The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
A genus of cuttlefish in the family Sepiidae. They live in tropical, subtropical and temperate waters in most oceans.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The posterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of an embryonic brain. It consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and isthmus rhombencephali from which develop the major BRAIN STEM components, such as MEDULLA OBLONGATA from the myelencephalon, CEREBELLUM and PONS from the metencephalon, with the expanded cavity forming the FOURTH VENTRICLE.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).
Distinct regions of mesenchymal outgrowth at both flanks of an embryo during the SOMITE period. Limb buds, covered by ECTODERM, give rise to forelimb, hindlimb, and eventual functional limb structures. Limb bud cultures are used to study CELL DIFFERENTIATION; ORGANOGENESIS; and MORPHOGENESIS.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
A region, of SOMITE development period, that contains a number of paired arches, each with a mesodermal core lined by ectoderm and endoderm on the two sides. In lower aquatic vertebrates, branchial arches develop into GILLS. In higher vertebrates, the arches forms outpouchings and develop into structures of the head and neck. Separating the arches are the branchial clefts or grooves.
A proto-oncogene protein and member of the Wnt family of proteins. It is expressed in the caudal MIDBRAIN and is essential for proper development of the entire mid-/hindbrain region.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Cells in certain regions of an embryo that self-regulate embryonic development. These organizers have been found in dorsal and ventral poles of GASTRULA embryos, including Spemann organizer in amphibians, and Hensen node in chicken and mouse. These organizer cells communicate with each other via a network of secreted signaling proteins, such as BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS and their antagonists (chordin and noggin).
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A tube of ectodermal tissue in an embryo that will give rise to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, including the SPINAL CORD and the BRAIN. Lumen within the neural tube is called neural canal which gives rise to the central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain. For malformation of the neural tube, see NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A cartilaginous rod of mesodermal cells at the dorsal midline of all CHORDATE embryos. In lower vertebrates, notochord is the backbone of support. In the higher vertebrates, notochord is a transient structure, and segments of the vertebral column will develop around it. Notochord is also a source of midline signals that pattern surrounding tissues including the NEURAL TUBE development.
The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.

Novel regulation of the homeotic gene Scr associated with a crustacean leg-to-maxilliped appendage transformation. (1/6406)

Homeotic genes are known to be involved in patterning morphological structures along the antero-posterior axis of insects and vertebrates. Because of their important roles in development, changes in the function and expression patterns of homeotic genes may have played a major role in the evolution of different body plans. For example, it has been proposed that during the evolution of several crustacean lineages, changes in the expression patterns of the homeotic genes Ultrabithorax and abdominal-A have played a role in transformation of the anterior thoracic appendages into mouthparts termed maxillipeds. This homeotic-like transformation is recapitulated at the late stages of the direct embryonic development of the crustacean Porcellio scaber (Oniscidea, Isopoda). Interestingly, this morphological change is associated with apparent novelties both in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the Porcellio scaber ortholog of the Drosophila homeotic gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr). Specifically, we find that Scr mRNA is present in the second maxillary segment and the first pair of thoracic legs (T1) in early embryos, whereas protein accumulates only in the second maxillae. In later stages, however, high levels of SCR appear in the T1 legs, which correlates temporally with the transformation of these appendages into maxillipeds. Our observations provide further insight into the process of the homeotic leg-to-maxilliped transformation in the evolution of crustaceans and suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for this process in this group of arthropods.  (+info)

The Drosophila kismet gene is related to chromatin-remodeling factors and is required for both segmentation and segment identity. (2/6406)

The Drosophila kismet gene was identified in a screen for dominant suppressors of Polycomb, a repressor of homeotic genes. Here we show that kismet mutations suppress the Polycomb mutant phenotype by blocking the ectopic transcription of homeotic genes. Loss of zygotic kismet function causes homeotic transformations similar to those associated with loss-of-function mutations in the homeotic genes Sex combs reduced and Abdominal-B. kismet is also required for proper larval body segmentation. Loss of maternal kismet function causes segmentation defects similar to those caused by mutations in the pair-rule gene even-skipped. The kismet gene encodes several large nuclear proteins that are ubiquitously expressed along the anterior-posterior axis. The Kismet proteins contain a domain conserved in the trithorax group protein Brahma and related chromatin-remodeling factors, providing further evidence that alterations in chromatin structure are required to maintain the spatially restricted patterns of homeotic gene transcription.  (+info)

FGF8 induces formation of an ectopic isthmic organizer and isthmocerebellar development via a repressive effect on Otx2 expression. (3/6406)

Beads containing recombinant FGF8 (FGF8-beads) were implanted in the prospective caudal diencephalon or midbrain of chick embryos at stages 9-12. This induced the neuroepithelium rostral and caudal to the FGF8-bead to form two ectopic, mirror-image midbrains. Furthermore, cells in direct contact with the bead formed an outgrowth that protruded laterally from the neural tube. Tissue within such lateral outgrowths developed proximally into isthmic nuclei and distally into a cerebellum-like structure. These morphogenetic effects were apparently due to FGF8-mediated changes in gene expression in the vicinity of the bead, including a repressive effect on Otx2 and an inductive effect on En1, Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression. The ectopic Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression domains formed nearly complete concentric rings around the FGF8-bead, with the Wnt1 ring outermost. These observations suggest that FGF8 induces the formation of a ring-like ectopic signaling center (organizer) in the lateral wall of the brain, similar to the one that normally encircles the neural tube at the isthmic constriction, which is located at the boundary between the prospective midbrain and hindbrain. This ectopic isthmic organizer apparently sends long-range patterning signals both rostrally and caudally, resulting in the development of the two ectopic midbrains. Interestingly, our data suggest that these inductive signals spread readily in a caudal direction, but are inhibited from spreading rostrally across diencephalic neuromere boundaries. These results provide insights into the mechanism by which FGF8 induces an ectopic organizer and suggest that a negative feedback loop between Fgf8 and Otx2 plays a key role in patterning the midbrain and anterior hindbrain.  (+info)

Transcriptional repression by the Drosophila giant protein: cis element positioning provides an alternative means of interpreting an effector gradient. (4/6406)

Early developmental patterning of the Drosophila embryo is driven by the activities of a diverse set of maternally and zygotically derived transcription factors, including repressors encoded by gap genes such as Kruppel, knirps, giant and the mesoderm-specific snail. The mechanism of repression by gap transcription factors is not well understood at a molecular level. Initial characterization of these transcription factors suggests that they act as short-range repressors, interfering with the activity of enhancer or promoter elements 50 to 100 bp away. To better understand the molecular mechanism of short-range repression, we have investigated the properties of the Giant gap protein. We tested the ability of endogenous Giant to repress when bound close to the transcriptional initiation site and found that Giant effectively represses a heterologous promoter when binding sites are located at -55 bp with respect to the start of transcription. Consistent with its role as a short-range repressor, as the binding sites are moved to more distal locations, repression is diminished. Rather than exhibiting a sharp 'step-function' drop-off in activity, however, repression is progressively restricted to areas of highest Giant concentration. Less than a two-fold difference in Giant protein concentration is sufficient to determine a change in transcriptional status of a target gene. This effect demonstrates that Giant protein gradients can be differentially interpreted by target promoters, depending on the exact location of the Giant binding sites within the gene. Thus, in addition to binding site affinity and number, cis element positioning within a promoter can affect the response of a gene to a repressor gradient. We also demonstrate that a chimeric Gal4-Giant protein lacking the basic/zipper domain can specifically repress reporter genes, suggesting that the Giant effector domain is an autonomous repression domain.  (+info)

A Wnt5a pathway underlies outgrowth of multiple structures in the vertebrate embryo. (5/6406)

Morphogenesis depends on the precise control of basic cellular processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation. Wnt5a may regulate these processes since it is expressed in a gradient at the caudal end of the growing embryo during gastrulation, and later in the distal-most aspect of several structures that extend from the body. A loss-of-function mutation of Wnt5a leads to an inability to extend the A-P axis due to a progressive reduction in the size of caudal structures. In the limbs, truncation of the proximal skeleton and absence of distal digits correlates with reduced proliferation of putative progenitor cells within the progress zone. However, expression of progress zone markers, and several genes implicated in distal outgrowth and patterning including Distalless, Hoxd and Fgf family members was not altered. Taken together with the outgrowth defects observed in the developing face, ears and genitals, our data indicates that Wnt5a regulates a pathway common to many structures whose development requires extension from the primary body axis. The reduced number of proliferating cells in both the progress zone and the primitive streak mesoderm suggests that one function of Wnt5a is to regulate the proliferation of progenitor cells.  (+info)

The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping. (6/6406)

Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut.  (+info)

Characterization of an amphioxus paired box gene, AmphiPax2/5/8: developmental expression patterns in optic support cells, nephridium, thyroid-like structures and pharyngeal gill slits, but not in the midbrain-hindbrain boundary region. (7/6406)

On the basis of developmental gene expression, the vertebrate central nervous system comprises: a forebrain plus anterior midbrain, a midbrain-hindbrain boundary region (MHB) having organizer properties, and a rhombospinal domain. The vertebrate MHB is characterized by position, by organizer properties and by being the early site of action of Wnt1 and engrailed genes, and of genes of the Pax2/5/8 subfamily. Wada and others (Wada, H., Saiga, H., Satoh, N. and Holland, P. W. H. (1998) Development 125, 1113-1122) suggested that ascidian tunicates have a vertebrate-like MHB on the basis of ascidian Pax258 expression there. In another invertebrate chordate, amphioxus, comparable gene expression evidence for a vertebrate-like MHB is lacking. We, therefore, isolated and characterized AmphiPax2/5/8, the sole member of this subfamily in amphioxus. AmphiPax2/5/8 is initially expressed well back in the rhombospinal domain and not where a MHB would be expected. In contrast, most of the other expression domains of AmphiPax2/5/8 correspond to expression domains of vertebrate Pax2, Pax5 and Pax8 in structures that are probably homologous - support cells of the eye, nephridium, thyroid-like structures and pharyngeal gill slits; although AmphiPax2/5/8 is not transcribed in any structures that could be interpreted as homologues of vertebrate otic placodes or otic vesicles. In sum, the developmental expression of AmphiPax2/5/8 indicates that the amphioxus central nervous system lacks a MHB resembling the vertebrate isthmic region. Additional gene expression data for the developing ascidian and amphioxus nervous systems would help determine whether a MHB is a basal chordate character secondarily lost in amphioxus. The alternative is that the MHB is a vertebrate innovation.  (+info)

Dynamic expression of lunatic fringe suggests a link between notch signaling and an autonomous cellular oscillator driving somite segmentation. (8/6406)

The metameric organization of the vertebrate trunk is a characteristic feature of all members of this phylum. The origin of this metamerism can be traced to the division of paraxial mesoderm into individual units, termed somites, during embryonic development. Despite the identification of somites as the first overt sign of segmentation in vertebrates well over 100 years ago, the mechanism(s) underlying somite formation remain poorly understood. Recently, however, several genes have been identified which play prominent roles in orchestrating segmentation, including the novel secreted factor lunatic fringe. To gain further insight into the mechanism by which lunatic fringe controls somite development, we have conducted a thorough analysis of lunatic fringe expression in the unsegmented paraxial mesoderm of chick embryos. Here we report that lunatic fringe is expressed predominantly in somite -II, where somite I corresponds to the most recently formed somite and somite -I corresponds to the group of cells which will form the next somite. In addition, we show that lunatic fringe is expressed in a highly dynamic manner in the chick segmental plate prior to somite formation and that lunatic fringe expression cycles autonomously with a periodicity of somite formation. Moreover, the murine ortholog of lunatic fringe undergoes a similar cycling expression pattern in the presomitic mesoderm of somite stage mouse embryos. The demonstration of a dynamic periodic expression pattern suggests that lunatic fringe may function to integrate notch signaling to a cellular oscillator controlling somite segmentation.  (+info)

The team of Maximilian Fürthauer at the Institut de Biologie Valrose in Nice is looking for a highly motivated doctoral or postdoctoral research fellow to study the role of MyosinI proteins in establishing zebrafish Left/Right asymmetry.. While well conserved molecular pathways govern antero-posterior and dorso-ventral patterning in different phyla, highly divergent mechanisms have been proposed to be responsible for the specification of Left/Right asymmetry in different organisms. A cilia-driven, directional fluid flow is important for symmetry breaking in numerous vertebrates, including zebrafish. Alternatively, cilia-independent mechanisms have been suggested to involve localized ion flows or directional cellular rearrangements dependent on cytoskeletal polarity. This raises the question whether a unifying mechanism controlling Left/Right asymmetry still remains to be identified? An attractive hypothesis is that cytoskeletal chirality may provide a template for organismal laterality.. In ...
The mammalian sonic hedgehog (Shh) signalling pathway is essential for embryonic development and the patterning of multiple organs. Disruption or activation of Shh signalling leads to multiple birth defects, including holoprosencephaly, neural tube defects and polydactyly, and in adults results in tumours of the skin or central nervous system. Genetic approaches with model organisms continue to identify novel components of the pathway, including key molecules that function as positive or negative regulators of Shh signalling. Data presented here define Tulp3 as a novel negative regulator of the Shh pathway. We have identified a new mouse mutant that is a strongly hypomorphic allele of Tulp3 and which exhibits expansion of ventral markers in the caudal spinal cord, as well as neural tube defects and preaxial polydactyly, consistent with increased Shh signalling. We demonstrate that Tulp3 acts genetically downstream of Shh and Smoothened (Smo) in neural tube patterning and exhibits a genetic ...
C. elegans and C. briggsae contain an unusual number of receptor-type gcy genes. Insects such as Drosophila melanogaster or Anopheles gambiae contain six receptor-type guanylyl cyclases (Morton 2004), mammals contain seven (four orphan and three peptide-binding receptors) (Lucas et al. 2000; Wedel and Garbers 2001), but C. elegans contains 27 and C. briggsae 25 (this study). The physiological function of insect gcy genes is entirely unknown, although the expression of the only two analyzed receptors in sensory neurons (among other neurons) has been noted (Morton 2004). Vertebrate gcy genes are expressed in several different tissue types, including chemosensory neurons (Wedel and Garbers 2001).. We propose that the significant expansion of receptor-type gcy genes in the nematode lineage is a reflection of their employment as chemoreceptors used to assess and navigate through their natural habitat. This hypothesis, which was also put forward by Yu et al. (1997), is mainly based on the observation ...
Vertebrates, including humans, typically appear symmetrical from the outside; however, internally, there is clear left-right (LR) asymmetry: the heart, stomach, and spleen are on the left, while the liver and gall bladder are on the right; the right side of the lungs has more lobes than the left, and the intestines coil counterclockwise. This patterning is set up very early during development and requires the asymmetric expression of nodal in the left lateral plate mesoderm. This is a conserved aspect of normal LR patterning in all vertebrates studied; however, distinct mechanisms have been found to regulate left-sided nodal expression in different species (reviewed in Raya and Belmonte, 2006). In addition, many vertebrates have a ciliated laterality organ. In mouse and chick, it is the node, in zebrafish it is Kupffers vesicle (KV), and in frog it is the gastrocoel roof plate (GRP). The cilia in these laterality organs are motile and create a directional fluid flow. This directional flow is essential
Developmental patterning requires juxtacrine signaling in order to tightly coordinate the fates of neighboring cells. Recent work has shown that Notch and Delta, the canonical metazoan juxtacrine signaling receptor and ligand, mutually inactivate each other in the same cell. This cis-interaction generates mutually exclusive sending and receiving states in individual cells. It generally remains unclear, however, how this mutual inactivation and the resulting switching behavior can impact developmental patterning circuits. Here we address this question using mathematical modeling in the context of two canonical pattern formation processes: boundary formation and lateral inhibition. For boundary formation, in a model motivated by Drosophila wing vein patterning, we find that mutual inactivation allows sharp boundary formation across a broader range of parameters than models lacking mutual inactivation. This model with mutual inactivation also exhibits robustness to correlated gene expression ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes a protein containing multiple ankyrin domains and two IQ calmodulin-binding domains. The encoded protein may function in renal tubular development and function, and in left-right axis determination. This protein interacts with nephrocystin and infers a connection between primary cilia function and left-right axis determination. A similar protein in mice interacts with calmodulin. Mutations in this gene have been associated with nephronophthisis type 2. Multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012 ...
article{8516871, abstract = {The root vascular tissues provide an excellent system for studying organ patterning, as the specification of these tissues signals a transition from radial symmetry to bisymmetric patterns. The patterning process is controlled by the combined action of hormonal signaling/transport pathways, transcription factors, and miRNA that operate through a series of non-linear pathways to drive pattern formation collectively. With the discovery of multiple components and feedback loops controlling patterning, it has become increasingly difficult to understand how these interactions act in unison to determine pattern formation in multicellular tissues. Three independent mathematical models of root vascular patterning have been formulated in the last few years, providing an excellent example of how theoretical approaches can complement experimental studies to provide new insights into complex systems. In many aspects these models support each other; however, each study also ...
Pan-embryonic Ca2+ waves during epiboly/gastrula stages are believed to coordinate convergent extension (CE), the lengthening and narrowing of groups of cells, as well as their directed migration to the future dorsal side (Wallingford et al., 2001; Wallingford et al., 2002). Genetic data supports this idea, in that zebrafish homozygous zygotic Wnt-5 mutants (pipetail) display CE defects and have reduced Ca2+ release frequency (Westfall et al., 2003a). In fact, thapsigargin treatment during 30-50% epiboly resulted in cell movement defects and a shortened anterior-posterior axis (data not shown), consistent with previously described thapsigargin-induced phenotypes (Creton, 2004). However, brief thapsigargin treatment of epiboly/gastrula stage zebrafish and Xenopus disrupts laterality without perturbing normal cell movement. Similar laterality defects are generated with additional inhibitors (valproate, to disrupt inositol levels, XeC, to inhibit IP3-induced Ca2+ release and cyclopiazonic acid, to ...
A patterning system with a photoresist overhang allows material to be deposited onto a substrate in various positions by varying the angle from which the material is deposited, and by rotating the substrate. The patterning system can be used to fabricate a stack of organic light emitting devices on a substrate using the same patterning system and without removing the substrate from vacuum.
Various different kinases have been identified that phosphorylate Dishevelled proteins (Bernatik et al., 2011; Cong et al., 2004a; Gentzel et al., 2015; Kishida et al., 2001; Klein et al., 2006; Kühl et al., 2001; Ossipova et al., 2005; Peters et al., 1999; Shimizu et al., 2014; Sun et al., 2001; Willert et al., 1997). As counterparts, to date only the rather universal phosphatases PP1 and PP2 have been described (Carmen Figueroa-Aldariz et al., 2015; Shimizu et al., 2014). Here, we have identified the phosphatase Pgam5 as an interactor of Dvl2-Arrb2 protein complexes and negative regulator of Wnt/β-Catenin signaling.. In gastrula and post-gastrula stage Xenopus laevis embryos, pgam5 was expressed throughout the ectoderm but biased towards the anterior-dorsal ectoderm and the anterior neural tube. Consistent with this expression pattern, we showed that Pgam5 plays a role in head formation and a-p patterning. Low anterior Wnt/β-Catenin activity is required for the induction of anterior fates ...
Predicted to have DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific and RNA polymerase II transcription regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding activity. Involved in several processes, including animal organ development; determination of intestine left/right asymmetry; and nervous system development. Predicted to localize to nuclear chromatin. Is expressed in several structures, including cardiovascular system; digestive system; head; mesoderm; and pectoral fin. Orthologous to human HAND2 (heart and neural crest derivatives expressed 2 ...
With headphone listening, the naturally occurring left/right asymmetry in head and ear shapes can produce frequency-dependent variations in the perceived location of a sound source. In this paper, this phenomenon is studied by determining the interaural level differences required to center a set of narrow-band stimuli with different center frequencies. It is shown that the perceived asymmetry varies from one listener to another. Some of the asymmetry can be explained with asymmetry in...
How did gastropods evolve torsion? I have looked all over. There doesnt seem to be any clear idea of what torsion does now, let alone what purpose it...
The formation of the spot-like Spemann-type organizer (dark green/yellow) responsible for the dorso-ventral pattern is restricted to the blastopore. Thus, since the blastopore became a large ring , the dorsal organizer has automatically a pronounced off-axis position as required. The Spemann-type organizer with its spot-like extension is by itself insufficient to generate a dorsoventral pattern along the long-extended anteroposterior axis. An important step is, therefore, the generation of a midline organizer. It is the marginal ring and not the Spemann-Organizer that provide the positional information for the AP patterning. Evidence exists that WNT signals, generated in the ring, are involved in the posterior transformation of the more anteriorely located cells that form the future brain [1,2]. Also the activation of more posterior HOX genes takes place in the ring except of the organizing region [3]. For the zebra fish it has been shown that AP-markers appear in the correct order even in the ...
Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) patterning provides an alternative to fabricate the controllable polymeric micro/nano-structures, which have wide applications in industry. Both steady state and dynamic development of EHD patterning structures are discussed in this paper. For the steady state modeling, a discontinuous boundary element coupled with finite element method is applied. Numerical results reveal that a critical voltage exists, below which a small amplitude structure is obtained and above which polymer evolves into patterns with a large height/width ratio. The transient process of EHD patterning is represented by the numerical solution of the phase field equation coupled with the electric field and Navier-Stokes equation. The computer model is capable of describing the dynamic development of the electrically-induced transport and surface deformation phenomena during EHD patterning. The coupled multi-field equations are discretized in finite difference with an enhancement by parallel computing. ...
The present invention includes a conforming template for patterning liquids disposed on substrates. The template includes a body having opposed first and second surfaces. The first surface includes a plurality of recessed regions with a patterning region being disposed between adjacent recessed regions. Specifically, the recessed regions define flexure regions about which each patterning region may move independent of the remaining patterning regions of the template. In one embodiment the template is mounted to a fluid chamber having an inlet and a throughway. The template is connected to the throughway and the inlet is connected to a fluid source to facilitate deformation of the template to conform to a profile of a surface adjacent thereto.
Lateral root development in plants is a complex process that involves co-ordination of several molecular components to initiate the formation of meristematic…
Our findings suggest an inherent, cryptic chirality in VMCs that is revealed by an unbiased extracellular mechanical transition and mediated by cytoskeletal reorganization, analogous to chemically induced chirality seen in neutrophil-like cells.31 To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of an association between LR asymmetry and cytoskeletal reorganization, triggered by an unbiased mechanical interface, and the first demonstration that a microscale dynamic asymmetry unfolds into a de novo, consistently oriented and periodic macroscale pattern resembling tissue architecture. In VMCs, the rightward-biased turning required stress-fiber accumulation at the FN/PEG interface, suggesting that chirality may be in the architecture of the actin filament assembly at the macroscale level, say as clockwise or counterclockwise orientation. Alternatively, it may arise from chirality at the micro- or nanoscale, such as helicity of microfilaments, or chiral rotagen molecules, such as dynein or myosin, ...
Coordinated spacing and patterning of stomata allow efficient gas exchange between plants and the atmosphere. Here we report that three ERECTA (ER)-family leucine-rich repeat-receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) together control stomatal patterning, with specific family members regulating the specification of stomatal stem cell fate and the differentiation of guard cells. Loss-of-function mutations in all three ER-family genes cause stomatal clustering. Genetic interactions with a known stomatal patterning mutant too many mouths (tmm) revealed stoichiometric epistasis and combination-specific neomorphism. Our findings suggest that the negative regulation of ER-family RLKs by TMM, which is an LRR receptor-like protein, is critical for proper stomatal differentiation.. ...
The eye imaginal disc displays dorsal-ventral (D-V) and anterior-posterior polarity prior to the onset of differentiation, which initiates where the D-V midline intersects the posterior margin. As the wave of differentiation progresses anteriorly, additional asymmetry develops as ommatidial clusters rotate coordinately in opposite directions in the dorsal and ventral halves of the disc; this forms the equator, a line of mirror-image symmetry that coincides with the D-V midline of the disc. The currently unanswered question of how D-V pattern is established and how it relates to ommatidial rotation was addressed by assaying the expression of various asymmetric markers under conditions that lead to ectopic differentiation, such as removal of patched or wingless function. D-V patterning is found to develop gradually. wingless plays an important role in setting up this pattern. To determine if positional information associated with equatorial formation is present along the D-V axis of the disc ahead ...
In the minds of many, Hox gene null mutant phenotypes have confirmed the direct role that these genes play in specifying the pattern of vertebrate embryos. The genes are envisaged as defining discrete spatial domains and, subsequently, conferring specific segmental identities on cells undergoing differentiation along the antero-posterior axis. However, several aspects of the observed mutant phenotypes are inconsistent with this view. These include: the appearance of other, unexpected transformations along the dorsal axis; the occurrence of mirror-image duplications; and the development of anomalies outside the established domains of normal Hox gene expression. In this paper, Hox gene disruptions are shown to elicit regeneration-like responses in tissues confronted with discontinuities in axial identity. The polarities and orientations of transformed segments which emerge as a consequence of this response obey the rules of distal transformation and intercalary regeneration. In addition, the incidence of
A different patterning mechanism must generate the domains of expression of rn and bab and must lead to tarsal growth and differentiation. The presumptive tarsus is included within the Dll-expression domain (Fig. 2B), and Dllfunction is required for bab and rn activation and tarsal development at 84 hours AEL, as shown by Dllmutants and Dll - clones [Fig. 2, E and F; (7)]. However, neither theDll-expressing cells in the center of the disc (the presumptive distal tip), nor the most peripheralDll-expressing cells, express rn orbab (Fig. 2B). These peripheral cells appear to be medial cells expressing both Dll and dac (compare B and C of Fig. 2), and double-staining reveals that indeed the early rings of rn and bab expression are abutted bydac (Fig. 2D). These observations suggest that rnand bab expression, promoted by Dll, is repressed in medial Dll-expressing cells by dac and in the central cells by another factor. In clones ofdac- cells induced at 80 hours AEL, we observe ectopic outgrowths and ...
J:58465 Donoviel DB, Hadjantonakis AK, Ikeda M, Zheng H, Hyslop PS, Bernstein A, Mice lacking both presenilin genes exhibit early embryonic patterning defects. Genes Dev. 1999 Nov 1;13(21):2801-10 ...
Bryant, P. J. (1975) Regeneration and Duplication in Imaginal Discs, in Ciba Foundation Symposium 29 - Cell Patterning (eds R. Porter and J. Rivers), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470720110.ch5 ...
These data are consistent with previous reports of intronic miRNA function, in which the miRNA regulates the same biological process as the protein encoded by the host gene.29 miR-218 may contribute to fine-tuning of Slit-Robo pathway genes or generate negative feedback in response to Slit gene activation. It is interesting to speculate that miR-218 may serve to repress the expression of the Robo1/2 receptors in the Slit ligand-expressing cells, thereby spatially separating ligand from receptor. Because Robo4 is not a target of miR-218 regulation, it also is possible that miR-218 affects the ratio of Robo1/2 and Robo4 proteins, thereby influencing vascular patterning.. It is currently debated whether the Robo1 and -2 receptors provide a positive or negative influence on EC migration, although Robo4 is generally thought of as a repulsive or stabilizing cue during vascular pathfinding.9,37 In our hands, it appears that repression of Robo1/2 and HSPG biosynthetic molecules by miR-218 negatively ...
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BioTek 科學海報, 05/06 2016, Validation of a High Throughput Wound Healing Assay using 3D Cell Patterning and Automated, Kinetic Imaging
Graduate students register for 255) This course focusses on how animals form their basic body plans; from the formation of their germ layers; ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm, to how they are organized along the main developmental axes; the anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes. The course will focus in part on the molecular mechanisms that underlie these developmental decisions from work carried out in established developmental model species. However, we will also explore the current understanding of how these mechanisms evolved from new insights from emerging models representing a broad range of animal phyla. The setting at Hopkins Marine Station will allow us to carry out experiments from animals collected in the field, and the course will involve a substantial lab component to complement concepts and approaches presented in lecture. nPre-requisites : Biocore or by permission of ...
Grafts of ShhC25II-soaked beads reproduce the stage-dependent effects of PMP treatments on eye DV patterning. (A) Lateral views of heads of st. 33 embryos that
What does Brad Pitt have in common with a fruit fly? They both have cowlicks-a swirl of hair caused by a patterning mechanism. Now, researchers have discovered the genes that cause cowlicks are regulated by a tumor suppressor protein.
J:186907 DAndrea D, Liguori GL, Le Good JA, Lonardo E, Andersson O, Constam DB, Persico MG, Minchiotti G, Cripto promotes A-P axis specification independently of its stimulatory effect on Nodal autoinduction. J Cell Biol. 2008 Feb 11;180(3):597-605 ...
Concentration gradients of small diffusible molecules called morphogens are key regulators of development, specifying position during pattern formation in the embryo. It is now becoming clear that additional or alternative mechanisms involving interactions among cells are also crucial for positional …
Researchers from the University of California succeeded in making living cells morph into shapes, marking a breakthrough in the field of tissue patterning.
How is Anterior and Posterior abbreviated? A-P stands for Anterior and Posterior. A-P is defined as Anterior and Posterior very frequently.
Im trying to create a div that simply expands with the window, horizontally and vertically. In FF, the following works fine... div.mydiv= { position:
CPR 100-120 compressions per minute and at a depth of no less than 1/3 of anterior/posterior diameter of chest with interruptions less than 5 seconds ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Linking early determinants and cilia-driven leftward flow in left-right axis specification of Xenopus laevis. T2 - A theoretical approach. AU - Schweickert, Axel. AU - Walentek, Peter. AU - Thumberger, Thomas. AU - Danilchik, Mike. PY - 2012/2/1. Y1 - 2012/2/1. N2 - In vertebrates, laterality - the asymmetric placement of the viscera including organs of the gastrointestinal system, heart and lungs - is under the genetic control of a conserved signaling pathway in the left lateral plate mesoderm (LPM). A key feature of this pathway, shared by embryos of all non-avian vertebrate classes analyzed to date (e.g. fish, amphibia and mammals) is the formation of a transitory midline epithelial structure. Remarkably, the motility of cilia projecting from this epithelium produce a leftward-directed movement of extracellular liquid. This leftward flow precedes any sign of asymmetry in gene expression. Numerous analyses have shown that this leftward flow is not only necessary, but indeed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Wnt3a links left-right determination with segmentation and anteroposterior axis elongation. AU - Nakaya, Masa Aki. AU - Biris, Kristin. AU - Tsukiyama, Tadasuke. AU - Jaime, Shaulan. AU - Rawls, J. Alan. AU - Yamaguchi, Terry P.. PY - 2005/12. Y1 - 2005/12. N2 - The alignment of the left-right (LR) body axis relative to the anteroposterior (AP) and dorsoventral (DV) axes is central to the organization of the vertebrate body plan and is controlled by the node/organizer. Somitogenesis plays a key role in embryo morphogenesis as a principal component of AP elongation. How morphogenesis is coupled to axis specification is not well understood. We demonstrate that Wnt3a is required for LR asymmetry. Wnt3a activates the Delta/Notch pathway to regulate perinodal expression of the left determinant Nodal, while simultaneously controlling the segmentation clock and the molecular oscillations of the Wnt/β-catenin and Notch pathways. We provide evidence that Wnt3a, expressed in the primitive ...
Inversin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the INVS gene. This gene encodes a protein containing multiple ankyrin domains and two IQ calmodulin-binding domains. The encoded protein may function in renal tubular development and function, and in left-right axis determination. This protein interacts with nephrocystin and infers a connection between primary cilia function and left-right axis determination. A similar protein in mice interacts with calmodulin. Mutations in this gene have been associated with nephronophthisis type 2. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. INVS has been shown to interact with NPHP1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000119509 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000028344 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse PubMed Reference:. Otto EA, Schermer B, Obara T, OToole JF, Hiller KS, Mueller AM, Ruf RG, Hoefele J, Beekmann F, Landau D, Foreman JW, Goodship JA, Strachan T, Kispert A, ...
DURING vertebrate limb development, positional information must be specified along three distinct axes. Although much progress has been made in our understanding of the molecular interactions involved in anterior-posterior and proximal-distal limb patterning, less is known about dorsal-ventral patterning1-3. The genes Wnt-7a and Lmx-1, which are expressed in dorsal limb ectoderm and mesqderm, respectively, are thought to be important regulators of dorsal limb differentiation4-6. Whether a complementary set of molecules controls ventral limb development has not been clear. Here we report that Engrailed-1, a homeodomain-containing transcription factor expressed in embryonic ventral limb ectoderm7-8, is essential for ventral limb patterning. Loss of Engrailed-1 function in mice results in dorsal transformations of ventral paw structures, and in subtle alterations along the proximal-distal limb axis. Engrailed-1 seems to act in part by repressing dorsal differentiation induced by Wnt-7a, and is essential
Cranial placodes are evolutionary innovations of vertebrates. However, they most likely evolved by redeployment, rewiring and diversification of preexisting cell types and patterning mechanisms. In the second part of this review we compare vertebrates with other animal groups to elucidate the evolutionary history of ectodermal patterning. We show that several transcription factors have ancient bilaterian roles in dorsoventral and anteroposterior regionalisation of the ectoderm. Evidence from amphioxus suggests that ancestral chordates then concentrated neurosecretory cells in the anteriormost non-neural ectoderm. This anterior proto-placodal domain subsequently gave rise to the oral siphon primordia in tunicates (with neurosecretory cells being lost) and anterior (adenohypophyseal, olfactory, and lens) placodes of vertebrates. Likewise, tunicate atrial siphon primordia and posterior (otic, lateral line, and epibranchial) placodes of vertebrates probably evolved from a posterior proto-placodal region in
Blimp1, a zinc-finger containing DNA-binding transcriptional repressor, functions as a master regulator of B cell terminal differentiation. Considerable evidence suggests that Blimp1 is required for the establishment of anteroposterior axis formation and the formation of head structures during early vertebrate development. In mouse embryos, Blimp1 is strongly expressed in axial mesendoderm, the tissue known to provide anterior patterning signals during gastrulation. Here, we describe for the first time the defects caused by loss of Blimp1 function in the mouse. Blimp1 deficient embryos die at mid-gestation, but surprisingly early axis formation, anterior patterning and neural crest formation proceed normally. Rather, loss of Blimp1 expression disrupts morphogenesis of the caudal branchial arches and leads to a failure to correctly elaborate the labyrinthine layer of the placenta. Blimp1 mutant embryos also show widespread blood leakage and tissue apoptosis, and, strikingly, Blimp1 homozygous mutants
Developmental Biology. Research Categories: Developmental Biology Research Description: We ask how the embryo works. Prior to morphogenesis the embryo specifies each cell through transcriptional regulation and signaling. Our research builds gene regulatory networks to understand how that early specification works. We then ask how this specification programs cells for their morphogenetic movements at gastrulation, and how the cells deploy patterning information. Current projects examine 1) novel signal transduction mechanisms that establish and maintain embryonic boundaries mold the embryo at gastrulation; 2) specification of primary mesenchyme cells in such a way that they are prepared to execute an epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and then study mechanistically the regulation of that transition; 3) the specification of endoderm necessary for invagination of the archenteron; 4) formation of the oral/aboral ectoderm and the means by which patterning information is distributed three ...
Brueckner Lab:. Research Interests: Development of vertebrate left-right asymmetry Cilia in development Cardiac morphogenesis The development of non-random asymmetry along the left-right axis is a unique feature of vertebrate development. Defects in this process in mouse and man commonly affect the development of the heart and result in severe congenital cardiac anomalies. The goal of my laboratory is to understand the mechanism by which embryonic cilia create and signal left-right positional information, and to investigate whether cilia have essential roles in other developmental processes. We have previously shown that the vertebrate LR axis is initiated at the mammalian node late in gastrulation. Dynein-driven motility of monocilia found on node cells generates directional flow of extraembryonic fluid, termed nodal flow. The direction of nodal flow is determined by the inherent chirality of the cilium itself, and artificial reversal of nodal flow is able to reverse the LR axis. Nodal flow ...
Graded Hedgehog (Hh) signaling governs the balance of Gli transcriptional activators and repressors to specify diverse ventral cell fates in the spinal cord. It remains unclear how distinct intracellular Gli activity is generated. Here, we demonstrate that Sufu acts universally as a negative regulator of Hh signaling, whereas Kif7 inhibits Gli activity in cooperation with, and independent of, Sufu. Together, they deter naïve precursors from acquiring increasingly ventral identity. We show that Kif7 is also required to establish high intracellular Gli activity by antagonizing the Sufu-inhibition of Gli2. Strikingly, by abolishing the negative regulatory action of Sufu, diverse ventral cell fates can be specified in the absence of extracellular Hh signaling. These data suggest that Sufu is the primary regulator of graded Hh signaling and establish that the antagonistic and cooperative actions of Kif7 and Sufu are responsible for setting up distinct Gli activity in ventral cell fate specification.
Pitx2 is a homeodomain transcription factor that is mutated in Rieger syndrome, a haploinsufficiency disorder affecting eyes and teeth. Pitx2 also has a postulated role in left-right axis determination. We assessed the requirements for Pitx2 directly by generating hypomorphic and null alleles. Heterozygotes for either allele have eye abnormalities consistent with Rieger syndrome. The ventral body wall fails to close in embryos homozygous for the null allele, leaving the heart and abdominal organs externalized and the body axis contorted. In homozygotes for either allele, the heart tube undergoes normal, rightward looping and the stomach is positioned normally. In contrast, homozygotes for both alleles exhibit right isomerization of the lungs. Thus, Pitx2 is required for left-right asymmetry of the lungs but not other organs. Homozygotes for either allele exhibit septal and valve defects, and null homozygotes have a single atrium proving that a threshold level of Pitx2 is required for normal ...
Gli-type zinc finger proteins play important regulatory roles in vertebrate and invertebrate embryogenesis. In Xenopus, the Gli-type proteins XGli-3 and XGli-4 are first expressed in earliest stages of mesoderm and neural development. Transient transfection assays reveal that XGli-3 and XGli-4 can f …
Predicted to have RNA polymerase II proximal promoter sequence-specific DNA binding activity. Involved in determination of heart left/right asymmetry; somite rostral/caudal axis specification; and somite specification. Predicted to localize to the nucleus. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in spondylocostal dysostosis. Is expressed in margin; mesoderm; post-vent region; and somite. Orthologous to human MESP2 (mesoderm posterior bHLH transcription factor 2 ...
Author Summary Multicellular development requires tightly regulated spatial pattern formation, frequently including the generation of sharp differences over short length scales. Classic examples include boundary formation in the Drosophila wing veins and lateral inhibition patterning in the differentiation of sensory cells. These processes and a diverse variety of others are mediated by the Notch signaling system which allows neighboring cells to exchange information, via interaction between the Notch receptor on one cell and its ligands such as Delta, on another. Interestingly, recent evidence has shown that Notch and Delta within the same cell (in cis) also interact, mutually inactivating each other. However, the significance of this interaction for pattern formation has remained unclear. Here we show, by analytical and computational modeling, how this cis interaction intrinsically generates a difference-promoting logic that optimizes the system for use in fine-grained pattern formation. Specifically,
During development, the growth of the embryo must be coupled to its patterning to ensure correct and timely morphogenesis. In the mouse embryo, migration of the anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) to the prospective anterior establishes the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis. By analysing the distribution of cells in S phase, M phase and G2 from the time just prior to the migration of the AVE until 18 hours after its movement, we show that there is no evidence for differential proliferation along the A-P axis of the mouse embryo. Rather, we have identified that as AVE movements are being initiated, the epiblast proliferates at a much higher rate than the visceral endoderm. We show that these high levels of proliferation in the epiblast are dependent on Nodal signalling and are required for A-P establishment, as blocking cell division in the epiblast inhibits AVE migration. Interestingly, inhibition of migration by blocking proliferation can be rescued by Dkk1. This suggests that the high levels of epiblast
Author(s): Simonyan, Aghavni | Advisor(s): Wan, Frederic Y.M. | Abstract: The present dissertation is concerned with robust signaling gradients in biological tissue patterning. The patterning of many developing tissues is orchestrated by gradients of morphogens through a variety of elaborate regulatory interactions. Such interactions are thought to make gradients robust, that is, resistant to changes induced by genetic or environmental perturbations. A variety of inhibitors for reducing ectopic signaling activities are known to exist and their specific role in down-regulating the undesirable ectopic activities reasonably well established. However, how a developing organism manages to adjust inhibition/stimulation in response to genetic and/or environmental changes is still not understood. The need to adjust for ectopic signaling activities requires the presence of one or more feedback mechanisms to stimulate the needed adjustment.Recently extensive numerical simulations suggest that robustness of the
In developmental biology, an embryo is divided into two hemispheres: the animal pole and the vegetal pole within a blastula. The animal pole consists of small cells that divide rapidly, in contrast with the vegetal pole below it. In some cases, the animal pole is thought to differentiate into the later embryo itself, forming the three primary germ layers and participating in gastrulation. The animal pole is heavily pigmented while the vegetal pole remains unpigmented.[1] The vegetal pole contains large yolky cells that divide very slowly, in contrast with the animal pole above it. In some cases, the vegetal pole is thought to differentiate into the extraembryonic membranes that protect and nourish the developing embryo, such as the placenta in mammals and the chorion in birds. The development of the animal-vegetal axis occurs prior to fertilization.[2] Sperm entry can occur anywhere in the animal hemisphere.[3] The point of sperm entry defines the dorso-ventral axis - cells opposite the region ...
Zoological Science publishes articles, reviews and editorials that cover the broad and increasingly interdisciplinary field of zoology.
0050] The prosthesis according to the present invention comprises osseous anchoring means ensuring good stability of the elements of the prosthesis between one another during implantation of the prosthesis between the vertebrae. For this, the prosthesis according to the present invention comprises at least first osseous anchoring means (42) and at least second osseous anchoring means (41). The first osseous anchoring means (42) extend to near the periphery of the plate on which it is situated and the second osseous anchoring means (41) is offset according to the antero-posterior axis relative to the first osseous anchoring means (42). Therefore, the first osseous anchoring means (42) could consist, in an embodiment not illustrated here, of a winglet oriented perpendicularly to the antero-posterior axis of the spinal column and located near the leading edge or posterior edge of the plate on which they are located. The second osseous anchoring means (41) will thus be located in the vicinity of the ...
Somite polarity and segmental patterning of the peripheral nervous system.: The analysis of the outgrowth pattern of spinal axons in the chick embryo has shown
Wang YC, Ferguson EL. Spatial bistability of Dpp-receptor interactions during Drosophila dorsal-ventral patterning. Nature. 2005 Mar 10; 434(7030):229-34 ...
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Probable serine/threonine-protein kinase; maternally required for correct patterning in the posterior part of each embryonic metamere. May be involved in control of cell division during metamorphosis and ovarian development. May interact with costal-2.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Deconvoluting the intestine. T2 - Molecular evidence for a major role of the mesenchyme in the modulation of signaling cross talk. AU - Li, Xing. AU - Madison, Blair B.. AU - Zacharias, William. AU - Kolterud, Åsa. AU - States, David. AU - Gumucio, Deborah L.. PY - 2007/6/27. Y1 - 2007/6/27. N2 - Reciprocal cross talk between the endodermally derived epithelium and the underlying mesenchyme is required for regional patterning and proper differentiation of the developing mammalian intestine. Though both epithelium and mesenchyme participate in patterning, the mesenchyme is thought to play a prominent role in the determination of the epithelial phenotype during development and in adult life. However, the molecular basis for this instructional dominance is unclear. In fact, surprisingly little is known about the cellular origins of many of the critical signaling molecules and the gene transcriptional events that they impact. Here, we profile genes that are expressed in the separate ...
The use of DNA as a structural material has been intensively developed since its inception in the early 1980s. The potential of DNA structures in the field of materials science is hampered by current approaches to augmentation. It is not currently possible to alter the targeting of heterogenous additional elements to structures once they have been made. The post hoc patterning of DNA architectures is therefore of great importance. The bacterial protein Recombinase A (RecA) may be able to provide this function. This thesis will discuss the patterning of DNA structures with RecA. RecA has been shown to pattern linear dsDNA strands with high levels of efficiency. To test the potential of RecA to pattern more complex DNA, novel strategies for creating DNA topologies have been explored. This work has produced DNA strands containing regions of base pair mismatching and with terminal three-way junctions. A method has also been developed for the creation of a 200 base product with unpaired branched ...
The floorplate (FP) is located at the ventral midline of the developing neural tube, and is involved in patterning and specification of ventral and dorsal cell fates. The FP has long been known to pattern ventral cell fates ...
An essential question of morphogenesis is how patterns arise without preexisting positional information, as inspired by Turing. In the past few years, cytoskeletal flows in the cell cortex have been identified as a key mechanism of molecular patterning at the subcellular level. Theoretical and in vitro studies have suggested that biological polymers such as actomyosin gels have the property to self-organize, but the applicability of this concept in an in vivo setting remains unclear. Here, we report that the regular spacing pattern of supracellular actin rings in the Drosophila tracheal tubule is governed by a self-organizing principle. We propose a simple biophysical model where pattern formation arises from the interplay of myosin contractility and actin turnover. We validate the hypotheses of the model using photobleaching experiments and report that the formation of actin rings is contractility dependent. Moreover, genetic and pharmacological perturbations of the physical properties of the ...
Images provided by Claire Anderson. The publication of Liem et al. 1995 (Liem Jr., K.F, Tremml G, Roelink H, Jessell T.M. Dorsal differentiation of neural plate cells induced by BMP-mediated signals from epidermal ectoderm. Cell. 1995; 82: 969-979. PMID: 7553857 ) was referred for the probe information. Authors indicated further probe information could be found in another publication (Francis PH, Richardson MK, Brickell PM, Tickle C. Bone morphogenetic proteins and a signalling pathway that controls patterning in the developing chick limb. Development. 1994 Jan;120(1):209-18. PMID: 8119128). The indicated probe sequence was extracted from NCBI (GenBank: X75914.1 ...
Why have certain features of animal body plans, such as bilateral symmetry, been conserved since the early Cambrian period, whereas at the species level, there has been a continuous accumulation of changes? Davidson and Erwin propose that the genetic regulatory networks associated with development contain three components that differ in their evolutionary conservation. Evolutionarily inflexible subcircuits (kernels) perform essential upstream functions in building given body parts, while other small subcircuits (plug-ins) have been repeatedly coopted to diverse developmental purposes, leaving highly flexible, individual cis-regulatory linkages to regulate detailed phenotypic variation.. E. H. Davidson, D. H. Erwin, Gene regulatory networks and the evolution of animal body plans. Science 311, 796-800 (2006). [Abstract] [Full Text]. ...
Cardiac pacemaker cells of the sinoatrial node initiate and maintain the rhythmic beating of the heart. This function requires that pacemaker cells be insulated...
Segmentation Process is one of the subject in which we provide homework and assignment help. Get speedy and cost effective homework solutions at assignmenthelp.net for any kind of homework and assignment help.
Equation 5 and Equation 6 provide the initial and boundary conditions. The system is modeled as one-dimensional (along the AP axis) and semi-infinite in space, reflecting the fact that the observed dpERK pattern is localized at the poles of the embryo. Receptors are assumed to be in excess and the rate constant of ligand binding, kb, is proportional to receptor expression level. Finally, all signal transduction processes, from the receptors to phosphorylated MAPK, have been lumped into a single constant, g, which characterizes the rate at which the dpERK molecules are generated (indirectly) by a single ligand/receptor complex. The extracellular part of the model is essentially identical to those used to describe the patterning morphogens in other systems, e.g., the patterning of the follicular epithelium by Gurken or patterning of the wing imaginal disk by Dpp. The intracellular module is similar to the previously published descriptions of phosphorylation gradients in spatially distributed ...
The course gives an introduction to functional cytology and the cellular and molecular mechanisms for embryonic pattern formation of different animal taxa. Themes include: animal architecture, life cycles and reproduction, differential gene expression, cell-to-cell communication and signal transduction pathways, gametogenesis and cell cycles, fertilisation, cleavage patterns and early development, genetic control of Drosophila development, ectodermal and neural development, mesodermal and endodermal development, sex determination. ...
The present invention provides methods and apparatus for locally patterning surfaces. In one such method, an oxidizable thioether is adsorbed onto a conductive surface. The surface is then contacted with a fluid medium. A conducting stamp is then brought into contact with the fluid medium above the thioether-coated surface. Next, a potential is applied between the stamp and the surface. It is expected that the charge will be transferred through the medium to the coated surface along a shortest distance path, thereby locally oxidizing the thioether and effectively creating a negative patterned image of the conducting stamp on the surface. Remaining adsorbed thioether may then be used as a mask for standard etching or material addition procedures.
A mouse is an example of an animal with bilateral symmetry. If an imaginary line were drawn from the tip of its nose to the end of its tail, one side would be exactly like the other....
This project will focus on two pan-animal signaling pathways, Wnt and TGF-beta, which are involved in a variety of developmemtal processes, such as symmetry breaking during embryonic development, axial patterning and regeneration. The techniques to be used include investigation of protein localization, protein-protein interactions and Chip-Seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing). Project open to PhD students and Postdocs.
Twisted gastrulation (TSG) is a secreted, cysteine-rich protein that plays a role in dorsal/ventral patterning in Drosophila and Xenopus by regulating…
A kinetic model of morphogen interpretation is more suitable than classic threshold or ratchet models to understand how a signal gradient generates different target gene expression patterns.
5.1 Cat coat patterns and colors. *5.2 Body types. *6 Effects on human health *6.1 Therapy cats ... Cat coat patterns and colors[edit]. The coloration, pattern, length (short, medium or long), and texture of the coats of cats ... Body types[edit]. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable ... Persian cats and Exotic cats are two prime examples of such a body type.. Effects on human health[edit]. Because of their small ...
The body whorl is carinated, the carina bearing about eight nodules. The flat base of the shell is smooth, with fine oblique ... Its color pattern is pale yellowish. The seven whorls are slightly convex, obliquely radiately costate with distant folds, ...
Coloration and pattern are both variable. Color ranges from brown to gray to reddish and everything in between. Pattern ... The body is rather stout, the cross-section of which is circular or subtriangular. The dorsal scales are rough and heavily ... It grows to an average total length (body + tail) of 30-70 cm (12-28 in), with a maximum total length of 87 cm (34 in). The ...
"Magazines 'harm male body image'". BBC News. 28 May 2008. Retrieved 12 May 2010. Lee, Ian. "Muscle dysmorphia". askmen.com. Ask ... Patterns of Prejudice. 38 (3): 301-320. doi:10.1080/0031322042000250475. S2CID 146256628. Eldredge, John (2001). Wild at heart ... 2009). Men's health: body, identity, and social context. Chichester, West Sussex, U.K. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. ... Durham, Meenakshi G.; Oates, Thomas P. (2004). "The mismeasure of masculinity: the male body, 'race' and power in the ...
Fernandez, Sonya (2009). "The Crusade over the Bodies of Women". Patterns of Prejudice. 43 (3-4): 269-286. doi:10.1080/ ... concealing the body with clothing). As in much of the world, institutions suppressing women were becoming less powerful until ...
The convergence pattern consists of three main steps: 1. "Successfully promote your product offerings" 2. "Emphasize the ... InterTradeIreland Trade and Business Development Body. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-03-20. Retrieved 2006-06-20. ... 1999). "Mega Patterns: Effecting Multiple Industries for Extended Times". Business eSolutions. Retrieved 2006-06-20. CS1 maint ... A 2004 paper published by Microsoft explains what it calls the "convergence pattern" (Trowbridge et al. 2004); that is, the ...
Cleavage patterns & (1997). Ruppert, E.E (1991). "Introduction to the aschelminth phyla: A consideration of mesoderm, body ... Valentine: Cleavage patterns. sfn error: no target: CITEREFValentine:_Cleavage_patterns (help) Valentine: ... The brachiopod body occupies only about one-third of the internal space inside the shell, nearest the hinge. The rest of the ... A lingulid moves its body up and down the top two-thirds of the burrow, while the remaining third is occupied only by the ...
ISBN 0-252-02384-6 Durham, Meenakshi G.; Oates, Thomas P. (2004). "The mismeasure of masculinity: the male body, 'race' and ... power in the enumerative discourses of the NFL Draft". Patterns of Prejudice. 38 (3): 301-320. doi:10.1080/0031322042000250475 ...
... mammillary bodies and arcuate nucleus". Gene Expression Patterns. 4 (1): 47-51. doi:10.1016/S1567-133X(03)00151-0. PMID ... In mouse it has been shown to be expressed in the telencephalic septum, pineal gland, the mammillary bodies and arcuate nucleus ...
Agouti Patterns (includes Agouti, Chinchilla, Cinnamon, Lynx, Opal, Red Agouti, Squirrel), Tan Patterns (includes Tans, Foxes, ... Body or loin markings to be broken up and not to catch the saddle. Chain markings, to be as even as possible on each side. Leg ... Body colour to be a creamy white [...] interspersed with jet black guard hairs to give a creamy chestnut shade." For the ... Fur over entire body should carry a liberal sprinkling of longer black guard hairs." For the Polish [UK], the BRC recognizes ...
Players can customize lots, choose terrain patterns and add roads, vegetation and neighborhood accents (such as water towers ... body build, skin color, hairstyles, clothing and personality. A new life stage is included between adolescence and adulthood: ... material or design pattern. The Sims 3 was a commercial success, selling 1.4 million copies in its first week. Critics issued ... material or design pattern. On October 29, 2009, Electronic Arts announced "Create a World" (CAW), which is a game world editor ...
Patterns of Prejudice. 36 (1): 79-103. doi:10.1080/003132202128811385. S2CID 144543830. Gilman, Sander (2000). Making the Body ... "Pauperism is a disease upon the community, a sore upon the body politic, and being a disease, it must be, as far as possible, ... John Belluso's play The Body of Bourne has a scene in which Randolph Bourne was confronted in Chicago due to an ugly law. While ... and the officer arresting him did so under the guise of the ugly law as the man had visible scars and marks on his body. The ...
Other factors include Snellville's distance from large bodies of water; its higher elevation, which can lead to rapid weather ... changes; prevailing wind patterns; and extensive tree cover, which reduces the urban heat island effect (an advantage during ...
The shield (conscutum) covers the entire dorsal body. It has a tortoiseshell pattern. The mouthparts section (the capitulum) is ... Body: Oval, sometimes broadly so, 1.9 x 1.6 mm- 3.2 x 2.3 mm; marginal body fold narrow but prominent; hairs dorsally sparse ... Ixodes holocyclus adult male: a, body (dorsal view); b, body (ventral view); c, capitulum (dorsal view); d, capitulum (ventral ... Other body systems affected by Lyme-like Disease. More common than EM are symptoms due to invasion by the spirochaete of the ...
5.1 Cat coat patterns and colors. *5.2 Body types. *6 Effects on human health *6.1 Therapy cats ... Cat coat patterns and colorsEdit. The coloration, pattern, length (short, medium or long), and texture of the coats of cats are ... Body typesEdit. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable ... More or less the middle range of body conformation types, this type of cat is less slender without being stocky. Example breeds ...
Cited in Luciana Borrelli, Francesca Gherardi, Graziano Fiorito (2006). Abstract A catalogue of body patterning in Cephalopoda ... Cited in Borrelli, Luciana; Gherardi, Francesca; Fiorito, Graziano (2006). A catalogue of body patterning in Cephalopoda. ... disruptive patterning, using colour and pattern to break up the animal's outline, which relates mainly to general resemblance; ... the kind of patterning used in military camouflage such as disruptive pattern material. Indeed, Cott describes such ...
Cited in Borrelli, Luciana; Gherardi, Francesca; Fiorito, Graziano (2006). A catalogue of body patterning in Cephalopoda. ... Book I The grouping of animals and the parts of the human body. Aristotle describes the parts that the human body is made of, ... Aristotle also noted that the young of the dogfish grow inside their mother's body attached by a cord to something like a ... Aristotle investigates four types of differences between animals: differences in particular body parts (Books I to IV); ...
Decorative patterning, though bold, was typically simple. Some works exhibit complex patterning, but the most humble are ... After drying, the frit body was then covered in a layer of white slip. Monochrome and polychrome underglaze with stains of ... The ornamental patterns and shapes on Raqqa Wares are not precise, and the materials used were coarse and inexpensive; this ... The pieces typically have a white body covered in siliceous glaze, with decorations in brown luster or blue and back underglaze ...
Some scholars have suggested that the distinctive cord-marked patterns observed on the faces and bodies of figures dated to ... Synonyms include bunshin (文身, lit., "patterning the body"), shisei (刺青, lit., "piercing with blue"), and gei (黥, lit., " ... A typical traditional body suit, covering the arms, back, thighs and chest, with a space left down the centre of the torso, can ... Donburi Sōshinbori: full body tattoo without the opening Gobu (五分): 5/10 sleeve tattoo, to above the elbow Hanebori (羽彫り) (lit ...
A catalogue of body patterning in Cephalopoda. Firenze University Press, 2006. Abstract Google books molluscs.at, Fresh Water ... Regeneration, many different unrelated species can grow new limbs, tail or other body parts, if body parts are lost. The ... It was thought that somebody had sewn a duck's beak onto the body of a beaver-like animal. Shaw even took a pair of scissors to ... The body shape of the prehistoric fish-like reptile Ophthalmosaurus was similar to those of other ichthyosaurians, dolphins ( ...
Cited in Borrelli, Luciana; Gherardi, Francesca; Fiorito, Graziano (2006). A catalogue of body patterning in Cephalopoda. ... Their bodies are flattened, with the sides thinning to an edge; the animals habitually press their bodies to the ground; and ... Terrain-specific patterns have sometimes been developed but are ineffective in other terrains. The problem of making a pattern ... Disruptive patterning is common in military usage, both for uniforms and for military vehicles. Disruptive patterning, however ...
A catalogue of body patterning in Cephalopoda. Firenze University Press, 2006. Abstract Google books Johnsen, Sönke (December ... In a study, some flounders demonstrated the ability to change pattern in eight seconds. They were able to match the pattern of ... The marine hatchetfish is extremely flattened laterally (side to side), leaving the body just millimetres thick, and the body ... Camouflage in large bodies of water differs markedly from camouflage on land. The environment is essentially the same on all ...
A catalogue of body patterning in Cephalopoda. Firenze University Press, 2006. Abstract Google books Sangiovanni, G (1819). " ... This means the pattern of colour change functionally matches the pattern of neuronal activation. This may explain why, as the ... The nerves that operate the chromatophores are thought to be positioned in the brain in a pattern isomorphic to that of the ... Many species are able to translocate the pigment inside their chromatophores, resulting in an apparent change in body colour. ...
Barlow, G. W. (1972). "The attitude of fish eye-lines in relation to body shape and to stripes and bars". Copeia. 1972 (1): 4- ... This includes the use of high-contrast disruptive patterns as used on military uniforms, but anything that delays recognition ... Several methods are often combined, so for example the Bushbuck is both countershaded over its whole body, and disruptively ... Military camouflage relies predominantly on disruptive patterns, though methods such as outline disruption are also used, and ...
Aortic body detects changes in blood oxygen and carbon dioxide, but not pH, while carotid body detects all three. They do not ... Zipfel, Cyril (July 2014). "Plant pattern-recognition receptors". Trends in Immunology. 35 (7): 345-351. doi:10.1016/j.it. ... Carotid bodies and aortic bodies detect changes primarily in pCO2 and H+ ion concentration. They also sense decrease in partial ... The resulting output from the CNS (central nervous system) makes body actions that will engage the food and enhance survival.[ ...
The markings to the ground pattern contrast must be extreme and distinct, giving a clear, sharply edged pattern. Body markings ... Legs and feet: Medium length such that the space between the ground and the body is roughly equal to the depth of the torso. ... These tiny spots occurring on the temples of the face (an area normally devoid of distinct pattern) proved genetically that the ... Body stripes shall generally be vertically aligned with encircling markings on neck, legs, and tail. Bold, braided, and non- ...
Mészáros Z, Mészáros J, Völgyi E, Sziva A, Pampakas P, Prókai A, Szmodis M (September 2008). "Body mass and body fat in ... Bogin, Barry (1999). Patterns of Human Growth. Cambridge University Press. pp. 226-. ISBN 978-0-521-56438-0. Popović S, et al ... "Size, body condition and adult mortality in rural The Gambia: a life history perspective" (PDF). London School of Economics. ... 2013). "Body Height and Its Estimation Utilizing Arm Span Measurements in Serbian Adults" (PDF). Int. J. Morphol. 31 (1): 271- ...
Skewbald patterns can occur.:479 The Kathiawari has a concave facial profile, with a broad forehead and short muzzle. The neck ... and body are proportional and relatively short, while both the head and tail are carried high. Although well-proportioned, many ...
From each segmental ganglion a branching system of local nerves runs into the body wall and then encircles the body.[7] However ... This pattern is called teloblastic growth.[7] Some groups of annelids, including all leeches,[14] have fixed maximum numbers of ... Many annelids move by peristalsis (waves of contraction and expansion that sweep along the body),[7] or flex the body while ... Parapodia are unjointed paired extensions of the body wall, and their muscles are derived from the circular muscles of the body ...
Thick & full with lots of body. Definite curl pattern. Hair tends to be frizzy. Can have a combination texture. ... Has a more of a defined kink pattern. 4b. Kinky (z coil). Tightly coiled. Little less defined kink pattern. Has more of a "Z"- ... Those variations include pattern (mainly tight coils), pattern size (watch spring to chalk), density (sparse to dense), strand ... Almost no visible defined kink pattern, unless seen from up close. Has more of a very tight "Z"-shaped pattern. ...
Development, axonal patterning, and guidance[edit]. Computational neuroscience aims to address a wide array of questions. How ... There is a large body of literature regarding how different currents interact with geometric properties of neurons.[21] ... Theoretical investigations into the formation and patterning of synaptic connection and morphology are still nascent. One ... It is also unknown what the computational functions of these specific connectivity patterns are, if any. ...
... which are responsible for the transport and transference of oxygen to tissue throughout the body, must increase the amount of ... mirror current frustrations with fMRI and stem from the indirect nature of both techniques and reliance on individual patterns ...
This growth pattern exerts an effect at the base of the skull, which is not even when the child is assessed from a point of ... Syndromal craniosynostosis presents with a skull deformity as well as deformities affecting other parts of the body.[42] ... thereby changing the growth pattern of the skull.[3] Because the skull cannot expand perpendicular to the fused suture, it ... the assessment of the skull deformity and the search for deformities affecting other parts of the body.[16] The head ...
Patterns of CultureEdit. Benedict's Patterns of Culture (1934) was translated into fourteen languages and was published in many ... In their bodies is the record of their brotherhood." The Chrysanthemum and the SwordEdit. Main article: The Chrysanthemum and ... Benedict is known not only for her earlier Patterns of Culture but also for her later book The Chrysanthemum and the Sword, the ... Benedict, in Patterns of Culture, expresses her belief in cultural relativism. She desired to show that each culture has its ...
Industrial Relations: Origins and Patterns of National Diversity. London UK: Routledge. *^ [1] OECD. Retrieved: 1 December 2017 ... Despite this, unions were formed and began to acquire political power, eventually resulting in a body of labour law that not ... The post-World War II era also saw an increased pattern of unionization in the public service. Teachers, nurses, social workers ... as opposed to the dominating Danish pattern of extensive services and organizing.[66] ...
... bodies are elevated in the blood (ketosis) after fasting, including a night of sleep; in both blood and urine in ... depending on alkene substitution pattern.[14] ... and beta-hydroxybutyrate are collectively called ketone bodies ...
... of the student body, which is higher than the 23% found in magnet schools without such services. Moreover, 11.9% of magnet ... Board of Education US Supreme Court decision revealed a pattern later characterized as white flight, the hypersegregation of ...
Fungi digest organic matter outside their bodies as opposed to animals that digest their food inside their bodies. For humans, ... but there are numerous physical and psychological conditions that can affect appetite and disrupt normal eating patterns. These ... the body starts to produce the feeling of hunger. The body also stimulates eating by detecting a drop in cellular lipid levels ... As time passes between meals, the body starts to take nutrients from long-term reservoirs.[20] When the glucose levels of cells ...
This pattern is often identified in aquatic and coral reef ecosystems. The pattern of biomass inversion is attributed to ... To maintain their bodies, grow, develop, and to reproduce, autotrophs produce organic matter from inorganic substances, ... Scaling laws, complexity, choas, and patterned correlates are common features attributed to food web structure.[68][69] ... These formulas are the basis for comparing and investigating the nature of non-random patterns in the structure of food web ...
Douzery, E.; Randi, E. (November 1997). "The mitochondrial control region of Cervidae: evolutionary patterns and phylogenetic ... Body Length Shoulder Height Tail Length Weight 75-100 cm 45-55 cm 6-7.5 cm 9-14 kg ...
This is not quite enough as it also needs to be proven that the pattern of inheritance is non-Mendelian. This would require ... For early geneticists, it was not immediately clear that the smooth variation in traits like body size (i.e., Incomplete ... Thus, due to the nature of polygenic traits, inheritance will not follow the same pattern as a simple monohybrid or dihybrid ... Due to the involved nature of genetic investigations needed to determine such inheritance patterns, this is not usually the ...
The final result incorporates all of the hair into a smoothly woven pattern over the scalp. ...
Any pattern and colour is allowed.[3] The temperament of the Gotland rabbit is described as lively and curious, with the rabbit ... The variety is of medium size with an adult weight of 3-4 kg (6.6-8.8 lb). The body of the doe is relatively elongated with a ...
After S. pneumoniae colonizes the air sacs of the lungs, the body responds by stimulating the inflammatory response, causing ... susceptibility patterns and antimicrobial management". The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 14 (9): 751-9. doi:10.1097/ ... is generally made based on clinical suspicion along with a positive culture from a sample from virtually any place in the body ...
Wickramasinghe, Nira (2003). Dressing the Colonised Body: Politics, Clothing, and Identity in Sri Lanka. Orient Longman. p. 26 ... The case marking pattern for each noun being inflected depends on the noun's degree of animacy. When a definite article such as ... The dialect in the Chittagong region is least widely understood by the general body of Bengalis.[55] The majority of Bengalis ... Many speakers of Bengali restrict their phonology to this pattern, even when using Sanskrit or English borrowings, such as ...
Like other groups, the members of this family show patterns in their electron configurations, especially the outermost shells, ... There is normally as little as 0.5 milligrams found within the entire human body; human breast milk contains 4 ppm.[82] Yttrium ... the element is the least abundant in the human body of all lanthanides.[83] Human diets have not been monitored for lutetium ...
"The Vein Patterns of Leaves" (Drawings).. *. Massey, Jimmy R.; Murphy, James C. (1996). "Vascular plant systematics". NC Botnet ... Esau, Katherine (2006) [1953]. Evert, Ray F (ed.). Esau's Plant Anatomy: Meristems, Cells, and Tissues of the Plant Body: Their ... Feugier, François (14 December 2006). Models of Vascular Pattern Formation in Leaves (PhD Thesis). University of Paris VI.. ... The pattern of the veins is called venation. In angiosperms the venation is typically parallel in monocotyledons and forms an ...
Beck, Roger B. (1999). World History: Patterns of Interaction. Evanston, IL: McDougal Littell. ISBN 978-0-395-87274-1. .. ... Probe body on Harappa park, Dawn. Retrieved 13 January 2006. Archived 11 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine ...
Artificial respiration, the act of simulating respiration, which provides for the overall exchange of gases in the body by ... Cheyne-Stokes respiration, an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by progressively deeper and sometimes faster ...
Their bodies will take in the water. Their bodies are thin and have a lot of blood vessels, this helps them to be able to take ... Duellman, William Edward (1999), Patterns of distribution of amphibians: a global perspective, JHU Press, ISBN 0801861152. CS1 ... They will spread it all over their bodies. The mucus will harden to keep the water it produces from escaping. Once the desert ... They are sometimes called "worm salamanders". This is because they have slimmer (skinny) bodies than most salamanders.[13]p182 ...
It is 50-65 cm (20-26 in) long - of which the body makes up around two-thirds - has a wingspan of 81-98 cm (32-39 in),[22]:505 ... "Hybridization patterns and the evolution of reproductive isolation in ducks". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 77 (2 ... The mallard is 50-65 cm (20-26 in) long, of which the body makes up around two-thirds the length. The wingspan is 81-98 cm (32- ... 1992). CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-4258-5. .. ...
The Lower Paleolithic Homo erectus possibly invented rafts (c. 840,000 - c. 800,000 BP) to travel over large bodies of water, ... Early examples of artistic expression, such as the Venus of Tan-Tan and the patterns found on elephant bones from Bilzingsleben ... Human population density was very low, around only one person per square mile.[3] This was most likely due to low body fat, ... The Woman in the Shaman's Body: Reclaiming the Feminine in Religion and Medicine. New York: Bantam. ...
The pattern of the dress was based on the Goloka Yantra mandala, shaped as a lotus with eight petals. Visitors were invited to ... Chakra - Subtle body psychic-energy centers in the esoteric traditions of Indian religions ... In New Age, the mandala is a diagram, chart or geometric pattern that represents the cosmos metaphysically or symbolically; a ... As a meditation on impermanence (a central teaching of Buddhism), after days or weeks of creating the intricate pattern of a ...
Their bodies were buried in mass graves initially.[79] Both Treblinka and Bełżec were equipped with powerful crawler excavators ... "a destruction process has an inherent pattern" and the "sequence of steps in a destruction process is thus determined". If a ... some 30 wagons of dead bodies were taken to mass graves. As noted by Browning, the killings were led by a commander "who ... and two freight elevators were installed inside Crematoria II and III for moving the bodies faster. The size of the ...
The black wildebeest is typically 170-220 cm (67-87 in) in head-and-body length, and the typical weight is 110-180 kg (240-400 ... Maloney, S. K.; Moss, G.; Cartmell, T.; Mitchell, D. (28 July 2005). "Alteration in diet activity patterns as a ... The black wildebeest can maintain its body temperature within a small range in spite of large fluctuations in external ... The head-and-body length is typically between 170 and 220 cm (67 and 87 in). Males reach about 111 to 121 cm (44 to 48 in) at ...
"The Body Project: An Intimate History of American Girls. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. pp. 57-94. ISBN 9780307755742. . ... inheritance pattern. These gene candidates include certain variations in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1 alpha, ... some soldiers in tropical climates developed such severe and widespread tropical acne on their bodies that they were declared ... and have a wave-like pattern of depth in the skin.[32] ... and usually occur on the trunk of the body.[32] ...
Foreign bodies (such as fingers during nose-picking). *Inflammatory reaction (e.g. acute respiratory tract infections, chronic ... Pattern. *Agonal respiration. *Biot's respiration. *Cheyne-Stokes respiration. *Kussmaul breathing. *Ataxic respiration ...
Due to the speed of infection and mortality, birds are in good body condition and do not exhibit the signs of prolonged illness ... Multi-species patterns of avian cholera mortality in Nebraska's rainwater basin. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 42: 81-91 ...
... this information should also be included in the body of the article. (June 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template ... Dice, playing cards and other gaming devices traditionally split quantities into subitizable groups with recognizable patterns ... A similar pattern of reaction times is found in young children, although with steeper slopes for both the subitizing range and ...
In order to catch their prey pickerel frogs will often search grassy areas next to bodies of water.[3] ... Another important distinguishing mark is the orange or yellow flash pattern found on the inner surface of the hind legs of ...
Media in category "Football kit body/club specific patterns". The following 200 files are in this category, out of 877 total. ... Category:Football kit body/club specific patterns. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Football_kit_body/club_specific_patterns&oldid= ... Football kit body/Club Deportivo Junior Fútbol Club S.A.‎ (79 F) ...
Language Patterns Reveal Bodys Hidden Response to Stress. Volunteers use of certain words predicted stress-related changes in ... The speech patterns predicted those physiological changes more accurately than speakers own ratings of their stress levels. ... These biological changes seem to represent the bodys evolutionary response to threat, says Steve Cole, a genomicist at the ...
A new report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) analyzes patterns of body weight for the U.S. adult ... New CDC Report Analyzes Patterns of Body Weight in US Adults. ... The categories of body mass index used in this analysis are ... Body Weight Status of Adults: United States, 1997-98. Advance Data No. 330. 16 pp. (PHS) 2002-1250. pdf icon[PDF - 463 KB] ... Height and weight data are collected in the National Health Interview Survey to study the associations between relative body ...
The head-body pattern is a common XML design pattern, used for example in the SOAP protocol. This pattern is useful when a ... In this pattern the meta-data or meta-information are structured as the header, sometimes known as the envelope. The ordinary ... XML is employed for both head and body (see also XML Protocol). v t e. ... data or information are structured as the body, sometimes known as the payload. ...
Molecular geometry of body pattern in birds. [A Lima-de-Faria] -- Annotation The unexpected patterns displayed by a birds body ... pattern_in_birds> ;. schema:name "Molecular geometry of body pattern in birds"@en ;. schema:productID "781943800" ;. schema: ... pattern_in_birds>. a schema:CreativeWork ;. rdfs:label "Molecular geometry of body pattern in birds." ;. schema:description " ... The unexpected patterns on a birds body are often seen as bizarre events that demand little attention. This book presents ...
Historical Patterns Translated for the Modern Body goes a step beyond traditional his ... but by showing you how to adapt these patterns to the contemporary body shape. Using her original pattern-drafting system, ... Stays and Corsets: Historical Patterns Translated for the Modern Body. ISBN , Quantity: ... Stays and Corsets: Historical Patterns Translated for the Modern Body goes a step beyond traditional historical costuming texts ...
New research by Columbia scientists offers fresh insight into how the brain tells the body to move, from simple behaviors like ... Scientists reveal how patterns of brain activity direct specific body movements Study in mice answers long-standing scientific ... Scientists reveal how patterns of brain activity direct specific body movements. The Zuckerman Institute at Columbia University ... "In this study, we were able to view the interaction between brain and body in real time, allowing us to see exactly when the ...
The quality of foods eaten and eating patterns in Ramadan may be different from other months of the year. Food intake... ... Poh B, Zawiah H, Ismail M, Henry C. Changes in body weight, dietary intake and activity pattern of adolescents during Ramadan. ... There is, however, scarcity of data on the dietary diversity, food patterns and body weight changes of adolescents who fast ... The objective of the present study was to describe the food patterns, dietary diversity and body weight changes among ...
full body training using all primal movement patterns. Ask or answer questions, discuss and express your views. ... Im having bit of trouble figuring out the best way to train for a stronger more functional body.. Do I do a full body workout ... Im having bit of trouble figuring out the best way to train for a stronger more functional body.. Do I do a full body workout ... 1) Start out low and allow your body to adapt. 2) Dont push it too hard, too long. Anything Work.... for a novice/beginner. ...
Tagged with: comprehensive evaluation, cross-body patterning, neurodevelopment programs, neuropsychologist Special Ed Services ... 2) I would enroll my child in SWIMMING from the beginning as it is a CONSTANT cross-body patterning exercise- The others (we ... YOUR child may enjoy other cross-body patterning exercises MUCH more, so chose an activity your child likes and will willingly ... I do, however, recommend you keep your child involved in physical activities/sports that require cross-body patterning (side-to ...
The elongated lesion patterns can continuous or interrupted, depending upon the orientation of the energy emitters. ... emitters of ablating energy in straight or curvilinear positions in contact with tissue to form elongated lesion patterns. ... as lesion pattern 202 in FIG. 33B shows) or along a curve (as lesion pattern 206 in FIG. 34B shows). Elongated lesion patterns ... lesion patterns. These elongated lesion patterns can be continuous and extend along a straight line (as lesion pattern 200 in ...
... or different partial-body irradiation (PBI) patterns. Knowledge of the exposure pattern is expected to improve prediction of ... miRNA Expression Patterns Differ by Total- or Partial-Body Radiation Exposure in Baboons. ... We examined miRNA species in 17 irradiated baboons receiving an upper-body, left hemibody or total-body irradiation of 2.5 or 5 ... P. Ostheim, J. Haupt, F. Herodin, M. Valente, M. Drouet, M. Majewski, M. Port, and M. Abend "miRNA Expression Patterns Differ ...
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Spinal motor neuron protein supersaturation patterns are associated with inclusion body formation in ALS.. Ciryam P1,2,3, ... Spinal motor neuron protein supersaturation patterns are associated with inclusion body formation in ALS ... Spinal motor neuron protein supersaturation patterns are associated with inclusion body formation in ALS ... Spinal motor neuron protein supersaturation patterns are associated with inclusion body formation in ALS ...
Effective regulation of breathing pattern is essential for many different mammalian processes such as energy production, ... They found that this resulted in a change in the breathing patterns of the rats from a normal pattern to a gasping pattern. ... Study: Hydrogen sulfide produced by the body is key to generate normal breathing pattern. *Download PDF Copy ... However, hydrogen sulfide is produced in small quantities in the body by an enzyme called cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and is ...
Regional variation in sweating over the body is widely recognised. However, most studies only measured a limited number of ... Body mapping of sweating patterns in male athletes in mild exercise-induced hyperthermia. ... Jackson AS, Pollock ML (1978) Generalized equations for predicting body density of men. Br J Nutr 40:497-504PubMedCrossRef ... Watkins ES (1956) The effect on sweating of pressure on the body surface. Exp Physiol 41(3):263-270Google Scholar ...
5 finished Included: 6 paper pieced block patterns with sewing order. See all my patterns at sewhooked.com. BASIC SKILLS ... Busy Bodies includes 6 patterns: Broomstick Witch, Fortune Teller, Green Thumb Witch, Wise Old Wizard, Oopsie Daisy Witch and ... This pattern was designed by a Craftsy independent design partner!. *. Youll purchase through PayPal and all profits go to the ... PATTERN DETAILS. ***UPDATED FOR 2013*** Sunbonnet Sues Magical Friends are inspired by the classic Sunbonnet Sue and Overall ...
STEPPING PATTERNS IN ANTS - INFLUENCE OF BODY MORPHOLOGY Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Journal of ... Females and males show metachronal interleg coordination patterns rather than the alternating tripod coordination pattern seen ... Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Journal of Experimental Biology web site. ... The geometric properties of the footfall patterns resulting from the alternating tripod gait scale to leg dimensions in a ...
Vet body seeks combined vaccine for animals on Haryana pattern. Vet body seeks combined vaccine for animals on Haryana pattern ...
Body fat patterning and blood pressure in children and young adults. The Bogalusa Heart Study.. C L Shear, D S Freedman, G L ... Body fat patterning and blood pressure in children and young adults. The Bogalusa Heart Study. ... Body fat patterning and blood pressure in children and young adults. The Bogalusa Heart Study. ... Body fat patterning and blood pressure in children and young adults. The Bogalusa Heart Study. ...
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Patterning mechanisms in the body trunk and the appendages of Drosophila Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... 1995) Quantitative effects of hedgehog and decapentaplegic activity on the patterning of the Drosophila wing. Curr. Biol 5, 432 ... 1994) The wingless signalling pathway and the patterning of the wing margin in Drosophila. Development 120, 621-636. ... 1997) Hedgehog organises the pattern and polarity of epidermal cells in the Drosophila abdomen. Development 124, 2143-2154. ...
Higher (total) dairy was associated with lower body mass index, %body fat, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio (P,0.001 ... Higher cheese consumption was associated with higher C-peptide (P,0.001). Dietary pattern analysis identified three patterns ( ... identify patterns of dairy food consumption and determine whether dairy dietary patterns are associated with outcomes of ... Patterns of dairy food consumption, of different fat contents, were identified using cluster analysis. ...
Glucose absorption patterns and body size. The velocity of glucose absorption (T1/2) was inversely associated with both height ... Despite the close linkage of glucose absorption patterns, plasma glucose levels, and body size shown in this study, more ... CONCLUSIONS Glucose absorption patterns during an OGTT are significantly related to plasma glucose levels and body size, which ... Moreover, we examined whether differences in body size could explain any observed differences in glucose absorption patterns ...
"Body Patterning" by people in this website by year, and whether "Body Patterning" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Body Patterning" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Body Patterning" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Body Patterning". ...
The expression of the mouse Zic1, Zic2, and Zic3 gene suggests an essential role for Zic genes in body pattern formation.. ... The changed expression pattern in Wnt-3a mutant mice suggests that Zic genes in the neural tube are regulated by the factors ... Furthermore, analysis of gene expression patterns in different mouse mutants indicated that Zic genes may act upstream of many ...
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM) is an international peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that seeks to understand the sources and to encourage rigorous research in this new, yet ancient world of complementary and alternative medicine.
... regenerative body shape by resetting their internal bioelectric pattern memory, causing even normal-appearing flatworms to ... Researchers reveal bioelectric patterns guiding worms regenerative body plan after injury. by Tufts University ... Citation: Researchers reveal bioelectric patterns guiding worms regenerative body plan after injury (2017, May 23) retrieved 8 ... and the body-wide bioelectric gradients serve as a kind of pattern memory," said Fallon Durant, the papers first author and a ...
The diversity of the arthropod body plan has long been a fascinating subject of study. A flurry of recent research has analyzed ... Exploring the myriapod body plan: expression patterns of the ten Hox genes in a centipede. ... 2002). Exploring the myriapod body plan: expression patterns of the ten Hox genes in a centipede. Development (Cambridge), 129( ... Exploring the myriapod body plan: expression patterns of the ten Hox genes in a centipede ...
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are phylogenetically conserved signaling molecules that belong to the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta superfamily and are involved in the cascades of body patterning and morphogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • No significant correlation was present between RSR and regional skin temperature ( T sk ), nor did RSR correspond to known patterns of regional sweat gland density. (springer.com)
  • The circadian clock is the internal biological timing system that regulates the daily fluctuations in heartbeat, blood pressure, kidney function, secretion of hormones, body temperature, and sensory perception. (ausfoodnews.com.au)
  • Review relationships among circadian clocks, core body temperature (CBT), and fertility in women. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • Core body temperature (CBT) also follows a circadian rhythm. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • In women with normal reproductive function, the diurnal temperature pattern for CBT is strongly influenced by the menstrual cycle of reproductive hormones, primarily estradiol and progesterone, which modulate the activity of hypothalamic neural circuits involved in body temperature control, resulting in an infradian CBT rhythm. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • In addition, we surveyed the literature to review the effect of body mass on core body temperature range in relation to environmental temperature in the Testudinidae. (uzh.ch)
  • The mean air temperature at which activity is maximized was 27.9°C, with a range of 25.8-31.7°C. Furthermore, air temperature explained changes in the core body temperature better than did mass, and only during the coldest trial, did tortoises with higher mass show more stable temperatures. (uzh.ch)
  • Global rates and patterns of fecundity in marine epipelagic copepods were studied as a function of temperature, body weight of the female and concentration of chlorophyll a. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • Fecundity was positively correlated with temperature and body weight in both broadcast and sac spawners. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • Body temperature (Tb) is an important physiological component that affects endotherms from the cellular to whole organism level, but measurements of Tb in the field have been noticeably skewed towards heterothermic species and seasonal comparisons are largely lacking. (up.ac.za)
  • Interestingly, body mass had only a small effect on variation in Tb and there was no consistent pattern relating ambient temperature to variation in Tb. (up.ac.za)
  • WARM In contrast to synthetics, merino is an active fibre that reacts to changes in body temperature. (granniesinc.co.uk)
  • 1994 ) Compartment boundaries and the control of Drosophila limb pattern by the hedgehog protein. (biologists.org)
  • 1989 ) Proxinal-distal pattern formation in Drosophila: cell autonomous requirement for Distal-less gene activity in limb development. (biologists.org)
  • To evaluate histologic changes and gene expression patterns in body and limb wounds in horses in response to bacterial inoculation. (nih.gov)
  • Gene expression of interleukin-1β and -6, serum amyloid A, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 was higher in limb wounds versus body wounds by day 27. (nih.gov)
  • Gene expression of cellular communication network factor 1 was higher in limb wounds versus body wounds throughout the observation period. (nih.gov)
  • Changes consistent with protracted inflammation were evident in limb wounds, and gene expression patterns of limb wounds shared similarities with those of chronic wounds in humans. (nih.gov)
  • Abnormal patterns of microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2) immunolabeling in neuronal nuclei and Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease substantia nigra brain tissues. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with the appearance of cytoplasmic Lewy bodies (LBs) in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra and the progressive loss of these neurons. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A panel of epitope-specific antibodies detects protein domains distributed throughout human alpha-synuclein in Lewy bodies of Parkinson's disease. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Nigral and cortical Lewy bodies and dystrophic nigral neurites in Parkinson's disease and cortical Lewy body disease contain alpha-synuclein immunoreactivity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common cause of degenerative dementia after Alzheimer's disease. (elsevier.com)
  • The 1997-98 survey found that more than one-half of adults were overweight (including about 20 percent who were obese), about 40 percent were at a healthy weight, and only 2 percent were considered underweight, according to standard body mass index classifications. (cdc.gov)
  • Eligibility criteria for selecting studies We included randomised controlled trials ≥3 weeks assessing the effect of pasta alone or in the context of low-GI dietary patterns on measures of global (body weight, body mass index (BMI), body fat) and regional (waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD)) adiposity in adults. (bmj.com)
  • Eating Patterns, Body Mass Index, and Food Deserts: Does It Matter Where We Live? (cdc.gov)
  • In this setting, they found no consistent evidence that consumption of healthier foods or body mass index (BMI) were associated with density of food outlets commonly reported to carry less healthful foods. (cdc.gov)
  • Limited evidence suggests that dietary patterns consumed by children or adolescents that are lower in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy while being higher in added sugars, refined grains, fried potatoes, and processed meats are associated with higher fat-mass index and BMI later in adolescence. (dietaryguidelines.gov)
  • Structural equation modelling was applied to test our hypothesised models relating dietary patterns, energy intake and adiposity (body mass index) at 14 y to adiposity and the pro-inflammatory adipokine (leptin) and inflammation (high sensitivity C-reactive protein - hs-CRP) at 17 y, and these inflammatory markers to depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory) and Internalising and Externalising Behavioral Problems (Child Behavior Check List Youth Self- Report) at 17 y. (fabresearch.org)
  • Background: Due to the rise of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and lifestyle changes, this study aimed at determining the subclasses of Iranian adults based on body mass index, some NCDs, and status of physical component of quality of life. (sid.ir)
  • 7% of the individuals and was characterized by individuals exhibiting high probability of body mass index (BMI) equal or more than 25, kidney inadequacy, hypertension, and moderate physical component of quality of life status. (sid.ir)
  • Conclusion: This study showed the pattern of body mass index, chronic diseases, and physical component of quality of life. (sid.ir)
  • Conventional Body Mass Index (BMI) is limited in measuring the weight gain in individuals of all population groups and this gives the need for more reliable anthropometric index such as waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio to measure body composition. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Waist-to-height, waist-to-hip ratio and Body Mass Index were calculated. (alliedacademies.org)
  • This study assessed the effects of age, Body Mass Index (BMI) and depression severity on the activity-rest cycle in persons with affective disorders using a novel multifactorial 24-h analysis method. (biomedcentral.com)
  • I really prefer well rounded program, as i define functional exercise by covering all primal movement patterns: in all directions, as you suggested. (exrx.net)
  • N = 14,384) and compare nutrient intakes, with focus on 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines' shortfall nutrients, diet quality, and health parameters of those consuming various grain food patterns to those not consuming grains. (scirp.org)
  • Conclusions: Certain grain food patterns are associated with greater 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines' shortfall nutrients, better diet quality and lower body weights in adults. (scirp.org)
  • BMP modulators regulate the function of BMP during body patterning and disease progression. (nih.gov)
  • These findings support recent pathological studies showing an ascending pattern of Lewy body progression from brainstem to basal areas of the brain. (elsevier.com)
  • Body Patterning" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • Snowflake Patterned Stretch Helenka Mesh & Stretch Lace Cami & Body Short Set with Free Shipping and Low Prices. (lingeriediva.com)
  • The objective of the study was to examine associations between dairy food intake and metabolic health, identify patterns of dairy food consumption and determine whether dairy dietary patterns are associated with outcomes of metabolic health, in a cross-sectional survey. (nature.com)
  • The research showed that the altered target morphology-the shape to which the worms regenerate upon damage-was encoded not in their histology, molecular marker expression, or stem cell distribution, but rather in a bioelectric pattern that instructs one of two possible anatomical outcomes after subsequent damage. (phys.org)
  • lower in meats (including red and processed meats), and low in sugar-sweetened foods and beverages, and refined grains are associated with favorable outcomes related to body weight, (including lower BMI, waist circumference, or percent body fat) or risk of obesity. (dietaryguidelines.gov)
  • Components of the dietary patterns associated with these favorable outcomes include higher intakes of unsaturated fats and lower intakes of saturated fats, cholesterol, and sodium. (dietaryguidelines.gov)
  • Observational studies suggest that dietary patterns may impact mental health outcomes, although biologically plausible pathways are yet to be tested. (fabresearch.org)
  • Moreover, work carried out principally in Drosophila has identified the gene products and the mechanisms involved in pattern formation in the appendages. (biologists.org)
  • 1994 ) The wingless signalling pathway and the patterning of the wing margin in Drosophila. (biologists.org)
  • 1995 ) Control of Drosophila adult pattern by extradenticle . (biologists.org)
  • 1995 ) The function of engrailed and the specification of Drosophila wing pattern. (biologists.org)
  • Second, we found two 'extra' Hox genes in the centipede compared with those in DROSOPHILA: Based on its pattern of expression, Hox3 appears to have a typical Hox-like role in the centipede, suggesting that the novel functions of the Hox3 homologs zen and bicoid were adopted somewhere in the crustacean-insect clade. (rti.org)
  • Top left: Matrix sorted so that neurons with similar patterns of. (eurekalert.org)
  • These results suggest that inclusion bodies in various forms of ALS result from a set of proteins that are metastable in motor neurons, and thus prone to aggregation upon a disease-related progressive collapse of protein homeostasis in this specific setting. (nih.gov)
  • Matrix sorted so that neurons with similar patterns of activity were clustered together. (kavlifoundation.org)
  • In male sensory ray patterning, lack of cet-1 function results in ray fusions. (biologists.org)
  • Conclusions Pasta in the context of low-GI dietary patterns does not adversely affect adiposity and even reduces body weight and BMI compared with higher-GI dietary patterns. (bmj.com)
  • We aimed to elucidate the longitudinal relationship between dietary patterns, adiposity, inflammation and mental health including depressive symptoms in a population-based cohort of adolescents. (fabresearch.org)
  • A 'Western' dietary pattern associates with an increased risk of mental health problems including depressive symptoms in adolescents, through biologically plausible pathways of adiposity and inflammation, whereas a 'Healthy' dietary pattern appears protective in these pathways. (fabresearch.org)
  • Longitudinal modelling into adulthood is indicated to confirm the complex associations of dietary patterns, adiposity, inflammation and mental health problems, including depressive symptoms. (fabresearch.org)
  • We aimed to elucidate the longitudinal relationship between dietary patterns, adiposity, inflammation and mental health including depressive symptoms in a population-based cohort of adolescents.Methods: Data were provided from 843 adolescents participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study at 14 and 17 years (y) of age. (edu.au)
  • Differences in metabolic health markers across patterns and tertiles of dairy consumption were tested via analysis of covariance. (nature.com)
  • Patterns of dairy food consumption, of different fat contents, were identified using cluster analysis. (nature.com)
  • conclusion: Overall, these results suggest that while milk and yogurt consumption is associated with a favourable body phenotype, the blood lipid profiles are less favourable when eaten as part of a low-fat high-carbohydrate dietary pattern. (nature.com)
  • Analyses examined consumption patterns for milk and 100% juice in relation to diet quality, AAP recommendations, and BMI z-scores across time and for different age groups. (frontiersin.org)
  • In a radiation exposure event, a likely scenario may include either total-body irradiation (TBI) or different partial-body irradiation (PBI) patterns. (bioone.org)
  • We examined miRNA species in 17 irradiated baboons receiving an upper-body, left hemibody or total-body irradiation of 2.5 or 5 Gy. (bioone.org)
  • The apparent ability of rats to voluntarily select a dietary according to the needs of the body was utilized in a study to detect possible metabolic derangements subsequent to a dose of 375 rad whole-body X-irradiation. (dtic.mil)
  • Upon irradiation at the level employed, rats fed a basal pre-mixed diet lost significantly more body weight than similarly treated rats selecting their own diet. (dtic.mil)
  • In the over-all pattern, the proportion of casein selected progressively increased whereas that of sucrose decreased subsequent to the irradiation. (dtic.mil)
  • ANKS6 is the critical activator of NEK8 kinase in embryonic situs determination and organ patterning. (umassmed.edu)
  • 1991 ) Pattern formation in the nematode epidermis: determination of the arrangement of peripheral sense organs in the C. elegans male tail. (biologists.org)
  • We and others have previously suggested that the difference in post-OGTT glucose concentration is a consequence of the relatively higher dose of glucose given to women compared with men when seen in relation to their body size ( 3 , 4 , 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • OBJECTIVE We studied whether patterns of glucose absorption during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were abnormal in individuals with impaired glucose regulation and whether they were related to sex and body size (height and fat-free mass). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS Glucose absorption patterns during an OGTT are significantly related to plasma glucose levels and body size, which should be taken into account when estimating β-cell function from OGTTs in epidemiological studies. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Whether such sex differences in glucose absorption patterns can be explained by differences in body size has not been previously determined. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. (umassmed.edu)
  • Twenty-four men and women with a wide range of age and body size sat in each of the seats for one hour on two different days while watching videos and completing a discomfort questionnaire every five minutes. (umich.edu)
  • Body size has long been a central area of research in both ecology and paleoecology. (ucsb.edu)
  • Our aim is to synthesize the patterns of body size distribution across local to broad geographic space and from contemporary to ¿deep¿ time, and then to examine the processes that lead to the observed patterns. (ucsb.edu)
  • What is the relationship between dietary patterns consumed and growth, size, body composition, and risk of overweight and obesity? (dietaryguidelines.gov)
  • No evidence is available to determine a relationship between diets based on macronutrient distribution consumed during childhood and growth, size, body composition, and risk of overweight/obesity. (dietaryguidelines.gov)
  • Testis size scales with body size and, after controlling for this allometry, relative testis size increases with risk of sperm competition, as defined by female mating frequency. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Both eupyrene (fertilizing) and apyrene (non-fertile) sperm lengths correlate positively with body size. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • After controlling for body size, relative eupyrene sperm lengths are greater in species where males experience higher risks of sperm competition. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Instead, apyrene sperm show closer associations with body size which, if female tract morphometry correlates with body size, is consistent with the hypothesis that apyrene sperm retard female sexual receptivity by moving while in storage. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • 28. Adult Size Phoenix Tail Pattern Luminous Dragon Danci. (china-cart.com)
  • To figure out what size to make, it's best to measure across the bust, add ease, and cut out the appropriate pattern piece. (textureclothing.com)
  • You can decide if you want to send the pattern to be plotted out at a printer or if you want to print it on legal or letter size and tape it together. (textureclothing.com)
  • Based on self-reported height and weight collected in CDC's National Health Interview Survey, the report classifies adults by relative body weight (underweight, healthy weight, overweight and obese). (cdc.gov)
  • For more information on the survey conducted by CDC's National Center for Health Statistics or to view and download a copy of "Body Weight Status of Adults: United States, 1997-98," by Charlotte Schoenborn, Patricia Adams, and Patricia Barnes visit the NCHS Web site . (cdc.gov)
  • Body fat patterning and blood pressure in children and young adults. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1994 ) Targeted expression of the signalling molecule decapentaplegic induces pattern duplications and growth alterations in Drosophia wings. (biologists.org)
  • Ly6/uPAR-Related Protein C4.4A as a Marker of Solid Growth Pattern and Poor Prognosis in Lung Adenoc. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, the relationship between peripheral body fat and blood pressure, after controlling for the level of central body fat, was negligible (r = 0.00 and 0.01 for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively). (ahajournals.org)
  • between body muscle of the patients and diastolic blood pressure (p=0.055). (alliedacademies.org)
  • Significant relationship was found between waist-to-height ratio and systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and between age and diastolic blood pressure, and between body muscle and diastolic blood pressure. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Background: Maternal diet during pregnancy may affect body composition of the offspring later in life, but evidence is still scarce. (eur.nl)
  • Objective: We aimed to examine whether maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy are associated with body composition of the child at age 6 y. (eur.nl)
  • Conclusion: Our results suggest that the associations between maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and body composition of the child at age 6 y are to a large extent explained by sociodemographic and lifestyle factors of mother and child. (eur.nl)
  • Blood pressure pattern and body composition of hypertensive outpatients attending University college hospital, Ibadan. (alliedacademies.org)
  • This study evaluates the relationship between blood pressure pattern and body composition of the hypertensive outpatients who were attending University College Hospital, Ibadan, and Oyo State, Nigeria. (alliedacademies.org)
  • A 'Bizarre' Chippendale jardiniere in the 'Crocus' pattern, painted in colours, rubber stamp mark (fine hairline crack to body) -- 9¼in. (christies.com)
  • The yoke design is taken from Sandra Manson's Hairst pattern and is available here to purchase in a variety of colours. (shetlandwoolbrokers.co.uk)
  • Please note - although the main body shade is listed here the yoke colours may be different in each garment, they are hand made and therefore retain their individuality - just like the knitters who make them. (shetlandwoolbrokers.co.uk)
  • NOTES Colours and patterns may vary slightly due to the handmade nature of this product. (granniesinc.co.uk)
  • The present study has provided detailed regional sweat data over the whole body and has demonstrated large intra- and inter-segmental variation and the presence of consistent patterns of regional high versus low sweat rate areas in Caucasians male athletes. (springer.com)
  • The expression patterns of the Hox genes in the centipede are in many cases intermediate between those of the chelicerates and those of the insects and crustaceans, consistent with the proposed intermediate phylogenetic position of the Myriapoda. (rti.org)
  • A new report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) analyzes patterns of body weight for the U.S. adult population. (cdc.gov)
  • Height and weight data are collected in the National Health Interview Survey to study the associations between relative body weight status and a variety of other health characteristics, including health limitations, chronic conditions, injuries, health care and other health-related behaviors. (cdc.gov)
  • The objective of the present study was to describe the food patterns, dietary diversity and body weight changes among adolescents during Ramadan. (springer.com)
  • Food pattern was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire, a 24-h dietary recall was used to assess dietary diversity and body weight was measured using an electronic scale. (springer.com)
  • In this prospective cohort study among schooling Ghanaian adolescents who fast during Ramadan, fasting was characterised by marked changes in usual food patterns, increased dietary diversity and significant body weight loss. (springer.com)
  • I train at a gym, also do some form of cardio(am experimenting between which energy system i want to target, unsure which will go best with developing a healthier body) prefer body weight movements as i feel it more natural. (exrx.net)
  • This study evaluated changes in balance, lower extremity motor function, and spatiotemporal gait parameters after receiving body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) and conventional overground walking training (CT) in patients with subacute stroke using 3D motion analysis. (hindawi.com)
  • The certainty of the evidence was graded as moderate for body weight, BMI, WHR and SAD and low for WC and body fat. (bmj.com)
  • The subject should take small steps in a circle or stand on a weight bearing turn table while the scanner scans or the scanner can slowly walk around the body. (instructables.com)
  • Fifteen Thoroughbred geldings on an eight month weight gain study were used to evaluate 1) the effects of weight gain and diet on body area (neck, withers, shoulders, ribs, loin, tailhead) condition scores, and 2) the effects of weight gain, diet, and exercise on serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α. (umd.edu)
  • and margarine, snacks, and sugar dietary patterns were derived from principal component analysis.We measured weight and height of the child at age 6 y at the research center. (eur.nl)
  • Broadcasting copepods have a maximum fecundity (f(max)) of 47 eggs female(-1) d(-1), with a half-saturation coefficient (K-m) of 2.4 mug chl a l(-1), for a body weight of 10 mugC individual(-1), when all data are adjusted to 15degreesC. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • Weight (kg), body fat and visceral fat of the participants were measured by Automated Omron device. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Patients with affective disorders of different ages have been found to present weight changes and different circadian activity patterns. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Effective regulation of breathing pattern is essential for many different mammalian processes such as energy production, metabolic regulation and even speech. (news-medical.net)
  • We measured substrate temperatures (T s ) in the field, and selected body temperatures (T b ) and metabolic rates in the laboratory, in fossorial skinks, Saiphos equalis , to quantify basic aspects of their thermal and metabolic physiology. (thebhs.org)
  • The adult hypertension-central body fat relationship, which has been shown by others, appears to exist in children. (ahajournals.org)
  • The adult tunic is great for both men or women and this pattern is great for either boys or girls. (textureclothing.com)
  • Regional variation in sweating over the body is widely recognised. (springer.com)
  • This study assessed the presence of body movements that may be common to all western contemporary popular (WCP) singers that may be integral to both the physical production of the sung sound and to acoustic output, in this case sound pressure level variation. (jyu.fi)
  • During normal respiration, pressure variation is directly proportional to the respiratory pattern of the animal allowing the measurement of the respiratory rate and tidal volume. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Generally speaking, it appears that variation in Tb patterns varies between seasons in much the same way as in heterothermic species, just to a lesser degree. (up.ac.za)
  • Consuming many, but not all, of the grain food patterns resulted in less saturated fat and lower added sugars. (scirp.org)
  • Additionally, certain grain food patterns are associated with lower intake of nutrients to limit, including saturated fat and added sugars. (scirp.org)
  • In this study, we were able to view the interaction between brain and body in real time, allowing us to see exactly when the brain's motor cortex directs muscle movement, and also how that influence actually works. (eurekalert.org)
  • In a study published this month in Communications Biology , researchers from the University of Tsukuba further investigated the role of hydrogen sulfide as a bioactive gas in the body. (news-medical.net)
  • A study was therefore conducted to investigate regional sweat rates (RSR) and distributions over the whole body in male athletes. (springer.com)
  • The diversity of the arthropod body plan has long been a fascinating subject of study. (rti.org)
  • INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to compare patterns of failure between lobar resection (lobectomy or pneumonectomy) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for patients with clinical stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). (biomedsearch.com)
  • This study explored whether common rules exist for the distribution patterns across tissues in tissue distribution studies. (ovid.com)
  • I've used the 3D body scanner at Cornell developed by Human Solutions and by [TC]2 specifically designed to study the complex problems of clothing design and fit. (instructables.com)
  • The study aimed at describing the patterns of exposure to patients' BFs among HCWs at a university hospital in Ethiopia. (unisa.ac.za)
  • A case study involving human participants, enacting eight body language poses relevant to design teams, is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the methodology. (elsevier.com)
  • This design allowed us to study the evolution of body reserves around first parturition and its influence on the future reproductive success of rabbit females. (upv.es)
  • A study in the journal Current Biology now suggests that the moon may have a detrimental effect on your sleep quality and sleep pattern. (mercola.com)
  • Using 33 participants in a sleep study lab, researchers demonstrated several changes in sleep patterns. (mercola.com)
  • The aim of this study was to identify a signature pattern of cerebral atrophy in DLB and to compare it with the pattern found in Alzheimer's disease. (elsevier.com)
  • The Curvy Female Doll Base Pattern provides instructions for crocheting a shapely woman with a sizable bust, thin waist, and wide hips. (ravelry.com)
  • This blue Fitted Body shirt is cut from garment washed soft twofold super cotton for a slightly tailored waist and comfortable fit. (stenstroms.com)
  • From this, the researchers concluded that the production of hydrogen sulfide allows the regions of the brain that are responsible for controlling breathing patterns to function normally. (news-medical.net)
  • the function of the Hox genes and the response to the signalling molecules involved in local patterning. (biologists.org)
  • Based on these and other results, we argue that nos acts as a morphogen, controlling hb expression (and hence abdominal pattern) as a function of its concentration-dependent interaction with the NREs. (nih.gov)
  • These results indicate that the AP torso movement of WCP singers has a function in voice production and that not only body posture but the manner of movement from one body position to another is significant to vocal health and sound production, especially in styles where high sound levels must be achieved and where a high level of body movement is required in performance. (jyu.fi)
  • Whole-body plethysmography (WBP) avoids these issues providing a non-invasive approach for the assessment of the respiratory function in conscious animals. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Whole-body plethysmography (WBP) is a technique that allows the analysis of the respiratory function. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Join-pattern is defined by a set of pi-calculus channels x that supports two different operations, sending and receiving, we need two join calculus names to implement it: a channel name x for sending (a message), and a function name x for receiving a value (a request). (wikipedia.org)
  • cet-1 null mutants have shortened bodies and male tail abnormal phenotype resembling sma mutants, suggesting cet-1, sma-2, sma-3 and sma-4 share a common pathway. (biologists.org)
  • We were surprised to find that every cell in your body has a circadian clock," he says. (ausfoodnews.com.au)
  • These proteins, including SOD1, TDP-43, and FUS, are highly aggregation-prone and form a variety of intracellular inclusion bodies that are characteristic of different neuropathological subtypes of the disease. (nih.gov)
  • Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies of the substantia nigra in myotonic dystrophy. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In healthy controls, the effects of BMI and age on activity patterns were less pronounced and affected a narrower portion of the 24-h period. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Higher BMI and worse symptom severity were also associated with nocturnal activity patterns suggestive of sleep disturbances. (biomedcentral.com)
  • NEW YORK, July 20, 2017 -- New research by Columbia scientists offers fresh insight into how the brain tells the body to move, from simple behaviors like walking, to trained movements that may take years to master. (eurekalert.org)
  • Sleep studies reveal your body reacts differently on nights of a full moon, unrelated to the added light outside. (mercola.com)
  • Candidate miRNAs, such as miR-17, miR-128 or miR-15b, significantly discriminated TBI from different PBI exposure patterns, and 5-to-10-fold changes in gene expression were observed among the groups. (bioone.org)
  • Like many other fossorial lizards, S. equalis is nocturnal and selects relatively low body temperatures compared to heliothermic lizard species. (thebhs.org)
  • We present the expression patterns of the ten Hox genes in a centipede, Lithobius atkinsoni, and compare our results to those from studies in other arthropods. (rti.org)
  • Results We identified no trial comparisons of the effect of pasta alone and 32 trial comparisons (n=2448 participants) of the effect of pasta in the context of low-GI dietary patterns. (bmj.com)
  • CONCLUSION: Lobectomy/pneumonectomy or SBRT results in comparable patterns of failure for clinical stage I NSCLC. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We further tested a reverse hypothesis model, with depression at 14 y as a predictor of dietary patterns at the same time-point.Results: The tested models provided a good fit to the data. (edu.au)
  • This protocol describes the procedures for the measurement of the breathing patterns in mice using the WBP method, the data analysis and results interpretation. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Stays and Corsets: Historical Patterns Translated for the Modern Body goes a step beyond traditional historical costuming texts by not only providing you with historical pattern diagrams and information, but by showing you how to adapt these patterns to the contemporary body shape. (routledge.com)
  • Using her original pattern-drafting system, author Mandy Barrington will show you how to draft a historical pattern for a modern body shape, while still retaining an accurate historical silhouette. (routledge.com)
  • Researchers have succeeded in permanently rewriting flatworms' regenerative body shape by resetting their internal bioelectric pattern memory, causing even normal-appearing flatworms to harbor the "code" to regenerate as two-headed worms. (phys.org)
  • The research, led by scientists at Tufts University's Allen Discovery Center and its Department of Biology, addresses the forces that determine the shape to which an animal's body regenerates when severely damaged, shows that it is possible to permanently alter the target morphology of an animal with a wild-type genomic sequence, and reveals that alternative body patterns can be encoded within animals with normal anatomy and histology. (phys.org)
  • However, when the flatworms with normal body shape were then amputated repeatedly over several months in normal spring water, they produced the same ratio of two-headed worms to one-headed worms. (phys.org)
  • THIS PATTERN CONTAINS: 16 pages of comprehensive written crochet instructions (US terms) and example / reference photos to help guide you through the entire doll-making process. (ravelry.com)
  • This intermediate crochet pattern creates a sweater jacket with ruffles all around the hems. (favecrafts.com)
  • The elongated lesion patterns can continuous or interrupted, depending upon the orientation of the energy emitters. (google.ca)
  • Analysis of CBT via continuous recording reveals patterns in the interactions of circadian and infradian CBT rhythms capable of accurately predicting the fertility window and hormonal patterns suggesting oligo-ovulation and subfertility. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • Each panel measures 280cm by 118cm, and all three styles are designed to be installed panel to panel to allow for a "continuous flow of pattern" across a wall. (dezeen.com)
  • However, hydrogen sulfide is produced in small quantities in the body by an enzyme called cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and is believed to act as a bioactive gas to regulate different body functions. (news-medical.net)
  • Compliance with the AAP 100% juice recommendations was not associated with lower body weights. (frontiersin.org)
  • We speculate that, although the basic mechanisms are similar, there are significant differences in the manner the body trunk and appendages respond to them. (biologists.org)
  • Specifically, it has been shown that there are no sex differences in post-OGTT 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG) levels after adjustment for body height ( 3 , 4 , 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It has also been suggested, however, that the higher 2hPG levels in women may be attributed to differences in glucose absorption patterns between men and women ( 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • They found that this resulted in a change in the breathing patterns of the rats from a normal pattern to a gasping pattern. (news-medical.net)
  • although the latter are sac spawners, they were treated separately, but data were too sparse to examine patterns. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • The speech patterns predicted those physiological changes more accurately than speakers' own ratings of their stress levels. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The relationship of central body fat (measured by subscapular skinfold) and peripheral body fat (measured by triceps skinfold) to blood pressure was investigated in 3784 subjects aged 5 to 24 years old from the biracial community of Bogalusa, Louisiana. (ahajournals.org)
  • In contrast, the central body fat-blood pressure relationship remained statistically significant even after controlling for the peripheral body fat level. (ahajournals.org)
  • The researchers stress further studies are needed to confirm the relationship between the phases of the moon and sleep patterns. (mercola.com)
  • Future trials should assess the effect of pasta in the context of other 'healthy' dietary patterns. (bmj.com)
  • Finally, Wald-tests were used to assess the contribution of each factor on the circadian activity pattern. (biomedcentral.com)