The physical measurements of a body.
The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.
The two dimensional measure of the outer layer of the body.
Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.
Individuals' concept of their own bodies.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by an oviparous or ovoviviparous animal.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Large herbivorous tropical American lizards.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Sexual activities of animals.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Group of fish under the superorder Acanthopterygii, separate from the PERCIFORMES, which includes swamp eels, mullets, sticklebacks, seahorses, spiny eels, rainbowfishes, and KILLIFISHES. The name is derived from the six taxa which comprise the group. (From http://www.nanfa.org/articles/Elassoma/elassoma.htm, 8/4/2000)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.
Characteristics or attributes of persons or things which elicit pleasurable feelings.
Animals that have no spinal column.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
The normal length of time of an organism's life.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of the following five families: CHEIROGALEIDAE; Daubentoniidae; Indriidae; LEMURIDAE; and LORISIDAE.
Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.
The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.
The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
The outer covering of the body composed of the SKIN and the skin appendages, which are the HAIR, the NAILS; and the SEBACEOUS GLANDS and the SWEAT GLANDS and their ducts.
Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.
In some animals, the jaws together with their horny covering. The beak usually refers to the bill of birds in which the whole varies greatly in form according of the food and habits of the bird. While the beak refers most commonly to birds, the anatomical counterpart is found also in the turtle, squid, and octopus. (From Webster, 3d ed & Storer, et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p491, 755)
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The individual's experience of a sense of fulfillment of a need or want and the quality or state of being satisfied.

Association of the metabolic syndrome with history of myocardial infarction and stroke in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. (1/2357)

BACKGROUND: The combination of cardiovascular risk factors known as the metabolic syndrome is receiving increased attention from physicians, but data on the syndrome's association with morbidity are limited. METHODS AND RESULTS: Applying National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) criteria, we evaluated 10 357 NHANES III subjects for the 5 component conditions of the metabolic syndrome: insulin resistance, abdominal obesity based on waist circumference, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), and hypertension, as well as the full syndrome, defined as at least 3 of the 5 conditions. Logistic regression was used to estimate the cross-sectional association of the syndrome and each of its 5 component conditions separately with history of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and either MI or stroke (MI/stroke). Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, and cigarette smoking. The metabolic syndrome was significantly related in multivariate analysis to MI (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.53 to 2.64), stroke (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.48 to 3.16), and MI/stroke (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.64 to 2.57). The syndrome was significantly associated with MI/stroke in both women and men. Among the component conditions, insulin resistance (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.66), low HDL-C (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.74), hypertension (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.08), and hypertriglyceridemia (OR, 1.66; 95% CI=1.20 to 2.30) were independently and significantly related to MI/stroke. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate a strong, consistent relationship of the metabolic syndrome with prevalent MI and stroke.  (+info)

Genetic dissection of mammalian Cdc7 kinase: cell cycle and developmental roles. (2/2357)

Cdc7, originally discovered by Hartwell as a budding yeast mutant that arrests immediately before the onset of S phase, is conserved through evolution and plays essential roles in initiation of mitotic DNA replication. Inducible inactivation of Cdc7 in mouse embryonic stem cells leads to rapid cessation of DNA synthesis and the subsequent activation of checkpoint responses, resulting in p53 activation and eventually p53-mediated apoptosis. This indicates a requirement of Cdc7 kinase for ongoing replication of mammalian genomes, and loss of Cdc7 kinase presumably generates arrested replication fork signals. Cdc7-/- mice or embryonic fibroblast cells (MEFs) expressing a low level of transgene-encoded Cdc7 protein are viable but exhibit reduced body size with impaired germ cell development and decreased cell proliferation. Interestingly, these phenotypes are largely corrected by the presence of an additional copy of the transgene, resulting in increased level of Cdc7 expression. This indicates the requirement of a critical level of Cdc7 for normal cell proliferation and development of specific organs. These results from mammals will be discussed in conjunction with the pleiotropic effects of Cdc7 mutation observed in yeasts.  (+info)

Effect of body size on breathing pattern and fine-particle deposition in children. (3/2357)

Interchild variability in breathing patterns may contribute to variability in fine particle lung deposition and morbidity in children associated with those particles. Fractional deposition (DF) of fine particles (2-microm monodisperse, carnauba wax particles) was measured in healthy children, age 6-13 yr (n = 36), while they followed a resting breathing pattern previously determined by respiratory inductance plethysmography. Interchild variation in DF, measured by photometry at the mouth, was most strongly predicted by their tidal volume (Vt) (r =0.79, P < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis further showed that, for any given height and age, Vt increased with increasing body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.001). The overweight children (> or =95th percentile BMI) (n = 8) had twice the DF of those in the lowest BMI quartile (<25th percentile) (n = 9; 0.28 +/- 0.13 vs. 0.15 +/- 0.06, respectively; P < 0.02). In the same groups, resting minute ventilation was also significantly higher in the overweight children (8.5 +/- 2.2 vs. 5.9 +/- 1.1 l/min; P < 0.01). Consequently, the rate of deposition (i.e., particles depositing/time) in the overweight children was 2.8 times that of the leanest children (P < 0.02). Among all children, the rate of deposition was significantly correlated with BMI (r = 0.46, P = 0.004). These results suggest that increased weight in children may be associated with increased risk from inhalation of pollutant particles in ambient air.  (+info)

Developmental allometry of pulmonary structure and function in the altricial Australian pelican Pelecanus conspicillatus. (4/2357)

Quantitative methods have been used to correlate maximal oxygen uptake with lung development in Australian pelicans. These birds produce the largest altricial neonates and become some of the largest birds capable of flight. During post-hatching growth to adults, body mass increases by two orders of magnitude (from 88 g to 8.8 kg). Oxygen consumption rates were measured at rest and during exposure to cold and during exercise. Then the lungs were quantitatively assessed using morphometric techniques. Allometric relationships between body mass (M) and gas exchange parameters (Y) were determined and evaluated by examining the exponents of the equation Y=aM(b). This intraspecific study was compared to interspecific studies of adult birds reported in the literature. Total lung volume scales similarly in juvenile pelicans (b=1.05) as in adult birds (b=1.02). However, surface area of the blood-gas barrier greatly increases (b=1.25), and its harmonic mean thickness does not significantly change (b=0.02), in comparison to exponents from adult birds (b=0.86 and 0.07, respectively). As a result, the diffusing capacity of the blood-gas tissue barrier increases much more during development (b=1.23) than it does in adult birds of different sizes (b=0.79). It increases in parallel to maximal oxygen consumption rate (b=1.28), suggesting that the gas exchange system is either limited by lung development or possibly symmorphic. The capacity of the oxygen delivery system is theoretically sufficient for powered flight well in advance of the bird's need to use it.  (+info)

Phenotypic relationships between longevity, type traits, and production in Chianina beef cattle. (5/2357)

Longevity is an increasingly important trait in beef cattle. Increased longevity decreases costs for the farmer and increases revenue. The objective of this research was to investigate the phenotypic relationship between type traits and longevity in Chianina beef cattle, and the relationship between production and longevity, to analyze the effect of voluntary culling. Data included records on reproductive, productive, and type traits provided by the National Association of Italian Beef Cattle Breeders from 6,395 Chianina cows. The average length of productive life was 1,829 d. The herd-year had a strong effect on the risk of culling. The effects of 22 type traits were analyzed. All the muscularity traits analyzed were highly significant (P < 0.01) and as a group had the largest effect on longevity, followed by dimension, refinement, and leg traits. Cows that calved before 35 mo of age had a lower probability of being culled than cows calving after 35 mo of age. Variation in herd size had a strong effect on risk ratio, with lower risk for intermediate classes. Cows with approximately one calf per year remained in the herd longer than did cows with fewer calves. Straight-legged animals had a 59% greater probability of being replaced than cows with a moderate angle to the hock, whereas sickle-legged animals had only a 3% higher probability of being culled than average cows. Udder conformation had no effect on longevity. In summary, results of this study indicate that herd-year effects and muscularity traits were the most important factors for longevity for Chianina cows among the factors studied.  (+info)

A prospective study of body size in different periods of life and risk of premenopausal breast cancer. (6/2357)

The prevalence of obesity at all ages is increasing epidemically worldwide. Information on the association between premenopausal breast cancer and body size during childhood and teenage years is scarce. In 1991 to 1992, a prospective cohort study was assembled in Norway and Sweden. We included in the analysis presented here 99,717 premenopausal women. During the follow-up period, which ended in December 1999, 733 of these women developed a primary invasive breast cancer. Overweight and obesity [body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg/m(2)] at enrollment was associated with a decreased risk of premenopausal breast cancer (P for linear trend = 0.007). Apparent associations between perceived body shape at age 7 and BMI at age 18, with heavier builds at both ages seemingly being protective for premenopausal breast cancer risk, lost their statistical significance after adjustment for BMI at cohort enrollment. Body size at age 7 was correlated with BMI at age 18 (r = 0.43); BMI at age 18 was correlated with adult BMI (r = 0.48). Changes in body size from age 7 or 18 to adulthood did not affect per se risk of premenopausal breast cancer risk. Height was related to risk, with a statistically significantly 30% reduced risk only in women shorter than 160 cm as compared with taller ones. The decreased risk of premenopausal breast cancer was observed in overweight and obese women without, but not in those with, a family history of breast cancer.  (+info)

Microsmatic primates: reconsidering how and when size matters. (7/2357)

The terms "microsmatic" and "macrosmatic" refer to species with lesser or greater levels, respectively, of olfactory function. Historically, primates are considered microsmats (olfactory sense reduced) with a concomitant increased emphasis on vision. The olfactory bulbs (forebrain centers that receive peripheral olfactory input) are proportionately smaller in primates compared to most other mammals. Similarly, the regions of the nasal cavity that are covered with olfactory epithelium (containing receptor cells) have proportionately less surface area in primates than other mammals. Thus, the generalization that primates are microsmatic is most frequently stated in terms of the proportional rather than absolute size of olfactory structures. Yet the importance of scaling to body size is unclear in regard to the chemical senses such as the olfactory or vomeronasal systems-do chemosensory structures such as olfactory bulbs and olfactory epithelium exhibit the same neural relationship to body mass that is seen for neural tissues that supply innervation to musculature or the skin? Previous studies examining neuronal density, volume, and/or surface area of the olfactory epithelium illustrate that different conclusions may be supported based on the parameter used. Plots of olfactory bulb volume versus body mass that generated for large-scale taxonomic studies or growth studies benefit from body mass (or total brain volume) with a comparative perspective. However, our examination of proportional versus absolute measurements implies that in comparisons within taxa, body size adjustments needlessly distort the data. As a final consideration, another embryonic derivative of the nasal placode, the vomeronasal organ, may warrant consideration regarding a definition of microsomia versus macrosomia.  (+info)

The genetic covariance among clinal environments after adaptation to an environmental gradient in Drosophila serrata. (8/2357)

We examined the genetic basis of clinal adaptation by determining the evolutionary response of life-history traits to laboratory natural selection along a gradient of thermal stress in Drosophila serrata. A gradient of heat stress was created by exposing larvae to a heat stress of 36 degrees for 4 hr for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 days of larval development, with the remainder of development taking place at 25 degrees. Replicated lines were exposed to each level of this stress every second generation for 30 generations. At the end of selection, we conducted a complete reciprocal transfer experiment where all populations were raised in all environments, to estimate the realized additive genetic covariance matrix among clinal environments in three life-history traits. Visualization of the genetic covariance functions of the life-history traits revealed that the genetic correlation between environments generally declined as environments became more different and even became negative between the most different environments in some cases. One exception to this general pattern was a life-history trait representing the classic trade-off between development time and body size, which responded to selection in a similar genetic fashion across all environments. Adaptation to clinal environments may involve a number of distinct genetic effects along the length of the cline, the complexity of which may not be fully revealed by focusing primarily on populations at the ends of the cline.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of temperature on development, survival, and adult body size of two green lacewings, Mallada desjardinsi and Chrysoperla nipponensis (Neuroptera. T2 - Chrysopidae). AU - Nakahira, Kengo. AU - Nakahara, Ryoichi. AU - Arakawa, Ryo. PY - 2005/12/1. Y1 - 2005/12/1. N2 - To search for a useful biological control agent and to determine the optimal rearing conditions for the green lacewings Mallada desjardinsi and Chrysoperla nipponensis, thermal effects on development, survival, and adult body size were examined at seven constant temperatures (15.0, 17.5, 20.0, 22.5, 25.0, 27.5, and 30.0°C) with a photoperiod regime of 16L : 8D (h). The developmental zero of M. desjardinsi larvae was higher than that of C. nipponensis larvae. The developmental zeros of C. cornea and C. nipponensis in earlier reports were similar to that of C. nipponensis in the present study. On the other hand, that of M. desjardinsi in earlier studies was somewhat higher than that of M. desjardinsi in the ...
Body size is one of the most important characteristics of an organism, impacting a great variety of ecological characteristics. The influence of diet on body size has received considerable attention, with previous studies suggesting a greater tendency towards increased body size in herbivores than macro-carnivores. The earliest known herbivorous and macro-carnivorous synapsids provide an ideal case study for examining body size evolution in different dietary regimes. Sphenacomorpha contains two lineages: Edaphosauridae (some of the most abundant terrestrial herbivores in the late Carboniferous and early Permian), and Sphenacodontia (the largest and most abundant carnivores of that time). Phylogenetic comparative analyses are used to compare trait evolution in sphenacomorphs, including a Bayesian method for identifying branches along which phenotypic selection occurred. Two branches show rapid increases in body size in the late Carboniferous. The first occurred in Edaphosauridae, along the branch ...
Body size is a fundamentally important trait for fitness in many animal species because it correlates positively with survival and reproductive success. In many fish species, large females exhibit higher fecundity and produce higher quality offspring compared to small females. Similarly, male body size can affect offspring quality and early life-history traits but the importance of these effects to the reproductive biology of fish is poorly studied. The extent to which variation in reproductive success is explained by parental body size is an important research topic because size-selective fishing usually reduces the average size of reproducing adults in a population. In my dissertation, I studied the parental size effects on reproductive success in a model species (zebrafish, Danio rerio). I also studied the effects of size-selective harvesting on body size, maturation and reproductive output. Body size and condition factor were important determinants of the initiation of maturation in ...
Obesity and diabetes mellitus are well-defined risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. The impact of antecedent hyperglycemia and body size on mortality in critical ill patients in intensive care units (ICUs) may vary across their range of values. Therefore, we prospectively analyzed the relationship between in-hospital mortality and preexisting hyperglycemia and body size in critically ill ICU patients to understand how mortality varied among normal, overweight, and obese patients and those with low, intermediate, and high glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Medical history, weight, height, physiologic variables, and HbA1c were obtained during the first 24 h for patients who were consecutively admitted to the high complexity ICU of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil, from April to August 2011. The relationships between mortality and obesity and antecedent hyperglycemia were prospectively analyzed by cubic spline analysis and a Cox proportional hazards model. The study comprised 199
Obesity and diabetes mellitus are well-defined risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. The impact of antecedent hyperglycemia and body size on mortality in critical ill patients in intensive care units (ICUs) may vary across their range of values. Therefore, we prospectively analyzed the relationship between in-hospital mortality and preexisting hyperglycemia and body size in critically ill ICU patients to understand how mortality varied among normal, overweight, and obese patients and those with low, intermediate, and high glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Medical history, weight, height, physiologic variables, and HbA1c were obtained during the first 24 h for patients who were consecutively admitted to the high complexity ICU of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil, from April to August 2011. The relationships between mortality and obesity and antecedent hyperglycemia were prospectively analyzed by cubic spline analysis and a Cox proportional hazards model. The study comprised 199
View Notes - Exam 3[1] from ESSE 313 at Old Dominion. Name_Chelsea Valentine_ SPED (ESSE) 313 Date_3/18/10_ EXAM 3 1. True or False: Growth norms and trends in body size are consistent across
The origin of birds (Aves) is one of the great evolutionary transitions. Fossils show that many unique morphological features of modern birds, such as feathers, reduction in body size, and the semilunate carpal, long preceded the origin of clade Aves, but some may be unique to Aves, such as relative elongation of the forelimb. We study the evolution of body size and forelimb length across the phylogeny of coelurosaurian theropods and Mesozoic Aves. Using recently developed phylogenetic comparative methods, we find an increase in rates of body size and body size dependent forelimb evolution leading to small body size relative to forelimb length in Paraves, the wider clade comprising Aves and Deinonychosauria. The high evolutionary rates arose primarily from a reduction in body size, as there were no increased rates of forelimb evolution. In line with a recent study, we find evidence that Aves appear to have a unique relationship between body size and forelimb dimensions. Traits associated with ...
Understanding how quickly pathogens replicate and how quickly the immune system responds is important for predicting the epidemic spread of emerging pathogens. Host body size, through its correlation with metabolic rates, is theoretically predicted to impact pathogen replication rates and immune system response rates. Here, we use mathematical models of viral time courses from multiple species of birds infected by a generalist pathogen (West Nile Virus; WNV) to test more thoroughly how disease progression and immune response depend on mass and host phylogeny. We use hierarchical Bayesian models coupled with nonlinear dynamical models of disease dynamics to incorporate the hierarchical nature of host phylogeny. Our analysis suggests an important role for both host phylogeny and species mass in determining factors important for viral spread such as the basic reproductive number, WNV production rate, peak viraemia in blood and competency of a host to infect mosquitoes. Our model is based on a ...
The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) is an extension of Kleibers law and posits that the metabolic rate of organisms is the fundamental biological rate that governs most observed patterns in ecology. MTE is part of a larger set of theory known as metabolic scaling theory that attempts to provide a unified theory for the importance of metabolism in driving pattern and process in biology from the level of cells all the way to the biosphere. MTE is based on an interpretation of the relationships between body size, body temperature, and metabolic rate across all organisms. Small-bodied organisms tend to have higher mass-specific metabolic rates than larger-bodied organisms. Furthermore, organisms that operate at warm temperatures through endothermy or by living in warm environments tend towards higher metabolic rates than organisms that operate at colder temperatures. This pattern is consistent from the unicellular level up to the level of the largest animals and plants on the planet. In MTE, this ...
View Notes - Cell Quiz 2 from BIOLOGY 1305 at Baylor. David Hopkins Section 2 Quiz 2 1. The maximum size of a cell is limited by a. its need for enough surface area for exchange with its
It can be given a piece of text that is used as the initial value.. A TextField has a maximum size, which is the maximum number of characters that can be stored in the object at any time (its capacity). This limit is enforced when the TextField instance is constructed, when the user is editing text within the TextField, as well as when the application program calls methods on the TextField that modify its contents. The maximum size is the maximum stored capacity and is unrelated to the number of characters that may be displayed at any given time. The number of characters displayed and their arrangement into rows and columns are determined by the device. The implementation may place a boundary on the maximum size, and the maximum size actually assigned may be smaller than the application had requested. The value actually assigned will be reflected in the value returned by ...
BACKGROUND: Data on lifetime exposures are often self-reported in epidemiologic studies, sometimes many years after the relevant age. Validity of self-reported data is usually inferred from their agreement with measured values, but few studies directly quantify the likely effects of reporting errors in body size and reproductive history variables on estimates of disease-exposure associations. METHODS: The MRC National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD) and the Million Women Study (MWS) are UK population-based prospective cohorts. The NSHD recruited participants at birth in 1946 and has followed them at regular intervals since then, whereas the MWS recruited women in middle age. For 541 women who were participants in both studies, we used statistical measures of association and agreement to compare self-reported MWS data on body size throughout life and reproductive history, obtained in middle age, to NSHD data measured or reported close to the relevant ages. Likely attenuation of estimates of
This paper is devoted to the study of a spatially and size-structured population dynamics model with delayed birth process. Our focus is on the asymptotic behavior of the system, in particular on the effect of the spatial location and the time lag on the long-term dynamics. To this end, within a semigroup framework, we derive the locally asymptotic stability and asynchrony results respectively for the considered population system under some conditions. For our discussion, we use the approaches concerning operator matrices, Hille-Yosida operators, spectral analysis as well as Perron-Frobenius theory. We also do two numerical simulations to illustrate the obtained stability and asynchrony results.
Health, ...FRIDAY May 27 (HealthDay News) -- Your size may influence how you per...People were tricked into believing they were either the size of Barbie...The study published online May 25 in PLoS ONE found that when...This skewed perception of space was evaluated by having participants e...,,Body,Size,May,Influence,How,People,View,,the,World,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
A major constraint on the evolution of large body sizes in animals is an increased risk of developing cancer. There is no correlation, however, between body size and cancer risk. This lack of correlation is often referred to as Petos Paradox. Here, we show that the elephant genome encodes 20 copi …
Amongst complex life forms, there are two basic reproductive strategies: r-strategy, characterized by rapid development, early reproduction, small body size, and shorter lifespans, and K-strategy, characterized by slow development, delayed reproduction, large body size, and longer lifespans. Humans are obviously a K-strategy species, which means that reproductive success involves a much higher investment of the parents lifespan and resources than the r-strategy alternative. Consequently, in times of extreme scarcity, it is advantageous to forego pregnancy lest the baby dies of starvation after nine months in utero, thus wasting a significant portion of a womans fertile lifespan and perhaps leading to her demise. If humans were entirely rational the ovulation cycle wouldnt need to interrupted by an autonomic mechanism regulating estrogen levels to body fat, a proxy for prosperity. Bad news, honey, the mammoth population has crashed. Well be sleeping in separate caves for the foreseeable. ...
How to cite: Lin, K. Y., Sastri, A. R., Gong, G. C., and Hsieh, C. H.: Corrigendum to Copepod community growth rates in relation to body size, temperature, and food availability in the East China Sea: a test of metabolic theory of ecology published in Biogeoscience, 10, 1877-1892, 2013, Biogeosciences, 10, 2657-2657, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-10-2657-2013, 2013 ...
This isnt exactly my area, but if I got it right, high termal inertia is often inversely proportional to the metabolic rate (of a warm blooded animal). Graphs that display that metabolic rates rise when temperature rises is a bit another thing. Thermal inertia, afaik, is a simple physical trait that tells how much thermal energy and in what time a mass of some material can store/release (or so). This means a big mass of stuff (like an ostrich) has high termal inertia. However, high body size causes the metabolic heat to accumulate more efficiently (since a large body has a low surface area to volume ratio), and thus large animals would overheat if they had high metabolic rates. I think there is even a theoretical maximum size that an organism can become before overheating becomes a problem. Some paleontologists claim largest dinosaurs were close to this kind of maximum size for terrestial animals ...
Brain size relative to body size has been used by generations of scientists to predict an animals intelligence. For example, although the human brain is not the largest in the animal kingdom in terms of volume or mass, it is exceptionally large considering our moderate body mass.. Now, a study by a team of scientists at UCL, the University of Konstanz, and the Max Planck Institute of Ornithology has found that the relationship between the two traits is driven by different evolutionary mechanisms in different animals.. Crucially, researchers have found that the most significant factor in determining relative brain size is often evolutionary pressure on body size, and not brain size. For example, the evolutionary history of bats reveals they decreased body size much faster than brain size, leading to an increase in relative brain size. As a result, small bats were able to evolve improved flying manoeuvrability while maintaining the brainpower to handle foraging in cluttered environments.. This ...
Bergmanns rule states that mammals of a given genus or species are smaller in hotter climates, and bigger in colder climates. Adapted, when faced with
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Hypothermia and anemia: The small size of the infant and the large area of skin exposure required for the surgery places these children at risk for hypothermia during surgery. The room temperature and the infants body temperature must be maintained accordingly. Similarly, the small body size and blood volume put the child at risk for anemia unless meticulous hemostasis is accomplished. ...
The effect of the organisms body size and energy reserves in models for population dynamicss profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
Yes, size does matter, at least when it comes to Canadas collective cup collecting contest, and we have a lot of cups to prove it. Many have asked whether theres a conspiracy with the prize distribu...
Weight Loss Support - Goal weight and body size? 0.0 - H*ll...Im 51 and somewhere between 135-138. My lowest was 126 and Ive been maintaining
A new study looks at the joint associations of NAFLD and body size phenotypes with the risk for developing diabetes. How are they connected ...
FTS306 Eaton Flo-Temp Series Female Socket - 3/8 Body Size - 3/8 Hose Stem End Connection Quick Disconnect Coupling - Brass - Non Valved, provides the flow needed to cool or heat molds and die casting dies in injection molding applications. Can be used wi
One of the issues here is that warming (during the PETM) happened much slower, over 10,000 to 20,000 years to get 10 degrees hotter, whereas now were expecting it to happen over a century or two, Secord said. So theres a big difference in scale and one of the questions is, Are we going to see the same kind of response? Are animals going to be able to keep up and readjust their body sizes over the next couple of centuries ...
Generation III External Engine - Throttle body size - so, the 2002s T/A s had the LS6 intakes. ive read somewhere (tho i cant find it anymore)
k24z7 throttle body size, Jul 21, 2016 · Understanding the Throttle Body Your vehicles throttle body helps your motor by measuring the amount of airflow which enters your engine. There are two main types of throttle body systems. On older vehicles, a special cable attached to the throttle bodys moveable plates (also called butterflies) pulls them open when you step on the gas …
This theory - the Metabolic Theory of Ecology - therefore relates to many areas of great public concern including food production, conservation of populations, and global warming. However, substantial deviations from the predictions of this theory have prompted me to explore ways of improving the theory. Using data on diverse organisms ranging from microbes to mammals and also from our heated experimental ponds, I aim to test assumptions and predictions of alternative metabolic theories of ecology, including investigating: ...
The point of these drills is to develop the overall body feel that characterizes looseness. If you focus on pummeling your target or your partner, youll miss the whole point.
The point of these drills is to develop the overall body feel that characterizes looseness. If you focus on pummeling your target or your partner, youll miss the whole point.
In recent years, the centres of many towns and cities have been reshaped by urban design projects, but little attention has been paid to how these transformations are experienced everyday by users of the city. In other words: how do the users of urban centers, such as shoppers, cleaners, or workers, perceive these changes, as embodied subjects in specific material environments? This paper analyses how bodies in two intensely designed urban spaces - the shopping centre of Milton Keynes, a 1960s new town, and Bedfords recently redeveloped historic town centre - are affected by elements of the built environment. Affected is a term borrowed from Latour (2004), and the paper works with, and elaborates, some of his and others work on how bodies are effectuated by other entities. Such Latourian work pays a great deal of attention to how bodies are affected by both human and non-human entities of many kinds, and we examine how certain aspects of the built environment in these two towns affects ...
Life Cycle: Chromidina spp. have a polymorphic dixenous life cycle, with two different budding processes which are monotomy and palintomy. The adult stage, the vermiform tropho-tomont, has a maximum body length varying from 400 µm to 2,000 µm. Some rare adult stages can have an accelerated growth process. Their size increases so quickly that their length can measure up to 5,000 µm. Given their unusual extended size, these adult stages are called hypertrophonts. The tropho-tomont is uniformly ciliated and has no cytostome. It is attached through its anterior end to the host kidney tissues with its body bathing in the renal fluids, and feeds by nutriment absorption from host cells and fluids. Division by monotomy produces a single long bud from the posterior end, the apotomite, which is morphologically similar to its parent and develops into a second generation of trophotomonts after detachment and colonisation of the host kidney. Division by palintomy produces smaller buds that form a typical ...
The term of muscle car can be described as a car with large body size and oversized engine.One good example is the Chevrolet Chevelle SS,the body size is huge compared to average sportscars.Most known muscle cars are American cars.All muscle cars are rear wheel drive and most of them are coupes and convertibles,rather than four door. ...
The term of muscle car can be described as a car with large body size and oversized engine.One good example is the Chevrolet Chevelle SS,the body size is huge compared to average sportscars.Most known muscle cars are American cars.All muscle cars are rear wheel drive and most of them are coupes and convertibles,rather than four door. ...
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Sexual dimorphisms in body size are widespread throughout the animal kingdom but their underlying mechanisms are not well characterized.
The values between asterisks are what to target when using a Nanite Carnal Equalizer to adjust a specific body part. Examples: shift breasts=margay or shift cock length=lion beast. The Missing column lists any mutation locations that dont exist for that creature, reducing the number of mutations required to acquire the Total badge, and carrying forward any previous mutations when Shifted to by a Nanite Adept. For instance, If a NA shifts to Cat Girl, then to Zombie, she will still have the cat tail in her description. ,,, and Rubber Balls each only have a single mutation location, thus they are listed as missing all but... NEUT means that the mutation does not carry any inherent sexual characteristics. This means that you will maintain the organs and sizes you had previously, allowing for Cat Bois, Otter girls, and so on. Currently, this also means that any child with this mutation on their groin will be born Neuter. A note on body size/mass: the numbers are, like the rest of the organ ...
Dorsal spines (total): 3 - 4; Dorsal soft rays (total): 9-10; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 6. Body deep., maximum body depth 30.2-38.1% in SL. Dorsal profile only slightly more arched than the ventral one. Blunt snout, its length slightly greater than the eye diameter. Only the posterior barbels are present. The last unbranched ray of the dorsal fin is spinified on its inferior fourth or fifth of its length and very finely serrated on its posterior margin (Ref. 57642). ...
Objects can have rough or smooth textures and matte or shiny surfaces. The element of art that describes the darkness or lightness of an object. Value depends on how much light a surface reflects. Value is also one of the three properties of color. The element of art that refers to the emptiness or area between, around, above, or within objects. Shapes and forms are defined by space around and within them. Principle of Art that makes on part of a work dominant over the other parts. The element that is noticed first is called dominant; the elements noticed later are called subordinate. The principle of art used to create the look and feeling of action and to guide the viewers eyes throughout the work of art. The principle of art that creates unity by stressing the similarities of separate but related parts Principle of art concerned with difference or contrast Principle of art concerned with with the size relationships of one part to another. Principle of art concerned with equalizing visual ...
12 P P PP P Glu PresynapticTermi nal Glu Ca ++ GLUR (Group- I ) iGLUR GLUR (Group- II,III ) GPCR ATP cAMP CamK- II CamK- IV CamK- II Calm PKC DAG IP3RIP3R PKC c-Raf MEKs Akt ERK1/2 p90RSK S133 CBP p300 Co-factor RNA Pol- II Gene Expression Gene Expression PKA GsGs GG GG GG GG GG GG GG GG GG Growth Factors Growth Factors Growth Factor Receptor Growth Factor Receptor TF II B CREB Pathway Neuron PLC TATA CRE SRE P Elk1 CREBCREB CREBCREB TBP Hormones/ Neurotransmitters IP3 PI3K GRB2 SOS Ac PI CaCn Ras 2009 ProteinLounge.com 2009 ProteinLounge.com C The molecular brain! ...
One of my favorite papers from last year was the analysis by Adamowicz et al (PNAS) of an apparent trend towards increasing complexity within the Crustacea. Evolutionary biologists have long been fascinated by trends, and many have at least some familiarity with Copes Rule, the proposed trend towards increasing body size within lineages. Adamowicz and colleagues looked at complexity within multiple lineages of crustaceans, from the Cambrian to the present. They found that many indices of complexity, including number and disparity of limb types as well as disparity of limb form, generally showed parallel increases in complexity through time.. The very issue of whether complexity is a trend has been controversial (e.g., McShea 1996). Moreover, some might complain that this smacks too much of orthogenesis or progressionism for their tastes. And what do we mean by complexity, anyway? These issues have been and will continue to be debated in the literature. But one of the neatest things about the ...
A prognostic model developed using a machine learning approach may be able to identify African American patients with breast cancer who have an increased risk of death, according to results of a study presented by Bhattarai et al at the 11th AACR Conference on The Science of Cancer Health.... ...
At the heart of our analysis is a theorem that shows that matrices that preserve the Euclidean norm of sparse vectors (a.k.a. RIP matrices), when multiplied by a random sign pattern preserve the Euclidean norm of any set. Roughly stated, linear transforms that provide low distortion embedding of sparse vectors also allow low distortion embedding of any set! We believe that our result provides a rigorous justification for replacing slow Gaussian matrices with fast and computationally friendly matrices in many scientific and engineering disciplines. Indeed, in a companion paper [18] we utilize our results in this paper to develop sharp rates of convergence for various optimization problems involving such matrices. ...
In addition to their low cost, strong seals, and tamper-evidence, a tamper-evident shrink band can provide a quality packaging seal without interfering with a professional product appearance. To ensure proper fit, measure the widest diameter, including any flanges or curves, of the cap and container. The minimum and maximum sizes listed are the approximate bottle/cap diameter dimensions that the shrink bands lay flat dimensions will fit. Choose between 1 (25mm) or 2 (52mm) band heights, taking into consideration some of the height will lip over the top of the cap.
The result is displayed by a network graph and a table. Nodes in the network show categories of KEGG or GO, and node color of enriched category varies yellow to red (p-value , 0.05, yellow shows high and red shows low). The blue node shows root category of network. Each node size reflects the number of selected proteins in the differential expression analysis. However, the size of white node and root node is limited up to the maximum size of enriched nodes colored from yellow to red to make network layout clearer ...
The result is displayed by a network graph and a table. Nodes in the network show categories of KEGG or GO, and node color of enriched category varies yellow to red (p-value , 0.05, yellow shows high and red shows low). The blue node shows root category of network. Each node size reflects the number of selected proteins in the differential expression analysis. However, the size of white node and root node is limited up to the maximum size of enriched nodes colored from yellow to red to make network layout clearer ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Predator−prey body size relationships of cod in a low-diversity marine system. AU - Niiranen, Susa. AU - Orio, Alessandro. AU - Bartolino, Valerio. AU - Bergström, Ulf. AU - Kallasvuo, Meri. AU - Neuenfeldt, Stefan. AU - Ustups, Didzis. AU - Casini, Michele. PY - 2019. Y1 - 2019. N2 - How predators select their prey largely defines ecosystem trophic structure, function and dynamics. In aquatic systems, organism body size is an important trait explaining predator− prey interactions. Here, we used a unique Atlantic cod Gadus morhua stomach content dataset with diet information from over 100 000 individuals collected from the Baltic Sea in 1963−2014, to explore prey size distribution and predator−prey mass ratios in the diet of Eastern Baltic cod. Maximum and average prey sizes increased with predator size, as for cod in other systems. However, the prey size spectra found in Eastern Baltic cod stomachs reflect the low species diversity in the Baltic Sea. In general, Eastern ...
Body size is correlated with many species traits such as morphology, physiology, life history and abundance as well; it is one of the most discussed topics in macroecological studies. The aim of this paper was to analyze the body size distribution of Chrysomelidae, caught with Malaise traps during two years in four areas with different levels of conservation in the Araucaria Forest, Paraná, Brazil, determining if body size is a good predictor of abundance, and if body size could be used to indicate environmental quality. Body size was considered the total length of the specimen from the anterior region of head to the apex of abdomen/elytron. Measurements were taken for up to ten specimens of each species for each area and for all specimens of those species represented by fewer than ten individuals. The highest abundance and richness of Chrysomelidae were obtained in the lowest body size classes. This herbivorous group showed a trend toward a decrease in body size with increasing abundance, but
Effects of Target Plant Species Body Size on Neighbourhood Species Richness and Composition in Old-Field Vegetation. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Myopia development is characterised by an increased axial eye length. Therefore, identifying factors that influence eye size may provide new insights into the aetiology of myopia. In humans, axial length is positively correlated to height and weight, and in mice, eye weight is positively correlated with body weight. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between eye size and body size in chickens from a genetic cross in which alleles with major effects on eye and body size were segregating. Chickens from a cross between a layer line (small body size and eye size) and a broiler line (large body and eye size) were interbred for 10 generations so that alleles for eye and body size would have the chance to segregate independently. At 3 weeks of age, 510 chicks were assessed using in vivo high resolution A-scan ultrasonography and keratometry. Equatorial eye diameter and eye weight were measured after enucleation. The variations in eye size parameters that could be explained by ...
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Sexual size dimorphisms are a common feature in living organisms. The broad horned flour beetle (Gnathocerus cornutus) exhibits a pronounced sexual size dimorphism of the mandibles. It has been shown that enlarged mandibles in males are used in regular fights among males. While this behaviour is well-studied, the developmental basis of exaggerated mandible growth in males is not understood to date. We will apply comparative transcriptomics in combination with a comprehensive developmental characterization of mandible growth to identify key candidate genes involved in this process. Subsequently, candidate genes will be functionally tested via gene knock-down using RNA interference (RNAi). ...
Drosophila melanogaster shows geographic clines in body size, with genetically larger flies being found further from the equator and at higher altitudes. In the laboratory, evolution at lower temperatures results in genetically larger flies, and development at low temperature increases adult body size. This study demonstrates that when newly hatched larvae from laboratory temperature selection lines were raised on fixed amounts of food (yeast) at the same temperature, larvae from the lines with the cold evolutionary history required less food to produce a given size of adult. Larvae from both high- and low-temperature selection lines required more food, however, to make a given size of adult when grown in the cold than when grown in the hot. The opposite associations between growth efficiency and adult body size seen with evolution or development at low temperature are puzzling, and suggest that different mechanisms may underlie the size changes. Since environmental and evolutionary effects of ...
Fosters rule (also known as the island rule) is a hypothesis that mammals change their size on islands depending on resources available in their environment.. In 1964, a biologist named J. Bristol Foster documented the tendency for mammal populations on islands to have body sizes that are different from their mainland counterparts. Specifically, large mammals seem to shrink (dwarfism), while small mammals appear to enlarge (gigantism). This initial observation led to the formulation of the island rule hypothesis, which states that, on an isolated, insular environment where large predators are limited or absent, small mammals would become bigger to exploit a wider range of resources, move greater distances, enhance metabolic efficiency, and better fend off competitors. On the other hand, large mammals would reduce in size to decrease resource intake, increase reproductive rate, and better cope with stressful conditions.. While scientists today agree on some general conclusions of the ...
Similar to earlier reports in non-Hispanic white women, we found that early-life body size influences risk of premenopausal breast cancer in Hispanic women. There was a more consistent pattern of inverse associations for relative weight than for body build. U.S.-born controls were more likely than foreign-born controls to report large childhood and adolescent body size, and particularly strong inverse associations with relative weight were found in U.S.-born women and women with a current BMI ≥25 kg/m2. We found no associations with childhood or adolescent body size in postmenopausal women, except for some suggestive inverse associations in U.S.-born women not currently using HT.. Consistent with our findings, the only other study that reported on adolescent body size and breast cancer risk in Hispanic women also found a suggestive inverse association with high BMI (≥22.5 vs. , 18.2) at age 15 years (OR = 0.65, 95% 0.39-1.08, Ptrend = 0.09; ref. 20). Our findings for premenopausal breast ...
In order to determine treeshrew body size from populations on the Malay Peninsula and 13 offshore islands, the researchers measured 260 specimens collected over the past 122 years and housed in six natural history museums in Europe and North America. They tested multiple variables, analyzing how island size, distance from the mainland, maximum sea depth between the mainland and the islands, and latitude relate to body size in the treeshrew populations. They found that the island rule and Bergmanns rule, which are rarely tested together, do not apply to common treeshrews. ...
The size and trophic structure of fluvial fish communities are driven by energy availability, competition, energy loss through trophic transfers, predation, and predator gape limitations. Size and trophic analyses can provide important information about overall food web structure and function of fish communities. Fish community assemblages were sampled in three tributaries of the Saginaw Bay watershed, Lake Huron in 2011 and 2012. We used a combination of community size-spectra (CSS, log abundance x log body-size regression), stable isotope, and trophic guild analyses to test the hypotheses that fluvial fish communities will be (a) strongly size-structured and (b) that variation in trophic guild composition will influence the community size-structure. Preliminary analyses indicate that the fish communities are strongly size-structured (mean CSS slope = -2.24), and there is a negative correlation between piscivores and Cyprinids (r = -0.64) and piscivores and large bodied low trophic position ...
Darwinian fitness in holometabolous insects like the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is reported to be positively correlated with body size. If large individuals in a population have higher fitness, then one would expect directional selection to operate leading to uniformly large individuals. However, size polymorphism persists in nature and needs further probing. We assessed the effect of body size on some of the fitness and fitness-related traits in replicate populations of genotypically large, genotypically small and phenotypically small D. melanogaster flies. In this study, the time taken to attain reproductive maturity and copulation duration were independent of fly size. Fecundity and longevity of large females were significantly higher when they partnered genotypically small males than when they were with genotypically larger or phenotypically small males. The increased female longevity when in association with genotypically small males was not due to selective early death of males that ...
Understanding the patterns of genetic variation of traits subject to sexual selection is fundamental for explaining its evolutionary dynamics and potential for sexual coevolution. The signa of female Lepidoptera are sclerotized structures located on the inner surface of the genital receptacle that receives the spermatophore during copulation (the corpus bursae), whose main function is tearing the spermatophore envelope. Comparative data indicate that the evolution of signa has been influenced by sexually antagonistic coevolution with spermatophore envelopes. We looked for additive genetic variation in the size and shape of signa in females of the butterfly Callophrys xami (Lycaenidae) from two localities (BG and FC) in Mexico City. We also looked for genetic variation in female body size and in the size of corpus bursae. There were significant between-population differences in female body size, signa width and three signa shape traits. We found significant extranuclear maternal effects in one component
Global warming impacts virtually all biota and ecosystems. Many of these impacts are mediated through direct effects of temperature on individual vital rates. Yet how this translates from the individual to the population level is still poorly understood, hampering the assessment of global warming impacts on population structure and dynamics. Here, we study the effects of temperature on intraspecific competition and cannibalism, and the population dynamical consequences in a size-structured fish population. We use a physiologically structured consumer-resource model in which we explicitly model the temperature dependencies of the consumer vital rates and the resource population growth rate. Our model predicts that increased temperature decreases resource density despite higher resource growth rates, reflecting stronger intraspecific competition among consumers. At a critical temperature, the consumer population dynamics destabilize and shift from a stable equilibrium to competition-driven generation
TELLES ANTONIO, Ricardo et al. Accumulated carbon estimation in Gmelina arborea Roxb. from Tlatlaya, Estado de México with allometric equations. Rev. mex. de cienc. forestales [online]. 2019, vol.10, n.55, pp.135-153. Epub 14-Fev-2020. ISSN 2007-1132. https://doi.org/10.29298/rmcf.v10i55.593.. Based on the carbon storage capacity of forest species, the accumulated carbon in an eight ha plantation, of Gmelina arborea of different ages, established in 2014, was estimated by means of mensuration variables and allometric equations; This plantation is located in Tlatlaya, State of Mexico, at 694 masl, with a slope of 40 % and a density of 1 040 ha-1 trees. Work was carried out on eight permanent circular sampling plots of 400 m2 and a radius of 11.28 m, in which 207 trees were counted in total. An analysis of variance was performed and compared with the Tukey means test (p ,0.05). The results indicate that the increase in DAP was 0.75 cm and the height of 0.54 m in the measurement period (six ...
Isometry icons of the emotions of men, 3d business men, CEO, lawyer. Expression of face, hairstyle. Qualitative isometry of people for vector illustrations. Download a Free Preview or High Quality Adobe Illustrator Ai, EPS, PDF and High Resolution JPEG versions..
Rapporteur: Grant McIntyre. Copes Rule states that body size increases during the evolutionary history of a lineage. This may be true from certain perspectives but is no longer generally accepted. The lecture examined several studies on the evolution of body size that shed light on the prevalence of exceptions to Copes Rule and concluded with a discussion of reasons for the apparent support for the rule.. The focal paper (Pianka 1995) used Felsensteins method of independent contrasts to evaluate the evolution of body size of varanid (monitor) lizards. This method requires a phylogeny which was developed in this case using immunological distances determine by microcomplement fixation. The phylogeny matched species distributions fairly well but was not rooted since no available outgroup cross-reacted immunologically with the ingroup. Within varanids there are examples of the evolution of both larger and smaller size. The main problem with the paper was that lack of an outgroup precluded ...
The evolution of body size has been the focus of countless studies, not only in palaeontology but also in evolutionary biology using data from extant animals (or neontology as palaeontologists would say). While some colleagues have argued recently that body size is not necessarily a good trait to study, nonetheless, it still stands that body size is an important factor of fundamental biological phenomena, including metabolism, physiology, biomechanics, and ecology. For instance, the largest source of variance in biomechanical performance measures like bite force is body size - a lions bite force is an order or two higher in magnitude than that of a domestic cat just purely out of simple scaling. Similarly, prey size categories, such as large, medium/mixed and small, are highly affected by predator body size - obviously a tabby cannot kill an ox while a lion or a tiger can. Thus, body size is not only an important biological trait, but necessarily a fundamental physical trait ...
The evolution of body size has been the focus of countless studies, not only in palaeontology but also in evolutionary biology using data from extant animals (or neontology as palaeontologists would say). While some colleagues have argued recently that body size is not necessarily a good trait to study, nonetheless, it still stands that body size is an important factor of fundamental biological phenomena, including metabolism, physiology, biomechanics, and ecology. For instance, the largest source of variance in biomechanical performance measures like bite force is body size - a lions bite force is an order or two higher in magnitude than that of a domestic cat just purely out of simple scaling. Similarly, prey size categories, such as large, medium/mixed and small, are highly affected by predator body size - obviously a tabby cannot kill an ox while a lion or a tiger can. Thus, body size is not only an important biological trait, but necessarily a fundamental physical trait ...
Miniaturisation in amphibians - evolutionary specialisation. Amphibians exhibit vast ranges in body size ranging from just 7 mm long in the smallest known species (Paedophryne amanuensis) to 33 cm in the largest frog (Conraua goliath), which represents a 250 fold increase in size. Different body sizes come with distinct advantages and disadvantages. Large amphibians have fewer predators, a lower metabolic rate, and they can more easily maintain their temperature and hydration than small amphibians. Smaller amphibians, although being more prone to predation, are better equipped to hide more easily, exploit alternative food sources, use physically smaller niches, and attain reproductive ability at an earlier age (Leavy & Heald, 2015). By being very small, individuals are able to fully utilise habitat patches and consume the smallest prey, which are also the most numerous. However, living at such small sizes puts constraints on biological processes and as a result, miniature amphibians have evolved ...
Encephalization quotient (EQ) or encephalization level is a relative brain size measure that is defined as the ratio between actual brain mass and predicted brain mass for an animal of a given size, which may approximate intelligence level or cognition of the species. This is a more refined measurement than the raw brain-to-body mass ratio, as it takes into account allometric effects. The relationship, expressed as a formula, has been developed for mammals, and may not yield relevant results when applied outside this group. Additionally to volume, mass or cell count, the energy expenditure of the brain could be compared with that of the rest of the body. Brain size usually increases with body size in animals (is positively correlated), i.e. large animals usually have larger brains than smaller animals. The relationship is not linear, however. Generally, small mammals have relatively larger brains than big ones. Mice have a direct brain/body size ratio similar to humans (1/40), while elephants ...
The importance of non-genetic parental effects on offspring attributes depended on the specific life-history trait examined. The effect of parental body condition on juvenile size lasted for more than 29 days post-hatching regardless of juvenile diet. By contrast, parental effects influenced the survival of juveniles in the low-food treatment, but had no effect in the high-food treatment. This demonstrates that the importance of parental history on the fitness of offspring can be highly dependent on the environmental conditions that juveniles experience and is likely to be most important when offspring encounter unfavourable or stressful conditions.. We found that the differences in size at hatching were maintained for over four weeks, which has potentially important implications for offspring fitness. Many reef fishes suffer exceptionally high mortality rates during early life (Almany & Webster 2006), which can be selective for size (McCormick & Meekan 2007) or body condition (Hoey & McCormick ...
Butler, R. J. and Goswami, A. (2008) Body size evolution in Mesozoic birds: little evidence for Copes rule. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 21 (6). pp. 1673-1682. DOI 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2008.01594.x Sanchez-Villagra, M. R. and Goswami, A. and Weisbecker, V. and Mock, O. and Kuratani, S. (2008) Conserved relative timing of cranial ossification patterns in early mammalian evolution. Evolution & Development, 10 (5). pp. 519-530. DOI 10.1111/j.1525-142X.2008.00267.x Goswami, A. and Weisbecker, V. and Sanchez-Villagra, MR (2008) Developmental Modularity and the Marsupial-Placental Dichotomy. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology. Weisbecker, V. and Goswami, A. and Wroe, S. and Sanchez-Villagra, M. R. (2008) Ossification heterochrony in the therian postcranial skeleton and the marsupial-placental. Evolution, 62 (8). pp. 2027-2041. DOI 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2008.00424.x ...
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Free Online Library: Built to swim: Michael Phelps won eight gold medals in this summers Olympic Games alone. The only swim-savvy feature Phelps seems to lack is gills!(LIFE: HUMAN BODY, Cover story) by Science World; Science and technology, general Education Body size Influence Body weights and measures Swimmers Achievements and awards Physiological aspects
The carnivorous Tyrannosauridae are among the most iconic dinosaurs: typified by large body size, tiny forelimbs, and massive robust skulls with laterally thickened teeth. The recently described small-bodied tyrannosaurid Raptorex kreigsteini is exceptional as its discovery proposes that many of the distinctive anatomical traits of derived tyrannosaurids were acquired in the Early Cretaceous, before the evolution of large body size. This inference depends on two core interpretations: that the holotype (LH PV18) derives from the Lower Cretaceous of China, and that despite its small size, it is a subadult or young adult. Here we show that the published data is equivocal regarding stratigraphic position and that ontogenetic reanalysis shows there is no reason to conclude that LH PV18 has reached this level of maturity. The probable juvenile status of LH PV18 makes its use as a holotype unreliable, since diagnostic features of Raptorex may be symptomatic of its immature status, rather than its ...
The carnivorous Tyrannosauridae are among the most iconic dinosaurs: typified by large body size, tiny forelimbs, and massive robust skulls with laterally thickened teeth. The recently described small-bodied tyrannosaurid Raptorex kreigsteini is exceptional as its discovery proposes that many of the distinctive anatomical traits of derived tyrannosaurids were acquired in the Early Cretaceous, before the evolution of large body size. This inference depends on two core interpretations: that the holotype (LH PV18) derives from the Lower Cretaceous of China, and that despite its small size, it is a subadult or young adult. Here we show that the published data is equivocal regarding stratigraphic position and that ontogenetic reanalysis shows there is no reason to conclude that LH PV18 has reached this level of maturity. The probable juvenile status of LH PV18 makes its use as a holotype unreliable, since diagnostic features of Raptorex may be symptomatic of its immature status, rather than its ...
The carnivorous Tyrannosauridae are among the most iconic dinosaurs: typified by large body size, tiny forelimbs, and massive robust skulls with laterally thickened teeth. The recently described small-bodied tyrannosaurid Raptorex kreigsteini is exceptional as its discovery proposes that many of the distinctive anatomical traits of derived tyrannosaurids were acquired in the Early Cretaceous, before the evolution of large body size. This inference depends on two core interpretations: that the holotype (LH PV18) derives from the Lower Cretaceous of China, and that despite its small size, it is a subadult or young adult. Here we show that the published data is equivocal regarding stratigraphic position and that ontogenetic reanalysis shows there is no reason to conclude that LH PV18 has reached this level of maturity. The probable juvenile status of LH PV18 makes its use as a holotype unreliable, since diagnostic features of Raptorex may be symptomatic of its immature status, rather than its ...
Unfortunately there is no one simple formula you can apply here, each factor can vary greatly. For example a house cat on a carpet where they can dig their claws in is incredibly agile, the same cat trying to make a sharp turn on polished wooden flooring could well slide into the wall. We can discuss each factor though.. Muscle Power. Larger animals have more power available, the raw strength increases with the square of size (as its the cross section of the muscle) but total power does increase with the cube of size (as its the volume of the muscle) so larger animals can end up with plenty of power to work with so long as their tendons and bones can take the strain.. Traction. Claws and hooves are common adaptions to increase traction but you are still limited by the surface area of your feet. Larger animals become increasingly susceptible to problems getting traction and are able to slip and fall more easily unless they can grip something with their claws.. Mass. Mass increases with the cube ...
In a wider sense, an improper rotation may be defined as any indirect isometry; i.e., an element of E(3)\E+(3): thus it can also be a pure reflection in a plane, or have a glide plane. An indirect isometry is an affine transformation with an orthogonal matrix that has a determinant of −1. A proper rotation is an ordinary rotation. In the wider sense, a proper rotation is defined as a direct isometry; i.e., an element of E+(3): it can also be the identity, a rotation with a translation along the axis, or a pure translation. A direct isometry is an affine transformation with an orthogonal matrix that has a determinant of 1. In either the narrower or the wider senses, the composition of two improper rotations is a proper rotation, and the composition of an improper and a proper rotation is an improper rotation. ...
In this large, prospective study of older women, multiple body size measures were positively associated with incident CRC. Our findings do not support the previously proposed theory that weight status has limited, if any, influence on CRC risk among women after menopause (32). Rather, these data strongly suggest that increased body size represents a potentially modifiable CRC risk factor in this demographic subgroup. Further investigation of when increased body size has the greatest effect on CRC risk (i.e., early adulthood versus later adulthood) might also be informative, particularly with respect to defining subsite-specific pathways of colorectal carcinogenesis.. Previous studies of general obesity and CRC risk among women have typically observed weak or null associations, as recently reviewed (33-35). In a recent meta-analysis of data from 21 prospective studies, Larsson et al. (6) estimated a 12% higher colon cancer risk (RR = 1.12; 95% CI = 1.07-1.18) for every 5 kg/m2 increment in women. ...
During my days, I dont take even a single sip of alcoholic drinks. Though it was very late when I found out that I am pregnant with Elijah. Taking a risk wont do anything, it will just lengthen my pain. As what I had said in my previous post, I may surely satisfy myself in my vices but it wont contribute any good to me and my sons health.. Drinking alcoholic drinks during pregnancy can cause serious mental and physical defects in you and your unborn child.. Your baby my have small body size and health circumference, nearsightedness, flattened cheekbones, smaller eye openings, deformed ribs, hip dislocations, heart and kidney defects, learning disabilities, genital malformations, facial abnormalities and many more.. It is never right to drink alcoholic drinks during pregnancy. Dont take a risk for your babys future.. ...
Many unicellular eukaryotes can persist without meiotic sex over very long periods, though real clonality seems to be extremely rare even in single-celled organisms [3,6]. Even pathogenic microbial eukaryotes require sex as a genomic repair tool upon encountering the hosts defence [78]. Unicellular eukaryotes face the problem that meiosis is a time and energy-consuming process, lasting several hours in which other cellular activities have to be put on hold. Moreover, having just one nucleus means that an erroneous meiosis probably is lethal for offspring. The first problem is sometimes met by differentiating two nuclei, one vegetative macronucleus for protein-transcription and cell functions and one generative micronucleus for meiosis and reproduction (e.g. in extant ciliates like Tetrahymena, [79]). Mixis, as the second component of sex, requires reachable mating partners with homologous genomes, but small organisms cannot move far. Small body size could make sex costly [9]. With regard to ...
Bamaxiang pig is from Guangxi province in China, characterized by its small body size and two-end black coat colour. It is an… Expand ...
Scaling left ventricular (LV) mass and other cardiac dimensions to account for individual body size is important. The traditional method of simple ratio scaling using, for example, body surface area (BSA) assumes a linear and proportional relationship and accurate measurement of both LV mass and BSA. These assumptions can be questioned; hence, we examined the appropriateness of methods and different indices using highly accurate magnetic resonance imaging scans. Cardiac and whole-body scans were performed in 172 young, healthy, male subjects (age range, 17-28 years) to assess LV mass, volume, linear dimensions, lean body mass and fat mass. Height, body mass and BSA were determined anthropometrically. Relationships were examined for linearity and closeness of fit using log-log least-squares linear regression to determine the slope exponent b (where 1.0 indicates linearity). The relationship between LV mass and lean body mass (b=.90+/-.15; r(2)=.66) was linear and geometrically consistent. This was also
A system property controls the maximum size of a message body before the instance stops processing inbound email actions. In some situations, an email message may contain more information in the body than the instances data policy permits a field
Pygmy Growth Curves: A Comparative Approach. In most human populations, a large portion of variance in stature can be accounted for by nutritional status . Nutritional studies worldwide have shown the predictability of the growth response to stress-societies with very high caloric budgets show significant secular trends toward earlier growth cessation, faster body growth, and increased size, whereas populations under nutritional stress normally reduce growth rates, delay growth cessation, and show smaller adult body sizes . To test whether the growth pattern of pygmies is characteristic of nutritionally impaired populations, growth curves were constructed for the Aeta and compared with those for the Biaka and Agta pygmies and compared with the lower percentiles of the U.S. growth distribution, representing undernourished individuals who grow only to average adult pygmy size (women HEIGHT = 140 cm, corresponding to the 0.01th percentile of the U.S. distribution). The curves show that pygmies ...
Many of the key ideas currently underlying MTE have a long history. The idea that the amount of surface area available for thermal exchange might constrain metabolic rate dates at least to Rubner (1883). The links between fractal geometry, scale invariance and natural design owes much to the insights of DArcy Thompson (1917) and Mandelbrot (1977). The use of a simplified pipe model to describe the scaling properties of plants is almost 50 years old (Shinozaki et al. 1964). The use of normalisation by mass to uncover life-history traits was extensively explored in a series of seminal works on the importance of scale in biology during the 1980s (Peters 1983; Calder 1984; Schmidt-Nielsen 1984). Work on the relationship between size, metabolism and a suite of allometric traits in plants was advanced by Niklas (1994b,a). Temperature has long been known to influence metabolism at multiple scales of ecological organisation from individuals to ecosystems (Rosenzweig 1968).. The insight of MTE was to ...
Washington D.C. , Jan. 05 : Parents please take note! A study has recently found that overweight children, especially boys, are more likely to underestimate their body size, which can make it difficult to address the issue and to take necessary steps to attain a healthier body..
We test for effects of thermal stress applied to pupal flies from Noumea (New Caledonia) and Taipei (Taiwan) on developmental instability (DI) in the male sex comb of Drosophila bipectinata, as well as on pre‐adult survivorship and adult body size. The temperature treatments were Low (25 °C), High (29 °C) and Variable (18 h at 29 °C, 6 h at 34 °C). Although the Variable treatment reduced survivors ...
Another project done by Maria and Izzy focused on the correlation between body size and chewing rate. For data collection, Maria and Izzy measured the chewing rate of various herbivores. Along with the help of the other students, Izzy and Maria were able to collect an average chewing rate from 5 domesticated species found in Ileret. To predict the body size of the various herbivores, they also measured the length of the second molar (M2) from skulls in the lab. By putting together both the chewing rate and the body size estimates, they were able to see the relationship between chewing rate and body size for all 5 species. To learn more about this project, check out TA Deming Yangs latest blog found here!. ...
Nutrition and growth rate are considered to be important environmental factors related to CHD. There is strong evidence, from a number of studies, that dogs who are overfed, and gain weight too rapidly, are predisposed to CHD. This seems to be most important for large or giant breeds in the first 6 months of life. There is good evidence that puppies who grow more slowly have less chance of acquiring CHD. The final adult body size of these puppies is about the same as puppies who grow more quickly. Therefore, feeding premium puppy-foods, free-choice to puppies, is NOT recommended, especially with large breed dogs. Additionally, providing vitamin or calcium supplements, is NOT recommended for puppies who are fed a balanced nutritionally complete dog food. Most reputable dog foods, even those for adult dogs, have all the vitamins and minerals puppies need. Veterinarians, or veterinary nutritionists, should be consulted when deciding how much of what food is safe to feed the growing puppy ...
Luv Tyagi Plastic Surgery Before and After photos, Luv Tyagi Measurements, Body Size, Luv Tyagi chest Size, cosmetics surgery, body transformation
Different normalizations for body size and population attributable risk of left ventricular hypertrophy: The MAVI study Academic Article ...
Hoodiagordonii Join our community. Size matters. Herbal My specialize in supplying special featured herbal medecines, developed to improve your life and makes better your health. We offer 161 products in our store. How did oprah lose weight 13Want to Lose Weight and Belly Fat Fast in Nigeria? - Start ....
Weight loss join our community. Size matters. Fav Store specialize in supplying special featured herbal medecines, developed to improve your life and makes better your health. We offer 62 Products in our store. FormulationsPatent US20120142532 - Low volatility auxin herbicide ....
Flotrol Join our community. Size matters. Herbal My specialize in supplying special featured herbal medecines, developed to improve your life and makes better your health. We offer 161 products in our store. Female urethal dilatationUrethral Diverticula: Background, History of the Procedure ....
... body size; location in host and types of hosts. Moravec, František; Justine, Jean-Lou (2008). "Some philometrid nematodes ( ...
... "meat body". These 'perceptics' are: Time, Sight; Taste, Color, Depth; Solidity (barriers); Relative sizes (external); Sound; ... Church of Scientology, The State of Operating Thetan The "immortality" referred to is not immortality of the body, but of the ... The Scientologist touches the person's body in a set manner, avoiding sexual areas, and asks the recipient of the process, who ... The deceased person] was thoughtless enough to dispose of his body and go out of communication. A person sometimes feels pretty ...
I'm not dependent on my physical body to perceive things." The Church of Scientology's in-house magazine Source has promoted ... Relative sizes (external); Sound; Pitch; Tone; Volume; Rhythm; Smell; Touch (pressure, friction, heat or cold and oiliness); ... body); Fields/magnetic; Time track motion; Physical energy (personal weariness, etc.); Self-determinism; Moisture (self); Sound ... Body position; Joint position; Internal temperature; External temperature; Balance; Muscular tension; Saline content of self ( ...
Christer Björkman; Karl Gotthard; Mats W. Pettersson (2009). "Body Size". In Timothy D. Schowalter (ed.). Insect Ecology: An ... They have body lengths from 0.13 to 5.4 mm (0.0051 to 0.2126 in), typically 0.5 to 1.0 mm (0.020 to 0.039 in). Their bodies are ... Their bodies are smaller than a single-celled Paramecium. Four males, lined up end-to-end, would just about encompass the width ... Because of their small sizes they have to exit the water by climbing up plant stems that jut through the surface, as they would ...
Kleiber, Max (1932). "Body size and metabolism". Hilgardia. 6 (11): 315-353. doi:10.3733/hilg.v06n11p315. CS1 maint: ...
"Asteroid Size Estimator". CNEOS NASA/JPL. Retrieved 16 February 2018. de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R. " ... List Of Aten Minor Planets "2012 XE133". JPL Small-Body Database. Jet Propulsion Laboratory. SPK-ID: 3620867. Retrieved 3 April ... Summary 2012 XE133 at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · ...
... these individuals can reach a large enough body size to survive through the winter. Increased body size is also associated with ... Growth rate and body size have important ecological implications, such as how they impact an organism's survival, life history ... Levins first used the term when describing patterns of body size across an altitudinal gradient in populations of Drosophila, ... Drosophila melanogaster - body size; altitude Menidia menidia - growth; latitude Lithobates clamitans - developmental rate; ...
Food scarcity at depths greater than 400 m is also thought to be a factor, since larger body size can improve ability to forage ... Kleiber, M. (1947). "Body Size and Metabolic Rate". Physiological Reviews. 27 (4): 511-541. doi:10.1152/physrev.1947.27.4.511. ... A deepwater stingray, which can reach up to 2.7 m × 1.5 m (8 ft 10 in × 4 ft 11 in) in size. Cephalopod size Dwarfing Island ... both of which lead to an increase in maximum body size (continued growth throughout life is characteristic of crustaceans). In ...
Fecundity increases with body size. Females normally deposit between 10 and 30 eggs under logs, moss or rocks located ... The tail is less than half its body length and is normally lighter in colour in comparison to the body. Adults attain lengths ... Current data does not allow an accurate estimate of population size or trends. That said, the total adult population size of ... Clutch size has been known to vary geographically and can be as large as forty-five, or as few as eight. Females remain with ...
"Bra Cup Sizes-Getting Fitted with the Right Size". 1stbras.com. Archived from the original on 18 February 2010. Retrieved 11 ... She told People that it's about "the body shaming and sexualizing of women." "Wearing a bra is a personal choice. It's my body ... Large cup size has been correlated with an increase in shoulder and neck pain. One researcher found that 40% of women who rode ... Women tend to find a bra that appears to fit and stay with that size for a long period of time even though they may lose and ...
... is a small fox with wide ears and a long, bushy tail nearly equal to the length of its body. Its body size often ... body lengths 42 cm, tail 32.5 cm. Among all extant canids, only the fennec fox is smaller than Blanford's. The body is brownish ... The tail is the same colour as the body. A black spot is found at the base of the spine. The tip of the tail is normally black ... Neonates are born with soft, black fur, with an estimated body mass of 29 g. At the age of two months, the kits start to forage ...
Body size and shape varies widely. The group includes the small, oval sea gooseberries found on both Atlantic and Pacific ...
"Measuring Brain Size versus Body Size". Serendip Studio. Serendip. Retrieved 24 July 2018. McDaniel, V. R. (1976). "Brain ... Its bite force is predicted to measure 80-100 Newtons based on its body size and canine teeth characteristics. It has been ... The brain is large relative to the body; at 1:67, its brain-to-body mass ratio is higher than that of cats and dogs. The ... are short relative to its body size. The wings are wide, though, creating a large surface area. Its wingtips are rounded and ...
Body cylindrical. Dorsal scales smooth, without pits. Tail very short, obtuse. Subcaudals in two rows. *) Not including the ... Maxillary very short, with five teeth gradually increasing in size and followed, after an interspace, by a large grooved fang ... Mandibular teeth decreasing in size posteriorly. Head small, not distinct from neck; eye minute, with round pupil; nostril in a ...
... target body ephemeris, size and shape; instrument field-of-view size, shape and orientation; specifications for reference ...
In a 2007 analysis it was shown that, when modern statistical methods for correcting for the effects of body size and phylogeny ... 1928 Speakman J. R. (2005). "Body size, energy metabolism and lifespan". J Exp Biol. 208 (9): 1717-1730. doi:10.1242/jeb.01556 ... 1928 Speakman J. R. (2005). "Body size, energy metabolism and lifespan". The Journal of Experimental Biology. 208 (Pt 9): 1717- ... This theory stated that organisms age over time due to the accumulation of damage from free radicals in the body. It also ...
A study on the utility of head width as a body size proxy in extant crocodylians, and on its implications for estimates of body ... 2019). A study aiming to evaluate whether the maximum body size of theropod dinosaurs increased across the Triassic-Jurassic ... Nicholas M.A. Crouch; Julia A. Clarke (2019). "Body size evolution in palaeognath birds is consistent with Neogene cooling- ... Pedro L. Godoy (2020). "Crocodylomorph cranial shape evolution and its relationship with body size and ecology". Journal of ...
Another notable difference is body size. R. smithii does not commonly exceed 60 mm in length, whereas rosy bitterling males are ...
Its body size attains 10 mm. Doto hydrallmaniae feeds on the hydroid Hydrallmania falcata, family Sertulariidae. Morrow C.C., ...
Imperial Big Full-Size Hollow Body. It features a Domino P90 at the neck and a Grand Vintage at the bridge position. The black ... C.C. Flat full size semi hollow body with laminated spruce top and maple back. Configuration identical to the Starplayer TV. ... D-Caster Double-Cutaway design with optional pickup configurations, set maple neck, mahogany body, String-Through-Body system ... The 52 Mahogany body with sound chambers and a set in mahogany neck. Arched maple top, brass wrap-around tailpiece, single ...
"Body size of Smilodon (Mammalia: Felidae)". Journal of Morphology. 266 (3): 369-384. doi:10.1002/jmor.10384. PMID 16235255. ... Sorkin, B. (2008-04-10). "A biomechanical constraint on body mass in terrestrial mammalian predators". Lethaia. 41 (4): 333-347 ...
Field metabolic rate and body size. Journal of Experimental Biology 208(9):1621-1625. Frappell, P. B., H. A. Blevin, and R. V. ... If SMR or BMR values are divided by the body mass value for the animal, then the rate is termed mass-specific. It is this mass- ... Note that for warm-blooded or endothermic animals (birds and mammals), chamber sizes and or flow rates would be selected to ... Whole-animal metabolic rates refer to these measures without correction for body mass. ...
Males grow to 45 mm (1.8 in) and females to 52 mm (2.0 in) in snout-vent length; the body size is geographically variable. The ...
... adopts domestic dedicated body size 3]. WEB CARTOP (in Japanese). Japan. 18 June 2019. Retrieved 2 July 2019. "【2019年9月発売の新型カロー ... TRD or Modellista body kit is optional for all models. Both the Corolla saloon and Corolla Touring were launched in Japan on 17 ... The angle of the door mirrors was readjusted to fold closer to the body in order to fit in a narrow garage or parking space. ... The wheelbase is stretched to 2,750 mm (108.3 in) or 50 mm (2.0 in) longer than the standard Corolla/Levin, while its body ...
Body size is 42.5 mm SL. S. scripta can be identified by incomplete lateral line with 53-76 pores. There are 7-13 post-dorsal ... Body pale brownish with dark brown bars. Barbels light brown. There is an incomplete black bar at the base of caudal-fin. Rays ...
While the acquisition of bipedal locomotion and body mass appear to determine the size and shape of children's bones, activity ... Ruff, C.B. (2007). "Body Size Prediction from Juvenile Skeletal Remains". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 133 (1): ... bioarchaeologists focus on these parts of the body when determining sex, although other body parts can also be used. The female ... That as the body attempts to compensate for low iron levels by increasing red blood cell production in the young, sieve-like ...
The ecological implications of body size. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK Brown JH, Gillooly JF, Allen AP, Savage VM ... His first major contribution was the book Ecological Implications of Body Size., a compilation of relationships between the ... body size of an organism and various physiological and community processes. This book is still highly cited (more than 5000 ... Accomplishments and new hypotheses generated by Peters' book were recently discussed in a symposium titled "Size-based ...
The name is from the Latin root "cucur-", meaning "to tame". Body size varies widely among the species. Among the smallest is C ...
Gittleman, J. L. (1985). Carnivore body size: ecological and taxonomic correlates. Oecologia, 67(4), 540-554. Sheppey, K., & ... Egi, N. (2001). Body mass estimates in extinct mammals from limb bone dimensions: the case of North American hyaenodontids. ... It has a yellow to tan coloration on its body, with long black guard hairs, giving it an overall grizzled grey appearance. ... in range of body masses reported if not average weight. Its legs are relatively long for a mongoose. The head is long and ...
However the body size is quite variable. The body is ovate, slightly narrower in the male. The head shows various timy bumps. ... Mitopus morio can reach a body length of about 4-6 millimetres (0.16-0.24 in) in males, of about 4-8.5 millimetres (0.16-0.33 ...
Capable of at-home training due to smaller, more portable size of sensor and signal generation equipment [6] ... which are responsible for the transport and transference of oxygen to tissue throughout the body, must increase the amount of ...
Like STRePs (see below), IPs ask for a strong participation of small or medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to ascertain the ... the executive body of the European Union, either by various internal directorate general (DGs), such as the directorate general ... Medium- to large-sized collaborative research projects funded in FP6 and FP7. They are composed of a minimum of three partners ... Medium-sized research projects co-funded by the European Commission in FP6 and FP7. These projects are "designed to strengthen ...
... and size of business.[17] Under Section 14 (a)(1), commercial applicators, wholesalers, dealers, and retailers "may be assessed ... either into or in contact with the bloodstream or normally sterile areas of the body and the term "semi-critical device" ... includes any device which is introduced directly into the human body, ... membranes but which does not ordinarily penetrate the blood barrier or otherwise enter normally sterile areas of the body. ...
His body found below Red Tarn some months later by a shepherd, his body still being guarded by his Irish Terrier, Foxey. Nearby ... Size[edit]. Most countries have breed descriptions that say that the Irish Terrier should not be more than 48 cm measured at ... The Irish Terrier's body is proportionately longer than that of the Fox Terrier, with a tendency toward racy lines but with no ... The tail should start up quite high, but it should not stick straight up or curl over the back or either side of its body. The ...
The average household size was 2.80 and the average family size was 3.32. ... Bodies of water. *Buffalo Bayou. *Galveston Bay. *Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. *Houston Ship Channel ... Located on the back corner of the library on W. Texas Avenue, this is a life-sized book shelf.[citation needed] The second ...
Also, patients who are morbidly obese (body mass index >40 kg/m2) are significantly less likely to have success from this ... The contributing factors in the variability of success include the pre-surgical size of the tonsils, palate, uvula and tongue ...
"Energetics and the evolution of body size in small terrestrial mammals" (PDF). Symposia of the Zoological Society of London (69 ... Fungi digest organic matter outside their bodies as opposed to animals that digest their food inside their bodies. For humans, ... the body starts to produce the feeling of hunger. The body also stimulates eating by detecting a drop in cellular lipid levels ... The size of an animal is also a factor in determining diet type (Allen's rule). Since small mammals have a high ratio of heat- ...
The average household size was 3.51. There were 819 families (81.3% of all households); the average family size was 3.92. ... Hispanics mostly of Mexican descent are three-fourths of the people (excluding the multiracial body of state prison convicts). ... The average household size was 3.6 and the average family size was 3.9. ...
... nestedness appears to be related to body size because the diets of smaller predators tend to be nested subsets of those of ... Autotrophs and heterotrophs come in all sizes, from microscopic to many tonnes - from cyanobacteria to giant redwoods, and from ... To maintain their bodies, grow, develop, and to reproduce, autotrophs produce organic matter from inorganic substances, ... Charles Elton pioneered the concept of food cycles, food chains, and food size in his classical 1927 book "Animal Ecology"; ...
The entire student body is referred to as the Regiment of Midshipmen[1] and is subdivided into three battalions and six ... Instances of Infobox university using image size. *Articles with dead external links from August 2016 ...
For early geneticists, it was not immediately clear that the smooth variation in traits like body size (i.e., Incomplete ... This method, termed composite interval mapping determine both the location and effects size of QTL more accurately than single- ... obtain livestock or plants with favorable features from populations that show quantitative variation in traits like body size ... and body mass.[15] All of these phenotypes are complicated by a great deal of give-and-take between genes and environmental ...
The larger the size and the larger the density of the particles, the faster they separate from the mixture. By applying a ... regardless of where it was sampled from in the body, was unprecedented and favored the idea that proteins are macromolecules ... There is a correlation between the size and density of a particle and the rate that the particle separates from a heterogeneous ... The particles' settling velocity in centrifugation is a function of their size and shape, centrifugal acceleration, the volume ...
The variety is of medium size with an adult weight of 3-4 kg (6.6-8.8 lb). The body of the doe is relatively elongated with a ... The Gotland rabbit is a Swedish variety of rabbit of medium size that comes in a variety of colours. The Gotland rabbit has ...
... with the goal of later forming commune-sized units twice that size.[230] Communal kitchens were also introduced so that all ... On 15 April 1998, Pol Pot died in his sleep, apparently of heart failure.[398] His body was preserved with ice and formaldehyde ... A stroke left him paralysed on the left side of his body,[391] and he eventually required daily access to oxygen.[394] He spent ... which are more likely to produce an under-count of bodies rather than an over-estimate."[315] Demographer Patrick Heuveline ...
Another behaviour exhibiting intelligence is cutting their food in correctly sized proportions for the size of their young. In ... Their body feathers start to appear after around 8 days and the primary wing feathers after 10 days.[35] For several days ... The subspecies differ in their size, the amount of white on their plumage and the colour of the gloss on their black feathers. ... Juvenile birds undergo a partial moult beginning about one month later than the adult birds in which their body feathers are ...
Since then, the House more than quadrupled in size, and in 1911 the number of representatives was fixed at 435. Today, each ... of slightly increasing Democratic representation in legislative bodies, but would also give Utah an additional, probably ...
With the spreading effects of the metropolises, the situating of universities and colleges in the medium-sized cities offers a ... This model incorporates a strict hierarchy of authority and a considerable degree of autonomy for its governing bodies. ... The senate and the faculty council are entirely advisory bodies which confer the academic degrees. Private institutions can ...
A growing body of evidence supports the efficacy of HMB as a treatment for reducing, or even reversing, the loss of muscle mass ... Inactivity and starvation in mammals lead to atrophy of skeletal muscle, accompanied by a smaller number and size of the muscle ... A CT scan can distinguish muscle tissue from other tissues and thereby estimate the amount of muscle tissue in the body. Fast ... Their ability to maintain skeletal muscle number and size at time of disuse is of significant importance. During hibernation, ...
Body count is only one factor - but I made separate points (1) he has a low body count, (2) he's not a notable serial killer ( ... Article is stub-size, putting it ITN would contribute to its enlargement --TheFEARgod (Ч) 20:42, 30 November 2006 (UTC) ... If another body was found tomorrow, would it then warrant inclusion in your opinion? ?, Or only if the victim count increased ... Besides, 5 is not much of a body-count as far as serial-killers go. This guy first has to be a notable serial killer before ...
SizeEdit. Main article: Leaf size. The terms megaphyll, macrophyll, mesophyll, notophyll, microphyll, nanophyll and leptophyll ... Esau, Katherine (2006) [1953]. Evert, Ray F (ed.). Esau's Plant Anatomy: Meristems, Cells, and Tissues of the Plant Body: Their ... For the term Mesophyll in the size classification of leaves, see Leaf size. ... But large leaf size favors efficiency in photosynthesis and water conservation, involving further trade offs. On the other hand ...
... can stay in some body parts like the eyes,[143] breasts, and testicles after infection.[4][144] Sexual transmission after ... about the size of a laptop and solar-powered, allows testing to be done in remote areas.[260] ... The virus spreads through direct contact with body fluids, such as blood from infected humans or other animals.[1] Spread may ... If a person with Ebola disease dies, direct contact with the body should be avoided.[109] Certain burial rituals, which may ...
... many factors such as the size of nostril, the size of the lesion, and the preferences of the surgeon cause the selection of one ... Cushing H: The Pituitary Body and its Disorders: Clinical States Produced by Disorders of the Hypophysis Cerebra. Philadelphia ... The average size of tumor, both those that were identified on MRI and those that were only discovered during surgery, was 6 mm. ... Cushing, Harvey (1932). "The basophil adenomas of the pituitary body and their clinical manifestations (pituitary basophilism ...
Their bodies will take in the water. Their bodies are thin and have a lot of blood vessels, this helps them to be able to take ... Eryops, typical of the large-size early amphibians 310-295 million years ago ... They will spread it all over their bodies. The mucus will harden to keep the water it produces from escaping. Once the desert ... They are sometimes called "worm salamanders". This is because they have slimmer (skinny) bodies than most salamanders.[13]p182 ...
... do central European passerines adjust their body size to rising temperatures?". Oecologia. 162 (1): 247-260. doi:10.1007/s00442 ... Hauber, Mark E. (2014). The Book of Eggs: A Life-Size Guide to the Eggs of Six Hundred of the World's Bird Species. University ... It is 50-65 cm (20-26 in) long - of which the body makes up around two-thirds - has a wingspan of 81-98 cm (32-39 in),[22]:505 ... Also, the population size of the mallard is very large.[98]. Unlike many waterfowl, mallards have benefited from human ...
A hydrogen gas halo three times the size of the Sun was detected by Skylab around Comet Kohoutek in the 1970s.[19] SOHO ... because X-ray emission is usually associated with very high-temperature bodies. The X-rays are thought to be generated by the ... Comas typically grow in size as comets approach the Sun, and they can be as large as the diameter of Jupiter, even though the ... With basic Earth-surface based telescope and some technique, the size of the coma can be calculated.[12] Called the drift ...
... allowing them to shrink the size of the gastrointestinal tract relative to body mass and to increase the brain mass instead.[ ... The Lower Paleolithic Homo erectus possibly invented rafts (c. 840,000 - c. 800,000 BP) to travel over large bodies of water, ... Human population density was very low, around only one person per square mile.[3] This was most likely due to low body fat, ... The Woman in the Shaman's Body: Reclaiming the Feminine in Religion and Medicine. New York: Bantam. ...
This small circle is surrounded by many other circles or polygons with the same center but in different sizes. These circles ... Chakra - Subtle body psychic-energy centers in the esoteric traditions of Indian religions ... the sand is brushed together into a pile and spilled into a body of running water to spread the blessings of the mandala. ... a cosmic diagram that shows the relation to the infinite and the world that extends beyond and within minds and bodies. ...
As an example, for a = 7200 km (the spacecraft about 800 km over the Earth surface) one gets with this formula a Sun-synchronous inclination of 98.696°. Note that according to this approximation cos i equals −1 when the semi-major axis equals 12352 km, which means that only smaller orbits can be Sun-synchronous. The period can be in the range from 88 minutes for a very low orbit (a = 6554 km, i = 96°) to 3.8 hours (a = 12352 km, but this orbit would be equatorial with i = 180°). A period longer than 3.8 hours may be possible by using an eccentric orbit with p , 12352 km but a , 12352 km. If one wants a satellite to fly over some given spot on Earth every day at the same hour, it can do between 7 and 16 orbits per day, as shown in the following table. (The table has been calculated assuming the periods given. The orbital period that should be used is actually slightly longer. For instance, a retrograde equatorial orbit that passes over the same spot after 24 hours has a true period about ...
... and two freight elevators were installed inside Crematoria II and III for moving the bodies faster. The size of the ... Their bodies were buried in mass graves initially.[79] Both Treblinka and Bełżec were equipped with powerful crawler excavators ... some 30 wagons of dead bodies were taken to mass graves. As noted by Browning, the killings were led by a commander "who ...
... are sexually dimorphic, with females being smaller in size and more slender than males.[2][14] The head-and- ... The black wildebeest is typically 170-220 cm (67-87 in) in head-and-body length, and the typical weight is 110-180 kg (240-400 ... The black wildebeest can maintain its body temperature within a small range in spite of large fluctuations in external ... body length is typically between 170 and 220 cm (67 and 87 in). Males reach about 111 to 121 cm (44 to 48 in) at the shoulder, ...
... the body size-species richness pattern dissolves and the number of species per body size class is almost uniform (i.e. there is ... Does size matter for dispersal distance? Global Ecology and Biogeography 16(4):415-425. Bowers MA & Brown JH (1982) Body size ... The micro and macro in body size evolution. Evolution 46(4):939-953. Hausdorf B (2006) Is the interspecific variation of body ... The body size-species richness distribution is a pattern observed in the way taxa are distributed over large spatial scales. ...
Body jewelry sizes express the thickness of an item of body jewelry, using one of several possible systems. Items of body ... But with body jewelry, there is a wide variety of possible sizes, and wearers generally want jewelry that is the same size as ... So that wearers can choose the size they want, there are standards for body jewelry sizes, used by jewelry makers and sellers. ... Jewelry wire gauge Earring Body piercing Body piercing jewelry Body piercing materials Wire Wire gauge comparison chart IEC ...
Body frame size is determined by a persons wrist circumference in relation to his height. For example, a man whose height is ... Determining frame size: To determine the body frame size, measure the wrist with a tape measure and use the following chart to ... Body frame size is determined by a persons wrist circumference in relation to his height. For example, a man whose height is ...
The findings indicate that both body size and physical activity are related to lifespan, but the associations seem to differ ... While exercise helped men live longer, their body size did not.. The increase in life expectancy has started to plateau in some ... 22, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Heres a new study finding thats bound to make tall, thin women happy: Their body size and their ... "The findings indicate that both body size and physical activity are related to lifespan, but that these associations seem to ...
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A new analysis of the body size of early humans and our relatives suggests that the first members of the genus Homo-which ... Body Size Not A Factor In Human Origin Story main content.. Body Size Not A Factor In Human Origin Story by AMNH on Aug 5, 2015 ... "An animals body size is directly related to how it interacts with the natural world, influencing factors such as energy ... A new analysis of the body size of early humans and our relatives suggests that the first members of the genus Homo-which ...
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Sometimes, due to fat build up, it may be necessary to reduce the size of your upper body. This can be done by combining a ... The upper body consists of the abdomen, waist, chest, arms and back. ... healthy diet with fat burning cardiovascular exercises and an upper body specific weight training routine. ... Sometimes, due to fat build up, it may be necessary to reduce the size of your upper body. This can be done by combining a ...
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Ive enlisted eight major body-positive crusaders to share their top tips on how to love your body.,/p,,p,For more style ... www.yahoo.com/style/hilary-duff-tells-body-shaming-critics-kiss-swimsuit-photo-220851477.html,Hilary Duff tells body-shaming ... Each morning I look in the mirror and say out loud five things that I love about my body. Like Instagram star ,a rel=nofollow ... Living in a world where we are constantly told by the media and society what we should change or not like about our bodies, ...
The body double of Chris Hemsworth has revealed hes eating seven meals a day to try and keep up with the Hollywood heart ... "Were training so much, we are packing on so much size, its difficult on the body. ... Youve just made this even harder: Hemsworths body double tells actor. Chris Hemsworths body double says the Hollywood hunk ... The body double of Chris Hemsworth has revealed hes eating seven meals a day to try and keep up with the Hollywood heart ...
"The brain stays large… but the body size gets smaller.". Whether brain size or body size plays the larger evolutionary role ... can result when brain size increases faster than body size or when it decreases slower than body size. ... Gorillas, for example, experienced an increase in both brain and body size but more so in body size. ... "Body size [is] quite clearly the target of selection in three times as many carnivorans as brain size is," says mammalian ...
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  • Vaseline Intensive Care Cocoa Glow Body Lotion is a unique blend of healing micro-droplets of Vaseline Jelly, Glycerine and pure Cocoa Butter. (ebay.co.uk)
  • Your skin can tap the natural goodness of Cocoa butter from this body lotion. (ebay.co.uk)
  • Apply dime-sized amount of lotion (or more) to hands to massage onto skin as desired. (ulta.com)
  • Treat your skin the way it deserves with Moisture Therapy Intensive Healing & Repair Body Lotion. (avon.com)
  • If you suffer from red or irritated skin, this non-irritating body lotion reduces the effects. (avon.com)
  • Rich in Aloe Vera, natural moisturizers, and AHAVA's own Osmoter compound, AHAVA Mineral Body Lotion glides on easily to wrap your body in splendid, silky softness all day long. (skinstore.com)
  • Rose Softening Body Lotion 300ml (exp. (ebay.com.au)
  • Make sure you're prepared by packing our travel size shower gel, body lotion and deodorant, made with nourishing, non-irritating natural ingredients, so you don't have to resort to hotel toiletries with mystery ingredients! (greenpeople.co.uk)
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  • The new results challenge the evolutionary model that argues that body size increased from Australopithecus individuals to early Homo species. (amnh.org)
  • But there is more than one evolutionary way to get a large brain, a phylogenetic analysis shows, and more often than not, it has to do with relatively greater changes in body size rather than in brain size. (bioone.org)
  • Relative brain size is the compromise of two traits taking potentially different evolutionary pathways involving different combinations of brain-body adaptations. (bioone.org)
  • Smaers, an evolutionary biologist, and his colleagues at University College London, in collaboration with Kamran Safi's computational ecology laboratory at the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology in Radolfzell, Germany, compared the brain-body size relationship in three groups of mammals. (bioone.org)
  • Furthermore, the relationship between atmospheric pO 2 and maximum insect size is more complicated than implied by coincidence of late Paleozoic hyperoxia and insect gigantism, raising the possibility that other factors, such as competitive or predatory interactions with flying vertebrates (birds, bats, and pterosaurs), may have contributed to or even been the dominant control on evolutionary size trends ( 18 , 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • The rich fossil history of insects ( 21 ) contains the only record of evolutionary body-size trends in response to changing atmospheric pO 2 ( 22 ), temperature, and evolution of flying predators and competitors ( 23 ). (pnas.org)
  • Our quantitative analysis of evolutionary size trends from more than 10,500 measured fossil insect specimens confirms the importance of atmospheric pO 2 in enabling the evolution of large body size, but suggests that the pO 2 -size relationship was superseded by biological factors following the evolution and aerial specialization of flying vertebrates, particularly birds. (pnas.org)
  • According to the report, this relationship between land area and animal size is strong enough to induce evolutionary change over long time periods. (innovations-report.com)
  • Some scientists think that small bodies provide an evolutionary advantage under certain circumstances. (phys.org)
  • Apply the rich cream liberally to your entire body daily and massage well. (ebay.co.uk)
  • Whether you need a mini perfume spray, travel size hand cream or travel size hand sanitizer, Bath & Body Works has all the travel size products you need for any and every vacay! (bathandbodyworks.com)
  • This lavish Goldleaf Gardenia body cream moisturizes with magnolia flower extract to help soothe skin. (ulta.com)
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  • Additionally, the terrestrial mammals of the islands of Madagascar, New Guinea and Australia do not show a right skewed body size-species richness distribution (Maurer et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • If it were possible to randomly sample a subset of the known continental species pool for mammals, one would expect the body size-species richness distribution of this sample to roughly mirror that of the entire continent. (wikipedia.org)
  • We analyse the effects of three abiotic factors-oxygen, temperature and land area-on maximum size of Permian-Jurassic archosauromorphs and therapsids, and Cenozoic mammals, using time series generalized least-squares regression models. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • All combinations of environmental variables were tested as predictors of maximum size (for Permian-Jurassic therapsids and archosauromorphs and for Cenozoic mammals) and mean size (for Permian-Jurassic data). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The new findings, the authors conclude, can explain the size of the largest-ever extinct mammals. (innovations-report.com)
  • In order to better understand and contextualize the phenomenon of "dishonest signalling," as it relates to vocal learning, researchers analyzed the sounds and body size of 164 different mammals. (upi.com)
  • We'd [cast for more body-type diversity. (refinery29.com)
  • Terrestrial tetrapod history is punctuated by major faunal replacement events, where one group expands in taxic and size diversity as another declines. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Here, we quantify mammalian extinction selectivity, continental body size distributions, and taxonomic diversity over five time periods spanning the past 125,000 years and stretching approximately 200 years into the future. (sciencemag.org)
  • Combined taxonomic and temporal analyses show that in relation to australopithecines, early Homo is characterized by significantly larger average body mass and stature but retains considerable diversity, including small body sizes. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Genetic obesity susceptibility was represented by a combined obesity risk-allele (an alternative form of a gene) score that was calculated in each participant as the sum of 16 different alleles associated with higher adult body-mass index (BMI). (eurekalert.org)
  • Maternal, birth, and early-life influences on adult body size in women. (nih.gov)
  • The authors conducted a follow-up study of 261 women born during 1959-1965 (38% White, 40% African-American, and 22% Latina) to investigate whether maternal and infant factors are independently associated with adult body size after accounting for childhood growth. (nih.gov)
  • weight (kg)/height (m)(2)), maternal weight gain), birth measures (birth weight, placental weight), and early infancy and childhood growth measures (birth-4 months, 4 months-1 year, and 1-7 years) have on predicting adult body size. (nih.gov)
  • We investigated growth and determinants of adult female body size in brown bears ( Ursus arctos ) in 2 study areas in Sweden. (bioone.org)
  • Four factors were considered in our analysis of the determinants of adult female size: annual food conditions, population density, multilocus heterozygosity, and yearling body size. (bioone.org)
  • Multilocus heterozygosity and yearling body size were not important in explaining adult size, because initially smaller individuals show compensatory growth when experiencing good food conditions. (bioone.org)
  • Andreas Zedrosser , Bjørn Dahle , and Jon E. Swenson "POPULATION DENSITY AND FOOD CONDITIONS DETERMINE ADULT FEMALE BODY SIZE IN BROWN BEARS," Journal of Mammalogy 87(3), 510-518, (1 June 2006). (bioone.org)
  • Recent research suggests that, compared to body mass indices, adult weight gain and increased central body fat may be more specific markers of the metabolic consequences of obesity and therefore may predict health outcomes more consistently. (nih.gov)
  • Adult weight gain and increases in central body fat, which commonly occur during menopause, have been associated consistently with an increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Womens Quilted Mini Grab Bag Cross Body Bag - beige - One Size - Add attitude with accessories for those fashion-forward finishing touches It's all about accessories for injecting individuality into your look. (parenting.com)
  • In the new study, Tammo Krause and Laura Spindler analyzed the body-size memory of Drosophila . (uni-mainz.de)
  • The results show that Drosophila learns to estimate the distance across a gap and the reach of its legs by linking visual information from the environment, such as a striped pattern, with their body size. (uni-mainz.de)
  • We therefore assume that memory of their own body size is the most permanent form of recall detected in Drosophila to date,' the two lead authors Tammo Krause and Laura Spindler concluded in their article in Current Biology . (uni-mainz.de)
  • In Drosophila, the fat body, functionally equivalent to the mammalian liver and adipocytes, plays a central role in regulating systemic growth in response to nutrition. (nih.gov)
  • Professional Bodycare Tea Tree Face and Body Wash 1L. (ebay.com.au)
  • Savannah Bee Honey Body Wash is the perfect addition to your skin care ritual. (savannahbee.com)
  • The 1.7oz Tupelo Honey Body Wash is on our sale page simply because it's in our old packaging. (savannahbee.com)
  • Nourish your skin with Desert Essence Coconut Body Wash. This luxurious wash contains Coconut Oil for intense hydration and Jojoba Oil to soothe and nourish the skin. (iherb.com)
  • Harnessing the powers of Moroccan Rose Otto Oil, recognised as one of the world's most exquisite essential oils, the luxurious body wash creates a rich, creamy lather to gently eliminate dirt and impurities without over-drying. (hqhair.com)
  • Use as a body wash in the shower or bath. (hqhair.com)
  • This Red Zone Swagger Body Wash from Old Spice is no ordinary men's body wash - it's a great-smelling, long-lasting, confidence-inducing cleanser you'll love. (kroger.com)
  • HTF MI recently added a new research study in its database that highlights the in-depth market analysis with future prospects of Body Scrub market. (openpr.com)
  • The research covers the current market size of the Global Body Scrub market and its growth rates based on 5 year history data. (openpr.com)
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  • What are the key factors driving the Global Body Scrub market? (openpr.com)
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  • What are the key outcomes of the five forces analysis of the Body Scrub market? (openpr.com)
  • There are 15 Chapters to deeply display the Global Body Scrub market. (openpr.com)
  • And Barbie is indeed disproportionate -- a 1995 study found that for a woman with an average body type to attain Barbie's shape, she would need to grow 24 inches (making her more than 7 feet tall), take 6 inches off her waist and add 5 to her chest. (nytimes.com)
  • Style Name: Heroine Sport Body High Waist Leggings. (realsimple.com)
  • Scientists looked at data for weight, body mass index, or BMI, waist size and waist-to-hip ratio and found that carrying extra pounds at the waist and hips appeared to be more of a factor in colon cancer deaths than overall weight or BMI. (cnn.com)
  • However, previous studies have not considered anthropometric measures such as body mass index and waist circumference as potential determinants of lower bone mineral density among vegetarians rather than suboptimal dietary composition associated with plant-based diets. (nutrition.org)
  • However, when adjusting for body mass index and waist circumference, differences in mean bone mineral density values became marginal and were no longer statistically significant. (nutrition.org)
  • This suggests that differences in bone mineral density between vegetarians and nonvegetarians may largely depend on body mass index and waist circumference. (nutrition.org)
  • My body is middle heavy with a smaller bottom, and I often find that the denim that fits my legs is too tight at the waist and vice versa. (yahoo.com)
  • for size 35" waist what size? (discountdance.com)
  • for size 42.5" waist, what size? (discountdance.com)
  • Jayantheesh Intended status: Standards Track Samsung Electronics America Expires: March 22, 2018 September 18, 2017 64bit body part and message sizes in IMAP4 draft-ietf-extra-imap-64bit-01.txt Abstract This document defines an IMAPv4rev1 extension that extends the existing IMAPv4rev1 32 Bit message and body part sizes to 63 bit. (ietf.org)
  • Internet-Draft 64bit body part and message sizes in IMAP4 September 2017 This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF Contributions published or made publicly available before November 10, 2008. (ietf.org)
  • Internet-Draft 64bit body part and message sizes in IMAP4 September 2017 3 . (ietf.org)
  • A new analysis of the body size of early humans and our relatives suggests that the first members of the genus Homo -which includes Homo sapiens -were not larger than earlier hominin species. (amnh.org)
  • This suggests that biological limits such as reduced fecundity and niche space availability become increasingly limiting as larger sizes are reached. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This suggests that frond size and shape were directly responsive to nutrient uptake. (nature.com)
  • The decoupling of insect size and atmospheric pO 2 coincident with the radiation of birds suggests that biotic interactions, such as predation and competition, superseded oxygen as the most important constraint on maximum body size of the largest insects. (pnas.org)
  • That's because new research suggests that some birds evolved over time to have smaller bodies and maintain large brains. (cnn.com)
  • A novel comparison using daily energy expenditure (DEE), rather than BMR, suggests that lifetime expenditure of energy per gram of tissue is NOT independent of body mass, and that tissue in smaller animals expends more energy before expiring than tissue in larger animals. (biologists.org)
  • FRIDAY, May 27 (HealthDay News) -- Your size may influence how you perceive the world around you, a new study suggests. (bio-medicine.org)
  • To help make the right choice, Dr. Tehrani suggests looking through your doctor's before and after photographs and trying implant sizes in a predetermined bra and t-shirt to help visualize the new size. (newbeauty.com)
  • Body frame size is determined by a person's wrist circumference in relation to his height. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There was a significant decrease in average body circumference, as well as appearance of cellulite, among women who received LPG endermologie sessions, according to recently published research. (massagemag.com)
  • Body circumference was measured pre- and post-intervention as well, by evaluating thickness at eight specific, consistent body sites. (massagemag.com)
  • All 33 subjects showed a significant mean body circumference loss, with maximum loss obtained at the hips. (massagemag.com)
  • 1992). Traditionally the pattern has been explored by plotting the number of species on the y-axis and the logarithm to the base two of the species body mass (g) on the x-axis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This yields a highly right skewed body size distribution with a mode centered near species with a mass ranging from 50-100 grams. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study, published in the Journal of Human Evolution , challenges the long-standing notion that the origins of early humans coincided with, or were driven by, an increase in body mass. (amnh.org)
  • Richmond worked with lead author Mark Grabowski, an assistant research professor at George Washington University and soon-to-be James Arthur Postdoctoral Fellow in the Museum's Anthropology Division, and other colleagues to build the most comprehensive set of body mass estimates, species averages, and species averages by sex for fossil humans and their close relatives to date. (amnh.org)
  • One of our major results is that we found no evidence that the earliest members of our genus differed in body mass from earlier australopiths," said Grabowski. (amnh.org)
  • They began by acquiring body mass and brain mass measurements for 297 bat species, 169 primate species, and 187 carnivoran species, from published literature as well as museum specimens. (bioone.org)
  • A further decrease in maximum size during the Cenozoic may relate to the evolution of bats, the Cretaceous mass extinction, or further specialization of flying birds. (pnas.org)
  • The allele score was associated with both postnatal fat mass and lean mass but not with the percentage of body fat. (eurekalert.org)
  • This premise is strongly supported by our novel finding of positive associations between the obesity risk-allele score and both fat mass and lean mass, but not relative body fat, in infancy and early childhood. (eurekalert.org)
  • Before the mass extinction event that killed off the dinosaurs 66 million years ago, the researchers discovered that birds and large dinosaurs had brains that were very similar in size. (cnn.com)
  • They found at least seven brain-body scaling events in birds right after the mass extinction. (cnn.com)
  • The scaling exponent for the relationship between lifespan and body mass is between 0.15 and 0.3. (biologists.org)
  • Bigger animals also expend more energy, and the scaling exponent for the relationship of resting metabolic rate (RMR) to body mass lies somewhere between 0.66 and 0.8. (biologists.org)
  • Because the exponents for mass-specific RMR are close to the exponents for lifespan, but have opposite signs, their product (the mass-specific expenditure of energy per lifespan) is independent of body mass (exponent between -0.08 and 0.08). (biologists.org)
  • Thus, lower rates of fractures among nonvegetarians may likely be associated with a higher body mass index. (nutrition.org)
  • The contrasting effects of body size on premenopausal breast cancer compared with postmenopausal breast cancer and the lack of a strong association between body mass and postmenopausal breast cancer in some cohort studies has led to a view that obesity has little influence on breast cancer risk. (nih.gov)
  • This paper employs micro-level data from the First, Second, and Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys to determine the effects that various state-level variables have on body mass index and obesity. (nber.org)
  • The Super Size Of America: An Economic Estimation Of Body Mass Index And Obesity In Adults, " Eastern Economic Journal, 2006, v32(1,Winter), 133-148. (nber.org)
  • Body size is a central determinant of a species' biology and adaptive strategy, but the number of reliable estimates of hominin body mass and stature have been insufficient to determine long-term patterns and subtle interactions in these size components within our lineage. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Here, we analyse 254 body mass and 204 stature estimates from a total of 311 hominin specimens dating from 4.4 Ma to the Holocene using multi-level chronological and taxonomic analytical categories. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Within later Homo , stature and body mass evolution follow different trajectories: average modern stature is maintained from ca 1.6 Ma, while consistently higher body masses are not established until the Middle Pleistocene at ca 0.5-0.4 Ma, likely caused by directional selection related to colonizing higher latitudes. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Earlier studies also used Body Mass Index, even though BMI as a size indicator for cardiovascular disease risk may not be appropriate because it doesn't take lean muscle mass into account, the researchers said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Finally, the metabolic theory of ecology explains how there is a negative relationship between number of individuals (N) and size (M) ( N = M − 3 / 4 {\displaystyle N=M^{-3/4}} ), but it is silent on species richness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bishop JA, Armbruster WS (1999) Thermoregulatory abilities of Alaskan bees: effects of size, phylogeny and ecology. (springer.com)
  • Travel Size Pomegranate Herbal Body Moisturizer by Hempz is 100% Pure Organic Hemp Seed Oil for dramatic skin hydration and nourishment that helps improve the overall health and condition of skin. (ulta.com)
  • Save yourself a last-minute shopping run, and stock up on your travel size toiletries now. (bathandbodyworks.com)
  • That's easy - a full set of travel size toiletries in their favorite fragrance. (bathandbodyworks.com)
  • For those weekends away, organic travel size toiletries are essential items to keep you feeling fresh and your skin soft. (greenpeople.co.uk)
  • Our travel size deodorants are just the right size for taking with you to the gym or away on a break. (greenpeople.co.uk)
  • For those weekends away, organic travel size toiletries are essential items to. (greenpeople.co.uk)
  • Macroecology has long sought to understand the mechanisms that underlie the patterns of biodiversity, such as the body size-species richness pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • deviations from the expected size-related patterns. (springer.com)
  • So, the altered landscape may have triggered the rapid evolution of new brain-body scaling patterns by favoring both larger brains and smaller bodies. (cnn.com)
  • The results demonstrate complex temporal patterns of body size variation with phases of relative stasis intermitted by periods of rapid increases. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The isolated small-bodied individuals of Homo naledi ( ca 0.3 Ma) and Homo floresiensis ( ca 100-60 ka) constitute important exceptions to these general patterns, adding further layers of complexity to the evolution of body size within the genus Homo . (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Density-dependent factors may operate by increasing competition for food, resulting in a decrease in body size. (bioone.org)
  • Combining abundance and body size data can reduce the length of the time series required to predict collapse, and decrease the chances of false positive early warning signals. (nature.com)
  • less than 140 cm) after 1.4 Ma is associated with a decrease in relative size variability in later Homo species compared with earlier Homo and australopithecines. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Vigorous physical activity appears to significantly decrease the effect of size on cardiovascular risk," Dr. Tucker and colleagues concluded. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Associations between genetic obesity susceptibility and body size or body composition were tested at birth to age 5 years. (eurekalert.org)
  • Lower bone mineral density among vegetarians: Dietary composition or body size? (nutrition.org)
  • Body size and condition factor were important determinants of the initiation of maturation in zebrafish. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Body size is one of the most important determinants of the biology of a species, as it correlates with metabolic rate, life history, energetic expenditure, diet, thermoregulation and home range size [ 1 - 3 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Like Instagram star Iskra Lawrence says, the idea of this exercise is to point out the amazing things your body does for you and to be consistent. (yahoo.com)
  • Gigi Hadid also joined the conversation with her kickass Instagram post on body shaming. (sofeminine.co.uk)
  • In the spirit of Valentine's Day, we give a nod to plus size women who celebrate body positivity every day. (iol.co.za)
  • Increased blood glucose and insulin, body size, and incident colorectal cancer. (nih.gov)
  • In the Cardiovascular Health Study cohort, we examined the relationship of baseline measurements of body size, glucose, insulin, and lipoproteins to incident colorectal cancer. (nih.gov)
  • The fat body senses intracellular amino acids through Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signaling, and produces an unidentified humoral factor(s) to regulate insulin-like peptide (ILP) synthesis and/or secretion in the insulin-producing cells. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, we found that GBPs stimulate ILP secretion from the insulin-producing cells, either directly or indirectly, thereby increasing insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling activity throughout the body. (nih.gov)
  • Our findings fill an important gap in our understanding of how the fat body transmits nutritional information to the insulin producing cells to control body size. (nih.gov)
  • Notwithstanding such effects and potential thermoregulatory capabilities, stingless bees show niche differentiation and biogeographic distributions that correlate with body coloration and body size. (springer.com)
  • Apply a palm-size amount of Plus Size Volume and Body Mousse into your hands and work evenly through damp hair from the roots to the ends. (sephora.com)
  • Prep damp hair with Plus Size Volume and Body Mousse prior to blow drying with a round brush. (sephora.com)
  • Environmental factors analysed may still have imposed an upper limit on tetrapod body size, but any environmentally imposed limit did not vary substantially during the intervals examined despite variation in these environmental factors. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The extent to which variation in reproductive success is explained by parental body size is an important research topic because size-selective fishing usually reduces the average size of reproducing adults in a population. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Our results suggest that individual body size variation of female brown bears is negatively related to density-dependent factors and positively correlated to density-independent fluctuations in the environment. (bioone.org)
  • The relationships of the tribes with colonists "led to differences in mortality among these tribes, which appears to have been a fundamental determinant of variation in body size," the authors conclude. (phys.org)
  • Our body washes are very gentle and perfect for the entire family! (savannahbee.com)
  • Savannah Bee Honey Body Washes contain no parabens or petroleum, and are never tested on animals. (savannahbee.com)
  • An animal's body size is directly related to how it interacts with the natural world, influencing factors such as energy requirements, brain size, growth rates, diet, locomotion, and more," said Brian Richmond, a co-author on the new work and the Museum's curator of human origins. (amnh.org)
  • Usually, an animal's size dictates the frequency of the animal's vocalizations. (upi.com)
  • Scientists refer to vocalizations that accurately reflect an animal's size as "honest signalling. (upi.com)
  • This ultralight plus size shapewear is made of finer soft yarns and features powerful graduated compression technology. (wickedtemptations.com)
  • TUESDAY, Jan. 22, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Here's a new study finding that's bound to make tall, thin women happy: Their body size and their gender make it more likely they will reach the milestone age of 90 than either men or shorter, heavier women. (webmd.com)
  • The findings indicate that both body size and physical activity are related to lifespan, but that these associations seem to differ between men and women," Brandts said. (webmd.com)
  • Every day, we're bombarded with overly Photoshopped pictures of unrealistic bodies on social media that leave many women feeling less than. (yahoo.com)
  • A diverse cast of women would do away with the myth that plus-size women don't enjoy active, fun love lives, and reinforce the idea that plus-size women are deserving of love and desire. (refinery29.com)
  • The Bachelor can demonstrate that men aren't shallow creatures who only find one type of woman attractive - and reinforce that no matter what their bodies look like, women are beautiful. (refinery29.com)
  • 67% of U.S. women are plus-size. (refinery29.com)
  • We went all out to continue to show women that sexy has no size, if its there in your size wear it ❤️ We all deserve to look & feel sexy. (iol.co.za)
  • and in the sixth annual Love Your Body Day, on Oct. 15, sponsored by the National Organization for Women Foundation. (nytimes.com)
  • A large part of the appeal, Mr. Heavin said, is that average or heavier-than-average women can get together with like-size women to support and inspire one another. (nytimes.com)
  • The phenomenal success of Curves, many experts say, is a sign that women are accepting, and therefore taking better care of, their bodies. (nytimes.com)
  • Emme, perhaps the most famous of the full-figured fashion models, has been lecturing at college campuses and even testified before a Congressional subcommittee about the need to help women overcome their problems with body image. (nytimes.com)
  • The decreased overall body size showed up not only on those women who lost weight during the study, but also on the subjects who gained weight during the research. (massagemag.com)
  • So the women asked photographer Karizza to heavily edit their bodies to show just how misleading pictures can be. (usmagazine.com)
  • This month, in their June issue, the publication took another step toward reconciliation by polling women on their feelings about the term plus-size . (ajc.com)
  • For the sake of context, let's go with the finding that about 70% of American women wear a size 14 or higher. (ajc.com)
  • In 2014, the online retailer ramped up its plus-size offerings based on a survey that found more American women wear a size 16 than wear sizes 0, 2, and 4 combined. (ajc.com)
  • Since plus-size women come in all different shapes and sizes, there are a lot of body types that need to be represented on the curvy spectrum, so finding the right fit can be tricky. (yahoo.com)
  • Tested on hundreds of women of all shapes and sizes, Auden is sure to be your new one-stop-shop when it comes to bras and panties. (refinery29.com)
  • All of this news comes as part of the brand's new "No Body Like You" marketing campaign, which according to a press release, "showcases unretouched women, of all body shapes, ages and backgrounds. (refinery29.com)
  • Dallas plastic surgeon Diane L. Gibby, MD, says women should understand that there is no perfect breast size but rather a range that will look good for any given woman. (newbeauty.com)
  • Using the largest sample of individual early hominin fossils available-220 specimens-the team showed that early hominins were generally smaller than previously thought, and that the earliest Homo species did not differ significantly in size from their immediate ancestors. (amnh.org)
  • The metabolically expensive brain doesn't double with a doubling of body size, as do most other organs, but remains somewhat smaller. (bioone.org)
  • Ms. Monroe, who was 5 feet 5 1/2 inches and weighed between 118 to 135 pounds, may have been busty enough to fill out a size 14, but partly because sizes were smaller in the 1950's. (nytimes.com)
  • The data are best explained by a model relating maximum size to atmospheric environmental oxygen concentration (pO 2 ) until the end of the Jurassic, and then at constant sizes, independent of oxygen fluctuations, during the Cretaceous and, at a smaller size, the Cenozoic. (pnas.org)
  • Birds like emus and pigeons have the same brain sizes you would expect for a theropod dinosaur of the same body size, and in fact some species like moa have smaller-than-expected brains. (cnn.com)
  • If the current trend continues, terrestrial mammal body sizes will become smaller than they have been over the past 45 million years. (sciencemag.org)
  • Reducing the expression of GBP1 and GBP2 (GBPs) specifically in the fat body results in smaller body size due to reduced growth rate. (nih.gov)
  • If I make the font size in BODY smaller, then it controls all font sizes on the page, making everything one size smaller. (sitepoint.com)
  • So, if you declare text to be .9em for the BODY tag then .9em for the P tag the text inside the P tag will be a size smaller. (sitepoint.com)
  • The palazzo pants seem to run about 2 sizes smaller than street clothes. (discountdance.com)
  • For example, a smaller body needs less food-a good thing in places where food supplies are inconsistent. (phys.org)
  • an award-winning formula that works to purify, soften and delicately fragrance the body. (hqhair.com)
  • Shaper top preserves body heat and stimulates sweat during exercise. (trademe.co.nz)
  • We demonstrate that size-selective extinction was already under way in the oldest interval and occurred on all continents, within all trophic modes, and across all time intervals. (sciencemag.org)
  • Using a large database on the helminth parasites of 303 fish species, we tested whether the proportion of parasite species in a host that occur as larval or juvenile stages is best explained by their trophic level or by their body size. (springer.com)
  • However, trophic level and body length are strongly correlated among fish species, and they may have separate though confounded effects on the parasite fauna exploiting a given species. (springer.com)
  • Given this broad physiological compatibility of many helminths with fish hosts, our results indicate that fish body length, as a proxy for vulnerability to predators, is a better predictor of their use by helminth larvae than their trophic level based on diet content. (springer.com)
  • University of Michigan scientists have had early success testing 10nm 'nanodiscs' that teach your body to kill cancer cells. (engadget.com)
  • The size and types of the largest local land animals vary greatly from place to place, prompting scientists to question what controls the success of animals of certain sizes over others. (innovations-report.com)
  • Scientists have developed a pill-sized robot that can travel inside your body, can find if you have any tumours and transmit the findings back to a computer. (medindia.net)
  • People were tricked into believing they were either the size of Barbie dolls or 13-foot giants in a study conducted by scientists at Karolinska Institute in Sweden. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Explanations in the literature suggest the rates of speciation and/or dispersal ability vary with size and could lead to more small bodied organisms (May, 1978). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is important to note that the 3 sub-mechanisms: dispersal, competition and energetic restraints must in some manner feed back into either speciation or extinction rates as these are the only ultimate processes (see Tinbergen's four questions) governing the number of species on earth and hence the body size-species richness pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers found that the maximal body size of land animals relates to the size of the landmass on which they live: larger animals require larger individual territories to obtain sufficient food. (innovations-report.com)
  • Researchers at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) have shown that the fruit fly D rosophila melanogaster develops a very stable long-term memory for its own body size and the reach of its extremities after it has hatched from the pupal case. (uni-mainz.de)
  • Researchers pointed out their findings might contribute to certain practical applications, such as swapping human bodies with artificial ones. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Previously, researchers approached acoustic allometry, the relationship between voice and body size, and vocal learning as two distinct fields of study. (upi.com)
  • Researchers have previously investigated whether this increase in size also increases health risks. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The volume occupied by tracheae, tubes that transport oxygen throughout the body, scales hypermetrically with body volume, imposing further surface area-to-volume constraints on maximum size ( 13 , 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • The body size-species richness distribution is a pattern observed in the way taxa are distributed over large spatial scales. (wikipedia.org)
  • The number of species that exhibit small body size generally far exceed the number of species that are large-bodied. (wikipedia.org)
  • at intermediate spatial scales (e.g. a thousand hectares or a biome) the body size-species richness distribution begins to shift from being right skewed (from fewer large-bodied species) towards a normal distribution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since it does not, and if it is assumed that the observed distribution of species among body sizes is not a sampling bias, then some ecological interactions must underlie this pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased size came later with H. erectus , the first species widely found outside of Africa. (amnh.org)
  • Body size is a fundamentally important trait for fitness in many animal species because it correlates positively with survival and reproductive success. (hu-berlin.de)
  • In my dissertation, I studied the parental size effects on reproductive success in a model species (zebrafish, Danio rerio). (hu-berlin.de)
  • In order to determine the potential importance of body size and body coloration in heat gain and heat loss, passive warm-up and cooling rates were measured for freshly killed workers of 24 stingless bee species. (springer.com)
  • There were profound changes in brain-body scaling in the immediate aftermath of the extinction, and these may have played an important role in modern birds surviving and going on to radiate into the 10,000+ species we have today. (cnn.com)
  • Hyndes GA, Platell ME, Potter IC (1997) Relationships between diet and body size, mouth morphology, habitat and movements of six sillaginid species in coastal waters: implications for resource partitioning. (springer.com)
  • Body Size Not A Factor In Human Origin Story main content. (amnh.org)
  • But the last major analysis of body size in the evolution of our own family took place more than 20 years ago. (amnh.org)
  • The processes controlling body size evolution remain unclear. (sciencemag.org)
  • These events, and associated body size dynamics, provide opportunities to assess the relative importance of abiotic and biological factors in determining the evolution of tetrapod maximum size. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Here we show, using a dataset of more than 10,500 fossil insect wing lengths, that size tracked atmospheric oxygen concentrations only for the first 150 Myr of insect evolution. (pnas.org)
  • Maximum insect size decreased even as atmospheric pO 2 rose in the Early Cretaceous following the evolution and radiation of early birds, particularly as birds acquired adaptations that allowed more agile flight. (pnas.org)
  • The effects of body size on the evolution of the amphibian middle ear. (brill.com)
  • While these studies provide deeper insights into particular taxa or temporal contexts, there has been no systematic and long-term overview of the evolution of body size within the hominin lineage. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • First, body size is central to discussions of human evolution throughout its entire temporal and geographical span [ 22 , 24 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • And it bolsters the idea that the reproductive trade-off associated with a short life could play a role in the evolution of human body size. (phys.org)
  • Stone Fly Body & Tails / Yellow Medium Size is part of the range of Hemmingway's Evolution Series Stonefly nymph. (theessentialfly.com)
  • Use a combination of their Stone Fly Body & Tails / Yellow Medium Size Evolution Tails and Legs and Buds and Backs to create a range of realistic stoneflies with the addition of just a few materials. (theessentialfly.com)
  • But we also had a personal interview where we shared our story and explained how we stand for being plus sized. (asiaone.com)
  • It is clear that comparative correlations involving relative brain size cannot be interpreted as selection on neuronal capacity alone," Jeroen B. Smaers and his coauthors wrote in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences last year (doi:10.1073/pnas.121218110). (bioone.org)
  • When serial correlation is removed, we find no robust correlations, indicating that these environmental factors did not consistently control tetrapod maximum size. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Because metabolic oxygen demand increases with increasing body size, environmental oxygen concentration (pO 2 ) is frequently invoked as an important constraint on the size of animals ( 1 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • It's special material increases body temperature and absorbs sweat so you're always dry on the outside. (trademe.co.nz)
  • Sumptuous fabrics and seductive cuts come together in our collection of boudoir-worthy basques and bodies. (figleaves.com)
  • Check out our white and ivory collections and find white basques or bridal body lingerie perfect for the big day, or explore your wild side in our exquisite animal print Juliette Lace Foil . (figleaves.com)
  • Some jewelry makers or sellers who express the size of their jewelry in millimeters, may also list the nearest approximate gauge-and-inches measurements for each item. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then, they compared the brain sizes with brain measurements of modern birds in a large data set. (cnn.com)
  • The brain measurements were analyzed along with body size to compare the scale of brain size to body size. (cnn.com)
  • The measurements listed below is for the 565XX 2XL and 3XL I suggest following the measurements rather than clothing size due to the fact that we base our clothing size only on measurements. (discountdance.com)
  • To determine the body frame size, measure the wrist with a tape measure and use the following chart to determine whether the person is small, medium, or large boned. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Large females were found to have higher reproductive success compared to small females and a significant effect of male body size on early life-history traits was documented. (hu-berlin.de)
  • The maternal- and paternal-size effects ultimately led to elevated reproductive success of experimental spawning stocks consisting of large or random-sized individuals compared to spawning stocks consisting of small individuals. (hu-berlin.de)
  • They observed how, under various conditions, the insects try to overcome a small gap exceeding their step size. (uni-mainz.de)
  • Small bodies also may provide an advantage in getting around in thickly forested environments. (phys.org)
  • Recently, however, a new hypothesis has come to the fore suggesting that reproductive consequences of high mortality rates explain small body size. (phys.org)
  • So small body size could be essentially a side effect of early sexual maturity . (phys.org)
  • Size Small Aus. (ebay.com.au)
  • Generally in America, plus-size clothing is considered size 16 and up. (ajc.com)
  • The wide range of body sizes in ecological communities, from tiny microbes to large animals and plants, is emerging as the key to prediction. (worldcat.org)
  • My results emphasize the importance of body size to the reproductive biology of zebrafish and suggest that protecting large fish might be important to maintain the reproductive potential of exploited fish stocks. (hu-berlin.de)
  • The term has been increasingly declared politically incorrect, in large part thanks to a "plus-size" social media feud between actress/comedian Amy Schumer and Glamour magazine last month. (ajc.com)
  • Those who believed they had large bodies did the opposite, underestimating the objects' size and distance. (bio-medicine.org)
  • All football players across all positions are getting larger, he said, but over the last 20 years, large size has become especially important to linemen. (medpagetoday.com)
  • In conclusion, Dr. Tucker said that high levels of physical activity among NFL players appear to have "substantially mitigated the effect of large size. (medpagetoday.com)
  • For example, temperature can also be an important influence on insect body size via physiological effects on metabolic oxygen demand and ecological effects on food supply, growing season, and foraging time ( 20 ). (pnas.org)
  • I asked nine of my fashion blogger friends to share their current favorite plus-size denim picks that don't gap or fade and work with their specific type of curvy bodies - and I included my own go-to jeans. (yahoo.com)
  • I happen to be curvy, but for some reason I'm the master of squeezing into anything, and so it's fun to see when a designer finally sends something and they're like, 'Wait, she really fit in that sample size. (inquisitr.com)
  • So, if you're looking for a sexy little number to spice things up this Valentine's Day, check out some of these influencers and social media models, showcasing their bodies, no matter what their body size. (iol.co.za)
  • An intraspecific comparison of Melipona costaricensis and Cephalotrigona capitata colour morphs confirmed that body coloration influences thermal characteristics. (springer.com)
  • However, body temperatures of foraging bees of colour morphs were not very different. (springer.com)
  • This is probably due to behavioural adaptations (e.g. foraging strategies) or differences in convective and evaporative heat loss or the production of metabolic heat during flight, that all mask the effect of body colour. (springer.com)
  • With the family trees in hand, they evaluated the rate of change of the brain- body size relationship between an ancestor and its descendent, in a method that Safi describes as "thinking around three corners. (bioone.org)
  • Abiotic and biological factors have been hypothesized as controlling maximum body size of tetrapods and other animals through geological time. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Professor David Barker and colleagues studied 6975 men born in Helsinki (Finland) between 1934-1944 - a time when not only was the babies' size at birth recorded but also the size of the placental surface. (medindia.net)
  • This isn't the first time the term plus-size has been questioned. (ajc.com)
  • Was there ever a time that you wanted to do something about your size? (asiaone.com)
  • This is first time that a link between mortality and body size has been shown using long-term data, the authors say. (phys.org)
  • Body size is one of the few breast cancer risk factors that can be modified throughout life and therefore should be considered in research on breast cancer prevention. (nih.gov)
  • These new ideas concerning the manner in which mitochondria generate free radicals as a function of metabolism shed some light on the complexity of observations linking body size, metabolism and lifespan. (biologists.org)
  • Some wearers want increasingly larger sizes to deliberately stretch the hole. (wikipedia.org)
  • The text stays the same even if I change font-size to have larger or lower values. (sitepoint.com)
  • Gompertz models-i.e. exponentially decreasing rate of size increase at larger sizes-fit maximum size curves far better than logistic models. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In the Gompertz model, the upper asymptote is approached more slowly, indicating greater restriction on body size increase as larger sizes are reached [ 10 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • But a lot of retailers have discovered the benefits of expanding into larger clothing sizes. (ajc.com)
  • They diversified and evolved in this setting, and some of the birds that started out larger in size experienced what's called "a scaling down. (cnn.com)
  • Their bodies shrank in size, but they kept the big brains of their larger ancestors. (cnn.com)
  • If you are actively involved in sports, yoga or other physical activities, the size and weight of larger implants may be a hindrance. (newbeauty.com)
  • The larger your implant size, the more vulnerable you will be to certain breast implant complications. (newbeauty.com)
  • LITTLE FALLS, N.J., May 26 -- Despite their larger size, National Football League players had roughly the same cardiovascular risk as the general population in a multiteam study. (medpagetoday.com)