Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Body Constitution: The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Dinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.Body Surface Area: The two dimensional measure of the outer layer of the body.Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Body Image: Individuals' concept of their own bodies.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.LizardsClutch Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by an oviparous or ovoviviparous animal.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Iguanas: Large herbivorous tropical American lizards.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Basal Metabolism: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.WingLarva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Smegmamorpha: Group of fish under the superorder Acanthopterygii, separate from the PERCIFORMES, which includes swamp eels, mullets, sticklebacks, seahorses, spiny eels, rainbowfishes, and KILLIFISHES. The name is derived from the six taxa which comprise the group. (From http://www.nanfa.org/articles/Elassoma/elassoma.htm, 8/4/2000)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Carnivora: An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.Beauty: Characteristics or attributes of persons or things which elicit pleasurable feelings.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Strepsirhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of the following five families: CHEIROGALEIDAE; Daubentoniidae; Indriidae; LEMURIDAE; and LORISIDAE.Territoriality: Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.HornsMating Preference, Animal: The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Perciformes: The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Integumentary System: The outer covering of the body composed of the SKIN and the skin appendages, which are the HAIR, the NAILS; and the SEBACEOUS GLANDS and the SWEAT GLANDS and their ducts.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Beak: In some animals, the jaws together with their horny covering. The beak usually refers to the bill of birds in which the whole varies greatly in form according of the food and habits of the bird. While the beak refers most commonly to birds, the anatomical counterpart is found also in the turtle, squid, and octopus. (From Webster, 3d ed & Storer, et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p491, 755)Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Personal Satisfaction: The individual's experience of a sense of fulfillment of a need or want and the quality or state of being satisfied.

Association of the metabolic syndrome with history of myocardial infarction and stroke in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. (1/2357)

BACKGROUND: The combination of cardiovascular risk factors known as the metabolic syndrome is receiving increased attention from physicians, but data on the syndrome's association with morbidity are limited. METHODS AND RESULTS: Applying National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) criteria, we evaluated 10 357 NHANES III subjects for the 5 component conditions of the metabolic syndrome: insulin resistance, abdominal obesity based on waist circumference, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), and hypertension, as well as the full syndrome, defined as at least 3 of the 5 conditions. Logistic regression was used to estimate the cross-sectional association of the syndrome and each of its 5 component conditions separately with history of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and either MI or stroke (MI/stroke). Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, and cigarette smoking. The metabolic syndrome was significantly related in multivariate analysis to MI (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.53 to 2.64), stroke (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.48 to 3.16), and MI/stroke (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.64 to 2.57). The syndrome was significantly associated with MI/stroke in both women and men. Among the component conditions, insulin resistance (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.66), low HDL-C (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.74), hypertension (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.08), and hypertriglyceridemia (OR, 1.66; 95% CI=1.20 to 2.30) were independently and significantly related to MI/stroke. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate a strong, consistent relationship of the metabolic syndrome with prevalent MI and stroke.  (+info)

Genetic dissection of mammalian Cdc7 kinase: cell cycle and developmental roles. (2/2357)

Cdc7, originally discovered by Hartwell as a budding yeast mutant that arrests immediately before the onset of S phase, is conserved through evolution and plays essential roles in initiation of mitotic DNA replication. Inducible inactivation of Cdc7 in mouse embryonic stem cells leads to rapid cessation of DNA synthesis and the subsequent activation of checkpoint responses, resulting in p53 activation and eventually p53-mediated apoptosis. This indicates a requirement of Cdc7 kinase for ongoing replication of mammalian genomes, and loss of Cdc7 kinase presumably generates arrested replication fork signals. Cdc7-/- mice or embryonic fibroblast cells (MEFs) expressing a low level of transgene-encoded Cdc7 protein are viable but exhibit reduced body size with impaired germ cell development and decreased cell proliferation. Interestingly, these phenotypes are largely corrected by the presence of an additional copy of the transgene, resulting in increased level of Cdc7 expression. This indicates the requirement of a critical level of Cdc7 for normal cell proliferation and development of specific organs. These results from mammals will be discussed in conjunction with the pleiotropic effects of Cdc7 mutation observed in yeasts.  (+info)

Effect of body size on breathing pattern and fine-particle deposition in children. (3/2357)

Interchild variability in breathing patterns may contribute to variability in fine particle lung deposition and morbidity in children associated with those particles. Fractional deposition (DF) of fine particles (2-microm monodisperse, carnauba wax particles) was measured in healthy children, age 6-13 yr (n = 36), while they followed a resting breathing pattern previously determined by respiratory inductance plethysmography. Interchild variation in DF, measured by photometry at the mouth, was most strongly predicted by their tidal volume (Vt) (r =0.79, P < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis further showed that, for any given height and age, Vt increased with increasing body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.001). The overweight children (> or =95th percentile BMI) (n = 8) had twice the DF of those in the lowest BMI quartile (<25th percentile) (n = 9; 0.28 +/- 0.13 vs. 0.15 +/- 0.06, respectively; P < 0.02). In the same groups, resting minute ventilation was also significantly higher in the overweight children (8.5 +/- 2.2 vs. 5.9 +/- 1.1 l/min; P < 0.01). Consequently, the rate of deposition (i.e., particles depositing/time) in the overweight children was 2.8 times that of the leanest children (P < 0.02). Among all children, the rate of deposition was significantly correlated with BMI (r = 0.46, P = 0.004). These results suggest that increased weight in children may be associated with increased risk from inhalation of pollutant particles in ambient air.  (+info)

Developmental allometry of pulmonary structure and function in the altricial Australian pelican Pelecanus conspicillatus. (4/2357)

Quantitative methods have been used to correlate maximal oxygen uptake with lung development in Australian pelicans. These birds produce the largest altricial neonates and become some of the largest birds capable of flight. During post-hatching growth to adults, body mass increases by two orders of magnitude (from 88 g to 8.8 kg). Oxygen consumption rates were measured at rest and during exposure to cold and during exercise. Then the lungs were quantitatively assessed using morphometric techniques. Allometric relationships between body mass (M) and gas exchange parameters (Y) were determined and evaluated by examining the exponents of the equation Y=aM(b). This intraspecific study was compared to interspecific studies of adult birds reported in the literature. Total lung volume scales similarly in juvenile pelicans (b=1.05) as in adult birds (b=1.02). However, surface area of the blood-gas barrier greatly increases (b=1.25), and its harmonic mean thickness does not significantly change (b=0.02), in comparison to exponents from adult birds (b=0.86 and 0.07, respectively). As a result, the diffusing capacity of the blood-gas tissue barrier increases much more during development (b=1.23) than it does in adult birds of different sizes (b=0.79). It increases in parallel to maximal oxygen consumption rate (b=1.28), suggesting that the gas exchange system is either limited by lung development or possibly symmorphic. The capacity of the oxygen delivery system is theoretically sufficient for powered flight well in advance of the bird's need to use it.  (+info)

Phenotypic relationships between longevity, type traits, and production in Chianina beef cattle. (5/2357)

Longevity is an increasingly important trait in beef cattle. Increased longevity decreases costs for the farmer and increases revenue. The objective of this research was to investigate the phenotypic relationship between type traits and longevity in Chianina beef cattle, and the relationship between production and longevity, to analyze the effect of voluntary culling. Data included records on reproductive, productive, and type traits provided by the National Association of Italian Beef Cattle Breeders from 6,395 Chianina cows. The average length of productive life was 1,829 d. The herd-year had a strong effect on the risk of culling. The effects of 22 type traits were analyzed. All the muscularity traits analyzed were highly significant (P < 0.01) and as a group had the largest effect on longevity, followed by dimension, refinement, and leg traits. Cows that calved before 35 mo of age had a lower probability of being culled than cows calving after 35 mo of age. Variation in herd size had a strong effect on risk ratio, with lower risk for intermediate classes. Cows with approximately one calf per year remained in the herd longer than did cows with fewer calves. Straight-legged animals had a 59% greater probability of being replaced than cows with a moderate angle to the hock, whereas sickle-legged animals had only a 3% higher probability of being culled than average cows. Udder conformation had no effect on longevity. In summary, results of this study indicate that herd-year effects and muscularity traits were the most important factors for longevity for Chianina cows among the factors studied.  (+info)

A prospective study of body size in different periods of life and risk of premenopausal breast cancer. (6/2357)

The prevalence of obesity at all ages is increasing epidemically worldwide. Information on the association between premenopausal breast cancer and body size during childhood and teenage years is scarce. In 1991 to 1992, a prospective cohort study was assembled in Norway and Sweden. We included in the analysis presented here 99,717 premenopausal women. During the follow-up period, which ended in December 1999, 733 of these women developed a primary invasive breast cancer. Overweight and obesity [body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg/m(2)] at enrollment was associated with a decreased risk of premenopausal breast cancer (P for linear trend = 0.007). Apparent associations between perceived body shape at age 7 and BMI at age 18, with heavier builds at both ages seemingly being protective for premenopausal breast cancer risk, lost their statistical significance after adjustment for BMI at cohort enrollment. Body size at age 7 was correlated with BMI at age 18 (r = 0.43); BMI at age 18 was correlated with adult BMI (r = 0.48). Changes in body size from age 7 or 18 to adulthood did not affect per se risk of premenopausal breast cancer risk. Height was related to risk, with a statistically significantly 30% reduced risk only in women shorter than 160 cm as compared with taller ones. The decreased risk of premenopausal breast cancer was observed in overweight and obese women without, but not in those with, a family history of breast cancer.  (+info)

Microsmatic primates: reconsidering how and when size matters. (7/2357)

The terms "microsmatic" and "macrosmatic" refer to species with lesser or greater levels, respectively, of olfactory function. Historically, primates are considered microsmats (olfactory sense reduced) with a concomitant increased emphasis on vision. The olfactory bulbs (forebrain centers that receive peripheral olfactory input) are proportionately smaller in primates compared to most other mammals. Similarly, the regions of the nasal cavity that are covered with olfactory epithelium (containing receptor cells) have proportionately less surface area in primates than other mammals. Thus, the generalization that primates are microsmatic is most frequently stated in terms of the proportional rather than absolute size of olfactory structures. Yet the importance of scaling to body size is unclear in regard to the chemical senses such as the olfactory or vomeronasal systems-do chemosensory structures such as olfactory bulbs and olfactory epithelium exhibit the same neural relationship to body mass that is seen for neural tissues that supply innervation to musculature or the skin? Previous studies examining neuronal density, volume, and/or surface area of the olfactory epithelium illustrate that different conclusions may be supported based on the parameter used. Plots of olfactory bulb volume versus body mass that generated for large-scale taxonomic studies or growth studies benefit from body mass (or total brain volume) with a comparative perspective. However, our examination of proportional versus absolute measurements implies that in comparisons within taxa, body size adjustments needlessly distort the data. As a final consideration, another embryonic derivative of the nasal placode, the vomeronasal organ, may warrant consideration regarding a definition of microsomia versus macrosomia.  (+info)

The genetic covariance among clinal environments after adaptation to an environmental gradient in Drosophila serrata. (8/2357)

We examined the genetic basis of clinal adaptation by determining the evolutionary response of life-history traits to laboratory natural selection along a gradient of thermal stress in Drosophila serrata. A gradient of heat stress was created by exposing larvae to a heat stress of 36 degrees for 4 hr for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 days of larval development, with the remainder of development taking place at 25 degrees. Replicated lines were exposed to each level of this stress every second generation for 30 generations. At the end of selection, we conducted a complete reciprocal transfer experiment where all populations were raised in all environments, to estimate the realized additive genetic covariance matrix among clinal environments in three life-history traits. Visualization of the genetic covariance functions of the life-history traits revealed that the genetic correlation between environments generally declined as environments became more different and even became negative between the most different environments in some cases. One exception to this general pattern was a life-history trait representing the classic trade-off between development time and body size, which responded to selection in a similar genetic fashion across all environments. Adaptation to clinal environments may involve a number of distinct genetic effects along the length of the cline, the complexity of which may not be fully revealed by focusing primarily on populations at the ends of the cline.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of temperature on development, survival, and adult body size of two green lacewings, Mallada desjardinsi and Chrysoperla nipponensis (Neuroptera. T2 - Chrysopidae). AU - Nakahira, Kengo. AU - Nakahara, Ryoichi. AU - Arakawa, Ryo. PY - 2005/12/1. Y1 - 2005/12/1. N2 - To search for a useful biological control agent and to determine the optimal rearing conditions for the green lacewings Mallada desjardinsi and Chrysoperla nipponensis, thermal effects on development, survival, and adult body size were examined at seven constant temperatures (15.0, 17.5, 20.0, 22.5, 25.0, 27.5, and 30.0°C) with a photoperiod regime of 16L : 8D (h). The developmental zero of M. desjardinsi larvae was higher than that of C. nipponensis larvae. The developmental zeros of C. cornea and C. nipponensis in earlier reports were similar to that of C. nipponensis in the present study. On the other hand, that of M. desjardinsi in earlier studies was somewhat higher than that of M. desjardinsi in the ...
Body size is one of the most important characteristics of an organism, impacting a great variety of ecological characteristics. The influence of diet on body size has received considerable attention, with previous studies suggesting a greater tendency towards increased body size in herbivores than macro-carnivores. The earliest known herbivorous and macro-carnivorous synapsids provide an ideal case study for examining body size evolution in different dietary regimes. Sphenacomorpha contains two lineages: Edaphosauridae (some of the most abundant terrestrial herbivores in the late Carboniferous and early Permian), and Sphenacodontia (the largest and most abundant carnivores of that time). Phylogenetic comparative analyses are used to compare trait evolution in sphenacomorphs, including a Bayesian method for identifying branches along which phenotypic selection occurred. Two branches show rapid increases in body size in the late Carboniferous. The first occurred in Edaphosauridae, along the branch ...
Body size is a fundamentally important trait for fitness in many animal species because it correlates positively with survival and reproductive success. In many fish species, large females exhibit higher fecundity and produce higher quality offspring compared to small females. Similarly, male body size can affect offspring quality and early life-history traits but the importance of these effects to the reproductive biology of fish is poorly studied. The extent to which variation in reproductive success is explained by parental body size is an important research topic because size-selective fishing usually reduces the average size of reproducing adults in a population. In my dissertation, I studied the parental size effects on reproductive success in a model species (zebrafish, Danio rerio). I also studied the effects of size-selective harvesting on body size, maturation and reproductive output. Body size and condition factor were important determinants of the initiation of maturation in ...
Obesity and diabetes mellitus are well-defined risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. The impact of antecedent hyperglycemia and body size on mortality in critical ill patients in intensive care units (ICUs) may vary across their range of values. Therefore, we prospectively analyzed the relationship between in-hospital mortality and preexisting hyperglycemia and body size in critically ill ICU patients to understand how mortality varied among normal, overweight, and obese patients and those with low, intermediate, and high glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Medical history, weight, height, physiologic variables, and HbA1c were obtained during the first 24 h for patients who were consecutively admitted to the high complexity ICU of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil, from April to August 2011. The relationships between mortality and obesity and antecedent hyperglycemia were prospectively analyzed by cubic spline analysis and a Cox proportional hazards model. The study comprised 199
Obesity and diabetes mellitus are well-defined risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. The impact of antecedent hyperglycemia and body size on mortality in critical ill patients in intensive care units (ICUs) may vary across their range of values. Therefore, we prospectively analyzed the relationship between in-hospital mortality and preexisting hyperglycemia and body size in critically ill ICU patients to understand how mortality varied among normal, overweight, and obese patients and those with low, intermediate, and high glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Medical history, weight, height, physiologic variables, and HbA1c were obtained during the first 24 h for patients who were consecutively admitted to the high complexity ICU of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil, from April to August 2011. The relationships between mortality and obesity and antecedent hyperglycemia were prospectively analyzed by cubic spline analysis and a Cox proportional hazards model. The study comprised 199
View Notes - Exam 3[1] from ESSE 313 at Old Dominion. Name_Chelsea Valentine_ SPED (ESSE) 313 Date_3/18/10_ EXAM 3 1. True or False: Growth norms and trends in body size are consistent across
The origin of birds (Aves) is one of the great evolutionary transitions. Fossils show that many unique morphological features of modern birds, such as feathers, reduction in body size, and the semilunate carpal, long preceded the origin of clade Aves, but some may be unique to Aves, such as relative elongation of the forelimb. We study the evolution of body size and forelimb length across the phylogeny of coelurosaurian theropods and Mesozoic Aves. Using recently developed phylogenetic comparative methods, we find an increase in rates of body size and body size dependent forelimb evolution leading to small body size relative to forelimb length in Paraves, the wider clade comprising Aves and Deinonychosauria. The high evolutionary rates arose primarily from a reduction in body size, as there were no increased rates of forelimb evolution. In line with a recent study, we find evidence that Aves appear to have a unique relationship between body size and forelimb dimensions. Traits associated with ...
Understanding how quickly pathogens replicate and how quickly the immune system responds is important for predicting the epidemic spread of emerging pathogens. Host body size, through its correlation with metabolic rates, is theoretically predicted to impact pathogen replication rates and immune system response rates. Here, we use mathematical models of viral time courses from multiple species of birds infected by a generalist pathogen (West Nile Virus; WNV) to test more thoroughly how disease progression and immune response depend on mass and host phylogeny. We use hierarchical Bayesian models coupled with nonlinear dynamical models of disease dynamics to incorporate the hierarchical nature of host phylogeny. Our analysis suggests an important role for both host phylogeny and species mass in determining factors important for viral spread such as the basic reproductive number, WNV production rate, peak viraemia in blood and competency of a host to infect mosquitoes. Our model is based on a ...
The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) is an extension of Kleibers law and posits that the metabolic rate of organisms is the fundamental biological rate that governs most observed patterns in ecology. MTE is part of a larger set of theory known as metabolic scaling theory that attempts to provide a unified theory for the importance of metabolism in driving pattern and process in biology from the level of cells all the way to the biosphere. MTE is based on an interpretation of the relationships between body size, body temperature, and metabolic rate across all organisms. Small-bodied organisms tend to have higher mass-specific metabolic rates than larger-bodied organisms. Furthermore, organisms that operate at warm temperatures through endothermy or by living in warm environments tend towards higher metabolic rates than organisms that operate at colder temperatures. This pattern is consistent from the unicellular level up to the level of the largest animals and plants on the planet. In MTE, this ...
View Notes - Cell Quiz 2 from BIOLOGY 1305 at Baylor. David Hopkins Section 2 Quiz 2 1. The maximum size of a cell is limited by a. its need for enough surface area for exchange with its
It can be given a piece of text that is used as the initial value.. A TextField has a maximum size, which is the maximum number of characters that can be stored in the object at any time (its capacity). This limit is enforced when the TextField instance is constructed, when the user is editing text within the TextField, as well as when the application program calls methods on the TextField that modify its contents. The maximum size is the maximum stored capacity and is unrelated to the number of characters that may be displayed at any given time. The number of characters displayed and their arrangement into rows and columns are determined by the device. The implementation may place a boundary on the maximum size, and the maximum size actually assigned may be smaller than the application had requested. The value actually assigned will be reflected in the value returned by ...
This paper is devoted to the study of a spatially and size-structured population dynamics model with delayed birth process. Our focus is on the asymptotic behavior of the system, in particular on the effect of the spatial location and the time lag on the long-term dynamics. To this end, within a semigroup framework, we derive the locally asymptotic stability and asynchrony results respectively for the considered population system under some conditions. For our discussion, we use the approaches concerning operator matrices, Hille-Yosida operators, spectral analysis as well as Perron-Frobenius theory. We also do two numerical simulations to illustrate the obtained stability and asynchrony results.
Health, ...FRIDAY May 27 (HealthDay News) -- Your size may influence how you per...People were tricked into believing they were either the size of Barbie...The study published online May 25 in PLoS ONE found that when...This skewed perception of space was evaluated by having participants e...,,Body,Size,May,Influence,How,People,View,,the,World,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
A major constraint on the evolution of large body sizes in animals is an increased risk of developing cancer. There is no correlation, however, between body size and cancer risk. This lack of correlation is often referred to as Petos Paradox. Here, we show that the elephant genome encodes 20 copi …
Amongst complex life forms, there are two basic reproductive strategies: r-strategy, characterized by rapid development, early reproduction, small body size, and shorter lifespans, and K-strategy, characterized by slow development, delayed reproduction, large body size, and longer lifespans. Humans are obviously a K-strategy species, which means that reproductive success involves a much higher investment of the parents lifespan and resources than the r-strategy alternative. Consequently, in times of extreme scarcity, it is advantageous to forego pregnancy lest the baby dies of starvation after nine months in utero, thus wasting a significant portion of a womans fertile lifespan and perhaps leading to her demise. If humans were entirely rational the ovulation cycle wouldnt need to interrupted by an autonomic mechanism regulating estrogen levels to body fat, a proxy for prosperity. Bad news, honey, the mammoth population has crashed. Well be sleeping in separate caves for the foreseeable. ...
How to cite: Lin, K. Y., Sastri, A. R., Gong, G. C., and Hsieh, C. H.: Corrigendum to "Copepod community growth rates in relation to body size, temperature, and food availability in the East China Sea: a test of metabolic theory of ecology" published in Biogeoscience, 10, 1877-1892, 2013, Biogeosciences, 10, 2657-2657, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-10-2657-2013, 2013 ...
This isnt exactly my area, but if I got it right, high termal inertia is often inversely proportional to the metabolic rate (of a warm blooded animal). Graphs that display that metabolic rates rise when temperature rises is a bit another thing. Thermal inertia, afaik, is a simple physical trait that tells how much thermal energy and in what time a mass of some material can store/release (or so). This means a big mass of stuff (like an ostrich) has high termal inertia. However, high body size causes the metabolic heat to accumulate more efficiently (since a large body has a low surface area to volume ratio), and thus large animals would overheat if they had high metabolic rates. I think there is even a theoretical maximum size that an organism can become before overheating becomes a problem. Some paleontologists claim largest dinosaurs were close to this kind of maximum size for terrestial animals ...
Brain size relative to body size has been used by generations of scientists to predict an animals intelligence. For example, although the human brain is not the largest in the animal kingdom in terms of volume or mass, it is exceptionally large considering our moderate body mass.. Now, a study by a team of scientists at UCL, the University of Konstanz, and the Max Planck Institute of Ornithology has found that the relationship between the two traits is driven by different evolutionary mechanisms in different animals.. Crucially, researchers have found that the most significant factor in determining relative brain size is often evolutionary pressure on body size, and not brain size. For example, the evolutionary history of bats reveals they decreased body size much faster than brain size, leading to an increase in relative brain size. As a result, small bats were able to evolve improved flying manoeuvrability while maintaining the brainpower to handle foraging in cluttered environments.. This ...
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Hypothermia and anemia: The small size of the infant and the large area of skin exposure required for the surgery places these children at risk for hypothermia during surgery. The room temperature and the infants body temperature must be maintained accordingly. Similarly, the small body size and blood volume put the child at risk for anemia unless meticulous hemostasis is accomplished. ...
The effect of the organisms body size and energy reserves in models for population dynamicss profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
Yes, size does matter, at least when it comes to Canadas collective cup collecting contest, and we have a lot of cups to prove it. Many have asked whether theres a conspiracy with the prize distribu...
Generation III External Engine - Throttle body size - so, the 2002s T/A s had the LS6 intakes. ive read somewhere (tho i cant find it anymore)
This theory - the Metabolic Theory of Ecology - therefore relates to many areas of great public concern including food production, conservation of populations, and global warming. However, substantial deviations from the predictions of this theory have prompted me to explore ways of improving the theory. Using data on diverse organisms ranging from microbes to mammals and also from our heated experimental ponds, I aim to test assumptions and predictions of alternative metabolic theories of ecology, including investigating: ...
The point of these drills is to develop the overall body feel that characterizes looseness. If you focus on pummeling your target or your partner, youll miss the whole point.
The point of these drills is to develop the overall body feel that characterizes looseness. If you focus on pummeling your target or your partner, youll miss the whole point.
In recent years, the centres of many towns and cities have been reshaped by urban design projects, but little attention has been paid to how these transformations are experienced everyday by users of the city. In other words: how do the users of urban centers, such as shoppers, cleaners, or workers, perceive these changes, as embodied subjects in specific material environments? This paper analyses how bodies in two intensely designed urban spaces - the shopping centre of Milton Keynes, a 1960s new town, and Bedfords recently redeveloped historic town centre - are affected by elements of the built environment. Affected is a term borrowed from Latour (2004), and the paper works with, and elaborates, some of his and others work on how bodies are effectuated by other entities. Such Latourian work pays a great deal of attention to how bodies are affected by both human and non-human entities of many kinds, and we examine how certain aspects of the built environment in these two towns affects ...
Life Cycle: Chromidina spp. have a polymorphic dixenous life cycle, with two different budding processes which are monotomy and palintomy. The adult stage, the vermiform tropho-tomont, has a maximum body length varying from 400 µm to 2,000 µm. Some rare adult stages can have an accelerated growth process. Their size increases so quickly that their length can measure up to 5,000 µm. Given their unusual extended size, these adult stages are called hypertrophonts. The tropho-tomont is uniformly ciliated and has no cytostome. It is attached through its anterior end to the host kidney tissues with its body bathing in the renal fluids, and feeds by nutriment absorption from host cells and fluids. Division by monotomy produces a single long bud from the posterior end, the apotomite, which is morphologically similar to its parent and develops into a second generation of trophotomonts after detachment and colonisation of the host kidney. Division by palintomy produces smaller buds that form a typical ...
The term of muscle car can be described as a car with large body size and oversized engine.One good example is the Chevrolet Chevelle SS,the body size is huge compared to average sportscars.Most known muscle cars are American cars.All muscle cars are rear wheel drive and most of them are coupes and convertibles,rather than four door. ...
The term of muscle car can be described as a car with large body size and oversized engine.One good example is the Chevrolet Chevelle SS,the body size is huge compared to average sportscars.Most known muscle cars are American cars.All muscle cars are rear wheel drive and most of them are coupes and convertibles,rather than four door. ...
The values between asterisks are what to target when using a Nanite Carnal Equalizer to adjust a specific body part. Examples: shift breasts=margay or shift cock length=lion beast. The Missing column lists any mutation locations that dont exist for that creature, reducing the number of mutations required to acquire the Total badge, and carrying forward any previous mutations when Shifted to by a Nanite Adept. For instance, If a NA shifts to Cat Girl, then to Zombie, she will still have the cat tail in her description. ,,, and Rubber Balls each only have a single mutation location, thus they are listed as missing "all but..." NEUT means that the mutation does not carry any inherent sexual characteristics. This means that you will maintain the organs and sizes you had previously, allowing for Cat Bois, Otter girls, and so on. Currently, this also means that any child with this mutation on their groin will be born Neuter. A note on body size/mass: the numbers are, like the rest of the organ ...
Dorsal spines (total): 3 - 4; Dorsal soft rays (total): 9-10; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 6. Body deep., maximum body depth 30.2-38.1% in SL. Dorsal profile only slightly more arched than the ventral one. Blunt snout, its length slightly greater than the eye diameter. Only the posterior barbels are present. The last unbranched ray of the dorsal fin is spinified on its inferior fourth or fifth of its length and very finely serrated on its posterior margin (Ref. 57642). ...
Objects can have rough or smooth textures and matte or shiny surfaces. The element of art that describes the darkness or lightness of an object. Value depends on how much light a surface reflects. Value is also one of the three properties of color. The element of art that refers to the emptiness or area between, around, above, or within objects. Shapes and forms are defined by space around and within them. Principle of Art that makes on part of a work dominant over the other parts. The element that is noticed first is called dominant; the elements noticed later are called subordinate. The principle of art used to create the look and feeling of action and to guide the viewers eyes throughout the work of art. The principle of art that creates unity by stressing the similarities of separate but related parts Principle of art concerned with difference or contrast Principle of art concerned with with the size relationships of one part to another. Principle of art concerned with equalizing visual ...
12 P P PP P Glu PresynapticTermi nal Glu Ca ++ GLUR (Group- I ) iGLUR GLUR (Group- II,III ) GPCR ATP cAMP CamK- II CamK- IV CamK- II Calm PKC DAG IP3RIP3R PKC c-Raf MEKs Akt ERK1/2 p90RSK S133 CBP p300 Co-factor RNA Pol- II Gene Expression Gene Expression PKA GsGs GG GG GG GG GG GG GG GG GG Growth Factors Growth Factors Growth Factor Receptor Growth Factor Receptor TF II B CREB Pathway Neuron PLC TATA CRE SRE P Elk1 CREBCREB CREBCREB TBP Hormones/ Neurotransmitters IP3 PI3K GRB2 SOS Ac PI CaCn Ras 2009 ProteinLounge.com 2009 ProteinLounge.com C The molecular brain! ...
One of my favorite papers from last year was the analysis by Adamowicz et al (PNAS) of an apparent trend towards increasing complexity within the Crustacea. Evolutionary biologists have long been fascinated by trends, and many have at least some familiarity with Copes Rule, the proposed trend towards increasing body size within lineages. Adamowicz and colleagues looked at complexity within multiple lineages of crustaceans, from the Cambrian to the present. They found that many indices of complexity, including number and disparity of limb types as well as disparity of limb form, generally showed parallel increases in complexity through time.. The very issue of whether complexity is a trend has been controversial (e.g., McShea 1996). Moreover, some might complain that this smacks too much of orthogenesis or progressionism for their tastes. And what do we mean by complexity, anyway? These issues have been and will continue to be debated in the literature. But one of the neatest things about the ...
A prognostic model developed using a machine learning approach may be able to identify African American patients with breast cancer who have an increased risk of death, according to results of a study presented by Bhattarai et al at the 11th AACR Conference on The Science of Cancer Health.... ...
At the heart of our analysis is a theorem that shows that matrices that preserve the Euclidean norm of sparse vectors (a.k.a. RIP matrices), when multiplied by a random sign pattern preserve the Euclidean norm of any set. Roughly stated, linear transforms that provide low distortion embedding of sparse vectors also allow low distortion embedding of any set! We believe that our result provides a rigorous justification for replacing "slow" Gaussian matrices with "fast" and computationally friendly matrices in many scientific and engineering disciplines. Indeed, in a companion paper [18] we utilize our results in this paper to develop sharp rates of convergence for various optimization problems involving such matrices. ...
In addition to their low cost, strong seals, and tamper-evidence, a tamper-evident shrink band can provide a quality packaging seal without interfering with a professional product appearance. To ensure proper fit, measure the widest diameter, including any flanges or curves, of the cap and container. The minimum and maximum sizes listed are the approximate bottle/cap diameter dimensions that the shrink bands lay flat dimensions will fit. Choose between 1 (25mm) or 2 (52mm) band heights, taking into consideration some of the height will lip over the top of the cap.
The result is displayed by a network graph and a table. Nodes in the network show categories of KEGG or GO, and node color of enriched category varies yellow to red (p-value , 0.05, yellow shows high and red shows low). The blue node shows root category of network. Each node size reflects the number of selected proteins in the differential expression analysis. However, the size of white node and root node is limited up to the maximum size of enriched nodes colored from yellow to red to make network layout clearer ...
The result is displayed by a network graph and a table. Nodes in the network show categories of KEGG or GO, and node color of enriched category varies yellow to red (p-value , 0.05, yellow shows high and red shows low). The blue node shows root category of network. Each node size reflects the number of selected proteins in the differential expression analysis. However, the size of white node and root node is limited up to the maximum size of enriched nodes colored from yellow to red to make network layout clearer ...
An independent set in a graph G is a set of pairwise nonadjacent vertices, and the maximum size, alpha(G), of an independent set in G is called the independence number. Given a graph G and weight matrix A of G with entries ...
Gastrofibroscopy showed a type 0-IIa+IIc lesion with a maximum size of 20 mm in the posterior side of the lower third of the stomach.
Fig. 1. Map of the study region, showing location of the stream and road transects. Stream transects are marked by thickened grey stream and numbered in grey as: (1) upstream Streets Creek, (2) downstream Streets Creek, (3) upper Avondale Creek, (4) lower Avondale Creek upstream, (5) lower Avondale Creek downstream. Road transects are marked as open sections of road and numbered in black as: (1) upstream Streets Creek, (2) downstream Streets Creek, (3) upper Avondale Creek, (4) lower Avondale Creek. ...
Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energys Argonne National Laboratory have cast new light on why the giant insects that lived millions of years ago disappeared.
Animal, Animals, Body Size, Body Sizes, Environment, Islands, Resource, Temperature, Cardiomyocytes, Cardiomyopathy, Dilated Cardiomyopathy, Disease, Growth, Heart, Hearts, Human, Id, Left Ventricle, Membrane, Mouse
A recent survey of IT students in the UK and Ireland has shown that, to them, the most attractive employer is Microsoft, with Sun Microsystems and IBM following closely.
PolycreteUSA President Bruce Anderson introduced the largest pre-assembled insulated concrete form (ICF) available in the US or International markets. Extended width ICFs are particularly useful for insulated...
Issue 6.1 is now online! Our first issue of 2015 is now online! This month we include one freely available Applications article: - A biochemical approach for identifying plastics exposure in live wildlife We also have two wonderful Open Access papers, Evaluation and management implications of uncertainty in a multispecies size-structured model of population and…
Hello, I have been experiencing itch throughout my body past 2 nights. The funny thing is it starts from the back shoulders, at night and is intense. I get all worked up itching and then after having ...
Lee A. Becker Effect Size (ES) 2000 Lee A. Becker I. Overview II. Effect Size Measures for Two Independent Groups 1. Standardized difference between two groups.
The Power Aero Big Pit reel which will come in a dark-ish and silver-ish version is an eye-catching reel for the fanatic carp- and surf angler. Stocked with technological features like strong HAGANE Gear and HAGANE Body, X-Ship, one-piece bail, and the new X-Protect this reel is designed to last for many years like a true workhorse. The reel has a relatively small body which gives the reel a compact feel. The Parallel Body feature is added to increase casting distance and accuracy by eliminating line slap during the cast. The Parallel Body in combination with the superb line-lay of the Super Slow 5 system will make sure that you can always cast your baits right there where you want them. The new Hi-Speed drag - which is even faster than Instant Drag - enables you to switch instantly from freespool mode to fight mode by only a very small turn of the drag knob.
Body size, weight gain, age, gender and hormones can affect metabolism, according to WebMD. People can control some of these factors and increase metabolism. Metabolism refers to how quickly the...
44. Material: 97% Cotton, 3% elasticine.. Size and Washing Information: Click Here. To Purchase: Please choose a size and add to cart, if your size does not show it is out of stock ...
Ive had them for close to 8 months. My other 5 are a healthy adult size except for this one. I try to only feed the minimum one time a day for 6 days a...
Features: \-Semi-Fitted-26 body length on size M-Natural temperature regulation-Moisture wicking-Natural UPF 50+ Protection-Cap Sleeves-Raw edge finish at neck and hem
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01995 (0.00906 - 0.04395), b=3.01 (2.83 - 3.19), in cm Total Length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245 ...
Effects of Target Plant Species Body Size on Neighbourhood Species Richness and Composition in Old-Field Vegetation. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Myopia development is characterised by an increased axial eye length. Therefore, identifying factors that influence eye size may provide new insights into the aetiology of myopia. In humans, axial length is positively correlated to height and weight, and in mice, eye weight is positively correlated with body weight. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between eye size and body size in chickens from a genetic cross in which alleles with major effects on eye and body size were segregating. Chickens from a cross between a layer line (small body size and eye size) and a broiler line (large body and eye size) were interbred for 10 generations so that alleles for eye and body size would have the chance to segregate independently. At 3 weeks of age, 510 chicks were assessed using in vivo high resolution A-scan ultrasonography and keratometry. Equatorial eye diameter and eye weight were measured after enucleation. The variations in eye size parameters that could be explained by ...
Drosophila melanogaster shows geographic clines in body size, with genetically larger flies being found further from the equator and at higher altitudes. In the laboratory, evolution at lower temperatures results in genetically larger flies, and development at low temperature increases adult body size. This study demonstrates that when newly hatched larvae from laboratory temperature selection lines were raised on fixed amounts of food (yeast) at the same temperature, larvae from the lines with the cold evolutionary history required less food to produce a given size of adult. Larvae from both high- and low-temperature selection lines required more food, however, to make a given size of adult when grown in the cold than when grown in the hot. The opposite associations between growth efficiency and adult body size seen with evolution or development at low temperature are puzzling, and suggest that different mechanisms may underlie the size changes. Since environmental and evolutionary effects of ...
Fosters rule (also known as the "island rule") is a hypothesis that mammals change their size on islands depending on resources available in their environment.. In 1964, a biologist named J. Bristol Foster documented the tendency for mammal populations on islands to have body sizes that are different from their mainland counterparts. Specifically, large mammals seem to shrink ("dwarfism"), while small mammals appear to enlarge ("gigantism"). This initial observation led to the formulation of the island rule hypothesis, which states that, on an isolated, insular environment where large predators are limited or absent, small mammals would become bigger to exploit a wider range of resources, move greater distances, enhance metabolic efficiency, and better fend off competitors. On the other hand, large mammals would reduce in size to decrease resource intake, increase reproductive rate, and better cope with stressful conditions.. While scientists today agree on some general conclusions of the ...
Similar to earlier reports in non-Hispanic white women, we found that early-life body size influences risk of premenopausal breast cancer in Hispanic women. There was a more consistent pattern of inverse associations for relative weight than for body build. U.S.-born controls were more likely than foreign-born controls to report large childhood and adolescent body size, and particularly strong inverse associations with relative weight were found in U.S.-born women and women with a current BMI ≥25 kg/m2. We found no associations with childhood or adolescent body size in postmenopausal women, except for some suggestive inverse associations in U.S.-born women not currently using HT.. Consistent with our findings, the only other study that reported on adolescent body size and breast cancer risk in Hispanic women also found a suggestive inverse association with high BMI (≥22.5 vs. , 18.2) at age 15 years (OR = 0.65, 95% 0.39-1.08, Ptrend = 0.09; ref. 20). Our findings for premenopausal breast ...
In order to determine treeshrew body size from populations on the Malay Peninsula and 13 offshore islands, the researchers measured 260 specimens collected over the past 122 years and housed in six natural history museums in Europe and North America. They tested multiple variables, analyzing how island size, distance from the mainland, maximum sea depth between the mainland and the islands, and latitude relate to body size in the treeshrew populations. They found that the island rule and Bergmanns rule, which are rarely tested together, do not apply to common treeshrews. ...
The size and trophic structure of fluvial fish communities are driven by energy availability, competition, energy loss through trophic transfers, predation, and predator gape limitations. Size and trophic analyses can provide important information about overall food web structure and function of fish communities. Fish community assemblages were sampled in three tributaries of the Saginaw Bay watershed, Lake Huron in 2011 and 2012. We used a combination of community size-spectra (CSS, log abundance x log body-size regression), stable isotope, and trophic guild analyses to test the hypotheses that fluvial fish communities will be (a) strongly size-structured and (b) that variation in trophic guild composition will influence the community size-structure. Preliminary analyses indicate that the fish communities are strongly size-structured (mean CSS slope = -2.24), and there is a negative correlation between piscivores and Cyprinids (r = -0.64) and piscivores and large bodied low trophic position ...
Darwinian fitness in holometabolous insects like the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is reported to be positively correlated with body size. If large individuals in a population have higher fitness, then one would expect directional selection to operate leading to uniformly large individuals. However, size polymorphism persists in nature and needs further probing. We assessed the effect of body size on some of the fitness and fitness-related traits in replicate populations of genotypically large, genotypically small and phenotypically small D. melanogaster flies. In this study, the time taken to attain reproductive maturity and copulation duration were independent of fly size. Fecundity and longevity of large females were significantly higher when they partnered genotypically small males than when they were with genotypically larger or phenotypically small males. The increased female longevity when in association with genotypically small males was not due to selective early death of males that ...
Understanding the patterns of genetic variation of traits subject to sexual selection is fundamental for explaining its evolutionary dynamics and potential for sexual coevolution. The signa of female Lepidoptera are sclerotized structures located on the inner surface of the genital receptacle that receives the spermatophore during copulation (the corpus bursae), whose main function is tearing the spermatophore envelope. Comparative data indicate that the evolution of signa has been influenced by sexually antagonistic coevolution with spermatophore envelopes. We looked for additive genetic variation in the size and shape of signa in females of the butterfly Callophrys xami (Lycaenidae) from two localities (BG and FC) in Mexico City. We also looked for genetic variation in female body size and in the size of corpus bursae. There were significant between-population differences in female body size, signa width and three signa shape traits. We found significant extranuclear maternal effects in one component
Rapporteur: Grant McIntyre. Copes Rule states that body size increases during the evolutionary history of a lineage. This may be true from certain perspectives but is no longer generally accepted. The lecture examined several studies on the evolution of body size that shed light on the prevalence of exceptions to Copes Rule and concluded with a discussion of reasons for the apparent support for the rule.. The focal paper (Pianka 1995) used Felsensteins method of independent contrasts to evaluate the evolution of body size of varanid (monitor) lizards. This method requires a phylogeny which was developed in this case using immunological distances determine by microcomplement fixation. The phylogeny matched species distributions fairly well but was not rooted since no available outgroup cross-reacted immunologically with the ingroup. Within varanids there are examples of the evolution of both larger and smaller size. The main problem with the paper was that lack of an outgroup precluded ...
The evolution of body size has been the focus of countless studies, not only in palaeontology but also in evolutionary biology using data from extant animals (or neontology as palaeontologists would say). While some colleagues have argued recently that body size is not necessarily a good trait to study, nonetheless, it still stands that body size is an important factor of fundamental biological phenomena, including metabolism, physiology, biomechanics, and ecology. For instance, the largest source of variance in biomechanical performance measures like bite force is body size - a lions bite force is an order or two higher in magnitude than that of a domestic cat just purely out of simple scaling. Similarly, prey size categories, such as large, medium/mixed and small, are highly affected by predator body size - obviously a tabby cannot kill an ox while a lion or a tiger can. Thus, body size is not only an important biological trait, but necessarily a fundamental physical trait ...
The evolution of body size has been the focus of countless studies, not only in palaeontology but also in evolutionary biology using data from extant animals (or neontology as palaeontologists would say). While some colleagues have argued recently that body size is not necessarily a good trait to study, nonetheless, it still stands that body size is an important factor of fundamental biological phenomena, including metabolism, physiology, biomechanics, and ecology. For instance, the largest source of variance in biomechanical performance measures like bite force is body size - a lions bite force is an order or two higher in magnitude than that of a domestic cat just purely out of simple scaling. Similarly, prey size categories, such as large, medium/mixed and small, are highly affected by predator body size - obviously a tabby cannot kill an ox while a lion or a tiger can. Thus, body size is not only an important biological trait, but necessarily a fundamental physical trait ...
Encephalization quotient (EQ) or encephalization level is a relative brain size measure that is defined as the ratio between actual brain mass and predicted brain mass for an animal of a given size, which may approximate intelligence level or cognition of the species. This is a more refined measurement than the raw brain-to-body mass ratio, as it takes into account allometric effects. The relationship, expressed as a formula, has been developed for mammals, and may not yield relevant results when applied outside this group. Additionally to volume, mass or cell count, the energy expenditure of the brain could be compared with that of the rest of the body. Brain size usually increases with body size in animals (is positively correlated), i.e. large animals usually have larger brains than smaller animals. The relationship is not linear, however. Generally, small mammals have relatively larger brains than big ones. Mice have a direct brain/body size ratio similar to humans (1/40), while elephants ...
The importance of non-genetic parental effects on offspring attributes depended on the specific life-history trait examined. The effect of parental body condition on juvenile size lasted for more than 29 days post-hatching regardless of juvenile diet. By contrast, parental effects influenced the survival of juveniles in the low-food treatment, but had no effect in the high-food treatment. This demonstrates that the importance of parental history on the fitness of offspring can be highly dependent on the environmental conditions that juveniles experience and is likely to be most important when offspring encounter unfavourable or stressful conditions.. We found that the differences in size at hatching were maintained for over four weeks, which has potentially important implications for offspring fitness. Many reef fishes suffer exceptionally high mortality rates during early life (Almany & Webster 2006), which can be selective for size (McCormick & Meekan 2007) or body condition (Hoey & McCormick ...
Butler, R. J. and Goswami, A. (2008) Body size evolution in Mesozoic birds: little evidence for Copes rule. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 21 (6). pp. 1673-1682. DOI 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2008.01594.x Sanchez-Villagra, M. R. and Goswami, A. and Weisbecker, V. and Mock, O. and Kuratani, S. (2008) Conserved relative timing of cranial ossification patterns in early mammalian evolution. Evolution & Development, 10 (5). pp. 519-530. DOI 10.1111/j.1525-142X.2008.00267.x Goswami, A. and Weisbecker, V. and Sanchez-Villagra, MR (2008) Developmental Modularity and the Marsupial-Placental Dichotomy. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology. Weisbecker, V. and Goswami, A. and Wroe, S. and Sanchez-Villagra, M. R. (2008) Ossification heterochrony in the therian postcranial skeleton and the marsupial-placental. Evolution, 62 (8). pp. 2027-2041. DOI 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2008.00424.x ...
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The carnivorous Tyrannosauridae are among the most iconic dinosaurs: typified by large body size, tiny forelimbs, and massive robust skulls with laterally thickened teeth. The recently described small-bodied tyrannosaurid Raptorex kreigsteini is exceptional as its discovery proposes that many of the distinctive anatomical traits of derived tyrannosaurids were acquired in the Early Cretaceous, before the evolution of large body size. This inference depends on two core interpretations: that the holotype (LH PV18) derives from the Lower Cretaceous of China, and that despite its small size, it is a subadult or young adult. Here we show that the published data is equivocal regarding stratigraphic position and that ontogenetic reanalysis shows there is no reason to conclude that LH PV18 has reached this level of maturity. The probable juvenile status of LH PV18 makes its use as a holotype unreliable, since diagnostic features of Raptorex may be symptomatic of its immature status, rather than its ...
The carnivorous Tyrannosauridae are among the most iconic dinosaurs: typified by large body size, tiny forelimbs, and massive robust skulls with laterally thickened teeth. The recently described small-bodied tyrannosaurid Raptorex kreigsteini is exceptional as its discovery proposes that many of the distinctive anatomical traits of derived tyrannosaurids were acquired in the Early Cretaceous, before the evolution of large body size. This inference depends on two core interpretations: that the holotype (LH PV18) derives from the Lower Cretaceous of China, and that despite its small size, it is a subadult or young adult. Here we show that the published data is equivocal regarding stratigraphic position and that ontogenetic reanalysis shows there is no reason to conclude that LH PV18 has reached this level of maturity. The probable juvenile status of LH PV18 makes its use as a holotype unreliable, since diagnostic features of Raptorex may be symptomatic of its immature status, rather than its ...
The carnivorous Tyrannosauridae are among the most iconic dinosaurs: typified by large body size, tiny forelimbs, and massive robust skulls with laterally thickened teeth. The recently described small-bodied tyrannosaurid Raptorex kreigsteini is exceptional as its discovery proposes that many of the distinctive anatomical traits of derived tyrannosaurids were acquired in the Early Cretaceous, before the evolution of large body size. This inference depends on two core interpretations: that the holotype (LH PV18) derives from the Lower Cretaceous of China, and that despite its small size, it is a subadult or young adult. Here we show that the published data is equivocal regarding stratigraphic position and that ontogenetic reanalysis shows there is no reason to conclude that LH PV18 has reached this level of maturity. The probable juvenile status of LH PV18 makes its use as a holotype unreliable, since diagnostic features of Raptorex may be symptomatic of its immature status, rather than its ...
In a wider sense, an improper rotation may be defined as any indirect isometry; i.e., an element of E(3)\E+(3): thus it can also be a pure reflection in a plane, or have a glide plane. An indirect isometry is an affine transformation with an orthogonal matrix that has a determinant of −1. A proper rotation is an ordinary rotation. In the wider sense, a proper rotation is defined as a direct isometry; i.e., an element of E+(3): it can also be the identity, a rotation with a translation along the axis, or a pure translation. A direct isometry is an affine transformation with an orthogonal matrix that has a determinant of 1. In either the narrower or the wider senses, the composition of two improper rotations is a proper rotation, and the composition of an improper and a proper rotation is an improper rotation. ...
In this large, prospective study of older women, multiple body size measures were positively associated with incident CRC. Our findings do not support the previously proposed theory that weight status has limited, if any, influence on CRC risk among women after menopause (32). Rather, these data strongly suggest that increased body size represents a potentially modifiable CRC risk factor in this demographic subgroup. Further investigation of when increased body size has the greatest effect on CRC risk (i.e., early adulthood versus later adulthood) might also be informative, particularly with respect to defining subsite-specific pathways of colorectal carcinogenesis.. Previous studies of general obesity and CRC risk among women have typically observed weak or null associations, as recently reviewed (33-35). In a recent meta-analysis of data from 21 prospective studies, Larsson et al. (6) estimated a 12% higher colon cancer risk (RR = 1.12; 95% CI = 1.07-1.18) for every 5 kg/m2 increment in women. ...
During my days, I dont take even a single sip of alcoholic drinks. Though it was very late when I found out that I am pregnant with Elijah. Taking a risk wont do anything, it will just lengthen my pain. As what I had said in my previous post, I may surely satisfy myself in my vices but it wont contribute any good to me and my sons health.. Drinking alcoholic drinks during pregnancy can cause serious mental and physical defects in you and your unborn child.. Your baby my have small body size and health circumference, nearsightedness, flattened cheekbones, smaller eye openings, deformed ribs, hip dislocations, heart and kidney defects, learning disabilities, genital malformations, facial abnormalities and many more.. It is never right to drink alcoholic drinks during pregnancy. Dont take a risk for your babys future.. ...
Many unicellular eukaryotes can persist without meiotic sex over very long periods, though real clonality seems to be extremely rare even in single-celled organisms [3,6]. Even pathogenic microbial eukaryotes require sex as a genomic repair tool upon encountering the hosts defence [78]. Unicellular eukaryotes face the problem that meiosis is a time and energy-consuming process, lasting several hours in which other cellular activities have to be put on hold. Moreover, having just one nucleus means that an erroneous meiosis probably is lethal for offspring. The first problem is sometimes met by differentiating two nuclei, one vegetative macronucleus for protein-transcription and cell functions and one generative micronucleus for meiosis and reproduction (e.g. in extant ciliates like Tetrahymena, [79]). Mixis, as the second component of sex, requires reachable mating partners with homologous genomes, but small organisms cannot move far. Small body size could make sex costly [9]. With regard to ...
Scaling left ventricular (LV) mass and other cardiac dimensions to account for individual body size is important. The traditional method of simple ratio scaling using, for example, body surface area (BSA) assumes a linear and proportional relationship and accurate measurement of both LV mass and BSA. These assumptions can be questioned; hence, we examined the appropriateness of methods and different indices using highly accurate magnetic resonance imaging scans. Cardiac and whole-body scans were performed in 172 young, healthy, male subjects (age range, 17-28 years) to assess LV mass, volume, linear dimensions, lean body mass and fat mass. Height, body mass and BSA were determined anthropometrically. Relationships were examined for linearity and closeness of fit using log-log least-squares linear regression to determine the slope exponent b (where 1.0 indicates linearity). The relationship between LV mass and lean body mass (b=.90+/-.15; r(2)=.66) was linear and geometrically consistent. This was also
A system property controls the maximum size of a message body before the instance stops processing inbound email actions. In some situations, an email message may contain more information in the body than the instances data policy permits a field
Pygmy Growth Curves: A Comparative Approach. In most human populations, a large portion of variance in stature can be accounted for by nutritional status . Nutritional studies worldwide have shown the predictability of the growth response to stress-societies with very high caloric budgets show significant secular trends toward earlier growth cessation, faster body growth, and increased size, whereas populations under nutritional stress normally reduce growth rates, delay growth cessation, and show smaller adult body sizes . To test whether the growth pattern of pygmies is characteristic of nutritionally impaired populations, growth curves were constructed for the Aeta and compared with those for the Biaka and Agta pygmies and compared with the lower percentiles of the U.S. growth distribution, representing undernourished individuals who grow only to average adult pygmy size (women HEIGHT = 140 cm, corresponding to the 0.01th percentile of the U.S. distribution). The curves show that pygmies ...
Many of the key ideas currently underlying MTE have a long history. The idea that the amount of surface area available for thermal exchange might constrain metabolic rate dates at least to Rubner (1883). The links between fractal geometry, scale invariance and natural design owes much to the insights of DArcy Thompson (1917) and Mandelbrot (1977). The use of a simplified pipe model to describe the scaling properties of plants is almost 50 years old (Shinozaki et al. 1964). The use of normalisation by mass to uncover life-history traits was extensively explored in a series of seminal works on the importance of scale in biology during the 1980s (Peters 1983; Calder 1984; Schmidt-Nielsen 1984). Work on the relationship between size, metabolism and a suite of allometric traits in plants was advanced by Niklas (1994b,a). Temperature has long been known to influence metabolism at multiple scales of ecological organisation from individuals to ecosystems (Rosenzweig 1968).. The insight of MTE was to ...
Washington D.C. , Jan. 05 : Parents please take note! A study has recently found that overweight children, especially boys, are more likely to underestimate their body size, which can make it difficult to address the issue and to take necessary steps to attain a healthier body..
We test for effects of thermal stress applied to pupal flies from Noumea (New Caledonia) and Taipei (Taiwan) on developmental instability (DI) in the male sex comb of Drosophila bipectinata, as well as on pre‐adult survivorship and adult body size. The temperature treatments were Low (25 °C), High (29 °C) and Variable (18 h at 29 °C, 6 h at 34 °C). Although the Variable treatment reduced survivors ...
Another project done by Maria and Izzy focused on the correlation between body size and chewing rate. For data collection, Maria and Izzy measured the chewing rate of various herbivores. Along with the help of the other students, Izzy and Maria were able to collect an average chewing rate from 5 domesticated species found in Ileret. To predict the body size of the various herbivores, they also measured the length of the second molar (M2) from skulls in the lab. By putting together both the chewing rate and the body size estimates, they were able to see the relationship between chewing rate and body size for all 5 species. To learn more about this project, check out TA Deming Yangs latest blog found here!. ...
Nutrition and growth rate are considered to be important environmental factors related to CHD. There is strong evidence, from a number of studies, that dogs who are overfed, and gain weight too rapidly, are predisposed to CHD. This seems to be most important for large or giant breeds in the first 6 months of life. There is good evidence that puppies who grow more slowly have less chance of acquiring CHD. The final adult body size of these puppies is about the same as puppies who grow more quickly. Therefore, feeding premium puppy-foods, free-choice to puppies, is NOT recommended, especially with large breed dogs. Additionally, providing vitamin or calcium supplements, is NOT recommended for puppies who are fed a balanced nutritionally complete dog food. Most reputable dog foods, even those for adult dogs, have all the vitamins and minerals puppies need. Veterinarians, or veterinary nutritionists, should be consulted when deciding how much of what food is safe to feed the growing puppy ...
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Ecological consequences of global warming include shifts of species ranges toward higher altitudes and latitudes as well as temporal shifts in phenology and life-cycle events. Evidence is accumulating that increasing temperature is also linked to reduced body size of ectotherms. While temperature can act directly on body size, it may also act indirectly by affecting the timing of life-cycle events and the resulting population age and size structure, especially in seasonal environments. Population structure may, in turn, be influenced by temperature-driven changes in resource availability. In a field mesocosm experiment, we investigated how water temperature and mixed surface layer depth (a temperature-dependent determinant of light availability to phytoplankton) affected population dynamics, population age and size structure, and individual size at stage (size at first reproduction) of Daphnia hyalina during and after a phytoplankton spring bloom. Mixed layer depth was inversely related to the ...
BACKGROUND: The hypothesis of fetal origins of adult disease has during the last decades received interest as an explanation of chronic, e.g. cardiovascular, disease in adulthood stemming from fetal environmental conditions. Early programming and enduring dysregulations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis), with cortisol as its end product, has been proposed as a possible mechanism by which birth weight influence later health status. However, the fetal origin of the adult cortisol regulation has been insufficiently studied. The present study aims to examine if body size at birth is related to circadian cortisol levels at 43 years. METHODS: Participants were drawn from a prospective cohort study (n = 752, 74.5%). Salivary cortisol samples were collected at four times during one day at 43 years, and information on birth size was collected retrospectively from delivery records. Information on body mass during adolescence and adulthood and on health behavior, medication and medical ...
Predation on planktonic larval stages is frequently a major source of mortality for the offspring of benthic marine invertebrates. Mortality rate likely varies with larval size and developmental stage, but few experiments have measured how these factors affect predation rates. I used experimental reductions in egg size to test how variation in larval size affects the likelihood of predation during planktonic development. Blastomeres of the sand dollar Dendraster excentricus were separated at the two-cell stage to produce half-sized zygotes. Larvae resulting from this manipulation were tested for their susceptibility to predation relative to whole-sized siblings at four ages. Individuals from each size class were simultaneously presented as prey items to five predators (crab zoeae, crab megalopae, chaetognaths, solitary tunicates, and postlarval fish) in the laboratory. Four predators consumed significantly more half-sized larvae than whole-sized larvae, but one predator type (postlarval fish) consumed
We studied seasonal and physiological influences on mercury concentrations in western grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis) and Clarks grebes (A. occidentalis) across 29 lakes and reservoirs in California, USA. Additionally, at three of these lakes, we conducted a time series study, in which we repeatedly sampled grebe blood mercury concentrations during the spring, summer, and early fall. Grebe blood mercury concentrations were higher among males (0.61 ± 0.12 μg/g ww) than females (0.52 ± 0.10 μg/g ww), higher among Clarks grebes (0.58 ± 0.12 μg/g ww) than western grebes (0.51 ± 0.10 μg/g ww), and exhibited a strong seasonal pattern (decreasing by 60% from spring to fall). Grebe blood THg concentrations exhibited a shallow, inverse U-shaped pattern with body size, and was lowest among the smallest and largest grebes. Further, the relationship between grebe blood mercury concentrations and wing primary feather molt exhibited a shallow U-shaped pattern, where mercury concentrations were highest...
It is widely assumed that dogs (Family Canidae) have an exceptional sense of smell, however there is little comparative evidence to support this claim. We used 3D visualization of CT scans to measure the bony surface areas of olfactory (OSA), respiratory (RSA) and, combining these, total (TSA) turbinates in skulls of 10 species of canids as well as 12 previously studied, terrestrial species of the Superfamily Arctoidea (Ursidae, Mustelidae, Mephitidae, Procyonidae). We examined scaling relationships and asked if ecological variables such as diet and home range size correlate with olfactory ability, as shown by ratios of OSA and RSA. After phylogenetic correction, we found that canids show greater positive allometry in TSA relative to arctoids, as a result of positive allometry in OSA and isometry in RSA. Canids also have a greater proportion of their turbinate area devoted to olfaction than respiration, suggesting that canids have enhanced olfactory ability relative to most arctoids. ...
Our surveillance and PME data identified annually recurring seasonal (late summer) epidemic mortality of passerines (predominantly greenfinches and chaffinches) in Britain due to finch trichomonosis since this was first observed in 2006 [12]. By using independent datasets, we identified substantial declines not only in the number of gardens that greenfinches visit (GBW data) but also in the number of individual greenfinches visiting each garden (GBFS data), declines that carry through into the wider breeding population (BBS/CBS data). Large numbers of dead finches were found in a high proportion of the finch trichomonosis incidents. Because we would predict considerable under-reporting of passerine carcasses due to their small body size [23,24], these data indicate large-scale site mortality; consequently, attributing the observed BBS/CBS greenfinch declines to epidemic mortality seems entirely plausible.. While mortality continued to occur in the chaffinch population beyond that reported in ...
It has already been emphasized that the colonoscopy completion rate is important for more than just academic reasons [8] and one important reason is that a completed colonoscopy reduces the likelihood of an advanced colorectal-cancer being detected later on [16].. In this report on a single centres experience of colonoscopies systematically associated with deep sedation with propofol, the global success rate achieved by 21 endoscopists working at the same endoscopic centre with different levels of expertise and training was 93%.. The factors negatively influencing the success of the test were: a patients small body size, age over 71 years, inadequate colonic cleansing and the need for AAI during deep sedation. For the purposes of this study, we did not correct the performance rate by excluding colonoscopies in which cecal intubation had been prevented by the presence of faecal material, because our aim was to establish the crude success rate for colonoscopy under deep sedation. It is worth ...
The size and flight mechanics of giant pterosaurs have received considerable research interest for the last century but are confused by conflicting interpretations of pterosaur biology and flight capabilities. Avian biomechanical parameters have often been applied to pterosaurs in such research but, due to considerable differences in avian and pterosaur anatomy, have lead to systematic errors interpreting pterosaur flight mechanics. Such assumptions have lead to assertions that giant pterosaurs were extremely lightweight to facilitate flight or, if more realistic masses are assumed, were flightless. Reappraisal of the proportions, scaling and morphology of giant pterosaur fossils suggests that bird and pterosaur wing structure, gross anatomy and launch kinematics are too different to be considered mechanically interchangeable. Conclusions assuming such interchangeability-including those indicating that giant pterosaurs were flightless-are found to be based on inaccurate and poorly supported assumptions
... body size; location in host and types of hosts. Moravec, František; Justine, Jean-Lou (2008). "Some philometrid nematodes ( ...
This species is characterized mainly by: length of spicules and length and structure of its gubernaculum; body size; location ... n. from the body cavity of Oblada melanura (Sparidae)." Parasitology research 104.1 (2008): 55-61. Wang, Shu-Xia, Liang Li, and ...
... "meat body". These 'perceptics' are: Time, Sight; Taste, Color, Depth; Solidity (barriers); Relative sizes (external); Sound; ... Church of Scientology, The State of Operating Thetan The "immortality" referred to is not immortality of the body, but of the ... The Scientologist touches the person's body in a set manner, avoiding sexual areas, and asks the recipient of the process, who ... The deceased person] was thoughtless enough to dispose of his body and go out of communication. A person sometimes feels pretty ...
Research in the divisions focuses on three elements: the servicemember (acclimation; body size; gender; race; age; health; ... Buller, et al., (2015). "Real-time core body temperature estimation from heart rate for first responders wearing different ... "Mathematical prediction of core body temperature from environment, activity, and clothing: The heat strain decision aid (HSDA ...
I'm not dependent on my physical body to perceive things." The Church of Scientology's in-house magazine Source has promoted ... Relative sizes (external); Sound; Pitch; Tone; Volume; Rhythm; Smell; Touch (pressure, friction, heat or cold and oiliness); ... body); Fields/magnetic; Time track motion; Physical energy (personal weariness, etc.); Self-determinism; Moisture (self); Sound ... Body position; Joint position; Internal temperature; External temperature; Balance; Muscular tension; Saline content of self ( ...
Christer Björkman; Karl Gotthard; Mats W. Pettersson (2009). "Body Size". In Timothy D. Schowalter. Insect Ecology: An ... They have body lengths from 0.13 to 5.4 mm (0.0051 to 0.2126 in), averaging at 0.5 to 1.0 mm (0.020 to 0.039 in). Their bodies ... Because of their small sizes, however, they have to exit the water by climbing up plant stems that jut through the surface, as ... They include the world's smallest known insect, with a body length of only 0.139 mm (0.0055 in), and the smallest known flying ...
"Body size and metabolism". Hilgardia. 6: 315-351. doi:10.3733/hilg.v06n11p315. Kleiber M (1947). "Body size and metabolic rate ... He also provided the basis for the conclusion that total efficiency of energy utilization is independent of body size. These ... and metabolic rate of cells with body size in mammals". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 104 (11): 4718-23. doi:10.1073/pnas. ... In 1932 he came to the conclusion that the ¾ power of body weight was the most reliable basis for predicting the basal ...
... these individuals can reach a large enough body size to survive through the winter. Increased body size is also associated with ... Growth rate and body size have important ecological implications, such as how they impact an organism's survival, life history ... Levins first used the term when describing patterns of body size across an altitudinal gradient in populations of Drosophila, ... Drosophila melanogaster - body size; altitude Menidia menidia - growth; latitude Lithobates clamitans - developmental rate; ...
"Brain and Body Size". Serendip. Bryn Mawr College. Retrieved 26 June 2013. Freberg, Laura (2009). "Relative Encephalization ... of its total body mass, compared to 2.33% of total body mass in the average human. Within the encephalization quotient proposed ... The largest brains in the cat kingdom are those of the tigers in Java and Bali, of which the largest relative brain size within ... doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.2009.01249.x. Healy, Susan D.; Rowe, Candy (2007). "A critique of comparative studies of brain size". ...
Body Size Range Oligochaeta (Italian). ... individual has a length of 210 centimetre and the body which ...
"Student Body Size and Diversity". EdRef. Retrieved 2005. Check date values in: ,access-date= (help) "Student Profile". National ... ethnicity of the student body was 65.7% Black or African American, 16.7% Hispanic/Latino, 6.9% White, 5.9% Asian, 3.9% Race and ...
The body size is variable; Liophryne rhododactyla is the largest species, with females reaching 60 mm (2.4 in) snout-vent ...
Body size[edit]. Body size is important because of its correlation with metabolism, diet, life history, geographic range and ... The best known example is the decrease in body size leading up to the first birds; Archaeopteryx was below 10 kg in weight, and ... Marked decreases in body size have also occurred in some lineages, but are more sporadic. ... There was a trend towards increasing body size within many dinosaur clades, including the Thyreophora, Ornithopoda, ...
Therrien, François; Henderson, Donald M. (2007-03-12). "My theropod is bigger than yours … or not: estimating body size from ... region and hindlimbs proportional to body size.[16] The upwards projecting neural spines of spinosaurid vertebrae were very ... This consistency in large body size among spinosaurids could have evolved as a byproduct of their preference for semiaquatic ... Due to the narrow snout, vigorous side-to-side motion of the skull during prey capture is unlikely.[35] Based the size and ...
Mice have a direct brain/body size ratio similar to humans (1/40), while elephants have a comparatively small brain/body size ( ... Brain-body size relationship[edit]. Species Simple brain-to-body ratio (E/S)[12] ... Brain size usually increases with body size in animals (is positively correlated), i.e. large animals usually have larger ... Body size, body proportions, and encephalization in a Middle Pleistocene archaic human from northern China ...
Body size and shape varies widely. The group includes the small, oval sea gooseberries found on both Atlantic and Pacific ...
... size is linked to sexual attraction in both men and women. Women are attracted to men with masculine lips, that are more ... As an organ of the body, the lip can be a focus of disease or show symptoms of a disease: One of the most frequent changes of ... Lips are a visible body part at the mouth of humans and many animals. Lips are soft, movable, and serve as the opening for food ... The upper lip covers the anterior surface of the body of the maxilla. Its upper half is of usual skin color and has a ...
Body cylindrical. Dorsal scales smooth, without pits. Tail very short, obtuse. Subcaudals in two rows. *) Not including the ... Maxillary very short, with five teeth gradually increasing in size and followed, after an interspace, by a large grooved fang ... Mandibular teeth decreasing in size posteriorly. Head small, not distinct from neck; eye minute, with round pupil; nostril in a ...
... target body ephemeris, size and shape; instrument field-of-view size, shape and orientation; specifications for reference ...
Its body size attains 12 mm. Doto sarsiae feeds on the hydroid Coryne eximia, family Corynidae, formerly Sarsia eximia. ...
In a 2007 analysis it was shown that, when modern statistical methods for correcting for the effects of body size and phylogeny ... 1928 Speakman J. R. (2005). "Body size, energy metabolism and lifespan". J Exp Biol. 208: 1717-1730. Harman D (1956). "Aging: a ... 1928 Speakman J. R. (2005). "Body size, energy metabolism and lifespan". The Journal of Experimental Biology. 208: 1717-1730. ... This theory stated that organisms age over time due to the accumulation of damage from free radicals in the body. It also ...
Body: Maximum body width 80". Weight: Minimum weight with driver 3,750 lb (1,700 kg); minimum front axle weight 48% of total ... Tire Size: 35 x 12.50 maximum. Numbering: 1-99. 2008 Rob MacCachren 2007 Jerry Whelchel 2006 Carl Renezeder 2005 Carl Renezeder ... Manufacturer body styles and engines must be from the same manufacturer. Horsepower: 8 cylinders, 750-900 HP. Suspension: Front ... Championship Off Road Racing (usually abbreviated CORR) was a sanctioning body for offroad racing in the United States. It ...
Another notable difference is body size. R. smithii does not commonly exceed 60 mm in length, whereas rosy bitterling males are ...
Rigid body properties extractor. • Structural dynamics simulation using finite element and test models. • Pre-test analysis and ... FEMtools is designed to handle all sizes of finite element and test models for a wide range of industrial applications. ... 2010 - Addition of a module for rigid body properties identification from FRFs. 2011 - Addition of a module for experimental ... Design optimization (topology, shape, size, material). • Design space sampling (Monte Carlo sampling, Design of Experiments, ...
Its body size attains 10 mm. Doto hydrallmaniae feeds on the hydroid Hydrallmania falcata, family Sertulariidae. Morrow C.C., ...
Diet composition varies with body size. There are no significant differences in feeding habits between male and female S. ... The upper side of the body is grayish-brown with dark brown spots. The underside is a light greyish-white color. The teeth of S ... The two dorsal fins are located towards the tail end of the body. The texture of their skin is rough, similar to the coarseness ... The size and accessibility of the embryo makes analysis easier. Five well-characterized stages can be distinguished between the ...
Like STRePs (see below), IPs ask for a strong participation of small or medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to ascertain the ... the executive body of the European Union, either by various internal directorate general (DGs), such as the directorate general ... Medium- to large-sized collaborative research projects funded in FP6 and FP7. They are composed of a minimum of three partners ... Medium-sized research projects co-funded by the European Commission in FP6 and FP7. These projects are "designed to strengthen ...
The pika's "buried" tail is longer relative to body size compared to other lagomorphs. It has a slightly rounded skull with a ... The American pika, known in the 19th century as the "little chief hare", has a small, round, ovate body. Their body length ... Body size can vary among populations. In populations with sexual dimorphism, males are slightly larger than females. The ... Territory size can vary from 410-709 m² and is dependent on configuration, distance to vegetation and quality of vegetation. ...
As with the Spot Healing Brush Tool, the pixel size is set to the smallest size needed for the size of the debris particles. ... Removing sand particles from the body surface seems less of a risk. There is always a need to balance current needs with ... adjusting the size of the brush to just larger than the size of the individual sand particles. This works fine for particles ... Finished photo with dark shadows on elytra and sand debris on body removed. ...
... the body size-species richness pattern dissolves and the number of species per body size class is almost uniform (i.e. there is ... Does size matter for dispersal distance? Global Ecology and Biogeography 16(4):415-425. Bowers MA & Brown JH (1982) Body size ... The micro and macro in body size evolution. Evolution 46(4):939-953. Hausdorf B (2006) Is the interspecific variation of body ... The body size-species richness distribution is a pattern observed in the way taxa are distributed over large spatial scales. ...
Body jewelry sizes express the thickness of an item of body jewelry, using one of several possible systems. Items of body ... But with body jewelry, there is a wide variety of possible sizes, and wearers generally want jewelry that is the same size as ... So that wearers can choose the size they want, there are standards for body jewelry sizes, used by jewelry makers and sellers. ... Jewelry wire gauge Earring Body piercing Body piercing jewelry Body piercing materials Wire Wire gauge comparison chart IEC ...
Body frame size is determined by a persons wrist circumference in relation to his height. For example, a man whose height is ... Determining frame size: To determine the body frame size, measure the wrist with a tape measure and use the following chart to ... Body frame size is determined by a persons wrist circumference in relation to his height. For example, a man whose height is ...
The findings indicate that both body size and physical activity are related to lifespan, but the associations seem to differ ... While exercise helped men live longer, their body size did not.. The increase in life expectancy has started to plateau in some ... 22, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Heres a new study finding thats bound to make tall, thin women happy: Their body size and their ... "The findings indicate that both body size and physical activity are related to lifespan, but that these associations seem to ...
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... font-size: 16px; font-family: verdana, helvetica, sans-serif line-height: 1.5; color: #000; margin: 0px; ... font-size declare in body Hi,. I declare. body {. font-size: 16px;. font-family: verdana, helvetica, sans-serif. line-height: ... font-size to have larger or lower values. I tried this:. body, div {. font-size: 16px;. font-family: verdana, helvetica, sans- ... Re: font-size declare in body I have the exact same problem.. Using IE 6 and an external sheet:. All font specifications ...
A new analysis of the body size of early humans and our relatives suggests that the first members of the genus Homo-which ... Body Size Not A Factor In Human Origin Story main content.. Body Size Not A Factor In Human Origin Story by AMNH on Aug 5, 2015 ... "An animals body size is directly related to how it interacts with the natural world, influencing factors such as energy ... A new analysis of the body size of early humans and our relatives suggests that the first members of the genus Homo-which ...
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Is bigger better? Does climate affect size? The processes controlling body size evolution remain unclear. ... Is bigger better? Does climate affect size? The processes controlling body size evolution remain unclear. ... Message Body. (Your Name) thought you would like to see this page from the Science web site. ...
Ive enlisted eight major body-positive crusaders to share their top tips on how to love your body.,/p,,p,For more style ... www.yahoo.com/style/hilary-duff-tells-body-shaming-critics-kiss-swimsuit-photo-220851477.html,Hilary Duff tells body-shaming ... Each morning I look in the mirror and say out loud five things that I love about my body. Like Instagram star ,a rel=nofollow ... Living in a world where we are constantly told by the media and society what we should change or not like about our bodies, ...
"The brain stays large… but the body size gets smaller.". Whether brain size or body size plays the larger evolutionary role ... can result when brain size increases faster than body size or when it decreases slower than body size. ... Gorillas, for example, experienced an increase in both brain and body size but more so in body size. ... "Body size [is] quite clearly the target of selection in three times as many carnivorans as brain size is," says mammalian ...
Its no secret that all the women who vie for the Bachelors heart all share a similar body type. Heres why The Bachelor ... Despite What This Producer Thinks, It Is Time For Body Diversity On The Bachelor. Meagan Fredette Feb 25, 2018 2:30 PM ... His less-chiseled body type was not even a point of discussion on the show, and it shouldnt be. Iggys figure didnt make ... Whos to say they wont be attracted to a stunning, successful woman who is bigger than a size 4? Give both The Bachelor ...
Gompertz models-i.e. exponentially decreasing rate of size increase at larger sizes-fit maximum size curves far better than ... tetrapod maximum body size over large timescales. Instead, we support previous suggestions that maximum size is determined by ... indicating greater restriction on body size increase as larger sizes are reached [10]. Curves were fit for Archosauromorpha and ... The Gompertz model was of the form logM = logK−log(K/M0)e-αt where M is the maximum size, K the asymptotic maximum size, M0 the ...
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What I stand for is accepting your body type, whether you are a size 2 or a size 14, and then taking care of yourself with a ... BODY AND IMAGE; One Size Definitely Does Not Fit All. By MARY DUENWALD. JUNE 22, 2003. ... But even for a woman not suffering a full-blown eating disorder, disappointment with the size or shape of her body can be a ... Other signs of a grass-roots movement in favor of women accepting their bodies, whatever their size, can be found in movies ...
This suggests that frond size and shape were directly responsive to nutrient uptake. In rangeomorphs of the Ediacaran period, ... biological mechanisms of size growth and potential connections to ocean geochemistry were untested. Using micro-computerized ... Nutrient-dependent growth underpinned the Ediacaran transition to large body size. *Jennifer F. Hoyal Cuthill. 1,2. & ... Hoyal Cuthill, J.F., Conway Morris, S. Nutrient-dependent growth underpinned the Ediacaran transition to large body size. Nat ...
The decreased overall body size showed up not only on those women who lost weight during the study, but also on the subjects ... Body circumference was measured pre- and post-intervention as well, by evaluating thickness at eight specific, consistent body ... "In conclusion, LPG endermologie is well-tolerated and an effective means of reducing the diameter of body contours, even in ... There was a significant decrease in average body circumference, as well as appearance of cellulite, among women who received ...
Our smoothing bodies create a streamlined shape under your favourite outfits. Find your perfect fit today! ... Boost your body confidence in body shapewear from Figleaves. ...
... Forecast 2022 - published on openPR.com ... Global Electric Guitar Market 2017 - Solid Body, Semi-Hollow Body, Hollow Body, … ... You can edit or delete your press release Body Scrub Market Insights by Size, Status & Application Forecast 2022 here. Delete ... What will be the market size and the growth rate in 2022?. • What are the key factors driving the Global Body Scrub market?. • ...
Thymes Travel Size Goldleaf Gardenia Body Lotion, a modern, yet timeless blend of blooms; this delicate, dewy, floral fragrance ... Thymes Travel Size Goldleaf Gardenia Body Lotion, a modern, yet timeless blend of blooms; this delicate, dewy, floral fragrance ... Thymes Travel Size Goldleaf Gardenia Body Lotion, a modern, yet timeless blend of blooms; this delicate, dewy, floral fragrance ... Apply dime-sized amount of lotion (or more) to hands to massage onto skin as desired.. Precautions: For adult and external use ...
  • For the debris, I enlarged the photo to 100% and used the Spot Healing Brush Tool to remove most of the sand particles, adjusting the size of the brush to just larger than the size of the individual sand particles. (wordpress.com)
  • HTF MI recently added a new research study in its database that highlights the in-depth market analysis with future prospects of Body Scrub market. (openpr.com)
  • The research covers the current market size of the Global Body Scrub market and its growth rates based on 5 year history data. (openpr.com)
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  • What are the key factors driving the Global Body Scrub market? (openpr.com)
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  • Notwithstanding such effects and potential thermoregulatory capabilities, stingless bees show niche differentiation and biogeographic distributions that correlate with body coloration and body size. (springer.com)
  • Body size is a central determinant of a species' biology and adaptive strategy, but the number of reliable estimates of hominin body mass and stature have been insufficient to determine long-term patterns and subtle interactions in these size components within our lineage. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The relationships of the tribes with colonists "led to differences in mortality among these tribes, which appears to have been a fundamental determinant of variation in body size," the authors conclude. (phys.org)
  • Conclusion In children, higher BMI z-score is an independent determinant of increased LA size after adjusting for age, height, sex and the effects of blood pressure on LV wall thickness and mass. (ahajournals.org)
  • TUESDAY, Jan. 22, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Here's a new study finding that's bound to make tall, thin women happy: Their body size and their gender make it more likely they will reach the milestone age of 90 than either men or shorter, heavier women. (webmd.com)
  • The findings indicate that both body size and physical activity are related to lifespan, but that these associations seem to differ between men and women," Brandts said. (webmd.com)
  • Every day, we're bombarded with overly Photoshopped pictures of unrealistic bodies on social media that leave many women feeling less than. (yahoo.com)
  • A diverse cast of women would do away with the myth that plus-size women don't enjoy active, fun love lives, and reinforce the idea that plus-size women are deserving of love and desire. (refinery29.com)
  • The Bachelor can demonstrate that men aren't shallow creatures who only find one type of woman attractive - and reinforce that no matter what their bodies look like, women are beautiful. (refinery29.com)
  • 67% of U.S. women are plus-size. (refinery29.com)
  • and in the sixth annual Love Your Body Day, on Oct. 15, sponsored by the National Organization for Women Foundation. (nytimes.com)
  • A large part of the appeal, Mr. Heavin said, is that average or heavier-than-average women can get together with like-size women to support and inspire one another. (nytimes.com)
  • The phenomenal success of Curves, many experts say, is a sign that women are accepting, and therefore taking better care of, their bodies. (nytimes.com)
  • Emme, perhaps the most famous of the full-figured fashion models, has been lecturing at college campuses and even testified before a Congressional subcommittee about the need to help women overcome their problems with body image. (nytimes.com)
  • There was a significant decrease in average body circumference, as well as appearance of cellulite, among women who received LPG endermologie sessions, according to recently published research. (massagemag.com)
  • The decreased overall body size showed up not only on those women who lost weight during the study, but also on the subjects who gained weight during the research. (massagemag.com)
  • So the women asked photographer Karizza to heavily edit their bodies to show just how misleading pictures can be. (usmagazine.com)
  • Since plus-size women come in all different shapes and sizes, there are a lot of body types that need to be represented on the curvy spectrum, so finding the right fit can be tricky. (yahoo.com)
  • Tested on hundreds of women of all shapes and sizes, Auden is sure to be your new one-stop-shop when it comes to bras and panties. (refinery29.com)
  • All of this news comes as part of the brand's new "No Body Like You" marketing campaign, which according to a press release, "showcases unretouched women, of all body shapes, ages and backgrounds. (refinery29.com)
  • Dallas plastic surgeon Diane L. Gibby, MD, says women should understand that there is no perfect breast size but rather a range that will look good for any given woman. (newbeauty.com)
  • She also has her own website that offers more fashionable clothing options for women of all sizes and has been featured in a number of magazines as an example of the opening mindset of the fashion world. (inquisitr.com)
  • Measures of body size (BMI and waist-to-hip ratio) have been associated with an increase adenoma risk in both men ( 4 , 6 , 10 , 11 , 15 ) and women ( 5 , 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We and others have previously suggested that the difference in post-OGTT glucose concentration is a consequence of the relatively higher dose of glucose given to women compared with men when seen in relation to their body size ( 3 , 4 , 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Few studies have examined the associations of body size and physical activity with the development of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) in women. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In data from a population-based case-control study in women ages 19 to 79 years, we assessed the relation of self-report height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and strenuous physical activity to HL risk in 312 cases with diagnostic re-review and 325 random-digit dialed controls using logistic regression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Scattered studies have suggested that taller height ( 5 - 8 ) and higher body mass index (BMI) in men ( 9 , 10 ), but not women ( 10 - 12 ), affect risk of HL. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Finally, the metabolic theory of ecology explains how there is a negative relationship between number of individuals (N) and size (M) ( N = M − 3 / 4 {\displaystyle N=M^{-3/4}} ), but it is silent on species richness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bishop JA, Armbruster WS (1999) Thermoregulatory abilities of Alaskan bees: effects of size, phylogeny and ecology. (springer.com)
  • Here, we studied the body-size trends of C. megalodon through its temporal and geographic range to better understand its ecology and evolution. (cambridge.org)
  • For a given patient's CT scan, the CTDIvol and the related DLP are displayed for a reference phantom (i.e., head or body CTDI phantom), the diameter of which (i.e., 16 cm or 32 cm) is selected by the scanner. (aapm.org)
  • Apply a palm-size amount of Plus Size Volume and Body Mousse into your hands and work evenly through damp hair from the roots to the ends. (sephora.com)
  • Prep damp hair with Plus Size Volume and Body Mousse prior to blow drying with a round brush. (sephora.com)
  • Plus-size models Diana Sirokai and Callie Thorpe were sick of seeing overly airbrushed photos. (usmagazine.com)
  • Famous Plus-Size Models We Love! (usmagazine.com)
  • Body Wrappers' plus size TotalSTRETCH, supremely soft, camisole body tight features a convertible foot, low v-back, and adjustable clear straps. (discountdance.com)
  • I asked nine of my fashion blogger friends to share their current favorite plus-size denim picks that don't gap or fade and work with their specific type of curvy bodies - and I included my own go-to jeans. (yahoo.com)
  • This ultralight plus size shapewear is made of finer soft yarns and features powerful graduated compression technology. (wickedtemptations.com)
  • The plus-size model found that her image was turned into a body-shaming meme on Twitter, and decided she would not remain quiet about it. (inquisitr.com)
  • Since then, Legobane has become something of an ambassador for body positivity, sharing uplifting messages on her blog and helping to highlight the work of other so-called "plus-size" models. (inquisitr.com)
  • To simplify a situation that takes a tortured half-hour to set up, cute blond airhead model Deb Dobson ( Brooke D'Orsay ) kills herself in a car crash because she was talking on her cell phone and is reincarnated as supersmart plus-size lawyer Jane Bingham ( Brooke Elliott ). (nydailynews.com)
  • These are the standard sizes that piercers usually use within the UK to pierce specific locations, and are not totally accurate. (wikipedia.org)
  • But the last major analysis of body size in the evolution of our own family took place more than 20 years ago. (amnh.org)
  • The processes controlling body size evolution remain unclear. (sciencemag.org)
  • These events, and associated body size dynamics, provide opportunities to assess the relative importance of abiotic and biological factors in determining the evolution of tetrapod maximum size. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The effects of body size on the evolution of the amphibian middle ear. (brill.com)
  • While these studies provide deeper insights into particular taxa or temporal contexts, there has been no systematic and long-term overview of the evolution of body size within the hominin lineage. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • First, body size is central to discussions of human evolution throughout its entire temporal and geographical span [ 22 , 24 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • And it bolsters the idea that the reproductive trade-off associated with a short life could play a role in the evolution of human body size. (phys.org)
  • Finally, we found that stasis was the general mode of size evolution of C. megalodon (i.e., no net changes over time), contrasting with the trends of the megatooth lineage and our hypothesis. (cambridge.org)
  • Like Instagram star Iskra Lawrence says, the idea of this exercise is to point out the amazing things your body does for you and to be consistent. (yahoo.com)
  • Gigi Hadid also joined the conversation with her kickass Instagram post on body shaming. (sofeminine.co.uk)
  • I happen to be curvy, but for some reason I'm the master of squeezing into anything, and so it's fun to see when a designer finally sends something and they're like, 'Wait, she really fit in that sample size. (inquisitr.com)
  • Lesego Legobane has no patience for body-shamers looking to turn her curvy physique into a punchline. (inquisitr.com)
  • Body frame size is determined by a person's wrist circumference in relation to his height. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We found a strong dose-response relation of increased body size to the development of endometrial cancer after adjustment for energy intake. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • To further elucidate the role of adiposity in the development of colorectal adenomas, we assessed adenoma prevalence in relation to body size using prospective data from the multiethnic Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS) cohort in which colonoscopies were done on eligible participants regardless of symptoms. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the new study, Tammo Krause and Laura Spindler analyzed the body-size memory of Drosophila . (uni-mainz.de)
  • The results show that Drosophila learns to estimate the distance across a gap and the reach of its legs by linking visual information from the environment, such as a striped pattern, with their body size. (uni-mainz.de)
  • We therefore assume that memory of their own body size is the most permanent form of recall detected in Drosophila to date,' the two lead authors Tammo Krause and Laura Spindler concluded in their article in Current Biology . (uni-mainz.de)
  • This study shows promising results, possibly over-bridging the personal experience of feeling fat and evaluating others' bodies on attractiveness. (lu.se)
  • Body Size Not A Factor In Human Origin Story main content. (amnh.org)
  • Given this broad physiological compatibility of many helminths with fish hosts, our results indicate that fish body length, as a proxy for vulnerability to predators, is a better predictor of their use by helminth larvae than their trophic level based on diet content. (springer.com)
  • We demonstrate that size-selective extinction was already under way in the oldest interval and occurred on all continents, within all trophic modes, and across all time intervals. (sciencemag.org)
  • Using a large database on the helminth parasites of 303 fish species, we tested whether the proportion of parasite species in a host that occur as larval or juvenile stages is best explained by their trophic level or by their body size. (springer.com)
  • However, trophic level and body length are strongly correlated among fish species, and they may have separate though confounded effects on the parasite fauna exploiting a given species. (springer.com)
  • Explanations in the literature suggest the rates of speciation and/or dispersal ability vary with size and could lead to more small bodied organisms (May, 1978). (wikipedia.org)
  • But there is more than one evolutionary way to get a large brain, a phylogenetic analysis shows, and more often than not, it has to do with relatively greater changes in body size rather than in brain size. (bioone.org)
  • Relative brain size is the compromise of two traits taking potentially different evolutionary pathways involving different combinations of brain-body adaptations. (bioone.org)
  • Some scientists think that small bodies provide an evolutionary advantage under certain circumstances. (phys.org)
  • Body size and condition factor were important determinants of the initiation of maturation in zebrafish. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Host body size is considered one of the most important determinants of tick abundance, with larger hosts having higher tick burdens. (wur.nl)
  • Travel Size Pomegranate Herbal Body Moisturizer by Hempz is 100% Pure Organic Hemp Seed Oil for dramatic skin hydration and nourishment that helps improve the overall health and condition of skin. (ulta.com)
  • Save yourself a last-minute shopping run, and stock up on your travel size toiletries now. (bathandbodyworks.com)
  • That's easy - a full set of travel size toiletries in their favorite fragrance. (bathandbodyworks.com)
  • The Body Line Thermal Travel Size from Babor is the perfect way for you to get your full dose of hydration, moisturization and cleansing in while you are traveling. (beautybridge.com)
  • Before this travel size option was available, I had to squeeze out the contents of the larger tube into a tiny travel size bottle. (desertessence.com)
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  • If the current trend continues, terrestrial mammal body sizes will become smaller than they have been over the past 45 million years. (sciencemag.org)
  • My results emphasize the importance of body size to the reproductive biology of zebrafish and suggest that protecting large fish might be important to maintain the reproductive potential of exploited fish stocks. (hu-berlin.de)
  • 44% of 376 verbal reports in the third pilot emphasize body size and proportions, of these reports 61 % were conducted post to CB manipulation. (lu.se)
  • Newly hatched fruit flies raised in the dark overestimate their body size and try to overcome gaps that are far too big significantly more frequently than animals raised in the usual light-dark cycle. (uni-mainz.de)
  • Vigorous physical activity appears to significantly decrease the effect of size on cardiovascular risk," Dr. Tucker and colleagues concluded. (medpagetoday.com)
  • We studied the association between BMI z-score and LA size in healthy children and also assessed whether LA size differed significantly between healthy weight (HW), overweight (OW) and obese (OB) children. (ahajournals.org)
  • LA size was significantly larger in the obese than in the overweight and in the overweight compared with the healthy weight children. (ahajournals.org)
  • The wide range of body sizes in ecological communities, from tiny microbes to large animals and plants, is emerging as the key to prediction. (worldcat.org)
  • Increased blood glucose and insulin, body size, and incident colorectal cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Specifically, it has been shown that there are no sex differences in post-OGTT 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG) levels after adjustment for body height ( 3 , 4 , 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • an award-winning formula that works to purify, soften and delicately fragrance the body. (hqhair.com)
  • Environmental factors analysed may still have imposed an upper limit on tetrapod body size, but any environmentally imposed limit did not vary substantially during the intervals examined despite variation in these environmental factors. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The extent to which variation in reproductive success is explained by parental body size is an important research topic because size-selective fishing usually reduces the average size of reproducing adults in a population. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Independent of fish phylogeny or habitat, only fish body length emerged as a significant predictor of the proportion of parasites in a host that occur as larval stages from our multivariate analyses. (springer.com)
  • A potentially much better model to explore the links of body size, metabolism and ageing is to examine the intraspecific links. (biologists.org)
  • This suggests that frond size and shape were directly responsive to nutrient uptake. (nature.com)
  • FRIDAY, May 27 (HealthDay News) -- Your size may influence how you perceive the world around you, a new study suggests. (bio-medicine.org)
  • To help make the right choice, Dr. Tehrani suggests looking through your doctor's before and after photographs and trying implant sizes in a predetermined bra and t-shirt to help visualize the new size. (newbeauty.com)
  • These new ideas concerning the manner in which mitochondria generate free radicals as a function of metabolism shed some light on the complexity of observations linking body size, metabolism and lifespan. (biologists.org)
  • Comfortable, Lightweight stretchy fabric and moves with your body while performing any activity. (trademe.co.nz)
  • While most of these factors were important predictors of BMI at age 20 years, the size and relative importance of the effect differed across models. (nih.gov)
  • At the end of the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, body size in Homo sapiens declines on average, but also extends to lower limits not seen in comparable frequency since early Homo . (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In our recent study, we wanted to find out how the insects acquire information about their body size and remember it later,' explained Tammo Krause and Laura Spindler. (uni-mainz.de)
  • X-ray imaging of beetles helps confirm that tracheal system design may limit size in insects. (phys.org)
  • This study is a first step toward understanding what controls body size in insects. (phys.org)
  • Abiotic and biological factors have been hypothesized as controlling maximum body size of tetrapods and other animals through geological time. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Professor David Barker and colleagues studied 6975 men born in Helsinki (Finland) between 1934-1944 - a time when not only was the babies' size at birth recorded but also the size of the placental surface. (medindia.net)
  • This is first time that a link between mortality and body size has been shown using long-term data, the authors say. (phys.org)
  • Both CTDIvol and DLP are sensitive to changes in scan parameters such as tube voltage, tube current, gantry rotation time, pitch, and bowtie filter, but are independent of patient size. (aapm.org)
  • Nonetheless, little is known about its body-size variations through time and space. (cambridge.org)
  • Number 8 wire, a term used in the New Zealand vernacular SteelNavel.com Body Piercing Jewelry Size Reference - illustrating the different ways that size is measured on different kinds of jewelry As supporting examples for the claim about just-gauge, metric-and-gauge, and just-metric: Just in gauge-inches: an example item at Tribalectic Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. (wikipedia.org)
  • With metric and gauge: an example item at Body Jewelleryshop. (wikipedia.org)
  • Size-selective harvesting induced rapid phenotypic and genetic changes, which persisted after selection was halted. (hu-berlin.de)