complete lower urinary tract obstruction, or unilateral ureteral obstruction when a solitary kidney is present.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The process of exocrine secretion of the SWEAT GLANDS, including the aqueous sweat from the ECCRINE GLANDS and the complex viscous fluids of the APOCRINE GLANDS.
The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.
A pathological constriction that can occur above (supravalvular stenosis), below (subvalvular stenosis), or at the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.
A device that substitutes for a heart valve. It may be composed of biological material (BIOPROSTHESIS) and/or synthetic material.
A procedure in which total right atrial or total caval blood flow is channeled directly into the pulmonary artery or into a small right ventricle that serves only as a conduit. The principal congenital malformations for which this operation is useful are TRICUSPID ATRESIA and single ventricle with pulmonary stenosis.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.
Portable peritoneal dialysis using the continuous (24 hours a day, 7 days a week) presence of peritoneal dialysis solution in the peritoneal cavity except for periods of drainage and instillation of fresh solution.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A type of imaging technique used primarily in the field of cardiology. By coordinating the fast gradient-echo MRI sequence with retrospective ECG-gating, numerous short time frames evenly spaced in the cardiac cycle are produced. These images are laced together in a cinematic display so that wall motion of the ventricles, valve motion, and blood flow patterns in the heart and great vessels can be visualized.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Semisolid preparations used topically for protective emollient effects or as a vehicle for local administration of medications. Ointment bases are various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons.
Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Congener of FLUOROURACIL with comparable antineoplastic action. It has been suggested especially for the treatment of breast neoplasms.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the LEFT ATRIUM.
Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.
An effective non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiographic procedures. Its low systemic toxicity is the combined result of low chemotoxicity and low osmolality.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The volume of the HEART, usually relating to the volume of BLOOD contained within it at various periods of the cardiac cycle. The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle at each beat is STROKE VOLUME.
A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.
Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Pathological condition characterized by the backflow of blood from the ASCENDING AORTA back into the LEFT VENTRICLE, leading to regurgitation. It is caused by diseases of the AORTIC VALVE or its surrounding tissue (aortic root).
The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.
Enlargement of the THYROID GLAND that may increase from about 20 grams to hundreds of grams in human adults. Goiter is observed in individuals with normal thyroid function (euthyroidism), thyroid deficiency (HYPOTHYROIDISM), or hormone overproduction (HYPERTHYROIDISM). Goiter may be congenital or acquired, sporadic or endemic (GOITER, ENDEMIC).
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A combination of congenital heart defects consisting of four key features including VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECTS; PULMONARY STENOSIS; RIGHT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY; and a dextro-positioned AORTA. In this condition, blood from both ventricles (oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor) is pumped into the body often causing CYANOSIS.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Surgical insertion of synthetic material to repair injured or diseased heart valves.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the right HEART VENTRICLE.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
A valve situated at the entrance to the pulmonary trunk from the right ventricle.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Backflow of blood from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the LEFT ATRIUM due to imperfect closure of the MITRAL VALVE. This can lead to mitral valve regurgitation.
The measurement of magnetic fields generated by electric currents from the heart. The measurement of these fields provides information which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
Freedom from activity.
Pathological conditions involving any of the various HEART VALVES and the associated structures (PAPILLARY MUSCLES and CHORDAE TENDINEAE).
An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
Prosthesis, usually heart valve, composed of biological material and whose durability depends upon the stability of the material after pretreatment, rather than regeneration by host cell ingrowth. Durability is achieved 1, mechanically by the interposition of a cloth, usually polytetrafluoroethylene, between the host and the graft, and 2, chemically by stabilization of the tissue by intermolecular linking, usually with glutaraldehyde, after removal of antigenic components, or the use of reconstituted and restructured biopolymers.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.

Gender-specific differences in dialysis quality (Kt/V): 'big men' are at risk of inadequate haemodialysis treatment. (1/455)

BACKGROUND: Inadequate dialysis dose is closely related to mortality and morbidity of maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) patients. According to the DOQI guidelines a minimum prescribed dialysis dose of single-pool Kt/V (Kt/Vsp)=1.3, equivalent to equilibrated double pool Kt/V (e-Kt/Vdp)=1.1, is recommended. Knowledge of patient-related risk factors for inadequate delivery of hacmodialysis would be helpful to select patient subgroups for intensive control ofdialysis adequacy. METHODS: A retrospective survey was conducted to assess the prevalence of inadequate dialysis dose according to DOQI criteria during a 7-month period. A total of 320 e-Kt/Vdp measurements in 62 MHD patients were evaluated (mean effective dialysis time 222+/-32 min). Residual renal function (RRF) was expressed as renal weekly Kt/V (r-Kt/Vweek) and included into assessment of total weekly renal and dialytic Kt/V (t-Kt/Vweek). RESULTS: Inadequacy (e-Kt/Vdp<1.10) was prevalent in 37.2% of all measurements and in 22/62 patients (35.5%). In 54% of underdialysed patients r-Kt/Vweek compensated for insufficient dialytic urea removal. Mean weekly Kt/V was inadequate (t-Kt/Vweek<3.30) in 12/62 patients (19.4%) of whom 91.7% (11/12) were male. Body-weight, urea distribution volume (UDV). and body-surface area (BSA) were significantly higher in inadequately is adequately dialysed males. UDV>42.0 litres or BSA>2.0 m2 and a lack of RRF (r-Kt/Vweek<0.3) put 'big men' at increased risk to receive an inadequate dose of dialysis. CONCLUSION: Our data identify patients at risk for inadequate haemodialysis treatment. Special attention should be focused on 'big men' with UDV>42.0 litres or BSA>2.0 m2. In this subset of patients frequent measurements of t-Kt/Vweek and assessment of RRF should be mandatory.  (+info)

The diameter of the common femoral artery in healthy human: influence of sex, age, and body size. (2/455)

PURPOSE: To determine the relevance of dilatations of the common femoral artery (CFA), knowledge of the normal CFA diameter is essential. The diameter of the CFA in healthy male and female subjects of different ages was investigated. METHODS: The diameter of the CFA was measured in 122 healthy volunteers (59 male, 63 female; 8 to 81 years of age) with echo-tracking B-mode ultrasound scan. The influence of age, sex, height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and systolic blood pressure was analyzed by means of a multiple regression model. RESULTS: The CFA increased steadily in diameter throughout life. From 25 years onwards, the diameter was larger in men than in women. Significant correlations were found between the CFA diameter and weight (r = 0.58 and r = 0.57 in male and female subjects, respectively; P <.0001), height (r = 0.49 and r = 0.54 in male and female subjects, respectively; P <.0001), and BSA (r = 0.60 and r = 0.62 in male and female subjects, respectively; P <.0001). Age and BSA were used to create a model for prediction of the CFA diameter (r = 0.71 and r = 0.77 in male and female subjects, respectively; P <.0001). CONCLUSION: The diameter of the CFA increases with age, initially during growth but also in adults. This is related to age, body size, and sex male subjects have larger arteries than female subjects. It is now possible to predict the normal CFA diameter, and nomograms that may be used in the study of aneurysmal disease are presented.  (+info)

Estimation of glomerular filtration rate from plasma creatinine concentration in children. (3/455)

The relation between the true plasma creatinine concentration (Pc) and the glomerular filtration rate corrected for body surface area (GFR/SA) was investigated in 108 individuals, and the following formula was derived: GFR/SA (ml/min per 1-73m2SA) = 0-43 Ht (cm)/Pc (mg/100 ml). This formula was tested in a second group of 83 children, and its accuracy and precision was compared to the 24-hour creatinine clearance. It was found to be superior to the creatinine clearance overall, and was as good, even if all results involving suspect 24-hour-urine collections were eliminated from analysis. The formula in SI usage is: GFR/SA (ml/min per 1-73 m2SA) = 38 Ht (cm)1Pc (mumol/l).  (+info)

Effect of obesity on red cell mass results. (4/455)

Measurement of red cell mass with isotope dilution remains an important diagnostic test in the evaluation of patients with suspected polycythemia vera (PCV). Results and reference ranges are typically expressed in units normalized for body weight (mL/kg). Obesity is common in polycythemic patients, and it is important to know how the various published normative ranges compare across a wide range of body weights. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 51 consecutive patients referred for red cell mass determination with 51Cr red blood cell dilution. Results were expressed in milliliters per kilogram (mL/kg) by using the actual patient weight and after adiposity adjustments using ideal body weight, body mass index (BMI) and combinations of height-weight, including body surface area. Results were classified as normal, elevated or PCV. RESULTS: There was a high prevalence of obesity in our population (28/51 [55%] with BMI > 27 kg/m2, BMI range 16.0-54.8 kg/m2). The method used to compensate for obesity had a dramatic effect on the derived red cell mass, the fraction of patients with elevated measurements and the fraction of patients meeting criteria for PCV. Concordance for categorization as normal, elevated or PCV by all methods was only 47.1%. CONCLUSION: Obesity is a common confounding factor in the interpretation of red cell mass measurements. Currently published reference ranges generate inconsistent results when extrapolated to obese patients. Further normative data on obese subjects are needed to determine which method (if any) is optimal.  (+info)

Frequency and causes of discrepancy between Kt/V and creatinine clearance. (5/455)

This study examines the frequency of discrepancy between Kt/V urea and creatinine clearance (Ccr) measurements in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) and the reasons for this discrepancy. DESIGN: Nonrandomized, retrospective data analysis. SETTING: Single PD unit of a university teaching hospital. PATIENTS: All adult patients receiving PD at our center from January 1995 to December 1996. METHODS: Actual (a) and desired (d) body weight (BW) were used to calculate urea volume of distribution (V) and body surface area (BSA). Patients were divided into four groups based upon their total small solute clearances (Kt/V and Ccr, normalized by actual weight) and three additional groups based upon actual/desired (a/d) body weight ratio. An additional analysis was performed for the subset of anuric patients. Data collected for all patients included the following: total Kt, total Ccr, 4-hour dialysate/ plasma (D/P) creatinine, serum albumin concentration, duration of PD, actual body weight, age, and height. RESULTS: Twenty-three percent of the clearance measurements in our study were discrepant, defined as having values for either Kt/V or Ccr (but not both) above the accepted targets of Kt/V > or = 2.0/wk and Ccr > or = 60 L/wk/ 1.73 m2. Patients with both values above target are more likely to have higher residual renal function. Patients who are significantly less than BWd and patients on PD for a longer time are more likely to have adequate Kt/V but not Ccr. Furthermore, patients who are less than 90% or greater than 110% of BWd have markedly different values for Kt/V and Ccr when BWa versus BWd values are used. CONCLUSIONS: Kt/V and Ccr values are frequently discrepant; a number of factors affect these two measurements to varying degrees, including weight, degree of residual renal function, and duration of PD.  (+info)

Echocardiographic examination of cardiac structure and function in elite cross trained male and female Alpine skiers. (6/455)

OBJECTIVE: To assess cardiac structure and function in elite cross-trained male and female athletes (Alpine skiers). METHODS: Sixteen athletes (10 male, six female) and 19 healthy sedentary control subjects (12 male, seven female) volunteered to take part in the study. Basic anthropometry determined height, body mass, body surface area, and fat free mass. Cardiac dimensions and function were determined by two dimensional, M mode, and Doppler echocardiography. Absolute data and data corrected for body size (allometrically determined) were compared by two way analysis of variance and post hoc Scheffe tests. RESULTS: Absolute left ventricular internal dimension in diastole (LVIDd), septal and posterior wall thickness and left ventricular mass were larger in athletes than controls (p < 0.05) and also increased in the men (p < 0.05) compared with women (except for septal thickness in controls). An increased LVIDd, septal thickness, posterior wall thickness, and left ventricular mass in athletes persisted after correction for body size except when LVIDd was scaled by fat free mass. Cardiac dimensions did not differ between the sexes after correction for body size. All functional indices were similar between groups. CONCLUSION: There is evidence of both left ventricular chamber dilatation and wall enlargement in cross trained athletes compared with controls. Differences in absolute cardiac dimensions between the sexes were primarily due to greater body dimensions in the men.  (+info)

Cycler adequacy and prescription data in a national cohort sample: the 1997 core indicators report. Health Care Financing Administration Peritoneal Dialysis Core Indicators Study Group. (7/455)

BACKGROUND: The Health Care Financing Administration Peritoneal Dialysis Core Indicator Project obtains data yearly in four areas of patient care: dialysis adequacy, anemia, blood pressure, and nutrition. METHODS: Adequacy and dialysis prescription data were obtained using a standardized data abstraction form from a random sample of adult U.S. peritoneal dialysis patients who were alive on December 31, 1996. RESULTS: For the cohort receiving cycler dialysis, 22% were unable to meet the National Kidney Foundation Dialysis Outcome Quality Initiatives (NKF-DOQI) dialysis adequacy guidelines because they did not have at least one adequacy measure during the six-month period of observation. Thirty-six percent of patients met NKF-DOQI guidelines for weekly Kt/V urea, 33% met guidelines for weekly creatinine clearance (CCr), and 24% met guidelines for both urea and creatinine clearances. The mean weekly adequacy values were 2.24 +/- 0.56 for Kt/V urea and 67.5 +/- 24.4 liter/1.73 m2 for CCr, and the median values were 2.20 and 62.25 liter/1.73 m2, respectively. The mean prescribed 24-hour volume was 12,040 +/- 3255 ml, and the median prescribed volume was 11,783 ml. Only 60% of patients were prescribed at least one daytime dwell. By logistic regression analysis, risk factors for an inadequate dose of dialysis included being in the highest quartile of body surface area (odds ratio = 3.3 for CCr and 3.4 for Kt/V urea) and a duration of dialysis greater than two years (odds ratio = 4.2 for CCr and 2.1 for Kt/V urea). CONCLUSION: There is much room for improvement in providing an adequate dose of dialysis to cycler patients. Practitioners should be more aggressive in increasing dwell volumes, adding daytime dwells, and adjusting nighttime dwell times in order to compensate for the loss of residual renal function over time. These changes can only be accomplished if practitioners measure periodically the dose of dialysis as outlined in the NKF-DOQI guidelines.  (+info)

The fourth dimension of life: fractal geometry and allometric scaling of organisms. (8/455)

Fractal-like networks effectively endow life with an additional fourth spatial dimension. This is the origin of quarter-power scaling that is so pervasive in biology. Organisms have evolved hierarchical branching networks that terminate in size-invariant units, such as capillaries, leaves, mitochondria, and oxidase molecules. Natural selection has tended to maximize both metabolic capacity, by maximizing the scaling of exchange surface areas, and internal efficiency, by minimizing the scaling of transport distances and times. These design principles are independent of detailed dynamics and explicit models and should apply to virtually all organisms.  (+info)

First-degree burns are the mildest form of burn and affect only the outer layer of the skin. They are characterized by redness, swelling, and pain but do not blister or scar. Examples of first-degree burns include sunburns and minor scalds from hot liquids.

Second-degree burns are more severe and affect both the outer and inner layers of the skin. They can cause blisters, redness, swelling, and pain, and may lead to infection. Second-degree burns can be further classified into two subtypes: partial thickness burns (where the skin is damaged but not completely destroyed) and full thickness burns (where the skin is completely destroyed).

Third-degree burns are the most severe and affect all layers of the skin and underlying tissues. They can cause charring of the skin, loss of function, and may lead to infection or even death.

There are several ways to treat burns, including:

1. Cooling the burn with cool water or a cold compress to reduce heat and prevent further damage.
2. Keeping the burn clean and dry to prevent infection.
3. Applying topical creams or ointments to help soothe and heal the burn.
4. Taking pain medication to manage discomfort.
5. In severe cases, undergoing surgery to remove damaged tissue and promote healing.

Prevention is key when it comes to burns. Some ways to prevent burns include:

1. Being cautious when handling hot objects or substances.
2. Keeping a safe distance from open flames or sparks.
3. Wearing protective clothing, such as gloves and long sleeves, when working with hot materials.
4. Keeping children away from hot surfaces and substances.
5. Installing smoke detectors and fire extinguishers in the home to reduce the risk of fires.

Overall, burns can be a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention. By understanding the causes, symptoms, and treatments for burns, individuals can take steps to prevent them and seek help if they do occur.

The severity of smoke inhalation injury can vary depending on factors such as the amount and type of smoke inhaled, the duration of exposure, and the individual's overall health. In mild cases, symptoms may include coughing, sneezing, and shortness of breath, while more severe cases can lead to respiratory failure, burns, and even death.

Treatment for smoke inhalation injury typically involves supportive care such as oxygen therapy, hydration, and pain management, as well as medications to help reduce inflammation and open up airways. In severe cases, hospitalization and mechanical ventilation may be necessary.

Long-term effects of smoke inhalation injury can include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchiectasis, and pulmonary fibrosis, among others. These conditions can significantly impact an individual's quality of life and may require ongoing medical care and monitoring.

Prevention of smoke inhalation injury involves taking steps to avoid exposure to smoke, such as evacuating a building during a fire or wearing protective equipment when working with flammable materials. In cases where exposure has already occurred, prompt medical attention can help reduce the risk of long-term health effects and improve outcomes for those affected.

Inhalation burns can damage the lining of the airways, including the throat, windpipe, and lungs, leading to inflammation, scarring, and impaired lung function. The severity of the burn depends on the degree of exposure to the heat or smoke, as well as the duration of exposure.

Inhalation burns can be classified into two categories: thermal and chemical. Thermal inhalation burns are caused by direct exposure to heat or flames, while chemical inhalation burns are caused by inhaling toxic substances, such as gases or fumes.

Symptoms of inhalation burns may include coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and fever. In severe cases, inhalation burns can lead to respiratory failure, which can be life-threatening. Treatment for inhalation burns typically involves supportive care, such as oxygen therapy, hydration, and pain management, as well as medications to reduce inflammation and prevent infection. In severe cases, hospitalization may be required to monitor and treat the burn.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

LVH can lead to a number of complications, including:

1. Heart failure: The enlarged left ventricle can become less efficient at pumping blood throughout the body, leading to heart failure.
2. Arrhythmias: The abnormal electrical activity in the heart can lead to irregular heart rhythms.
3. Sudden cardiac death: In some cases, LVH can increase the risk of sudden cardiac death.
4. Atrial fibrillation: The enlarged left atrium can lead to atrial fibrillation, a common type of arrhythmia.
5. Mitral regurgitation: The enlargement of the left ventricle can cause the mitral valve to become incompetent, leading to mitral regurgitation.
6. Heart valve problems: The enlarged left ventricle can lead to heart valve problems, such as mitral regurgitation or aortic stenosis.
7. Coronary artery disease: LVH can increase the risk of coronary artery disease, which can lead to a heart attack.
8. Pulmonary hypertension: The enlarged left ventricle can lead to pulmonary hypertension, which can further strain the heart and increase the risk of complications.

Evaluation of LVH typically involves a physical examination, medical history, electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography, and other diagnostic tests such as stress test or cardiac MRI. Treatment options for LVH depend on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery or other interventions.

The symptoms of SJS typically begin with a fever, sore throat, and general feeling of illness within 1 to 3 weeks after exposure to the causative agent. Over the next few days, the patient develops painful blisters on the skin and mucous membranes, which eventually become crusted and form scabs. The blisters may be more prominent on the face, lips, hands, and feet.

In addition to skin symptoms, SJS can also affect other parts of the body such as the eyes, mouth, and genital area. Patients with SJS may experience eye inflammation, mouth ulcers, and vaginal or penile erosions. In severe cases, the condition can lead to life-threatening complications such as infection, organ failure, and death.

The exact cause of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome is not known, but it is believed to be an autoimmune reaction to certain medications or infections. The disorder is more common in children and young adults, and people with a family history of the condition are at higher risk.

Treatment for SJS typically involves withdrawal of any suspected medications and supportive care to manage symptoms such as fever, pain, and infection. Patients may also receive antiviral or antibacterial medications if an infection is suspected. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat complications.

The prognosis for Stevens-Johnson Syndrome varies depending on the severity of the condition and the presence of any underlying health conditions. Mortality rates range from 5% to 20%, with higher mortality rates associated with more severe cases and delayed treatment. However, with prompt and appropriate treatment, many patients with SJS can recover fully or with minimal scarring.

Psoriasis can affect any part of the body, including the scalp, elbows, knees, and lower back. The symptoms of psoriasis can vary in severity, and the condition can have a significant impact on quality of life. In addition to physical discomfort, psoriasis can also cause emotional distress and stigma.

There is no cure for psoriasis, but there are several treatment options available, including topical creams and ointments, light therapy, and systemic medications such as biologic drugs. With proper treatment, many people with psoriasis are able to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Psoriasis is relatively common, affecting approximately 2-3% of the global population, with a higher prevalence in Caucasians than in other races. It can occur at any age, but typically starts in the late teenage years or early adulthood. Psoriasis is often associated with other health conditions, such as diabetes, heart disease, and depression.

Overall, psoriasis is a complex and multifactorial condition that requires a comprehensive approach to management, including both physical and emotional support. With appropriate treatment and self-care, people with psoriasis can lead full and active lives.

Anuria is often associated with other conditions such as chronic kidney disease, sepsis, or bladder outlet obstruction. The symptoms of anuria may include decreased urine output, swelling in the legs and abdomen, nausea, vomiting, and electrolyte imbalances.

Treatment of anuria depends on the underlying cause, and may involve medications to relieve symptoms, drainage of obstructions, or other interventions such as hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. In severe cases, anuria can lead to uremia, a buildup of waste products in the blood that can be life-threatening. Therefore, prompt medical attention is essential for effective management and prevention of complications.

Aortic valve stenosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including aging, calcium buildup, or congenital heart defects. It is typically diagnosed through echocardiography or cardiac catheterization. Treatment options for aortic valve stenosis include medications to manage symptoms, aortic valve replacement surgery, or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), which is a minimally invasive procedure.

In TAVR, a thin tube is inserted through a blood vessel in the leg and guided to the heart, where it delivers a new aortic valve. This can be performed through a small incision in the chest or through a catheter inserted into the femoral artery.

While TAVR has become increasingly popular for treating aortic valve stenosis, it is not suitable for all patients and requires careful evaluation to determine the best course of treatment. It is important to discuss the risks and benefits of TAVR with a healthcare provider to determine the appropriate treatment plan for each individual patient.

Symptoms of wound infection may include:

* Redness, swelling, or increased pain around the wound
* Increased drainage or pus from the wound
* Bad smell or discharge from the wound
* Fever or chills
* Swollen lymph nodes

Treatment of wound infection usually involves antibiotics and may require surgical intervention to remove infected tissue. It is important to practice good wound care, such as keeping the wound clean and dry, changing dressings regularly, and monitoring for signs of infection to prevent the development of a wound infection.

Preventive measures include:

* Proper sterilization and technique during surgery or medical procedures
* Keeping the wound site clean and dry
* Removing any dead tissue or debris from the wound
* Using antibiotic ointment or cream to prevent infection
* Covering the wound with a sterile dressing

If you suspect that you have a wound infection, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare professional can evaluate the wound and provide appropriate treatment to prevent further complications.

A condition in which the kidneys gradually lose their function over time, leading to the accumulation of waste products in the body. Also known as chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Prevalence:

Chronic kidney failure affects approximately 20 million people worldwide and is a major public health concern. In the United States, it is estimated that 1 in 5 adults has CKD, with African Americans being disproportionately affected.

Causes:

The causes of chronic kidney failure are numerous and include:

1. Diabetes: High blood sugar levels can damage the kidneys over time.
2. Hypertension: Uncontrolled high blood pressure can cause damage to the blood vessels in the kidneys.
3. Glomerulonephritis: An inflammation of the glomeruli, the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that filter waste and excess fluids from the blood.
4. Interstitial nephritis: Inflammation of the tissue between the kidney tubules.
5. Pyelonephritis: Infection of the kidneys, usually caused by bacteria or viruses.
6. Polycystic kidney disease: A genetic disorder that causes cysts to grow on the kidneys.
7. Obesity: Excess weight can increase blood pressure and strain on the kidneys.
8. Family history: A family history of kidney disease increases the risk of developing chronic kidney failure.

Symptoms:

Early stages of chronic kidney failure may not cause any symptoms, but as the disease progresses, symptoms can include:

1. Fatigue: Feeling tired or weak.
2. Swelling: In the legs, ankles, and feet.
3. Nausea and vomiting: Due to the buildup of waste products in the body.
4. Poor appetite: Loss of interest in food.
5. Difficulty concentrating: Cognitive impairment due to the buildup of waste products in the brain.
6. Shortness of breath: Due to fluid buildup in the lungs.
7. Pain: In the back, flank, or abdomen.
8. Urination changes: Decreased urine production, dark-colored urine, or blood in the urine.
9. Heart problems: Chronic kidney failure can increase the risk of heart disease and heart attack.

Diagnosis:

Chronic kidney failure is typically diagnosed based on a combination of physical examination findings, medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include:

1. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine: Waste products in the blood that increase with decreased kidney function.
2. Electrolyte levels: Imbalances in electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, and phosphorus can indicate kidney dysfunction.
3. Kidney function tests: Measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to determine the level of kidney function.
4. Urinalysis: Examination of urine for protein, blood, or white blood cells.

Imaging studies may include:

1. Ultrasound: To assess the size and shape of the kidneys, detect any blockages, and identify any other abnormalities.
2. Computed tomography (CT) scan: To provide detailed images of the kidneys and detect any obstructions or abscesses.
3. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): To evaluate the kidneys and detect any damage or scarring.

Treatment:

Treatment for chronic kidney failure depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the disease. The goals of treatment are to slow progression of the disease, manage symptoms, and improve quality of life. Treatment may include:

1. Medications: To control high blood pressure, lower cholesterol levels, reduce proteinuria, and manage anemia.
2. Diet: A healthy diet that limits protein intake, controls salt and water intake, and emphasizes low-fat dairy products, fruits, and vegetables.
3. Fluid management: Monitoring and control of fluid intake to prevent fluid buildup in the body.
4. Dialysis: A machine that filters waste products from the blood when the kidneys are no longer able to do so.
5. Transplantation: A kidney transplant may be considered for some patients with advanced chronic kidney failure.

Complications:

Chronic kidney failure can lead to several complications, including:

1. Heart disease: High blood pressure and anemia can increase the risk of heart disease.
2. Anemia: A decrease in red blood cells can cause fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
3. Bone disease: A disorder that can lead to bone pain, weakness, and an increased risk of fractures.
4. Electrolyte imbalance: Imbalances of electrolytes such as potassium, phosphorus, and sodium can cause muscle weakness, heart arrhythmias, and other complications.
5. Infections: A decrease in immune function can increase the risk of infections.
6. Nutritional deficiencies: Poor appetite, nausea, and vomiting can lead to malnutrition and nutrient deficiencies.
7. Cardiovascular disease: High blood pressure, anemia, and other complications can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
8. Pain: Chronic kidney failure can cause pain, particularly in the back, flank, and abdomen.
9. Sleep disorders: Insomnia, sleep apnea, and restless leg syndrome are common complications.
10. Depression and anxiety: The emotional burden of chronic kidney failure can lead to depression and anxiety.

There are many different causes of pathological dilatation, including:

1. Infection: Infections like tuberculosis or abscesses can cause inflammation and swelling in affected tissues, leading to dilatation.
2. Inflammation: Inflammatory conditions like rheumatoid arthritis or Crohn's disease can cause dilatation of blood vessels and organs.
3. Heart disease: Conditions like heart failure or coronary artery disease can lead to dilatation of the heart chambers or vessels.
4. Liver or spleen disease: Dilatation of the liver or spleen can occur due to conditions like cirrhosis or splenomegaly.
5. Neoplasms: Tumors can cause dilatation of affected structures, such as blood vessels or organs.

Pathological dilatation can lead to a range of symptoms depending on the location and severity of the condition. These may include:

1. Swelling or distension of the affected structure
2. Pain or discomfort in the affected area
3. Difficulty breathing or swallowing (in the case of dilatation in the throat or airways)
4. Fatigue or weakness
5. Pale or clammy skin
6. Rapid heart rate or palpitations
7. Shortness of breath (dyspnea)

Diagnosis of pathological dilatation typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies like X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests to identify the underlying cause. Treatment depends on the specific condition and may include medications, surgery, or other interventions to address the underlying cause and relieve symptoms.

There are several causes of aortic valve insufficiency, including:

1. Congenital heart defects
2. Rheumatic fever
3. Endocarditis (infection of the inner lining of the heart)
4. Aging and wear and tear on the valve
5. Trauma to the chest
6. Connective tissue disorders such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

Symptoms of aortic valve insufficiency can include fatigue, shortness of breath, swelling in the legs and feet, and chest pain. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, echocardiogram (ultrasound of the heart), electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG), and chest X-ray.

Treatment options for aortic valve insufficiency depend on the severity of the condition and may include:

1. Medications to manage symptoms such as heart failure, high blood pressure, and arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythms)
2. Lifestyle modifications such as a healthy diet and regular exercise
3. Repair or replacement of the aortic valve through surgery. This may involve replacing the valve with an artificial one, or repairing the existing valve through a procedure called valvuloplasty.
4. In some cases, catheter-based procedures such as balloon valvuloplasty or valve replacement may be used.

It is important to note that aortic valve insufficiency can lead to complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias, and endocarditis, which can be life-threatening if left untreated. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

1. Hypothyroidism: An underactive thyroid gland can cause the gland to become enlarged as it tries to produce more hormones to compensate for the lack of production.
2. Hyperthyroidism: An overactive thyroid gland can also cause the gland to become enlarged as it produces excessive amounts of hormones.
3. Thyroid nodules: These are abnormal growths within the thyroid gland that can cause the gland to become enlarged.
4. Thyroiditis: This is an inflammation of the thyroid gland that can cause it to become enlarged.
5. Iodine deficiency: Iodine is essential for the production of thyroid hormones, and a lack of iodine in the diet can cause the gland to become enlarged as it tries to produce more hormones.
6. Pituitary gland problems: The pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain, regulates the production of thyroid hormones. Problems with the pituitary gland can cause the thyroid gland to become enlarged.
7. Genetic conditions: Some genetic conditions, such as familial goiter, can cause the thyroid gland to become enlarged.

Symptoms of goiter may include:

* A noticeable lump in the neck
* Difficulty swallowing or breathing
* Hoarseness or vocal cord paralysis
* Fatigue
* Weight gain
* Cold intolerance

Goiter can be diagnosed through a physical examination, blood tests to measure thyroid hormone levels, and imaging studies such as ultrasound or radionuclide scans to evaluate the size and function of the gland. Treatment options for goiter depend on the underlying cause and may include medication, surgery, or radioactive iodine therapy.

1. Ventricular septal defect (VSD): an opening in the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart, which allows oxygen-poor blood to mix with oxygen-rich blood.
2. Pulmonary stenosis: a narrowing of the pulmonary valve and pulmonary artery, which restricts blood flow to the lungs.
3. Overriding aorta: an aorta that grows over the ventricular septal defect, blocking the flow of oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle to the rest of the body.
4. Right ventricular hypertrophy: enlargement of the right ventricle due to increased pressure caused by the backflow of blood through the VSD.

These abnormalities combine to reduce the amount of oxygen that reaches the body's tissues, leading to cyanosis (blue discoloration of the skin) and fatigue. Tetralogy of Fallot is usually diagnosed at birth or soon after, and treatment typically involves a combination of medications, surgery, and other interventions to repair the defects and improve blood flow to the body.

Types of Kidney Diseases:

1. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI): A sudden and reversible loss of kidney function that can be caused by a variety of factors, such as injury, infection, or medication.
2. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): A gradual and irreversible loss of kidney function that can lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
3. End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD): A severe and irreversible form of CKD that requires dialysis or a kidney transplant.
4. Glomerulonephritis: An inflammation of the glomeruli, the tiny blood vessels in the kidneys that filter waste products.
5. Interstitial Nephritis: An inflammation of the tissue between the tubules and blood vessels in the kidneys.
6. Kidney Stone Disease: A condition where small, hard mineral deposits form in the kidneys and can cause pain, bleeding, and other complications.
7. Pyelonephritis: An infection of the kidneys that can cause inflammation, damage to the tissues, and scarring.
8. Renal Cell Carcinoma: A type of cancer that originates in the cells of the kidney.
9. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS): A condition where the immune system attacks the platelets and red blood cells, leading to anemia, low platelet count, and damage to the kidneys.

Symptoms of Kidney Diseases:

1. Blood in urine or hematuria
2. Proteinuria (excess protein in urine)
3. Reduced kidney function or renal insufficiency
4. Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet (edema)
5. Fatigue and weakness
6. Nausea and vomiting
7. Abdominal pain
8. Frequent urination or polyuria
9. Increased thirst and drinking (polydipsia)
10. Weight loss

Diagnosis of Kidney Diseases:

1. Physical examination
2. Medical history
3. Urinalysis (test of urine)
4. Blood tests (e.g., creatinine, urea, electrolytes)
5. Imaging studies (e.g., X-rays, CT scans, ultrasound)
6. Kidney biopsy
7. Other specialized tests (e.g., 24-hour urinary protein collection, kidney function tests)

Treatment of Kidney Diseases:

1. Medications (e.g., diuretics, blood pressure medication, antibiotics)
2. Diet and lifestyle changes (e.g., low salt intake, increased water intake, physical activity)
3. Dialysis (filtering waste products from the blood when the kidneys are not functioning properly)
4. Kidney transplantation ( replacing a diseased kidney with a healthy one)
5. Other specialized treatments (e.g., plasmapheresis, hemodialysis)

Prevention of Kidney Diseases:

1. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
2. Monitoring blood pressure and blood sugar levels
3. Avoiding harmful substances (e.g., tobacco, excessive alcohol consumption)
4. Managing underlying medical conditions (e.g., diabetes, high blood pressure)
5. Getting regular check-ups and screenings

Early detection and treatment of kidney diseases can help prevent or slow the progression of the disease, reducing the risk of complications and improving quality of life. It is important to be aware of the signs and symptoms of kidney diseases and seek medical attention if they are present.

The mitral valve is located between the left atrium and the left ventricle, and it is responsible for regulating blood flow between these two chambers. When the mitral valve does not close properly, blood can leak back into the left atrium, causing a range of symptoms and complications.

There are several causes of mitral valve insufficiency, including:

* Degenerative changes: The mitral valve can wear out over time due to degenerative changes, such as calcium buildup or tearing of the valve flaps.
* Heart muscle disease: Diseases such as cardiomyopathy can cause the heart muscle to weaken and stretch, leading to mitral valve insufficiency.
* Endocarditis: Infections of the inner lining of the heart can damage the mitral valve and lead to insufficiency.
* Heart defects: Congenital heart defects, such as a bicuspid valve or a narrow valve opening, can lead to mitral valve insufficiency.

Treatment for mitral valve insufficiency depends on the severity of the condition and may include medications to manage symptoms, lifestyle changes, or surgery to repair or replace the damaged valve. In some cases, catheter-based procedures may be used to repair the valve without open-heart surgery.

Overall, mitral valve insufficiency is a common condition that can have a significant impact on quality of life if left untreated. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

There are several types of heart valve diseases, including:

1. Mitral regurgitation: This occurs when the mitral valve does not close properly, allowing blood to flow backward into the left atrium.
2. Aortic stenosis: This occurs when the aortic valve becomes narrowed or blocked, restricting blood flow from the left ventricle into the aorta.
3. Pulmonary stenosis: This occurs when the pulmonary valve becomes narrowed or blocked, restricting blood flow from the right ventricle into the pulmonary artery.
4. Tricuspid regurgitation: This occurs when the tricuspid valve does not close properly, allowing blood to flow backward into the right atrium.
5. Heart valve thickening or calcification: This can occur due to aging, rheumatic fever, or other conditions that cause inflammation in the heart.
6. Endocarditis: This is an infection of the inner lining of the heart, which can damage the heart valves.
7. Rheumatic heart disease: This is a condition caused by rheumatic fever, which can damage the heart valves and cause scarring.
8. Congenital heart defects: These are heart defects that are present at birth, and can affect the heart valves as well as other structures of the heart.

Symptoms of heart valve disease can include shortness of breath, fatigue, swelling in the legs or feet, and chest pain. Treatment options for heart valve disease depend on the specific condition and can range from medication to surgery or other procedures.

The causes of alcoholic intoxication are due to the consumption of alcoholic beverages, which contain ethanol, a psychoactive substance that affects the central nervous system. When alcohol is ingested, it is absorbed into the bloodstream and rapidly distributed throughout the body. As the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) rises, it can impair the functioning of various organs and systems, including the brain, liver, and cardiovascular system.

The symptoms of alcoholic intoxication can vary depending on the individual's BAC, but common signs include:

* Slurred speech and poor coordination
* Dizziness and drowsiness
* Decreased inhibitions and impaired judgment
* Memory loss or blackouts
* Nausea and vomiting
* Headaches and hangovers

In severe cases of alcoholic intoxication, individuals may experience more serious symptoms such as:

* Confusion and disorientation
* Agitation and belligerence
* Seizures and loss of consciousness
* Coma and death

Treatment for alcoholic intoxication typically involves supportive care, such as rest, hydration, and monitoring of vital signs. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications such as seizures or respiratory depression.

Prevention of alcoholic intoxication includes responsible drinking practices, such as limiting the amount of alcohol consumed, pacing oneself, and avoiding binge drinking. It is also important to eat before and while drinking, as food can help slow down the absorption of alcohol into the bloodstream.

Overall, alcoholic intoxication is a common condition that can have serious consequences if not managed properly. It is important to be aware of the risks associated with excessive alcohol consumption and to take steps to prevent or manage intoxication.

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The body surface area largely bald and shiny. The abdomen has a typical, slightly diamond-shaped outline. Panurgus have one ...
These models use whole body surface area rather than the surface area of specific parts for the mathematical input. c. The ... The surface area of skin exposed. The surface area of an adult is about 20,900 square centimeters (3,240 sq in) and the surface ... Human body surface area database and estimation formula. Burns. 2010 Aug;36(5):616-29.. Wester; et al. (1987). "In vivo and ... surface area exposed × permeability coefficient / body weight. Models for this can be found in the EPA Standard Operating ...
Areas PV and S2 both map the body surface. Functional neuroimaging in humans has revealed that in areas PV and S2 the face is ... Individual neurons in areas PV and S2 receive input from wide areas of the body surface (they have large "receptive fields"), ... and stimulation on one side of the body will activate area S2 in both hemispheres. Brodmann area 5 Brodmann area 7 Adrian, ED ( ... area. Posterior to PV is the secondary somatosensory area (area S2, which must not be confused with "region S2" which ...
... the largest body surface area exposed to the external environment. The intestine offers nutrients and protection to microbes, ... and other important microflora work similarly to support homeostasis and general health in areas all over the human body such ... meaning a regular microbiota is necessary for a healthy host immune system as the body is more susceptible to infectious and ... For example, bacteria on the apical surfaces of epithelial cells are phagocytosed by dendritic cells located beneath peyer's ...
Helmuth, H. (1998). "Body height, body mass and surface area of the Neandertals". Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Anthropologie ... Helmuth H (1998). "Body height, body mass and surface area of the Neanderthals". Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Anthropologie ... Modern humans have the slowest body growth of any mammal during childhood (the period between infancy and puberty) with lack of ... It was observed that the pattern of vertebral maturation and extended brain growth might reflect the broad Neanderthal body ...
One hundred and twenty participants with a body surface area (. ... body weight and plasma colloid osmotic pressure (COP) were ... The root cause of this situation is the decreased blood concentration and viscosity in the body. During the cardiopulmonary ...
Pinkel D (August 1958). "The use of body surface area as a criterion of drug dosage in cancer chemotherapy". Cancer Research. ... Saam J, Critchfield GC, Hamilton SA, Roa BB, Wenstrup RJ, Kaldate RR (September 2011). "Body surface area-based dosing of 5- ... The standard method of determining chemotherapy dosage is based on calculated body surface area (BSA). The BSA is usually ... Beumer JH, Chu E, Salamone SJ (November 2012). "Body-surface area-based chemotherapy dosing: appropriate in the 21st century ...
Limb length affects the body's surface area, which helps with thermoregulation. Shorter limbs help to conserve heat, while ... There are two types of heat the body is adapted to, humid heat and dry heat, but the body has adapted to both in the same way. ... The human body has two methods of thermogenesis, which produces heat to raise the core body temperature. The first is shivering ... Individuals with larger bodies are better suited for colder climates because larger bodies produce more heat due to having more ...
They then flatten their body laterally, to create more surface area. To propel themselves forward they bend their body from ... The body of M. leonina is translucent and is usually colorless to pale yellow or green. The average body dimensions are 102mm ... Two rows containing three to six pairs of flat, paddle-shaped cerata run along the body. The cerata range in size, with the ... Adults feed by pulling back their oral hood until it is almost perpendicular to the body, and then thrust it forward until ...
The rabbit's pinnae represent a fair part of the body surface area. It is theorized that the ears aid in dispersion of heat at ... For example, in black tailed jack rabbits, their long ears cover a greater surface area relative to their body size that allow ... Their ears contribute to 17% of their total body surface area. Their large pinna were evolved to maintain homeostasis while in ... This process is carried out by the pinnae, which takes up most of the rabbit's body surface and contain a vascular network and ...
The westernmost two ice bodies are roughly equal in surface area. All bodies of ice located in these cirques are separated by ... The Cameron Glaciers are several ice bodies located on Mount Cameron in the Olympic Mountains in Olympic National Park. These ... The ice bodies in the easternmost, northeast-oriented cirque are the smallest, while the glacier just to the west is the ...
Body Weight, and Body Surface Area". Math Calculations for Pharmacy Technicians (3rd ed.). St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier Health ...
To estimate the body surface area of a burn, the rule of nines assigns BSA values to each major body part: This allows the ... "the proportional contribution of various major body segments to the total body surface area changes with obesity." One study ... The Wallace rule of nines is a tool used in pre-hospital and emergency medicine to estimate the total body surface area (BSA) ... body surface area for each arm 20% BSA for each leg 50% for the trunk, and 2% for the head. Other studies have found that the ...
... and a total surface area of 29.1 c m 2 {\displaystyle cm^{2}} . The surface area gives it a screen-to-body ratio of 48.4%. The ... The phone initially launched with a price of €150 ($210). The phone body is made of plastic, with the screen and keyboard ...
For example, body surface area is a function of height and width). Similarly, there may be "constraints" that must be true for ... a standard now managed by the Apache Foundation and employed in areas such as natural language processing. Software that ...
Surface gold mining led to the pollution of water bodies in those areas. He also elevated a number of Odikros or Care takers to ... He also established gold mines in the traditional area his reign. He also listened to complains of the people in some ... During his reign, there was an increase in the number of educational institutions in the Akyem Abukwa Traditional area. He also ...
Saam, J; Critchfield G. C.; Hamilton S. A.; Roa B. B.; Wenstrup R. J.; Kaldate R. R. (2011). "Body surface area-based dosing of ... Felici A.; J. Verweij; Sparreboom A. (2002). "Dosing strategies for anticancer drugs: the good, the bad and body-surface area ... body surface area (BSA). The limitations of BSA-based dosing prevent oncologists from being able to accurately titer the dosage ... "Role of body surface area in dosing of investigational anticancer agents in adults, 1991-2001". J Natl Cancer Inst. 94 (24): ...
More complex calculations (e.g., those using body surface area) are rarely required. It is important to achieve a fluid status ... total body surface area burned = Amount of fluid ( in ml) to give over 24 hours). The Parkland formula gives the minimum amount ... Fluid overload is defined as an increase in body weight of over 10%. Aggressive fluid resuscitation can lead to fluid overload ... Fluid replacement should be considered as part of the complex physiological in the human body. Therefore, fluid requirements ...
This differs from an adult to a child as the total body surface area is divided up differently for a child and for an adult- ... Face, Stephen; Dalton, Sarah (2017-06-15). "Consistency of total body surface area assessment in severe burns: Implications for ... A doctor will assess the burns and calculate the total area of the child's body that is covered in the burn and from there will ... times the total burn surface area (TBSA). Once this has been calculated, half of this volume is to be given to the patient in ...
Generalized argyria affects large areas over much of the visible surface of the body. Local argyria shows in limited regions of ... Metals in an oxidation state abnormal to the body may also become toxic: chromium(III) is an essential trace element, but ... Toxic metals can bioaccumulate in the body and in the food chain. Therefore, a common characteristic of toxic metals is the ... Complexation prevents the metal ions from reacting with molecules in the body, and enable them to be dissolved in blood and ...
Generalized argyria affects large areas over much of the visible surface of the body. Local argyria shows in limited regions of ... doctors have known that silver or silver compounds can cause some areas of the skin and other body tissues to turn grey or blue ... chronic intake of silver products commonly leads to gradual accumulation of silver compounds in various parts of the body. As ... the body, such as patches of skin, parts of the mucous membrane or the conjunctiva. The terms argyria and argyrosis have long ...
... allowing the body to absorb nutrients efficiently. Cells can achieve a high surface area to volume ratio with an elaborately ... The Surface Area:Volume Ratio Archived 2017-08-14 at the Wayback Machine National Wildfire Coordinating Group: Surface Area to ... The surface-area-to-volume ratio, also called the surface-to-volume ratio and variously denoted sa/vol or SA:V, is the amount ... As an example, a cube with sides of length 1 cm will have a surface area of 6 cm2 and a volume of 1 cm3. The surface to volume ...
Cutting a solid body into pieces disrupts its bonds and increases the surface area, and therefore increases surface energy. If ... which increases the surface area and hence the surface energy). In that case, in order to increase the surface area of a mass ... a0 is the surface area of an individual molecule, and WAA is the pairwise intermolecular energy. Surface area can be determined ... A is the surface area. For a slab, we have two surfaces and they are of the same type, which is reflected by the number 2 in ...
Usually, the volume of the left atrium is divided by the body surface area in order to provide an extensive property, which is ... It is usually calculated as left atrial volume index in terms of body surface area. The left atrial volume is commonly measured ... where A4c and A2c denote LA areas in 4- and 2-chamber views respectively, and L corresponds to the shortest long-axis length ... independent from body size. The resulting index is referred to as left atrial volume index (LAVI): L A V I = A L B S A {\ ...
... light pink body color with darker red areas composed of blood capillaries close to surface; elongate body; first dorsal with ...
The woolly rhinoceros had several features reducing the body's surface area and minimized heat loss. Its ears were no longer ... The body's length ended with a 45-to-50-centimetre (18 to 20 in) tail with a brush of coarse hair at the end. Females had two ... The body was handed over to the Yakutia Academy of Sciences, where it was named "Sasha" after one of its discoverers. Dental ... Isotope studies on horns show that the woolly rhinoceros had a seasonal diet; different areas of horn growth suggest that it ...
The term is also used when this space breaks the surface of the ground, but it can then be known as a coffin or goffen. It can ... so the bodies of those who drowned were never recovered. Rather than being kept open, disused gunnies were often used as a ... but by 1796 the name had changed to its present form as a result of the mining that took place in the area. An 18th-century ... The breach occurred at the 65-fathom level (390 feet below the surface). Marsh, Peter (21 April 1983). "Shaft of light for ...
... of water surface areas for recreation and includes 1,800 acres (7.3 km²) of land and 1,800 acres (7.3 km²) of water surface ... Protected areas of Caddo County, Oklahoma, Dams in Oklahoma, United States Bureau of Reclamation dams, Bodies of water of Caddo ... The recreation areas are administered by the Oklahoma Tourism and Recreation Department and the wildlife management area is ... Articles using infobox body of water without alt, Articles using infobox body of water without image bathymetry, Articles with ...
This allows more complicated light interactions, such as sub-surface scattering and ambient occlusion, to be produced with ... Houdini covers all the major areas of 3D production, including these: Modeling - All standard geometry entities including ... DOPs - Dynamic Operators - for dynamic simulations for fluids, cloth, rigid body interaction etc. SHOPs - Shading Operator - ... Rigid Body Dynamics, Fluid Dynamics, Wire Dynamics, Cloth Simulation, Crowd simulation. Lighting - node-based shader authoring ...
... they have a high skin surface-area-to-volume ratio, and very little muscle tissue, causing them to be one of the first body ... When the ears are uncomfortably cold and the rest of the body is much warmer, using a winter hat or the hood of a jacket to ... Earmuffs can be used to warm the ears only, avoiding overheating other parts of the body or trapping exhaust heat from ... His patent was for improved ear protectors, which he and his local employees manufactured in the Farmington area for nearly 60 ...
This area is a bit below the autonomic motor nuclei, and includes the nucleus ambiguus, facial nerve nucleus, as well as the ... All the nuclei except that of the trochlear nerve (CN IV) supply nerves of the same side of the body. In general, motor nuclei ... Back at the dorsal surface of the brainstem, and more lateral are the special somatic afferents, this handles sensation such as ... Another area, not on the dorsum of the brainstem, is where the special visceral efferents nuclei reside. These formed from the ...
The cold dry hyperarid core of the Atacama desert is one of the closest analogues for Martian surface conditions and is often ... Other extreme environments, such as the polar regions, high-altitude mountainous areas, or remote islands are also used in ... environmental or biological conditions of a celestial body such as the Moon or Mars. Analogue sites are used in the frame of ... This project was led to test technologies for sustaining human exploration on desolate planetary surfaces like the Moon or Mars ...
... because HEG is a measure of blood flow and not electrical activity Less subject to surface artifacts, such as eye and facial ... which are responsible for the transport and transference of oxygen to tissue throughout the body, must increase the amount of ... light on a specified area of the brain, usually through the forehead. While the skull is largely translucent to these ... cerebral blood flow to the cortical area in use must increase proportionally. Along with the increase in flow, hemoglobin ...
His research area is in planetary sciences, with a focus on physical studies of satellite surfaces and planetary rings. Veverka ... He is a member of the Space Studies Board and current Chair of the Primitive Bodies Panel of the Decadal Studies for Planetary ... Primitive Bodies Panel (http://www8.nationalacademies.org/cp/CommitteeView.aspx?key=49118) Retrieved 2010-10-12 Division for ...
... es generally live in moist areas but can survive in dry areas if they have access to water. They prefer high ... After about two days, the egg cases are placed on a surface in a safe location. Egg cases are about 0.9 cm (0.35 in) long, ... In an experiment, a P. americana registered a record speed of 5.4 km/h (3.4 mph), about 50 body lengths per second, which would ... A pronotum is a plate-like structure that covers all or part of the dorsal surface of the thorax of certain insects. They also ...
The body of the word was so nearly the same in the two languages that only the endings would put obstacles in the way of mutual ... The literary standard, however, was based on the West Saxon dialect, away from the main area of Scandinavian influence; the ... The inventory of Early West Saxon surface phones is as follows. The sounds enclosed in parentheses in the chart above are not ... The pagan and Christian streams mingle in Old English, one of the richest and most significant bodies of literature preserved ...
Moving heat from the cylinder to a large surface area for air cooling can present problems such as difficulties manufacturing ... Thus, engine coolant may be run through a heat exchanger that is cooled by the body of water. Most liquid-cooled engines use a ... air cooling needs ten times of the surface area, therefore the fins, and air needs 2000 times the flow velocity and thus a ... Air-cooled engines may also vary their cooling capacity by using more closely spaced cooling fins in that area, but this can ...
W. Left Wolffian body. w, w. Right and left Wolffian ducts. B.-Diagram of the female type of sexual organs. C. Greater ... The labia minora, in contrast, arise by the continued growth of the lips of the groove on the under surface of the phallus; the ... During the changes associated with the descent of the testes this scrotal area is drawn out to form the scrotal sacs. The penis ... The remainder of the vesico-urethral portion forms the body of the bladder and part of the prostatic urethra; its apex is ...
Body sizes range from 5 mm x 5 mm to 20 x 20 mm. Copper lead-frames are used in TQFPs. Lead pitches available for TQFPs are 0.4 ... The later pin grid array (PGA) and ball grid array (BGA) packages, by allowing connections to be made over the area of the ... A quad flat package (QFP) is a surface-mounted integrated circuit package with "gull wing" leads extending from each of the ... Due to the large body size of CQFP packages, parasitics are important for this package. Power supply decoupling is improved by ...
Diagram showing the area removed with a posterior surgery Diagram showing the area removed with a total operation Diagram ... It is due to the abnormal growth of cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body. Early on, ... solution to highlight abnormal cells on the surface of the cervix, with visual contrast provided by staining the normal tissues ... Other concerns is the cost of doing Pap tests, which make them unaffordable in many areas of the world. Confirmation of the ...
Winters in the area are temperate with typical January high of 61 °F (16 °C) and lows are near 42 °F (6 °C). Snowfall is rare. ... The Latin Church's Archdiocese of Galveston-Houston of the Catholic Church is the largest Christian body in the city, followed ... Garcia, T.D. "Subsidence and Surface Faulting at San Jacinto Monument, Goose Creek Oil Field, and Baytown, Texas". Field Trip ... Since then, many other refineries have been built in the area. Exxon-Mobil is still one of the major employers in the city and ...
In the case of napalm, the gel adheres to surfaces and resists suppression. A range of early thermal weapons were utilized by ... The bomb consisted of a hollow body made from aluminium-magnesium alloy with a cast iron/steel nose, and filled with thermite ... Sixty-seven Japanese cities lost significant areas to incendiary attacks. The most deadly single bombing raid in history was ... scattering the bomblets in order to cover a wide area. An explosive charge would then ignite the incendiary material, often ...
The muon flux at the Earth's surface is such that a single muon passes through an area the size of a human hand per second. ... time-dependent mass movements consisting of or within targeted gigantic fluid bodies and submerged solid material bodies can be ... Muography has been applied to groundwater and saturation level monitoring for bedrock in a landslide area as a response to ... 3 July 2012). "A large area cosmic ray detector for the inspection of hidden high-Z materials inside containers". Journal of ...
Importantly, an auricular hematoma can also occur on the posterior ear surface, or even both surfaces. Risk of necrotic tissue ... There are many types of treatment for the perichondral hematoma that can lead to cauliflower ear, but the current body of ... Less frequently, the hematoma may form in the concha or the area in and around the external auditory meatus. ... is greatest when both posterior and anterior surfaces are involved, although posterior surface involvement is less likely given ...
Surfaces where norovirus particles may be present can be sanitised with a solution of 1.5% to 7.5% of household bleach in water ... The protein MDA-5 may be the primary immune sensor that detects the presence of noroviruses in the body. Some people have ... The guideline also identifies eight high-priority recommendations and suggests several areas in need of future research.[ ... It may also spread via contaminated surfaces or through air from the vomit of an infected person. Risk factors include ...
The small teeth present across the genus in addition to the large surface area for neck muscle attachment could suggest suction ... Not only that, the S. amenasensis, like many other temnospondyls, was euryhaline, due inhabiting various salt water bodies. The ... Lateral and ventral surfaces of the intercentrum are smooth, suggesting a continuation of cartilage due to the unfinished ... Due to being largely aquatic, Stanocephalosaurs might have lain in wait for prey below the surface of the water, and lifted its ...
In J. magna, the P4 has a root surface area of 4.97 cm2 (0.770 sq in) and has five lophs; the first and widest is suboval with ... He also assumed J. monesi had the same head-to-body ratio as the pacarana, producing a body length of 262.8 cm (8 ft 7 in), ... In J. magna, the surface area is 8.29 cm2 (1.285 sq in), measuring 3.07 cm × 2.7 cm (1.21 in × 1.06 in) length x width ( ... The grinding teeth are all about equal size, each having a grinding surface area of about 24 cm2 (3.7 sq in). They each have ...
They have a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and a short bill with a wide gape. The feet are adapted to perching ... Most terns hunt fish by diving but some pick insects off the surface of fresh water. Terns are generally long-lived birds, with ... The avifauna of the Palestine region is unusually rich for so small an area. Henry B. Tristram, who identified much of the ... Most species have strong legs and long toes which are well adapted to soft uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded ...
Their brazen surfaces were "occasionally embellished with beautiful pictures," and all appeared to be of "beautiful antique ... This was presented as the final testament of Rajah Manchou of Vorito, an ancient inhabitant of the area, engraved on three ... Seven Evangelists formed a quorum, and Strang noted that such a body had never been organized "in this dispensation." This ...
The lateral line runs along the upper sides of the body. The western Australian salmon is the largest species at a maximum 96 ... Together with the carangids, Australian salmon feed en masse by co-operatively bullying baitfish up to the surface; this ... the fish have all but disappeared from some areas. On October 1, 2004, the New Zealand Ministry of Fisheries included kahawai ... The ranges of the species may overlap to some extent, but can be described as: A streamlined, fusiform body and large, powerful ...
At an elevation of 84.3 m, its surface area is 3.45 km². It is home to an endemic dwarfed whitefish, Coregonus lucinensis. ... Articles using infobox body of water without alt, Articles using infobox body of water without pushpin map alt, Articles using ... infobox body of water without image bathymetry, Articles with hAudio microformats, Lakes of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, All ...
The surface of the Jacques-Cartier River (except the rapids areas) is usually frozen from the beginning of December to the end ... constitutes the head water body of the Jacques-Cartier river. This lake receives the waters on the west side of two small lakes ... The area covered by the drainage basin is for the most part undeveloped or protected, especially its source. In fact, 77% of ... This natural highway was used among others by Jesuit missionaries to reach the Lac Saint-Jean area during the 17th century. ...
It read, "Doubt is our product since it is the best means of competing with the 'body of fact' that exists in the mind of the ... There is a scientific consensus that global surface temperatures have increased in recent decades and that the trend is caused ... Some of the scholarly work in this area is reviewed in The Handbook of Science & Technology Studies (1995, 2008), a collection ... The 2005 ruling in the Dover trial, Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District, where the claims of intelligent design proponents ...
... because the diver is able to breathe at the surface through a short tube known as a snorkel. surface-supplied diving - ... Other specialist areas of scuba diving include military diving, with a long history of military frogmen in various roles. Their ... McCafferty, Marty (2013). "DAN Diving Incident Reports: Compressed Gas Tears Skin, Penetrates Body". Divers Alert Network. ... voice communication and sometimes warm water to heat the diving suit from the surface. Some tourist resorts offer a surface- ...
It forms a lagoon of the Caspian Sea and has a variable surface area, about 18,000 km2 (6,900 sq mi). The Caspian Sea proper ... Articles using infobox body of water without alt, Articles using infobox body of water without pushpin map alt, Articles using ... infobox body of water without image bathymetry, Commons category link is on Wikidata, Articles with LNB identifiers, Bodies of ...
The body whorl is very slightly tumid with a rounded base, contracting very rapidly to a short broad snout, which is abruptly ... And in the sinus-area there are two faint impressed lines. The colour of the shell is polished ivory-white. The conical spire ... There are faint traces of microscopic spirals over the whole shell, rather in the texture than on the surface. These are rather ... It leaves the body at a slightly acute angle, and retreats at once obliquely, but very shortly, to form the narrow rounded ...
... body, diagnosis, medical, education, criteria, treecalc, decision, tree, medicine, clinical, medicalc, medmath, clinicalc, ... Body Surface Area (BSA) Body Surface Area (Du Bois Method) Body surface area (gehan & george method) Body surface area ( ... A formula to estimate the approximate surface area if height and weight be known. Arch Intern Med. 1916; 17:863-871. ... Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) Body Mass Index (BMI) ... Medical calculators › Growth Calculators › Body surface area ( ...
The IAD has been shown to correlate to body surface area (BSA). The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility to use ... The IAD has been shown to correlate to body surface area (BSA). The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility to use ... The IAD has been shown to correlate to body surface area (BSA). The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility to use ... The IAD has been shown to correlate to body surface area (BSA). The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility to use ...
Body Surface Areas and Gill Filaments in Two Carcharhinid Sharks Captured Off North Carolina ... Post a Comment for Body Surface Areas and Gill Filaments in Two Carcharhinid Sharks Captured Off North Carolina ... Body Surface Areas and Gill Filaments in Two Carcharhinid Sharks Captured Off North Carolina. ... Body Surface Areas and Gill Filaments in Two Carcharhinid Sharks Captured Off North Carolina ...
... body surface area based dosing: surface area of body formula: how to calculate m2 body surface area: bsa body surface: bsa ... Total Body Surface Area. The BSA or body surface area calculator is used to determine the total body surface area of an ... Body Surface Area. Simplified calculation of body-surface area. DOSE CALCULATION RELATED TO BODY SURFACE AREA ` = × ` ∗ ` *An ... of the bodys surface area. The measured surface area of the body is termed as the Body Surface area or BSA in physiology and ...
Homebody surface area. body surface area. Author Summary. Slovenian scientists found a link between myocardial infarction and ...
Body Surface Area Calculator. Calculate Body Surface Area (m2) using Mosteller formula ...
Considerations for Body Surface Area. Body surface area (BSA) is an important factor when estimating GFR because kidney ... Simplified calculation of body-surface area. New England Journal of Medicine. 1987;317(17):1098. ... However, while adjusting for BSA may help assess if a patients kidney function is proportional to his or her body size, it may ... Therefore, adjusting for BSA is not usually necessary for determining drug dosing except in patients whose body size is very ...
Agarwal S, Singh M, Sinha P, Pujani M.. Relationship between Body Surface Area and Pulmonary Functions in Patients of Silicosis ... Relationship between Body Surface Area and Pulmonary Functions in Patients of Silicosis. en_US. ... The present study aimed at studying the association between body surface area (BSA), pulmonary function indices, and 6-minute ... Large body size may be of value in protection from developing occupational lung disease.. en_US. ...
The human lungs have roughly the same surface area as a tennis court if they were to be laid out. This is 2,808 square feet, or ... What is surface area?. Surface area is the covering of a multi-dimensional body. It is the area that the outside of a body ... What is the body surface area for a child who is 80 cm tall and weighs 4 kg?. what is the body surface area for a child who is ... What is the body surface area for a child weighing 7.5 pounds?. You need both height and weight to calculate body surface area. ...
These doses are approximately 5 and 6 times the recommended human total daily dose on a body surface area basis. In two studies ... doses roughly two times the recommended human daily dose on a body surface area basis. ... was associated with doses of trimethoprim 6 times the human therapeutic dose based on body surface area. ... 55 mL/h/kg). However, after normalizing by body weight, the apparent total body clearance of trimethoprim was on average 19% ...
Burns 1 - 10% body surface area. $88, subject to subsection 2 (5) ... Burns > 10% body surface area. $191, subject to subsection 2 (5 ... a) if the member has lost more than 5 per cent but no more than 10 per cent of his or her usual body weight, the amount set out ... b) if the member has lost more than 10 per cent of his or her usual body weight, $242. O. Reg. 13/11, s. 2. ...
The capecitabine dosage is based on your body surface area.). Take your Tykerb dose at least 1 hour before or 1 hour after a ... In many cases, these extra copies of the cells spread to other areas of the body. This means the cancer is metastatic. ... This is because P-gp helps get drugs to the correct place in your body. P-gp can also help your body get rid of medications. ... swelling of mucous membranes (moist linings of body areas such as the stomach or lungs) ...
10 % of total body surface area. - Type of wrap if used: Surgical gauze held in place with semiocclusive self-adhesive bandage ... Other examinations performed: clinical signs, body weight, gross findings.. Key result. Sex:. female. Dose descriptor:. LD50. ... Other examinations performed: clinical signs, body weight, organ weights.. Preliminary study:. Mortality 0/2 animals.. Key ...
This natural history study will examine the relationships between metabolism, body composition, and body surface area in a wide ... Scientists have long used simple measures (such as height and weight) to estimate how much a person s body uses food (calories ... Diagnosed with diseases thought to alter metabolism or body composition (such as weight loss or gain, diabetes, renal disease, ... But metabolism varies among people with similar body sizes. Scientists now believe the old formulas for estimating metabolic ...
Lower respiratory signs (dyspnea, necrosis); skin lesion covering more than half of body surface area from liquid exposure. ... Eye lesions with impaired vision; moderate sized skin lesions for liquid exposure or any body surface burn for vapor exposure; ... Critical Care Area. Be certain that appropriate decontamination has been carried out (see Decontamination Area, above). ... A patient with a significant area of erythema or one seen earlier with a significant area of erythema with or without ...
They have a larger ratio of surface area to body mass.. These and other physiological differences, combined with rapid body ... During ages 18-21 months, infants drink 10 times more water per kilogram of body weight daily than do adults [16]. In the ... Childrens bodies might not readily repair such damage, which might affect their health now and later in life. Moreover, young ... United States, children ages one through five years eat three to five times more food per kilogram of body weight than the ...
Body Surface Area affected by plaque-type psoriasis of 10% or greater ...
Base dose on body surface area. PsA, pJIA (2-17yrs): 80mg/m2 at Weeks 0 and 4, then every 8 weeks thereafter. ... Travel to, or residence in, areas with endemic TB or mycoses. Test/treat latent TB and HBV infection prior to initiating ...
Body surface area affected by psoriasis and the risk for psoriatic arthritis: a prospective population-based cohort study. ... Kaplan-Meier survival estimates of time to T2DM diagnosis for psoriasis cohort stratified according to the Body Surface Area ( ... stratified by categories of directly assessed body surface area (BSA) affected by psoriasis. ... sex and body mass index, the hazard ratios for development of incident diabetes were 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01- ...
Images show general erythema and pruritus covering ,80% of the body surface area. A) Chest, B) back,... ... Images show general erythema and pruritus covering ,80% of the body surface area. A) Chest,... ... Small basophilic bodies are present on the surface of and outside erythrocytes (arrows). Arrowhead... ... Small basophilic bodies are present on the surface of and outside erythrocytes... ...
Percent Change From Baseline in Body Surface Area (BSA) [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 24 ]. The investigator evaluated the ... The PASI is an index that combines assessments of the extent of body-surface involvement in 4 anatomical regions (head, trunk, ... The PASI is an index that combines assessments of the extent of body-surface involvement in 4 anatomical regions (head, trunk, ... The NAPSI scale is used to evaluate the severity of fingernail bed Ps and fingernail matrix Ps by area of involvement. The ...
BSA, body surface area; N, number of patients with valid collections at each time point; ULN, upper limit of normal. aPatients ...
Cardiac index is 2.8 to 4.2 liters per minute per square meter (of body surface area) ... Swan-Ganz catheterization can also be used to detect abnormal blood flow between two areas of the heart that are not normally ... It can also be done in special procedure areas such as a cardiac catheterization laboratory. ... You may feel discomfort when the area of the vein is numbed with anesthetic. ...
The proportion of surface area to body mass is much greater in children than in adults. As temperature in the chamber can ... Crush injuries often result in poor outcome because of the bodys attempt to manage the primary injury. The body then develops ... The body generally uses 5-6 vol% (mL of O2 per 100 mL of blood); [101] under 3 ATA, 6 vol% of molecular oxygen can be dissolved ... Based on the body of evidence, major insurance carriers around the world now endorse the use of HBOT for the treatment of ...
The values were expressed per 1.73 m2 of body surface area according to the Dubois equation ...
  • TBSA burns You can quickly estimate the total body surface area of a burn by using the "rule of nines" in adults.In babies and young children, different percentages are used because the ratio of the combined surface area of the head and neck to the surface area of the limbs is typically larger in children than that of an adult(See table below). (hya.kr)
  • Recommendations: Starting doses: For … Formula: Child's dose = (BSA of child / 1.73 m 2) x Adult dose Where, BSA - Body Surface Area. (hya.kr)
  • In the United States, children ages one through five years eat three to five times more food per kilogram of body weight than the average adult [ 17 ]. (cdc.gov)
  • Agarwal S, Singh M, Sinha P, Pujani M.. Relationship between Body Surface Area and Pulmonary Functions in Patients of Silicosis. (who.int)
  • The present study aimed at studying the association between body surface area (BSA), pulmonary function indices, and 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) in patients with silicosis. (who.int)
  • Body Surface Area (BSA) is very important in pediatric drug dosage calculation. (hya.kr)
  • Pediatric usual dose: In combination with other antiretrovirals: 90 mg per m2 of body surface area every 12 hours. (cdc.gov)
  • Pediatric dosage range: 90 to 150 mg per m2 of body surface area every 12 hours. (cdc.gov)
  • Pediatric dose: 4 mg per kg of body weight twice daily. (cdc.gov)
  • Pediatric dose: 1 mg per kg of body weight every 12 hours (up to weight of 30 kg). (cdc.gov)
  • References and formulas used by the Body Surface Area Calculator. (hya.kr)
  • Boyd developed 2 formulas for calculating the body surface area. (hya.kr)
  • Undergoing PDT on greater than 5% body surface area: face and scalp, face and dorsal surface of arms, face and chest, face and back, or dorsal surface of arms alone, chest alone, or back alone. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, adjusting for BSA is not usually necessary for determining drug dosing except in patients whose body size is very different than average. (nih.gov)
  • Measurement of GFR using cystatin C, measured creatinine clearance (CrCl), or exogenous filtration markers should be considered for people in whom estimates based on serum creatinine alone may be inaccurate, such as patients with very large or small body sizes, or when prescribing drugs with narrow therapeutic indices. (nih.gov)
  • Patients may develop redistribution/accumulation of body fat. (who.int)
  • 11. Chemotherapy toxicity in gynecologic cancer patients with a body surface area (BSA)>2 m2. (nih.gov)
  • RBP: significant correlation between urinary excretion different in and blood Pb (partial r2=0.046, regression either area. (nih.gov)
  • A formula to estimate the approximate surface area if height and weight be known. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • This parameter shows the metabolic mass rather than the body weight for clinical purposes. (hya.kr)
  • b) if the member has lost more than 10 per cent of his or her usual body weight, $242. (ontario.ca)
  • Other examinations performed: clinical signs, body weight, gross findings. (europa.eu)
  • Scientists have long used simple measures (such as height and weight) to estimate how much a person s body uses food (calories) as energy, as commonly called the metabolic rate. (nih.gov)
  • Diagnosed with diseases thought to alter metabolism or body composition (such as weight loss or gain, diabetes, renal disease, obesity, cancer, etc.) or taking medications thought to alter metabolism or body composition. (nih.gov)
  • During ages 18-21 months, infants drink 10 times more water per kilogram of body weight daily than do adults [ 16 ]. (cdc.gov)
  • The presentation of dosage should include a measure of body weight or body surface area. (cmaj.ca)
  • 30 days): 2 mg per kg of body weight twice daily. (cdc.gov)
  • Calculating the total surface body area of burns in rule of nines child calculator aids in finding the severity of burns and providing the favorable treatments. (hya.kr)
  • The BSA or body surface area calculator is used to determine the total body surface area of an individual.It's a method typically used in a medical setting and is often preferred over using bodyweight, for a more accurate estimate of a body's energy needs.This is based on an estimate of metabolic mass (mostly fat-free mass) as abnormal fat mass is not metabolically active. (hya.kr)
  • They have a larger ratio of surface area to body mass. (cdc.gov)
  • Total Body Surface Area. (hya.kr)
  • The body surface area (BSA) is a measurement used in many medical tasks, such as medication doses and includes descriptive statistics. (hya.kr)
  • These and other physiological differences, combined with rapid body development, can make children more vulnerable when exposed to environmental contaminants. (cdc.gov)
  • Albumin: no differences area with lower male: 14.9 µg/dL blood Pb levels. (nih.gov)
  • Chemotherapeutic drugs are commonly dosed according to body surface area, method which requires an extra verification step (BSA calculation) prior to dosing. (hya.kr)
  • Body surface area (BSA) is an important factor when estimating GFR because kidney function is proportional to kidney size, which is proportional to BSA. (nih.gov)
  • However, while adjusting for BSA may help assess if a patient's kidney function is proportional to his or her body size, it may distort the association with drug clearance, as clearance of drugs is only related to GFR and not to body size or BSA. (nih.gov)
  • Large body size may be of value in protection from developing occupational lung disease. (who.int)
  • Which part of the body has a surface area about the same size as a tennis court? (answers.com)
  • Body Size Influences the conc. (slideshare.net)
  • Absorption 1) The process of absorbing or 'picking up' a liquid hazardous material to prevent enlargement of the contaminated area. (nih.gov)
  • To improve this 'Body Surface Area (BSA) Calculator', please fill in questionnaire. (hya.kr)
  • 1. Gottron's papules OR Gottron's sign: erythematous to violaceous papules and small plaques over the extensor surfaces of large or interphalangeal joints. (nih.gov)
  • Body surface area is used to obtain the most accurate medication dosage on a patient based on the square meters of body surface area. (hya.kr)
  • The department serves a ensure that the Incident Commander conveys population of 30,000 in an area of 160 square miles. (cdc.gov)
  • The front and back of the head and neck are 21% of the body's surface area. (hya.kr)
  • 1. Hematological toxicity of carboplatin for gynecological cancer according to body mass index. (nih.gov)
  • The body surface area is the measured or calculated surface area of the human body. (hya.kr)
  • The human lungs have roughly the same surface area as a tennis court if they were to be laid out. (answers.com)
  • Human skin layers serve as a barrier between the body and the environment, by preventing water loss and blocking the entry of chemicals, allergens, and microbes. (mdpi.com)
  • Two weeks after the needlestick injury, the case-patient had pyrexia and whole-body erythema with pruritus ( Figure 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • (5.11) greater than one month of age is based on body surface area and should not exceed 600 mg twice daily with meals. (who.int)
  • Height - … Simplified calculation of body-surface area. (hya.kr)
  • Swan-Ganz catheterization can also be used to detect abnormal blood flow between two areas of the heart that are not normally connected. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 1 Formula to calculate Body surface Area _?2 Sympt. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Male Female Age Under 20 years old 20 years old level 30 years old level 40 years old level 50 years old level 60 years old level or over Occupation Elementary school/ Junior high-school student High-school/ University/ Grad student A homemaker An office worker / A public employee Self-employed people An … Below are the body surface area formula by Dr's Mosteller, DuBois and DuBois, Haycock and Boyd. (hya.kr)
  • But if you want to know the exact … Body surface area (BSA) is the method that is mostly used in medicine and physiology. (hya.kr)
  • They will lie on a padded table for about 15 minutes while their body is scanned. (nih.gov)
  • Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to readers, or important in the respective research area. (mdpi.com)
  • 90 days): 50 mg per m2 of body surface area every 12 hours. (cdc.gov)
  • The patient does not breathe the oxygen, nor is the remainder of the body pressurized. (medscape.com)
  • This natural history study will examine the relationships between metabolism, body composition, and body surface area in a wide range of people. (nih.gov)
  • They will have a test to measure how fast an electric signal moves through their body. (nih.gov)
  • Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the CMAJ web site. (cmaj.ca)
  • The incident to the burn unit of an area hospital. (cdc.gov)
  • textbooks recommend that drug dosages for child- ren be calculated according to body surface area (BSA). (hya.kr)
  • The three fire fighters were lying in the area of a secondary fire (Figure 1). (cdc.gov)
  • To prevent the fire from spreading to fence bordering the area was energized by the brush piles in the adjoining piece of property, the downed power line. (cdc.gov)