The physical measurements of a body.
The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.
The two dimensional measure of the outer layer of the body.
Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.
Individuals' concept of their own bodies.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
Lizards are a type of reptile that are commonly studied in the medical field for their unique biological characteristics and potential use in drug discovery and development.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by an oviparous or ovoviviparous animal.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Large herbivorous tropical American lizards.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Sexual activities of animals.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Group of fish under the superorder Acanthopterygii, separate from the PERCIFORMES, which includes swamp eels, mullets, sticklebacks, seahorses, spiny eels, rainbowfishes, and KILLIFISHES. The name is derived from the six taxa which comprise the group. (From http://www.nanfa.org/articles/Elassoma/elassoma.htm, 8/4/2000)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.
Characteristics or attributes of persons or things which elicit pleasurable feelings.
Animals that have no spinal column.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
The normal length of time of an organism's life.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of the following five families: CHEIROGALEIDAE; Daubentoniidae; Indriidae; LEMURIDAE; and LORISIDAE.
Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.
Horns are abnormal growths of keratin that can develop on the skull or other parts of the body, often associated with certain medical conditions such as chromosomal abnormalities or infections.
The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.
The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
The outer covering of the body composed of the SKIN and the skin appendages, which are the HAIR, the NAILS; and the SEBACEOUS GLANDS and the SWEAT GLANDS and their ducts.
Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.
In some animals, the jaws together with their horny covering. The beak usually refers to the bill of birds in which the whole varies greatly in form according of the food and habits of the bird. While the beak refers most commonly to birds, the anatomical counterpart is found also in the turtle, squid, and octopus. (From Webster, 3d ed & Storer, et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p491, 755)
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The individual's experience of a sense of fulfillment of a need or want and the quality or state of being satisfied.

Association of the metabolic syndrome with history of myocardial infarction and stroke in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. (1/2357)

BACKGROUND: The combination of cardiovascular risk factors known as the metabolic syndrome is receiving increased attention from physicians, but data on the syndrome's association with morbidity are limited. METHODS AND RESULTS: Applying National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) criteria, we evaluated 10 357 NHANES III subjects for the 5 component conditions of the metabolic syndrome: insulin resistance, abdominal obesity based on waist circumference, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), and hypertension, as well as the full syndrome, defined as at least 3 of the 5 conditions. Logistic regression was used to estimate the cross-sectional association of the syndrome and each of its 5 component conditions separately with history of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and either MI or stroke (MI/stroke). Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, and cigarette smoking. The metabolic syndrome was significantly related in multivariate analysis to MI (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.53 to 2.64), stroke (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.48 to 3.16), and MI/stroke (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.64 to 2.57). The syndrome was significantly associated with MI/stroke in both women and men. Among the component conditions, insulin resistance (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.66), low HDL-C (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.74), hypertension (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.08), and hypertriglyceridemia (OR, 1.66; 95% CI=1.20 to 2.30) were independently and significantly related to MI/stroke. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate a strong, consistent relationship of the metabolic syndrome with prevalent MI and stroke.  (+info)

Genetic dissection of mammalian Cdc7 kinase: cell cycle and developmental roles. (2/2357)

Cdc7, originally discovered by Hartwell as a budding yeast mutant that arrests immediately before the onset of S phase, is conserved through evolution and plays essential roles in initiation of mitotic DNA replication. Inducible inactivation of Cdc7 in mouse embryonic stem cells leads to rapid cessation of DNA synthesis and the subsequent activation of checkpoint responses, resulting in p53 activation and eventually p53-mediated apoptosis. This indicates a requirement of Cdc7 kinase for ongoing replication of mammalian genomes, and loss of Cdc7 kinase presumably generates arrested replication fork signals. Cdc7-/- mice or embryonic fibroblast cells (MEFs) expressing a low level of transgene-encoded Cdc7 protein are viable but exhibit reduced body size with impaired germ cell development and decreased cell proliferation. Interestingly, these phenotypes are largely corrected by the presence of an additional copy of the transgene, resulting in increased level of Cdc7 expression. This indicates the requirement of a critical level of Cdc7 for normal cell proliferation and development of specific organs. These results from mammals will be discussed in conjunction with the pleiotropic effects of Cdc7 mutation observed in yeasts.  (+info)

Effect of body size on breathing pattern and fine-particle deposition in children. (3/2357)

Interchild variability in breathing patterns may contribute to variability in fine particle lung deposition and morbidity in children associated with those particles. Fractional deposition (DF) of fine particles (2-microm monodisperse, carnauba wax particles) was measured in healthy children, age 6-13 yr (n = 36), while they followed a resting breathing pattern previously determined by respiratory inductance plethysmography. Interchild variation in DF, measured by photometry at the mouth, was most strongly predicted by their tidal volume (Vt) (r =0.79, P < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis further showed that, for any given height and age, Vt increased with increasing body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.001). The overweight children (> or =95th percentile BMI) (n = 8) had twice the DF of those in the lowest BMI quartile (<25th percentile) (n = 9; 0.28 +/- 0.13 vs. 0.15 +/- 0.06, respectively; P < 0.02). In the same groups, resting minute ventilation was also significantly higher in the overweight children (8.5 +/- 2.2 vs. 5.9 +/- 1.1 l/min; P < 0.01). Consequently, the rate of deposition (i.e., particles depositing/time) in the overweight children was 2.8 times that of the leanest children (P < 0.02). Among all children, the rate of deposition was significantly correlated with BMI (r = 0.46, P = 0.004). These results suggest that increased weight in children may be associated with increased risk from inhalation of pollutant particles in ambient air.  (+info)

Developmental allometry of pulmonary structure and function in the altricial Australian pelican Pelecanus conspicillatus. (4/2357)

Quantitative methods have been used to correlate maximal oxygen uptake with lung development in Australian pelicans. These birds produce the largest altricial neonates and become some of the largest birds capable of flight. During post-hatching growth to adults, body mass increases by two orders of magnitude (from 88 g to 8.8 kg). Oxygen consumption rates were measured at rest and during exposure to cold and during exercise. Then the lungs were quantitatively assessed using morphometric techniques. Allometric relationships between body mass (M) and gas exchange parameters (Y) were determined and evaluated by examining the exponents of the equation Y=aM(b). This intraspecific study was compared to interspecific studies of adult birds reported in the literature. Total lung volume scales similarly in juvenile pelicans (b=1.05) as in adult birds (b=1.02). However, surface area of the blood-gas barrier greatly increases (b=1.25), and its harmonic mean thickness does not significantly change (b=0.02), in comparison to exponents from adult birds (b=0.86 and 0.07, respectively). As a result, the diffusing capacity of the blood-gas tissue barrier increases much more during development (b=1.23) than it does in adult birds of different sizes (b=0.79). It increases in parallel to maximal oxygen consumption rate (b=1.28), suggesting that the gas exchange system is either limited by lung development or possibly symmorphic. The capacity of the oxygen delivery system is theoretically sufficient for powered flight well in advance of the bird's need to use it.  (+info)

Phenotypic relationships between longevity, type traits, and production in Chianina beef cattle. (5/2357)

Longevity is an increasingly important trait in beef cattle. Increased longevity decreases costs for the farmer and increases revenue. The objective of this research was to investigate the phenotypic relationship between type traits and longevity in Chianina beef cattle, and the relationship between production and longevity, to analyze the effect of voluntary culling. Data included records on reproductive, productive, and type traits provided by the National Association of Italian Beef Cattle Breeders from 6,395 Chianina cows. The average length of productive life was 1,829 d. The herd-year had a strong effect on the risk of culling. The effects of 22 type traits were analyzed. All the muscularity traits analyzed were highly significant (P < 0.01) and as a group had the largest effect on longevity, followed by dimension, refinement, and leg traits. Cows that calved before 35 mo of age had a lower probability of being culled than cows calving after 35 mo of age. Variation in herd size had a strong effect on risk ratio, with lower risk for intermediate classes. Cows with approximately one calf per year remained in the herd longer than did cows with fewer calves. Straight-legged animals had a 59% greater probability of being replaced than cows with a moderate angle to the hock, whereas sickle-legged animals had only a 3% higher probability of being culled than average cows. Udder conformation had no effect on longevity. In summary, results of this study indicate that herd-year effects and muscularity traits were the most important factors for longevity for Chianina cows among the factors studied.  (+info)

A prospective study of body size in different periods of life and risk of premenopausal breast cancer. (6/2357)

The prevalence of obesity at all ages is increasing epidemically worldwide. Information on the association between premenopausal breast cancer and body size during childhood and teenage years is scarce. In 1991 to 1992, a prospective cohort study was assembled in Norway and Sweden. We included in the analysis presented here 99,717 premenopausal women. During the follow-up period, which ended in December 1999, 733 of these women developed a primary invasive breast cancer. Overweight and obesity [body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg/m(2)] at enrollment was associated with a decreased risk of premenopausal breast cancer (P for linear trend = 0.007). Apparent associations between perceived body shape at age 7 and BMI at age 18, with heavier builds at both ages seemingly being protective for premenopausal breast cancer risk, lost their statistical significance after adjustment for BMI at cohort enrollment. Body size at age 7 was correlated with BMI at age 18 (r = 0.43); BMI at age 18 was correlated with adult BMI (r = 0.48). Changes in body size from age 7 or 18 to adulthood did not affect per se risk of premenopausal breast cancer risk. Height was related to risk, with a statistically significantly 30% reduced risk only in women shorter than 160 cm as compared with taller ones. The decreased risk of premenopausal breast cancer was observed in overweight and obese women without, but not in those with, a family history of breast cancer.  (+info)

Microsmatic primates: reconsidering how and when size matters. (7/2357)

The terms "microsmatic" and "macrosmatic" refer to species with lesser or greater levels, respectively, of olfactory function. Historically, primates are considered microsmats (olfactory sense reduced) with a concomitant increased emphasis on vision. The olfactory bulbs (forebrain centers that receive peripheral olfactory input) are proportionately smaller in primates compared to most other mammals. Similarly, the regions of the nasal cavity that are covered with olfactory epithelium (containing receptor cells) have proportionately less surface area in primates than other mammals. Thus, the generalization that primates are microsmatic is most frequently stated in terms of the proportional rather than absolute size of olfactory structures. Yet the importance of scaling to body size is unclear in regard to the chemical senses such as the olfactory or vomeronasal systems-do chemosensory structures such as olfactory bulbs and olfactory epithelium exhibit the same neural relationship to body mass that is seen for neural tissues that supply innervation to musculature or the skin? Previous studies examining neuronal density, volume, and/or surface area of the olfactory epithelium illustrate that different conclusions may be supported based on the parameter used. Plots of olfactory bulb volume versus body mass that generated for large-scale taxonomic studies or growth studies benefit from body mass (or total brain volume) with a comparative perspective. However, our examination of proportional versus absolute measurements implies that in comparisons within taxa, body size adjustments needlessly distort the data. As a final consideration, another embryonic derivative of the nasal placode, the vomeronasal organ, may warrant consideration regarding a definition of microsomia versus macrosomia.  (+info)

The genetic covariance among clinal environments after adaptation to an environmental gradient in Drosophila serrata. (8/2357)

We examined the genetic basis of clinal adaptation by determining the evolutionary response of life-history traits to laboratory natural selection along a gradient of thermal stress in Drosophila serrata. A gradient of heat stress was created by exposing larvae to a heat stress of 36 degrees for 4 hr for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 days of larval development, with the remainder of development taking place at 25 degrees. Replicated lines were exposed to each level of this stress every second generation for 30 generations. At the end of selection, we conducted a complete reciprocal transfer experiment where all populations were raised in all environments, to estimate the realized additive genetic covariance matrix among clinal environments in three life-history traits. Visualization of the genetic covariance functions of the life-history traits revealed that the genetic correlation between environments generally declined as environments became more different and even became negative between the most different environments in some cases. One exception to this general pattern was a life-history trait representing the classic trade-off between development time and body size, which responded to selection in a similar genetic fashion across all environments. Adaptation to clinal environments may involve a number of distinct genetic effects along the length of the cline, the complexity of which may not be fully revealed by focusing primarily on populations at the ends of the cline.  (+info)

In the medical field, body size refers to the overall dimensions and proportions of an individual's physical body, including height, weight, and body mass index (BMI). These measurements can be used to assess an individual's health and risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, heart disease, and diabetes. Height is typically measured in centimeters or inches and is used to determine an individual's skeletal frame size. Weight is typically measured in kilograms or pounds and is used to determine an individual's body mass. BMI is calculated by dividing an individual's weight in kilograms by their height in meters squared, and is used as a measure of body fatness. Body size can also be used to assess an individual's body composition, which includes the proportion of lean body mass (muscle, bone, and organs) and body fat. This information can be obtained through various methods, such as bioelectrical impedance analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and skinfold measurements. Overall, body size is an important factor in assessing an individual's health and risk for certain medical conditions, and is often used in conjunction with other health metrics to provide a comprehensive picture of an individual's overall health status.

In the medical field, "body constitution" refers to an individual's unique physical and physiological characteristics, including their height, weight, body shape, metabolism, and genetic makeup. It is often used to describe an individual's overall health and wellness, as well as their susceptibility to certain health conditions. Body constitution is an important factor in determining an individual's response to medical treatments and medications, as well as their ability to engage in physical activity and maintain a healthy lifestyle. It is also considered when developing personalized health and wellness plans, as different body constitutions may require different approaches to achieving optimal health. Overall, understanding an individual's body constitution is an important aspect of medical care, as it can help healthcare providers tailor treatment plans to meet the unique needs of each patient.

Biological evolution refers to the process by which species of living organisms change over time through the mechanisms of natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and gene flow. In the medical field, biological evolution is important because it helps us understand how diseases and pathogens have evolved and adapted to survive in different environments and populations. This knowledge is crucial for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies for infectious diseases, as well as for understanding the genetic basis of inherited diseases and disorders. Additionally, understanding the evolutionary history of organisms can provide insights into their biology, ecology, and behavior, which can inform conservation efforts and the management of natural resources.

In the medical field, body weight refers to the total mass of an individual's body, typically measured in kilograms (kg) or pounds (lbs). It is an important indicator of overall health and can be used to assess a person's risk for certain health conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Body weight is calculated by measuring the amount of mass that a person's body contains, which includes all of the organs, tissues, bones, and fluids. It is typically measured using a scale or other weighing device, and can be influenced by factors such as age, gender, genetics, and lifestyle. Body weight can be further categorized into different types, such as body mass index (BMI), which takes into account both a person's weight and height, and waist circumference, which measures the size of a person's waist. These measures can provide additional information about a person's overall health and risk for certain conditions.

Body Surface Area (BSA) is a measure of the total surface area of the human body. It is commonly used in medical calculations to determine the dosage of medications, the amount of fluid to be administered, and the size of medical devices such as IV catheters. BSA is calculated by multiplying the patient's weight in kilograms by a factor that takes into account their height and gender. The resulting value is expressed in square meters. BSA is an important factor in determining the appropriate dose of medications because the body's ability to absorb and eliminate drugs is influenced by the surface area of the body.

In the medical field, "Body Weights and Measures" refers to the standard units of measurement used to describe the size, weight, and other physical characteristics of the human body. These measurements are important for diagnosing and treating medical conditions, as well as for monitoring the progress of treatment and assessing the effectiveness of interventions. Some common body weights and measures used in medicine include: 1. Height: The distance from the ground to the top of the head, typically measured in centimeters or inches. 2. Weight: The amount of matter that an object contains, typically measured in kilograms or pounds. 3. Body Mass Index (BMI): A measure of body fat based on a person's weight and height, calculated using the formula BMI = weight (kg) / height^2 (m^2). 4. Waist circumference: The distance around the waist at the level of the belly button, typically measured in centimeters or inches. 5. Blood pressure: The force of blood against the walls of the arteries, typically measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg). 6. Pulse rate: The number of times the heart beats per minute, typically measured in beats per minute (bpm). 7. Temperature: The degree of heat or cold of the body, typically measured in degrees Celsius (°C) or degrees Fahrenheit (°F). These measurements are often taken during routine medical exams or as part of a diagnostic workup, and are used to assess a person's overall health and identify any potential health problems.

In the medical field, body image refers to an individual's perception and attitude towards their physical appearance. It encompasses how a person feels about their body, including their shape, size, and overall appearance. Body image can be influenced by a variety of factors, including genetics, culture, media, and personal experiences. Positive body image is when an individual feels comfortable and satisfied with their physical appearance, while negative body image is when an individual has a poor opinion of their body and may experience feelings of shame, embarrassment, or low self-esteem. Negative body image can lead to a range of mental health issues, including eating disorders, depression, and anxiety. In the medical field, body image is an important consideration in the treatment of a variety of conditions, including eating disorders, obesity, and skin conditions. Medical professionals may work with patients to develop strategies for improving their body image, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, diet and exercise counseling, and support groups.

In the medical field, "body height" refers to the vertical distance from the ground to the top of the head when standing upright with the feet together and heels against a flat surface. It is typically measured in centimeters or inches and is an important factor in determining a person's overall health and well-being. Body height can be influenced by genetics, nutrition, and environmental factors, and can vary significantly among individuals. In some cases, a person's body height may be used as a diagnostic indicator for certain medical conditions, such as growth hormone deficiency or Turner syndrome.

In the medical field, "clutch size" typically refers to the number of offspring produced by a female animal in a single reproductive cycle or breeding season. This term is commonly used in the study of animal reproduction and population dynamics, particularly in the context of birds and other oviparous animals. The clutch size of a species can vary widely depending on a variety of factors, including the species itself, its environment, and its reproductive strategy. For example, some bird species lay a single large egg, while others lay multiple small eggs. In some cases, the clutch size may be influenced by factors such as food availability, predation pressure, or the age and health of the female. Understanding clutch size is important for conservation efforts, as it can provide insights into the reproductive success of a species and its ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions. It can also be used to inform management strategies for wildlife populations, such as hunting regulations or habitat restoration efforts.

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based on a person's weight and height. It is calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by their height in meters squared. The resulting number is then compared to a standard chart to determine if a person is underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese. BMI is commonly used in the medical field as a screening tool to assess a person's risk for health problems associated with obesity, such as heart disease, diabetes, and certain types of cancer. However, it is important to note that BMI is not always an accurate measure of body fat, as it does not take into account factors such as muscle mass or body composition.

Basal Metabolism (BM) refers to the minimum amount of energy required by the body to maintain vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and basic cellular processes while at rest in a thermoneutral environment. It is the metabolic rate of the body when it is at rest and not engaged in any physical activity. BM is an important factor in determining an individual's daily energy expenditure and plays a crucial role in weight management. It is influenced by various factors such as age, sex, body composition, genetics, and environmental factors. In the medical field, BM is often measured using indirect calorimetry, which involves measuring the amount of oxygen consumed and carbon dioxide produced by the body. This information is used to calculate the metabolic rate and determine the energy requirements of an individual. BM is also used in the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions such as obesity, diabetes, and thyroid disorders.

In the medical field, the term "birds" typically refers to a class of warm-blooded vertebrates characterized by feathers, wings, and beaks. There are over 10,000 species of birds, and they can be found in a wide range of habitats, from forests and grasslands to deserts and oceans. In medicine, birds are sometimes studied as models for human diseases, particularly those related to infectious diseases. For example, some bird species, such as chickens and ducks, can carry and transmit viruses that are similar to those that affect humans, such as avian influenza. Birds are also used in medical research to study the effects of environmental pollutants on wildlife. For example, studies have shown that exposure to certain chemicals, such as pesticides and heavy metals, can have negative effects on bird populations. In addition, birds are sometimes used in medical treatments, such as in the field of avian therapy. Avian therapy involves the use of trained birds, such as parrots, to provide emotional support and companionship to people with a variety of conditions, including depression, anxiety, and dementia.

Body composition refers to the proportion of different types of tissue in the human body, including fat, muscle, bone, and water. It is an important measure of overall health and can be used to assess changes in weight and body shape over time. In the medical field, body composition is often measured using various techniques such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and skinfold measurements. These methods can provide information about an individual's body fat percentage, lean body mass, and bone density, which can be used to diagnose and monitor a variety of medical conditions, including obesity, osteoporosis, and metabolic disorders.

Anthropometry is the scientific study of human body measurements, including height, weight, body proportions, and other physical characteristics. In the medical field, anthropometry is used to assess an individual's body composition, which can provide important information about their overall health and risk for certain diseases. Anthropometric measurements can be used to diagnose and monitor a variety of medical conditions, such as obesity, malnutrition, and metabolic disorders. They can also be used to assess the effectiveness of treatments and interventions, such as weight loss programs or exercise regimens. In addition to its medical applications, anthropometry is also used in fields such as sports science, physical education, and forensic science. It can be used to optimize athletic performance, design equipment and facilities, and identify individuals based on their physical characteristics.

Obesity is a medical condition characterized by an excessive accumulation of body fat, which increases the risk of various health problems. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines obesity as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher, where BMI is calculated as a person's weight in kilograms divided by their height in meters squared. Obesity is a complex condition that results from a combination of genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors. It can lead to a range of health problems, including type 2 diabetes, heart disease, stroke, certain types of cancer, and respiratory problems. In the medical field, obesity is often treated through a combination of lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, and medical interventions, such as medications or bariatric surgery. The goal of treatment is to help individuals achieve and maintain a healthy weight, reduce their risk of health problems, and improve their overall quality of life.

In the medical field, beetles are not typically studied or used for medical purposes. Beetles are a type of insect that belong to the order Coleoptera, which is the largest order of insects. They are known for their hard exoskeletons, which protect their internal organs. However, some species of beetles are used in medical research for their potential as sources of new drugs or as models for studying human diseases. For example, the beetle species Tribolium castaneum has been used in research on aging and cancer, while the beetle species Tenebrio molitor is used in the production of silkworms and has been studied for its potential as a source of therapeutic compounds. In general, beetles are not commonly associated with medical treatments or interventions, but their unique biological characteristics and potential applications in research make them an interesting subject of study for scientists.

In the medical field, "Carnivora" refers to a scientific order of mammals that includes animals that primarily feed on meat. This order includes a diverse range of animals such as dogs, cats, bears, hyenas, and seals. In the context of medicine, the term "Carnivora" may be used to describe the anatomy and physiology of these animals, as well as their behavior and ecology. For example, researchers may study the digestive systems of carnivorous mammals to better understand how they are able to efficiently extract nutrients from their food. Additionally, some diseases and infections are more common in carnivorous mammals than in other types of animals, so veterinarians and researchers may study these animals to better understand the causes and treatments of these conditions.

In the medical field, birth weight refers to the weight of a newborn baby at the time of delivery. It is typically measured in grams or ounces and is an important indicator of a baby's health and development. Birth weight is influenced by a variety of factors, including the mother's health, nutrition, and lifestyle, as well as the baby's genetics and gestational age. Babies who are born with a low birth weight (less than 2,500 grams or 5.5 pounds) are considered premature or small for gestational age, which can increase their risk of health problems such as respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice, and infections. On the other hand, babies who are born with a high birth weight (greater than 4,000 grams or 8.8 pounds) may be at risk for complications such as shoulder dystocia, which can lead to nerve damage or other injuries during delivery. Overall, birth weight is an important measure of a baby's health and development, and healthcare providers closely monitor it during pregnancy and delivery to ensure the best possible outcomes for both the mother and baby.

In the medical field, the term "beauty" is not typically used to describe physical appearance. Instead, medical professionals focus on the health and function of the body, rather than its aesthetic qualities. However, there are some medical conditions that can affect a person's appearance and may be considered "unattractive" or "ugly" by societal standards. For example, severe acne, scars, or disfigurements can have a significant impact on a person's self-esteem and quality of life. In some cases, medical professionals may recommend treatments or procedures to improve a person's appearance and boost their self-confidence. These treatments may include cosmetic surgery, skin treatments, or other medical interventions. It's important to note that beauty is subjective and can vary greatly from person to person. What one person finds beautiful may not be the same for another. Additionally, physical appearance should not be the sole determinant of a person's worth or value.

In the medical field, competitive behavior refers to the actions or behaviors that healthcare providers engage in to attract and retain patients, gain market share, and increase revenue. This can include offering discounts or promotions, advertising services or specialties, or competing on the basis of price or quality. Competitive behavior can also refer to the actions or behaviors that healthcare providers engage in to compete with other healthcare providers for resources, such as funding, equipment, or personnel. This can include lobbying for government funding or advocating for policies that benefit their organization. While competitive behavior can be beneficial in promoting innovation and improving the quality of care, it can also lead to negative consequences, such as over-treatment, medical errors, and a focus on profit over patient well-being. As such, healthcare providers must balance the need to compete with the ethical and moral obligations to provide high-quality, patient-centered care.

In the medical field, "Animal Distribution" refers to the distribution of animals within a population or geographic area. This can include the distribution of different species of animals, as well as the distribution of individual animals within a species. Animal distribution can be influenced by a variety of factors, including habitat, climate, food availability, and human activities. Understanding animal distribution is important for a number of reasons, including: 1. Conservation: Knowledge of animal distribution can help conservationists identify areas where endangered species are most likely to be found, and develop strategies to protect them. 2. Disease control: Understanding the distribution of animals can help public health officials identify areas where certain diseases are more likely to occur, and develop strategies to prevent their spread. 3. Agriculture: Knowledge of animal distribution can help farmers and ranchers make informed decisions about where to locate their operations, and how to manage their herds to maximize productivity. 4. Wildlife management: Understanding animal distribution is important for wildlife managers, who use this information to develop plans for managing wildlife populations and protecting them from human activities.

In the medical field, "beak" typically refers to the found on certain animals, such as birds and reptiles. The beak is a specialized structure that is used for a variety of functions, including feeding, preening, and defense. In humans, the term "beak" is not commonly used in a medical context. However, in some cases, it may be used to describe a deformity or abnormality of the nose, such as a deviated septum or a cleft palate. In these cases, the beak-like shape of the nose or palate may be referred to as a "beak deformity."

Biomechanical phenomena refer to the study of the mechanical properties and behavior of living organisms, particularly in relation to movement and function. In the medical field, biomechanical phenomena are often studied in the context of musculoskeletal disorders, sports injuries, and rehabilitation. This involves analyzing the forces and movements involved in various activities, such as walking, running, or lifting, and how they affect the body's tissues and structures. Biomechanical engineers and researchers use a variety of techniques, including computer simulations, imaging technologies, and physical measurements, to study biomechanical phenomena and develop new treatments and interventions for a range of medical conditions.

... the body size-species richness pattern dissolves and the number of species per body size class is almost uniform (i.e. there is ... Does size matter for dispersal distance? Global Ecology and Biogeography 16(4):415-425. Bowers MA & Brown JH (1982) Body size ... The micro and macro in body size evolution. Evolution 46(4):939-953. Hausdorf B (2006) Is the interspecific variation of body ... The body size-species richness distribution is a pattern observed in the way taxa are distributed over large spatial scales. ...
... express the thickness of an item of body jewelry, using one of several possible systems. Items of body ... Jewelry wire gauge Earring Body piercing Body piercing jewelry Body piercing materials Wire IEC 60228, the metric wire-size ... But with body jewelry, there is a wide variety of possible sizes, and wearers generally want jewelry that is the same size as ... So that wearers can choose the size they want, there are standards for body jewelry sizes, used by jewelry makers and sellers. ...
... body size; location in host and types of hosts. Moravec, František; Justine, Jean-Lou (2008). "Some philometrid nematodes ( ...
Bell, W.J.; Roth, L.M.; Nalepa, C.A.; Wilson, E.O. (2007). "Body size". Cockroaches: Ecology, Behavior, and Natural History. ... longipennis are known for their exceptional size; the largest specimen measured 9.7 cm (3.8 in) in length, 4.5 cm (1.8 in) in ...
... body size; location in host and types of hosts. Moravec, František; Justine, Jean-Lou (2008). "Some philometrid nematodes ( ...
Research in the divisions focuses on three elements: the servicemember (acclimation; body size; gender; race; age; health; ... 2015). "Real-time core body temperature estimation from heart rate for first responders wearing different levels of personal ... 2017). "Mathematical prediction of core body temperature from environment, activity, and clothing: The heat strain decision aid ...
I'm not dependent on my physical body to perceive things." The Church of Scientology's in-house magazine Source has promoted ... Relative sizes (external); Sound; Pitch; Tone; Volume; Rhythm; Smell; Touch (pressure, friction, heat or cold and oiliness); ... body); Fields/magnetic; Time track motion; Physical energy (personal weariness, etc.); Self-determinism; Moisture (self); Sound ... Body position; Joint position; Internal temperature; External temperature; Balance; Muscular tension; Saline content of self ( ...
Christer Björkman; Karl Gotthard; Mats W. Pettersson (2009). "Body Size". In Timothy D. Schowalter (ed.). Insect Ecology: An ... They have body lengths from 0.13 to 5.4 mm (0.0051 to 0.2126 in), typically 0.5 to 1.0 mm (0.020 to 0.039 in). Their bodies are ... Their bodies are smaller than a single-celled Paramecium. Four males, lined up end-to-end, would just about encompass the width ... Because of their small sizes they have to exit the water by climbing up plant stems that jut through the surface, as they would ...
Full Adult Body Size)". Aquanswers. Retrieved 30 October 2022. "Common Pleco Care: Diet, Size, Lifespan, Tank Size…". Aquarium ... "Common Pleco Care: Diet, Size, Lifespan, Tank Size…". Aquarium Source. 11 July 2020. Archived from the original on 2 June 2021 ... These fish are sold when they are young and small, but in the wild, they can grow to be a maximum size of 50 centimetres (20 in ... named for the longitudinal rows of armor-like scutes that cover the upper parts of the head and body (the lower surface of head ...
Kleiber, Max (1932). "Body size and metabolism". Hilgardia. 6 (11): 315-353. doi:10.3733/hilg.v06n11p315. (over 2000 citations ...
"Asteroid Size Estimator". CNEOS NASA/JPL. Retrieved 16 February 2018. de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R. (2013 ... List Of Aten Minor Planets "2012 XE133". JPL Small-Body Database. Jet Propulsion Laboratory. SPK-ID: 3620867. Retrieved 3 April ... Summary 2012 XE133 at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · ...
The exhibit has three major sections: Politics and Social Movements; Body and Health; and Workplace and Family. There are also ... plus-size fashion support; support for transgender rights; male feminism; sex work acceptance; and developing media including ... Josephine Butler and the Prostitution Campaigns, Diseases of the Body Politic. Taylor and Francis, 2003, ISBN 0-415-22684-8 ... Archives in London Malone, Carolyn (Spring 1999). "Sensational Stories, Endangered Bodies: Women's Work and the New Journalism ...
Max K (1932). "Body size and metabolism". Hilgardia. 6 (11): 315-351. doi:10.3733/hilg.v06n11p315. Ballesteros FJ, Martinez VJ ... Heusner AA (1982-04-01). "Energy metabolism and body size I. Is the 0.75 mass exponent of Kleiber's equation a statistical ... and metabolic rate of cells with body size in mammals". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ... "Body size and metabolic rate". Physiological Reviews. 27 (4): 511-41. doi:10.1152/physrev.1947.27.4.511. PMID 20267758. Schmidt ...
"Asteroid Size Estimator". CNEOS NASA/JPL. Retrieved 9 July 2016. "Small-Body Database Lookup". jpl.nasa.gov. Archived from the ... "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 116903 Jeromeapt (2004 GW)" (2017-11-26 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 3 ... As of 2018, the asteroid's effective size, its composition and albedo, as well as its rotation period and shape remain unknown ... "Asteroid 116903 Jeromeapt". Small Bodies Data Ferret. Retrieved 3 December 2018. " ...
Brain size usually increases with body size in animals (i.e. large animals usually have larger brains than smaller animals); ... Brain-body mass ratio, also known as the brain-body weight ratio, is the ratio of brain mass to body mass, which is ... takes into account allometric effects of widely divergent body sizes across several taxa. The raw brain-to-body mass ratio is ... "Brain and Body Size... and Intelligence". SerendipStudio.org. 2003-03-07. Retrieved 2019-02-24. Hart, B. L.; Hart, L. A.; McCoy ...
Begins to ask questions about own and others' bodies May attempt to see others naked in the bathroom Physical Head size is ... Circumference of head and chest is equal; head size is in better proportion to the body. "Baby fat" disappears as neck appears ... Body may appear lanky as through period of rapid growth. Baby teeth beginning to be replaced by permanent ones, starting with ... Identifies three body parts if someone names them: "Show me your nose (toe, ear)." Indicates a few desired objects and ...
... these individuals can reach a large enough body size to survive through the winter. Increased body size is also associated with ... Growth rate and body size have important ecological implications, such as how they impact an organism's survival, life history ... Levins first used the term when describing patterns of body size across an altitudinal gradient in populations of Drosophila, ... Drosophila melanogaster - body size; altitude Menidia menidia - growth; latitude Lithobates clamitans - developmental rate; ...
Body moderate in size. Dorsum is less convex with less broadly explanate lateral borders of elytra. Body length is 2.3 to 2.5 ... Body broadly oval and convex. Head testaceous and eyes are black. Clypeus and other appendages are yellowish brown. Pronotum ...
"Brain and Body Size". Serendip. Bryn Mawr College. Archived from the original on 10 May 2007. Retrieved 26 June 2013. Freberg, ... of its total body mass, compared to 2.33% of total body mass in the average human. Within the encephalization quotient proposed ... doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.2009.01249.x. Healy, Susan D.; Rowe, Candy (2007). "A critique of comparative studies of brain size". ... Most experiments involving the relevance of brain size to intelligence hinge on the assumption that complex behavior requires a ...
Body modification Piercing Earring Body jewelry sizes American wire gauge "Common body piercing problems". Body Jewellery Shop ... Since each body is different, any stretched piercings, no matter the size, should be approached as a permanent body ... Any size larger than 8mm is normally given as the "point of no return" for earlobe piercings, as beyond this size there is a ... DeMello, Margo (2007). Encyclopedia of Body Adornment. ABC-CLIO. p. 234. ISBN 978-0-313-33695-9. Hudson, Karen L. "Body Art ...
The body size is large. The wings and hindlimbs are roughly the same length. The synsacrum shows a longitudinal groove on the ... in Latin and refers to its relatively large body size. The holotype, 'PMOL AB00032, has been found in the Yuanjiawa strata of ... That makes the species about the same size as Zhouornis and only slightly smaller than Pengornis, considered to be a giant ... Most enantiornithines are sparrow- or starling-sized birds, but Yuanjiawaornis must have had a wingspan of nearly half a metre ...
Food scarcity at depths greater than 400 m is also thought to be a factor, since larger body size can improve ability to forage ... Kleiber, M. (1947). "Body Size and Metabolic Rate". Physiological Reviews. 27 (4): 511-541. doi:10.1152/physrev.1947.27.4.511. ... A deepwater stingray, which can reach up to 2.7 m × 1.5 m (8 ft 10 in × 4 ft 11 in) in size. Cephalopod size Dwarfing Island ... both of which lead to an increase in maximum body size (continued growth throughout life is characteristic of crustaceans). In ...
BD - body diameter. PCL - precaudal length, also known as normal length. It is the length from the tip of the snout to the ... Size - Data relating to measurements. Abbreviations used are based on standardised acronyms in ichthyology (see Measurements). ... It is a straight line measure, not measured over the curve of the body. WT - total mass of specimen. "Confirmed Megamouth Shark ...
Choe J (2019). "Body Size and Sexual Dimorphism". In Cox R (ed.). Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior. Vol. 2. Academic Press. pp. ... Sex differences in humans include a generally larger size and more body hair in men, while women have larger breasts, wider ... A single body can function as both male and female. Sexual reproduction requires both male and female haploid gametes. In most ... This size disparity may be associated with the cost of producing egg cells, which requires more nutrition than producing sperm ...
Fecundity increases with body size. Females normally deposit between 10 and 30 eggs under logs, moss or rocks located ... The tail is less than half its body length and is normally lighter in colour in comparison to the body. Adults attain lengths ... Current data does not allow an accurate estimate of population size or trends. That said, the total adult population size of ... Clutch size has been known to vary geographically and can be as large as forty-five, or as few as eight. Females remain with ...
"Asteroid Size Estimator". cneos.jpl.nasa.gov. Retrieved 13 August 2019. Ciaccia, Chris (12 August 2019). "Asteroid the size of ... "JPL Small-Body Database Browser". ssd.jpl.nasa.gov. Retrieved 13 August 2019. Mathur, Natasha (12 August 2019). "Asteroid Alert ... JPL Small-Body Database ID not in Wikidata, Apollo asteroids, Minor planet object articles (unnumbered), Astronomical objects ... Summary 2019 OU1 at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · ...
2007). Human Body Size and the Laws of Scaling: Physiological, Performance, Growth, Longevity and Ecological Ramifications. New ... For men with a BMI of 25, about 20% have a body fat percentage below 20% and about 10% have body fat percentage above 30%. Body ... Body mass index (BMI) is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of a person. The BMI is defined as the body mass ... The modern term "body mass index" (BMI) for the ratio of human body weight to squared height was coined in a paper published in ...
... is a small fox with wide ears and a long, bushy tail nearly equal to the length of its body. Its body size often ... body lengths 42 cm, tail 32.5 cm. Among all extant canids, only the fennec fox is smaller than Blanford's. The body is brownish ... The tail is the same colour as the body. A black spot is found at the base of the spine. The tip of the tail is normally black ... Neonates are born with soft, black fur, with an estimated body mass of 29 g. At the age of two months, the kits start to forage ...
Body size and shape varies widely. The group includes the small, oval sea gooseberries found on both Atlantic and Pacific ...
"Measuring Brain Size versus Body Size". Serendip Studio. Serendip. Retrieved 24 July 2018. McDaniel, V. R. (1976). "Brain ... Its bite force is predicted to measure 80-100 Newtons based on its body size and canine teeth characteristics. It has been ... The brain is large relative to the body; at 1:67, its brain-to-body mass ratio is higher than that of cats and dogs. The ... are short relative to its body size. The wings are wide, though, creating a large surface area. Its wingtips are rounded and ...
... the body size-species richness pattern dissolves and the number of species per body size class is almost uniform (i.e. there is ... Does size matter for dispersal distance? Global Ecology and Biogeography 16(4):415-425. Bowers MA & Brown JH (1982) Body size ... The micro and macro in body size evolution. Evolution 46(4):939-953. Hausdorf B (2006) Is the interspecific variation of body ... The body size-species richness distribution is a pattern observed in the way taxa are distributed over large spatial scales. ...
Body frame size is determined by a persons wrist circumference in relation to their height. For example, a man whose height is ... Determining frame size: To determine the body frame size, measure the wrist with a tape measure and use the following chart to ... Body frame size is determined by a persons wrist circumference in relation to their height. For example, a man whose height is ...
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In the millennia since their domestication, weve twisted them into animals of all shapes and sizes, from the large and ... The team had known that IGF-1 played a role in body size since 2007, but they werent sure exactly how it worked in the bodies ... The team found that a C in that position is associated with small size in dogs, and a T with large size. This genetic ... The comparatively larger size of modern gray wolves, for instance, looks to have been a more modern adaptation. There also ...
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Body size and body condition of Western Mosquitofish collected was similar in the 2 ponds. Litter size averaged 15.2, increased ... Female Body Size and Reproduction in Western Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) from Two Ponds in Central Ohio. ... Margaret Surace and Geoffrey R. Smith "Female Body Size and Reproduction in Western Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) from Two ... Margaret Surace, Geoffrey R. Smith "Female Body Size and Reproduction in Western Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) from Two Ponds ...
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These creatures are called trilobite due to the three distinct "lobes" running vertically through the body section. The ... Typically this type of trilobite range in size of just around one inch long and rarely two inches. ...
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Normalize not commenting on a pregnant womans size: Why Big Little Feelings is calling out unsolicited body talk. ... And when we see a pregnant person, lets skip the comments on their size, she concluded her post. Please stop asking if women ... Lets work hard to send the message that all bodies are beautiful. That whats INSIDE is what counts. Lets let our daughters [ ... Though she was terrified of my body getting bigger, she knew that my growing baby didnt deserve to starve [and] suffer - ...
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Influence of nematode parasitism, body size, temperature, and diel period on the flight capacity of Sirex noctillio f. ( ... Body mass, temperature, and diel period affected flight in S. noctilio such that wasps were generally observed to fly faster, ... We also examined the flight capacity of male and female_S. noctilio_ in relation to nematode parasitism, body mass, temperature ...
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Size of Promyelocytic leukemia (PML) bodies in HeLa cell nucleus. Value. 1.2 µm Range: ±0.07 µm ... Size of accessible chromatin space around subnuclear bodies in HeLa cell nucleus. ... Görisch SM, Wachsmuth M, Ittrich C, Bacher CP, Rippe K, Lichter P. Nuclear body movement is determined by chromatin ... Promyelocytic leukemia (PML) and Cajal bodies are mobile subnuclear organelles, which are involved in activities like RNA ...
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It was proposed to evaluate the perception of body size and shape of students from the 1st and 5th years of Psychology at a ... Perception of body size and shape in psychology students. Contextos Clínic [online]. 2021, vol.14, n.1, pp. 98-117. ISSN 1983- ... Palabras clave : body image; form perception; corporal conscience. · resumen en Portugués · texto en Portugués · Portugués ( ... An individuals perception of body is not only related to the objective form, but must be understood in a broad and subjective ...
  • Because the presence of foreign bodies in contaminated tissues may facilitate infection, special consideration of suture selection in these locations (eg, a contaminated posttraumatic wound) is imperative. (senorcafe.com)
  • Nasal foreign bodies (NFBs) are a common complaint in the emergency department (ED), especially among children, as well as adults with mental disabilities. (medscape.com)
  • Margaret Surace and Geoffrey R. Smith "Female Body Size and Reproduction in Western Mosquitofish ( Gambusia affinis ) from Two Ponds in Central Ohio," Northeastern Naturalist 23(1), 1-10, (1 March 2016). (bioone.org)
  • If you are outside of any of the size ranges below or have any questions about these measurements, please email us at [email protected] and we'll help you find the right fit! (bodyglove.com)
  • This study identified differences in various body measurements between occupational groups in the USA, as determined in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. (cdc.gov)
  • The analysis of the data showed that the body size, or body segment measurements, of some occupational groups differ significantly. (cdc.gov)
  • In the millennia since their domestication , we've twisted them into animals of all shapes and sizes, from the large and lumbering to the small and yappy. (syfy.com)
  • This month, while many people were committing to their New Year's resolutions to lose weight, Cosmopolitan UK magazine released covers portraying 11 women of different shapes and sizes, with the headline, "This is healthy! (medscape.com)
  • Online calculator helps to calculate the frame size of a body using wrist and height measurement. (easycalculation.com)
  • Body Frame Size calculation is made easier here using the wrist and height measurement. (easycalculation.com)
  • The body lotion will hydrate, soothe, and soften your skin with its moisturizing formula, leaving your skin feeling silky-soft and lightly scented. (qvc.com)
  • How do I use it: Apply a generous amount of body lotion to skin with fingertips and massage in gently with a soothing circular motion. (qvc.com)
  • 1992). Traditionally the pattern has been explored by plotting the number of species on the y-axis and the logarithm to the base two of the species body mass (g) on the x-axis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Body frame size is determined by a person's wrist circumference in relation to their height. (medlineplus.gov)
  • To determine the body frame size, measure the wrist with a tape measure and use the following chart to determine whether the person is small, medium, or large boned. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Our results indicate that while females from both ponds were similar in size and had similar litter size, there were potential differences in the frequency of reproduction between the ponds. (bioone.org)
  • We also examined the flight capacity of male and female_S. noctilio_ in relation to nematode parasitism, body mass, temperature (for only males), and diel period. (gc.ca)
  • Interviewers used seven body silhouette drawings and a questionnaire with open- and closed-ended questions to measure mothers ' perceptions of current, preferred and healthy maternal and child body sizes and their relation to food choices. (bvsalud.org)
  • And when we see a pregnant person, let's skip the comments on their size,' she concluded her post. (yahoo.com)
  • at intermediate spatial scales (e.g. a thousand hectares or a biome) the body size-species richness distribution begins to shift from being right skewed (from fewer large-bodied species) towards a normal distribution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Remember, while there are fewer individuals in the largest size classes, energy availability is equal across all classes of interacting organisms (i.e. they share the same energy pool and are thus part of the same ecosystem) (energetic equivalence) (May, 1988). (wikipedia.org)
  • faster than items with fewer body neighbours. (researchgate.net)
  • Fewer overweight /obese than normal weight mothers ' preferred body silhouette was larger than their current silhouette (74% vs. 29%, p (bvsalud.org)
  • People with this disorder may focus on the size or appearance of a certain body part, such as their nose. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Interestingly, it's the C allele which appears to be more closely associated with ancient canids, suggesting that the historical standard from pre-domesticated dogs had a preference for smaller size. (syfy.com)
  • Overweight /obese and normal weight mothers ' correct identification of their current weight status (72% vs. 64%), preference for overweight /obese body size (68% both) and selection of an overweight /obese silhouette as healthy (94% vs. 96%) did not differ by weight status. (bvsalud.org)
  • Here XL people find just the right size in various colors and fascinating styles. (maskworld.com)
  • Is to provide clothing that looks good and feels good on plus size women. (bornwithbody.com)
  • After analyzing the results, the presence of distortion and dissatisfaction indicators with the body was observed, especially among women. (bvsalud.org)
  • Higher insulin levels are also associated with an increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, however, whether women with high body fatness but with normal insulin sensitivity or those with normal body fatness who have high levels of insulin are at elevated risk of breast cancer is not known. (who.int)
  • Excess body fatness is an established risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer. (who.int)
  • We investigated the associations of metabolically-defined body size phenotypes with the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). (who.int)
  • Conditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between metabolically-defined body size phenotypes and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. (who.int)
  • A large body of evidence has accumulated respectively and breast cancer was the sec- concerning the association between diet ond most common malignancy among fe- and breast cancer. (who.int)
  • Is the Subject Area "Body mass index" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • For those out there who think of size in terms of body mass index (BMI), it was about 20, solidly in the "normal" category. (medscape.com)
  • Herein we describe and compare the body size and reproduction of female Western Mosquitofish from 2 small ponds in central Ohio: Wood Duck (WD) and Olde Minnow (OM). (bioone.org)
  • Overweight in mothers and children in sub-Saharan Africa is rapidly increasing and may be related to body size perceptions and preferences. (bvsalud.org)
  • More mothers of overweight than normal weight children correctly identified the child 's current weight status (55% vs. 42%, p overweight /obese body size for the child (70% vs. 58%, p overweight /obese silhouettes as healthy for children . (bvsalud.org)
  • This mean litter size is substantially smaller than that reported for other populations at a similar latitude. (bioone.org)
  • This crotchless fishnet bodystocking conforms to the body like second skin, yet features elastic shoulder straps for added comfort. (lingeriediva.com)
  • The suggested gauge of skin sutures for different body areas are described in Table 3 and the suggested suture gauge for different types of tissue repair are presented in Table 4. (senorcafe.com)
  • As an aside, these comments suggest that people did not read the associated article, which is about fitness and body image more than it is about obesity. (medscape.com)
  • Unrealistic images in the media are associated with negative self-image and disordered eating , so perhaps embracing the shapes of real people may help us all have healthier attitudes toward our bodies. (medscape.com)
  • The comparatively larger size of modern gray wolves, for instance, looks to have been a more modern adaptation. (syfy.com)
  • The larger the size ascribed to the suture, the smaller the diameter is, for example a 7-0 suture is smaller than a 4-0 suture. (senorcafe.com)
  • More than half of mothers in both groups wanted their child to be larger than the current size. (bvsalud.org)
  • larger particle sizes. (cdc.gov)
  • Now our best selling 100% Natural Lotions are available in smaller sizes! (greencricket.ca)
  • Stated numerically, the more zeroes in the number, the smaller the size of the strand. (senorcafe.com)
  • It was proposed to evaluate the perception of body size and shape of students from the 1st and 5th years of Psychology at a private institution in the interior of the state of São Paulo. (bvsalud.org)
  • Dysmorphia" means deformity or abnormality in the shape or size of a body part. (msdmanuals.com)
  • We never know how people feel about their bodies or even about their pregnancies,' added another commenter. (yahoo.com)
  • As I delved further into the conversation about these covers, I saw people embracing the idea of promoting different-sized bodies. (medscape.com)
  • Many people with body dysmorphic disorder are ashamed to tell their doctors about their concerns or don't think their worries are a problem. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The body size-species richness distribution is a pattern observed in the way taxa are distributed over large spatial scales. (wikipedia.org)
  • The number of species that exhibit small body size generally far exceed the number of species that are large-bodied. (wikipedia.org)
  • Macroecology has long sought to understand the mechanisms that underlie the patterns of biodiversity, such as the body size-species richness pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • This yields a highly right skewed body size distribution with a mode centered near species with a mass ranging from 50-100 grams. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, the terrestrial mammals of the islands of Madagascar, New Guinea and Australia do not show a right skewed body size-species richness distribution (Maurer et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • If it were possible to randomly sample a subset of the known continental species pool for mammals, one would expect the body size-species richness distribution of this sample to roughly mirror that of the entire continent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, the metabolic theory of ecology explains how there is a negative relationship between number of individuals (N) and size (M) ( N = M − 3 / 4 {\displaystyle N=M^{-3/4}} ), but it is silent on species richness. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is important to note that the 3 sub-mechanisms: dispersal, competition and energetic restraints must in some manner feed back into either speciation or extinction rates as these are the only ultimate processes (see Tinbergen's four questions) governing the number of species on earth and hence the body size-species richness pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dogs are, in fact, the most variable mammalian species on Earth in terms of size, and that's due largely to human intervention. (syfy.com)
  • Görisch SM, Wachsmuth M, Ittrich C, Bacher CP, Rippe K, Lichter P. Nuclear body movement is determined by chromatin accessibility and dynamics. (harvard.edu)
  • Their desired strategies for increasing weight indicate that body size preferences may drive food choice but could be limited by affordability . (bvsalud.org)
  • There's a position inside that section of DNA which either codes to a C or a T. The team found that a C in that position is associated with small size in dogs, and a T with large size. (syfy.com)
  • Body dysmorphic disorder is a mental disorder where you spend a lot of time and energy worrying about and disliking how you look despite having a normal body. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Start studying Suggested Guidelines for Suture Material and Size for Body Region. (senorcafe.com)
  • Data from localities having less than 100,000 population are classified into geographic areas that reflect population size but do not reveal specific geographic names. (cdc.gov)
  • Elaine Ostrander and Jocelyn Plassais, scientists from the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), and colleagues from other institutions, have been searching for the genetic triggers which allow for the wide variety of sizes apparent in dogs. (syfy.com)
  • In just a few hours, Margolin's post has received more than 43,000 likes and an outpouring of support from fellow moms sharing their own experiences with unwelcome body feedback. (yahoo.com)
  • The worries about the body part make no sense to friends and loved ones and interfere with daily life. (msdmanuals.com)
  • And many echoed the sentiment that discussing someone else's body - period - should be frowned upon. (yahoo.com)
  • Influence of nematode parasitism, body size, temperature, and diel period on the flight capacity of Sirex noctillio f. (gc.ca)
  • Body mass, temperature, and diel period affected flight in S. noctilio such that wasps were generally observed to fly faster, farther, and/or more frequently if they were heavier, flying at warmer temperatures, and flying during the photoperiod. (gc.ca)
  • Absorbable sutures are broadly used in several surgeries, particularly for surgeries executed on internal body parts, as they are usually biodegradable and the body tissue get hydrolyzed after a definite period of time. (senorcafe.com)
  • All sales are final on travel and mini size products. (rahua.com)
  • The Health at Every Size movement, which some might consider to be the ultimate body positivity movement, espouses the idea that size and health are completely unrelated. (medscape.com)
  • techniques, we find little evidence of the body-N effect in most tasks and conditions. (researchgate.net)
  • In addition to adequate inspection of the nasal cavity, assessing for complications associated with the foreign body is important. (medscape.com)
  • A suture size of 5:0 or 6:0 is used on the face, whereas 4:0 or sometimes 3:0 (if more strength is required) is used on the trunk or extremity. (senorcafe.com)