Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Sepia: A genus of cuttlefish in the family Sepiidae. They live in tropical, subtropical and temperate waters in most oceans.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Hedgehog Proteins: A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Rhombencephalon: The posterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of an embryonic brain. It consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and isthmus rhombencephali from which develop the major BRAIN STEM components, such as MEDULLA OBLONGATA from the myelencephalon, CEREBELLUM and PONS from the metencephalon, with the expanded cavity forming the FOURTH VENTRICLE.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Fibroblast Growth Factor 8: A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.Gastrula: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.WingSomites: Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).Limb Buds: Distinct regions of mesenchymal outgrowth at both flanks of an embryo during the SOMITE period. Limb buds, covered by ECTODERM, give rise to forelimb, hindlimb, and eventual functional limb structures. Limb bud cultures are used to study CELL DIFFERENTIATION; ORGANOGENESIS; and MORPHOGENESIS.Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Branchial Region: A region, of SOMITE development period, that contains a number of paired arches, each with a mesodermal core lined by ectoderm and endoderm on the two sides. In lower aquatic vertebrates, branchial arches develop into GILLS. In higher vertebrates, the arches forms outpouchings and develop into structures of the head and neck. Separating the arches are the branchial clefts or grooves.Wnt1 Protein: A proto-oncogene protein and member of the Wnt family of proteins. It is expressed in the caudal MIDBRAIN and is essential for proper development of the entire mid-/hindbrain region.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Nodal Protein: The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Endoderm: The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Organizers, Embryonic: Cells in certain regions of an embryo that self-regulate embryonic development. These organizers have been found in dorsal and ventral poles of GASTRULA embryos, including Spemann organizer in amphibians, and Hensen node in chicken and mouse. These organizer cells communicate with each other via a network of secreted signaling proteins, such as BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS and their antagonists (chordin and noggin).Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Neural Tube: A tube of ectodermal tissue in an embryo that will give rise to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, including the SPINAL CORD and the BRAIN. Lumen within the neural tube is called neural canal which gives rise to the central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain. For malformation of the neural tube, see NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Notochord: A cartilaginous rod of mesodermal cells at the dorsal midline of all CHORDATE embryos. In lower vertebrates, notochord is the backbone of support. In the higher vertebrates, notochord is a transient structure, and segments of the vertebral column will develop around it. Notochord is also a source of midline signals that pattern surrounding tissues including the NEURAL TUBE development.Telencephalon: The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Organogenesis: Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.T-Box Domain Proteins: Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.Gastrulation: A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.

Novel regulation of the homeotic gene Scr associated with a crustacean leg-to-maxilliped appendage transformation. (1/6406)

Homeotic genes are known to be involved in patterning morphological structures along the antero-posterior axis of insects and vertebrates. Because of their important roles in development, changes in the function and expression patterns of homeotic genes may have played a major role in the evolution of different body plans. For example, it has been proposed that during the evolution of several crustacean lineages, changes in the expression patterns of the homeotic genes Ultrabithorax and abdominal-A have played a role in transformation of the anterior thoracic appendages into mouthparts termed maxillipeds. This homeotic-like transformation is recapitulated at the late stages of the direct embryonic development of the crustacean Porcellio scaber (Oniscidea, Isopoda). Interestingly, this morphological change is associated with apparent novelties both in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the Porcellio scaber ortholog of the Drosophila homeotic gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr). Specifically, we find that Scr mRNA is present in the second maxillary segment and the first pair of thoracic legs (T1) in early embryos, whereas protein accumulates only in the second maxillae. In later stages, however, high levels of SCR appear in the T1 legs, which correlates temporally with the transformation of these appendages into maxillipeds. Our observations provide further insight into the process of the homeotic leg-to-maxilliped transformation in the evolution of crustaceans and suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for this process in this group of arthropods.  (+info)

The Drosophila kismet gene is related to chromatin-remodeling factors and is required for both segmentation and segment identity. (2/6406)

The Drosophila kismet gene was identified in a screen for dominant suppressors of Polycomb, a repressor of homeotic genes. Here we show that kismet mutations suppress the Polycomb mutant phenotype by blocking the ectopic transcription of homeotic genes. Loss of zygotic kismet function causes homeotic transformations similar to those associated with loss-of-function mutations in the homeotic genes Sex combs reduced and Abdominal-B. kismet is also required for proper larval body segmentation. Loss of maternal kismet function causes segmentation defects similar to those caused by mutations in the pair-rule gene even-skipped. The kismet gene encodes several large nuclear proteins that are ubiquitously expressed along the anterior-posterior axis. The Kismet proteins contain a domain conserved in the trithorax group protein Brahma and related chromatin-remodeling factors, providing further evidence that alterations in chromatin structure are required to maintain the spatially restricted patterns of homeotic gene transcription.  (+info)

FGF8 induces formation of an ectopic isthmic organizer and isthmocerebellar development via a repressive effect on Otx2 expression. (3/6406)

Beads containing recombinant FGF8 (FGF8-beads) were implanted in the prospective caudal diencephalon or midbrain of chick embryos at stages 9-12. This induced the neuroepithelium rostral and caudal to the FGF8-bead to form two ectopic, mirror-image midbrains. Furthermore, cells in direct contact with the bead formed an outgrowth that protruded laterally from the neural tube. Tissue within such lateral outgrowths developed proximally into isthmic nuclei and distally into a cerebellum-like structure. These morphogenetic effects were apparently due to FGF8-mediated changes in gene expression in the vicinity of the bead, including a repressive effect on Otx2 and an inductive effect on En1, Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression. The ectopic Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression domains formed nearly complete concentric rings around the FGF8-bead, with the Wnt1 ring outermost. These observations suggest that FGF8 induces the formation of a ring-like ectopic signaling center (organizer) in the lateral wall of the brain, similar to the one that normally encircles the neural tube at the isthmic constriction, which is located at the boundary between the prospective midbrain and hindbrain. This ectopic isthmic organizer apparently sends long-range patterning signals both rostrally and caudally, resulting in the development of the two ectopic midbrains. Interestingly, our data suggest that these inductive signals spread readily in a caudal direction, but are inhibited from spreading rostrally across diencephalic neuromere boundaries. These results provide insights into the mechanism by which FGF8 induces an ectopic organizer and suggest that a negative feedback loop between Fgf8 and Otx2 plays a key role in patterning the midbrain and anterior hindbrain.  (+info)

Transcriptional repression by the Drosophila giant protein: cis element positioning provides an alternative means of interpreting an effector gradient. (4/6406)

Early developmental patterning of the Drosophila embryo is driven by the activities of a diverse set of maternally and zygotically derived transcription factors, including repressors encoded by gap genes such as Kruppel, knirps, giant and the mesoderm-specific snail. The mechanism of repression by gap transcription factors is not well understood at a molecular level. Initial characterization of these transcription factors suggests that they act as short-range repressors, interfering with the activity of enhancer or promoter elements 50 to 100 bp away. To better understand the molecular mechanism of short-range repression, we have investigated the properties of the Giant gap protein. We tested the ability of endogenous Giant to repress when bound close to the transcriptional initiation site and found that Giant effectively represses a heterologous promoter when binding sites are located at -55 bp with respect to the start of transcription. Consistent with its role as a short-range repressor, as the binding sites are moved to more distal locations, repression is diminished. Rather than exhibiting a sharp 'step-function' drop-off in activity, however, repression is progressively restricted to areas of highest Giant concentration. Less than a two-fold difference in Giant protein concentration is sufficient to determine a change in transcriptional status of a target gene. This effect demonstrates that Giant protein gradients can be differentially interpreted by target promoters, depending on the exact location of the Giant binding sites within the gene. Thus, in addition to binding site affinity and number, cis element positioning within a promoter can affect the response of a gene to a repressor gradient. We also demonstrate that a chimeric Gal4-Giant protein lacking the basic/zipper domain can specifically repress reporter genes, suggesting that the Giant effector domain is an autonomous repression domain.  (+info)

A Wnt5a pathway underlies outgrowth of multiple structures in the vertebrate embryo. (5/6406)

Morphogenesis depends on the precise control of basic cellular processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation. Wnt5a may regulate these processes since it is expressed in a gradient at the caudal end of the growing embryo during gastrulation, and later in the distal-most aspect of several structures that extend from the body. A loss-of-function mutation of Wnt5a leads to an inability to extend the A-P axis due to a progressive reduction in the size of caudal structures. In the limbs, truncation of the proximal skeleton and absence of distal digits correlates with reduced proliferation of putative progenitor cells within the progress zone. However, expression of progress zone markers, and several genes implicated in distal outgrowth and patterning including Distalless, Hoxd and Fgf family members was not altered. Taken together with the outgrowth defects observed in the developing face, ears and genitals, our data indicates that Wnt5a regulates a pathway common to many structures whose development requires extension from the primary body axis. The reduced number of proliferating cells in both the progress zone and the primitive streak mesoderm suggests that one function of Wnt5a is to regulate the proliferation of progenitor cells.  (+info)

The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping. (6/6406)

Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut.  (+info)

Characterization of an amphioxus paired box gene, AmphiPax2/5/8: developmental expression patterns in optic support cells, nephridium, thyroid-like structures and pharyngeal gill slits, but not in the midbrain-hindbrain boundary region. (7/6406)

On the basis of developmental gene expression, the vertebrate central nervous system comprises: a forebrain plus anterior midbrain, a midbrain-hindbrain boundary region (MHB) having organizer properties, and a rhombospinal domain. The vertebrate MHB is characterized by position, by organizer properties and by being the early site of action of Wnt1 and engrailed genes, and of genes of the Pax2/5/8 subfamily. Wada and others (Wada, H., Saiga, H., Satoh, N. and Holland, P. W. H. (1998) Development 125, 1113-1122) suggested that ascidian tunicates have a vertebrate-like MHB on the basis of ascidian Pax258 expression there. In another invertebrate chordate, amphioxus, comparable gene expression evidence for a vertebrate-like MHB is lacking. We, therefore, isolated and characterized AmphiPax2/5/8, the sole member of this subfamily in amphioxus. AmphiPax2/5/8 is initially expressed well back in the rhombospinal domain and not where a MHB would be expected. In contrast, most of the other expression domains of AmphiPax2/5/8 correspond to expression domains of vertebrate Pax2, Pax5 and Pax8 in structures that are probably homologous - support cells of the eye, nephridium, thyroid-like structures and pharyngeal gill slits; although AmphiPax2/5/8 is not transcribed in any structures that could be interpreted as homologues of vertebrate otic placodes or otic vesicles. In sum, the developmental expression of AmphiPax2/5/8 indicates that the amphioxus central nervous system lacks a MHB resembling the vertebrate isthmic region. Additional gene expression data for the developing ascidian and amphioxus nervous systems would help determine whether a MHB is a basal chordate character secondarily lost in amphioxus. The alternative is that the MHB is a vertebrate innovation.  (+info)

Dynamic expression of lunatic fringe suggests a link between notch signaling and an autonomous cellular oscillator driving somite segmentation. (8/6406)

The metameric organization of the vertebrate trunk is a characteristic feature of all members of this phylum. The origin of this metamerism can be traced to the division of paraxial mesoderm into individual units, termed somites, during embryonic development. Despite the identification of somites as the first overt sign of segmentation in vertebrates well over 100 years ago, the mechanism(s) underlying somite formation remain poorly understood. Recently, however, several genes have been identified which play prominent roles in orchestrating segmentation, including the novel secreted factor lunatic fringe. To gain further insight into the mechanism by which lunatic fringe controls somite development, we have conducted a thorough analysis of lunatic fringe expression in the unsegmented paraxial mesoderm of chick embryos. Here we report that lunatic fringe is expressed predominantly in somite -II, where somite I corresponds to the most recently formed somite and somite -I corresponds to the group of cells which will form the next somite. In addition, we show that lunatic fringe is expressed in a highly dynamic manner in the chick segmental plate prior to somite formation and that lunatic fringe expression cycles autonomously with a periodicity of somite formation. Moreover, the murine ortholog of lunatic fringe undergoes a similar cycling expression pattern in the presomitic mesoderm of somite stage mouse embryos. The demonstration of a dynamic periodic expression pattern suggests that lunatic fringe may function to integrate notch signaling to a cellular oscillator controlling somite segmentation.  (+info)

The team of Maximilian Fürthauer at the Institut de Biologie Valrose in Nice is looking for a highly motivated doctoral or postdoctoral research fellow to study the role of MyosinI proteins in establishing zebrafish Left/Right asymmetry.. While well conserved molecular pathways govern antero-posterior and dorso-ventral patterning in different phyla, highly divergent mechanisms have been proposed to be responsible for the specification of Left/Right asymmetry in different organisms. A cilia-driven, directional fluid flow is important for symmetry breaking in numerous vertebrates, including zebrafish. Alternatively, cilia-independent mechanisms have been suggested to involve localized ion flows or directional cellular rearrangements dependent on cytoskeletal polarity. This raises the question whether a unifying mechanism controlling Left/Right asymmetry still remains to be identified? An attractive hypothesis is that cytoskeletal chirality may provide a template for organismal laterality.. In ...
The mammalian sonic hedgehog (Shh) signalling pathway is essential for embryonic development and the patterning of multiple organs. Disruption or activation of Shh signalling leads to multiple birth defects, including holoprosencephaly, neural tube defects and polydactyly, and in adults results in tumours of the skin or central nervous system. Genetic approaches with model organisms continue to identify novel components of the pathway, including key molecules that function as positive or negative regulators of Shh signalling. Data presented here define Tulp3 as a novel negative regulator of the Shh pathway. We have identified a new mouse mutant that is a strongly hypomorphic allele of Tulp3 and which exhibits expansion of ventral markers in the caudal spinal cord, as well as neural tube defects and preaxial polydactyly, consistent with increased Shh signalling. We demonstrate that Tulp3 acts genetically downstream of Shh and Smoothened (Smo) in neural tube patterning and exhibits a genetic ...
Vertebrates, including humans, typically appear symmetrical from the outside; however, internally, there is clear left-right (LR) asymmetry: the heart, stomach, and spleen are on the left, while the liver and gall bladder are on the right; the right side of the lungs has more lobes than the left, and the intestines coil counterclockwise. This patterning is set up very early during development and requires the asymmetric expression of nodal in the left lateral plate mesoderm. This is a conserved aspect of normal LR patterning in all vertebrates studied; however, distinct mechanisms have been found to regulate left-sided nodal expression in different species (reviewed in Raya and Belmonte, 2006). In addition, many vertebrates have a ciliated laterality organ. In mouse and chick, it is the node, in zebrafish it is Kupffers vesicle (KV), and in frog it is the gastrocoel roof plate (GRP). The cilia in these laterality organs are motile and create a directional fluid flow. This directional flow is essential
Developmental patterning requires juxtacrine signaling in order to tightly coordinate the fates of neighboring cells. Recent work has shown that Notch and Delta, the canonical metazoan juxtacrine signaling receptor and ligand, mutually inactivate each other in the same cell. This cis-interaction generates mutually exclusive sending and receiving states in individual cells. It generally remains unclear, however, how this mutual inactivation and the resulting switching behavior can impact developmental patterning circuits. Here we address this question using mathematical modeling in the context of two canonical pattern formation processes: boundary formation and lateral inhibition. For boundary formation, in a model motivated by Drosophila wing vein patterning, we find that mutual inactivation allows sharp boundary formation across a broader range of parameters than models lacking mutual inactivation. This model with mutual inactivation also exhibits robustness to correlated gene expression ...
article{8516871, abstract = {The root vascular tissues provide an excellent system for studying organ patterning, as the specification of these tissues signals a transition from radial symmetry to bisymmetric patterns. The patterning process is controlled by the combined action of hormonal signaling/transport pathways, transcription factors, and miRNA that operate through a series of non-linear pathways to drive pattern formation collectively. With the discovery of multiple components and feedback loops controlling patterning, it has become increasingly difficult to understand how these interactions act in unison to determine pattern formation in multicellular tissues. Three independent mathematical models of root vascular patterning have been formulated in the last few years, providing an excellent example of how theoretical approaches can complement experimental studies to provide new insights into complex systems. In many aspects these models support each other; however, each study also ...
Pan-embryonic Ca2+ waves during epiboly/gastrula stages are believed to coordinate convergent extension (CE), the lengthening and narrowing of groups of cells, as well as their directed migration to the future dorsal side (Wallingford et al., 2001; Wallingford et al., 2002). Genetic data supports this idea, in that zebrafish homozygous zygotic Wnt-5 mutants (pipetail) display CE defects and have reduced Ca2+ release frequency (Westfall et al., 2003a). In fact, thapsigargin treatment during 30-50% epiboly resulted in cell movement defects and a shortened anterior-posterior axis (data not shown), consistent with previously described thapsigargin-induced phenotypes (Creton, 2004). However, brief thapsigargin treatment of epiboly/gastrula stage zebrafish and Xenopus disrupts laterality without perturbing normal cell movement. Similar laterality defects are generated with additional inhibitors (valproate, to disrupt inositol levels, XeC, to inhibit IP3-induced Ca2+ release and cyclopiazonic acid, to ...
A patterning system with a photoresist overhang allows material to be deposited onto a substrate in various positions by varying the angle from which the material is deposited, and by rotating the substrate. The patterning system can be used to fabricate a stack of organic light emitting devices on a substrate using the same patterning system and without removing the substrate from vacuum.
Various different kinases have been identified that phosphorylate Dishevelled proteins (Bernatik et al., 2011; Cong et al., 2004a; Gentzel et al., 2015; Kishida et al., 2001; Klein et al., 2006; Kühl et al., 2001; Ossipova et al., 2005; Peters et al., 1999; Shimizu et al., 2014; Sun et al., 2001; Willert et al., 1997). As counterparts, to date only the rather universal phosphatases PP1 and PP2 have been described (Carmen Figueroa-Aldariz et al., 2015; Shimizu et al., 2014). Here, we have identified the phosphatase Pgam5 as an interactor of Dvl2-Arrb2 protein complexes and negative regulator of Wnt/β-Catenin signaling.. In gastrula and post-gastrula stage Xenopus laevis embryos, pgam5 was expressed throughout the ectoderm but biased towards the anterior-dorsal ectoderm and the anterior neural tube. Consistent with this expression pattern, we showed that Pgam5 plays a role in head formation and a-p patterning. Low anterior Wnt/β-Catenin activity is required for the induction of anterior fates ...
With headphone listening, the naturally occurring left/right asymmetry in head and ear shapes can produce frequency-dependent variations in the perceived location of a sound source. In this paper, this phenomenon is studied by determining the interaural level differences required to center a set of narrow-band stimuli with different center frequencies. It is shown that the perceived asymmetry varies from one listener to another. Some of the asymmetry can be explained with asymmetry in...
How did gastropods evolve torsion? I have looked all over. There doesnt seem to be any clear idea of what torsion does now, let alone what purpose it...
The formation of the spot-like Spemann-type organizer (dark green/yellow) responsible for the dorso-ventral pattern is restricted to the blastopore. Thus, since the blastopore became a large ring , the dorsal organizer has automatically a pronounced off-axis position as required. The Spemann-type organizer with its spot-like extension is by itself insufficient to generate a dorsoventral pattern along the long-extended anteroposterior axis. An important step is, therefore, the generation of a midline organizer. It is the marginal ring and not the Spemann-Organizer that provide the positional information for the AP patterning. Evidence exists that WNT signals, generated in the ring, are involved in the posterior transformation of the more anteriorely located cells that form the future brain [1,2]. Also the activation of more posterior HOX genes takes place in the ring except of the organizing region [3]. For the zebra fish it has been shown that AP-markers appear in the correct order even in the ...
Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) patterning provides an alternative to fabricate the controllable polymeric micro/nano-structures, which have wide applications in industry. Both steady state and dynamic development of EHD patterning structures are discussed in this paper. For the steady state modeling, a discontinuous boundary element coupled with finite element method is applied. Numerical results reveal that a critical voltage exists, below which a small amplitude structure is obtained and above which polymer evolves into patterns with a large height/width ratio. The transient process of EHD patterning is represented by the numerical solution of the phase field equation coupled with the electric field and Navier-Stokes equation. The computer model is capable of describing the dynamic development of the electrically-induced transport and surface deformation phenomena during EHD patterning. The coupled multi-field equations are discretized in finite difference with an enhancement by parallel computing. ...
The present invention includes a conforming template for patterning liquids disposed on substrates. The template includes a body having opposed first and second surfaces. The first surface includes a plurality of recessed regions with a patterning region being disposed between adjacent recessed regions. Specifically, the recessed regions define flexure regions about which each patterning region may move independent of the remaining patterning regions of the template. In one embodiment the template is mounted to a fluid chamber having an inlet and a throughway. The template is connected to the throughway and the inlet is connected to a fluid source to facilitate deformation of the template to conform to a profile of a surface adjacent thereto.
Our findings suggest an inherent, cryptic chirality in VMCs that is revealed by an unbiased extracellular mechanical transition and mediated by cytoskeletal reorganization, analogous to chemically induced chirality seen in neutrophil-like cells.31 To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of an association between LR asymmetry and cytoskeletal reorganization, triggered by an unbiased mechanical interface, and the first demonstration that a microscale dynamic asymmetry unfolds into a de novo, consistently oriented and periodic macroscale pattern resembling tissue architecture. In VMCs, the rightward-biased turning required stress-fiber accumulation at the FN/PEG interface, suggesting that chirality may be in the architecture of the actin filament assembly at the macroscale level, say as clockwise or counterclockwise orientation. Alternatively, it may arise from chirality at the micro- or nanoscale, such as helicity of microfilaments, or chiral rotagen molecules, such as dynein or myosin, ...
The eye imaginal disc displays dorsal-ventral (D-V) and anterior-posterior polarity prior to the onset of differentiation, which initiates where the D-V midline intersects the posterior margin. As the wave of differentiation progresses anteriorly, additional asymmetry develops as ommatidial clusters rotate coordinately in opposite directions in the dorsal and ventral halves of the disc; this forms the equator, a line of mirror-image symmetry that coincides with the D-V midline of the disc. The currently unanswered question of how D-V pattern is established and how it relates to ommatidial rotation was addressed by assaying the expression of various asymmetric markers under conditions that lead to ectopic differentiation, such as removal of patched or wingless function. D-V patterning is found to develop gradually. wingless plays an important role in setting up this pattern. To determine if positional information associated with equatorial formation is present along the D-V axis of the disc ahead ...
In the minds of many, Hox gene null mutant phenotypes have confirmed the direct role that these genes play in specifying the pattern of vertebrate embryos. The genes are envisaged as defining discrete spatial domains and, subsequently, conferring specific segmental identities on cells undergoing differentiation along the antero-posterior axis. However, several aspects of the observed mutant phenotypes are inconsistent with this view. These include: the appearance of other, unexpected transformations along the dorsal axis; the occurrence of mirror-image duplications; and the development of anomalies outside the established domains of normal Hox gene expression. In this paper, Hox gene disruptions are shown to elicit regeneration-like responses in tissues confronted with discontinuities in axial identity. The polarities and orientations of transformed segments which emerge as a consequence of this response obey the rules of distal transformation and intercalary regeneration. In addition, the incidence of
J:58465 Donoviel DB, Hadjantonakis AK, Ikeda M, Zheng H, Hyslop PS, Bernstein A, Mice lacking both presenilin genes exhibit early embryonic patterning defects. Genes Dev. 1999 Nov 1;13(21):2801-10 ...
Bryant, P. J. (1975) Regeneration and Duplication in Imaginal Discs, in Ciba Foundation Symposium 29 - Cell Patterning (eds R. Porter and J. Rivers), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470720110.ch5 ...
These data are consistent with previous reports of intronic miRNA function, in which the miRNA regulates the same biological process as the protein encoded by the host gene.29 miR-218 may contribute to "fine-tuning" of Slit-Robo pathway genes or generate negative feedback in response to Slit gene activation. It is interesting to speculate that miR-218 may serve to repress the expression of the Robo1/2 receptors in the Slit ligand-expressing cells, thereby spatially separating ligand from receptor. Because Robo4 is not a target of miR-218 regulation, it also is possible that miR-218 affects the ratio of Robo1/2 and Robo4 proteins, thereby influencing vascular patterning.. It is currently debated whether the Robo1 and -2 receptors provide a positive or negative influence on EC migration, although Robo4 is generally thought of as a repulsive or stabilizing cue during vascular pathfinding.9,37 In our hands, it appears that repression of Robo1/2 and HSPG biosynthetic molecules by miR-218 negatively ...
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Graduate students register for 255) This course focusses on how animals form their basic body plans; from the formation of their germ layers; ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm, to how they are organized along the main developmental axes; the anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes. The course will focus in part on the molecular mechanisms that underlie these developmental decisions from work carried out in established developmental model species. However, we will also explore the current understanding of how these mechanisms evolved from new insights from emerging models representing a broad range of animal phyla. The setting at Hopkins Marine Station will allow us to carry out experiments from animals collected in the field, and the course will involve a substantial lab component to complement concepts and approaches presented in lecture. nPre-requisites : Biocore or by permission of ...
Grafts of ShhC25II-soaked beads reproduce the stage-dependent effects of PMP treatments on eye DV patterning. (A) Lateral views of heads of st. 33 embryos that
What does Brad Pitt have in common with a fruit fly? They both have cowlicks-a swirl of hair caused by a patterning mechanism. Now, researchers have discovered the genes that cause cowlicks are regulated by a tumor suppressor protein.
J:186907 DAndrea D, Liguori GL, Le Good JA, Lonardo E, Andersson O, Constam DB, Persico MG, Minchiotti G, Cripto promotes A-P axis specification independently of its stimulatory effect on Nodal autoinduction. J Cell Biol. 2008 Feb 11;180(3):597-605 ...
How is Anterior and Posterior abbreviated? A-P stands for Anterior and Posterior. A-P is defined as Anterior and Posterior very frequently.
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CPR 100-120 compressions per minute and at a depth of no less than 1/3 of anterior/posterior diameter of chest with interruptions less than 5 seconds ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Linking early determinants and cilia-driven leftward flow in left-right axis specification of Xenopus laevis. T2 - A theoretical approach. AU - Schweickert, Axel. AU - Walentek, Peter. AU - Thumberger, Thomas. AU - Danilchik, Mike. PY - 2012/2/1. Y1 - 2012/2/1. N2 - In vertebrates, laterality - the asymmetric placement of the viscera including organs of the gastrointestinal system, heart and lungs - is under the genetic control of a conserved signaling pathway in the left lateral plate mesoderm (LPM). A key feature of this pathway, shared by embryos of all non-avian vertebrate classes analyzed to date (e.g. fish, amphibia and mammals) is the formation of a transitory midline epithelial structure. Remarkably, the motility of cilia projecting from this epithelium produce a leftward-directed movement of extracellular liquid. This leftward flow precedes any sign of asymmetry in gene expression. Numerous analyses have shown that this leftward flow is not only necessary, but indeed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Wnt3a links left-right determination with segmentation and anteroposterior axis elongation. AU - Nakaya, Masa Aki. AU - Biris, Kristin. AU - Tsukiyama, Tadasuke. AU - Jaime, Shaulan. AU - Rawls, J. Alan. AU - Yamaguchi, Terry P.. PY - 2005/12. Y1 - 2005/12. N2 - The alignment of the left-right (LR) body axis relative to the anteroposterior (AP) and dorsoventral (DV) axes is central to the organization of the vertebrate body plan and is controlled by the node/organizer. Somitogenesis plays a key role in embryo morphogenesis as a principal component of AP elongation. How morphogenesis is coupled to axis specification is not well understood. We demonstrate that Wnt3a is required for LR asymmetry. Wnt3a activates the Delta/Notch pathway to regulate perinodal expression of the left determinant Nodal, while simultaneously controlling the segmentation clock and the molecular oscillations of the Wnt/β-catenin and Notch pathways. We provide evidence that Wnt3a, expressed in the primitive ...
Inversin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the INVS gene. This gene encodes a protein containing multiple ankyrin domains and two IQ calmodulin-binding domains. The encoded protein may function in renal tubular development and function, and in left-right axis determination. This protein interacts with nephrocystin and infers a connection between primary cilia function and left-right axis determination. A similar protein in mice interacts with calmodulin. Mutations in this gene have been associated with nephronophthisis type 2. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. INVS has been shown to interact with NPHP1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000119509 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000028344 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Otto EA, Schermer B, Obara T, OToole JF, Hiller KS, Mueller AM, Ruf RG, Hoefele J, Beekmann F, Landau D, Foreman JW, Goodship JA, Strachan T, Kispert A, ...
Cranial placodes are evolutionary innovations of vertebrates. However, they most likely evolved by redeployment, rewiring and diversification of preexisting cell types and patterning mechanisms. In the second part of this review we compare vertebrates with other animal groups to elucidate the evolutionary history of ectodermal patterning. We show that several transcription factors have ancient bilaterian roles in dorsoventral and anteroposterior regionalisation of the ectoderm. Evidence from amphioxus suggests that ancestral chordates then concentrated neurosecretory cells in the anteriormost non-neural ectoderm. This anterior proto-placodal domain subsequently gave rise to the oral siphon primordia in tunicates (with neurosecretory cells being lost) and anterior (adenohypophyseal, olfactory, and lens) placodes of vertebrates. Likewise, tunicate atrial siphon primordia and posterior (otic, lateral line, and epibranchial) placodes of vertebrates probably evolved from a posterior proto-placodal region in
Blimp1, a zinc-finger containing DNA-binding transcriptional repressor, functions as a master regulator of B cell terminal differentiation. Considerable evidence suggests that Blimp1 is required for the establishment of anteroposterior axis formation and the formation of head structures during early vertebrate development. In mouse embryos, Blimp1 is strongly expressed in axial mesendoderm, the tissue known to provide anterior patterning signals during gastrulation. Here, we describe for the first time the defects caused by loss of Blimp1 function in the mouse. Blimp1 deficient embryos die at mid-gestation, but surprisingly early axis formation, anterior patterning and neural crest formation proceed normally. Rather, loss of Blimp1 expression disrupts morphogenesis of the caudal branchial arches and leads to a failure to correctly elaborate the labyrinthine layer of the placenta. Blimp1 mutant embryos also show widespread blood leakage and tissue apoptosis, and, strikingly, Blimp1 homozygous mutants
Developmental Biology. Research Categories: Developmental Biology Research Description: We ask how the embryo works. Prior to morphogenesis the embryo specifies each cell through transcriptional regulation and signaling. Our research builds gene regulatory networks to understand how that early specification works. We then ask how this specification programs cells for their morphogenetic movements at gastrulation, and how the cells deploy patterning information. Current projects examine 1) novel signal transduction mechanisms that establish and maintain embryonic boundaries mold the embryo at gastrulation; 2) specification of primary mesenchyme cells in such a way that they are prepared to execute an epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and then study mechanistically the regulation of that transition; 3) the specification of endoderm necessary for invagination of the archenteron; 4) formation of the oral/aboral ectoderm and the means by which patterning information is distributed three ...
Brueckner Lab:. Research Interests: Development of vertebrate left-right asymmetry Cilia in development Cardiac morphogenesis The development of non-random asymmetry along the left-right axis is a unique feature of vertebrate development. Defects in this process in mouse and man commonly affect the development of the heart and result in severe congenital cardiac anomalies. The goal of my laboratory is to understand the mechanism by which embryonic cilia create and signal left-right positional information, and to investigate whether cilia have essential roles in other developmental processes. We have previously shown that the vertebrate LR axis is initiated at the mammalian node late in gastrulation. Dynein-driven motility of monocilia found on node cells generates directional flow of extraembryonic fluid, termed "nodal flow". The direction of nodal flow is determined by the inherent chirality of the cilium itself, and artificial reversal of nodal flow is able to reverse the LR axis. Nodal flow ...
Graded Hedgehog (Hh) signaling governs the balance of Gli transcriptional activators and repressors to specify diverse ventral cell fates in the spinal cord. It remains unclear how distinct intracellular Gli activity is generated. Here, we demonstrate that Sufu acts universally as a negative regulator of Hh signaling, whereas Kif7 inhibits Gli activity in cooperation with, and independent of, Sufu. Together, they deter naïve precursors from acquiring increasingly ventral identity. We show that Kif7 is also required to establish high intracellular Gli activity by antagonizing the Sufu-inhibition of Gli2. Strikingly, by abolishing the negative regulatory action of Sufu, diverse ventral cell fates can be specified in the absence of extracellular Hh signaling. These data suggest that Sufu is the primary regulator of graded Hh signaling and establish that the antagonistic and cooperative actions of Kif7 and Sufu are responsible for setting up distinct Gli activity in ventral cell fate specification.
Gli-type zinc finger proteins play important regulatory roles in vertebrate and invertebrate embryogenesis. In Xenopus, the Gli-type proteins XGli-3 and XGli-4 are first expressed in earliest stages of mesoderm and neural development. Transient transfection assays reveal that XGli-3 and XGli-4 can f …
Predicted to have RNA polymerase II proximal promoter sequence-specific DNA binding activity. Involved in determination of heart left/right asymmetry; somite rostral/caudal axis specification; and somite specification. Predicted to localize to the nucleus. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in spondylocostal dysostosis. Is expressed in margin; mesoderm; post-vent region; and somite. Orthologous to human MESP2 (mesoderm posterior bHLH transcription factor 2 ...
The dorsal gastrula organizer plays a fundamental role in establishment of the vertebrate axis. We demonstrate that the zebrafish bozozok (boz) locus is required at the blastula stages for formation of the embryonic shield, the equivalent of the gastrula organizer and expression of multiple organizer-specific genes. Furthermore, boz is essential for specification of dorsoanterior embryonic structures, including notochord, prechordal mesendoderm, floor plate and forebrain. We report that boz mutations disrupt the homeobox gene dharma. Overexpression of boz in the extraembryonic yolk syncytial layer of boz mutant embryos is sufficient for normal development of the overlying blastoderm, revealing an involvement of extraembryonic structures in anterior patterning in fish similarly to murine embryos. Epistatic analyses indicate that boz acts downstream of ß-catenin and upstream to TGF-ß signaling or in a parallel pathway. These studies provide genetic evidence for an essential function of a ...
Author Summary Multicellular development requires tightly regulated spatial pattern formation, frequently including the generation of sharp differences over short length scales. Classic examples include boundary formation in the Drosophila wing veins and lateral inhibition patterning in the differentiation of sensory cells. These processes and a diverse variety of others are mediated by the Notch signaling system which allows neighboring cells to exchange information, via interaction between the Notch receptor on one cell and its ligands such as Delta, on another. Interestingly, recent evidence has shown that Notch and Delta within the same cell (in cis) also interact, mutually inactivating each other. However, the significance of this interaction for pattern formation has remained unclear. Here we show, by analytical and computational modeling, how this cis interaction intrinsically generates a difference-promoting logic that optimizes the system for use in fine-grained pattern formation. Specifically,
In developmental biology, an embryo is divided into two hemispheres: the animal pole and the vegetal pole within a blastula. The animal pole consists of small cells that divide rapidly, in contrast with the vegetal pole below it. In some cases, the animal pole is thought to differentiate into the later embryo itself, forming the three primary germ layers and participating in gastrulation. The animal pole is heavily pigmented while the vegetal pole remains unpigmented.[1] The vegetal pole contains large yolky cells that divide very slowly, in contrast with the animal pole above it. In some cases, the vegetal pole is thought to differentiate into the extraembryonic membranes that protect and nourish the developing embryo, such as the placenta in mammals and the chorion in birds. The development of the animal-vegetal axis occurs prior to fertilization.[2] Sperm entry can occur anywhere in the animal hemisphere.[3] The point of sperm entry defines the dorso-ventral axis - cells opposite the region ...
0050] The prosthesis according to the present invention comprises osseous anchoring means ensuring good stability of the elements of the prosthesis between one another during implantation of the prosthesis between the vertebrae. For this, the prosthesis according to the present invention comprises at least first osseous anchoring means (42) and at least second osseous anchoring means (41). The first osseous anchoring means (42) extend to near the periphery of the plate on which it is situated and the second osseous anchoring means (41) is offset according to the antero-posterior axis relative to the first osseous anchoring means (42). Therefore, the first osseous anchoring means (42) could consist, in an embodiment not illustrated here, of a winglet oriented perpendicularly to the antero-posterior axis of the spinal column and located near the leading edge or posterior edge of the plate on which they are located. The second osseous anchoring means (41) will thus be located in the vicinity of the ...
Somite polarity and segmental patterning of the peripheral nervous system.: The analysis of the outgrowth pattern of spinal axons in the chick embryo has shown
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The use of DNA as a structural material has been intensively developed since its inception in the early 1980s. The potential of DNA structures in the field of materials science is hampered by current approaches to augmentation. It is not currently possible to alter the targeting of heterogenous additional elements to structures once they have been made. The post hoc patterning of DNA architectures is therefore of great importance. The bacterial protein Recombinase A (RecA) may be able to provide this function. This thesis will discuss the patterning of DNA structures with RecA. RecA has been shown to pattern linear dsDNA strands with high levels of efficiency. To test the potential of RecA to pattern more complex DNA, novel strategies for creating DNA topologies have been explored. This work has produced DNA strands containing regions of base pair mismatching and with terminal three-way junctions. A method has also been developed for the creation of a 200 base product with unpaired branched ...
The floorplate (FP) is located at the ventral midline of the developing neural tube, and is involved in patterning and specification of ventral and dorsal cell fates. The FP has long been known to pattern ventral cell fates ...
An essential question of morphogenesis is how patterns arise without preexisting positional information, as inspired by Turing. In the past few years, cytoskeletal flows in the cell cortex have been identified as a key mechanism of molecular patterning at the subcellular level. Theoretical and in vitro studies have suggested that biological polymers such as actomyosin gels have the property to self-organize, but the applicability of this concept in an in vivo setting remains unclear. Here, we report that the regular spacing pattern of supracellular actin rings in the Drosophila tracheal tubule is governed by a self-organizing principle. We propose a simple biophysical model where pattern formation arises from the interplay of myosin contractility and actin turnover. We validate the hypotheses of the model using photobleaching experiments and report that the formation of actin rings is contractility dependent. Moreover, genetic and pharmacological perturbations of the physical properties of the ...
Why have certain features of animal body plans, such as bilateral symmetry, been conserved since the early Cambrian period, whereas at the species level, there has been a continuous accumulation of changes? Davidson and Erwin propose that the genetic regulatory networks associated with development contain three components that differ in their evolutionary conservation. Evolutionarily inflexible subcircuits ("kernels") perform essential upstream functions in building given body parts, while other small subcircuits ("plug-ins") have been repeatedly coopted to diverse developmental purposes, leaving highly flexible, individual cis-regulatory linkages to regulate detailed phenotypic variation.. E. H. Davidson, D. H. Erwin, Gene regulatory networks and the evolution of animal body plans. Science 311, 796-800 (2006). [Abstract] [Full Text]. ...
Cardiac pacemaker cells of the sinoatrial node initiate and maintain the rhythmic beating of the heart. This function requires that pacemaker cells be insulated...
Equation 5 and Equation 6 provide the initial and boundary conditions. The system is modeled as one-dimensional (along the AP axis) and semi-infinite in space, reflecting the fact that the observed dpERK pattern is localized at the poles of the embryo. Receptors are assumed to be in excess and the rate constant of ligand binding, kb, is proportional to receptor expression level. Finally, all signal transduction processes, from the receptors to phosphorylated MAPK, have been lumped into a single constant, g, which characterizes the rate at which the dpERK molecules are generated (indirectly) by a single ligand/receptor complex. The extracellular part of the model is essentially identical to those used to describe the patterning morphogens in other systems, e.g., the patterning of the follicular epithelium by Gurken or patterning of the wing imaginal disk by Dpp. The intracellular module is similar to the previously published descriptions of phosphorylation gradients in spatially distributed ...
The course gives an introduction to functional cytology and the cellular and molecular mechanisms for embryonic pattern formation of different animal taxa. Themes include: animal architecture, life cycles and reproduction, differential gene expression, cell-to-cell communication and signal transduction pathways, gametogenesis and cell cycles, fertilisation, cleavage patterns and early development, genetic control of Drosophila development, ectodermal and neural development, mesodermal and endodermal development, sex determination. ...
The present invention provides methods and apparatus for locally patterning surfaces. In one such method, an oxidizable thioether is adsorbed onto a conductive surface. The surface is then contacted with a fluid medium. A conducting stamp is then brought into contact with the fluid medium above the thioether-coated surface. Next, a potential is applied between the stamp and the surface. It is expected that the charge will be transferred through the medium to the coated surface along a shortest distance path, thereby locally oxidizing the thioether and effectively creating a negative patterned image of the conducting stamp on the surface. Remaining adsorbed thioether may then be used as a mask for standard etching or material addition procedures.
During vertebrate embryogenesis, new tissues are forged through the development of specific cell types in particular patterns. This patterning happens in the context of tissue growth, but how are these two phenomena coordinated? How does a tissue that changes size over time maintain the proportions of its different domains? Does patterning scale with tissue size? On page 1577 of this issue, Kicheva et al. (1) answer these long-standing questions. Their analysis of mouse and chick embryos of different sizes reveals that patterning proportions of different progenitor domains in the vertebrate neural tube-the rudiment of the spinal cord-do not scale with growing size. Instead, the authors propose a two-phase process for how tissue regions grow in register to one another, despite different growth rates.. ...
A mouse is an example of an animal with bilateral symmetry. If an imaginary line were drawn from the tip of its nose to the end of its tail, one side would be exactly like the other....
This project will focus on two pan-animal signaling pathways, Wnt and TGF-beta, which are involved in a variety of developmemtal processes, such as symmetry breaking during embryonic development, axial patterning and regeneration. The techniques to be used include investigation of protein localization, protein-protein interactions and Chip-Seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing). Project open to PhD students and Postdocs.
Twisted gastrulation (TSG) is a secreted, cysteine-rich protein that plays a role in dorsal/ventral patterning in Drosophila and Xenopus by regulating…
MeshMachine, a part of Kangaroo 1, is prone to blowing up as you add more iterations, assuming you can get it to work at all in an hour or more. It has ability…
Neuropsychological testing is often INTIMIDATING for parents--afraid of what they may (or may not find). Learn more about testing options for your child.
How is Product Specification abbreviated? C-SPEC stands for Product Specification. C-SPEC is defined as Product Specification somewhat frequently.
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Learn about work in the Sinner Lab to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the patterning of the mammalian respiratory tract during normal development and congenital disease
The Summer Picture Patterns with Shape, Size and Rotation Attributes (F) Math Worksheet from the Patterning Worksheets Page at Math-Drills.com.
18. When certain muscles are deprived of this power of contracting, they are said to be paralyzed, or the limb is called paralytic. When they have it in excess, they are in a state of spasm, or convul...
View the performance, paper handling, prints per minute (ppm) and other details and specifications for the Xerox iGen4 for Digital Presses
Single Ladies (and men), I salute you. Image sourced through CC SearchAs if it isnt hard enough being a lone ranger in the strange world, single people are getting fucked left right and centre - and...
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Returns the number of columns occupied by this cell accessible. This is 1 if the specified cell is only in one column, or more than 1 if the specified cell spans multiple columns. ...
In Drosophila, the T-box genes optomotor-blind (omb) and H15 have been implicated in specifying the development of the dorso-ventral (DV) axis of the appendages. Results from the spider Cupiennius salei have suggested that this DV patterning system may be at least partially conserved. Here we extend the study of the DV patterning genes omb and H15 to a representative of the Myriapoda in order to add to the existing comparative data set and to gain further insight into the evolution of the DV patterning system in arthropod appendages. The omb gene of the millipede Glomeris marginata is expressed on the dorsal side of all appendages including trunk legs, maxillae, mandibles, and antennae. This is similar to what is known from Drosophila and Cupiennius and suggests that the role of omb in instructing dorsal fates is conserved in arthropods. Interestingly, the lobe-shaped portions of the mouthparts do not express omb, indicating that these are ventral components and thus may be homologous to the ...
Cilia establish the vertebrate left-right (LR) axis and are integral to the development and function of the kidney, liver, and brain. Left-right asymmetry is established in the ciliated ventral node cells of the mouse. The chiral structure of the cilium provides a reference asymmetry to impose hande …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Notochord patterning of the endoderm. AU - Cleaver, Ondine. AU - Krieg, Paul A.. PY - 2001/6/1. Y1 - 2001/6/1. N2 - Endodermally derived organs of the gastrointestinal and respiratory system form at distinct anterioposterior and dorsoventral locations along the vertebrate body axis. This stereotyped program of organ formation depends on the correct patterning of the endodermal epithelium so that organ differentiation and morphogenesis occur at appropriate positions along the gut tube. Whereas some initial patterning of the endoderm is known to occur early, during germ-layer formation and gastrulation, later signaling events, originating from a number of adjacent tissue layers, are essential for the development of endodermal organs. Previous studies have shown that signals arising from the notochord are important for patterning of the ectodermally derived floor plate of the neural tube and the mesodermally derived somites. This review will discuss recent evidence indicating that ...
Binding of pumilio to maternal hunchback mRNA is required for posterior patterning in Drosophila embryos. Developmental regulation of vesicle transport in Drosophila embryos: forces and kinetics
Smad2 role in mesoderm formation, left-right patterning and craniofacial development. Female infertility in mice lacking connexin 37
Somitogenesis is the earliest sign of segmentation in the developing vertebrate embryo. This process starts very early, soon after gastrulation has initiated and proceeds in an anterior-to-posterior direction during body axis elongation. It is widely accepted that somitogenesis is controlled by a molecular oscillator with the same periodicity as somite formation. This periodic mechanism is repeated a specific number of times until the embryo acquires a defined specie-specific final number of somites at the end of the process of axis elongation. This final number of somites varies widely between vertebrate species. How termination of the process of somitogenesis is determined is still unknown. Here we show that during development there is an imbalance between the speed of somite formation and growth of the presomitic mesoderm (PSM)/tail bud. This decrease in the PSM size of the chick embryo is not due to an acceleration of the speed of somite formation because it remains constant until the last stages of
DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification; however, the precise role of DNA methylation in vertebrate development is still not fully understood. Here, we show that DNA methylation is essential for the establishment of the left-right (LR) asymmetric body plan during vertebrate embryogenesis. Perturbation of DNA methylation by depletion of DNA methyltransferase 1 (dnmt1) or dnmt3bb.1 in zebrafish embryos leads to defects in dorsal forerunner cell (DFC) specification or collective migration, laterality organ malformation, and disruption of LR patterning. Knockdown of dnmt1 in Xenopus embryos also causes similar defects. Mechanistically, loss of dnmt1 function induces hypomethylation of the lefty2 gene enhancer and promotes lefty2 expression, which consequently represses Nodal signaling in zebrafish embryos. We also show that Dnmt3bb.1 regulates collective DFC migration through cadherin 1 (Cdh1). Taken together, our data uncover dynamic DNA methylation as an epigenetic mechanism to control ...
The objective of these studies is to identify genetic factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of complex congenital heart disease and other more rare conditions resulting from disturbances in organ positioning. These are a group of medical conditions that are thought to stem from a poorly understood disturbance in the establishment of the basic body plan in the embryo. While the outside of the human body is generally symmetric with mirror image left and right sides, the positions of some internal organs are distinctly asymmetric. For example, the heart could not function properly as a mechanical pump if its connections to major blood vessels retained their initial symmetry. The left ventricle of the heart normally pumps blood to the body, while the right ventricle normally pumps blood to the lungs. Reversals in these blood vessel connections can be fatal. Similarly, the gut characteristically loops in a counterclockwise direction placing the stomach on the left side in most cases. Rare ...
In this issue of the JCI, Burkhalter et al. (5) suggest a mechanism linking cilia and mitochondria in the development of multisystem heterotaxy syndromes. Using both pharmacological and genetic tools, they show that longer cilia are produced when mitochondrial function is impaired and shorter cilia are produced with enhanced mitochondrial function. Confirming human relevance, they show that patients with two different forms of mitochondrial disease, caused by mutations in MPV17 and NFU1 genes, have lengthened cilia. To check whether these defects in cilia length might link to defects in left-right patterning, they then used the zebrafish embryo, an unrivaled model for investigating left-right specification, to show that longer cilia disrupted nodal flow and randomized left-right patterning. Using genomic data, they also showed that people with heterotaxy have an increased incidence of damaging variants in mitochondrial-associated genes, and that recapitulation of these rare variants in zebrafish ...
As indicated by their name, morphogens were first identified for their role in the formation of tissues early in development. Secreted from a source, they spread through the tissue to form gradients by which they affect the differentiation of precursor cells in a concentration-dependent manner. In this context, the antagonistic roles of the morphogens of the Wnt family and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) in the specification of cell types along the dorso-ventral axis of the neural tube have been studied in detail. However, more recently, morphogens have been demonstrated to act well beyond the early stages of nervous system development, as additional roles of morphogen gradients in vertebrate neural circuit formation have been identified. Both Wnt and Shh affect neural circuit formation at several stages by their influence on neurite extension, axon pathfinding and synapse formation. In this review, we will summarize the mechanisms of morphogen function during axon guidance in the vertebrate nervous system. ...
There is a growing interest in new spin on metal oxide hard mask materials for advanced patterning solutions both in BEOL and FEOL processing. Understanding how these materials respond to plasma conditions may create a competitive advantage. In this study patterning development was done for two challenging FEOL applications where the traditional Si based films were replaced by EMD spin on metal oxides, which acted as highly selective hard masks. The biggest advantage of metal oxide hard masks for advanced patterning lays in the process window improvement at lower or similar cost compared to other existing solutions ...
The limb has long been used as a model of how developmental patterning occurs by manipulation of the limb in animal models. This lecture will therefore also introduce some concepts and experiments that have identified patterning mechanisms within the limb. The previous lecture covered the basics of bone, muscle and cartilage development, that can be applied to the same elements within the limb. Cells of the ectoderm, cells derived from the dermatome and the hypaxial portion of the myotome mix with somatic component of the lateral plate mesoderm to give rise to the fore and hind limbs. The appendicular skeleton consists of: Shoulder girdle, Upper limb (arm, hand), Pelvic girdle, Lower limb (leg, foot). ...
Little is known about how the sizes of animal tissues are controlled. A prominent example is somite size which varies widely both within an individual and across species. Despite intense study of the segmentation clock governing the timing of somite generation, how it relates to somite size is poorly understood. Here we examine somite scaling and find that somite size at specification scales with the length of the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) despite considerable variation in PSM length across developmental stages and in surgically size-reduced embryos. Measurement of clock period, axis elongation speed, and clock gene expression patterns demonstrate that existing models fail to explain scaling. We posit a clock and scaled gradient model, in which somite boundaries are set by a dynamically scaling signaling gradient across the PSM. Our model not only explains existing data, but also makes a unique prediction that we experimentally confirm-the formation of periodic echoes in somite size ...
Proteins of the BTB/POZ (broad complex, Tramtrack, Bric à brac/pox viruses and zinc fingers) transcription factor family regulate a range of biological processes in Drosophila and vertebrates (for reviews, see Albagli et al., 1995; Bardwell and Treisman, 1994). The earliest identified members in Drosophila have essential roles in development. For example, Bric à Brac controls patterning along the proximal-distal axis of the leg and antennae (Godt et al., 1993), and Abrupt modulates coordinated movement by directing the specificity of neuromuscular connections (Hu et al., 1995). In vertebrates, most BTB/POZ proteins (e.g. HIC-1, Bcl-6, PLZF, ZF5, MIZ-1) function as transcriptional regulators with putative oncogenic or tumor suppressor roles (Chang et al., 1996; David et al., 1998; Kaplan and Calame, 1997; Staller et al., 2001; Wales et al., 1995). This is best exemplified by B-cell-lymphoma 6 (Bcl-6), which directly promotes B-cell lymphomas and functions as a transcriptional repressor of ...
Biological pattern formation often relies on self-organization, integrating biochemical with mechanical patterning processes. Such patterns are particularly important during embryogenesis, as they increase spatial complexity through a sequence of organizing processes that generally build upon previously established pre-patterns. How pre-patterns control self-organization remains unexplored. Here we investigate PAR polarity establishment in the C. elegans zygote, by combining measurements of the spatial distribution of protein numbers and fluxes with a physical theory. We characterize the handover from a pre-pattern to mechanochemical self-organization, and find that guiding cues from the centrosome steer the patterning system comprised of PAR proteins and the actomyosin cortex to a transition point beyond which the patterned state becomes self-organized. This mechanism of controlled pattern formation integrates mechanical and molecular aspects of biological pattern formation with guiding cues. ...
Understanding the genetic component of scoliosis in humans has relied on the assumption that spine development is conserved across species. Since evolutionary conserved genes tend to lie within synteny blocks (HSBs) and genes which are not conserved lie within evolutionary breakpoint regions (EBRs), HSB analysis may be used to determine if spine development is conserved across species. We hypothesized that vertebral patterning genes are conserved in amniotes and their location is within stable or
The virologic synapse (VS), which is formed between a virus-infected and uninfected cell, plays a central role in the transmission of certain viruses, such as HIV and HTLV-1. During VS formation, HTLV-1-infected T-cells polarize cellular and viral proteins toward the uninfected T-cell. This polarization resembles anterior-posterior cell polarity induced by immunological synapse (IS) formation, which is more extensively characterized than VS formation and occurs when a T-cell interacts with an antigen-presenting cell. One measure of cell polarity induced by both IS or VS formation is the repositioning of the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) relative to the contact point with the interacting cell. Here we describe an automated, high throughput system to score repositioning of the MTOC and thereby cell polarity establishment. The method rapidly and accurately calculates the angle between the MTOC and the IS for thousands of cells. We also show that the system can be adapted to score anterior-posterior
A controversy seems to be brewing over some recent theories and quantitative analyses addressing the fundamental question of how the Bicoid morphogen gradient is established and decoded in early Drosophila embryos. The transcription factor Bicoid controls the anterior-posterior patterning of the developing embryo. It is translated from maternal mRNA localized at the anterior pole of the egg and its graded distribution activates, in a concentration-dependent manner, the expression of gap genes, thus determining their spatial domain of expression. Synthesis from a localized source combined with diffusion and uniform degradation of the Bicoid morphogen provides one of the simplest models to explain the approximately exponential shape of its gradient. BACK TO ARTICLE. ...
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Judith L. Croxdale2,0 0 Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 USA Received for publication November 5, 1999. Accepted for publication April 20, 2000. My thesis is that understanding stomatal patterning requires a holistic perspective. Since stomata are structures critical to the survival of terrestrial plants, they need to be viewed in relation to their function and their interface with other structural components. With this outlook, I begin by discussing pattern types, means of measuring them, advantages of each type of measurement, and then present patterning from evolutionary, physiological, ecological, and organ views. I suggest areas where I believe profitable studies might enable us to better understand stomatal patterning. The final sections of the paper review stomatal patterning on angiosperm leaves and present a theory of patterning. With the abundance of molecular information, and coming genomic sequences and new tools, an opportunity exists to ...
Looking for online definition of anterior-posterior in the Medical Dictionary? anterior-posterior explanation free. What is anterior-posterior? Meaning of anterior-posterior medical term. What does anterior-posterior mean?
(2004) Chen et al. Developmental Biology. In Xenopus, several TGFβs, including nodal-related 1 (Xnr1), derriere, and chimeric forms of Vg1, elicit cardiac and visceral organ left-right (LR) defects when ectopically targeted to right mesendoderm cell lineages, suggesting that LR axis determination...
Vertebrate development begins with precise molecular, cellular, and morphogenetic controls to establish the basic body plan of the embryo. In zebrafish, these tightly regulated processes begin during oogenesis and proceed through gastrulation to esta
Recent studies in several species have revealed that, rather than being the default condition, the symmetrical and synchronized development of somites on both sides of the vertebrate embryo depends on overcoming signals that promote asymmetry. Some vertebrate structures, like the skeleton, develop with bilateral symmetry, whereas others, like the heart or the stomach, develop asymmetrically. Somites, which give rise to symmetric structures, such as the vertebrae, ribs, and skeletal musculature of the trunk, arise in bilaterally symmetric pairs in an anterior to posterior sequence (see Hornstein and Tabin). Kawakami et al. found that blocking retinoic acid (RA) production in zebrafish resulted in biased asymmetry of somite development, unless H+/K+ ATPase activity or lrd (left-right dynein) translation (both critical to development of bilateral asymmetry) was inhibited. Inhibition of H+/K+ ATPase or Notch activity, or down-regulation of lrd translation, led to random asymmetry in somitogenesis, ...
In one aspect, the invention includes a method of patterning a substrate. A film is formed over a substrate and comprises a plurality of individual molecules. The individual molecules comprise two ends with one of the two ends being directed toward the substrate and the other of the two ends being directed away from the substrate. Particle-adhering groups are bound to said other of the two ends of at least some of the individual molecules and a plurality of particles are adhered to the particle-adhering groups to form a mask over the substrate. The substrate is etched while the mask protects portions of the substrate. In another aspect, the invention encompasses a method of forming a field emission display. A material having a surface of exposed nitrogen-containing groups is formed over the substrate. At least one portion of the material is exposed to radiation while at least one other portion of the material is not exposed. The exposing renders one of the exposed or unexposed portions better at bonding
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Transcriptional regulation is noisy. Basic physical processes of TF diffusion, binding to DNA, and synthesis of molecules such as mRNA and proteins, involve small numbers of molecules and must be described probabilistically. We analyze these contributions to noise in gene expression and ask how cells manage to function reliably in the presence of such noise.. In particular, we study processes in the early development of multicellular organisms, where each cell in the organism reads out chemical cues in its vicinity and, based on them, commits to a particular cell fate - e.g. should it activate the developmental program for the wing or the nervous system? This spatial patterning of the embryo involves the cells extracting "positional information" from the chemical cues as reliably as possible given the relevant physical constraints. Our research aims to turn this intuitive picture into a precise mathematical statement.. ...
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These findings indicated that the Wnt/β-catenin asymmetry pathway might have a functional role in patterning anterior-posterior asymmetry during ray development. Addressing this issue is made somewhat more challenging because each ray sublineage comprises three distinct divisions that could be patterned by Wnt signaling, Rn.a[a/p] (anterior branch vs posterior branch), Rn.aa[a/p] (RnA neuron vs apoptotic cell), and Rn.ap[a/p] (RnB neuron vs Rnst glial cell) (Fig. 4C). As such, hypomorphic alleles or RNAi knockdown could cause a variety of incompletely penetrant cell-fate specification defects. Moreover, the Wnt/β-catenin asymmetry pathway also has earlier roles in patterning in the V5, V6, and T seam-cell lineages from which the ray precursor cells are derived (Sulston et al., 1980; Banerjee et al., 2010; Gleason and Eisenmann, 2010; Ren and Zhang, 2010). In general, however, the loss of positive-acting components of this pathway might be expected to transform cell fates away from more ...
(2001) BMP controls proximodistal outgrowth, prescritpion induction of the apical ectodermal ridge, and dorsoventral patterning in the vertebrate limb. Titrate with 0.
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由於雞的胚胎比較易於操作,所以通常選用鳥類胚胎做實驗。位於上胚層(可以分化成胚胎所有部分的原始胚層)邊緣的細胞會分泌化學物質,使胚胎產生前後端的濃度差異[5],後端細胞被誘導發育成原線的起始點,其他地方的邊緣細胞則會受到原線細胞的影響而不再分化出新的原線[1]。另外,也有研究指出下胚層具有主導胚胎發展方向的能力,該實驗結果指出將下胚層移除的胚胎會產生多原線的構造。老鼠的下胚層稱為前端內臟內胚層(Anterior Visceral Endoderm, AVE)[6]。. ...
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The shield (conscutum) covers the entire dorsal body. It has a tortoiseshell pattern. The mouthparts section (the capitulum) is ... Body: Oval, sometimes broadly so, 1.9 x 1.6 mm- 3.2 x 2.3 mm; marginal body fold narrow but prominent; hairs dorsally sparse ... Ixodes holocyclus adult male: a, body (dorsal view); b, body (ventral view); c, capitulum (dorsal view); d, capitulum (ventral ... Other body systems affected by Lyme-like Disease. More common than EM are symptoms due to invasion by the spirochaete of the ...
From each segmental ganglion a branching system of local nerves runs into the body wall and then encircles the body.[7] However ... This pattern is called teloblastic growth.[7] Some groups of annelids, including all leeches,[14] have fixed maximum numbers of ... Many annelids move by peristalsis (waves of contraction and expansion that sweep along the body),[7] or flex the body while ... Parapodia are unjointed paired extensions of the body wall, and their muscles are derived from the circular muscles of the body ...
Thick & full with lots of body. Definite curl pattern. Hair tends to be frizzy. Can have a combination texture. ... Has a more of a defined kink pattern. 4b. Kinky (z coil). Tightly coiled. Little less defined kink pattern. Has more of a "Z"- ... Those variations include pattern (mainly tight coils), pattern size (watch spring to chalk), density (sparse to dense), strand ... Almost no visible defined kink pattern, unless seen from up close. Has more of a very tight "Z"-shaped pattern. ...
Cited in Borrelli, Luciana; Gherardi, Francesca; Fiorito, Graziano (2006). A catalogue of body patterning in Cephalopoda. ... Octopuses can create distracting patterns with waves of dark coloration across the body, a display known as the "passing cloud ... Some species differ in form from the typical octopus body shape. Members of the suborder Cirrina have stout gelatinous bodies ... This moves the body slowly.[31]. In 2005, Adopus aculeatus and veined octopus (Amphioctopus marginatus) were found to walk on ...
... pattern_la = _white_hoops , pattern_b = , pattern_ra = _white_hoops , leftarm = 008000 , body = 008000 , rightarm = 008000 , ...
The body whorl is carinated, the carina bearing about eight nodules. The flat base of the shell is smooth, with fine oblique ... Its color pattern is pale yellowish. The seven whorls are slightly convex, obliquely radiately costate with distant folds, ...
This is called a mosaic pattern. This mosaic pattern of cells 'interferes' with the functionality of the cell-cell interactions ... Due to this process the body's tissues contain either cells with normal EFNB1 or the mutated EFNB1. ...
The patient needs blood transfusion because the body is unable to produce enough hemoglobin to satisfy the body's requirement.( ... See Migration Patterns). Electrophoresis is done by the use of cellulose acetate. After running electrophoresis at 150 to 200 ...
Oates, Thomas P.; Durham, Meenakshi Gigi (2004-09-01). "The mismeasure of masculinity: the male body, 'race' and power in the ... enumerative discourses of the NFL Draft". Patterns of Prejudice. 38 (3): 301-320. doi:10.1080/0031322042000250475. ISSN 0031- ... rather often focuses on more subtle prejudices and pushing attitudes of appropriate behavior and body characteristics. Sexism ...
The convergence pattern consists of three main steps: 1. "Successfully promote your product offerings" 2. "Emphasize the ... InterTradeIreland Trade and Business Development Body. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-03-20. Retrieved 2006-06-20. ... 2004). "Integration Patterns". MSDN Library. Retrieved 2006-06-20. Shankar, B. (2003). "The Value of Convergence". ITU Telecom ... A 2004 paper published by Microsoft explains what it calls the "convergence pattern" (Trowbridge et al. 2004); that is, the ...
Valentine: Cleavage patterns. Valentine: Cleavage patterns & (1997). Ruppert, E.E (1991). "Introduction to the aschelminth ... The brachiopod body occupies only about one-third of the internal space inside the shell, nearest the hinge. The rest of the ... A lingulid moves its body up and down the top two-thirds of the burrow, while the remaining third is occupied only by the ... Muscles at the rear of the body can straighten, bend or even rotate the pedicle. The far end of the pedicle generally has ...
ISBN 0-252-02384-6 Durham, Meenakshi G.; Oates, Thomas P. (2004). "The mismeasure of masculinity: the male body, 'race' and ... power in the enumerative discourses of the NFL Draft". Patterns of Prejudice. Taylor & Francis Online. 38 (3): 301-320. doi: ...
Agouti Patterns (includes Agouti, Chinchilla, Cinnamon, Lynx, Opal, Red Agouti, Squirrel), Tan Patterns (includes Tans, Foxes, ... Fur over entire body should carry a liberal sprinkling of longer black guard hairs." (from the ARBA Standard of Perfection 2016 ... Colors / Patterns here include those recognized by ARBA, the BRC, or as described by another reputable authority (in which case ... The saddle must make a true ring around the body and be placed 2-3cm (3/4-1¼in) behind the front feet. The coloured half must ...
An allostatic load can lead to various physical modifications in the body's regulatory networks.[38] Changed patterns of serum ... This pattern is not present at birth; estimates of when it begins vary from two weeks to nine months of age.[37] ... Cortisol is produced in the human body by the adrenal gland in the zona fasciculata,[1] the second of three layers comprising ... It is vital for structural support and is found in muscles, tendons, and joints, as well as throughout the entire body. ...
In the pattern-matching example above, the body of the match. operator is a partial function, which consists of a series of ... Regular expression match patterns restricted to sequence patterns only. *For-comprehensions admit value and pattern definitions ... Case classes and pattern matching[edit]. Scala has built-in support for pattern matching, which can be thought of as a more ... is an example of pattern matching (see below). Iterating over a map returns a set of key-value tuples, and pattern-matching ...
"Body Tremors, Shaking, Trembling, Vibrating Anxiety Symptoms". Anxietycentre.com. Retrieved December 16, 2017.. CS1 maint: ... The pattern of dystonic tremor may differ from essential tremor. Dystonic tremors occur irregularly and can often be relieved ... Touching the affected body part or muscle may reduce tremor severity (a geste antagoniste). The tremor may be the initial sign ... Dystonic tremor may affect any muscle in the body and is seen most often when the patient is in a certain position or moves a ...
This pattern is called a circannual rhythm.[13] Studies of seasonal variations have produced inconsistent results. People ... Basal body temperature[edit]. Main article: Basal body temperature. Basal body temperature is the lowest temperature attained ... as the body's needs and activities change.[12] Other circumstances also affect the body's temperature. The core body ... With increased age, both average body temperature and the amount of daily variability in the body temperature tend to decrease. ...
The pattern of markings vary between individuals. Two pairs of yellow, tentacle-like appendages arise from the basal area of ... The rhinophores are white, like the main body, but have dark brown distal parts. The species was found in waters at depths ...
Cited in Luciana Borrelli, Francesca Gherardi, Graziano Fiorito (2006). Abstract A catalogue of body patterning in Cephalopoda ... Cited in Borrelli, Luciana; Gherardi, Francesca; Fiorito, Graziano (2006). A catalogue of body patterning in Cephalopoda. ... disruptive patterning, using colour and pattern to break up the animal's outline, which relates mainly to general resemblance; ... the kind of patterning used in military camouflage such as disruptive pattern material. Indeed, Cott describes such ...
Cited in Borrelli, Luciana; Gherardi, Francesca; Fiorito, Graziano (2006). A catalogue of body patterning in Cephalopoda. ... Book I The grouping of animals and the parts of the human body. Aristotle describes the parts that the human body is made of, ... Aristotle also noted that the young of the dogfish grow inside their mother's body attached by a cord to something like a ... Aristotle investigates four types of differences between animals: differences in particular body parts (Books I to IV); ...
A catalogue of body patterning in Cephalopoda. Firenze University Press, 2006. Abstract Google books Johnsen, Sönke (December ... In a study, some flounders demonstrated the ability to change pattern in eight seconds. They were able to match the pattern of ... The marine hatchetfish is extremely flattened laterally (side to side), leaving the body just millimetres thick, and the body ... Camouflage in large bodies of water differs markedly from camouflage on land. The environment is essentially the same on all ...
A catalogue of body patterning in Cephalopoda. Firenze University Press, 2006. Abstract Google books Sangiovanni, G (1819). " ... This means the pattern of colour change functionally matches the pattern of neuronal activation. This may explain why, as the ... The nerves that operate the chromatophores are thought to be positioned in the brain in a pattern isomorphic to that of the ... Many species are able to translocate the pigment inside their chromatophores, resulting in an apparent change in body colour. ...
Barlow, G. W. (1972). "The attitude of fish eye-lines in relation to body shape and to stripes and bars". Copeia. 1972: 4-12. ... This includes the use of high-contrast disruptive patterns as used on military uniforms, but anything that delays recognition ... Several methods are often combined, so for example the Bushbuck is both countershaded over its whole body, and disruptively ... Military camouflage relies predominantly on disruptive patterns, though methods such as outline disruption are also used, and ...
Aortic body detects changes in blood oxygen and carbon dioxide, but not pH, while carotid body detects all three. They do not ... Zipfel, Cyril (NaN). "Plant pattern-recognition receptors". Trends in Immunology. 35: 345-351. doi:10.1016/j.it.2014.05.004. ... Carotid bodies and aortic bodies detect changes primarily in oxygen. They also sense increases in CO2 partial pressure and ... The resulting output from the CNS (central nervous system) makes body actions that will engage the food and enhance survival.[ ...
March 2000). "Distribution of Body Weight, Height and Body Mass Index in a National Sample of Malaysian Adults" (PDF). Med. J. ... Bogin, Barry (1999). Patterns of Human Growth. Cambridge University Press. pp. 226-. ISBN 978-0-521-56438-0. Enrollment at UBL ... "Body mass and body fat in Hungarian schoolboys: Differences between 1980-2005". Journal of physiological anthropology. 27 (5): ... "Size, body condition and adult mortality in rural Gambia: a life history perspective" (PDF). London School of Economics. ...
Development, axonal patterning, and guidance[edit]. Computational neuroscience aims to address a wide array of questions. How ... There is a large body of literature regarding how different currents interact with geometric properties of neurons.[21] ... Theoretical investigations into the formation and patterning of synaptic connection and morphology are still nascent. One ... It is also unknown what the computational functions of these specific connectivity patterns are, if any. ...
... body weight per wing), at α=39 deg and 8 m s−1. The extended wing of this species produced 3.9 N (21.2% body weight per wing) ... Interspecific and morphological patterns. During emulated gliding, accipiter wings had the highest average peak CV:CH ratios in ... Body mass, extended-wing AR, emargination, area and wing loading did not vary significantly among families (P,0.6 for all, ... 2000). Effects of body size on take-off flight performance in the Phasianidae (Aves). J. Exp. Biol. 203, 3319-3332. ...
The head-body pattern is a common XML design pattern, used for example in the SOAP protocol. This pattern is useful when a ... In this pattern the meta-data or meta-information are structured as the header, sometimes known as the envelope. The ordinary ... data or information are structured as the body, sometimes known as the payload. XML is employed for both head and body (see ...
Media in category "Football kit body/club specific patterns". The following 200 files are in this category, out of 877 total. ... Category:Football kit body/club specific patterns. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Football_kit_body/club_specific_patterns&oldid= ... Football kit body/Club Deportivo Junior Fútbol Club S.A.‎ (79 F) ...
Includes paper patterns. You CAN make this purse! My patterns have step-by-step photos and thorough instructions! This medium ... PDF purse pattern tutorial to make a nice medium Sheila Purse with lots of pockets. ... Easy instructions to make a cross body shoulder bag! ... Mimi PDF Pattern Cross Body Messenger Bag EASY Instructions $ ... Middleton Tote PDF Pattern, Tote PDF,Purse Pattern,Sewing PDF,Bag Patterns,Shoulder Bag Pattern,Shoulder Bag Purse,Easy to Sew, ...
A new report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) analyzes patterns of body weight for the U.S. adult ... New CDC Report Analyzes Patterns of Body Weight in US Adults. ... The categories of body mass index used in this analysis are ... Body Weight Status of Adults: United States, 1997-98. Advance Data No. 330. 16 pp. (PHS) 2002-1250. pdf icon[PDF - 463 KB] ... Height and weight data are collected in the National Health Interview Survey to study the associations between relative body ...
Molecular geometry of body pattern in birds. [A Lima-de-Faria] -- Annotation The unexpected patterns displayed by a birds body ... pattern_in_birds> ;. schema:name "Molecular geometry of body pattern in birds"@en ;. schema:productID "781943800" ;. schema: ... pattern_in_birds>. a schema:CreativeWork ;. rdfs:label "Molecular geometry of body pattern in birds." ;. schema:description " ... The unexpected patterns on a birds body are often seen as bizarre events that demand little attention. This book presents ...
BMP modulators regulate the function of BMP during body patterning and disease progression.. Yanagita M1. ... beta superfamily and are involved in the cascades of body patterning and morphogenesis. The activities of BMPs are precisely ...
Historical Patterns Translated for the Modern Body goes a step beyond traditional his ... but by showing you how to adapt these patterns to the contemporary body shape. Using her original pattern-drafting system, ... Stays and Corsets: Historical Patterns Translated for the Modern Body. ISBN , Quantity: ... Stays and Corsets: Historical Patterns Translated for the Modern Body goes a step beyond traditional historical costuming texts ...
New research by Columbia scientists offers fresh insight into how the brain tells the body to move, from simple behaviors like ... Scientists reveal how patterns of brain activity direct specific body movements Study in mice answers long-standing scientific ... Scientists reveal how patterns of brain activity direct specific body movements. The Zuckerman Institute at Columbia University ... "In this study, we were able to view the interaction between brain and body in real time, allowing us to see exactly when the ...
The quality of foods eaten and eating patterns in Ramadan may be different from other months of the year. Food intake... ... Poh B, Zawiah H, Ismail M, Henry C. Changes in body weight, dietary intake and activity pattern of adolescents during Ramadan. ... There is, however, scarcity of data on the dietary diversity, food patterns and body weight changes of adolescents who fast ... The objective of the present study was to describe the food patterns, dietary diversity and body weight changes among ...
full body training using all primal movement patterns. Ask or answer questions, discuss and express your views. ... Im having bit of trouble figuring out the best way to train for a stronger more functional body.. Do I do a full body workout ... Im having bit of trouble figuring out the best way to train for a stronger more functional body.. Do I do a full body workout ... 1) Start out low and allow your body to adapt. 2) Dont push it too hard, too long. Anything Work.... for a novice/beginner. ...
Tagged with: comprehensive evaluation, cross-body patterning, neurodevelopment programs, neuropsychologist Special Ed Services ... 2) I would enroll my child in SWIMMING from the beginning as it is a CONSTANT cross-body patterning exercise- The others (we ... YOUR child may enjoy other cross-body patterning exercises MUCH more, so chose an activity your child likes and will willingly ... I do, however, recommend you keep your child involved in physical activities/sports that require cross-body patterning (side-to ...
The elongated lesion patterns can continuous or interrupted, depending upon the orientation of the energy emitters. ... emitters of ablating energy in straight or curvilinear positions in contact with tissue to form elongated lesion patterns. ... as lesion pattern 202 in FIG. 33B shows) or along a curve (as lesion pattern 206 in FIG. 34B shows). Elongated lesion patterns ... lesion patterns. These elongated lesion patterns can be continuous and extend along a straight line (as lesion pattern 200 in ...
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Spinal motor neuron protein supersaturation patterns are associated with inclusion body formation in ALS.. Ciryam P1,2,3, ... Spinal motor neuron protein supersaturation patterns are associated with inclusion body formation in ALS ... Spinal motor neuron protein supersaturation patterns are associated with inclusion body formation in ALS ... Spinal motor neuron protein supersaturation patterns are associated with inclusion body formation in ALS ...
A homeotic gene cluster patterns the anteroposterior body axis of C. elegans.. Wang BB1, Müller-Immergluck MM, Austin J, ... In insects and vertebrates, clusters of Antennapedia class homeobox (HOM-C) genes specify anteroposterior body pattern. The ... Each C. elegans HOM-C gene is responsible for a distinct body region; however, where their domains overlap, two HOM-C genes can ... Thus, HOM-C-based pattern formation has been conserved in nematodes despite the many differences in morphology and embryology ...
Regional variation in sweating over the body is widely recognised. However, most studies only measured a limited number of ... Body mapping of sweating patterns in male athletes in mild exercise-induced hyperthermia. ... Jackson AS, Pollock ML (1978) Generalized equations for predicting body density of men. Br J Nutr 40:497-504PubMedCrossRef ... Watkins ES (1956) The effect on sweating of pressure on the body surface. Exp Physiol 41(3):263-270Google Scholar ...
5 finished Included: 6 paper pieced block patterns with sewing order. See all my patterns at sewhooked.com. BASIC SKILLS ... Busy Bodies includes 6 patterns: Broomstick Witch, Fortune Teller, Green Thumb Witch, Wise Old Wizard, Oopsie Daisy Witch and ... This pattern was designed by a Craftsy independent design partner!. *. Youll purchase through PayPal and all profits go to the ... PATTERN DETAILS. ***UPDATED FOR 2013*** Sunbonnet Sues Magical Friends are inspired by the classic Sunbonnet Sue and Overall ...
full body training using all primal movement patterns. Moderators: Jungledoc, Ironman, stuward ... Im having bit of trouble figuring out the best way to train for a stronger more functional body.. Do I do a full body workout ... Im having bit of trouble figuring out the best way to train for a stronger more functional body.. Do I do a full body workout ... unsure which will go best with developing a healthier body) prefer body weight movements as i feel it more natural. Especially ...
The use of unique body patterns to recognize and track individual vertebrates is well-established, but not common in ecological ... Here we provide a method for identifying individual Wunderpus photogenicus using unique body color patterns. This charismatic ... Studies on the longevity and migration patterns of wild animals rely heavily on the ability to track individual adults. Non- ...
Body fat patterning and blood pressure in children and young adults. The Bogalusa Heart Study.. C L Shear, D S Freedman, G L ... Body fat patterning and blood pressure in children and young adults. The Bogalusa Heart Study. ... Body fat patterning and blood pressure in children and young adults. The Bogalusa Heart Study. ... Body fat patterning and blood pressure in children and young adults. The Bogalusa Heart Study. ...
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... present study aims at identifying possible relations between solution features and different characteristics of the Swap-body ... Souravlias D., Huber S. (2019) Detecting Patterns in Benchmark Instances of the Swap-Body Vehicle Routing Problem. In: Battiti ... Detecting Patterns in Benchmark Instances of the Swap-Body Vehicle Routing Problem. ... The detected patterns are then used to formulate problem-specific properties, which hold for the majority of the instances ...
Patterning mechanisms in the body trunk and the appendages of Drosophila Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... 1995) Quantitative effects of hedgehog and decapentaplegic activity on the patterning of the Drosophila wing. Curr. Biol 5, 432 ... 1994) The wingless signalling pathway and the patterning of the wing margin in Drosophila. Development 120, 621-636. ... 1997) Hedgehog organises the pattern and polarity of epidermal cells in the Drosophila abdomen. Development 124, 2143-2154. ...
Glucose absorption patterns and body size. The velocity of glucose absorption (T1/2) was inversely associated with both height ... Despite the close linkage of glucose absorption patterns, plasma glucose levels, and body size shown in this study, more ... CONCLUSIONS Glucose absorption patterns during an OGTT are significantly related to plasma glucose levels and body size, which ... Moreover, we examined whether differences in body size could explain any observed differences in glucose absorption patterns ...
  • I really prefer well rounded program, as i define functional exercise by covering all primal movement patterns: in all directions, as you suggested. (exrx.net)
  • The function of the lower limbs during walking is to support the whole-body against gravitational forces while generating movement patterns which progress the body forward. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analyses examined consumption patterns for milk and 100% juice in relation to diet quality, AAP recommendations, and BMI z-scores across time and for different age groups. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, we surveyed the literature to review the effect of body mass on core body temperature range in relation to environmental temperature in the Testudinidae. (uzh.ch)
  • one body in relation to another, to a group, or to the architecture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abnormal patterns of microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2) immunolabeling in neuronal nuclei and Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease substantia nigra brain tissues. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with the appearance of cytoplasmic Lewy bodies (LBs) in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra and the progressive loss of these neurons. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A panel of epitope-specific antibodies detects protein domains distributed throughout human alpha-synuclein in Lewy bodies of Parkinson's disease. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Nigral and cortical Lewy bodies and dystrophic nigral neurites in Parkinson's disease and cortical Lewy body disease contain alpha-synuclein immunoreactivity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common cause of degenerative dementia after Alzheimer's disease. (elsevier.com)
  • When they are done growing, the larvae is a brown-gray color with black dots along the length of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Larvae have a backward curving spine or "horn" that is the same color as their body on the final abdominal segment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Top left: Matrix sorted so that neurons with similar patterns of. (eurekalert.org)
  • These results suggest that inclusion bodies in various forms of ALS result from a set of proteins that are metastable in motor neurons, and thus prone to aggregation upon a disease-related progressive collapse of protein homeostasis in this specific setting. (nih.gov)
  • Matrix sorted so that neurons with similar patterns of activity were clustered together. (kavlifoundation.org)
  • Cobl localizes in neurons to dendrites, axons and in the cell body, but is enriched at axonal and dendritic growth cones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conclusions Pasta in the context of low-GI dietary patterns does not adversely affect adiposity and even reduces body weight and BMI compared with higher-GI dietary patterns. (bmj.com)
  • Heritabilities averaged 0.56 for three body weights, 0.23 for two energy balance characters, 0.48 for three bone characters, 0.35 for four measures of adiposity, and 0.27 for three organ weights, all of which were generally consistent in magnitude with estimates derived in previous studies. (unl.edu)
  • The genetic correlations of adiposity with body weight at 3, 6, and 12 weeks of age (−0.29, −0.22, −0.26) all were negative in sign but not statistically significant. (unl.edu)
  • The independence of body weight and adiposity suggests that this advanced intercross population is ideal for a comprehensive discovery of genes controlling regulation of mammalian adiposity that are distinct from those for body weight. (unl.edu)
  • We aimed to elucidate the longitudinal relationship between dietary patterns, adiposity, inflammation and mental health including depressive symptoms in a population-based cohort of adolescents. (fabresearch.org)
  • A 'Western' dietary pattern associates with an increased risk of mental health problems including depressive symptoms in adolescents, through biologically plausible pathways of adiposity and inflammation, whereas a 'Healthy' dietary pattern appears protective in these pathways. (fabresearch.org)
  • Longitudinal modelling into adulthood is indicated to confirm the complex associations of dietary patterns, adiposity, inflammation and mental health problems, including depressive symptoms. (fabresearch.org)
  • We aimed to elucidate the longitudinal relationship between dietary patterns, adiposity, inflammation and mental health including depressive symptoms in a population-based cohort of adolescents.Methods: Data were provided from 843 adolescents participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study at 14 and 17 years (y) of age. (edu.au)
  • No significant correlation was present between RSR and regional skin temperature ( T sk ), nor did RSR correspond to known patterns of regional sweat gland density. (springer.com)
  • The mean air temperature at which activity is maximized was 27.9°C, with a range of 25.8-31.7°C. Furthermore, air temperature explained changes in the core body temperature better than did mass, and only during the coldest trial, did tortoises with higher mass show more stable temperatures. (uzh.ch)
  • Global rates and patterns of fecundity in marine epipelagic copepods were studied as a function of temperature, body weight of the female and concentration of chlorophyll a. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • Fecundity was positively correlated with temperature and body weight in both broadcast and sac spawners. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • Interestingly, body mass had only a small effect on variation in Tb and there was no consistent pattern relating ambient temperature to variation in Tb. (up.ac.za)
  • WARM In contrast to synthetics, merino is an active fibre that reacts to changes in body temperature. (granniesinc.co.uk)
  • BMP modulators regulate the function of BMP during body patterning and disease progression. (nih.gov)
  • These findings support recent pathological studies showing an ascending pattern of Lewy body progression from brainstem to basal areas of the brain. (elsevier.com)
  • from regulation of cellular "house-keeping" such as cell cycle progression and cellular metabolism, to regulation of developmental processes such as fertilization, activation of zygotic transcription, and formation of body axes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Syracuse China 905356973 plate, an item from the Slenda Pattern, has a 6 3 ⁄ 8 -inch diameter, making it ideal for serving menu items that come in smaller portions, like appetizers, desserts, or bread. (katom.com)
  • lower in meats (including red and processed meats), and low in sugar-sweetened foods and beverages, and refined grains are associated with favorable outcomes related to body weight, (including lower BMI, waist circumference, or percent body fat) or risk of obesity. (dietaryguidelines.gov)
  • A new report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) analyzes patterns of body weight for the U.S. adult population. (cdc.gov)
  • Height and weight data are collected in the National Health Interview Survey to study the associations between relative body weight status and a variety of other health characteristics, including health limitations, chronic conditions, injuries, health care and other health-related behaviors. (cdc.gov)
  • Food pattern was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire, a 24-h dietary recall was used to assess dietary diversity and body weight was measured using an electronic scale. (springer.com)
  • In this prospective cohort study among schooling Ghanaian adolescents who fast during Ramadan, fasting was characterised by marked changes in usual food patterns, increased dietary diversity and significant body weight loss. (springer.com)
  • I train at a gym, also do some form of cardio(am experimenting between which energy system i want to target, unsure which will go best with developing a healthier body) prefer body weight movements as i feel it more natural. (exrx.net)
  • This study evaluated changes in balance, lower extremity motor function, and spatiotemporal gait parameters after receiving body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) and conventional overground walking training (CT) in patients with subacute stroke using 3D motion analysis. (hindawi.com)
  • The certainty of the evidence was graded as moderate for body weight, BMI, WHR and SAD and low for WC and body fat. (bmj.com)
  • Upon irradiation at the level employed, rats fed a basal pre-mixed diet lost significantly more body weight than similarly treated rats selecting their own diet. (dtic.mil)
  • Genetic variance and covariance patterns for body weight and energy ba" by Larry J. Leamy, Kari Elo et al. (unl.edu)
  • The subject should take small steps in a circle or stand on a weight bearing turn table while the scanner scans or the scanner can slowly walk around the body. (instructables.com)
  • Fifteen Thoroughbred geldings on an eight month weight gain study were used to evaluate 1) the effects of weight gain and diet on body area (neck, withers, shoulders, ribs, loin, tailhead) condition scores, and 2) the effects of weight gain, diet, and exercise on serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α. (umd.edu)
  • and margarine, snacks, and sugar dietary patterns were derived from principal component analysis.We measured weight and height of the child at age 6 y at the research center. (eur.nl)
  • Broadcasting copepods have a maximum fecundity (f(max)) of 47 eggs female(-1) d(-1), with a half-saturation coefficient (K-m) of 2.4 mug chl a l(-1), for a body weight of 10 mugC individual(-1), when all data are adjusted to 15degreesC. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • Weight (kg), body fat and visceral fat of the participants were measured by Automated Omron device. (alliedacademies.org)
  • During this time interval, the lower limb must support constant changes in alignment of body weight while propelling forward. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the foot is flat on the ground, the hip gradually extends in preparation for weight acceptance as the whole-body moves forward over the stance foot. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wound biopsy specimens from 6 horses collected on days 7, 14, 21, and 27 after excisional wounds (20 wounds/horse) were created over the metacarpal and metatarsal region and lateral thoracic region (body) and then inoculated or not inoculated on day 4 with Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . (nih.gov)
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine associations between dairy food intake and metabolic health, identify patterns of dairy food consumption and determine whether dairy dietary patterns are associated with outcomes of metabolic health, in a cross-sectional survey. (fil-idf.org)
  • Components of the dietary patterns associated with these favorable outcomes include higher intakes of unsaturated fats and lower intakes of saturated fats, cholesterol, and sodium. (dietaryguidelines.gov)
  • Observational studies suggest that dietary patterns may impact mental health outcomes, although biologically plausible pathways are yet to be tested. (fabresearch.org)
  • Changes consistent with protracted inflammation were evident in limb wounds, and gene expression patterns of limb wounds shared similarities with those of chronic wounds in humans. (nih.gov)
  • Easy instructions to make a cross body shoulder bag! (etsy.com)
  • To evaluate histologic changes and gene expression patterns in body and limb wounds in horses in response to bacterial inoculation. (nih.gov)
  • Thin halter neck ties and thin back ties secure this teddy to your body, while a strappy G-string rear and open crotch round out the sizzling features. (lingeriediva.com)
  • Air Tattoo : Wearable Art For Your Neck / A New Body Decoration Concept. (notcot.org)
  • Colors / Patterns here include those recognized by ARBA, the BRC, or as described by another reputable authority (in which case they are surrounded by quotation marks). (wikipedia.org)
  • A variety of genetically distinct white spotting patterns produce coat colors that fit into the PtHA's "overo" category, including frame overo, which is associated with Lethal white syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • N = 14,384) and compare nutrient intakes, with focus on 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines' shortfall nutrients, diet quality, and health parameters of those consuming various grain food patterns to those not consuming grains. (scirp.org)