An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.
The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.
The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Glucose in blood.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The physical measurements of a body.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.
Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.
Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.
A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
Acquired or learned food preferences.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Individuals' concept of their own bodies.
Abstaining from all food.
A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)
An eating disorder that is characterized by the lack or loss of APPETITE, known as ANOREXIA. Other features include excess fear of becoming OVERWEIGHT; BODY IMAGE disturbance; significant WEIGHT LOSS; refusal to maintain minimal normal weight; and AMENORRHEA. This disorder occurs most frequently in adolescent females. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.
Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.
That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
The consumption of edible substances.
Surgical procedure in which the STOMACH is transected high on the body. The resulting small proximal gastric pouch is joined to any parts of the SMALL INTESTINE by an end-to-side SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS, depending on the amounts of intestinal surface being bypasses. This procedure is used frequently in the treatment of MORBID OBESITY by limiting the size of functional STOMACH, food intake, and food absorption.
A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.
A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
Surgical procedures aimed at affecting metabolism and producing major WEIGHT REDUCTION in patients with MORBID OBESITY.
Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
The first MENSTRUAL CYCLE marked by the initiation of MENSTRUATION.
Particular categories of body build, determined on the basis of certain physical characteristics. The three basic body types are ectomorph (thin physique), endomorph (rounded physique), and mesomorph (athletic physique).
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)
Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.
Surgical procedures involving the STOMACH and sometimes the lower ESOPHAGUS to correct anatomical defects, or to treat MORBID OBESITY by reducing the size of the stomach. There are several subtypes of bariatric gastroplasty, such as vertical banded gastroplasty, silicone ring vertical gastroplasty, and horizontal banded gastroplasty.
Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.
Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.
A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.
A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.
Blood pressure levels that are between normotension and hypertension. Individuals with prehypertension are at a higher risk for developing cardiovascular diseases. Generally, prehypertension is defined as SYSTOLIC PRESSURE of 131-139 mm Hg and/or DIASTOLIC PRESSURE of 81-89 when the optimal is 120/80 mm Hg. For diabetics and other metabolism diseases the prehypertension is around 110-129/70-79 mm Hg.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.

Comparative total mortality in 25 years in Italian and Greek middle aged rural men. (1/19326)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Mortality over 25 years has been low in the Italian and very low in the Greek cohorts of the Seven Countries Study; factors responsible for this particularity were studied in detail. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: 1712 Italian and 1215 Greek men, aged 40-59 years, cohorts of the Seven Countries Study, representing over 95% of the populations in designated rural areas. DESIGN: Entry (1960-61) data included age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), smoking habits, total serum cholesterol, body mass index (BMI), arm circumference, vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in 3/4 seconds (FEV); the same data were obtained 10 years later. Multivariate Cox analysis was performed with all causes death in 25 years as end point. MAIN RESULTS: Italian men had higher entry levels of SBP, arm circumference, BMI, and VC; Greek men had higher cholesterol levels, smoking habits, and FEV. Mortality of Italian men was higher throughout; at 25 years cumulative mortality was 48.3% and 35.3% respectively. Coronary heart disease and stroke mortality increased fivefold in Italy and 10-fold in Greece between years 10 and 25. The only risk factor with a significantly higher contribution to mortality in Italian men was cholesterol. However, differences in entry SBP (higher in Italy) and FEV (higher in Greece) accounted for, according to the Lee method, 75% of the differential mortality between the two populations. At 10 years increases in SBP, cholesterol, BMI, and decreases in smoking habits, VC, FEV, and arm circumference had occurred (deltas). SBP increased more and FEV and VC decreased more in Italy than in Greece. Deltas, fed stepwise in the original model for the prediction of 10 to 25 years mortality, were significant for SBP, smoking, arm circumference, and VC in Greece, and for SBP and VC in Italy. CONCLUSION: Higher mortality in Italian men is related to stronger positive effects of entry SBP and weaker negative (protective) effects of FEV; in addition 10 year increases in SBP are higher and 10 year decreases in FEV are larger in Italy. Unaccounted factors, however, related to, for example, differences in the diet, may also have contributed to the differential mortality of these two Mediterranean populations.  (+info)

Body mass decrease after initial gain following smoking cessation. (2/19326)

BACKGROUND: Although smoking cessation is strongly associated with subsequent weight gain, it is not clear whether the initial gain in weight after smoking cessation remains over time. METHOD: Cross-sectional analyses were made, using data from periodic health examinations for workers, on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the length of smoking cessation. In addition, linear regression coefficients of BMI on the length of cessation were estimated according to alcohol intake and sport activity, to examine the modifying effect of these factors on the weight of former smokers. RESULTS: Means of BMI were 23.1 kg/m2, 23.3 kg/m2, 23.6 kg/m2 for light/medium smokers, heavy smokers and never smokers, respectively. Among former smokers who had smoked > or = 25 cigarettes a day, odds ratio (OR) of BMI >25 kg/m2 were 1.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.05-3.35), 1.32 (95% CI : 0.74-2.34), 0.66 (95% CI: 0.33-1.31) for those with 2-4 years, 5-7 years, and 8-10 years of smoking cessation, respectively. The corresponding OR among those who previously consumed <25 cigarettes a day were 1.06 (95% CI: 0.58-1.94), 1.00 (95% CI: 0.58-1.71), and 1.49 (95% CI: 0.95-2.32). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that although heavy smokers may experience large weight gain and weigh more than never smokers in the few years after smoking cessation, they thereafter lose weight to the never smoker level, while light and moderate smokers gain weight up to the never smoker level without any excess after smoking cessation.  (+info)

Pregnancy, body weight and human immunodeficiency virus infection in African women: a prospective cohort study in Kigali (Rwanda), 1992-1994. Pregnancy and HIV Study Group (EGE). (3/19326)

OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and body weight in African women during and after pregnancy. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was initiated at the Centre Hospitalier de Kigali in July 1992. Every woman seen at the antenatal clinic and with a gestational age of <28 weeks was offered HIV-1 antibody testing. Comparable numbers of HIV-infected (HIV+) and uninfected (HIV-) women were recruited. At inclusion, socio-demographic characteristics and self-reported pre-pregnancy weight were recorded; height and weight were measured. Each woman enrolled had a monthly follow-up until 9 months after delivery, with a clinical examination including weighing. Three anthropometric indices were used to answer the study objectives: weight, body mass index (BMI), and pregnancy balance. RESULTS: As of April 1994, 101 HIV+ and 106 HIV- women were followed until 5 months after delivery. Weight and BMI during pregnancy were lower in HIV+ women than in HIV- women. After delivery, weight and BMI gains were significantly lower in HIV+ women. Until 5 months after delivery, the mean weight variation was -2.2 kg (standard deviation [SD] = 5.9 kg) in HIV+ women and +0.2 kg (SD = 6.6 kg) in HIV- women (P = 0.007) in comparison to pre-pregnancy weight. Comparisons of the slopes of the weight curves did not show statistical differences throughout the pregnancy, but it did during the post-partum period (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that HIV infection could impair nutritional status in pregnant women, especially during the post-partum period. Family planning and maternal and child health services including HIV testing and counselling, should consider a nutritional assessment and intervention programme targeted to HIV+ pregnant women.  (+info)

Thiamine deficiency is prevalent in a selected group of urban Indonesian elderly people. (4/19326)

This cross-sectional study involved 204 elderly individuals (93 males and 111 females). Subjects were randomly recruited using a list on which all 60-75 y-old-people living in seven sub-villages in Jakarta were included. The usual food intake was estimated using semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. Hemoglobin, plasma retinol, vitamin B-12, red blood cell folate and the percentage stimulation of erythrocyte transketolase (ETK), as an indicator of thiamine status, were analyzed. Median energy intake was below the assessed requirement. More than 75% of the subjects had iron and thiamine intakes of approximately 2/3 of the recommended daily intake, and 20.2% of the study population had folate intake of approximately 2/3 of the recommended daily intake. Intakes of vitamins A and B-12 were adequate. Biochemical assessments demonstrated that 36.6% of the subjects had low thiamine levels (ETK stimulation > 25%). The elderly men tended to have lower thiamine levels than the elderly women. The overall prevalence of anemia was 28.9%, and the elderly women were affected more than the elderly men. Low biochemical status of vitamins A, B-12 and RBC folate was found in 5.4%, 8.8 % and 2.9% of the subjects, respectively. Dietary intakes of thiamine and folate were associated with ETK stimulation and plasma vitamin B-12 concentration (r = 0.176, P = 0.012 and r = 0.77, P = 0.001), respectively. Results of this study suggest that anemia, thiamine and possibly vitamin B-12 deficiency are prevalent in the elderly living in Indonesia. Clearly, micronutrient supplementation may be beneficial for the Indonesian elderly population living in underprivileged areas.  (+info)

Natural sporting ability and predisposition to cardiovascular disorders. (5/19326)

We tested the hypothesis that people with a natural ability in 'power sports' (a presumed marker for predominance of type 2, glycolytic muscle fibres) might have increased risks of coronary heart disease (CHD) compared to those with a natural ability in 'endurance sports' (as a marker for predominance of type 1, oxidative muscle fibres). We examined subsequent cardiovascular disorders retrospectively in 231 male former soldiers, aged 34-87 years, who had undergone a course in physical training in the Army School of Physical Training, Aldershot, UK, who assessed themselves as having natural ability in either power (n = 107) or endurance (n = 124) sports. The proportion with CHD, defined as angina and/or coronary angioplasty and/or coronary artery bypass graft and/or heart attack was 18.7% in the 'power group' vs. 9.7% in the 'endurance group' (difference: chi 2 = 3.9, p = 0.05). The proportions with CHD and/or risk factors rose to 39.3% in the 'power group' vs. 25.8% in the 'endurance group' (difference: chi 2 = 4.8, p = 0.03). Under logistic regression analysis, compared to the 'endurance group', the 'power group' had 2.2 (95% CI: 1.00-4.63) the risk of developing CHD, and 1.86 (95% confidence interval: 1.06 to 3.25) the risk of developing CHD and/or risk factors. Men with a natural ability in 'power sports' are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disorders, compared to men with a natural ability in 'endurance sports'. A predominance of type 2, glycolytic muscle fibres, presumably of genetic origin, may predispose to cardiovascular disorders.  (+info)

Relation between obesity and breast cancer in young women. (6/19326)

This study was conducted to assess the relation between body size and risk of breast cancer among young women. A case-control study was conducted among women aged 21-45 years living in three counties in Washington State. Cases were women born after 1944 with invasive or in situ breast cancer that was diagnosed between January 1, 1983, and April 30, 1990. Controls were selected using random digit dialing and were frequency-matched to cases on the basis of age and county of residence. Interviews took place between 1986 and 1992. Body size was evaluated using indices from several different time periods. After adjustment for confounders, a decreased risk of breast cancer was found for women in the highest quintile of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2) as compared with the lowest quintile (for maximum lifetime body mass index, odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51-0.94). Age modified the relation between body size and risk of breast cancer. The odds ratio for women in the highest quintile of maximum body mass index who were aged 21-35 years was 0.29 (95% CI 0.16-0.55), as compared with an odds ratio of 1.5 for women aged 36-45 years (95% CI 0.9-2.5) (p for interaction = 0.003). This study supports prior research showing a decreased risk of breast cancer associated with increased body size among premenopausal or young women. More detailed analysis in this study found a strong effect that was limited to the youngest age group (< or = 35 years).  (+info)

The Sock Test for evaluating activity limitation in patients with musculoskeletal pain. (7/19326)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Assessment within rehabilitation often must reflect patients' perceived functional problems and provide information on whether these problems are caused by impairments of the musculoskeletal system. Such capabilities were examined in a new functional test, the Sock Test, simulating the activity of putting on a sock. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Intertester reliability was examined in 21 patients. Concurrent validity, responsiveness, and predictive validity were examined in a sample of 337 patients and in subgroups of this sample. RESULTS: Intertester reliability was acceptable. Sock Test scores were related to concurrent reports of activity limitation in dressing activities. Scores also reflected questionnaire-derived reports of problems in a broad range of activities of daily living and pain and were responsive to change over time. Increases in age and body mass index increased the likelihood of Sock Test scores indicating activity limitation. Pretest scores were predictive of perceived difficulties in dressing activities after 1 year. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: Sock Test scores reflect perceived activity limitations and restrictions of the musculoskeletal system.  (+info)

A pilot study on the human body vibration induced by low frequency noise. (8/19326)

To understand the basic characteristics of the human body vibration induced by low frequency noise and to use it to evaluate the effects on health, we designed a measuring method with a miniature accelerometer and carried out preliminary measurements. Vibration was measured on the chest and abdomen of 6 male subjects who were exposed to pure tones in the frequency range of 20 to 50 Hz, where the method we designed was proved to be sensitive enough to detect vibration on the body surface. The level and rate of increase with frequency of the vibration turned out to be higher on the chest than on the abdomen. This difference was considered to be due to the mechanical structure of the human body. It also turned out that the measured noise-induced vibration negatively correlated with the subject's BMI (Body Mass Index), which suggested that the health effects of low frequency noise depended not only on the mechanical structure but also on the physical constitution of the human body.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Patterns of childhood body mass index (BMI), overweight and obesity in South Asian and black participants in the English National child measurement programme. T2 - Effect of applying BMI adjustments standardising for ethnic differences in BMI-body fatness associations. AU - Hudda, M. T.. AU - Nightingale, C. M.. AU - Donin, A. S.. AU - Owen, C. G.. AU - Rudnicka, A. R.. AU - Wells, J. C.K.. AU - Rutter, H.. AU - Cook, D. G.. AU - Whincup, P. H.. PY - 2017/11/2. Y1 - 2017/11/2. N2 - Background:The National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) records weight and height and assesses overweight-obesity patterns in English children using body mass index (BMI), which tends to underestimate body fatness in South Asian children and overestimate body fatness in Black children of presumed African ethnicity. Using BMI adjustments to ensure that adjusted BMI was similarly related to body fatness in South Asian, Black and White children, we reassessed population overweight and obesity patterns ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Indirect effects of elevated body mass index on memory performance through altered cerebral metabolite concentrations. AU - Gonzales, Mitzi M.. AU - Tarumi, Takashi. AU - Eagan, Danielle E.. AU - Tanaka, Hirofumi. AU - Vaghasia, Miral. AU - Haley, Andreana P.. PY - 2012/9/1. Y1 - 2012/9/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE: Elevated body mass index (BMI) at midlife is associated with increased risk of cognitive decline in later life. The goal of the current study was to assess mechanisms of early brain vulnerability by examining if higher BMI at midlife affects current cognitive performance through alterations in cerebral neurochemistry. METHODS: Fifty-five participants, aged 40 to 60 years, underwent neuropsychological testing, health screen, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy examining N-acetylaspartate, creatine (Cr), myo-inositol (mI), choline, and glutamate concentrations in occipitoparietal gray matter. Concentrations of N-acetylaspartate, choline, mI, and glutamate were calculated as ...
The genetic background of childhood body mass index (BMI), and the extent to which the well-known associations of childhood BMI with adult diseases are explained by shared genetic factors, are largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of BMI in 61,111 children aged between 2 and 10 years. Twenty-five independent loci reached genome-wide significance in the combined discovery and replication analyses. Two of these, located near NEDD4L and SLC45A3, have not previously been reported in relation to either childhood or adult BMI. Positive genetic correlations of childhood BMI with birth weight and adult BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, diastolic blood pressure and type 2 diabetes were detected (Rg ranging from 0.11 to 0.76, P-values ,0.002). A negative genetic correlation of childhood BMI with age at menarche was observed. Our results suggest that the biological processes underlying childhood BMI largely, but not completely, overlap with those underlying adult BMI. The ...
Body Mass Index May Predict Heart Disease Risk For Type-2 Diabetic Patients New Study Finds. By J. Brent Muhlestein, MD. April 25, 2014. Researchers from …. Body Mass Index, Fasting Plasma Glucose Levels, and C-peptide Levels as Predictors of the Future Insulin Use in Japanese Type 2 Diabetic Patients.. Dec 15, 2016 … A great BMI calculator with advanced features for Body Mass Index. … serious health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.. Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based on height and weight. How to calculate Body Mass Index. Body Mass Index is a simple calculation using …. Sep 9, 2014 … Effects of Body Mass Index, Abdominal Obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes on Mortality in Community-Dwelling Elderly in Sao Paulo, Brazil: Analysis …. aimed at investigating the effect of Body Mass Index on serum lipid profile in type II diabetic patients. The study was descriptive cross sectional in design.. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the hormone insulin is not used ...
Body Mass Index (BMI) or Quetelet index plays an important role in figure out your weight, health and lifestyle choices. Body mass index is developed by Adolphe Quetelet in the 1900s for evaluating body mass. Body mass index is not related to gender or age. BMI values are the same for men and women of all body types and ages.In BMI formulas simply put your weight and height and calculate your BMI value. There are three sets of values used to determine body mass.If your BMI weight status is below then 18.5 than youre in the category of underweight people. There are certain risks of being underweight such as slow wound healing, slow recovery from illness, high blood pressure and lack of period or fertility in females. If youve BMI score less than 18.5 or in between 18.5 - 20 then you required a more nutritional intake that helps you to gain weight and build strong immunity system in the body. You can try Accumass weight gain granules and Ayurvedic medicine to increase your BMI value.
Washington, DC, February 7, 2012 - The Trust for Americas Health (TFAH) has released a new report, Bending the Obesity Cost Curve, which finds that reducing the average body mass index by just five percent in the United States could lead to more than $29 billion in health care savings in just five years, due to reduced obesity-related costs. The analysis found that the country could save $158.1 billion in 10 years and $611.7 billion in 20 years.. Prevention is the key to halting the obesity epidemic, lowering health care costs and creating a long-term path to a healthier and economically sound America, said Jeff Levi, PhD, Executive Director of TFAH, who also serves as Chair of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health. The Prevention and Public Health Fund is now providing resources to support the kind of evidence-based strategies that can achieve this five percent reduction in average BMI, which makes the Fund a critical component of our efforts ...
Obesity is associated with breast white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation, elevated levels of the estrogen biosynthetic enzyme, aromatase, and systemic changes that have been linked to the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Here, we determined whether metabolic obesity, including changes in breast biology and systemic effects, occurs in a subset of women with normal body mass index (BMI). Breast WAT and fasting blood were collected from 72 women with normal BMI (,25 kg/m2) undergoing mastectomy for breast cancer risk reduction or treatment. WAT inflammation was defined by the presence of crown-like structures of the breast (CLS-B) which are composed of dead or dying adipocytes surrounded by macrophages. Severity of inflammation was measured as CLS-B/cm2. The primary objective was to determine whether breast WAT inflammation is associated with aromatase expression and activity. Secondary objectives included assessment of circulating factors and breast adipocyte size. Breast WAT inflammation was ...
Many modifiable risk factors in early infancy have been shown to be associated with childhood overweight and obesity. These risk factors have not been studied within children of South Asian origin in the UK. The aims of this paper are to describe differences in the prevalence of modifiable risk factors for childhood obesity between children of White British and Pakistani origin and investigate the association between these risk factors and childhood BMI measured at age 3 years. We used data from a sub-study of the Born in Bradford birth cohort with detailed follow-up visits throughout early childhood. 987 participants with a BMI measurement at age 3 were included; 39% were White British, 48% were of Pakistani origin and 13% were of other ethnicities. Linear and Poisson regression models were used to assess the association between risk factors and two outcomes at age 3; BMI z-scores and child overweight. Compared to Pakistani mothers, White British mothers were more likely to smoke during pregnancy, have
TY - JOUR. T1 - A dose-response meta-analysis of the impact of body mass index on stroke and all-cause mortality in stroke patients. T2 - a paradox within a paradox. AU - Bagheri, M.. AU - Speakman, J. R.. AU - Shabbidar, S.. AU - Kazemi, F.. AU - Djafarian, K.. N1 - Acknowledgements We thank Dr. Nicola Orsini for helping us with the statistical analysis. This study was supported by Tehran University of Medical Sciences.. PY - 2015/5. Y1 - 2015/5. N2 - The obesity paradox is often attributed to fat acting as a buffer to protect individuals in fragile metabolic states. If this was the case, one would predict that the reverse epidemiology would be apparent across all causes of mortality including that of the particular disease state. We performed a dose-response meta-analysis to assess the impact of body mass index (BMI) on all-cause and stroke-specific mortality among stroke patients. Data from relevant studies were identified by systematically searching PubMed, OVID and Scopus databases and were ...
Introduction: There are conflicting reports on influence of ageing and gender on body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) in different population. This study evaluated the influence of ageing on these parameters in healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: BP, heart rate and BMI was measured in 140 apparently healthy subjects. They were divided into four groups. Group A: males ≤ 50 years of age; Group B: males above 50 years; Group C= females ≤ 50 years; Group D= females above 50 years. Data was analysed using unpaired t test and Mann-Whitney U test. Result: BMI of group B was significantly lower compared to group A (p = 0.004). Diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in group D compared to group C (p = 0.016). Heart rate was significantly lower in group D compared to group C (p= 0.03) Conclusion: There is differential influence of ageing in males and females on body mass index and diastolic blood pressure.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of body mass index on diabetogenesis factors at a fixed fasting plasma glucose level. AU - Lin, Jiunn Diann. AU - Hsu, Chun Hsien. AU - Wu, Chung Ze. AU - Hsieh, An-Tsz. AU - Hsieh, Chang Hsun. AU - Liang, Yao Jen. AU - Chen, Yen Lin. AU - Pei, Dee. AU - Chang, Jin Biou. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Aim The present study evaluated the relative influence of body mass index (BMI) on insulin resistance (IR), first-phase insulin secretion (FPIS), second-phase insulin secretion (SPIS), and glucose effectiveness (GE) at a fixed fasting plasma glucose level in an older ethnic Chinese population. Methods In total, 265 individuals aged 60 years with a fasting plasma glucose level of 5.56 mmol/L were enrolled. Participants had BMIs of 20.0-34.2 kg/m2. IR, FPIS, SPIS, and GE were estimated using our previously developed equations. Pearson correlation analysis was conducted to assess the correlations between the four diabetogenesis factors and BMI. A general linear model was ...
What is body mass index and how is it measured? Body mass index is one important measurement to determine if someone is overweight, underweight, or at a healthy weight. If someones height and weight are known, then body mass index can be measured. There is a simple body mass index formula which is discussed in this article as well as many other body mass index facts.
Do you often worry about your childs weight? Do you think that your child is either too fat or too thin? If you do, you need to know your childs Body Mass Index or BMI, so you would determine whether your childs weight is right for his or her age and height.. The Body Mass Index for kids is also known as BMI-for-age because it is age and gender specific. This index is calculated from ages two to 20 years old. There is a separate chart for boys and girls because each gender has different body fat content, as they grow older.. There are many ways on how you can determine if your child is obese or overweight. But the fastest way of figuring whether your child is healthy or not is through the help of body mass index. In calculating your childs BMI, you need to determine your childs weight in kilograms and his or her height in meter Age calculator .. When you have this data, you may now start calculating using the BMI formula. First you need to multiply the height per meter by itself. Using this ...
can you tell me normal body mass index for women? Answered by Dr. Thomas Namey: BMI!: Good approximation for weight, but not as good as body composit...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impact of pretransplant body mass index on the clinical outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic SCT. AU - Fuji, S.. AU - Takano, K.. AU - Mori, T.. AU - Eto, T.. AU - Taniguchi, S.. AU - Ohashi, K.. AU - Sakamaki, H.. AU - Morishima, Y.. AU - Kato, K.. AU - Miyamura, K.. AU - Suzuki, R.. AU - Fukuda, T.. PY - 2014/12/11. Y1 - 2014/12/11. N2 - To elucidate the impact of pretransplant body mass index (BMI) on the clinical outcome, we performed a retrospective study with registry data including a total of 12 050 patients (age ≥18 years) who received allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) between 2000 and 2010. Patients were stratified as follows: BMI,18.5 kg/m 2, Underweight, n=1791; 18.5≤BMI,25, Normal, n=8444; 25≤BMI,30, Overweight, n=1591; BMI≥30, Obese, n=224. The median age was 45 years (range, 18-77). A multivariate analysis showed that the risk of relapse was significantly higher in the underweight group and lower in the overweight and obese groups compared with the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Joint effect of physical activity and body mass index on mortality for acute myocardial infarction in the elderly. T2 - Role of preinfarction angina as equivalent of ischemic preconditioning. AU - Abete, Pasquale. AU - Cacciatore, Francesco. AU - Della Morte, David. AU - Mazzella, Francesca. AU - Testa, Gianluca. AU - Galizia, Gianluigi. AU - De Santis, Domenico. AU - Longobardi, Giancarlo. AU - Ferrara, Nicola. AU - Rengo, Franco. PY - 2009/2/1. Y1 - 2009/2/1. N2 - BACKGROUND: Preinfarction angina (PrA), clinical equivalent of ischemic preconditioning, confers protection against in-hospital mortality for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in adult but not in elderly patients. This study aims to examine the interaction between physical activity and body mass index (BMI) in preserving the cardioprotective effect of PrA in elderly patients with AMI. DESIGN: Elderly patients (≥65 years old) with AMI admitted to Coronary Care Unit. METHODS: Elderly patients with AMI were ...
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OBJECTIVE: This study investigated how a wide spectrum of body mass index (BMI) values at ages 7 to 13 years are associated with type 2 diabetes throughout adulthood, including potential modifying effects of sex and birth weight.. METHODS: From the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, 292,827 individuals, born between 1930 and 1989, were followed in national registers for type 2 diabetes (women, n = 7,472; men, n = 11,548). Heights and weights were measured at ages 7 to 13 years.. RESULTS: Below-average BMIs, with few exceptions, were not associated with type 2 diabetes. Above-average BMIs had positive associations that were stronger in women than men, stronger in younger birth cohorts, and weaker with older age at diagnosis. Women born 1930-1947, 1948-1965, and 1966-1983 with above-average BMIs at 13 years (≥18.2 kg/m(2) ) had hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) ranging from 2.12 (1.91-2.36) to 2.84 (2.31-3.49) per z score when diagnosed at 30 to 47 years. Birth weight did not ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Does Low Body Mass Index Predict the Hospital Mortality of Adult Western or Asian Patients?. AU - Compher, Charlene. AU - Higashiguchi, Takashi. AU - Yu, Jianchun. AU - Jensen, Gordon L.. PY - 2018/2/1. Y1 - 2018/2/1. N2 - Background: Some strategies for screening and assessment of malnutrition include a low but variable body mass index (BMI) cutoff, while others do not. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate published data for Western and Asian hospital samples to determine how the prevalence of low BMI is associated with increased hospital mortality. Method: A PubMed search of the past 10 years (2006-2016) was conducted with the terms BMI, malnutrition, adult, outcome, and hospital or ICU for articles published in English. Studies that examined BMI levels among Western or Asian populations were included. Forest plots were constructed to determine the odds of hospital mortality in low versus normal BMI groups. Results: Twenty studies met inclusion ...
The body mass index otherwise known as BMI, is a simple calculation using a persons height and weight. The result typically in the range of 15 to 60 is known as the BMI or body mass index score. Most health organizations put a healthy BMI score between 18.5 and 25.0. Some people refer to this as a normal BMI.. Because it measures excess weight and not actually excess fat, BMI is considered a surrogate measure of body fat. However, studies show strong correlations between BMI measurements and the results of more direct body fat measures. If you are concerned about your weight or body size, calculating your body mass index is a good place to start before heading to the doctors office. BMI can predict future weight-related issues including disease and even death, so it is a very helpful tool in screening for health risks and obesity.. Individuals with a body mass index under 18.5 are considered underweight. A BMI this low can indicate an undernourished individual. Your body needs meat on your ...
Definition of body mass index in the Fine Dictionary. Meaning of body mass index with illustrations and photos. Pronunciation of body mass index and its etymology. Related words - body mass index synonyms, antonyms, hypernyms and hyponyms. Example sentences containing body mass index
Definition of body mass index in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is body mass index? Meaning of body mass index as a finance term. What does body mass index mean in finance?
The high prevalence of disease and associated weight loss at older ages limits the validity of prospective cohort studies examining the association between body mass index (BMI) and mortality. I examined mortality associated with excess weight using maximum BMI-a measure that is robust to confounding by illness-induced weight loss. Analyses were carried out on US never-smoking adults ages 50-84 using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1988-1994 and 1999-2004) linked to the National Death Index through 2006. Cox models were used to estimate hazard ratios for mortality according to BMI at time of survey and at maximum. Using maximum BMI, hazard ratios for overweight (BMI, 25.0-29.9 kg/m2), obese class 1 (BMI, 30.0-34.9 kg/m2) and obese class 2 (BMI, 35.0 kg/m2 and above) relative to normal weight (BMI, 18.5-24.9 kg/m2) were 1.28 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89-1.84), 1.67 (95% CI, 1.15-2.40), and 2.15 (95% CI, 1.47-3.14), respectively. The corresponding hazard ratios
Subjects The parents of the subjects selected for the sample of the second growth and development study (Berdasco et al., 1991) were the subjects of this survey. After cleaning the data, the total number of adults was 31 662, of whom 11912 were males and 19 750 were females. This difference in the numbers was probably due to the better attendance of mothers for their appointments. Field work The adults attended the measuring centres where they were weighed, and had their height, upper arm circumference, triceps and subscapular fat-folds measured. The survey was undertaken by eight measuring teams (two anthropometrists each) working simultaneously from May to December 1982. Individuals living in the countrys 14 provinces were measured. In order to assure the best possible quality in the primary data, anthropometrists were trained in the same measuring procedures utilized in the first national growth and development study (Jordan, 1979), namely, those recommended by UN International Biological ...
Background: The elderly is an age group that is susceptible to nutritional problems, especially protein intake which tends to be less intake, so it affects the body mass index. Both of these problems directly or indirectly will also affect the quality of life of the elderly. This study aimed to determine the correlation between body mass index, protein intake and quality of life in the elderly.Methods: In a cross-sectional design, a sample of 165 elderlies aged≥60 years were enrolled and randomized from three community health centers of Karanganyar Regency. The body mass index (BMI), height, weight, protein intake data were obtained through interviews using 24-hour recall form. The quality of life data was prepared through interviews using the WQOOL-BREF questionnaire.Results: There was a significant correlation between protein intake and quality of life; however, there was no correlation between body mass index and the quality of life.Conclusion: Protein intake was shown to have a significant
BMI Calculator Body mass index Posted by bmt in Health & Fitness , July 7, 2014 , 0 Comments. Apk file size: 0 bytes. What is BMI? how to calculator BMI ? - Body mass index - commonly known under the acronym BMI Body Mass Index English name - was used to assess the level of a skinny or fat. - Body mass index calculated by a persons weight (kg) divided by height (measured in meters or centimeters). It can be calculated by the formula given in the definition or standard tables - This indicator can help determine a person is obese or malnourished patients through data on the shape, height and body weight. ** Application is based on the evaluation boards standard World Health Organization (WHO) and dedicated to Asian (IDI & WPRO) App ** BMI helps you quickly and accurately help you determine the condition of which you can adjust the diet and moderate exercise routine to get a healthy body Please vote 5 * and leave your comments for us to improve the content better and will have more exciting ...
A total of 19 760 (80.0%) children attended childcare before age 6. Childcare prior to age 6 was associated with BMI z-score at 7 years (0.004 units per each additional 6 months of care; 95% CI: 0.001, 0.008; p = 0.01). Childcare in a kindergarten was the only type of care associated with BMI (0.009 units; 95% CI: 0.003, 0.02; p = 0.01). For children of higher socio-occupational status mothers, childcare was associated with a 0.008 unit increase in BMI (95% CI: 0.004, 0.01; p , 0.001). ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Body mass index and waist-to-height ratio as a predictors of metabolic syndrome. AU - Rumpe, Sabīne. AU - Daniļenko, Jeļena. PY - 2021/3/24. Y1 - 2021/3/24. N2 - The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare usefulness of the body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) in screening for metabolic syndrome (MS). A cross-sectional study was conducted in MFD Outpatient hospital Ilguciems from October 2017 to March 2018 and continued from October 2020 to December 2020. The patients were asked to complete a questionnaire about their socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors. Patients systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting blood sugar (FBS), serum triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were measured. Disease history were studied. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight and WC) were taken. BMI and WHtR were calculated. All statistical analysis was performed in IBM SPSS 23.0. The ...
Genome-wide association studies have implicated the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene in type 2 diabetes risk, and more recently, in decreased body mass index. Given the contrary direction of genetic effects on these two traits, it has been suggested that the observed association with body mass index may reflect either selection bias or a complex underlying biology at TCF7L2. Using 9031 Hispanic/Latino adults (21-76 years) with complete weight history and genetic data from the community-based Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL, Baseline 2008-2011), we estimated the multivariable association between the additive number of type 2 diabetes increasing-alleles at TCF7L2 (rs7903146-T) and body mass index. We then used structural equation models to simultaneously model the genetic association on changes in body mass index across the life course and estimate the odds of type 2 diabetes per TCF7L2 risk allele. We observed both significant increases in type 2 diabetes prevalence
Methods and Results-We determined the frequency and results of lipid testing in 301 080 children and adolescents aged 3 to 19 enrolled in 3 large US health systems in 2007 to 2010 before the 2011 guidelines were issued. Overall, 9.8% of the study population was tested for lipids. The proportion tested varied by body mass index percentile (5.9% of normal weight, 10.8% of overweight, and 26.9% of obese children) and age (8.9% of 9- to 11-year olds and 24.3% of 17- to 19-year olds). In normal weight individuals, 2.8% of 9- to 11-year olds and 22.0% of 17- to 19-year olds were tested. In multivariable models, age and body mass index category remained strongly associated with lipid testing. Sex, race, ethnicity, and blood pressure were weakly associated with testing. Abnormal lipid levels were found in 8.6% for total cholesterol, 22.5% for high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, 12.0% for non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, 8.0% for low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and 21% for triglycerides ...
As the use of self-reported data to classify obesity continues, the temporal change in the accuracy of self-report measurement when compared to clinical measurement remains unclear. The objective of this study was to examine temporal trends in misclassification patterns, as well as sensitivity and specificity, of clinically measured versus self-report based body mass index (BMI) from three national lifestyle surveys over a 10-year period. The Surveys of Lifestyle Attitudes and Nutrition (SLÁN) were interview based cross-sectional survey/measurements involving nationally representative samples in 1998, 2002 and 2007. Data from a subsample of both self-reported and measured height and weight were available from 66 men and 142 women in 1998, 147 men and 184 women in 2002 and 909 men and 1128 women in 2007. Respondents were classified into the BMI categories normal (| 25 kg m-2), overweight (25- | 30 kg m-2) and obese (≥ 30 kg m-2). Underreporting of BMI increased across the three surveys (14%→21%→24
The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of physical activity and dietary fat intake on Body Mass Index (BMI) of lecturers within a higher learning institutionalized setting. The study adopted a Cross-sectional Correlational Design and included 120 lecturers selected proportionately by simple random sampling techniques from a population of 600 lecturers. Data was collected using questionnaires, which had sections including physical activity checklist adopted from the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ), 24-hour food recall, anthropometric measurements mainly weight and height. Analysis involved the use of bivariate correlations and linear regression. A significant inverse association was registered between BMI and duration (in minutes) spent doing moderate intense physical activity per day (r=-0.322,p,0.01). Physical activity also predicted BMI (r 2=0.096, F=13.616, ß=-3.22, t=-3.69, n=120, P,0.01). However, the association between Body Mass Index and dietary ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tri-ponderal mass index vs body mass index in estimating body fat during adolescence. AU - Peterson, Courtney M.. AU - Su, Haiyan. AU - Thomas, Diana M.. AU - Heo, Moonseong. AU - Golnabi, Amir H.. AU - Pietrobelli, Angelo. AU - Heymsfield, Steven B.. PY - 2017/7. Y1 - 2017/7. N2 - IMPORTANCE Body mass index (BMI) is used to diagnose obesity in adolescents worldwide, despite evidence that weight does not scale with height squared in adolescents. To account for this, health care providers diagnose obesity using BMI percentiles for each age (BMI z scores), but this does not ensure that BMI is accurate in adolescents. OBJECTIVE To compare the accuracy of BMI vs other body fat indices of the form body mass divided by heightn in estimating body fat levels in adolescents. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cross-sectional data from the 1999 to 2006 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed between September 2015 and December 2016. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES ...
Our aim was to examine the degree to which changes in BMI percentile reflect changes in body fat and lean body mass during childhood and how age and gender affe
We examined the lipid values of obese and normal-weight children, to look if there is an association between Body Mass Index (BMI) and lipid profiles. Our study group included 100 volunteers (50 children with normal BMI and 50 with high BMI) who were admitted to Kagithane State Hospital Pediatrics Clinic for various reasons between July 2010 and May 2011. The inclusion criteria were as follows: age between 2 and 14 years, no chronic disease and no developmental defects. The high BMI group had significantly higher Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) levels in comparison to the normal BMI group (p < 0.05). We also found that the high BMI group had higher cholesterol levels close to upper limit than the normal BMI group. We found high triglyceride levels not only in the high BMI group but also in the normal BMI group with a rate of 26% and 24% respectively. The difference of 2% was not significant. We advise that identification and treatment of elevated LDL cholesterol levels is of tremendous significance for
Background:Weight and weight gain throughout infancy are related to later obesity, but whether the strength of the associations varies during the infancy period is uncertain.Aims:Our aims were to identify the period of infancy when change in body weight has the strongest association with adult body mass index (BMI) and also the extent to which these associations during infancy are mediated through childhood BMI.Methods:The Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort, in which participants were followed from birth through 42 years of age, provided information on weight at 12 months and BMI at 42 years for 1633 individuals. Information on weight at birth, 2 weeks, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 months was retrieved from health visitors records and information on BMI at ages 7 and 13 years from school health records. The associations of infant weight and weight gain standard deviation scores (SDS) with adult BMI-SDS were analyzed using multiple linear regression and path analysis.Results:Higher-weight-SDS at all ages from ...
The online calculator calculates the body mass index - BMI body mass index (BMI) - a value that allows you to assess the degree of correspondence of a persons mass and his height. The calculation of body weight is made in accordance with the so-called body mass index (BMI). How to determine normal body weight? This can be done according to the formula of Adolf Quetelet, used in many countries, which allows you to calculate bodyweight depending on the height of the person.
Body Mass Index Calculator. Body Mass Index (BMI) is one of the most accurate ways to determine when extra pounds translate into health risks. BMI is a measure which takes into account a persons weight and height to gauge total body fat in adults. Someone with a BMI of 26 to 27 is about 20 percent overweight, which is generally believed to carry moderate health risks. A BMI of 30 and higher is considered obese. The higher the BMI, the greater the risk of developing additional health problems.. Heart disease, diabetes and high blood pressure are all linked to being overweight. A BMI of 30 and over increases the risk of death from any cause by 50 to 150 percent, according to some estimates. Be sure to consult your doctor or other health professional before beginning any exercise or weight-loss program.. In June 1998, the federal government announced guidelines which create a new definition of a healthy weight -- a BMI of 24 or less. So now a BMI of 25 to 29.9 is considered overweight. Individuals ...
The purpose of this study was to develop and cross-validate an equation for estimating percentage body fat (%BF) from body mass index and other potential independent variables among young persons with intellectual disability. Participants were 128 persons with intellectual disability (62 women; age 16-24 years) split between development (n = 98) and cross-validation (n = 30) samples. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry served as the reference method for %BF. An equation including 1/body mass index and sex (0 = male; 1 = female) was highly accurate in estimating %BF (p , .001; R2 = .82; standard error of estimate = 5.22%). Mean absolute and root mean square errors were small (3.1% and 3.9%, respectively). A Bland-Altman plot indicated nearly zero mean difference between actual and predicted %BF with modest 95% confidence intervals. The prediction equation was %BF = 56.708 − (729.200 × [1/body mass index]) + (12.134 × sex). Health care professionals may use the prediction equation for monitoring ...
Article: The impact of body mass index on the associations of lipids with the risk of coronary heart disease in the Asia Pacific ...
Bhattacharya , S , Campbell , D M , Liston , W A & Bhattacharya , S 2007 , Effect of Body Mass Index on pregnancy outcomes in nulliparous women delivering singleton babies BMC Public Health , vol. 7 , 168 . DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-7- ...
INSTRUCTIONS: Determination of Nutritional Status of Children Within the Ages of Four (4) to Ten (10) Years Using their Body Mass Index (Bmi) project material.. Please, sit back and study the researched project material carefully after a successful download. DO NOT copy word for word.. Our aim of providing this project research material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for Determination of Nutritional Status of Children Within the Ages of Four (4) to Ten (10) Years Using their Body Mass Index (Bmi) research materials.. We are not encouraging any form of plagiarism. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works. According to Austin Kleon, All creative work builds on what came before. You are about to download: Determination of Nutritional Status of Children Within the Ages of Four (4) to Ten (10) Years Using their Body ...
The Body Mass Index Percentiles for Girls calculation allows you to evaluate if a patient is at an appropriate weight based on their age, height and weight.
The value of school screening for scoliosis has largely been an appreciation of the high prevalence of small degrees of surface deformity and curvature and the opportunity to study the natural history of these curvatures [1, 2]. Not adequately recognised is the potential, through epidemiological studies of screened subjects, to understand better some factors involved in the pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) [3-13]. In this connection, body mass index (BMI) has been evaluated in relation to both AIS [14-23] and the trunk asymmetry (TA) of normal subjects [7, 16, 23-25]. But no attempts have been made to evaluate how BMI may relate to the pathogenesis of the trunk shape distortion of TA as it has recently for girls with AIS [23].. Employing a new approach of comparing skeletal data between subsets of higher and lower body mass index (BMI) in adolescent girls - preoperative with AIS, screened for AIS and normals, BMI was found to be related to skeletal maturation of the trunk, ...
Body Mass Index (BMI) Calculator (add to your website or run on ours). Calculate body mass index (BMI), BMI classification and weight range in US or Metric.
Simple body Mass IndexbrThe body mass index BMI or Quetelet index is a heuristic proxy for human body fat based on an individuals weight and height brRequirements Windows Phone 81 Windows Phone 8 Windows Phone 75
Objective: To evaluate whether the duration of the active phase of labor is associated with maternal body mass index (BMI), in nulliparous women with spontaneous onset of labor. Study design: Historical prospective cohort study including 63,829 nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy and a spontaneous onset of labor, who delivered between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2009. Data were collected from the Perinatal Revision South registry, a regional perinatal database in Southern Sweden. Women were categorized into six classes of BMI. Overweight and obese women were compared to normal weight women regarding duration of active labor. Adjustments were made for year of delivery, maternal age and infant birth weight. Results: The median duration of labor was significantly longer in obese women (class I obesity (BMI 30-34.9) = 9.1 h, class II obesity (BMI 35-39.9) = 9.2 h and class III obesity (BMI , 40) = 9.8 h) compared to normal-weight women (BMI 18.5-24.9) = 8.8 h (p , 0.001). The risk of ...
Did You Know? The average Americans BMI is 27.8?! Low exercise and poor eating habits are the primary reason BMI numbers in the U.S. are rising. If you fall into the 25 and higher range, do your best to make a change! Go ahead, use this Body Mass Calculator to see your exact BMI and other interesting facts! BMI Calculator provided by BMI or Body Mass Index is not an exact measure of your health but can be used as a guideline for managing a healthy weight according to your height. Body mass index determines whether you are underweight, ideal weight, overweight or obese. A BMI score between 18.5 to 25 is considered as healthy. A BMI score of 18.5 or less means that the person is underweight while that above 25 is an indication of being overweight. People with a BMI score above 30 are considered obese, and should consult a physician as soon as possible ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glycaemic control and body mass index in late-adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus. T2 - a population-based study. AU - Acharya, S H. AU - Philip, S. AU - Viswanath, A K. AU - Boroujerdi, M. AU - Waugh, N R. AU - Pearson, D W M. PY - 2008/3. Y1 - 2008/3. N2 - Aims Studies of children with diabetes up to the age of 15 years report deteriorating glycaemic control in the early teenage years. The aim was to investigate glycaemia and body mass index in older teenagers and young adults. Method A Scottish, regional, population-based, cross-sectional study of 255 young people (117 female, 138 male) with Type 1 diabetes, aged 15-25 years (mean ±sd 19.8 ± 2.8 years, diabetes duration: 8.8 ± 5.4 years) registered on a diabetes database. Glycaemic control, body mass index (BMI) and insulin regimens were assessed in three age groups [group 1 (n = 96) 15-18 years; group 2 (n = 74) 18.1-22 years; and group 3 (n = 85) 22.1-25 years]. Results Subjects in the oldest age ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Secular trends in the association between nativity/length of US residence with body mass index and waist circumference among Mexican-Americans, 1988-2008. AU - Albrecht, Sandra S.. AU - Diez Roux, Ana V.. AU - Aiello, Allison E.. AU - Schulz, Amy J.. AU - Abraido-Lanza, Ana. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - Objectives: We investigated whether associations between nativity/length of US residence and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) varied over the past two decades. Methods: Mexican-Americans aged 20-64 years from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) III (1988-1994), and NHANES (1999-2008). Sex-stratified multivariable linear regression models further adjusted for age, education, and NHANES period. Results: We found no evidence of secular variation in the nativity/length of US residence gradient for men or women. Foreign-born Mexican-Americans, irrespective of residence length, had lower mean BMI and WC than their US-born counterparts. However among ...
... (BMI) is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of a person. The BMI is defined as the body mass ... Allometry Body water Corpulence index History of anthropometry List of countries by body mass index Obesity paradox Relative ... Ogunlade O, Adalumo OA, Asafa MA (2015). "Challenges of body mass index classification: New criteria for young adult Nigerians ... "body mass index" (BMI) for the ratio of human body weight to squared height was coined in a paper published in the July 1972 ...
The data for international body mass indexes was published by the World Health Organization. * indicates "Health in COUNTRY or ...
... body mass index; presence or absence of diabetes mellitus; ability to function according to the NYHA scale; percentage of ...
... body-mass index; fitness training; even environmental factors like number of parks, golf courses, etc." In 2003, the ... "Men feel body image pressure too, study finds". The Island Packet. October 7, 2006. Retrieved March 25, 2011. Baker, Peter ( ... "Who needs topless soap stars when you have a great body?" "How healthy is men's health? A shovelful of sugar helps the medicine ... which can increase men's anxieties about their bodies, making them more prone to eating disorders and compulsive over- ...
Explanatory variables of maternal characteristics used were: years of education; body mass index (BMI); anemia status; autonomy ... "Effect of physical intimate partner violence on body mass index in low-income adult women". Cadernos de Saúde Pública. 31 (1): ... India State Hunger Index Obesity in India Health in India Measham, Anthony R.; Meera Chatterjee (1999). Wasting away: the ... On the Global Hunger Index India is on place 67 among the 80 nations having the worst hunger situation which is worse than ...
At the time of her death, she had a body mass index (BMI) of just 14.5. She weighed 44 kg (96.8 lbs) at a height of 1.75 m (5 ... "Global Database on Body Mass Index". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on May 9, 2009. Retrieved 13 ...
"Body Mass Index and Health" (PDF). USDA. Retrieved December 20, 2008. Pete Yost (December 5, 2009). "Obama administration seeks ... mirror Yasser's Body Bears Marks of Beating, Arab News, June 19, 2006 Vital organs missing from repatriated body: family ... After their examination of Ahmed's body, he said that it was routine for pathologists to remove some organs that decay rapidly ... Guantanamo camp authorities conducted post mortems on the three dead men, before their bodies were shipped home. Al Zahrani's ...
doi:10.1090/s0273-0979-06-01128-1. "New BMI (New Body Mass Index)". Stephenson, Wesley (29 January 2013). "Does the BMI need ... Following his PhD, Trefethen went on to work at the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences in New York, Massachusetts ... Trefethen was born 30 August 1955 in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of mechanical engineer Lloyd M. Trefethen and codebreaker, ... subscription required) Nick Trefethen publications indexed by Google Scholar Lloyd N. Trefethen at DBLP Bibliography Server ...
She had a body mass index (BMI) of only 14.1, well below the index value of 16 which the World Health Organization considers to ... "WHO :: Global Database on Body Mass Index". Archived from the original on 9 May 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2022. ...
The Body Mass Index is used to decipher an individuals excess body weight but not their excess body fat. In this way the ... Body Mass Index (BMI) is a common and useful measurement of body fat that helps individuals understand the difference between ... Individuals who have a Body Mass Index (BMI) that is equal to or greater than 25 kg/m2 are also said to have an increased ... The system can be used to calculate a persons Body Mass Index (BMI) by dividing their weight (in kilograms) by the square of ...
... has high rates of obesity, with 29.5% of its adult population having a body mass index (BMI) value that is 30 or above. ... "WHO Mean Body Mass Index (BMI)". World Health Organization. Retrieved 5 February 2019. Akyuz, Ezgi; Samavati, Mehrdad; Kaynak, ... Turkey portal Index of Turkey-related articles Outline of Turkey Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has said "Our attitude ... "Mass Housing Development by a Government Agency and the Politics of Urbanization" (PDF). 14th International Planning History ...
Developed the body mass index scale. 87) Gaston Roelants, (1937-) athlete. Olympic gold medal for 3000 m steeplechase (1964), ...
In 2017, 11.3% of the adult population had a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or more. Compared to the rest of Europe and the ... Health in Switzerland "Body Mass Index (BMI)". Bundesamt für Statistik. 2019-02-28. Retrieved 2021-06-23. "Swiss women score ... see List of countries by body mass index). Swiss women in particular are considered slimmer than other Europeans and have an ...
Body mass index (BMI) greater than 40. One spouse must have stable employment. The family's annual income must be $10,000 per ...
In an article named one of 2004's 10 best articles by Contemporary Pediatrics, Perrin wrote that using Body Mass Index (BMI) ... Perrin, Eliana Miller; Flower, Kori B.; Ammerman, Alice S. (April 2004). "Body mass index charts: Useful yet underused". The ... Color-coding improves parental understanding of body mass index charting. Academic Pediatrics. 2009; 9(5):330-338. Perrin EM, ... understanding of body mass index (BMI)". Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention. Retrieved 2021-08-06. "Perrin ...
Ideal body mass index is 19-30. Salpingectomy or laparoscopic tubal occlusion before IVF treatment increases chances for women ... A body mass index (BMI) over 27 causes a 33% decrease in likelihood to have a live birth after the first cycle of IVF, compared ... Mass use of PGD, especially as a means of population control or in the presence of legal measures related to population or ... Warren MA (January 1988). "IVF and women's interests: an analysis of feminist concerns". Bioethics. 2 (1): 37-57. doi:10.1111/j ...
"Overweight and obesity (high body mass index)." Comparative quantification of health risks: global and regional burden of ... "At-home breakfast consumption among New Zealand children: associations with body mass index and related nutrition behaviors." ... "Effects of active video games on body composition: a randomized controlled trial." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition ...
Vegetarians generally have a lower body mass index. These characteristics and other lifestyle factors associated with a ... Some believe that the current mass-demand for meat cannot be satisfied without a mass-production system that disregards the ... Plant foods can provide alpha-linolenic acid which the human body uses to synthesize the long-chain n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA ... Broccoli, bok choy, and kale have also been found to have calcium that is well absorbed in the body. Though the calcium content ...
Surface Based Body Shape Index. A new method to replace Body mass index. This disambiguation page lists articles associated ...
List of countries by body mass index Downsize Me! "Obesity - Social Report 2008". Ministry of Social Development. 1 June 2008. ...
If details about the patient's body mass index (size); core temp, Systolic, diastolic, central venous pressure CVP (measured ... Justification for its continued use rests on a large body of clinical experience, disadvantages of other cardiac output ... in order to maximize oxygen for delivery to the body tissues. The ability to record results is not a guarantee of patient ... the mixed venous oxygen saturation is an accurate parameter of total body blood flow and therefore cardiac output. The ...
At the time of his death, he weighed 798 lb (362 kg; 57 st) with a Body Mass Index of 105.3. Khalid bin Mohsen Shaari List of ... "Human Body/Extreme Bodies/Greatest Weight Loss". Guinness World Records. Archived from the original on September 1, 2006. ... "Human Body/Extreme Bodies". Guinness World Records. Archived from the original on September 3, 2006. Retrieved October 28, 2008 ... and much of his overall body mass was retained fluid. Transportation for Minnoch was extremely difficult. It took over a dozen ...
Higher body mass index is correlated with earlier puberty. See American and British English spelling differences. Gynecology is ... A mass in the inguinal area may be a hernia or may be a testis in an intersex child. The vaginal mucosa in prepubertal children ... An abnormal mass in a child's developing breast or early development of breast tissue may prompt concern. Neonates can have ... In older children, cystic ovarian masses may cause a visible change in body shape, chronic pain, and precocious puberty; ...
Childhood obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) at or above the 96th percentile for children of the same age and sex. ... There is an association between the amount of time a mother works and her child's body mass index (BMI). There is evidence that ... and children's body mass index". Child Dev. 82 (1): 66-81. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01541.x. PMC 3070422. PMID 21291429. ... "Self regulation skills in toddlers were associated with body mass index development and pediatric obesity eight years later. ...
ISBN 978-1-4354-1914-8. Jones RL, Nzekwu MM (2006). "The effects of body mass index on lung volumes". Chest. 130 (3): 827-33. ... In absence of such, estimates of residual volume have been prepared as a proportion of body mass for infants (18.1 ml/kg), or ... The mass of one breath is approximately a gram (0.5-5 g). A litre of air weighs about 1.2 g (1.2 kg/m3). A half litre ordinary ... This is necessary to meet the increased oxygen requirement of the body, which reaches 50 ml/min, 20 ml of which goes to ...
Tremblay, M. S., & Willms, J. D. (2000). Secular trends in body mass index of Canadian children. Canadian Medical Association ...
Increased body mass index is also associated with tearing. Recurrent lifting and overhead motions are at risk for rotator cuff ... Zumstein MA, Frey E, von Rechenberg B, Frigg R, Gerber C, Meyer DC (May 2012). "Device for lengthening of a musculotendinous ... Wirth MA, Basamania C, Rockwood CA (January 1997). "Nonoperative management of full-thickness tears of the rotator cuff". The ... Schär MO, Rodeo SA, Zumstein MA (October 2014). "Biologics in rotator cuff surgery". Shoulder & Elbow. 6 (4): 239-44. doi: ...
Body mass index for age under the 5th percentile; Weight for age or weight for length dropping by at least two major ... Malabsorption and caloric retention defects cause the body to the unable to absorb and use nutrients from food, despite an ... This state causes greater difficulty taking in enough nutrition to meet the body's energy needs and allow for normal growth. ... Inadequate caloric intake indicates that an insufficient amount of food and nutrition is entering the body, whether due to lack ...
Subjects defined as TOFI with body mass index (BMI) ...
In 2011, the average body mass index was around 34.5. Nauru's obesity rates have been attributed to overconsumption of imported ...
He was called also the brother of our Lord, because I have resembled much well our Lord in body, in visage, and of manner. He ... He sang in Jerusalem the first mass that ever was there, and he was first bishop of Jerusalem. Alphaeus is also the name of the ... Catholic Forum Patron Saints Index: James the Lesser Archived June 25, 2007, at the Wayback Machine Bible, Tools (September 9, ... 5 (Peabody MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1999), 254-6 "The Brethren of the Lord by J.B. Lightfoot". Archived from the original on ...
It turns out that with the proliferation of mass surveillance and predictive analytics, new disputes are on the way for states ... For instance within this body of work, there is an attention to involving children in the decision making process of technology ... Promoting Digital Self-Determination (2020). ... In 2020, the United Kingdom's government's advisory body on the responsible use of AI, the Centre for Data Ethics and ...
Once an appropriate body/host was found, these books would have been transmitted to the host so that Gentleman may be reborn in ... and throwing index cards like shuriken), but she also relies upon her impressive physical martial arts skills in combat. Unlike ... Ma-nee Voiced by: Hiromi Hirata (Japanese); Sara Lahti (English) A tall, boyish, quiet wallflower with somewhat depressed looks ... a new body. The seven books are: The Book of Forlorn Blood The Book of Pulsing Flesh The Book of Powerful Arms The Book of ...
The Busy-Body himself is a true Censor Morum, as Isaac Bickerstaff had been in the Tatler. And a number of the fictitious ... Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-64160-0. OCLC 6825524., p. 240 Penegar, Kenneth (2011). The Political ... The complete text of all the documents are online and searchable; The Index is also online at the Wayback Machine (archived ... In 1728, aged 22, Franklin wrote what he hoped would be his own epitaph: The Body of B. Franklin Printer; Like the Cover of an ...
There, one single touring car was made using a 1923 Elcar 6-60 body before the factory moved again, this time to Dayton, Ohio, ... 1700-1799: McCusker, J. J. (1992). How Much Is That in Real Money? A Historical Price Index for Use as a Deflator of Money ... This represents much of the total mass of the vehicle, making the car heavy (an internal combustion-engined car requires no ... "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800-". Retrieved April 16, 2022. "CLEAN AIR ACT AMENDMENTS 1969, PUBLIC LAW 91- 137, AN ACT TO ...
Also, patients who are morbidly obese (body mass index >40 kg/m2) are significantly less likely to have success from this ...
The body of statute law affecting Northern Ireland reflects the history of Northern Ireland, including Acts of the Parliament ... In the summer of 1920, sectarian violence erupted in Belfast and Derry, and there were mass burnings of Catholic property in ... p.15 "CAIN: Sutton Index of Deaths". Archived from the original on 18 November 2018. Retrieved 25 January ... The Ulster Cycle is a large body of prose and verse centring on the traditional heroes of the Ulaid in what is now eastern ...
An index case was imported into the United States on 18 May 2022, by a man who had recently travelled to Canada. He was ... "Massachusetts confirms rare monkeypox case, the first in the US this year". Boston Herald. 18 May 2022. Archived from the ... The minister also mentioned that one of the main transmissions of Monkeypox is from injuries and body fluids as well as contact ... Health officials revealed that there was a link between the U.S. case of monkeypox in Massachusetts and a few of the suspected ...
Cambridge, MA: Belknap. ISBN 978-0-674-02676-6. Retrieved 25 April 2010. Roof, W. C. (1993). A generation of seekers: The ... Specifically, children may have a natural-born conception of mind-body dualism, which lends itself to beliefs that the mind may ... Genia, V. (1997). "The Spiritual Experience Index: Revision and Reformulation". Review of Religious Research. 38 (4): 344-361. ... Fowler's model has inspired a considerable body of empirical research into faith development, although little of such research ...
The mass of biochemical knowledge grew rapidly throughout the early 20th century. One of the most prolific of these modern ... There is only a small amount of ATP in cells, but as it is continuously regenerated, the human body can use about its own ... archive index) (CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of July 2022, Webarchive template wayback links, Articles with short description, ... Ma HW, Zeng AP (July 2003). "The connectivity structure, giant strong component and centrality of metabolic networks". ...
... was the site of the 1989 École Polytechnique massacre, one of Canada's worst mass shootings, where 25-year-old Marc ... As of March 2018, Montreal is ranked in the 12th position in the Global Financial Centres Index, a ranking of the ... Montreal also hosts the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO, a United Nations body); the World ... Montreal doesn't make the list until number 12 "The Global Liveability Index 2021 - How the Covid-19 pandemic affected ...
Any body with mass M is associated with a gravitational field g which describes its influence on other bodies with mass. The ... Random fields are indexed sets of random variables; a continuous random field is a random field that has a set of functions as ... The experimental observation that inertial mass and gravitational mass are equal to an unprecedented level of accuracy leads to ... When looking at the motion of many bodies all interacting with each other, such as the planets in the Solar System, dealing ...
The mushroom is commonly known as the "pod parachute". The goblet or pod-shaped fruit bodies of Caripia montagnei are up to 25 ... Caripia in Index Fungorum (CS1 German-language sources (de), Articles with short description, Short description matches ... Donk MA. (1957). "The generic names proposed for Hymenomycetes. VII: "Thelphoraceae"". Taxon. 6 (1): 17-28. doi:10.2307/1217865 ... The color is whitish to cream, and the surface texture is initially smooth, although the fruit body can develop wrinkles in age ...
Critchley gained her BA from the University of Oxford, her MA in Modern and Contemporary Poetry at Bristol University, and ... Body, Time & Locale (Liverpool University Press, 2013) Skoulding, Zoe, Contemporary Women's Poetry and Urban Space: ... 3:1 (Summer 2007) Critchley is Senior Lecturer in ...
When the body was found in the English Channel in 1996 by a fisherman named John Coprik, a Rolex wristwatch was the only ... "The prisoners involved in the mass breakout from Stalag Luft III in March 1944, depicted in the Steve McQueen film "The Great ... however the Datejust 41 has smaller indexes and a thinner bezel compared to the Datejust II. Rolex produced specific models ... identifiable object on the body. Since the Rolex movement had a serial number and was engraved with special markings every time ...
estimate a total body length of 148.9 to 167.7 centimetres (4.89 to 5.50 ft) depending on the proportions used for the ... Gnatusuchus lived about 13 million years ago (Ma) in a large wetland system called the Pebas mega-wetlands that covered over ... Gnatusuchus has a exceptionally short and rounded snout with a length-breadth index of 1.55, which is only slightly higher than ... The upper estimates are based on the American Alligator, while a smaller body length was recovered using the proportions of ...
"Massachusetts confirms rare monkeypox case, the first in the US this year". Boston Herald. 18 May 2022. Archived from the ... The minister also mentioned that one of the main transmissions of Monkeypox is from injuries and body fluids as well as contact ... Extensive contact tracing of people who had been in contact with the index case both on the international flight from Nigeria ... "Massachusetts confirms rare monkeypox case, the first in the US this year". Boston Herald. 18 May 2022. Archived from the ...
In an effort to mask the scale and casualty count of the protests, it hauled away large numbers of bodies of the dead ... In 2021, Reporters without Borders (RSF) ranked Iran 174th out of 180 countries on the RSF 2020 World Press Freedom Index; they ... Sidman, David (2019-11-17). "Mass Protests Erupt Throughout Iran, Central Bank Burned Down". Breaking Israel News. Archived ... The Revolutionary Guards reportedly took the bodies of the dead protesters and the injured in hospitals, to hide to cover up ...
Wright's correspondence is indexed in An Index to the Taliesin Correspondence, ed. by Professor Anthony Alofsin, which is ... Originally from Massachusetts, William Wright had been a Baptist minister, but he later joined his wife's family in the ... According to his own wishes, Wright's body had lain in the Lloyd-Jones cemetery, next to the Unity Chapel, within view of ... Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 1996. Retrieved May 24, 2010. O'Gorman 2004, pp. 56-109. Wright 2005, p. 116. Wright ...
Similarly, the pharmacokinetics of elagolix were unaffected by body weight and body mass index. Peak and area-under-the-curve ...
... in oral rinses from patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is associated with gender and body mass index". ... head and neck showed that miR-137 methylation is associated with female gender and inversely associated with body mass index. ...
Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1977, first published 1916. ISBN 978-0-674-99046-3. Online version at ... but he did make sure to turn her into a frankincense tree by pouring nectar over her dead body, so that she would still breathe ... Introduction-Translation-Commentary-Index] (in Greek). Thessaloniki: Stamoulis. ISBN 978-960-656-093-4. Folkard, Richard (1884 ... Hesiod, Theogony, in The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White, Cambridge, MA., ...
Obesity is a chronic non-communicable disease (NCD) that is diagnosed in individuals who have Body Mass Index (BMI) greater ... It affects the human body by targeting T-cells, that are responsible for protection from uncommon infections and cancers. It is ... Without these vital nutrients, the body lacks the defense mechanisms to resist infections. At the same time, HIV lowers the ... These parasitic diseases, affect the body's immune response to HIV, making people more susceptible to contracting the disease ...
Mass weddings for children of prostitutes in the village are held to protect them from being pushed into prostitution. In some ... Meri, Josef W.; Bacharach, Jere L. (1 January 2006). Medieval Islamic Civilization: L-Z, index. Taylor & Francis. ISBN ... their bodies], within the confine[s] of a brothel." A fourteenth-century English tract, Fasciculus Morum, states that the term ... "In pictures: Mass wedding in India 'prostitute village'". BBC. 12 March 2012. Rojanapithayakorn W (November 2006). "The 100% ...
"Mass events 'can be conducted safely'". Retrieved 22 August 2021 - via "Cinema box office takings at 50% of pre- ... A trade body describes the UK government's website for finding COVID tests as "not serving its purpose" amid warnings about ... The FTSE 100 index closes down 3.7% amid concerns for economic recovery following the discovery of the Omicron variant. Health ... The Consumer Price Index jumps from 2 to 3.2%, its biggest increase since 1997. Prime Minister Boris Johnson reshuffles his ...
Calorically restricted animals process as much, or more, calories per gram of body mass, as their ad libitum fed counterparts, ... DNA repair Free radicals Genetics of aging Geriatrics Gerontology Homeostatic capacity Immortality Life extension Index of ... Different parts of the body may age at different rates. Two organisms of the same species can also age at different rates, ... In a 2007 analysis it was shown that, when modern statistical methods for correcting for the effects of body size and phylogeny ...
In Tibetan Buddhism, Tara or Jetsun Dölma (rje btsun sgrol ma) is the most important female bodhisattva. Numerous Mahayana ... or Sumati offers five blue lotuses and spreads out his hair or entire body for Dīpankara to walk on, resolving to one day ... with Sanskrit and English equivalents and a Sanskrit-Pali index. London: RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 0-203-64186-8. OCLC 275253538. ... "either the manifestations of a Buddha or they are beings who possess the power of producing many bodies through great feats of ...
When the player draws a down bow, he is to move his right hand gradually away from his body; when he draws an up bow, towards ... Pressure is added mainly by the index finger of the bowing hand. Another method sometimes used to increase volume is using ... softening the instrument's sound by adding mass to the bridge and therefore reducing its ability to vibrate freely, decreasing ... Another pizzicato position is to maintain the bow grip, then pluck the strings with the right index finger. This position is ...
Mass surveillance in India is not new as India already has e-surveillance projects like Central Monitoring System, NATGRID, and ... "Super cyber intelligence body soon, announces IT Minister". The Hindu. 14 September 2014. Retrieved 10 October 2014. "Rs 1,000 ... "Is India about to gets its own PRISM?". Index On Censorship. 10 July 2013. Retrieved 6 November 2014. "Defence Ministry's new ... Some have expressed concern that the body could encroach on Indian citizens' privacy and civil-liberties, given the lack of ...
The bodies of a further 30 PAVN killed in airstrikes were also found. ARVN forces captured the site used for launching the ... p. 3. Tad Szulc (31 January 1972). "Hanoi said to mass force for offensive in February". The New York Times. p. 1. Henry ... "The History Place--Vietnam War 1969-1972",, accessed 16 Jun ... A Federal court heard testimony that for eight years heroin had been smuggled into the U.S. concealed in the bodies of U.S. war ...
An MMWR published today further adds to the growing body of research on risk by comparing data on pregnant and nonpregnant ... ...
Body Mass Index (BMI) is a persons weight in kilograms (or pounds) divided by the square of height in meters (or feet). A high ... Adult Body Mass Index Calculator Widget. Add this widget to your website to let anyone calculate their BMI. BMI is a reliable ... How Do I Interpret Body Mass Index Information?. *About BMI for Adults. Information about BMI and interpreting this number for ... BMI screens for weight categories that may lead to health problems, but it does not diagnose the body fatness or health of an ...
You and your health care provider can use your BMI to estimate how much body fat you have. ... A good way to decide if your weight is healthy for your height is to figure out your body mass index (BMI). ... BMI; Obesity - body mass index; Obesity - BMI; Overweight - body mass index; Overweight - BMI ... A good way to decide if your weight is healthy for your height is to figure out your body mass index (BMI). You and your health ...
Body mass index (BMI) is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of a person. The BMI is defined as the body mass ... Body mass index (BMI). Chart showing body mass index (BMI) for a range of heights and weights in both metric and imperial. ... mass. kg. height. m. 2. =. mass. lb. height. in. 2. ×. 703. {\displaystyle \mathrm {BMI} ={\frac {{\text{mass}}_{\text{kg ... Surface-based body shape index[edit]. The Surface-based Body Shape Index (SBSI) is far more rigorous and is based upon four key ...
Body Mass Index (BMI). In this section:. *Prevalence of underweight/thinness, crude ... Mean body mass index trends, crude. *Mean body mass index trends, age-standardized ...
Decoding the effect of body mass index on breast cancer Clinical data reveals new link between body weight and breast cancer ... "Higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with an increased risk of developing many types of cancer including breast cancer as ... Health and medicine/Human health/Biometrics/Body mass index * /Health and medicine/Diseases and disorders/Metabolic disorders/ ... Medical researchers at Flinders University have established a new link between high body mass index (BMI) and breast cancer ...
... body mass index - Featured Topics from the National Center for Health Statistics ... Category: body mass index. First-Ever Data on Asian-Americans Released. The number of Asian persons in the United States grew ...
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Body mass index (BMI) and mortality. Broadcast. Mon 16 May 2016 at 7:35am. Monday 16 May 2016 at 7:35am. Mon 16 May 2016 at 7: ... I think two things that come out of it, one thing is that if you are a little bit overweight, maybe 27 body mass index, 27 is ... Norman Swan: Danish research just published has found that the body mass index, the measure of how overweight or obese you are ... and at the same time there could be some benefit of having a bit more kilos on your body. Maybe if you…I dont know, you get a ...
Their research provides a new twist on an old metric: the body mass index, or BMI, which measures body size based on a persons ... Body mass index is a valuable tool for runners. By on Invalid date ... Details of the findings linking the speed a runner needs to achieve and the ideal body mass for performance appear in the July ... The specific amount of body mass that they found was needed to regulate ground forces and racing speeds was relatively small: ...
2020)‎. Transitions between body mass index categories, South Africa. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 98 (‎12)‎, 878 ...
... is a measure of body fat based on height and weight that applies to adult men and women. Learn your BMI. ... What is the body mass index (BMI)? BMI is an indicator of the amount of body fat for most people. It is used as a screening ... Waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) are indirect ways to assess your body composition. Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is ... Body Mass Index (BMI) In Adults. The benefits of maintaining a healthy weight go far beyond improved energy and smaller ...
Study: Persistent Cannabis Use Associated With Reduced Body Mass Index. * by NORML ... A team of Michigan State University researchers assessed the relationship between cannabis use and body mass index (BMI) over ... Home,News,Study: Persistent Cannabis Use Associated With Reduced Body Mass Index ...
Previous studies estimate the average effect of cigarette price on body mass index (BMI), with recent research showing that ... "The Super Size of America: An Economic Estimation of Body Mass Index and Obesity in Adults," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern ... "The Super Size of America: An Economic Estimation of Body Mass Index and Obesity in Adults," NBER Working Papers 11584, ... "Do cigarette taxes affect childrens body mass index? The effect of household environment on health," Health Economics, John ...
Download the Body Mass Index calculator (Click on Save, indicate where you want to save. After youve saved the file to your ... Body mass index calculator. Part 1: A presentation by Professor W. Philip T. James on reducing salt content in food. Part 2: ...
Body mass index (BMI) as a measure of obesity and health: a critical appraisal * facebook ... The meaningful contribution of your mind reflects on those people who are looking for Body Mass Index (BMI). I would like to ... Body mass index (BMI) as a measure of obesity and health: a critical appraisal ... but also the Body Mass Index: a measure of obesity.â Additionally, the Healthy Choices Act, HR 5209, proposes using the BMI as ...
Relation between weight and length at birth and body mass index in young adulthood: cohort study. BMJ. 1997;315:1137. DOIPubMed ... Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for polity and intervention strategies. Lancet. 2004;363 ... Suh G, Ley C, Parsonnet J. Infectious Diseases in Children and Body Mass Index in Young Adults. Emerging Infectious Diseases. ... Suh G, Ley C, Parsonnet J. Infectious Diseases in Children and Body Mass Index in Young Adults. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18(9): ...
Health-Related Fitness, Body Mass Index, and Risk of Depression among Adolescents : Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. ... Health-Related Fitness, Body Mass Index, and Risk of Depression among Adolescents. RIECK, TROY1; JACKSON, ALLEN2; MARTIN, SCOTT ... CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS\r, OBESITY\r, BODY MASS INDEX\r, CHILDREN\r, WELL-BEING\r, FITNESS TESTING. ... The objective of this study is to determine the relations between cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index (BMI) and ...
Body fat measurement and body mass index are weight scales. Can you tell that which is the perfect weight scale to measure your ... Body Fat Calculator Body Fat Measurement vs. Body Mass Index - A Comparison. ... Home Body Fat Calculator Body Fat Measurement vs. Body Mass Index - A Comparison ... Home Body Fat Calculator Body Fat Measurement vs. Body Mass Index - A Comparison ...
You can calculate your Body Mass Index(BMI) with this form. ... Body Mass Index calculator. Calculate your Body Mass Index. ... Calculate Body Mass Index and Body Fat Percentage. You can calculate your Body Mass Index(BMI) with this form. ... gender information with their height and weight measurements and provides them with their body measurement index and body type ... the user identify macro nutrient intake that is necessary to achieve fat loss while preserving and/or increasing muscle mass. ...
Body mass index (BMI), body weight and rate of dyslipidemia were moderately, but significantly, higher in women from opposite- ... Body mass index (BMI), body weight and rate of dyslipidemia were moderately, but significantly, higher in women from opposite- ... Influence of having a male twin on body mass index and risk for dyslipidemia in middle-aged and old women. *C Alexanderson1, ... Alexanderson, C., Henningsson, S., Lichtenstein, P. et al. Influence of having a male twin on body mass index and risk for ...
1) Stand naked in front of a mirror 2) Get a body fat test, preferably a hydrostatic or ... Body Mass Index: The Importance Of Knowing Your Number. You are here: Home. / Fitness Testing. / Body Mass Index: The ... 3) Determine your Body Mass Index: simply divide your body weight in kilograms with your height in meters squared ... However, body mass index is one very good way to know where you are and where you need to go with your diet. With all of these ...
body mass index. BMI is Bologna. Insurance companies may be able to charge higher premiums for employees with higher body mass ... For many years Body Mass Index, or BMI, has been the go-to index for establishing trends in population weights, and has also ... of the Body Mass Index or BMI (body weight divided by the square of height). ... for the Body Mass Index (BMI). ...
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A sample of 850 healthy adults (20 - 49 years) completed the GP and had their Body Mass Index (BMI) calculated. The ... It is not clear what the interaction between body mass and GP performance would be among a group of healthy younger adults. ... This study investigated whether body mass might affect fine psychomotor skills. ... Wijk, C. (2013). Body Mass Index Does Not Affect Grooved Pegboard Performance in Healthy South African Adults. Psychology, 4, ...
Everything you need to know about your body fat percentage. Find out all the recent research, the formula, how you measure it ... Body Mass Index (BMI) or Body fat Percentage?. The body-fat percentage may be a useful tool for predicting an individuals ... The problem with the mathematical formula for body fat percentage is that when Body Mass Index (BMI) and Body Fat percentage ... 1991) Body mass index as a measure of body fatness: age- and sex-specific prediction formulas. Br J Nutr. 1991 Mar;65(2):105-14 ...
Study selection: Articles that reported HRs for all-cause mortality using standard body mass index (BMI) categories from ... Association of all-cause mortality with overweight and obesity using standard body mass index categories: a systematic review ...
... and self-reported body mass index (BMI) to answer: How does BMI vary across full time occupations dichotomized as sedentary/non ... Correction: Body Mass Index: Accounting for Full Time Sedentary Occupation and 24-Hr Self-Reported Time Use * View Page ...
The bmi chart below allows you to determine your body mass index and, in theory, your risk from obesity associated diseases. ... Remember that a body mass index has its limitations and is most useful for researchers looking at population trends as a whole ... Now that youve obtained a score from the bmi chart what does it mean? Take a look at the body mass index table below to find ... The bmi chart below allows you to determine your body mass index and, in theory, your risk from obesity associated diseases. ...
We recruited a sample of volunteers with greatly varying body weights, ranging from a low BMI (below 20 kg/m2) over a normal ( ... We recruited a sample of volunteers with greatly varying body weights, ranging from a low BMI (below 20 kg/m²) over a normal ( ... Impaired cross-talk between mesolimbic food reward processing and metabolic signaling predicts body mass index. Joe J. Simon1, ... Figure 4. Association between ventral striatum activation and body mass index, mediated by insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and ...
  • [1] When used to predict an individual's health, rather than as a statistical measurement for groups, the BMI has limitations that can make it less useful than some of the alternatives , especially when applied to individuals with abdominal obesity , short stature , or unusually high muscle mass . (
  • The interest in an index that measures body fat came with observed increasing obesity in prosperous Western societies. (
  • BMI measurements and body fat percentage measurements both have a role to play in developing healthy ranges for assessment of future health risks or obesity-related diseases . (
  • The bmi chart below allows you to determine your body mass index and, in theory , your risk from obesity associated diseases. (
  • We recruited a sample of volunteers with greatly varying body weights, ranging from a low BMI (below 20 kg/m 2 ) over a normal (20-25 kg/m 2 ) and overweight (25-30 kg/m 2 ) BMI, to class I (30-35 kg/m 2 ) and class II (35-40 kg/m 2 ) obesity. (
  • Body image, which is the psychological experience of the appearance and function of one's own body and an aspect of the person's mental representation of himself/herself [ 22 ], partially explains the relationship between obesity and mental distress [ 23 ]. (
  • Body mass index (BMI) or weight/height has been popular for assessing obesity in adults for many years, but its use in children has developed only recently. (
  • BACKGROUND/AIM: In Switzerland monitoring of obesity in the general population is based on body mass index (BMI) derived from self-reported weight and height. (
  • Body Mass Index alone is not a good guide to who is at most risk of obesity and cardiovascular disease. (
  • Modelling future trajectories of obesity and body mass index in England. (
  • Operational definitions of obesity in adults are derived from statistical data that analyze the association between body mass and the risk of acute and long-term morbidity and mortality. (
  • NHANES body measurement data are used to monitor trends in infant and child growth, to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the U.S. population, and to examine the associations between body weight and the health and nutritional status of the U.S. population. (
  • to develop a scale percentile for body mass index (BMI) for adolescents aged 10 to 14 years from the city of Curitiba, Paraná, and compare the values found for overweight (85th percentile) and obesity (95th percentile) with references to national and international BMI. (
  • Obesity and increases in body weight are among the most important risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus. (
  • Body mass index is also known as obesity index. (
  • Results from the 2017-2018 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey indicate that an estimated 31.1% of US adults aged 20 years and older are overweight (body mass index [BMI] of 25.0-29.9 kg/m 2 ) and 42.5% have obesity (BMI, greater than or equal to 30.0 kg/m 2 ), including 9.0% who have severe obesity (BMI, greater than or equal to 40.0 kg/m 2 ). (
  • Protein-altering variants associated with body mass index implicate pathways that control energy intake and expenditure in obesity. (
  • Obesity is defined as an adult having a Body Mass Index (BMI) greater to or equal to 30.0. (
  • It helps you in achieving a healthy body weight, regulating blood glucose, blood pressure, and blood cholesterol levels, promoting thermogenesis and reducing the risks of obesity by raising core body temperature safely and naturally. (
  • As the researchers explain, genetic association studies so far have focused on people who are overweight, as well as zooming in on body mass index ( BMI ) and obesity . (
  • Body Mass Index (BMI) is a person's weight in kilograms (or pounds) divided by the square of height in meters (or feet). (
  • BMI screens for weight categories that may lead to health problems, but it does not diagnose the body fatness or health of an individual. (
  • A good way to decide if your weight is healthy for your height is to figure out your body mass index (BMI). (
  • Body mass index ( BMI ) is a value derived from the mass ( weight ) and height of a person. (
  • The BMI is a convenient rule of thumb used to broadly categorize a person as underweight , normal weight , overweight , or obese based on tissue mass ( muscle , fat, and bone) and height. (
  • [3] The modern term "body mass index" (BMI) for the ratio of human body weight to squared height was coined in a paper published in the July 1972 edition of the Journal of Chronic Diseases by Ancel Keys and others. (
  • A common use of the BMI is to assess how far an individual's body weight departs from what is normal for a person's height. (
  • The weight excess or deficiency may, in part, be accounted for by body fat ( adipose tissue ) although other factors such as muscularity also affect BMI significantly (see discussion below and overweight ). (
  • Their research provides a new twist on an old metric: the body mass index, or BMI , which measures body size based on a person's height and weight. (
  • Men and women alike hit with forces of about one-and-a-half times their body weight at slower speeds and with as much as two-and-a-half times their body weight at a sprint. (
  • Also, if you seek advice from your physician about your "excess weight", in case you have body dysmorphia and cannot yourself decide, they will quickly be able to assess whether your excess weight is due to your bulging muscles or your rolls of adipose tissue. (
  • For over 60 years, we have known that independent of how heavy a person is, the distribution of their body weight, or more generally the shape of their body is a key predictor of health risk. (
  • It is now well established that individuals who deposit much of their body weight around their midsection, the so called apple-shaped, are at much greater risk of disease and early mortality in contrast to the so called pear-shaped, who carry their weight more peripherally, particularly in the lower body. (
  • This lack of change in BMI or body weight is all too often interpreted as a failure, resulting in the disappointed individual resuming their inactive lifestyle and unhealthy eating patterns. (
  • With studies revealing new insights into body weight and health issues, people no longer talk about body weight by itself. (
  • For quite some time, the body mass index or BMI has been the accepted form of determining the ideal weight of a person, and the deviation from this ideal weight that needs to be corrected. (
  • Simply spoken, the BMI is expressed as the body weight in kgs/the height in sq. meters. (
  • Recent developments suggest that the body fat expressed as a percentage of total body weight is a better indicator of health. (
  • As is evident, body fat measurement is a more efficient method of calculating the healthy body weight compared to the BMI. (
  • Here is a BMI Calculator which collects submitter name, age, gender information with their height and weight measurements and provides them with their body measurement index and body type information. (
  • In an entry on the Well New York Times blog, Jane Brody cogently describes the origins and uses (and misuses) of the Body Mass Index or BMI (body weight divided by the square of height). (
  • The solution is not to charge by weight as such, but factoring in Body Mass Index instead. (
  • It takes weight and waist, hips, forearm, wrist and gender to give you a percentage body fat measurement so have a tape measure to hand. (
  • Whilst body mass index bmi has been the standard measure of how healthy your weight is, this height to weight ratio does have limitations and body composition is one of them. (
  • Body fat percentage (BFP) is simply the amount of fat , or the fat mass, of your body divided by your overall total body weight (or mass). (
  • Body mass index uses your height and weight to determine whether you are considered overweight, normal, underweight or even obese. (
  • A bmi chart cannot determine with any degree of accuracy how much of your weight consists of fat and how much consists of lean mass such as bone and muscle. (
  • A bmi chart may place you in the normal weight category but you could potentially still have an unhealthy amount of body fat. (
  • The primary aim of this study was to explore the association between birth weight and body mass measures in CBT, compared to non-cancer controls. (
  • Higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with increased dementia risk when weight was measured more than 20 years before dementia diagnosis, but this association is reversed when BMI was assessed less than 10 years before dementia diagnosis, according to a study in Alzheimer's & Dementia . (
  • Participants weight and height were measured at their children's schools by two trained experts and they reported their own body size perception via a questionnaire as part of a larger study. (
  • The Finding showed 2.5% of the participants described their own body size as very thin, 10.8% as somewhat thin, 49.8% as normal weight, 30.1% as overweight, and 6.8% as obese. (
  • After menopause, there is an increase in cardiovascular risk (CVR), basically due to the rise in body weight (2). (
  • Body mass index (BMI) is calculated using a person's weight by the square of their height (kg/m2), and is used to broadly categorise a person as underweight, normal weight, overweight or obese. (
  • BMI stands for body mass index, and is a figure that attempts to illustrate someone's approximate health by taking into consideration his or her height and weight. (
  • The BMI calculator results will only show potential excess body fat and weight problems. (
  • Participants were 5426 Finnish public-sector employees who retired on a statutory basis in 2000-2011 and who reported their body weight one to three times prior to (w −3 , w −2 , w −1 ), and one to three times after (w +1 , w +2 , w +3 ) retirement. (
  • Whether the changes in body weight differ in men and women is not properly examined. (
  • Accordingly, the aim of the current study is to examine changes in body mass index during years preceding retirement, during retirement transition and after retirement with particular focus on potential differences in weight development by sex and physical work characteristics. (
  • In addition to that, a study has shown that GA inhibits intestinal glucose absorption via interaction with membrane abundance of SGLT1 in mice [ 20 ].GA significantly blunted the increase in body weight, fasting plasma glucose and fasting insulin concentrations during high fat diet. (
  • Calculated as weight (kg) divided by height (m 2 ), BMI corrects for body size and can be readily and reliably quantified in clinical settings. (
  • Therefore, body weight data for individuals who had limb amputations were set to missing. (
  • We found a significantly high prevalence of TMD, as well as a significant association between TMD light and low body weight. (
  • The results show a high prevalence of TMD and a slight association between TMD and children with low body weight. (
  • a measure used to evaluate body weight relative to a person's height. (
  • Krukowski RA, West DS, DiCarlo M, Cleves MA, Saylors ME, Andres A. Association of Gestational Weight Gain Expectations and Advice on Actual Weight Gain. (
  • Excess weight will affect your body, even if the damage isn't apparent now, the study authors say. (
  • When you're trying to understand exactly how weight affects the body and cardiovascular health, you have to know something about what - the weight - IS. (
  • Body Mass Index (BMI) is an indirect way to assess body fat and is calculated by dividing weight by height squared (1). (
  • Researchers report children who fidget use up energy amounting to almost 3kg (6.6lb) of body weight per year. (
  • Height and weight offers up your body mass index (BMI). (
  • Before receiving the mattress, I had filled out a profile on the company's website, entering in my height, weight, gender, body shape, and various sleep preferences. (
  • Alpilean is a healthy weight loss support formula developed by an established doctor and avid medical researcher that features six anti-aging superfood ingredients sourced directly from the Alpine region to awaken a sleeping metabolism and boost fat-burning mechanisms by addressing the main reason for being overweight or obese, low core inner body temperature. (
  • In the course of this article, we shall discuss this odd Alpine Ice Hack weight loss supplement that, as per the real Alpilean customer reviews found online, has helped a vast majority of people to lose weight and get back in shape by addressing low-core body temperature, the single most prominent common denominator when it comes to the difference between overweight people and normal body fat individuals. (
  • Alpilean is a naturally-sourced, one-capsule-per-day, oral-administered health supplement available on the market for boosting weight loss results via inner core body temperature regulation and normalization. (
  • An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT . (
  • BMI was designed to be used as a simple means of classifying average sedentary (physically inactive) populations, with an average body composition . (
  • Waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) are indirect ways to assess your body composition. (
  • The reason that the percentage of body fat you have is important is that it is a good indication of your overall body composition. (
  • measurements, whose normal ranges are based on a very large number of people, the percent body fat indicates body composition (and therefore health risks) of each individual . (
  • 25 kg/m2), no known cardiovascular disease (CVD), and for whom data was available on body composition, as determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). (
  • further research is needed to determine more precisely the impact of AST on body composition, and the direction of the relationship. (
  • The composition of body fat and muscle mass is different for each person. (
  • As usual none of this addresses body composition. (
  • To compare the effects of six weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT) vs continuous moderate intensity training (MIT) for improving body composition, insulin sensitivity (S I ), blood pressure, blood lipids, and cardiovascular fitness in a cohort of sedentary overweight or obese young men. (
  • We hypothesized that HIIT would result in similar improvements in body composition, cardiovascular fitness, blood lipids, and S I as compared to the MIT group, despite requiring only one hour of activity per week compared to five hours per week for the MIT group. (
  • DXA was used to assess body composition, graded treadmill exercise test to measure cardiovascular fitness, oral glucose tolerance to measure S I , nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess lipoprotein particles, and automatic auscultation to measure blood pressure. (
  • Danish research just published has found that the body mass index, the measure of how overweight or obese you are, the BMI at which there is the lowest chance of dying prematurely has actually risen by over three points in the last 30 years, at least in the Danish population. (
  • BMI does not give any indication of about the location of body fat in an overweight or obese person. (
  • If your Body Mass Index is more than 40, you fall into the extremely obese category, putting you at much higher health risks than most. (
  • The BMI correlates closely with total body fat (TBF), which is estimated using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanning in children who are overweight and obese. (
  • Before he began the diet Haub's body-mass index was approaching obese. (
  • 28 sedentary overweight or obese men (age, 20 ± 1.5 years, body mass index 29.5 ± 3.3 kg/m 2 ) participated in a six week exercise treatment. (
  • For them, the waist circumference, the skinfold thickness or more direct methods of measuring body fat may be more useful measures than BMI. (
  • Title : Sleep Duration and Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference among US Adults Personal Author(s) : Ford, Earl S.;Li, Chaoyang;Wheaton, Anne G.;Chapman, Daniel P.;Perry, Geraldine S.;Croft, Janet B. (
  • The current investigation assessed the impact of active school transportation (AST) on average daily step counts, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in 315 children in Grades 4-6 who participated to Cycle 2 of the Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy (CAPL) pilot testing. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Body Mass Index and Hypertension in Adolescents. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: A study on body mass index and its correlation with type 2 diabetes. (
  • Genetic Interactions with Age, Sex, Body Mass Index, and Hypertension in Relation to Atrial Fibrillation: The AFGen Consortium. (
  • Joshi Himanshu A, Jethva Vijay J. Body Mass Index and Hypertension in Adolescents. (
  • Body Mass Index is one of the indicators which positively correlate with the hypertension (HTN) in adolescents. (
  • Nilsson C, Niklasson M, Eriksson E, Bjorntorp P, Holmang A . Imprinting of female offspring with testosterone results in insulin resistance and changes in body fat distribution at adult age in rats. (
  • Body Mass Index of the adult population, by sex and Autonomous Community. (
  • METHODS: Taking the last 27 years of Health Survey for England data, we determined both position and shape of the adult body mass index (BMI) distribution and projected these parameters 20 years forward in time. (
  • This study was conducted to determine effects of regular Gum Arabic (GA) ingestion on body mass index and body fat percentage among healthy adult females. (
  • GA ingestion causes significant reduction in BMI and body fat percentage among healthy adult females. (
  • A physician may use this in conjunction with your body mass index to assess your risk category more accurately. (
  • Our Force Physician will assess this by calculating your body mass index. (
  • The BMI may be determined using a table [a] or chart which displays BMI as a function of mass and height using contour lines or colours for different BMI categories, and which may use other units of measurement (converted to metric units for the calculation). (
  • However, common body fat measurement methods have a margin of error of 1-4%, and are not easily accessible by everybody. (
  • This online body fat percentage calculator takes your gender, height, neck, waist and hip measurements (in all different units) and gives you your body fat measurement in percentage form. (
  • All survey participants were eligible for the body measurement component. (
  • No changes have been made to the NHANES body measurement protocol since the continuous NHANES began in1999. (
  • The body measurement data were collected by trained health technicians. (
  • The health technician was accompanied by a recorder during each body measurement examination. (
  • The respondent's age, at the time of the screening interview, determined the body measurement examination protocol for survey participants. (
  • For general guidelines on the body measurement procedures, please refer to the Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual (Lohman, 1988). (
  • The NHANES body measurement techniques are illustrated in the NHANES III Anthropometric Procedures Video (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, NHANES III Anthropometric Procedures Video). (
  • The NHANES III body measurement protocol included more measurements than the protocol that was used in NHANES 2005-2006. (
  • The NHANES 2005-2006 Body Measurement Procedures Manual is posted on the NHANES 2005-2006 website. (
  • All of the body measurement rooms in the mobile examination centers (MECs) were identical with respect to the arrangement and type of equipment. (
  • More than measurement, it is an indicator of the total body fat present in your body. (
  • Check your Body Mass Index using the NHLBI BMI Calculator for adults . (
  • does provide both a bmi calculator and a body fat estimator as online tools that you can try, and of course they are free! (
  • This calculator to measure body fat is based on a formula developed by the US Navy. (
  • Have you got your own body fat calculator, Doc? (
  • to the top of this page … Halls body fat percentage calculator. (
  • Body Mass Index and persistent pain in Australia: Patient characteristics and treatment outcomes, ePPOC Information Series No. 1, 2022. (
  • [7] [8] Lean male athletes often have a high muscle-to-fat ratio and therefore a BMI that is misleadingly high relative to their body-fat percentage. (
  • Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is another index of body fat distribution. (
  • Essentially, a persons Body mass index is a ratio. (
  • BMI was calculated as the ratio of body mass (kg) divided by height (m) squared. (
  • Now there is an amount of pounds that is considered as the non-risky fat ratio in the body depending on the individual's body specifications. (
  • In this study, we tried to identify the patients who were suitable for single-port laparoscopic adrenalectomy, focusing on the optimal cut-off values of the body mass index (BMI) and the visceral fat area / total fat area (VFA/TFA) ratio. (
  • One study that examined 665 people on the relation between BMI and percent body fat found that age , gender and race play a role in what is a healthy body fat percent. (
  • A cross sectional study to observe the relation between body mass index (BMI) and the fasting total blood cholesterol level was carried out among 82 undergraduate medical students from SEGi University, Kota Damansara. (
  • Your percentage of body fat should only be this much. (
  • This does not necessarily mean that once the percentage of body fat has been deducted from the equation, that everything else that is left is muscle mass . (
  • According to researchers, those who eat in close proximity to their natural melatonin onset are more likely to have a higher percentage of body fat and BMI than those who eat earlier. (
  • upper respiratory tract infection was associated with an increased body mass index. (
  • This study explores the utility of adding personal characteristics such as the estimated L5/S1 Intervertebral Disc (IVD) cross-sectional area, age, gender and Body Mass Index to the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation (RNLE) with the goal to improve risk assessment. (
  • BMI correlates with body fat ( ADIPOSE TISSUE ). (
  • An MMWR published today further adds to the growing body of research on risk by comparing data on pregnant and nonpregnant women with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. (
  • Higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with an increased risk of developing many types of cancer including breast cancer as a result of elevated levels of circulating sex hormones such as estrogen, estrone, and testosterone, high serum leptin, and chronic inflammation that are associated with high BMI. (
  • Find your height in feet and inches in the first column of the Body Mass Index Risk Levels table. (
  • Thus, two individuals with a BMI of 32 kg/m2 could have drastically different body shapes, and thus varying risk of disease and early mortality. (
  • Health-Related Fitness, Body Mass Index, and Risk of Depress. (
  • Proponents of the body fat theory also suggest that the location of the body fat is vital in determining risk factors. (
  • Body mass index and dementia risk: Is there a connection? (
  • Body mass index and risk of dementia: Analysis of individual-level data from 1.3 million individuals. (
  • After adjusting for confounding factors (i.e., demographics, lifestyle, clinical factors), neither whole-body fat mass nor fat percentage was found to be related to CVD risk. (
  • For example, a high BMI score might be due to muscle mass, in which case the person will not be at risk. (
  • [ 2 ] Body mass index (BMI), as a modifiable risk factor, has been related to various poorer health outcomes, [ 3 ] but its specific relationship to dementia risk remains a matter of debate. (
  • Body mass index is a strong and independent risk factor for being diagnosed in cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus. (
  • There is a high risk of type 2 diabetes in those who have a higher body mass index. (
  • According to Johns Hopkins Medicine , coffee may help your body process sugar and decrease your risk of health issues, including Parkinson's disease, heart failure , stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and colon cancer . (
  • To determine the adjusted effect of body mass index (BMI), associated comorbidities, time, neighborhood-level sociodemographic factors, and other factors on risk for death due to COVID-19. (
  • This means that despite having a high body mass index, or BMI, someone can have a small waistline, normal blood pressure and low cholesterol levels, and show little to no risk for developing diabetes. (
  • In a prospective cohort study, 59 pregnant women with a high risk of developing PE were subjected to flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and to Doppler velocimetry of uterine arteries in order to obtain their Pulsatility Index (UtA-PI). (
  • Elevated body mass index, maternal age extremes and Afro-American ethnicity are associated with a higher risk of PE [ 7 ]. (
  • Latino men with a Body Mass Index (BMI) of ≥27?kg/m2 and one or more cardiometabolic risk factors (n? (
  • Boston, MA-In a new study, researchers from the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) have found that eating five or more servings of white rice per week was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes . (
  • In the analysis, researchers adjusted for a variety of factors that could influence the results, including age, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, family history of diabetes, and other dietary habits, and found that the trend of increased risk associated with high white rice consumption remained. (
  • These finding support the hypothesis that infections early in life play a role in body habitus in adulthood. (
  • We sought to determine whether infectious disease prevalence in infancy predicted body mass index (BMI) in adulthood. (
  • The skin fold caliper method requires an expert to measure the different levels of fat in various areas of the body. (
  • The BMI is a continuous, although imperfect, measure of body fatness. (
  • Body mass index : a measure of chronic energy deficiency in adults / by P. S. Shetty, W. P. T. James. (
  • The BMI is defined as the body mass divided by the square of the body height , and is expressed in units of kg/m 2 , resulting from mass in kilograms and height in metres . (
  • Medical researchers at Flinders University have established a new link between high body mass index (BMI) and breast cancer survival rates - with clinical data revealing worse outcomes for early breast cancer (EBC) patients and improved survival rates in advanced breast cancer (ABC). (
  • A team of Michigan State University researchers assessed the relationship between cannabis use and body mass index (BMI) over time in a nationally representative sample of 33,000 subjects. (
  • This tells doctors and researchers how much fat the person's body carries inside. (
  • Remember that a body mass index has its limitations and is most useful for researchers looking at population trends as a whole. (
  • The aim of this study was to examine within-individual changes in body mass index (BMI) during transition from full-time work to statutory retirement by sex and physical work characteristics. (
  • To examine associations between pre- pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and adverse birth outcomes , and if they differ by HIV status. (
  • You and your health care provider can use your BMI to estimate how much body fat you have. (
  • The heterogeneity of the cigarette price effect on body mass index ," Journal of Health Economics , Elsevier, vol. 31(5), pages 719-729. (
  • HealthStatus has been operating since 1998 providing the best interactive health tools on the Internet, millions of visitors have used our blood alcohol, body fat and calories burned calculators. (
  • Top health stories: A shout out to the brilliant Trevor Butterworth and his take on the BPA scare, why you shouldn't run off to the nearest vitamin store before reading our take on Glucosamine, and the real uses and mis-uses, for the Body Mass Index (BMI). (
  • The body-fat percentage may be a useful tool for predicting an individual's health. (
  • This individual participant data meta-analysis assessed the effectiveness of workplace health promotion programmes on body mass index (BMI) across socio-economic groups and whether study and intervention characteristics explained inequalities in effectiveness. (
  • This data file includes body measurements for women who were pregnant at the time of their health examination. (
  • It's also offering your body a host of health benefits. (
  • Self-care involves the entire body of health decisions that individu- als make for themselves and their families to maintain physical and mental well-being. (
  • The study was conducted to establish prevalence of HTN in adolescents with Body Mass Index (BMI). (
  • 5.5%, 2.8%) Conclusion: By our study we can conclude that the prevalence of Pre HTN and HTN is directly related to Body Mass Index (BMI). (
  • To determine the prevalence of dyslipidaemia and HT in paediatric diabetic patients seen at Tygerberg Hospital (TBH) and establish whether either is associated with body mass index (BMI), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) or duration of diabetes. (
  • Underwater weighing , which involves submerging the person in water and calculating the fat from the volume of displaced water is another effective method of measuring body fat. (
  • Details of the findings linking the speed a runner needs to achieve and the ideal body mass for performance appear in the July 15 issue of the Journal of Experimental Biology in a study authored by Peter Weyand and Adam Davis. (
  • The objective of this study is to determine the relations between cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index (BMI) and depressive symptoms among young adolescents. (
  • This study investigated whether body mass might affect fine psychomotor skills. (
  • In the present study, the authors tested the hypothesis that among postmenopausal women with normal BMI, regional body fat deposits, as determined by DXA (trunk or leg fat), would be related to CVD. (
  • The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between physical exercise, depression, and body mass index (BMI). (
  • A previous study found that people who consumed 250 milliliters (ml) of coffee (about 1 cup) three times per day saw decreased body fat during the four-week study period. (
  • Another study, published December 2019 in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that drinking four cups of coffee per day led to a 4 percent decrease in body fat over the 24-week study, likely because of coffee's ability to support metabolism. (
  • The Social Vulnerability Index (IVS) is a gramme and the practice of leisure-time physical composite indicator which combines different activity and walking6, while another study in Re- socioeconomic and environmental variables to cife, the capital city of the State of Pernambuco, analyse the characteristics of population groups showed that participants in the City Gym pro- in given geographical areas. (
  • The fat mass gain in peri- and young postmenopausal women may determine either of two phenotypes: the "apple" shape due to fat accumulation in the abdomen or the "pear" shape due to accumulation in the buttocks. (
  • A high BMI can indicate high body fatness. (
  • BMI is a reliable indicator of body fatness for most people. (
  • We explored associations between vigorous physical activity on body mass index whilst controlling for volume of MVPA. (
  • Body mass index reference curves for the UK, 1990. (
  • Articles that reported HRs for all-cause mortality using standard body mass index (BMI) categories from prospective studies of general populations of adults were selected by consensus among multiple reviewers. (
  • However, percent body fat does vary according to other factors such as race, gender and age. (
  • Does HIV infection modify the relationship between pre-pregnancy body mass index and adverse birth outcomes? (
  • however, little research has explored whether HIV status influences associations between pre- pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and adverse birth outcomes . (
  • You can calculate your Body Mass Index(BMI) with this form. (
  • We aim to describe the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and rates of hospital admission in middle-aged UK women. (
  • Shimouchi et al in 1993, however, many lost their jobs, some became comorbidity index (17 conditions) or the Elixhauser score homeless and the influx of workers into Airin ceased. (
  • 56,000 unrelated individuals to search for POEs influencing body mass index (BMI). (
  • Insurance companies may be able to charge higher premiums for employees with higher body mass indices, should the EEOC adopt this proposal as a rule. (
  • That means, for a person with high muscle mass, a slightly higher BMI can be considered normal while the same BMI might be seen as slight overweight for another person. (
  • We try to restrict [these drugs] to people who have a body mass index of 27 or higher, because that's what [they're] intended for," she says. (
  • body size for each race distance by compiling the average heights and weights of the world's fastest 45 male and female runners in each of the eight competitive racing distances, from 100 meters to 10,000 meters, during the past 14 years. (
  • Previous studies estimate the average effect of cigarette price on body mass index (BMI), with recent research showing that their different methodologies all point to a negative effect after several years. (
  • For many years Body Mass Index, or BMI, has been the go-to index for establishing trends in population weights, and has also been used to establish what are the best BMIs to avoid certain ailments such as diabetes as well as early death. (
  • A sample of 850 healthy adults (20 - 49 years) completed the GP and had their Body Mass Index (BMI) calculated. (
  • The body mass index (BMI) has not been consistently used or validated in children younger than 2 years. (
  • causing it to displace and erode the small intestine, with infection, complete control of symptoms was achieved after removal of the infected patch mass, no recurrence of hernia after 2 years of follow-up. (
  • A combination of maternal factors and a uterine arteries pulsatility index (UtA-PI) of 11 +0 to 13 +6 weeks presented good results in the prediction of early PE (onset of clinical symptoms before 34 weeks of pregnancy) [ 7 ]. (
  • After the fat percentage of the body has been calculated everything left over is known as ' lean body mass ' or lean mass. (
  • These interventions are characterized as: behavioral, educational, family, nutritional, and technological, and are able to promote changes in Body Mass Index and lifestyle. (
  • Sprinters have more muscle and body bulk because they need to hit the track harder to attain their blazing speeds. (
  • Some well-trained people with dense muscle mass may have a high BMI score but very little body fat. (
  • fat mass and muscle mass are not distinguished. (
  • Fat free mass, that is, lean muscle, is actually desirable as it burns fat. (
  • Moreover, there are a few problems with it, as it can not account for muscle mass. (
  • Someone with a large amount of muscle mass, like a body builder, will be overweight. (
  • We will take any muscle mass into account. (
  • The pneumoperitoneum time (PT) was employed as an objective index for the assessment of surgical difficulty. (
  • Overweight is defined as a body mass index of 25.0 to less than 30.0 kg/m². (
  • If we are to have healthy ranges or an ideal body fat percentage range then these factors need to be taken into consideration. (
  • Background Associations between body mass index (BMI), outcome, and leukemia-related factors in children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remain unclear. (
  • Another method, called Bioelectrical Impedance (BEI), measures body fat electronically. (
  • Please refer to the Body Measures Procedures Manual for a detailed description of the quality assurance and control measures used in NHANES. (