The physical measurements of a body.
The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.
The two dimensional measure of the outer layer of the body.
Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.
Individuals' concept of their own bodies.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by an oviparous or ovoviviparous animal.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Large herbivorous tropical American lizards.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Sexual activities of animals.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Group of fish under the superorder Acanthopterygii, separate from the PERCIFORMES, which includes swamp eels, mullets, sticklebacks, seahorses, spiny eels, rainbowfishes, and KILLIFISHES. The name is derived from the six taxa which comprise the group. (From, 8/4/2000)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.
Characteristics or attributes of persons or things which elicit pleasurable feelings.
Animals that have no spinal column.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
The normal length of time of an organism's life.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of the following five families: CHEIROGALEIDAE; Daubentoniidae; Indriidae; LEMURIDAE; and LORISIDAE.
Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.
The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.
The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
The outer covering of the body composed of the SKIN and the skin appendages, which are the HAIR, the NAILS; and the SEBACEOUS GLANDS and the SWEAT GLANDS and their ducts.
Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.
In some animals, the jaws together with their horny covering. The beak usually refers to the bill of birds in which the whole varies greatly in form according of the food and habits of the bird. While the beak refers most commonly to birds, the anatomical counterpart is found also in the turtle, squid, and octopus. (From Webster, 3d ed & Storer, et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p491, 755)
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The individual's experience of a sense of fulfillment of a need or want and the quality or state of being satisfied.

Association of the metabolic syndrome with history of myocardial infarction and stroke in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. (1/2357)

BACKGROUND: The combination of cardiovascular risk factors known as the metabolic syndrome is receiving increased attention from physicians, but data on the syndrome's association with morbidity are limited. METHODS AND RESULTS: Applying National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) criteria, we evaluated 10 357 NHANES III subjects for the 5 component conditions of the metabolic syndrome: insulin resistance, abdominal obesity based on waist circumference, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), and hypertension, as well as the full syndrome, defined as at least 3 of the 5 conditions. Logistic regression was used to estimate the cross-sectional association of the syndrome and each of its 5 component conditions separately with history of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and either MI or stroke (MI/stroke). Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, and cigarette smoking. The metabolic syndrome was significantly related in multivariate analysis to MI (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.53 to 2.64), stroke (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.48 to 3.16), and MI/stroke (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.64 to 2.57). The syndrome was significantly associated with MI/stroke in both women and men. Among the component conditions, insulin resistance (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.66), low HDL-C (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.74), hypertension (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.08), and hypertriglyceridemia (OR, 1.66; 95% CI=1.20 to 2.30) were independently and significantly related to MI/stroke. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate a strong, consistent relationship of the metabolic syndrome with prevalent MI and stroke.  (+info)

Genetic dissection of mammalian Cdc7 kinase: cell cycle and developmental roles. (2/2357)

Cdc7, originally discovered by Hartwell as a budding yeast mutant that arrests immediately before the onset of S phase, is conserved through evolution and plays essential roles in initiation of mitotic DNA replication. Inducible inactivation of Cdc7 in mouse embryonic stem cells leads to rapid cessation of DNA synthesis and the subsequent activation of checkpoint responses, resulting in p53 activation and eventually p53-mediated apoptosis. This indicates a requirement of Cdc7 kinase for ongoing replication of mammalian genomes, and loss of Cdc7 kinase presumably generates arrested replication fork signals. Cdc7-/- mice or embryonic fibroblast cells (MEFs) expressing a low level of transgene-encoded Cdc7 protein are viable but exhibit reduced body size with impaired germ cell development and decreased cell proliferation. Interestingly, these phenotypes are largely corrected by the presence of an additional copy of the transgene, resulting in increased level of Cdc7 expression. This indicates the requirement of a critical level of Cdc7 for normal cell proliferation and development of specific organs. These results from mammals will be discussed in conjunction with the pleiotropic effects of Cdc7 mutation observed in yeasts.  (+info)

Effect of body size on breathing pattern and fine-particle deposition in children. (3/2357)

Interchild variability in breathing patterns may contribute to variability in fine particle lung deposition and morbidity in children associated with those particles. Fractional deposition (DF) of fine particles (2-microm monodisperse, carnauba wax particles) was measured in healthy children, age 6-13 yr (n = 36), while they followed a resting breathing pattern previously determined by respiratory inductance plethysmography. Interchild variation in DF, measured by photometry at the mouth, was most strongly predicted by their tidal volume (Vt) (r =0.79, P < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis further showed that, for any given height and age, Vt increased with increasing body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.001). The overweight children (> or =95th percentile BMI) (n = 8) had twice the DF of those in the lowest BMI quartile (<25th percentile) (n = 9; 0.28 +/- 0.13 vs. 0.15 +/- 0.06, respectively; P < 0.02). In the same groups, resting minute ventilation was also significantly higher in the overweight children (8.5 +/- 2.2 vs. 5.9 +/- 1.1 l/min; P < 0.01). Consequently, the rate of deposition (i.e., particles depositing/time) in the overweight children was 2.8 times that of the leanest children (P < 0.02). Among all children, the rate of deposition was significantly correlated with BMI (r = 0.46, P = 0.004). These results suggest that increased weight in children may be associated with increased risk from inhalation of pollutant particles in ambient air.  (+info)

Developmental allometry of pulmonary structure and function in the altricial Australian pelican Pelecanus conspicillatus. (4/2357)

Quantitative methods have been used to correlate maximal oxygen uptake with lung development in Australian pelicans. These birds produce the largest altricial neonates and become some of the largest birds capable of flight. During post-hatching growth to adults, body mass increases by two orders of magnitude (from 88 g to 8.8 kg). Oxygen consumption rates were measured at rest and during exposure to cold and during exercise. Then the lungs were quantitatively assessed using morphometric techniques. Allometric relationships between body mass (M) and gas exchange parameters (Y) were determined and evaluated by examining the exponents of the equation Y=aM(b). This intraspecific study was compared to interspecific studies of adult birds reported in the literature. Total lung volume scales similarly in juvenile pelicans (b=1.05) as in adult birds (b=1.02). However, surface area of the blood-gas barrier greatly increases (b=1.25), and its harmonic mean thickness does not significantly change (b=0.02), in comparison to exponents from adult birds (b=0.86 and 0.07, respectively). As a result, the diffusing capacity of the blood-gas tissue barrier increases much more during development (b=1.23) than it does in adult birds of different sizes (b=0.79). It increases in parallel to maximal oxygen consumption rate (b=1.28), suggesting that the gas exchange system is either limited by lung development or possibly symmorphic. The capacity of the oxygen delivery system is theoretically sufficient for powered flight well in advance of the bird's need to use it.  (+info)

Phenotypic relationships between longevity, type traits, and production in Chianina beef cattle. (5/2357)

Longevity is an increasingly important trait in beef cattle. Increased longevity decreases costs for the farmer and increases revenue. The objective of this research was to investigate the phenotypic relationship between type traits and longevity in Chianina beef cattle, and the relationship between production and longevity, to analyze the effect of voluntary culling. Data included records on reproductive, productive, and type traits provided by the National Association of Italian Beef Cattle Breeders from 6,395 Chianina cows. The average length of productive life was 1,829 d. The herd-year had a strong effect on the risk of culling. The effects of 22 type traits were analyzed. All the muscularity traits analyzed were highly significant (P < 0.01) and as a group had the largest effect on longevity, followed by dimension, refinement, and leg traits. Cows that calved before 35 mo of age had a lower probability of being culled than cows calving after 35 mo of age. Variation in herd size had a strong effect on risk ratio, with lower risk for intermediate classes. Cows with approximately one calf per year remained in the herd longer than did cows with fewer calves. Straight-legged animals had a 59% greater probability of being replaced than cows with a moderate angle to the hock, whereas sickle-legged animals had only a 3% higher probability of being culled than average cows. Udder conformation had no effect on longevity. In summary, results of this study indicate that herd-year effects and muscularity traits were the most important factors for longevity for Chianina cows among the factors studied.  (+info)

A prospective study of body size in different periods of life and risk of premenopausal breast cancer. (6/2357)

The prevalence of obesity at all ages is increasing epidemically worldwide. Information on the association between premenopausal breast cancer and body size during childhood and teenage years is scarce. In 1991 to 1992, a prospective cohort study was assembled in Norway and Sweden. We included in the analysis presented here 99,717 premenopausal women. During the follow-up period, which ended in December 1999, 733 of these women developed a primary invasive breast cancer. Overweight and obesity [body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg/m(2)] at enrollment was associated with a decreased risk of premenopausal breast cancer (P for linear trend = 0.007). Apparent associations between perceived body shape at age 7 and BMI at age 18, with heavier builds at both ages seemingly being protective for premenopausal breast cancer risk, lost their statistical significance after adjustment for BMI at cohort enrollment. Body size at age 7 was correlated with BMI at age 18 (r = 0.43); BMI at age 18 was correlated with adult BMI (r = 0.48). Changes in body size from age 7 or 18 to adulthood did not affect per se risk of premenopausal breast cancer risk. Height was related to risk, with a statistically significantly 30% reduced risk only in women shorter than 160 cm as compared with taller ones. The decreased risk of premenopausal breast cancer was observed in overweight and obese women without, but not in those with, a family history of breast cancer.  (+info)

Microsmatic primates: reconsidering how and when size matters. (7/2357)

The terms "microsmatic" and "macrosmatic" refer to species with lesser or greater levels, respectively, of olfactory function. Historically, primates are considered microsmats (olfactory sense reduced) with a concomitant increased emphasis on vision. The olfactory bulbs (forebrain centers that receive peripheral olfactory input) are proportionately smaller in primates compared to most other mammals. Similarly, the regions of the nasal cavity that are covered with olfactory epithelium (containing receptor cells) have proportionately less surface area in primates than other mammals. Thus, the generalization that primates are microsmatic is most frequently stated in terms of the proportional rather than absolute size of olfactory structures. Yet the importance of scaling to body size is unclear in regard to the chemical senses such as the olfactory or vomeronasal systems-do chemosensory structures such as olfactory bulbs and olfactory epithelium exhibit the same neural relationship to body mass that is seen for neural tissues that supply innervation to musculature or the skin? Previous studies examining neuronal density, volume, and/or surface area of the olfactory epithelium illustrate that different conclusions may be supported based on the parameter used. Plots of olfactory bulb volume versus body mass that generated for large-scale taxonomic studies or growth studies benefit from body mass (or total brain volume) with a comparative perspective. However, our examination of proportional versus absolute measurements implies that in comparisons within taxa, body size adjustments needlessly distort the data. As a final consideration, another embryonic derivative of the nasal placode, the vomeronasal organ, may warrant consideration regarding a definition of microsomia versus macrosomia.  (+info)

The genetic covariance among clinal environments after adaptation to an environmental gradient in Drosophila serrata. (8/2357)

We examined the genetic basis of clinal adaptation by determining the evolutionary response of life-history traits to laboratory natural selection along a gradient of thermal stress in Drosophila serrata. A gradient of heat stress was created by exposing larvae to a heat stress of 36 degrees for 4 hr for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 days of larval development, with the remainder of development taking place at 25 degrees. Replicated lines were exposed to each level of this stress every second generation for 30 generations. At the end of selection, we conducted a complete reciprocal transfer experiment where all populations were raised in all environments, to estimate the realized additive genetic covariance matrix among clinal environments in three life-history traits. Visualization of the genetic covariance functions of the life-history traits revealed that the genetic correlation between environments generally declined as environments became more different and even became negative between the most different environments in some cases. One exception to this general pattern was a life-history trait representing the classic trade-off between development time and body size, which responded to selection in a similar genetic fashion across all environments. Adaptation to clinal environments may involve a number of distinct genetic effects along the length of the cline, the complexity of which may not be fully revealed by focusing primarily on populations at the ends of the cline.  (+info)

The extinction of dinosaurs at the Cretaceous/Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary was the seminal event that opened the door for the subsequent diversification of terrestrial mammals. Our compilation of maximum body size at the ordinal level by sub-epoch shows a near-exponential increase after the K/Pg. On each continent, the maximum size of mammals leveled off after 40 million years ago and thereafter remained approximately constant. There was remarkable congruence in the rate, trajectory, and upper limit across continents, orders, and trophic guilds, despite differences in geological and climatic history, turnover of lineages, and ecological variation. Our analysis suggests that although the primary driver for the evolution of giant mammals was diversification to fill ecological niches, environmental temperature and land area may have ultimately constrained the maximum size achieved.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of temperature on development, survival, and adult body size of two green lacewings, Mallada desjardinsi and Chrysoperla nipponensis (Neuroptera. T2 - Chrysopidae). AU - Nakahira, Kengo. AU - Nakahara, Ryoichi. AU - Arakawa, Ryo. PY - 2005/12/1. Y1 - 2005/12/1. N2 - To search for a useful biological control agent and to determine the optimal rearing conditions for the green lacewings Mallada desjardinsi and Chrysoperla nipponensis, thermal effects on development, survival, and adult body size were examined at seven constant temperatures (15.0, 17.5, 20.0, 22.5, 25.0, 27.5, and 30.0°C) with a photoperiod regime of 16L : 8D (h). The developmental zero of M. desjardinsi larvae was higher than that of C. nipponensis larvae. The developmental zeros of C. cornea and C. nipponensis in earlier reports were similar to that of C. nipponensis in the present study. On the other hand, that of M. desjardinsi in earlier studies was somewhat higher than that of M. desjardinsi in the ...
Body size is one of the most important characteristics of an organism, impacting a great variety of ecological characteristics. The influence of diet on body size has received considerable attention, with previous studies suggesting a greater tendency towards increased body size in herbivores than macro-carnivores. The earliest known herbivorous and macro-carnivorous synapsids provide an ideal case study for examining body size evolution in different dietary regimes. Sphenacomorpha contains two lineages: Edaphosauridae (some of the most abundant terrestrial herbivores in the late Carboniferous and early Permian), and Sphenacodontia (the largest and most abundant carnivores of that time). Phylogenetic comparative analyses are used to compare trait evolution in sphenacomorphs, including a Bayesian method for identifying branches along which phenotypic selection occurred. Two branches show rapid increases in body size in the late Carboniferous. The first occurred in Edaphosauridae, along the branch ...
Body size is a fundamentally important trait for fitness in many animal species because it correlates positively with survival and reproductive success. In many fish species, large females exhibit higher fecundity and produce higher quality offspring compared to small females. Similarly, male body size can affect offspring quality and early life-history traits but the importance of these effects to the reproductive biology of fish is poorly studied. The extent to which variation in reproductive success is explained by parental body size is an important research topic because size-selective fishing usually reduces the average size of reproducing adults in a population. In my dissertation, I studied the parental size effects on reproductive success in a model species (zebrafish, Danio rerio). I also studied the effects of size-selective harvesting on body size, maturation and reproductive output. Body size and condition factor were important determinants of the initiation of maturation in ...
Obesity and diabetes mellitus are well-defined risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. The impact of antecedent hyperglycemia and body size on mortality in critical ill patients in intensive care units (ICUs) may vary across their range of values. Therefore, we prospectively analyzed the relationship between in-hospital mortality and preexisting hyperglycemia and body size in critically ill ICU patients to understand how mortality varied among normal, overweight, and obese patients and those with low, intermediate, and high glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Medical history, weight, height, physiologic variables, and HbA1c were obtained during the first 24 h for patients who were consecutively admitted to the high complexity ICU of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil, from April to August 2011. The relationships between mortality and obesity and antecedent hyperglycemia were prospectively analyzed by cubic spline analysis and a Cox proportional hazards model. The study comprised 199
Obesity and diabetes mellitus are well-defined risk factors for cardiovascular mortality. The impact of antecedent hyperglycemia and body size on mortality in critical ill patients in intensive care units (ICUs) may vary across their range of values. Therefore, we prospectively analyzed the relationship between in-hospital mortality and preexisting hyperglycemia and body size in critically ill ICU patients to understand how mortality varied among normal, overweight, and obese patients and those with low, intermediate, and high glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Medical history, weight, height, physiologic variables, and HbA1c were obtained during the first 24 h for patients who were consecutively admitted to the high complexity ICU of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil, from April to August 2011. The relationships between mortality and obesity and antecedent hyperglycemia were prospectively analyzed by cubic spline analysis and a Cox proportional hazards model. The study comprised 199
View Notes - Exam 3[1] from ESSE 313 at Old Dominion. Name_Chelsea Valentine_ SPED (ESSE) 313 Date_3/18/10_ EXAM 3 1. True or False: Growth norms and trends in body size are consistent across
The origin of birds (Aves) is one of the great evolutionary transitions. Fossils show that many unique morphological features of modern birds, such as feathers, reduction in body size, and the semilunate carpal, long preceded the origin of clade Aves, but some may be unique to Aves, such as relative elongation of the forelimb. We study the evolution of body size and forelimb length across the phylogeny of coelurosaurian theropods and Mesozoic Aves. Using recently developed phylogenetic comparative methods, we find an increase in rates of body size and body size dependent forelimb evolution leading to small body size relative to forelimb length in Paraves, the wider clade comprising Aves and Deinonychosauria. The high evolutionary rates arose primarily from a reduction in body size, as there were no increased rates of forelimb evolution. In line with a recent study, we find evidence that Aves appear to have a unique relationship between body size and forelimb dimensions. Traits associated with ...
Understanding how quickly pathogens replicate and how quickly the immune system responds is important for predicting the epidemic spread of emerging pathogens. Host body size, through its correlation with metabolic rates, is theoretically predicted to impact pathogen replication rates and immune system response rates. Here, we use mathematical models of viral time courses from multiple species of birds infected by a generalist pathogen (West Nile Virus; WNV) to test more thoroughly how disease progression and immune response depend on mass and host phylogeny. We use hierarchical Bayesian models coupled with nonlinear dynamical models of disease dynamics to incorporate the hierarchical nature of host phylogeny. Our analysis suggests an important role for both host phylogeny and species mass in determining factors important for viral spread such as the basic reproductive number, WNV production rate, peak viraemia in blood and competency of a host to infect mosquitoes. Our model is based on a ...
The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) is an extension of Kleibers law and posits that the metabolic rate of organisms is the fundamental biological rate that governs most observed patterns in ecology. MTE is part of a larger set of theory known as metabolic scaling theory that attempts to provide a unified theory for the importance of metabolism in driving pattern and process in biology from the level of cells all the way to the biosphere. MTE is based on an interpretation of the relationships between body size, body temperature, and metabolic rate across all organisms. Small-bodied organisms tend to have higher mass-specific metabolic rates than larger-bodied organisms. Furthermore, organisms that operate at warm temperatures through endothermy or by living in warm environments tend towards higher metabolic rates than organisms that operate at colder temperatures. This pattern is consistent from the unicellular level up to the level of the largest animals and plants on the planet. In MTE, this ...
View Notes - Cell Quiz 2 from BIOLOGY 1305 at Baylor. David Hopkins Section 2 Quiz 2 1. The maximum size of a cell is limited by a. its need for enough surface area for exchange with its
It can be given a piece of text that is used as the initial value.. A TextField has a maximum size, which is the maximum number of characters that can be stored in the object at any time (its capacity). This limit is enforced when the TextField instance is constructed, when the user is editing text within the TextField, as well as when the application program calls methods on the TextField that modify its contents. The maximum size is the maximum stored capacity and is unrelated to the number of characters that may be displayed at any given time. The number of characters displayed and their arrangement into rows and columns are determined by the device. The implementation may place a boundary on the maximum size, and the maximum size actually assigned may be smaller than the application had requested. The value actually assigned will be reflected in the value returned by ...
BACKGROUND: Data on lifetime exposures are often self-reported in epidemiologic studies, sometimes many years after the relevant age. Validity of self-reported data is usually inferred from their agreement with measured values, but few studies directly quantify the likely effects of reporting errors in body size and reproductive history variables on estimates of disease-exposure associations. METHODS: The MRC National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD) and the Million Women Study (MWS) are UK population-based prospective cohorts. The NSHD recruited participants at birth in 1946 and has followed them at regular intervals since then, whereas the MWS recruited women in middle age. For 541 women who were participants in both studies, we used statistical measures of association and agreement to compare self-reported MWS data on body size throughout life and reproductive history, obtained in middle age, to NSHD data measured or reported close to the relevant ages. Likely attenuation of estimates of
This paper is devoted to the study of a spatially and size-structured population dynamics model with delayed birth process. Our focus is on the asymptotic behavior of the system, in particular on the effect of the spatial location and the time lag on the long-term dynamics. To this end, within a semigroup framework, we derive the locally asymptotic stability and asynchrony results respectively for the considered population system under some conditions. For our discussion, we use the approaches concerning operator matrices, Hille-Yosida operators, spectral analysis as well as Perron-Frobenius theory. We also do two numerical simulations to illustrate the obtained stability and asynchrony results.
Health, ...FRIDAY May 27 (HealthDay News) -- Your size may influence how you per...People were tricked into believing they were either the size of Barbie...The study published online May 25 in PLoS ONE found that when...This skewed perception of space was evaluated by having participants e...,,Body,Size,May,Influence,How,People,View,,the,World,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
A major constraint on the evolution of large body sizes in animals is an increased risk of developing cancer. There is no correlation, however, between body size and cancer risk. This lack of correlation is often referred to as Petos Paradox. Here, we show that the elephant genome encodes 20 copi …
Amongst complex life forms, there are two basic reproductive strategies: r-strategy, characterized by rapid development, early reproduction, small body size, and shorter lifespans, and K-strategy, characterized by slow development, delayed reproduction, large body size, and longer lifespans. Humans are obviously a K-strategy species, which means that reproductive success involves a much higher investment of the parents lifespan and resources than the r-strategy alternative. Consequently, in times of extreme scarcity, it is advantageous to forego pregnancy lest the baby dies of starvation after nine months in utero, thus wasting a significant portion of a womans fertile lifespan and perhaps leading to her demise. If humans were entirely rational the ovulation cycle wouldnt need to interrupted by an autonomic mechanism regulating estrogen levels to body fat, a proxy for prosperity. Bad news, honey, the mammoth population has crashed. Well be sleeping in separate caves for the foreseeable. ...
on right side along with bilateral mental foramen.. Position of AMF in 8 mandibles out of 100 was found situated below apex of first molar tooth whereas it was observed to be located between first and second premolar in 5 mandibles out of the same 100. Average distance between MF and AMF was 0.67mm lateral to MF.. Shape of MF. On right side it is oval in 6% of mandibles and round in 94% of mandibles. On left side it is oval in 13% of mandibles while it is round in 87% of mandibles.. Size of MF. On right side: Average size was 2.79 mm. Minimum size is 1mm and Maximum size is 5 mm.. On left side: Average size is 2.57mm. Minimum size is 1mm and Maximum size is 6 mm.. Size of AMF. Average size is 1 mm. Minimum size is 0.6 mm and Maximum size is 1.5 mm.. Incidences of MF. MF is present in all one hundred observed mandibles and it is bilateral.. Incidences of AMF. AMF is observed in 13 mandibles out of 100 mandibles. AMF was situated in 5 out of 13 mandibles on right side and in 8 out of the same13 ...
A southern population (S) from Xiushui County (29°1′N, 114°4′E) and a northern population (N) from Shenyang city (41°48′N, 123°23′E) of the cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi vary greatly in their life-history traits, and may serve as an excellent model with which to study the inheritance of life-history traits. In the present study, we performed intraspecific hybridization using the two populations, comparing the key life-history traits (fecundity, development time, body weight, growth rate, and sexual size dimorphism (SDD)) between the two populations (S♀ × S♂ and N♀ × N♂) and their two hybrid populations (S♀ × N♂ and N♀ × S♂ populations) at 19, 22, 25, and 28°C. Our results showed that there were significant differences in life-history traits between the two parental populations, with the S population having a significantly higher fecundity, shorter larval development time, larger body weight, higher growth rate, and greater weight loss during metamorphosis ...
How to cite: Lin, K. Y., Sastri, A. R., Gong, G. C., and Hsieh, C. H.: Corrigendum to Copepod community growth rates in relation to body size, temperature, and food availability in the East China Sea: a test of metabolic theory of ecology published in Biogeoscience, 10, 1877-1892, 2013, Biogeosciences, 10, 2657-2657,, 2013 ...
This isnt exactly my area, but if I got it right, high termal inertia is often inversely proportional to the metabolic rate (of a warm blooded animal). Graphs that display that metabolic rates rise when temperature rises is a bit another thing. Thermal inertia, afaik, is a simple physical trait that tells how much thermal energy and in what time a mass of some material can store/release (or so). This means a big mass of stuff (like an ostrich) has high termal inertia. However, high body size causes the metabolic heat to accumulate more efficiently (since a large body has a low surface area to volume ratio), and thus large animals would overheat if they had high metabolic rates. I think there is even a theoretical maximum size that an organism can become before overheating becomes a problem. Some paleontologists claim largest dinosaurs were close to this kind of maximum size for terrestial animals ...
Brain size relative to body size has been used by generations of scientists to predict an animals intelligence. For example, although the human brain is not the largest in the animal kingdom in terms of volume or mass, it is exceptionally large considering our moderate body mass.. Now, a study by a team of scientists at UCL, the University of Konstanz, and the Max Planck Institute of Ornithology has found that the relationship between the two traits is driven by different evolutionary mechanisms in different animals.. Crucially, researchers have found that the most significant factor in determining relative brain size is often evolutionary pressure on body size, and not brain size. For example, the evolutionary history of bats reveals they decreased body size much faster than brain size, leading to an increase in relative brain size. As a result, small bats were able to evolve improved flying manoeuvrability while maintaining the brainpower to handle foraging in cluttered environments.. This ...
Bergmanns rule states that mammals of a given genus or species are smaller in hotter climates, and bigger in colder climates. Adapted, when faced with
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Mating systems evolve with sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in many animals. Mating systems with males larger than females occur when males compete for female access or guard territories, while mating systems with group mating tend to occur in species where females are the same size or larger than males. In addition to variation in SSD with mating system, sperm competition varies among mating systems ...
Mating systems evolve with sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in many animals. Mating systems with males larger than females occur when males compete for female access or guard territories, while mating systems with group mating tend to occur in species where females are the same size or larger than males. In addition to variation in SSD with mating system, sperm competition varies among mating systems ...
Background: Females with cystic fibrosis have higher mortality rates than their male counterparts. Pulmonary function defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) is a predictor of mortality. However, when pulmonary function is accounted for, females still have a higher mortality rate than males. Independent of lung function, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) is a significant predictor of mortality, with higher values of VO2peak relating to a lower risk of mortality. In healthy children, VO2peak is significantly different between sexes, however it has yet to be determined whether sex differences in VO2peak occur in CF. Aim: to identify sex differences in exercise capacity in young people with CF, when appropriately scaled for different body size variables and adjusted for key clinical parameters such as lung function and nutritional and maturity status. Methods: 52 young people (29 males and 23 females) aged 8 - 25 y with CF underwent a ramp cycle test to exhaustion. 47 completed an additional ...
Returns the maximum number of characters that can be used to store user-defined information in the device onboard EEPROM. Not supported Not supported in VIs that run in a web application niDCPower Get Cal User Defined Info Max |helpdir|:/NIDCPowerVIRef.chm::/niDCPower_Get_Cal_User_Defined_In
Release_validation_instructions,testtype=Installation,release=34,milestone=Branched,compose=,date=20210407.n.0}} {{anchor,results}} == Test Matrix == ,onlyinclude> Please click [show] in each table to view the tests of each media installation, and click [edit] to post your test results using the syntax in [[#Key,Key Section]]. ,div style=background-color: darkgreen; text-align: center; border-style: solid; border-width: thin> ==== Image sanity ==== ,/div> {{admon/note,Details,The result column titles are variants in Pungi/productmd parlance. For each variant, the checksums for all images in that variant can be checked; the maximum size for all images in that variant which have a maximum size can be checked; and repoclosure and fileconflicts can be checked for any DVD image in that variant. Any failure for any tested image should be filed as a bug and reported as a failure here. Please provide the bug ID and a short note of exactly which image(s) failed as a comment.}} ...
This is an automated email from the git hooks/post-receive script. grothoff pushed a commit to branch master in repository gnunet. commit 717b24a92ce64e33ac528c67f8047c4290ea260c Author: Elias Summermatter ,[email protected], AuthorDate: Fri Apr 16 07:42:25 2021 +0200 Fixed a bug in implementation added if max size thresold instead of dont allow ibfs to get smaler --- src/setu/gnunet-service-setu.c , 19 ++++++------------- 1 file changed, 6 insertions(+), 13 deletions(-) diff --git a/src/setu/gnunet-service-setu.c b/src/setu/gnunet-service-setu.c index 0c16bbb46..f903739da 100644 --- a/src/setu/gnunet-service-setu.c +++ b/src/setu/gnunet-service-setu.c @@ -66,11 +66,11 @@ #define MAX_BUCKETS_PER_MESSAGE ((1 ,, 15) / IBF_BUCKET_SIZE) /** - * The maximum size of an ibf we use is 2^(MAX_IBF_ORDER). + * The maximum size of an ibf we use is MAX_IBF_SIZE=2^20. * Choose this value so that computing the IBF is still cheaper * than transmitting all values. */ -#define MAX_IBF_ORDER (20) ...
Hypothermia and anemia: The small size of the infant and the large area of skin exposure required for the surgery places these children at risk for hypothermia during surgery. The room temperature and the infants body temperature must be maintained accordingly. Similarly, the small body size and blood volume put the child at risk for anemia unless meticulous hemostasis is accomplished. ...
The effect of the organisms body size and energy reserves in models for population dynamicss profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
Yes, size does matter, at least when it comes to Canadas collective cup collecting contest, and we have a lot of cups to prove it. Many have asked whether theres a conspiracy with the prize distribu...
Weight Loss Support - Goal weight and body size? 0.0 - H*ll...Im 51 and somewhere between 135-138. My lowest was 126 and Ive been maintaining
A new study looks at the joint associations of NAFLD and body size phenotypes with the risk for developing diabetes. How are they connected ...
FTS306 Eaton Flo-Temp Series Female Socket - 3/8 Body Size - 3/8 Hose Stem End Connection Quick Disconnect Coupling - Brass - Non Valved, provides the flow needed to cool or heat molds and die casting dies in injection molding applications. Can be used wi
One of the issues here is that warming (during the PETM) happened much slower, over 10,000 to 20,000 years to get 10 degrees hotter, whereas now were expecting it to happen over a century or two, Secord said. So theres a big difference in scale and one of the questions is, Are we going to see the same kind of response? Are animals going to be able to keep up and readjust their body sizes over the next couple of centuries ...
Generation III External Engine - Throttle body size - so, the 2002s T/A s had the LS6 intakes. ive read somewhere (tho i cant find it anymore)
k24z7 throttle body size, Jul 21, 2016 · Understanding the Throttle Body Your vehicles throttle body helps your motor by measuring the amount of airflow which enters your engine. There are two main types of throttle body systems. On older vehicles, a special cable attached to the throttle bodys moveable plates (also called butterflies) pulls them open when you step on the gas …
This theory - the Metabolic Theory of Ecology - therefore relates to many areas of great public concern including food production, conservation of populations, and global warming. However, substantial deviations from the predictions of this theory have prompted me to explore ways of improving the theory. Using data on diverse organisms ranging from microbes to mammals and also from our heated experimental ponds, I aim to test assumptions and predictions of alternative metabolic theories of ecology, including investigating: ...
Note on lactate: Regarding healthy cells and fermentation: healthy cells can and do ferment pyruvate into lactate. They generally do this when they need even more energy than can be provided by OxPhos, such as in muscle cells during intense physical activity. Very hardworking muscle cells need as much energy as they can get, as quickly as they can get it, so theyll use any and all pathways at their disposal, including fermentation. This is why we have a buildup of lactic acid in muscles at or near the point of exhaustion/failure. (Although it seems that the lactic acid is not the cause of the fatigue.) It also explains why intense and/or fast activity is said to be more glycolytic than slower, less intense movements, as we discussed here. Generally speaking, the greater the degree of intensity and speed of an activity (such as sprinting), the more it is powered by glucose, and the less intense the activity (such as walking), the more it is powered by fat. So yes, perfectly healthy cells will ...
The point of these drills is to develop the overall body feel that characterizes looseness. If you focus on pummeling your target or your partner, youll miss the whole point.
The point of these drills is to develop the overall body feel that characterizes looseness. If you focus on pummeling your target or your partner, youll miss the whole point.
In recent years, the centres of many towns and cities have been reshaped by urban design projects, but little attention has been paid to how these transformations are experienced everyday by users of the city. In other words: how do the users of urban centers, such as shoppers, cleaners, or workers, perceive these changes, as embodied subjects in specific material environments? This paper analyses how bodies in two intensely designed urban spaces - the shopping centre of Milton Keynes, a 1960s new town, and Bedfords recently redeveloped historic town centre - are affected by elements of the built environment. Affected is a term borrowed from Latour (2004), and the paper works with, and elaborates, some of his and others work on how bodies are effectuated by other entities. Such Latourian work pays a great deal of attention to how bodies are affected by both human and non-human entities of many kinds, and we examine how certain aspects of the built environment in these two towns affects ...
Life Cycle: Chromidina spp. have a polymorphic dixenous life cycle, with two different budding processes which are monotomy and palintomy. The adult stage, the vermiform tropho-tomont, has a maximum body length varying from 400 µm to 2,000 µm. Some rare adult stages can have an accelerated growth process. Their size increases so quickly that their length can measure up to 5,000 µm. Given their unusual extended size, these adult stages are called hypertrophonts. The tropho-tomont is uniformly ciliated and has no cytostome. It is attached through its anterior end to the host kidney tissues with its body bathing in the renal fluids, and feeds by nutriment absorption from host cells and fluids. Division by monotomy produces a single long bud from the posterior end, the apotomite, which is morphologically similar to its parent and develops into a second generation of trophotomonts after detachment and colonisation of the host kidney. Division by palintomy produces smaller buds that form a typical ...
The term of muscle car can be described as a car with large body size and oversized engine.One good example is the Chevrolet Chevelle SS,the body size is huge compared to average sportscars.Most known muscle cars are American cars.All muscle cars are rear wheel drive and most of them are coupes and convertibles,rather than four door. ...
The term of muscle car can be described as a car with large body size and oversized engine.One good example is the Chevrolet Chevelle SS,the body size is huge compared to average sportscars.Most known muscle cars are American cars.All muscle cars are rear wheel drive and most of them are coupes and convertibles,rather than four door. ...
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Sexual dimorphisms in body size are widespread throughout the animal kingdom but their underlying mechanisms are not well characterized.
1. Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is a common phenomenon in animals. Renschs rule states that larger species generally exhibit a higher male to female body size ratio than smaller ones. 2. Domesticated animals offer excellent opportunities for testing predictions of the functional explanations of Renschs rule and the was tested in a meta-analysis of SSD in 38 breeds of domestic geese compared amokng themselves and with their wild relatives (subfamily Anserinae, 35 species). 3. Domestic geese and wild Anser species taken together supported Renchs rule but the wild species did not. 4. The non-targeted sex selection hypothesis seems to provide the best intuitive explanation for the lack of SSD in geese ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Predator−prey body size relationships of cod in a low-diversity marine system. AU - Niiranen, Susa. AU - Orio, Alessandro. AU - Bartolino, Valerio. AU - Bergström, Ulf. AU - Kallasvuo, Meri. AU - Neuenfeldt, Stefan. AU - Ustups, Didzis. AU - Casini, Michele. PY - 2019. Y1 - 2019. N2 - How predators select their prey largely defines ecosystem trophic structure, function and dynamics. In aquatic systems, organism body size is an important trait explaining predator− prey interactions. Here, we used a unique Atlantic cod Gadus morhua stomach content dataset with diet information from over 100 000 individuals collected from the Baltic Sea in 1963−2014, to explore prey size distribution and predator−prey mass ratios in the diet of Eastern Baltic cod. Maximum and average prey sizes increased with predator size, as for cod in other systems. However, the prey size spectra found in Eastern Baltic cod stomachs reflect the low species diversity in the Baltic Sea. In general, Eastern ...
Body size is correlated with many species traits such as morphology, physiology, life history and abundance as well; it is one of the most discussed topics in macroecological studies. The aim of this paper was to analyze the body size distribution of Chrysomelidae, caught with Malaise traps during two years in four areas with different levels of conservation in the Araucaria Forest, Paraná, Brazil, determining if body size is a good predictor of abundance, and if body size could be used to indicate environmental quality. Body size was considered the total length of the specimen from the anterior region of head to the apex of abdomen/elytron. Measurements were taken for up to ten specimens of each species for each area and for all specimens of those species represented by fewer than ten individuals. The highest abundance and richness of Chrysomelidae were obtained in the lowest body size classes. This herbivorous group showed a trend toward a decrease in body size with increasing abundance, but
Effects of Target Plant Species Body Size on Neighbourhood Species Richness and Composition in Old-Field Vegetation. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Myopia development is characterised by an increased axial eye length. Therefore, identifying factors that influence eye size may provide new insights into the aetiology of myopia. In humans, axial length is positively correlated to height and weight, and in mice, eye weight is positively correlated with body weight. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between eye size and body size in chickens from a genetic cross in which alleles with major effects on eye and body size were segregating. Chickens from a cross between a layer line (small body size and eye size) and a broiler line (large body and eye size) were interbred for 10 generations so that alleles for eye and body size would have the chance to segregate independently. At 3 weeks of age, 510 chicks were assessed using in vivo high resolution A-scan ultrasonography and keratometry. Equatorial eye diameter and eye weight were measured after enucleation. The variations in eye size parameters that could be explained by ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Visual body-size adaptation and estimation of tactile distance. AU - Zopf, Regine. AU - Kosourikhina, Veronika. AU - Brooks, Kevin R.. AU - Polito, Vince. AU - Stephen, Ian D.. PY - 2021/6/12. Y1 - 2021/6/12. N2 - Estimating the size of bodies is crucial for interactions with physical and social environments. Body-size perception is malleable and can be altered using visual adaptation paradigms. However, it is unclear whether such visual adaptation effects also transfer to other modalities and influence, for example, the perception of tactile distances. In this study, we employed a visual adaptation paradigm. Participants were exposed to images of expanded or contracted versions of self- or other-identity bodies. Before and after this adaptation, they were asked to manipulate the width of body stimuli to appear as normal as possible. We replicated an effect of visual adaptation such that the body-size selected as most normal was larger after exposure to expanded and thinner ...
Sexual size dimorphisms are a common feature in living organisms. The broad horned flour beetle (Gnathocerus cornutus) exhibits a pronounced sexual size dimorphism of the mandibles. It has been shown that enlarged mandibles in males are used in regular fights among males. While this behaviour is well-studied, the developmental basis of exaggerated mandible growth in males is not understood to date. We will apply comparative transcriptomics in combination with a comprehensive developmental characterization of mandible growth to identify key candidate genes involved in this process. Subsequently, candidate genes will be functionally tested via gene knock-down using RNA interference (RNAi). ...
Drosophila melanogaster shows geographic clines in body size, with genetically larger flies being found further from the equator and at higher altitudes. In the laboratory, evolution at lower temperatures results in genetically larger flies, and development at low temperature increases adult body size. This study demonstrates that when newly hatched larvae from laboratory temperature selection lines were raised on fixed amounts of food (yeast) at the same temperature, larvae from the lines with the cold evolutionary history required less food to produce a given size of adult. Larvae from both high- and low-temperature selection lines required more food, however, to make a given size of adult when grown in the cold than when grown in the hot. The opposite associations between growth efficiency and adult body size seen with evolution or development at low temperature are puzzling, and suggest that different mechanisms may underlie the size changes. Since environmental and evolutionary effects of ...
Fosters rule (also known as the island rule) is a hypothesis that mammals change their size on islands depending on resources available in their environment.. In 1964, a biologist named J. Bristol Foster documented the tendency for mammal populations on islands to have body sizes that are different from their mainland counterparts. Specifically, large mammals seem to shrink (dwarfism), while small mammals appear to enlarge (gigantism). This initial observation led to the formulation of the island rule hypothesis, which states that, on an isolated, insular environment where large predators are limited or absent, small mammals would become bigger to exploit a wider range of resources, move greater distances, enhance metabolic efficiency, and better fend off competitors. On the other hand, large mammals would reduce in size to decrease resource intake, increase reproductive rate, and better cope with stressful conditions.. While scientists today agree on some general conclusions of the ...
Similar to earlier reports in non-Hispanic white women, we found that early-life body size influences risk of premenopausal breast cancer in Hispanic women. There was a more consistent pattern of inverse associations for relative weight than for body build. U.S.-born controls were more likely than foreign-born controls to report large childhood and adolescent body size, and particularly strong inverse associations with relative weight were found in U.S.-born women and women with a current BMI ≥25 kg/m2. We found no associations with childhood or adolescent body size in postmenopausal women, except for some suggestive inverse associations in U.S.-born women not currently using HT.. Consistent with our findings, the only other study that reported on adolescent body size and breast cancer risk in Hispanic women also found a suggestive inverse association with high BMI (≥22.5 vs. , 18.2) at age 15 years (OR = 0.65, 95% 0.39-1.08, Ptrend = 0.09; ref. 20). Our findings for premenopausal breast ...
In order to determine treeshrew body size from populations on the Malay Peninsula and 13 offshore islands, the researchers measured 260 specimens collected over the past 122 years and housed in six natural history museums in Europe and North America. They tested multiple variables, analyzing how island size, distance from the mainland, maximum sea depth between the mainland and the islands, and latitude relate to body size in the treeshrew populations. They found that the island rule and Bergmanns rule, which are rarely tested together, do not apply to common treeshrews. ...
The size and trophic structure of fluvial fish communities are driven by energy availability, competition, energy loss through trophic transfers, predation, and predator gape limitations. Size and trophic analyses can provide important information about overall food web structure and function of fish communities. Fish community assemblages were sampled in three tributaries of the Saginaw Bay watershed, Lake Huron in 2011 and 2012. We used a combination of community size-spectra (CSS, log abundance x log body-size regression), stable isotope, and trophic guild analyses to test the hypotheses that fluvial fish communities will be (a) strongly size-structured and (b) that variation in trophic guild composition will influence the community size-structure. Preliminary analyses indicate that the fish communities are strongly size-structured (mean CSS slope = -2.24), and there is a negative correlation between piscivores and Cyprinids (r = -0.64) and piscivores and large bodied low trophic position ...
Darwinian fitness in holometabolous insects like the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is reported to be positively correlated with body size. If large individuals in a population have higher fitness, then one would expect directional selection to operate leading to uniformly large individuals. However, size polymorphism persists in nature and needs further probing. We assessed the effect of body size on some of the fitness and fitness-related traits in replicate populations of genotypically large, genotypically small and phenotypically small D. melanogaster flies. In this study, the time taken to attain reproductive maturity and copulation duration were independent of fly size. Fecundity and longevity of large females were significantly higher when they partnered genotypically small males than when they were with genotypically larger or phenotypically small males. The increased female longevity when in association with genotypically small males was not due to selective early death of males that ...
Understanding the patterns of genetic variation of traits subject to sexual selection is fundamental for explaining its evolutionary dynamics and potential for sexual coevolution. The signa of female Lepidoptera are sclerotized structures located on the inner surface of the genital receptacle that receives the spermatophore during copulation (the corpus bursae), whose main function is tearing the spermatophore envelope. Comparative data indicate that the evolution of signa has been influenced by sexually antagonistic coevolution with spermatophore envelopes. We looked for additive genetic variation in the size and shape of signa in females of the butterfly Callophrys xami (Lycaenidae) from two localities (BG and FC) in Mexico City. We also looked for genetic variation in female body size and in the size of corpus bursae. There were significant between-population differences in female body size, signa width and three signa shape traits. We found significant extranuclear maternal effects in one component
In this large prospective study, we found evidence of an inverse association between adult BMI and risk of premenopausal breast cancer. Apparent associations between perceived body shape at age 7 and BMI at age 18 and risk, with heavier builds at both ages seemingly being protective, lost their statistical significance after adjustment for adult BMI. Body size at age 18 was moderately correlated with BMI in adulthood. Changes in body size from age 7 or 18 to adulthood did not affect the premenopausal breast cancer risk once BMI at cohort enrolment was taken into account. Height was related to risk in a nonlinear fashion, with a statistically significantly reduced risk only in women shorter than 160 cm as compared with those of normal or tall height. We found weak evidence that the effect of adult BMI was stronger in women who were short and had no family history of breast cancer.. Our finding of a protective effect of adult BMI on premenopausal breast cancer risk is in accordance with a growing ...
Global warming impacts virtually all biota and ecosystems. Many of these impacts are mediated through direct effects of temperature on individual vital rates. Yet how this translates from the individual to the population level is still poorly understood, hampering the assessment of global warming impacts on population structure and dynamics. Here, we study the effects of temperature on intraspecific competition and cannibalism, and the population dynamical consequences in a size-structured fish population. We use a physiologically structured consumer-resource model in which we explicitly model the temperature dependencies of the consumer vital rates and the resource population growth rate. Our model predicts that increased temperature decreases resource density despite higher resource growth rates, reflecting stronger intraspecific competition among consumers. At a critical temperature, the consumer population dynamics destabilize and shift from a stable equilibrium to competition-driven generation
This post was originally published on Ed News Colorado. On day three of an eight-day enrichment session, a students words sent chills down my spine. He inhaled deeply, stretched his arms high above his head, and sighed as he said, I love working in a small group. I wish school was like this all of the time.. If you dont think class size matters, ask a sixth grader. Or a kindergartner. Or a senior.. If you dont think class size matters, you havent spent enough time in classrooms recently. You havent been the new student who has to sit at the teachers desk until an additional student desk is found. You havent lobbied for airtime in a discussion with 34 other students-as those in my two literacy classes must do each day. You havent had to wait in line to use a resource like a dictionary or computer. Your name hasnt been buried on the checkout list for a copy of The Hunger Games.. Class size matters.. Teachers know it. Students know it. The more personal the learning experience, the more ...
TELLES ANTONIO, Ricardo et al. Accumulated carbon estimation in Gmelina arborea Roxb. from Tlatlaya, Estado de México with allometric equations. Rev. mex. de cienc. forestales [online]. 2019, vol.10, n.55, pp.135-153. Epub 14-Fev-2020. ISSN 2007-1132. Based on the carbon storage capacity of forest species, the accumulated carbon in an eight ha plantation, of Gmelina arborea of different ages, established in 2014, was estimated by means of mensuration variables and allometric equations; This plantation is located in Tlatlaya, State of Mexico, at 694 masl, with a slope of 40 % and a density of 1 040 ha-1 trees. Work was carried out on eight permanent circular sampling plots of 400 m2 and a radius of 11.28 m, in which 207 trees were counted in total. An analysis of variance was performed and compared with the Tukey means test (p ,0.05). The results indicate that the increase in DAP was 0.75 cm and the height of 0.54 m in the measurement period (six ...
Isometry icons of the emotions of men, 3d business men, CEO, lawyer. Expression of face, hairstyle. Qualitative isometry of people for vector illustrations. Download a Free Preview or High Quality Adobe Illustrator Ai, EPS, PDF and High Resolution JPEG versions..
Rapporteur: Grant McIntyre. Copes Rule states that body size increases during the evolutionary history of a lineage. This may be true from certain perspectives but is no longer generally accepted. The lecture examined several studies on the evolution of body size that shed light on the prevalence of exceptions to Copes Rule and concluded with a discussion of reasons for the apparent support for the rule.. The focal paper (Pianka 1995) used Felsensteins method of independent contrasts to evaluate the evolution of body size of varanid (monitor) lizards. This method requires a phylogeny which was developed in this case using immunological distances determine by microcomplement fixation. The phylogeny matched species distributions fairly well but was not rooted since no available outgroup cross-reacted immunologically with the ingroup. Within varanids there are examples of the evolution of both larger and smaller size. The main problem with the paper was that lack of an outgroup precluded ...
The evolution of body size has been the focus of countless studies, not only in palaeontology but also in evolutionary biology using data from extant animals (or neontology as palaeontologists would say). While some colleagues have argued recently that body size is not necessarily a good trait to study, nonetheless, it still stands that body size is an important factor of fundamental biological phenomena, including metabolism, physiology, biomechanics, and ecology. For instance, the largest source of variance in biomechanical performance measures like bite force is body size - a lions bite force is an order or two higher in magnitude than that of a domestic cat just purely out of simple scaling. Similarly, prey size categories, such as large, medium/mixed and small, are highly affected by predator body size - obviously a tabby cannot kill an ox while a lion or a tiger can. Thus, body size is not only an important biological trait, but necessarily a fundamental physical trait ...
The evolution of body size has been the focus of countless studies, not only in palaeontology but also in evolutionary biology using data from extant animals (or neontology as palaeontologists would say). While some colleagues have argued recently that body size is not necessarily a good trait to study, nonetheless, it still stands that body size is an important factor of fundamental biological phenomena, including metabolism, physiology, biomechanics, and ecology. For instance, the largest source of variance in biomechanical performance measures like bite force is body size - a lions bite force is an order or two higher in magnitude than that of a domestic cat just purely out of simple scaling. Similarly, prey size categories, such as large, medium/mixed and small, are highly affected by predator body size - obviously a tabby cannot kill an ox while a lion or a tiger can. Thus, body size is not only an important biological trait, but necessarily a fundamental physical trait ...
Miniaturisation in amphibians - evolutionary specialisation. Amphibians exhibit vast ranges in body size ranging from just 7 mm long in the smallest known species (Paedophryne amanuensis) to 33 cm in the largest frog (Conraua goliath), which represents a 250 fold increase in size. Different body sizes come with distinct advantages and disadvantages. Large amphibians have fewer predators, a lower metabolic rate, and they can more easily maintain their temperature and hydration than small amphibians. Smaller amphibians, although being more prone to predation, are better equipped to hide more easily, exploit alternative food sources, use physically smaller niches, and attain reproductive ability at an earlier age (Leavy & Heald, 2015). By being very small, individuals are able to fully utilise habitat patches and consume the smallest prey, which are also the most numerous. However, living at such small sizes puts constraints on biological processes and as a result, miniature amphibians have evolved ...
Encephalization quotient (EQ) or encephalization level is a relative brain size measure that is defined as the ratio between actual brain mass and predicted brain mass for an animal of a given size, which may approximate intelligence level or cognition of the species. This is a more refined measurement than the raw brain-to-body mass ratio, as it takes into account allometric effects. The relationship, expressed as a formula, has been developed for mammals, and may not yield relevant results when applied outside this group. Additionally to volume, mass or cell count, the energy expenditure of the brain could be compared with that of the rest of the body. Brain size usually increases with body size in animals (is positively correlated), i.e. large animals usually have larger brains than smaller animals. The relationship is not linear, however. Generally, small mammals have relatively larger brains than big ones. Mice have a direct brain/body size ratio similar to humans (1/40), while elephants ...
The importance of non-genetic parental effects on offspring attributes depended on the specific life-history trait examined. The effect of parental body condition on juvenile size lasted for more than 29 days post-hatching regardless of juvenile diet. By contrast, parental effects influenced the survival of juveniles in the low-food treatment, but had no effect in the high-food treatment. This demonstrates that the importance of parental history on the fitness of offspring can be highly dependent on the environmental conditions that juveniles experience and is likely to be most important when offspring encounter unfavourable or stressful conditions.. We found that the differences in size at hatching were maintained for over four weeks, which has potentially important implications for offspring fitness. Many reef fishes suffer exceptionally high mortality rates during early life (Almany & Webster 2006), which can be selective for size (McCormick & Meekan 2007) or body condition (Hoey & McCormick ...
Butler, R. J. and Goswami, A. (2008) Body size evolution in Mesozoic birds: little evidence for Copes rule. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 21 (6). pp. 1673-1682. DOI 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2008.01594.x Sanchez-Villagra, M. R. and Goswami, A. and Weisbecker, V. and Mock, O. and Kuratani, S. (2008) Conserved relative timing of cranial ossification patterns in early mammalian evolution. Evolution & Development, 10 (5). pp. 519-530. DOI 10.1111/j.1525-142X.2008.00267.x Goswami, A. and Weisbecker, V. and Sanchez-Villagra, MR (2008) Developmental Modularity and the Marsupial-Placental Dichotomy. Society of Vertebrate Paleontology. Weisbecker, V. and Goswami, A. and Wroe, S. and Sanchez-Villagra, M. R. (2008) Ossification heterochrony in the therian postcranial skeleton and the marsupial-placental. Evolution, 62 (8). pp. 2027-2041. DOI 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2008.00424.x ...
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Free Online Library: Built to swim: Michael Phelps won eight gold medals in this summers Olympic Games alone. The only swim-savvy feature Phelps seems to lack is gills!(LIFE: HUMAN BODY, Cover story) by Science World; Science and technology, general Education Body size Influence Body weights and measures Swimmers Achievements and awards Physiological aspects
The carnivorous Tyrannosauridae are among the most iconic dinosaurs: typified by large body size, tiny forelimbs, and massive robust skulls with laterally thickened teeth. The recently described small-bodied tyrannosaurid Raptorex kreigsteini is exceptional as its discovery proposes that many of the distinctive anatomical traits of derived tyrannosaurids were acquired in the Early Cretaceous, before the evolution of large body size. This inference depends on two core interpretations: that the holotype (LH PV18) derives from the Lower Cretaceous of China, and that despite its small size, it is a subadult or young adult. Here we show that the published data is equivocal regarding stratigraphic position and that ontogenetic reanalysis shows there is no reason to conclude that LH PV18 has reached this level of maturity. The probable juvenile status of LH PV18 makes its use as a holotype unreliable, since diagnostic features of Raptorex may be symptomatic of its immature status, rather than its ...
The carnivorous Tyrannosauridae are among the most iconic dinosaurs: typified by large body size, tiny forelimbs, and massive robust skulls with laterally thickened teeth. The recently described small-bodied tyrannosaurid Raptorex kreigsteini is exceptional as its discovery proposes that many of the distinctive anatomical traits of derived tyrannosaurids were acquired in the Early Cretaceous, before the evolution of large body size. This inference depends on two core interpretations: that the holotype (LH PV18) derives from the Lower Cretaceous of China, and that despite its small size, it is a subadult or young adult. Here we show that the published data is equivocal regarding stratigraphic position and that ontogenetic reanalysis shows there is no reason to conclude that LH PV18 has reached this level of maturity. The probable juvenile status of LH PV18 makes its use as a holotype unreliable, since diagnostic features of Raptorex may be symptomatic of its immature status, rather than its ...
The carnivorous Tyrannosauridae are among the most iconic dinosaurs: typified by large body size, tiny forelimbs, and massive robust skulls with laterally thickened teeth. The recently described small-bodied tyrannosaurid Raptorex kreigsteini is exceptional as its discovery proposes that many of the distinctive anatomical traits of derived tyrannosaurids were acquired in the Early Cretaceous, before the evolution of large body size. This inference depends on two core interpretations: that the holotype (LH PV18) derives from the Lower Cretaceous of China, and that despite its small size, it is a subadult or young adult. Here we show that the published data is equivocal regarding stratigraphic position and that ontogenetic reanalysis shows there is no reason to conclude that LH PV18 has reached this level of maturity. The probable juvenile status of LH PV18 makes its use as a holotype unreliable, since diagnostic features of Raptorex may be symptomatic of its immature status, rather than its ...
Unfortunately there is no one simple formula you can apply here, each factor can vary greatly. For example a house cat on a carpet where they can dig their claws in is incredibly agile, the same cat trying to make a sharp turn on polished wooden flooring could well slide into the wall. We can discuss each factor though.. Muscle Power. Larger animals have more power available, the raw strength increases with the square of size (as its the cross section of the muscle) but total power does increase with the cube of size (as its the volume of the muscle) so larger animals can end up with plenty of power to work with so long as their tendons and bones can take the strain.. Traction. Claws and hooves are common adaptions to increase traction but you are still limited by the surface area of your feet. Larger animals become increasingly susceptible to problems getting traction and are able to slip and fall more easily unless they can grip something with their claws.. Mass. Mass increases with the cube ...
Fatigue and your weight are tightly intertwined. Being overweight means you have to work harder to do simple physical tasks, such as climbing the stairs and walking from the bus stop. A large body size may also interfere with nightly sleep as it increases the chances that you suffer from sleep apnea.
In a wider sense, an improper rotation may be defined as any indirect isometry; i.e., an element of E(3)\E+(3): thus it can also be a pure reflection in a plane, or have a glide plane. An indirect isometry is an affine transformation with an orthogonal matrix that has a determinant of −1. A proper rotation is an ordinary rotation. In the wider sense, a proper rotation is defined as a direct isometry; i.e., an element of E+(3): it can also be the identity, a rotation with a translation along the axis, or a pure translation. A direct isometry is an affine transformation with an orthogonal matrix that has a determinant of 1. In either the narrower or the wider senses, the composition of two improper rotations is a proper rotation, and the composition of an improper and a proper rotation is an improper rotation. ...
In this large, prospective study of older women, multiple body size measures were positively associated with incident CRC. Our findings do not support the previously proposed theory that weight status has limited, if any, influence on CRC risk among women after menopause (32). Rather, these data strongly suggest that increased body size represents a potentially modifiable CRC risk factor in this demographic subgroup. Further investigation of when increased body size has the greatest effect on CRC risk (i.e., early adulthood versus later adulthood) might also be informative, particularly with respect to defining subsite-specific pathways of colorectal carcinogenesis.. Previous studies of general obesity and CRC risk among women have typically observed weak or null associations, as recently reviewed (33-35). In a recent meta-analysis of data from 21 prospective studies, Larsson et al. (6) estimated a 12% higher colon cancer risk (RR = 1.12; 95% CI = 1.07-1.18) for every 5 kg/m2 increment in women. ...
Sep 15, 2014 · Crushing & Screening Plant Assessment Example. Quarry rock of 12 in. maximum size is to be handled in a two-stage crusher plant at the rate of 70 tons per hour. The maximum size of output is to be 1½ in., and separation of materials over 1 in. size and the minus 1 in. in the output is required. Select a jaw crusher like those included in this. ...
During my days, I dont take even a single sip of alcoholic drinks. Though it was very late when I found out that I am pregnant with Elijah. Taking a risk wont do anything, it will just lengthen my pain. As what I had said in my previous post, I may surely satisfy myself in my vices but it wont contribute any good to me and my sons health.. Drinking alcoholic drinks during pregnancy can cause serious mental and physical defects in you and your unborn child.. Your baby my have small body size and health circumference, nearsightedness, flattened cheekbones, smaller eye openings, deformed ribs, hip dislocations, heart and kidney defects, learning disabilities, genital malformations, facial abnormalities and many more.. It is never right to drink alcoholic drinks during pregnancy. Dont take a risk for your babys future.. ...
Many unicellular eukaryotes can persist without meiotic sex over very long periods, though real clonality seems to be extremely rare even in single-celled organisms [3,6]. Even pathogenic microbial eukaryotes require sex as a genomic repair tool upon encountering the hosts defence [78]. Unicellular eukaryotes face the problem that meiosis is a time and energy-consuming process, lasting several hours in which other cellular activities have to be put on hold. Moreover, having just one nucleus means that an erroneous meiosis probably is lethal for offspring. The first problem is sometimes met by differentiating two nuclei, one vegetative macronucleus for protein-transcription and cell functions and one generative micronucleus for meiosis and reproduction (e.g. in extant ciliates like Tetrahymena, [79]). Mixis, as the second component of sex, requires reachable mating partners with homologous genomes, but small organisms cannot move far. Small body size could make sex costly [9]. With regard to ...
Bamaxiang pig is from Guangxi province in China, characterized by its small body size and two-end black coat colour. It is an… Expand ...
Scaling left ventricular (LV) mass and other cardiac dimensions to account for individual body size is important. The traditional method of simple ratio scaling using, for example, body surface area (BSA) assumes a linear and proportional relationship and accurate measurement of both LV mass and BSA. These assumptions can be questioned; hence, we examined the appropriateness of methods and different indices using highly accurate magnetic resonance imaging scans. Cardiac and whole-body scans were performed in 172 young, healthy, male subjects (age range, 17-28 years) to assess LV mass, volume, linear dimensions, lean body mass and fat mass. Height, body mass and BSA were determined anthropometrically. Relationships were examined for linearity and closeness of fit using log-log least-squares linear regression to determine the slope exponent b (where 1.0 indicates linearity). The relationship between LV mass and lean body mass (b=.90+/-.15; r(2)=.66) was linear and geometrically consistent. This was also
A system property controls the maximum size of a message body before the instance stops processing inbound email actions. In some situations, an email message may contain more information in the body than the instances data policy permits a field
Pygmy Growth Curves: A Comparative Approach. In most human populations, a large portion of variance in stature can be accounted for by nutritional status . Nutritional studies worldwide have shown the predictability of the growth response to stress-societies with very high caloric budgets show significant secular trends toward earlier growth cessation, faster body growth, and increased size, whereas populations under nutritional stress normally reduce growth rates, delay growth cessation, and show smaller adult body sizes . To test whether the growth pattern of pygmies is characteristic of nutritionally impaired populations, growth curves were constructed for the Aeta and compared with those for the Biaka and Agta pygmies and compared with the lower percentiles of the U.S. growth distribution, representing undernourished individuals who grow only to average adult pygmy size (women HEIGHT = 140 cm, corresponding to the 0.01th percentile of the U.S. distribution). The curves show that pygmies ...
Many of the key ideas currently underlying MTE have a long history. The idea that the amount of surface area available for thermal exchange might constrain metabolic rate dates at least to Rubner (1883). The links between fractal geometry, scale invariance and natural design owes much to the insights of DArcy Thompson (1917) and Mandelbrot (1977). The use of a simplified pipe model to describe the scaling properties of plants is almost 50 years old (Shinozaki et al. 1964). The use of normalisation by mass to uncover life-history traits was extensively explored in a series of seminal works on the importance of scale in biology during the 1980s (Peters 1983; Calder 1984; Schmidt-Nielsen 1984). Work on the relationship between size, metabolism and a suite of allometric traits in plants was advanced by Niklas (1994b,a). Temperature has long been known to influence metabolism at multiple scales of ecological organisation from individuals to ecosystems (Rosenzweig 1968).. The insight of MTE was to ...
Washington D.C. , Jan. 05 : Parents please take note! A study has recently found that overweight children, especially boys, are more likely to underestimate their body size, which can make it difficult to address the issue and to take necessary steps to attain a healthier body..
Another project done by Maria and Izzy focused on the correlation between body size and chewing rate. For data collection, Maria and Izzy measured the chewing rate of various herbivores. Along with the help of the other students, Izzy and Maria were able to collect an average chewing rate from 5 domesticated species found in Ileret. To predict the body size of the various herbivores, they also measured the length of the second molar (M2) from skulls in the lab. By putting together both the chewing rate and the body size estimates, they were able to see the relationship between chewing rate and body size for all 5 species. To learn more about this project, check out TA Deming Yangs latest blog found here!. ...
... body size; location in host and types of hosts. Moravec, František; Justine, Jean-Lou (2008). "Some philometrid nematodes ( ...
This species is characterized mainly by: length of spicules and length and structure of its gubernaculum; body size; location ... n. from the body cavity of Oblada melanura (Sparidae)." Parasitology research 104.1 (2008): 55-61. Wang, Shu-Xia, Liang Li, and ...
Research in the divisions focuses on three elements: the servicemember (acclimation; body size; gender; race; age; health; ... 2015). "Real-time core body temperature estimation from heart rate for first responders wearing different levels of personal ... 2017). "Mathematical prediction of core body temperature from environment, activity, and clothing: The heat strain decision aid ...
I'm not dependent on my physical body to perceive things." The Church of Scientology's in-house magazine Source has promoted ... Relative sizes (external); Sound; Pitch; Tone; Volume; Rhythm; Smell; Touch (pressure, friction, heat or cold and oiliness); ... body); Fields/magnetic; Time track motion; Physical energy (personal weariness, etc.); Self-determinism; Moisture (self); Sound ... Body position; Joint position; Internal temperature; External temperature; Balance; Muscular tension; Saline content of self ( ...
Christer Björkman; Karl Gotthard; Mats W. Pettersson (2009). "Body Size". In Timothy D. Schowalter (ed.). Insect Ecology: An ... They have body lengths from 0.13 to 5.4 mm (0.0051 to 0.2126 in), typically 0.5 to 1.0 mm (0.020 to 0.039 in). Their bodies are ... Their bodies are smaller than a single-celled Paramecium. Four males, lined up end-to-end, would just about encompass the width ... Because of their small sizes they have to exit the water by climbing up plant stems that jut through the surface, as they would ...
Kleiber, Max (1932). "Body size and metabolism". Hilgardia. 6 (11): 315-353. doi:10.3733/hilg.v06n11p315. CS1 maint: ...
"Asteroid Size Estimator". CNEOS NASA/JPL. Retrieved 16 February 2018. de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R. " ... List Of Aten Minor Planets "2012 XE133". JPL Small-Body Database. Jet Propulsion Laboratory. SPK-ID: 3620867. Retrieved 3 April ... Summary 2012 XE133 at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · ...
Kleiber M (1932). "Body size and metabolism". Hilgardia. 6 (11): 315-351. doi:10.3733/hilg.v06n11p315. Ballesteros FJ, Martinez ... Heusner, A. A. (1982-04-01). "Energy metabolism and body size I. Is the 0.75 mass exponent of Kleiber's equation a statistical ... and metabolic rate of cells with body size in mammals". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... "Body size and metabolic rate". Physiological Reviews. 27 (4): 511-41. doi:10.1152/physrev.1947.27.4.511. PMID 20267758. Schmidt ...
Circumference of head and chest is equal; head size is in better proportion to the body. "Baby fat" disappears as neck appears ... Turns head side to side when in a supine (face up) position; cannot hold head up and line with the body. Upper body parts are ... bodies May attempt to see others naked in the bathroom May begin to explore and touch genitalia Physical Head size is ... Body may appear lanky as through period of rapid growth. Baby teeth beginning to be replaced by permanent ones, starting with ...
... these individuals can reach a large enough body size to survive through the winter. Increased body size is also associated with ... Growth rate and body size have important ecological implications, such as how they impact an organism's survival, life history ... Levins first used the term when describing patterns of body size across an altitudinal gradient in populations of Drosophila, ... Drosophila melanogaster - body size; altitude Menidia menidia - growth; latitude Lithobates clamitans - developmental rate; ...
"Brain and Body Size". Serendip. Bryn Mawr College. Archived from the original on 10 May 2007. Retrieved 26 June 2013. CS1 maint ... of its total body mass, compared to 2.33% of total body mass in the average human. Within the encephalization quotient proposed ... doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.2009.01249.x. Healy, Susan D.; Rowe, Candy (2007). "A critique of comparative studies of brain size". ... Most experiments involving the relevance of brain size to intelligence hinge on the assumption that complex behavior requires a ...
Food scarcity at depths greater than 400 m is also thought to be a factor, since larger body size can improve ability to forage ... Kleiber, M. (1947). "Body Size and Metabolic Rate". Physiological Reviews. 27 (4): 511-541. doi:10.1152/physrev.1947.27.4.511. ... A deepwater stingray, which can reach up to 2.7 m × 1.5 m (8 ft 10 in × 4 ft 11 in) in size. Cephalopod size Dwarfing Island ... both of which lead to an increase in maximum body size (continued growth throughout life is characteristic of crustaceans). In ...
... are dissimilar in size. Choe, Jae (21 January 2019). "Body Size and Sexual Dimorphism". In Cox, Robert (ed.). Encyclopedia of ... generally a larger size and more body hair in men; women have larger breasts, wider hips, and a higher body fat percentage. In ... A single body can function as both male and female. Sexual reproduction requires both male and female haploid gametes. In most ... In species where the gametes are similar in size, the terms male and female are generally not applied, and instead they are ...
Fecundity increases with body size. Females normally deposit between 10 and 30 eggs under logs, moss or rocks located ... The tail is less than half its body length and is normally lighter in colour in comparison to the body. Adults attain lengths ... Current data does not allow an accurate estimate of population size or trends. That said, the total adult population size of ... Clutch size has been known to vary geographically and can be as large as forty-five, or as few as eight. Females remain with ...
"Student Body Size and Diversity". EdRef. Archived from the original on February 21, 2014. "Student Profile". National ... ethnicity of the student body was 65.7% Black or African American, 16.7% Hispanic/Latino, 6.9% White, 5.9% Asian, 3.9% Race and ...
"Bra Cup Sizes-Getting Fitted with the Right Size". Archived from the original on 18 February 2010. Retrieved 11 ... She told People that it's about "the body shaming and sexualizing of women." "Wearing a bra is a personal choice. It's my body ... Large cup size has been correlated with an increase in shoulder and neck pain. One researcher found that 40% of women who rode ... Women tend to find a bra that appears to fit and stay with that size for a long period of time even though they may lose and ...
... is a small fox with wide ears and a long, bushy tail nearly equal to the length of its body. Its body size often ... body lengths 42 cm, tail 32.5 cm. Among all extant canids, only the fennec fox is smaller than Blanford's. The body is brownish ... The tail is the same colour as the body. A black spot is found at the base of the spine. The tip of the tail is normally black ... Neonates are born with soft, black fur, with an estimated body mass of 29 g. At the age of two months, the kits start to forage ...
Body size and shape varies widely. The group includes the small, oval sea gooseberries found on both Atlantic and Pacific ...
"Measuring Brain Size versus Body Size". Serendip Studio. Serendip. Retrieved 24 July 2018. McDaniel, V. R. (1976). "Brain ... Its bite force is predicted to measure 80-100 Newtons based on its body size and canine teeth characteristics. It has been ... The brain is large relative to the body; at 1:67, its brain-to-body mass ratio is higher than that of cats and dogs. The ... are short relative to its body size. The wings are wide, though, creating a large surface area. Its wingtips are rounded and ...
Brain to body size scales allometrically. Small bodied mammals have relatively large brains compared to their bodies whereas ... The evolutionary history of the human brain shows primarily a gradually bigger brain relative to body size during the ... The evolutionary history of the human brain shows primarily a gradually bigger brain relative to body size during the ... This trend that has led to the present day human brain size indicates that there has been a 2-3 factor increase in size over ...
Body cylindrical. Dorsal scales smooth, without pits. Tail very short, obtuse. Subcaudals in two rows. *) Not including the ... Maxillary very short, with five teeth gradually increasing in size and followed, after an interspace, by a large grooved fang ... Mandibular teeth decreasing in size posteriorly. Head small, not distinct from neck; eye minute, with round pupil; nostril in a ...
... target body ephemeris, size and shape; instrument field-of-view size, shape and orientation; specifications for reference ...
In a 2007 analysis it was shown that, when modern statistical methods for correcting for the effects of body size and phylogeny ... 1928 Speakman J. R. (2005). "Body size, energy metabolism and lifespan". J Exp Biol. 208 (9): 1717-1730. doi:10.1242/jeb.01556 ... 1928 Speakman J. R. (2005). "Body size, energy metabolism and lifespan". The Journal of Experimental Biology. 208 (Pt 9): 1717- ... This theory stated that organisms age over time due to the accumulation of damage from free radicals in the body. It also ...
Body: Maximum body width 80". Weight: Minimum weight with driver 3,750 lb (1,700 kg); minimum front axle weight 48% of total ... Tire Size: 35 x 12.50 maximum. Numbering: 1-99. 2008 Rob MacCachren 2007 Jerry Whelchel 2006 Carl Renezeder 2005 Carl Renezeder ... Manufacturer body styles and engines must be from the same manufacturer. Horsepower: 8 cylinders, 750-900 HP. Suspension: Front ... Championship Off-Road Racing (usually abbreviated CORR) was a sanctioning body for offroad racing in the United States. It ...
A study on the utility of head width as a body size proxy in extant crocodylians, and on its implications for estimates of body ... 2019). A study aiming to evaluate whether the maximum body size of theropod dinosaurs increased across the Triassic-Jurassic ... Nicholas M.A. Crouch; Julia A. Clarke (2019). "Body size evolution in palaeognath birds is consistent with Neogene cooling- ... Pedro L. Godoy (2020). "Crocodylomorph cranial shape evolution and its relationship with body size and ecology". Journal of ...
Another notable difference is body size. R. smithii does not commonly exceed 60 mm in length, whereas rosy bitterling males are ...
Rigid body properties extractor. • Structural dynamics simulation using finite element and test models. • Pre-test analysis and ... FEMtools is designed to handle all sizes of finite element and test models for a wide range of industrial applications. ... 2010 - Addition of a module for rigid body properties identification from FRFs. 2011 - Addition of a module for experimental ... Design optimization (topology, shape, size, material). • Design space sampling (Monte Carlo sampling, Design of Experiments, ...
Its body size attains 10 mm. Doto hydrallmaniae feeds on the hydroid Hydrallmania falcata, family Sertulariidae. Morrow C.C., ...
Diet composition varies with body size. There are no significant differences in feeding habits between male and female S. ... The upper side of the body is greyish brown with dark brown spots. The underside is a light greyish white. The teeth of S. ... The two dorsal fins are located towards the tail end of the body. The texture of their skin is rough, similar to the coarseness ... The size and accessibility of the embryo makes analysis easier. Five well-characterized stages can be distinguished between the ...
The pika's "buried" tail is longer relative to body size compared to other lagomorphs. It has a slightly rounded skull with a ... American pikas, known in the 19th century as "little Chief hares", have a small, round, ovate body. Their body lengths range ... Body size can vary among populations. In populations with sexual dimorphism, males are slightly larger than females. The ... Territory size can vary from 410-709 m² and is dependent on configuration, distance to vegetation, and quality of vegetation. ...
Capable of at-home training due to smaller, more portable size of sensor and signal generation equipment [6] ... which are responsible for the transport and transference of oxygen to tissue throughout the body, must increase the amount of ...
Like STRePs (see below), IPs ask for a strong participation of small or medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to ascertain the ... the executive body of the European Union, either by various internal directorate general (DGs), such as the directorate general ... Medium- to large-sized collaborative research projects funded in FP6 and FP7. They are composed of a minimum of three partners ... Medium-sized research projects co-funded by the European Commission in FP6 and FP7. These projects are "designed to strengthen ...
The body produces about 800 mg of cholesterol per day and about half of that is used for bile acid synthesis producing 400-600 ... The bile acid pool size is between 4-6 g, which means that bile acids are recycled several times each day. About 95% of bile ... Bile acids also have hormonal actions throughout the body, particularly through the farnesoid X receptor and GPBAR1 (also known ... Bile acids have metabolic actions in the body resembling those of hormones, acting through two specific receptors, the ...
... and size of business.[17] Under Section 14 (a)(1), commercial applicators, wholesalers, dealers, and retailers "may be assessed ... either into or in contact with the bloodstream or normally sterile areas of the body and the term "semi-critical device" ... includes any device which is introduced directly into the human body, ... membranes but which does not ordinarily penetrate the blood barrier or otherwise enter normally sterile areas of the body. ...
His body found below Red Tarn some months later by a shepherd, his body still being guarded by his Irish Terrier, Foxey. Nearby ... Size[edit]. Most countries have breed descriptions that say that the Irish Terrier should not be more than 48 cm measured at ... The Irish Terrier's body is proportionately longer than that of the Fox Terrier, with a tendency toward racy lines but with no ... The tail should start up quite high, but it should not stick straight up or curl over the back or either side of its body. The ...
The average household size was 2.80 and the average family size was 3.32. ... Bodies of water. *Buffalo Bayou. *Galveston Bay. *Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. *Houston Ship Channel ... Located on the back corner of the library on W. Texas Avenue, this is a life-sized book shelf.[citation needed] The second ...
Also, patients who are morbidly obese (body mass index >40 kg/m2) are significantly less likely to have success from this ... The contributing factors in the variability of success include the pre-surgical size of the tonsils, palate, uvula and tongue ...
The Imperial Diet (Reichstag, or Reichsversammlung) was not a legislative body as is understood today, as its members ... They were roughly matched in size by the prince-bishoprics of Salzburg and Münster. The majority of the other German ... In a famous assessment of the name, the political philosopher Voltaire remarked sardonically: "This body which was called and ... had a territory around the same size. These were the largest of the German realms. The Elector of the Palatinate had ...
... the size of the global crude oil market, and that does not count the vast majority of natural gas which is delivered via ... the Society of International Gas Tanker and Terminal Operators is the responsible body for LNG operators around the world and ... They typically have a compact size, are fed from a natural gas pipeline, and are located close to the location where the LNG ... a non turbocharged CNG powered engine is typically less powerful than a similarly sized gas or diesel engine. For that reason ...
"Energetics and the evolution of body size in small terrestrial mammals" (PDF). Symposia of the Zoological Society of London (69 ... Fungi digest organic matter outside their bodies as opposed to animals that digest their food inside their bodies. For humans, ... the body starts to produce the feeling of hunger. The body also stimulates eating by detecting a drop in cellular lipid levels ... The size of an animal is also a factor in determining diet type (Allen's rule). Since small mammals have a high ratio of heat- ...
The average household size was 3.51. There were 819 families (81.3% of all households); the average family size was 3.92. ... Hispanics mostly of Mexican descent are three-fourths of the people (excluding the multiracial body of state prison convicts). ... The average household size was 3.6 and the average family size was 3.9. ...
... nestedness appears to be related to body size because the diets of smaller predators tend to be nested subsets of those of ... Autotrophs and heterotrophs come in all sizes, from microscopic to many tonnes - from cyanobacteria to giant redwoods, and from ... To maintain their bodies, grow, develop, and to reproduce, autotrophs produce organic matter from inorganic substances, ... Charles Elton pioneered the concept of food cycles, food chains, and food size in his classical 1927 book "Animal Ecology"; ...
The entire student body is referred to as the Regiment of Midshipmen[1] and is subdivided into three battalions and six ... Instances of Infobox university using image size. *Articles with dead external links from August 2016 ...
For early geneticists, it was not immediately clear that the smooth variation in traits like body size (i.e., Incomplete ... This method, termed composite interval mapping determine both the location and effects size of QTL more accurately than single- ... obtain livestock or plants with favorable features from populations that show quantitative variation in traits like body size ... and body mass.[15] All of these phenotypes are complicated by a great deal of give-and-take between genes and environmental ...
The larger the size and the larger the density of the particles, the faster they separate from the mixture. By applying a ... regardless of where it was sampled from in the body, was unprecedented and favored the idea that proteins are macromolecules ... There is a correlation between the size and density of a particle and the rate that the particle separates from a heterogeneous ... The particles' settling velocity in centrifugation is a function of their size and shape, centrifugal acceleration, the volume ...
The variety is of medium size with an adult weight of 3-4 kg (6.6-8.8 lb). The body of the doe is relatively elongated with a ... The Gotland rabbit is a Swedish variety of rabbit of medium size that comes in a variety of colours. The Gotland rabbit has ...
... with the goal of later forming commune-sized units twice that size.[230] Communal kitchens were also introduced so that all ... On 15 April 1998, Pol Pot died in his sleep, apparently of heart failure.[398] His body was preserved with ice and formaldehyde ... A stroke left him paralysed on the left side of his body,[391] and he eventually required daily access to oxygen.[394] He spent ... which are more likely to produce an under-count of bodies rather than an over-estimate."[315] Demographer Patrick Heuveline ...
Another behaviour exhibiting intelligence is cutting their food in correctly sized proportions for the size of their young. In ... Their body feathers start to appear after around 8 days and the primary wing feathers after 10 days.[35] For several days ... The subspecies differ in their size, the amount of white on their plumage and the colour of the gloss on their black feathers. ... Juvenile birds undergo a partial moult beginning about one month later than the adult birds in which their body feathers are ...
Since then, the House more than quadrupled in size, and in 1911 the number of representatives was fixed at 435. Today, each ... of slightly increasing Democratic representation in legislative bodies, but would also give Utah an additional, probably ...
With the spreading effects of the metropolises, the situating of universities and colleges in the medium-sized cities offers a ... This model incorporates a strict hierarchy of authority and a considerable degree of autonomy for its governing bodies. ... The senate and the faculty council are entirely advisory bodies which confer the academic degrees. Private institutions can ...
A growing body of evidence supports the efficacy of HMB as a treatment for reducing, or even reversing, the loss of muscle mass ... Inactivity and starvation in mammals lead to atrophy of skeletal muscle, accompanied by a smaller number and size of the muscle ... A CT scan can distinguish muscle tissue from other tissues and thereby estimate the amount of muscle tissue in the body. Fast ... Their ability to maintain skeletal muscle number and size at time of disuse is of significant importance. During hibernation, ...
When the player draws a down bow, he is to move his right hand gradually away from his body; when he draws an up bow, towards ... fractional-sized instruments, those using high tension or metal strings, or beginners. Fine tuners are most useful with solid ... his body. According to proponents of this style, these slight angles help create greater contact with the bridge and thus ...
Body count is only one factor - but I made separate points (1) he has a low body count, (2) he's not a notable serial killer ( ... Article is stub-size, putting it ITN would contribute to its enlargement --TheFEARgod (Ч) 20:42, 30 November 2006 (UTC) ... If another body was found tomorrow, would it then warrant inclusion in your opinion? ?, Or only if the victim count increased ... Besides, 5 is not much of a body-count as far as serial-killers go. This guy first has to be a notable serial killer before ...
SizeEdit. Main article: Leaf size. The terms megaphyll, macrophyll, mesophyll, notophyll, microphyll, nanophyll and leptophyll ... Esau, Katherine (2006) [1953]. Evert, Ray F (ed.). Esau's Plant Anatomy: Meristems, Cells, and Tissues of the Plant Body: Their ... For the term Mesophyll in the size classification of leaves, see Leaf size. ... But large leaf size favors efficiency in photosynthesis and water conservation, involving further trade offs. On the other hand ...
... can stay in some body parts like the eyes,[143] breasts, and testicles after infection.[4][144] Sexual transmission after ... about the size of a laptop and solar-powered, allows testing to be done in remote areas.[260] ... The virus spreads through direct contact with body fluids, such as blood from infected humans or other animals.[1] Spread may ... If a person with Ebola disease dies, direct contact with the body should be avoided.[109] Certain burial rituals, which may ...
... many factors such as the size of nostril, the size of the lesion, and the preferences of the surgeon cause the selection of one ... Cushing H: The Pituitary Body and its Disorders: Clinical States Produced by Disorders of the Hypophysis Cerebra. Philadelphia ... The average size of tumor, both those that were identified on MRI and those that were only discovered during surgery, was 6 mm. ... Cushing, Harvey (1932). "The basophil adenomas of the pituitary body and their clinical manifestations (pituitary basophilism ...
Seymour, James D. (2005). "Sizing up China's prisons". In Børge Bakken (ed.). Crime, Punishment, and Policing in China. Rowman ... The re-education through labor system has been criticized by human rights groups, foreign governments and UN bodies, and ...
Their bodies will take in the water. Their bodies are thin and have a lot of blood vessels, this helps them to be able to take ... Eryops, typical of the large-size early amphibians 310-295 million years ago ... They will spread it all over their bodies. The mucus will harden to keep the water it produces from escaping. Once the desert ... They are sometimes called "worm salamanders". This is because they have slimmer (skinny) bodies than most salamanders.[13]p182 ...
... do central European passerines adjust their body size to rising temperatures?". Oecologia. 162 (1): 247-260. doi:10.1007/s00442 ... Hauber, Mark E. (2014). The Book of Eggs: A Life-Size Guide to the Eggs of Six Hundred of the World's Bird Species. University ... It is 50-65 cm (20-26 in) long - of which the body makes up around two-thirds - has a wingspan of 81-98 cm (32-39 in),[22]:505 ... Also, the population size of the mallard is very large.[98]. Unlike many waterfowl, mallards have benefited from human ...
A hydrogen gas halo three times the size of the Sun was detected by Skylab around Comet Kohoutek in the 1970s.[19] SOHO ... because X-ray emission is usually associated with very high-temperature bodies. The X-rays are thought to be generated by the ... Comas typically grow in size as comets approach the Sun, and they can be as large as the diameter of Jupiter, even though the ... With basic Earth-surface based telescope and some technique, the size of the coma can be calculated.[12] Called the drift ...
... the body size-species richness pattern dissolves and the number of species per body size class is almost uniform (i.e. there is ... Does size matter for dispersal distance? Global Ecology and Biogeography 16(4):415-425. Bowers MA & Brown JH (1982) Body size ... The micro and macro in body size evolution. Evolution 46(4):939-953. Hausdorf B (2006) Is the interspecific variation of body ... The body size-species richness distribution is a pattern observed in the way taxa are distributed over large spatial scales. ...
Body jewelry sizes express the thickness of an item of body jewelry, using one of several possible systems. Items of body ... But with body jewelry, there is a wide variety of possible sizes, and wearers generally want jewelry that is the same size as ... So that wearers can choose the size they want, there are standards for body jewelry sizes, used by jewelry makers and sellers. ... Jewelry wire gauge Earring Body piercing Body piercing jewelry Body piercing materials Wire Wire gauge comparison chart IEC ...
Body frame size is determined by a persons wrist circumference in relation to his height. For example, a man whose height is ... Determining frame size: To determine the body frame size, measure the wrist with a tape measure and use the following chart to ... Body frame size is determined by a persons wrist circumference in relation to his height. For example, a man whose height is ...
With such dramatic steps forward in the plus-size market its easy to celebrate some successes, but we still have a big, fat ( ... And this is an issue for two reasons: 1. again, I have no idea how that clothing will work on my body. If they had a size 14 ... According to the CDC, the "average" American women now wears a size 14(with "plus-sizes, often classified as 14 to 34, ... Thats because seeing diverse bodies makes us more comfortable with diverse bodies. Kinda like how you hate avocado the first ...
The findings indicate that both body size and physical activity are related to lifespan, but the associations seem to differ ... While exercise helped men live longer, their body size did not.. The increase in life expectancy has started to plateau in some ... 22, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Heres a new study finding thats bound to make tall, thin women happy: Their body size and their ... "The findings indicate that both body size and physical activity are related to lifespan, but that these associations seem to ...
... s largest selection and best deals for Sample Size Unisex Body Moisturisers. Shop with confidence on eBay! ... Aromatherapy Associates - Revive Body Gel 40ml X 2 (80ml). Sample, Travel, Trial Sizes - 40ml x 2 Tubes (40ml). Aromatherapy ... Keihls Creme De Corps Soy Milk & Honey Body Polish TRAVEL SIZE 30ML £7.99 ... NUXE REVE DE MIEL ULTRA COMFORTABLE BODY CREAM SAMPLE 7ML (DRY SENSITIVE SKIN). Nuxe Reve De Miel Ultra Comfortable Body Cream ...
Shop Amikas Plus Size Volume and Body Mousse at Sephora. A whipped, bodifying mousse for long-lasting full, voluminous hair ... Apply a palm-size amount of Plus Size Volume and Body Mousse into your hands and work evenly through damp hair from the roots ... Prep damp hair with Plus Size Volume and Body Mousse prior to blow drying with a round brush.. Precautions:. -Extremely ... Adds body and volume. - Provides long-lasting flexible hold - Protects against heat and frizz. If you want to know more…. This ...
This morning we discovered a new site called My Body Gallery that promotes a positive bod ... Or if their bodies look the same as you? Many of us do this subconsciously and it doesnt have to be a negative thing. ... Have you ever tried to size up other women and determine if they wear the same size as you? ... Have you ever tried to size up other women and determine if they wear the same size as you? Or if their bodies look the same as ...
... font-size: 16px; font-family: verdana, helvetica, sans-serif line-height: 1.5; color: #000; margin: 0px; ... font-size declare in body Hi,. I declare. body {. font-size: 16px;. font-family: verdana, helvetica, sans-serif. line-height: ... font-size to have larger or lower values. I tried this:. body, div {. font-size: 16px;. font-family: verdana, helvetica, sans- ... Re: font-size declare in body I have the exact same problem.. Using IE 6 and an external sheet:. All font specifications ...
Duration of urination does not change with body size. Patricia J. Yang, Jonathan Pham, Jerome Choo, and David L. Hu. *. Schools ... The relation between body mass M and properties of the urinary system. (A) Urethral length L (green triangles) and diameter D ( ... Body mass M given in kilograms. Duration of urination corresponds to animals heavier than 3 kg. Urethral length and diameter, ... Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the PNAS web site. ...
A new analysis of the body size of early humans and our relatives suggests that the first members of the genus Homo-which ... Body Size Not A Factor In Human Origin Story main content.. Body Size Not A Factor In Human Origin Story by AMNH on Aug 5, 2015 ... "An animals body size is directly related to how it interacts with the natural world, influencing factors such as energy ... A new analysis of the body size of early humans and our relatives suggests that the first members of the genus Homo-which ...
The size of an organism is perhaps its most overt physical characteristic, and variation in body size has long been of interest ... In this study, we assessed the change in adult body size of four plethodontid salamanders (Desmognathus imitator, D. ocoee, D. ... William E. Peterman, John A. Crawford, and Daniel J. Hocking "Effects of Elevation on Plethodontid Salamander Body Size," ... Using 1,293 observations of salamanders at 25 sites, we found clear and significant patterns of increasing adult body size with ...
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... by Hempz is 100% Pure Organic Hemp Seed Oil for dramatic skin hydration and ... Comments about Hempz Travel Size Pomegranate Herbal Body Moisturizer:. This is my go to lotion! I use it everyday and keep the ... Comments about Hempz Travel Size Pomegranate Herbal Body Moisturizer:. I love the way its smells and how it makes my skin ... Travel Size Pomegranate Herbal Body Moisturizer by Hempz is 100% Pure Organic Hemp Seed Oil for dramatic skin hydration and ...
... shop Citrus Travel Size Bath & Body Works to find exactly what youre looking for! ... travel size hand cream or travel size hand sanitizer, Bath & Body Works has all the travel size products you need for any and ... Body Care Travel Size Your browsers Javascript functionality is turned off. Please turn it on so that you can experience the ... Travel Size Lotions, Shower Gels & More from Bath & Body Works. Have a trip coming up? Planning and packing doesnt have to be ...
Sometimes, due to fat build up, it may be necessary to reduce the size of your upper body. This can be done by combining a ... The upper body consists of the abdomen, waist, chest, arms and back. ... healthy diet with fat burning cardiovascular exercises and an upper body specific weight training routine. ... Sometimes, due to fat build up, it may be necessary to reduce the size of your upper body. This can be done by combining a ...
Is bigger better? Does climate affect size? The processes controlling body size evolution remain unclear. ... Is bigger better? Does climate affect size? The processes controlling body size evolution remain unclear. ... Message Body. (Your Name) thought you would like to see this page from the Science web site. ...
Ive enlisted eight major body-positive crusaders to share their top tips on how to love your body.,/p,,p,For more style ...,Hilary Duff tells body-shaming ... Each morning I look in the mirror and say out loud five things that I love about my body. Like Instagram star ,a rel=nofollow ... Living in a world where we are constantly told by the media and society what we should change or not like about our bodies, ...
The body double of Chris Hemsworth has revealed hes eating seven meals a day to try and keep up with the Hollywood heart ... "Were training so much, we are packing on so much size, its difficult on the body. ... Youve just made this even harder: Hemsworths body double tells actor. Chris Hemsworths body double says the Hollywood hunk ... The body double of Chris Hemsworth has revealed hes eating seven meals a day to try and keep up with the Hollywood heart ...
"The brain stays large… but the body size gets smaller.". Whether brain size or body size plays the larger evolutionary role ... can result when brain size increases faster than body size or when it decreases slower than body size. ... Gorillas, for example, experienced an increase in both brain and body size but more so in body size. ... "Body size [is] quite clearly the target of selection in three times as many carnivorans as brain size is," says mammalian ...
The largest organ in the body is the skin, while the largest internal solid organ is the liver, followed by the brain and lungs ... The organs in the human body come in all shapes and sizes. ... The approximate size dimensions of the brain are as follows: * ... Your body is a complex living machine with many intricate parts. Important organs in the body are on your left side. ... More than half of your bodys fluid is located in your cells. About a seventh of your bodys fluid is found in the lymph nodes ...
Its no secret that all the women who vie for the Bachelors heart all share a similar body type. Heres why The Bachelor ... Despite What This Producer Thinks, It Is Time For Body Diversity On The Bachelor. Meagan Fredette Feb 25, 2018 2:30 PM ... His less-chiseled body type was not even a point of discussion on the show, and it shouldnt be. Iggys figure didnt make ... Whos to say they wont be attracted to a stunning, successful woman who is bigger than a size 4? Give both The Bachelor ...
Gompertz models-i.e. exponentially decreasing rate of size increase at larger sizes-fit maximum size curves far better than ... tetrapod maximum body size over large timescales. Instead, we support previous suggestions that maximum size is determined by ... indicating greater restriction on body size increase as larger sizes are reached [10]. Curves were fit for Archosauromorpha and ... The Gompertz model was of the form logM = logK−log(K/M0)e-αt where M is the maximum size, K the asymptotic maximum size, M0 the ...
... shop Travel Size Body Care Bath & Body Works to find exactly what youre looking for! ... Body Care Travel Size Body Care Your browsers Javascript functionality is turned off. Please turn it on so that you can ... Joy to your inbox! Get jolly-good Christmas email offers & exclusives from Bath & Body Works!. Enter Email. Bath & Body Works ...
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... Cancer. 1976 Jul;38(1):382-7. doi: 10.1002/1097-0142(197607)38:1,382::aid- ... After matching major athletes with nonathletes of comparable body size (height and weight), differences in proportional ...
Please note that sizing varies by category. Click a category to view the appropriate chart: Apparel (Womens) Activewear ( ... Womens) Activewear (Mens) Boards (Body Boards & Skim Boards) Outerwear (Womens) Outerwear (Mens) Persona ... Refer to the size guides and charts below to assess which size would be best for you. ... Size & Fit Guide. Refer to the size guides and charts below to assess which size would be best for you. Please note that sizing ...
And the bigger their body size, the more inaccurate their guesses. ... Overweight children are less accurate in estimating their own body size than normal weight children. ... "That way, we got a measure of how big the difference between actual body size and estimated body size was," says Steinsbekk. ... Estimating your own body size and weight can be difficult. It turns out that this is true not only for adults, but also for ...
... in particular large body size. However, Yucatan miniature pigs have been selected for small body size to withstand high ... This renders the Yucatan miniature pig a valuable model for understanding the evolution of body size. We investigate the ... Exploring the genetic signature of body size in Yucatan miniature pig. *Hyeongmin Kim, ... we were able to unravel the signatures of selection of body size. We found that both selections at the level of organism, and ...
  • Vaseline Intensive Care Cocoa Glow Body Lotion is a unique blend of healing micro-droplets of Vaseline Jelly, Glycerine and pure Cocoa Butter. (
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  • The new results challenge the evolutionary model that argues that body size increased from Australopithecus individuals to early Homo species. (
  • But there is more than one evolutionary way to get a large brain, a phylogenetic analysis shows, and more often than not, it has to do with relatively greater changes in body size rather than in brain size. (
  • Relative brain size is the compromise of two traits taking potentially different evolutionary pathways involving different combinations of brain-body adaptations. (
  • Smaers, an evolutionary biologist, and his colleagues at University College London, in collaboration with Kamran Safi's computational ecology laboratory at the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology in Radolfzell, Germany, compared the brain-body size relationship in three groups of mammals. (
  • Furthermore, the relationship between atmospheric pO 2 and maximum insect size is more complicated than implied by coincidence of late Paleozoic hyperoxia and insect gigantism, raising the possibility that other factors, such as competitive or predatory interactions with flying vertebrates (birds, bats, and pterosaurs), may have contributed to or even been the dominant control on evolutionary size trends ( 18 , 19 ). (
  • The rich fossil history of insects ( 21 ) contains the only record of evolutionary body-size trends in response to changing atmospheric pO 2 ( 22 ), temperature, and evolution of flying predators and competitors ( 23 ). (
  • Our quantitative analysis of evolutionary size trends from more than 10,500 measured fossil insect specimens confirms the importance of atmospheric pO 2 in enabling the evolution of large body size, but suggests that the pO 2 -size relationship was superseded by biological factors following the evolution and aerial specialization of flying vertebrates, particularly birds. (
  • According to the report, this relationship between land area and animal size is strong enough to induce evolutionary change over long time periods. (
  • Some scientists think that small bodies provide an evolutionary advantage under certain circumstances. (
  • Background: Greater weight and body mass index (BMI) are negatively correlated with mammographic density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer, and are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, but with a reduced risk in premenopausal women. (
  • We have examined the associations of body size and mammographic density on breast cancer risk. (
  • Method: We examined the associations of body size and the percentage of mammographic density at baseline with subsequent risk of breast cancer among 1,114 matched case-control pairs identified from three screening programs. (
  • In both premenopausal and postmenopausal women, body weight is inversely associated with the percentage of mammographic density ( 12 - 14 ), because greater weight is associated with a larger area of non-dense tissue in the mammogram, reflecting a greater quantity of fat in the breast. (
  • The associations of mammographic density with body weight are thus in the same direction as their effects on breast cancer risk in premenopausal women, but opposite in direction in postmenopausal women. (
  • These studies suggest that body size and mammographic density are negative confounders of each other in their association with risk of breast cancer. (
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the association of indices of body size with mammographic density, assessed quantitatively, and with risk of breast cancer. (
  • In the spirit of Valentine's Day, we give a nod to plus size women who celebrate body positivity every day. (
  • Body inclusivity is the new body positivity. (
  • The body positivity movement was started by fat women as a way to help them feel less like outcasts in society. (
  • But until body inclusivity is really taken seriously, and brands start to make changes, I don't think we'll have much more progress in the "body positivity" movement. (
  • Additionally, the terrestrial mammals of the islands of Madagascar, New Guinea and Australia do not show a right skewed body size-species richness distribution (Maurer et al. (
  • If it were possible to randomly sample a subset of the known continental species pool for mammals, one would expect the body size-species richness distribution of this sample to roughly mirror that of the entire continent. (
  • We analyse the effects of three abiotic factors-oxygen, temperature and land area-on maximum size of Permian-Jurassic archosauromorphs and therapsids, and Cenozoic mammals, using time series generalized least-squares regression models. (
  • All combinations of environmental variables were tested as predictors of maximum size (for Permian-Jurassic therapsids and archosauromorphs and for Cenozoic mammals) and mean size (for Permian-Jurassic data). (
  • The new findings, the authors conclude, can explain the size of the largest-ever extinct mammals. (
  • In order to better understand and contextualize the phenomenon of "dishonest signalling," as it relates to vocal learning, researchers analyzed the sounds and body size of 164 different mammals. (
  • 1992). Traditionally the pattern has been explored by plotting the number of species on the y-axis and the logarithm to the base two of the species body mass (g) on the x-axis. (
  • This yields a highly right skewed body size distribution with a mode centered near species with a mass ranging from 50-100 grams. (
  • H ) The relationship between body mass and urination time. (
  • The relation between body mass M and properties of the urinary system. (
  • Body mass M given in kilograms. (
  • The study, published in the Journal of Human Evolution , challenges the long-standing notion that the origins of early humans coincided with, or were driven by, an increase in body mass. (
  • Richmond worked with lead author Mark Grabowski, an assistant research professor at George Washington University and soon-to-be James Arthur Postdoctoral Fellow in the Museum's Anthropology Division, and other colleagues to build the most comprehensive set of body mass estimates, species averages, and species averages by sex for fossil humans and their close relatives to date. (
  • One of our major results is that we found no evidence that the earliest members of our genus differed in body mass from earlier australopiths," said Grabowski. (
  • They began by acquiring body mass and brain mass measurements for 297 bat species, 169 primate species, and 187 carnivoran species, from published literature as well as museum specimens. (
  • It covers your whole body and makes up about 16 percent of your overall body mass. (
  • The children were shown seven pictures of girls and boys with known body mass index and asked which picture looked the most like them. (
  • Selection at the higher levels include feed intake, regulation of body weight and increase in mass while selection at the molecular level includes cell cycle and cell proliferation. (
  • A further decrease in maximum size during the Cenozoic may relate to the evolution of bats, the Cretaceous mass extinction, or further specialization of flying birds. (
  • Genetic obesity susceptibility was represented by a combined obesity risk-allele (an alternative form of a gene) score that was calculated in each participant as the sum of 16 different alleles associated with higher adult body-mass index (BMI). (
  • The allele score was associated with both postnatal fat mass and lean mass but not with the percentage of body fat. (
  • This premise is strongly supported by our novel finding of positive associations between the obesity risk-allele score and both fat mass and lean mass, but not relative body fat, in infancy and early childhood. (
  • Before the mass extinction event that killed off the dinosaurs 66 million years ago, the researchers discovered that birds and large dinosaurs had brains that were very similar in size. (
  • They found at least seven brain-body scaling events in birds right after the mass extinction. (
  • The scaling exponent for the relationship between lifespan and body mass is between 0.15 and 0.3. (
  • Bigger animals also expend more energy, and the scaling exponent for the relationship of resting metabolic rate (RMR) to body mass lies somewhere between 0.66 and 0.8. (
  • Because the exponents for mass-specific RMR are close to the exponents for lifespan, but have opposite signs, their product (the mass-specific expenditure of energy per lifespan) is independent of body mass (exponent between -0.08 and 0.08). (
  • A novel comparison using daily energy expenditure (DEE), rather than BMR, suggests that lifetime expenditure of energy per gram of tissue is NOT independent of body mass, and that tissue in smaller animals expends more energy before expiring than tissue in larger animals. (
  • Doctors typically use body mass index as a screening tool to determine whether a woman is at an acceptable weight and body fat level. (
  • Scientists looked at data for weight, body mass index, or BMI, waist size and waist-to-hip ratio and found that carrying extra pounds at the waist and hips appeared to be more of a factor in colon cancer deaths than overall weight or BMI. (
  • However, previous studies have not considered anthropometric measures such as body mass index and waist circumference as potential determinants of lower bone mineral density among vegetarians rather than suboptimal dietary composition associated with plant-based diets. (
  • However, when adjusting for body mass index and waist circumference, differences in mean bone mineral density values became marginal and were no longer statistically significant. (
  • This suggests that differences in bone mineral density between vegetarians and nonvegetarians may largely depend on body mass index and waist circumference. (
  • Thus, lower rates of fractures among nonvegetarians may likely be associated with a higher body mass index. (
  • The contrasting effects of body size on premenopausal breast cancer compared with postmenopausal breast cancer and the lack of a strong association between body mass and postmenopausal breast cancer in some cohort studies has led to a view that obesity has little influence on breast cancer risk. (
  • Recent research suggests that, compared to body mass indices, adult weight gain and increased central body fat may be more specific markers of the metabolic consequences of obesity and therefore may predict health outcomes more consistently. (
  • This paper employs micro-level data from the First, Second, and Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys to determine the effects that various state-level variables have on body mass index and obesity. (
  • The Super Size Of America: An Economic Estimation Of Body Mass Index And Obesity In Adults, " Eastern Economic Journal, 2006, v32(1,Winter), 133-148. (
  • If your body mass index is different from the average, the app will calculate your ideal weight using an automatic ideal weight calculator. (
  • Body size is a central determinant of a species' biology and adaptive strategy, but the number of reliable estimates of hominin body mass and stature have been insufficient to determine long-term patterns and subtle interactions in these size components within our lineage. (
  • Here, we analyse 254 body mass and 204 stature estimates from a total of 311 hominin specimens dating from 4.4 Ma to the Holocene using multi-level chronological and taxonomic analytical categories. (
  • Combined taxonomic and temporal analyses show that in relation to australopithecines, early Homo is characterized by significantly larger average body mass and stature but retains considerable diversity, including small body sizes. (
  • Within later Homo , stature and body mass evolution follow different trajectories: average modern stature is maintained from ca 1.6 Ma, while consistently higher body masses are not established until the Middle Pleistocene at ca 0.5-0.4 Ma, likely caused by directional selection related to colonizing higher latitudes. (
  • Earlier studies also used Body Mass Index, even though BMI as a size indicator for cardiovascular disease risk may not be appropriate because it doesn't take lean muscle mass into account, the researchers said. (
  • 95% of non-eating disordered women overestimate the size of their hips by 16% and their waists by 25%, yet the same women were able to correctly estimate the width of a box. (
  • It is well known that severely underweight individuals - such as those with anorexia - have a tendency to overestimate their own size and think they are fat even if they aren't. (
  • Newly hatched fruit flies raised in the dark overestimate their body size and try to overcome gaps that are far too big significantly more frequently than animals raised in the usual light-dark cycle. (
  • I would just like to see plus-size models get the same opportunities that straight-size models get, whether that's in activewear, high fashion, swimwear, or anything else. (
  • Macroecology has long sought to understand the mechanisms that underlie the patterns of biodiversity, such as the body size-species richness pattern. (
  • Using 1,293 observations of salamanders at 25 sites, we found clear and significant patterns of increasing adult body size with elevation in all four species. (
  • deviations from the expected size-related patterns. (
  • So, the altered landscape may have triggered the rapid evolution of new brain-body scaling patterns by favoring both larger brains and smaller bodies. (
  • The results demonstrate complex temporal patterns of body size variation with phases of relative stasis intermitted by periods of rapid increases. (
  • The isolated small-bodied individuals of Homo naledi ( ca 0.3 Ma) and Homo floresiensis ( ca 100-60 ka) constitute important exceptions to these general patterns, adding further layers of complexity to the evolution of body size within the genus Homo . (
  • Associations between genetic obesity susceptibility and body size or body composition were tested at birth to age 5 years. (
  • The ideal body weight equation and BMI don't take into account your body composition. (
  • Lower bone mineral density among vegetarians: Dietary composition or body size? (
  • With such dramatic steps forward in the plus-size market it's easy to celebrate some successes, but we still have a big, fat (er, plus-sized? (
  • But we also had a personal interview where we shared our story and explained how we stand for being plus sized. (
  • And it's not just ASOS, this is a problem on every website that sells plus-size clothing, every magazine plus-size fashion spread, and every fashion label that features "plus-size" women on the runway. (
  • According to the CDC , the "average" American women now wears a size 14 (with "plus-sizes, often classified as 14 to 34, accounting for 67 percent of the population). (
  • Robyn Lawley is gorgeous, but she does not represent me, and she does not represent those women, the close 100 million actual plus-size American ladies . (
  • When will you dare to use models size 14 and up to sell clothing to women who wear sizes 14 and up? (
  • Because the reality is that me, and many other women like me, aren't being served by "plus size" marketing and while people argue over the term itself-because plus-size models don't look plus-size in many cases-the real problem is that an entire segment of the market (women over size 10 or 12) aren't being marketed to at all, and not only is that insulting, it's bad for business . (
  • TUESDAY, Jan. 22, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Here's a new study finding that's bound to make tall, thin women happy: Their body size and their gender make it more likely they will reach the milestone age of 90 than either men or shorter, heavier women. (
  • The findings indicate that both body size and physical activity are related to lifespan, but that these associations seem to differ between men and women," Brandts said. (
  • My Body Gallery allows women to upload and browse other ladies with the same measurements. (
  • Have you ever tried to size up other women and determine if they wear the same size as you? (
  • The My Body Gallery project's goal is to help women objectively see what we look like and come to some acceptance that we are all beautiful. (
  • Every day, we're bombarded with overly Photoshopped pictures of unrealistic bodies on social media that leave many women feeling less than. (
  • A diverse cast of women would do away with the myth that plus-size women don't enjoy active, fun love lives, and reinforce the idea that plus-size women are deserving of love and desire. (
  • The Bachelor can demonstrate that men aren't shallow creatures who only find one type of woman attractive - and reinforce that no matter what their bodies look like, women are beautiful. (
  • 67% of U.S. women are plus-size. (
  • We went all out to continue to show women that sexy has no size, if its there in your size wear it ❤️ We all deserve to look & feel sexy. (
  • and in the sixth annual Love Your Body Day, on Oct. 15, sponsored by the National Organization for Women Foundation. (
  • A large part of the appeal, Mr. Heavin said, is that average or heavier-than-average women can get together with like-size women to support and inspire one another. (
  • The phenomenal success of Curves, many experts say, is a sign that women are accepting, and therefore taking better care of, their bodies. (
  • Emme, perhaps the most famous of the full-figured fashion models, has been lecturing at college campuses and even testified before a Congressional subcommittee about the need to help women overcome their problems with body image. (
  • There was a significant decrease in average body circumference, as well as appearance of cellulite, among women who received LPG endermologie sessions, according to recently published research. (
  • The decreased overall body size showed up not only on those women who lost weight during the study, but also on the subjects who gained weight during the research. (
  • So the women asked photographer Karizza to heavily edit their bodies to show just how misleading pictures can be. (
  • This month, in their June issue, the publication took another step toward reconciliation by polling women on their feelings about the term plus-size . (
  • For the sake of context, let's go with the finding that about 70% of American women wear a size 14 or higher. (
  • In 2014, the online retailer ramped up its plus-size offerings based on a survey that found more American women wear a size 16 than wear sizes 0, 2, and 4 combined. (
  • Maternal, birth, and early-life influences on adult body size in women. (
  • The authors conducted a follow-up study of 261 women born during 1959-1965 (38% White, 40% African-American, and 22% Latina) to investigate whether maternal and infant factors are independently associated with adult body size after accounting for childhood growth. (
  • Melissa McCarthy has taken a stand against the fashion and shopping industries, and wants to stop the body-shaming of plus-size women. (
  • As a plus-size model, it's important to me to broadcast myself at this size to show other women it's okay to embrace who you are at any size. (
  • Is There an Ideal Body Size Calculator for Women? (
  • Some women have a BMI that falls within the recommended range but have more body fat than is healthy. (
  • If you're concerned you may have too much or too little body fat, your doctor can have your body fat measured to see if it's within the acceptable range for women of 14 to 31 percent. (
  • Since plus-size women come in all different shapes and sizes, there are a lot of body types that need to be represented on the curvy spectrum, so finding the right fit can be tricky. (
  • Tested on hundreds of women of all shapes and sizes, Auden is sure to be your new one-stop-shop when it comes to bras and panties. (
  • All of this news comes as part of the brand's new "No Body Like You" marketing campaign, which according to a press release, "showcases unretouched women, of all body shapes, ages and backgrounds. (
  • Dallas plastic surgeon Diane L. Gibby, MD, says women should understand that there is no perfect breast size but rather a range that will look good for any given woman. (
  • Many different body shapes and sizes are healthy, so you won't find a single calculation to tell you exactly what you should weigh and what your measurements should be. (
  • Rumer Willis is giving some love to her legs with a body-positive poem that she posted on Instagram. (
  • Like Instagram star Iskra Lawrence says, the idea of this exercise is to point out the amazing things your body does for you and to be consistent. (
  • Those in doubt need only check out her Instagram account , where the curvaceous blogger fired back at critics trying to body-shame her for posting a photo of herself in a revealing one-piece swimsuit. (
  • Gigi Hadid also joined the conversation with her kickass Instagram post on body shaming. (
  • Body frame size is determined by a person's wrist circumference in relation to his height. (
  • Body circumference was measured pre- and post-intervention as well, by evaluating thickness at eight specific, consistent body sites. (
  • All 33 subjects showed a significant mean body circumference loss, with maximum loss obtained at the hips. (
  • You can use several calculations and measurements, however, to determine whether you're within the acceptable range for ideal body size: ideal body weight, BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio. (
  • Some jewelry makers or sellers who express the size of their jewelry in millimeters, may also list the nearest approximate gauge-and-inches measurements for each item. (
  • In the Cardiovascular Health Study cohort, we examined the relationship of baseline measurements of body size, glucose, insulin, and lipoproteins to incident colorectal cancer. (
  • Then, they compared the brain sizes with brain measurements of modern birds in a large data set. (
  • The brain measurements were analyzed along with body size to compare the scale of brain size to body size. (
  • The measurements listed below is for the 565XX 2XL and 3XL I suggest following the measurements rather than clothing size due to the fact that we base our clothing size only on measurements. (
  • A new analysis of the body size of early humans and our relatives suggests that the first members of the genus Homo -which includes Homo sapiens -were not larger than earlier hominin species. (
  • This suggests that biological limits such as reduced fecundity and niche space availability become increasingly limiting as larger sizes are reached. (
  • This suggests that frond size and shape were directly responsive to nutrient uptake. (
  • The decoupling of insect size and atmospheric pO 2 coincident with the radiation of birds suggests that biotic interactions, such as predation and competition, superseded oxygen as the most important constraint on maximum body size of the largest insects. (
  • That's because new research suggests that some birds evolved over time to have smaller bodies and maintain large brains. (
  • FRIDAY, May 27 (HealthDay News) -- Your size may influence how you perceive the world around you, a new study suggests. (
  • To help make the right choice, Dr. Tehrani suggests looking through your doctor's before and after photographs and trying implant sizes in a predetermined bra and t-shirt to help visualize the new size. (
  • We'd [cast for more body-type diversity. (
  • Terrestrial tetrapod history is punctuated by major faunal replacement events, where one group expands in taxic and size diversity as another declines. (
  • Here, we quantify mammalian extinction selectivity, continental body size distributions, and taxonomic diversity over five time periods spanning the past 125,000 years and stretching approximately 200 years into the future. (
  • Jayantheesh Intended status: Standards Track Samsung Electronics America Expires: March 22, 2018 September 18, 2017 64bit body part and message sizes in IMAP4 draft-ietf-extra-imap-64bit-01.txt Abstract This document defines an IMAPv4rev1 extension that extends the existing IMAPv4rev1 32 Bit message and body part sizes to 63 bit. (
  • However, Yucatan miniature pigs have been selected for small body size to withstand high temperature environment and for laboratory use. (
  • For example, temperature can also be an important influence on insect body size via physiological effects on metabolic oxygen demand and ecological effects on food supply, growing season, and foraging time ( 20 ). (
  • This study is the first to indicate that abdominal coloration in stingless bees might be involved in the regulation of body temperature in extreme thermal conditions. (
  • Heinrich B (1980) Mechanisms of body-temperature regulation in honeybees, Apis mellifera . (
  • It's special material increases body temperature and absorbs sweat so you're always dry on the outside. (
  • Finally, the metabolic theory of ecology explains how there is a negative relationship between number of individuals (N) and size (M) ( N = M − 3 / 4 {\displaystyle N=M^{-3/4}} ), but it is silent on species richness. (
  • Bishop JA, Armbruster WS (1999) Thermoregulatory abilities of Alaskan bees: effects of size, phylogeny and ecology. (
  • Basically you plug in your height, weight, shirt and pant size, and body type to browse ladies with similar stats. (
  • This can be done by combining a healthy diet with fat burning cardiovascular exercises and an upper body specific weight training routine. (
  • You cannot lose upper body weight without doing these type of exercises. (
  • After matching major athletes with nonathletes of comparable body size (height and weight), differences in proportional mortality and mean age at death from neoplasms persisted, although not statistically significant for the smaller samples. (
  • Estimating your own body size and weight can be difficult. (
  • In conclusion, LPG endermologie is well-tolerated and an effective means of reducing the diameter of body contours, even in patients who do not lose weight," state the study's authors. (
  • The obesity risk-allele score was not associated with infant size at birth but at age 1 year it was associated with weight and length but not with BMI. (
  • weight (kg)/height (m)(2)), maternal weight gain), birth measures (birth weight, placental weight), and early infancy and childhood growth measures (birth-4 months, 4 months-1 year, and 1-7 years) have on predicting adult body size. (
  • A simple calculation can give you an idea as to your ideal body weight, or IBW. (
  • This gives you the ideal body weight for a woman with a medium frame. (
  • If you have a small frame, subtract 10 percent from the ideal body weight, and if you have a large frame, add 10 percent. (
  • So, using the example IBW of 130, can subtract and add 10 percent, or 13 pounds, to find the ideal body weight range for a 5-foot, 6-inch-tall woman: 117 to 143 pounds. (
  • Adult weight gain and increases in central body fat, which commonly occur during menopause, have been associated consistently with an increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. (
  • PEP: Sizing is a measurement and weight tracking free app. (
  • The app will help you form personalized goals on your way to the perfect body: calculate your ideal weight, remind you of your weight and show your weight loss progress on handy charts and personal photo ribbon. (
  • Body weight, however, seems to be an exception. (
  • If you are actively involved in sports, yoga or other physical activities, the size and weight of larger implants may be a hindrance. (
  • The Keeping Up with the Kardashians star just issued a new reminder of her slim-down success, flaunting her size two body and unveiling her secret weight loss weapon. (
  • Talking with Harper's Bazaar , Kim discussed the fact that she has lost so much weight that she slips sleekly into a size two . (
  • Our study reinforces previous research describing increases in plethodontid salamander body size with elevation, but also extends these findings to fully terrestrial, direct-developing species. (
  • Because metabolic oxygen demand increases with increasing body size, environmental oxygen concentration (pO 2 ) is frequently invoked as an important constraint on the size of animals ( 1 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 6 ). (
  • Researchers have previously investigated whether this increase in size also increases health risks. (
  • The body size-species richness distribution is a pattern observed in the way taxa are distributed over large spatial scales. (
  • The number of species that exhibit small body size generally far exceed the number of species that are large-bodied. (
  • at intermediate spatial scales (e.g. a thousand hectares or a biome) the body size-species richness distribution begins to shift from being right skewed (from fewer large-bodied species) towards a normal distribution. (
  • Since it does not, and if it is assumed that the observed distribution of species among body sizes is not a sampling bias, then some ecological interactions must underlie this pattern. (
  • It is important to note that the 3 sub-mechanisms: dispersal, competition and energetic restraints must in some manner feed back into either speciation or extinction rates as these are the only ultimate processes (see Tinbergen's four questions) governing the number of species on earth and hence the body size-species richness pattern. (
  • Using the largest sample of individual early hominin fossils available-220 specimens-the team showed that early hominins were generally smaller than previously thought, and that the earliest Homo species did not differ significantly in size from their immediate ancestors. (
  • Increased size came later with H. erectus , the first species widely found outside of Africa. (
  • Body size is a fundamentally important trait for fitness in many animal species because it correlates positively with survival and reproductive success. (
  • In my dissertation, I studied the parental size effects on reproductive success in a model species (zebrafish, Danio rerio). (
  • In order to determine the potential importance of body size and body coloration in heat gain and heat loss, passive warm-up and cooling rates were measured for freshly killed workers of 24 stingless bee species. (
  • There were profound changes in brain-body scaling in the immediate aftermath of the extinction, and these may have played an important role in modern birds surviving and going on to radiate into the 10,000+ species we have today. (
  • Birds like emus and pigeons have the same brain sizes you would expect for a theropod dinosaur of the same body size, and in fact some species like moa have smaller-than-expected brains. (
  • Using a large database on the helminth parasites of 303 fish species, we tested whether the proportion of parasite species in a host that occur as larval or juvenile stages is best explained by their trophic level or by their body size. (
  • However, trophic level and body length are strongly correlated among fish species, and they may have separate though confounded effects on the parasite fauna exploiting a given species. (
  • Hyndes GA, Platell ME, Potter IC (1997) Relationships between diet and body size, mouth morphology, habitat and movements of six sillaginid species in coastal waters: implications for resource partitioning. (
  • less than 140 cm) after 1.4 Ma is associated with a decrease in relative size variability in later Homo species compared with earlier Homo and australopithecines. (
  • Body size is one of the most important determinants of the biology of a species, as it correlates with metabolic rate, life history, energetic expenditure, diet, thermoregulation and home range size [ 1 - 3 ]. (
  • Notwithstanding such effects and potential thermoregulatory capabilities, stingless bees show niche differentiation and biogeographic distributions that correlate with body coloration and body size. (
  • Apply a palm-size amount of Plus Size Volume and Body Mousse into your hands and work evenly through damp hair from the roots to the ends. (
  • Prep damp hair with Plus Size Volume and Body Mousse prior to blow drying with a round brush. (
  • An animal's body size is directly related to how it interacts with the natural world, influencing factors such as energy requirements, brain size, growth rates, diet, locomotion, and more," said Brian Richmond, a co-author on the new work and the Museum's curator of human origins. (
  • Usually, an animal's size dictates the frequency of the animal's vocalizations. (
  • Scientists refer to vocalizations that accurately reflect an animal's size as "honest signalling. (
  • This ultralight plus size shapewear is made of finer soft yarns and features powerful graduated compression technology. (
  • The size of an organism is perhaps its most overt physical characteristic, and variation in body size has long been of interest to biologists. (
  • Regardless of mechanism, clinal variation in body size has been widely observed in plethodontid salamanders and other ectothermic vertebrates. (
  • Environmental factors analysed may still have imposed an upper limit on tetrapod body size, but any environmentally imposed limit did not vary substantially during the intervals examined despite variation in these environmental factors. (
  • The extent to which variation in reproductive success is explained by parental body size is an important research topic because size-selective fishing usually reduces the average size of reproducing adults in a population. (
  • The relationships of the tribes with colonists "led to differences in mortality among these tribes, which appears to have been a fundamental determinant of variation in body size," the authors conclude. (
  • Schumer took to Insta to let them know she wasn't happy -- since she wears a size 6 or 8. (
  • In this study, we assessed the change in adult body size of four plethodontid salamanders ( Desmognathus imitator , D. ocoee , D. wrighti , and Plethodon jordani ) across a 1,350 m elevational gradient in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. (
  • In the new study, Tammo Krause and Laura Spindler analyzed the body-size memory of Drosophila . (
  • The results show that Drosophila learns to estimate the distance across a gap and the reach of its legs by linking visual information from the environment, such as a striped pattern, with their body size. (
  • We therefore assume that memory of their own body size is the most permanent form of recall detected in Drosophila to date,' the two lead authors Tammo Krause and Laura Spindler concluded in their article in Current Biology . (
  • But the last major analysis of body size in the evolution of our own family took place more than 20 years ago. (
  • The processes controlling body size evolution remain unclear. (
  • These events, and associated body size dynamics, provide opportunities to assess the relative importance of abiotic and biological factors in determining the evolution of tetrapod maximum size. (
  • This renders the Yucatan miniature pig a valuable model for understanding the evolution of body size. (
  • Here we show, using a dataset of more than 10,500 fossil insect wing lengths, that size tracked atmospheric oxygen concentrations only for the first 150 Myr of insect evolution. (
  • Maximum insect size decreased even as atmospheric pO 2 rose in the Early Cretaceous following the evolution and radiation of early birds, particularly as birds acquired adaptations that allowed more agile flight. (
  • The effects of body size on the evolution of the amphibian middle ear. (
  • While these studies provide deeper insights into particular taxa or temporal contexts, there has been no systematic and long-term overview of the evolution of body size within the hominin lineage. (
  • First, body size is central to discussions of human evolution throughout its entire temporal and geographical span [ 22 , 24 ]. (
  • And it bolsters the idea that the reproductive trade-off associated with a short life could play a role in the evolution of human body size. (
  • Apply the rich cream liberally to your entire body daily and massage well. (
  • Whether you need a mini perfume spray, travel size hand cream or travel size hand sanitizer, Bath & Body Works has all the travel size products you need for any and every vacay! (
  • This lavish Goldleaf Gardenia body cream moisturizes with magnolia flower extract to help soothe skin. (
  • Shaper top preserves body heat and stimulates sweat during exercise. (
  • We demonstrate that size-selective extinction was already under way in the oldest interval and occurred on all continents, within all trophic modes, and across all time intervals. (
  • Given this broad physiological compatibility of many helminths with fish hosts, our results indicate that fish body length, as a proxy for vulnerability to predators, is a better predictor of their use by helminth larvae than their trophic level based on diet content. (
  • University of Michigan scientists have had early success testing 10nm 'nanodiscs' that teach your body to kill cancer cells. (
  • The size and types of the largest local land animals vary greatly from place to place, prompting scientists to question what controls the success of animals of certain sizes over others. (
  • Scientists have developed a pill-sized robot that can travel inside your body, can find if you have any tumours and transmit the findings back to a computer. (
  • People were tricked into believing they were either the size of Barbie dolls or 13-foot giants in a study conducted by scientists at Karolinska Institute in Sweden. (
  • To determine the body frame size, measure the wrist with a tape measure and use the following chart to determine whether the person is small, medium, or large boned. (
  • Since being domesticated about 10,000-12,000 years ago, domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) have been selected for traits of economic importance, in particular large body size. (
  • The wide range of body sizes in ecological communities, from tiny microbes to large animals and plants, is emerging as the key to prediction. (
  • Large females were found to have higher reproductive success compared to small females and a significant effect of male body size on early life-history traits was documented. (
  • The maternal- and paternal-size effects ultimately led to elevated reproductive success of experimental spawning stocks consisting of large or random-sized individuals compared to spawning stocks consisting of small individuals. (
  • My results emphasize the importance of body size to the reproductive biology of zebrafish and suggest that protecting large fish might be important to maintain the reproductive potential of exploited fish stocks. (
  • The term has been increasingly declared politically incorrect, in large part thanks to a "plus-size" social media feud between actress/comedian Amy Schumer and Glamour magazine last month. (
  • Those who believed they had large bodies did the opposite, underestimating the objects' size and distance. (
  • All football players across all positions are getting larger, he said, but over the last 20 years, large size has become especially important to linemen. (
  • In conclusion, Dr. Tucker said that high levels of physical activity among NFL players appear to have "substantially mitigated the effect of large size. (
  • Explanations in the literature suggest the rates of speciation and/or dispersal ability vary with size and could lead to more small bodied organisms (May, 1978). (
  • He cautioned, however, that this type of observational study can't prove body size and physical activity cause people to live longer. (
  • Common body concerns such as a protruding tummy, flabby arms, love handles and back fat can all be reduced by following this type of routine. (
  • His less-chiseled body type was not even a point of discussion on the show, and it shouldn't be. (
  • And Barbie is indeed disproportionate -- a 1995 study found that for a woman with an average body type to attain Barbie's shape, she would need to grow 24 inches (making her more than 7 feet tall), take 6 inches off her waist and add 5 to her chest. (
  • What I stand for is accepting your body type, whether you are a size 2 or a size 14, and then taking care of yourself with a balance of exercise and eating really well,'' said Emme, who introduced her own line of women's clothing sizes 14 to 24 last fall. (
  • Since the fashion industry is the primary entity that is forced to offer some type of sizing label, we should probably look there for solutions. (
  • I asked nine of my fashion blogger friends to share their current favorite plus-size denim picks that don't gap or fade and work with their specific type of curvy bodies - and I included my own go-to jeans. (
  • Generally, the researchers found that children more often underestimated than overestimated the size of their body, although the majority made accurate estimates. (
  • The researchers found that the maximal body size of land animals relates to the size of the landmass on which they live: larger animals require larger individual territories to obtain sufficient food. (
  • Researchers at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) have shown that the fruit fly D rosophila melanogaster develops a very stable long-term memory for its own body size and the reach of its extremities after it has hatched from the pupal case. (
  • Researchers pointed out their findings might contribute to certain practical applications, such as swapping human bodies with artificial ones. (
  • Previously, researchers approached acoustic allometry, the relationship between voice and body size, and vocal learning as two distinct fields of study. (
  • The volume occupied by tracheae, tubes that transport oxygen throughout the body, scales hypermetrically with body volume, imposing further surface area-to-volume constraints on maximum size ( 13 , 14 ). (
  • The metabolically expensive brain doesn't double with a doubling of body size, as do most other organs, but remains somewhat smaller. (
  • Ms. Monroe, who was 5 feet 5 1/2 inches and weighed between 118 to 135 pounds, may have been busty enough to fill out a size 14, but partly because sizes were smaller in the 1950's. (
  • The data are best explained by a model relating maximum size to atmospheric environmental oxygen concentration (pO 2 ) until the end of the Jurassic, and then at constant sizes, independent of oxygen fluctuations, during the Cretaceous and, at a smaller size, the Cenozoic. (
  • If the current trend continues, terrestrial mammal body sizes will become smaller than they have been over the past 45 million years. (
  • My body is middle heavy with a smaller bottom, and I often find that the denim that fits my legs is too tight at the waist and vice versa. (
  • If I make the font size in BODY smaller, then it controls all font sizes on the page, making everything one size smaller. (
  • So, if you declare text to be .9em for the BODY tag then .9em for the P tag the text inside the P tag will be a size smaller. (
  • The palazzo pants seem to run about 2 sizes smaller than street clothes. (
  • Plus, size options dwindle the larger the size, and sometimes I have to take a chance and buy something in a smaller size and cross my fingers that it will work," she told TODAY. (
  • For example, a smaller body needs less food-a good thing in places where food supplies are inconsistent. (
  • Internet-Draft 64bit body part and message sizes in IMAP4 September 2017 This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF Contributions published or made publicly available before November 10, 2008. (
  • Internet-Draft 64bit body part and message sizes in IMAP4 September 2017 3 . (
  • It is clear that comparative correlations involving relative brain size cannot be interpreted as selection on neuronal capacity alone," Jeroen B. Smaers and his coauthors wrote in The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences last year (doi:10.1073/pnas.121218110). (
  • When serial correlation is removed, we find no robust correlations, indicating that these environmental factors did not consistently control tetrapod maximum size. (
  • Altered trait variability in response to size-selective mortality. (
  • Recently, however, a new hypothesis has come to the fore suggesting that reproductive consequences of high mortality rates explain small body size. (
  • This is first time that a link between mortality and body size has been shown using long-term data, the authors say. (
  • Body Size Not A Factor In Human Origin Story main content. (
  • Sumptuous fabrics and seductive cuts come together in our collection of boudoir-worthy basques and bodies. (
  • Check out our white and ivory collections and find white basques or bridal body lingerie perfect for the big day, or explore your wild side in our exquisite animal print Juliette Lace Foil . (
  • Womens Quilted Mini Grab Bag Cross Body Bag - beige - One Size - Add attitude with accessories for those fashion-forward finishing touches It's all about accessories for injecting individuality into your look. (
  • With the family trees in hand, they evaluated the rate of change of the brain- body size relationship between an ancestor and its descendent, in a method that Safi describes as "thinking around three corners. (
  • A corresponding editorial by Sue Shapses (Rutgers University) states that the finding of lower body size in vegetarians could at least partially explain why there is not a greater risk for fracture in vegetarians compared with nonvegetarians despite having lower bone mineral density. (
  • have several posts about men's body washes, shaving creams, etc., by companies like Axe. (
  • Our body washes are very gentle and perfect for the entire family! (
  • Savannah Bee Honey Body Washes contain no parabens or petroleum, and are never tested on animals. (
  • They observed how, under various conditions, the insects try to overcome a small gap exceeding their step size. (
  • Small bodies also may provide an advantage in getting around in thickly forested environments. (
  • So small body size could be essentially a side effect of early sexual maturity . (
  • Generally in America, plus-size clothing is considered size 16 and up. (
  • Combining abundance and body size data can reduce the length of the time series required to predict collapse, and decrease the chances of false positive early warning signals. (
  • Vigorous physical activity appears to significantly decrease the effect of size on cardiovascular risk," Dr. Tucker and colleagues concluded. (
  • Body-positive crusaders are taking a stand online to show that everyone is beautiful in her own way. (
  • We show that during the period of commercial whaling, the mean body size of caught whales declined dramatically (by up to 4 m over a 70-year period), leading to early warning signals being detectable up to 40 years before the global collapse of whale stocks. (
  • Comments like this made me want to cover up more and not show off my body at all because I would just get slated for it. (
  • Cailey Darling posted pictures of herself in a size 28 swimsuit to show 'someone fat and happy and still standing' - despite hateful comments. (
  • I happen to be curvy, but for some reason I'm the master of squeezing into anything, and so it's fun to see when a designer finally sends something and they're like, 'Wait, she really fit in that sample size. (
  • Steinsbekk is the first author of a study from NTNU that investigates how children perceive their own body size. (
  • Tiny bodies perceive the world as huge, and vice versa," study leader Henrik Ehrsson said in a journal news release. (
  • Kim Kardashian was accused of editing her waist size. (
  • A recent installment in the Sexist Body Wash Ad category [see any Axe ad for others], Old Spice's Double Impact body wash uses a centaur [man/horse hybrid] to suggest that the hybrid product will boost users' sexual potency. (
  • Drawing in the idea of a particularly potent man being "hung like a horse," the ad implies that users of Old Spice body wash are not only "smart shoppers" and good "providers," but also that they are heterosexual [notice the woman as prop, signifying the centaur's heteronormative orientation] dynamos in the sack [stall? (
  • Transform unfresh men into legends of confidence with Swagger Body Wash. It cleans away dirt and odor, replacing it with the scent of lime and cedarwood for a clean, confident, manly man. (
  • Savannah Bee Honey Body Wash is the perfect addition to your skin care ritual. (
  • The 1.7oz Tupelo Honey Body Wash is on our sale page simply because it's in our old packaging. (
  • So, if you're looking for a sexy little number to spice things up this Valentine's Day, check out some of these influencers and social media models, showcasing their bodies, no matter what their body size. (
  • That's easy - a full set of travel size toiletries in their favorite fragrance. (
  • Body Size Estimation from Early to Middle Childhood: Stability of Underestimation, BMI, and Gender Effects. (
  • Abiotic and biological factors have been hypothesized as controlling maximum body size of tetrapods and other animals through geological time. (
  • We also found that the higher the children's BMI, the more they underestimated their size over time," Steinsbekk says. (
  • The largest children thus underestimated their body size the most and showed an increased degree of underestimation over time (that is, from 6 to 8 and from 8 to 10 years old). (
  • Professor David Barker and colleagues studied 6975 men born in Helsinki (Finland) between 1934-1944 - a time when not only was the babies' size at birth recorded but also the size of the placental surface. (
  • This isn't the first time the term plus-size has been questioned. (
  • Was there ever a time that you wanted to do something about your size? (
  • They found that there were three combinations of mother's body size and placental shape and size that predicted coronary heart disease in boys when they reached late adulthood (from about aged 40 onwards). (
  • The study, published online May 25 in PLoS ONE , found that when people believed they had a tiny body, they overestimated the size of certain objects and their distance from them. (
  • Many examples in the animal kingdom can thus be found where vocalization features do not match the expected body size of the emitter. (
  • Darling, a 27-year-old blogger from Colorado, said her original posts of the swimsuit - a style from the GabiFresh for Swim Sexy collection - were intended to be informative, which is why she was forthcoming about her size and how the suit fit her specific proportions. (
  • I know firsthand how scary it can be to wear a swimsuit," she added, "so I really hoped that people of size could see a body like theirs rocking something sexy. (
  • Some wearers want increasingly larger sizes to deliberately stretch the hole. (
  • The text stays the same even if I change font-size to have larger or lower values. (
  • Gompertz models-i.e. exponentially decreasing rate of size increase at larger sizes-fit maximum size curves far better than logistic models. (
  • In the Gompertz model, the upper asymptote is approached more slowly, indicating greater restriction on body size increase as larger sizes are reached [ 10 ]. (
  • But a lot of retailers have discovered the benefits of expanding into larger clothing sizes. (
  • They diversified and evolved in this setting, and some of the birds that started out larger in size experienced what's called "a scaling down. (
  • Their bodies shrank in size, but they kept the big brains of their larger ancestors. (
  • Talking about sizing was important because I generally wear a larger size than the suit comes in. (
  • The larger your implant size, the more vulnerable you will be to certain breast implant complications. (
  • LITTLE FALLS, N.J., May 26 -- Despite their larger size, National Football League players had roughly the same cardiovascular risk as the general population in a multiteam study. (
  • I also do my mirror challenge regularly: I get in front of the mirror and instead of looking at any insecurities I may have, I find and focus on all the incredible things my body does for me and the unique things about me that make me one of a kind. (
  • You won't find a reference to plus-size unless you click on the "sale" tab and even then, the most prominent reference is to extended sizes . (
  • In our recent study, we wanted to find out how the insects acquire information about their body size and remember it later,' explained Tammo Krause and Laura Spindler. (
  • Find your festival favourites from fedora hats and floral crowns to bumbags and body glitter, play up your partywear with a pop of pastel nail polish and make a statement in oversized sunglasses. (
  • We speak to Fiona to find out more about the pageant and body confidence. (