Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Waist Circumference: The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.Waist-Hip Ratio: The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Body Constitution: The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Obesity, Morbid: The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Skinfold Thickness: The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)United StatesEnergy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.JapanRetrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.TriglyceridesPregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Body Fat Distribution: Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Physical Fitness: The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Obesity, Abdominal: A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Body Image: Individuals' concept of their own bodies.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Sleep Apnea, Obstructive: A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Glycemic Index: A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Intra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Electric Impedance: The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Anorexia Nervosa: An eating disorder that is characterized by the lack or loss of APPETITE, known as ANOREXIA. Other features include excess fear of becoming OVERWEIGHT; BODY IMAGE disturbance; significant WEIGHT LOSS; refusal to maintain minimal normal weight; and AMENORRHEA. This disorder occurs most frequently in adolescent females. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular: Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Basal Metabolism: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.BrazilAging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Sedentary Lifestyle: Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.FinlandSpectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Gastric Bypass: Surgical procedure in which the STOMACH is transected high on the body. The resulting small proximal gastric pouch is joined to any parts of the SMALL INTESTINE by an end-to-side SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS, depending on the amounts of intestinal surface being bypasses. This procedure is used frequently in the treatment of MORBID OBESITY by limiting the size of functional STOMACH, food intake, and food absorption.Puberty: A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin: A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Sleep Apnea Syndromes: Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Bariatric Surgery: Surgical procedures aimed at affecting metabolism and producing major WEIGHT REDUCTION in patients with MORBID OBESITY.Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated: Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Great BritainStatistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.NorwayMenarche: The first MENSTRUAL CYCLE marked by the initiation of MENSTRUATION.Somatotypes: Particular categories of body build, determined on the basis of certain physical characteristics. The three basic body types are ectomorph (thin physique), endomorph (rounded physique), and mesomorph (athletic physique).Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)SwedenConfounding Factors (Epidemiology): Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Subcutaneous Fat: Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.Gastroplasty: Surgical procedures involving the STOMACH and sometimes the lower ESOPHAGUS to correct anatomical defects, or to treat MORBID OBESITY by reducing the size of the stomach. There are several subtypes of bariatric gastroplasty, such as vertical banded gastroplasty, silicone ring vertical gastroplasty, and horizontal banded gastroplasty.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Republic of Korea: The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Korea: Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Ankle Brachial Index: Comparison of the BLOOD PRESSURE between the BRACHIAL ARTERY and the POSTERIOR TIBIAL ARTERY. It is a predictor of PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Uric Acid: An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Human Growth Hormone: A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.Prehypertension: Blood pressure levels that are between normotension and hypertension. Individuals with prehypertension are at a higher risk for developing cardiovascular diseases. Generally, prehypertension is defined as SYSTOLIC PRESSURE of 131-139 mm Hg and/or DIASTOLIC PRESSURE of 81-89 when the optimal is 120/80 mm Hg. For diabetics and other metabolism diseases the prehypertension is around 110-129/70-79 mm Hg.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.CreatinineHeart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.

Comparative total mortality in 25 years in Italian and Greek middle aged rural men. (1/19326)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Mortality over 25 years has been low in the Italian and very low in the Greek cohorts of the Seven Countries Study; factors responsible for this particularity were studied in detail. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: 1712 Italian and 1215 Greek men, aged 40-59 years, cohorts of the Seven Countries Study, representing over 95% of the populations in designated rural areas. DESIGN: Entry (1960-61) data included age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), smoking habits, total serum cholesterol, body mass index (BMI), arm circumference, vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in 3/4 seconds (FEV); the same data were obtained 10 years later. Multivariate Cox analysis was performed with all causes death in 25 years as end point. MAIN RESULTS: Italian men had higher entry levels of SBP, arm circumference, BMI, and VC; Greek men had higher cholesterol levels, smoking habits, and FEV. Mortality of Italian men was higher throughout; at 25 years cumulative mortality was 48.3% and 35.3% respectively. Coronary heart disease and stroke mortality increased fivefold in Italy and 10-fold in Greece between years 10 and 25. The only risk factor with a significantly higher contribution to mortality in Italian men was cholesterol. However, differences in entry SBP (higher in Italy) and FEV (higher in Greece) accounted for, according to the Lee method, 75% of the differential mortality between the two populations. At 10 years increases in SBP, cholesterol, BMI, and decreases in smoking habits, VC, FEV, and arm circumference had occurred (deltas). SBP increased more and FEV and VC decreased more in Italy than in Greece. Deltas, fed stepwise in the original model for the prediction of 10 to 25 years mortality, were significant for SBP, smoking, arm circumference, and VC in Greece, and for SBP and VC in Italy. CONCLUSION: Higher mortality in Italian men is related to stronger positive effects of entry SBP and weaker negative (protective) effects of FEV; in addition 10 year increases in SBP are higher and 10 year decreases in FEV are larger in Italy. Unaccounted factors, however, related to, for example, differences in the diet, may also have contributed to the differential mortality of these two Mediterranean populations.  (+info)

Body mass decrease after initial gain following smoking cessation. (2/19326)

BACKGROUND: Although smoking cessation is strongly associated with subsequent weight gain, it is not clear whether the initial gain in weight after smoking cessation remains over time. METHOD: Cross-sectional analyses were made, using data from periodic health examinations for workers, on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the length of smoking cessation. In addition, linear regression coefficients of BMI on the length of cessation were estimated according to alcohol intake and sport activity, to examine the modifying effect of these factors on the weight of former smokers. RESULTS: Means of BMI were 23.1 kg/m2, 23.3 kg/m2, 23.6 kg/m2 for light/medium smokers, heavy smokers and never smokers, respectively. Among former smokers who had smoked > or = 25 cigarettes a day, odds ratio (OR) of BMI >25 kg/m2 were 1.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.05-3.35), 1.32 (95% CI : 0.74-2.34), 0.66 (95% CI: 0.33-1.31) for those with 2-4 years, 5-7 years, and 8-10 years of smoking cessation, respectively. The corresponding OR among those who previously consumed <25 cigarettes a day were 1.06 (95% CI: 0.58-1.94), 1.00 (95% CI: 0.58-1.71), and 1.49 (95% CI: 0.95-2.32). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that although heavy smokers may experience large weight gain and weigh more than never smokers in the few years after smoking cessation, they thereafter lose weight to the never smoker level, while light and moderate smokers gain weight up to the never smoker level without any excess after smoking cessation.  (+info)

Pregnancy, body weight and human immunodeficiency virus infection in African women: a prospective cohort study in Kigali (Rwanda), 1992-1994. Pregnancy and HIV Study Group (EGE). (3/19326)

OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and body weight in African women during and after pregnancy. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was initiated at the Centre Hospitalier de Kigali in July 1992. Every woman seen at the antenatal clinic and with a gestational age of <28 weeks was offered HIV-1 antibody testing. Comparable numbers of HIV-infected (HIV+) and uninfected (HIV-) women were recruited. At inclusion, socio-demographic characteristics and self-reported pre-pregnancy weight were recorded; height and weight were measured. Each woman enrolled had a monthly follow-up until 9 months after delivery, with a clinical examination including weighing. Three anthropometric indices were used to answer the study objectives: weight, body mass index (BMI), and pregnancy balance. RESULTS: As of April 1994, 101 HIV+ and 106 HIV- women were followed until 5 months after delivery. Weight and BMI during pregnancy were lower in HIV+ women than in HIV- women. After delivery, weight and BMI gains were significantly lower in HIV+ women. Until 5 months after delivery, the mean weight variation was -2.2 kg (standard deviation [SD] = 5.9 kg) in HIV+ women and +0.2 kg (SD = 6.6 kg) in HIV- women (P = 0.007) in comparison to pre-pregnancy weight. Comparisons of the slopes of the weight curves did not show statistical differences throughout the pregnancy, but it did during the post-partum period (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that HIV infection could impair nutritional status in pregnant women, especially during the post-partum period. Family planning and maternal and child health services including HIV testing and counselling, should consider a nutritional assessment and intervention programme targeted to HIV+ pregnant women.  (+info)

Thiamine deficiency is prevalent in a selected group of urban Indonesian elderly people. (4/19326)

This cross-sectional study involved 204 elderly individuals (93 males and 111 females). Subjects were randomly recruited using a list on which all 60-75 y-old-people living in seven sub-villages in Jakarta were included. The usual food intake was estimated using semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. Hemoglobin, plasma retinol, vitamin B-12, red blood cell folate and the percentage stimulation of erythrocyte transketolase (ETK), as an indicator of thiamine status, were analyzed. Median energy intake was below the assessed requirement. More than 75% of the subjects had iron and thiamine intakes of approximately 2/3 of the recommended daily intake, and 20.2% of the study population had folate intake of approximately 2/3 of the recommended daily intake. Intakes of vitamins A and B-12 were adequate. Biochemical assessments demonstrated that 36.6% of the subjects had low thiamine levels (ETK stimulation > 25%). The elderly men tended to have lower thiamine levels than the elderly women. The overall prevalence of anemia was 28.9%, and the elderly women were affected more than the elderly men. Low biochemical status of vitamins A, B-12 and RBC folate was found in 5.4%, 8.8 % and 2.9% of the subjects, respectively. Dietary intakes of thiamine and folate were associated with ETK stimulation and plasma vitamin B-12 concentration (r = 0.176, P = 0.012 and r = 0.77, P = 0.001), respectively. Results of this study suggest that anemia, thiamine and possibly vitamin B-12 deficiency are prevalent in the elderly living in Indonesia. Clearly, micronutrient supplementation may be beneficial for the Indonesian elderly population living in underprivileged areas.  (+info)

Natural sporting ability and predisposition to cardiovascular disorders. (5/19326)

We tested the hypothesis that people with a natural ability in 'power sports' (a presumed marker for predominance of type 2, glycolytic muscle fibres) might have increased risks of coronary heart disease (CHD) compared to those with a natural ability in 'endurance sports' (as a marker for predominance of type 1, oxidative muscle fibres). We examined subsequent cardiovascular disorders retrospectively in 231 male former soldiers, aged 34-87 years, who had undergone a course in physical training in the Army School of Physical Training, Aldershot, UK, who assessed themselves as having natural ability in either power (n = 107) or endurance (n = 124) sports. The proportion with CHD, defined as angina and/or coronary angioplasty and/or coronary artery bypass graft and/or heart attack was 18.7% in the 'power group' vs. 9.7% in the 'endurance group' (difference: chi 2 = 3.9, p = 0.05). The proportions with CHD and/or risk factors rose to 39.3% in the 'power group' vs. 25.8% in the 'endurance group' (difference: chi 2 = 4.8, p = 0.03). Under logistic regression analysis, compared to the 'endurance group', the 'power group' had 2.2 (95% CI: 1.00-4.63) the risk of developing CHD, and 1.86 (95% confidence interval: 1.06 to 3.25) the risk of developing CHD and/or risk factors. Men with a natural ability in 'power sports' are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disorders, compared to men with a natural ability in 'endurance sports'. A predominance of type 2, glycolytic muscle fibres, presumably of genetic origin, may predispose to cardiovascular disorders.  (+info)

Relation between obesity and breast cancer in young women. (6/19326)

This study was conducted to assess the relation between body size and risk of breast cancer among young women. A case-control study was conducted among women aged 21-45 years living in three counties in Washington State. Cases were women born after 1944 with invasive or in situ breast cancer that was diagnosed between January 1, 1983, and April 30, 1990. Controls were selected using random digit dialing and were frequency-matched to cases on the basis of age and county of residence. Interviews took place between 1986 and 1992. Body size was evaluated using indices from several different time periods. After adjustment for confounders, a decreased risk of breast cancer was found for women in the highest quintile of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2) as compared with the lowest quintile (for maximum lifetime body mass index, odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51-0.94). Age modified the relation between body size and risk of breast cancer. The odds ratio for women in the highest quintile of maximum body mass index who were aged 21-35 years was 0.29 (95% CI 0.16-0.55), as compared with an odds ratio of 1.5 for women aged 36-45 years (95% CI 0.9-2.5) (p for interaction = 0.003). This study supports prior research showing a decreased risk of breast cancer associated with increased body size among premenopausal or young women. More detailed analysis in this study found a strong effect that was limited to the youngest age group (< or = 35 years).  (+info)

The Sock Test for evaluating activity limitation in patients with musculoskeletal pain. (7/19326)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Assessment within rehabilitation often must reflect patients' perceived functional problems and provide information on whether these problems are caused by impairments of the musculoskeletal system. Such capabilities were examined in a new functional test, the Sock Test, simulating the activity of putting on a sock. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Intertester reliability was examined in 21 patients. Concurrent validity, responsiveness, and predictive validity were examined in a sample of 337 patients and in subgroups of this sample. RESULTS: Intertester reliability was acceptable. Sock Test scores were related to concurrent reports of activity limitation in dressing activities. Scores also reflected questionnaire-derived reports of problems in a broad range of activities of daily living and pain and were responsive to change over time. Increases in age and body mass index increased the likelihood of Sock Test scores indicating activity limitation. Pretest scores were predictive of perceived difficulties in dressing activities after 1 year. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: Sock Test scores reflect perceived activity limitations and restrictions of the musculoskeletal system.  (+info)

A pilot study on the human body vibration induced by low frequency noise. (8/19326)

To understand the basic characteristics of the human body vibration induced by low frequency noise and to use it to evaluate the effects on health, we designed a measuring method with a miniature accelerometer and carried out preliminary measurements. Vibration was measured on the chest and abdomen of 6 male subjects who were exposed to pure tones in the frequency range of 20 to 50 Hz, where the method we designed was proved to be sensitive enough to detect vibration on the body surface. The level and rate of increase with frequency of the vibration turned out to be higher on the chest than on the abdomen. This difference was considered to be due to the mechanical structure of the human body. It also turned out that the measured noise-induced vibration negatively correlated with the subject's BMI (Body Mass Index), which suggested that the health effects of low frequency noise depended not only on the mechanical structure but also on the physical constitution of the human body.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Patterns of childhood body mass index (BMI), overweight and obesity in South Asian and black participants in the English National child measurement programme. T2 - Effect of applying BMI adjustments standardising for ethnic differences in BMI-body fatness associations. AU - Hudda, M. T.. AU - Nightingale, C. M.. AU - Donin, A. S.. AU - Owen, C. G.. AU - Rudnicka, A. R.. AU - Wells, J. C.K.. AU - Rutter, H.. AU - Cook, D. G.. AU - Whincup, P. H.. PY - 2017/11/2. Y1 - 2017/11/2. N2 - Background:The National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) records weight and height and assesses overweight-obesity patterns in English children using body mass index (BMI), which tends to underestimate body fatness in South Asian children and overestimate body fatness in Black children of presumed African ethnicity. Using BMI adjustments to ensure that adjusted BMI was similarly related to body fatness in South Asian, Black and White children, we reassessed population overweight and obesity patterns ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Indirect effects of elevated body mass index on memory performance through altered cerebral metabolite concentrations. AU - Gonzales, Mitzi M.. AU - Tarumi, Takashi. AU - Eagan, Danielle E.. AU - Tanaka, Hirofumi. AU - Vaghasia, Miral. AU - Haley, Andreana P.. PY - 2012/9/1. Y1 - 2012/9/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE: Elevated body mass index (BMI) at midlife is associated with increased risk of cognitive decline in later life. The goal of the current study was to assess mechanisms of early brain vulnerability by examining if higher BMI at midlife affects current cognitive performance through alterations in cerebral neurochemistry. METHODS: Fifty-five participants, aged 40 to 60 years, underwent neuropsychological testing, health screen, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy examining N-acetylaspartate, creatine (Cr), myo-inositol (mI), choline, and glutamate concentrations in occipitoparietal gray matter. Concentrations of N-acetylaspartate, choline, mI, and glutamate were calculated as ...
Body Mass Index May Predict Heart Disease Risk For Type-2 Diabetic Patients New Study Finds. By J. Brent Muhlestein, MD. April 25, 2014. Researchers from …. Body Mass Index, Fasting Plasma Glucose Levels, and C-peptide Levels as Predictors of the Future Insulin Use in Japanese Type 2 Diabetic Patients.. Dec 15, 2016 … A great BMI calculator with advanced features for Body Mass Index. … serious health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.. Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based on height and weight. How to calculate Body Mass Index. Body Mass Index is a simple calculation using …. Sep 9, 2014 … Effects of Body Mass Index, Abdominal Obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes on Mortality in Community-Dwelling Elderly in Sao Paulo, Brazil: Analysis …. aimed at investigating the effect of Body Mass Index on serum lipid profile in type II diabetic patients. The study was descriptive cross sectional in design.. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the hormone insulin is not used ...
Body Mass Index (BMI) or Quetelet index plays an important role in figure out your weight, health and lifestyle choices. Body mass index is developed by Adolphe Quetelet in the 1900s for evaluating body mass. Body mass index is not related to gender or age. BMI values are the same for men and women of all body types and ages.In BMI formulas simply put your weight and height and calculate your BMI value. There are three sets of values used to determine body mass.If your BMI weight status is below then 18.5 than youre in the category of underweight people. There are certain risks of being underweight such as slow wound healing, slow recovery from illness, high blood pressure and lack of period or fertility in females. If youve BMI score less than 18.5 or in between 18.5 - 20 then you required a more nutritional intake that helps you to gain weight and build strong immunity system in the body. You can try Accumass weight gain granules and Ayurvedic medicine to increase your BMI value.
Washington, DC, February 7, 2012 - The Trust for Americas Health (TFAH) has released a new report, Bending the Obesity Cost Curve, which finds that reducing the average body mass index by just five percent in the United States could lead to more than $29 billion in health care savings in just five years, due to reduced obesity-related costs. The analysis found that the country could save $158.1 billion in 10 years and $611.7 billion in 20 years.. "Prevention is the key to halting the obesity epidemic, lowering health care costs and creating a long-term path to a healthier and economically sound America," said Jeff Levi, PhD, Executive Director of TFAH, who also serves as Chair of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health. "The Prevention and Public Health Fund is now providing resources to support the kind of evidence-based strategies that can achieve this five percent reduction in average BMI, which makes the Fund a critical component of our efforts ...
Obesity is associated with breast white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation, elevated levels of the estrogen biosynthetic enzyme, aromatase, and systemic changes that have been linked to the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Here, we determined whether metabolic obesity, including changes in breast biology and systemic effects, occurs in a subset of women with normal body mass index (BMI). Breast WAT and fasting blood were collected from 72 women with normal BMI (,25 kg/m2) undergoing mastectomy for breast cancer risk reduction or treatment. WAT inflammation was defined by the presence of crown-like structures of the breast (CLS-B) which are composed of dead or dying adipocytes surrounded by macrophages. Severity of inflammation was measured as CLS-B/cm2. The primary objective was to determine whether breast WAT inflammation is associated with aromatase expression and activity. Secondary objectives included assessment of circulating factors and breast adipocyte size. Breast WAT inflammation was ...
Many modifiable risk factors in early infancy have been shown to be associated with childhood overweight and obesity. These risk factors have not been studied within children of South Asian origin in the UK. The aims of this paper are to describe differences in the prevalence of modifiable risk factors for childhood obesity between children of White British and Pakistani origin and investigate the association between these risk factors and childhood BMI measured at age 3 years. We used data from a sub-study of the Born in Bradford birth cohort with detailed follow-up visits throughout early childhood. 987 participants with a BMI measurement at age 3 were included; 39% were White British, 48% were of Pakistani origin and 13% were of other ethnicities. Linear and Poisson regression models were used to assess the association between risk factors and two outcomes at age 3; BMI z-scores and child overweight. Compared to Pakistani mothers, White British mothers were more likely to smoke during pregnancy, have
TY - JOUR. T1 - A dose-response meta-analysis of the impact of body mass index on stroke and all-cause mortality in stroke patients. T2 - a paradox within a paradox. AU - Bagheri, M.. AU - Speakman, J. R.. AU - Shabbidar, S.. AU - Kazemi, F.. AU - Djafarian, K.. N1 - Acknowledgements We thank Dr. Nicola Orsini for helping us with the statistical analysis. This study was supported by Tehran University of Medical Sciences.. PY - 2015/5. Y1 - 2015/5. N2 - The obesity paradox is often attributed to fat acting as a buffer to protect individuals in fragile metabolic states. If this was the case, one would predict that the reverse epidemiology would be apparent across all causes of mortality including that of the particular disease state. We performed a dose-response meta-analysis to assess the impact of body mass index (BMI) on all-cause and stroke-specific mortality among stroke patients. Data from relevant studies were identified by systematically searching PubMed, OVID and Scopus databases and were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of body mass index on diabetogenesis factors at a fixed fasting plasma glucose level. AU - Lin, Jiunn Diann. AU - Hsu, Chun Hsien. AU - Wu, Chung Ze. AU - Hsieh, An-Tsz. AU - Hsieh, Chang Hsun. AU - Liang, Yao Jen. AU - Chen, Yen Lin. AU - Pei, Dee. AU - Chang, Jin Biou. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Aim The present study evaluated the relative influence of body mass index (BMI) on insulin resistance (IR), first-phase insulin secretion (FPIS), second-phase insulin secretion (SPIS), and glucose effectiveness (GE) at a fixed fasting plasma glucose level in an older ethnic Chinese population. Methods In total, 265 individuals aged 60 years with a fasting plasma glucose level of 5.56 mmol/L were enrolled. Participants had BMIs of 20.0-34.2 kg/m2. IR, FPIS, SPIS, and GE were estimated using our previously developed equations. Pearson correlation analysis was conducted to assess the correlations between the four diabetogenesis factors and BMI. A general linear model was ...
What is body mass index and how is it measured? Body mass index is one important measurement to determine if someone is overweight, underweight, or at a healthy weight. If someones height and weight are known, then body mass index can be measured. There is a simple body mass index formula which is discussed in this article as well as many other body mass index facts.
Do you often worry about your childs weight? Do you think that your child is either too fat or too thin? If you do, you need to know your childs Body Mass Index or BMI, so you would determine whether your childs weight is right for his or her age and height.. The Body Mass Index for kids is also known as BMI-for-age because it is age and gender specific. This index is calculated from ages two to 20 years old. There is a separate chart for boys and girls because each gender has different body fat content, as they grow older.. There are many ways on how you can determine if your child is obese or overweight. But the fastest way of figuring whether your child is healthy or not is through the help of body mass index. In calculating your childs BMI, you need to determine your childs weight in kilograms and his or her height in meter Age calculator .. When you have this data, you may now start calculating using the BMI formula. First you need to multiply the height per meter by itself. Using this ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Joint effect of physical activity and body mass index on mortality for acute myocardial infarction in the elderly. T2 - Role of preinfarction angina as equivalent of ischemic preconditioning. AU - Abete, Pasquale. AU - Cacciatore, Francesco. AU - Della Morte, David. AU - Mazzella, Francesca. AU - Testa, Gianluca. AU - Galizia, Gianluigi. AU - De Santis, Domenico. AU - Longobardi, Giancarlo. AU - Ferrara, Nicola. AU - Rengo, Franco. PY - 2009/2/1. Y1 - 2009/2/1. N2 - BACKGROUND: Preinfarction angina (PrA), clinical equivalent of ischemic preconditioning, confers protection against in-hospital mortality for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in adult but not in elderly patients. This study aims to examine the interaction between physical activity and body mass index (BMI) in preserving the cardioprotective effect of PrA in elderly patients with AMI. DESIGN: Elderly patients (≥65 years old) with AMI admitted to Coronary Care Unit. METHODS: Elderly patients with AMI were ...
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OBJECTIVE: This study investigated how a wide spectrum of body mass index (BMI) values at ages 7 to 13 years are associated with type 2 diabetes throughout adulthood, including potential modifying effects of sex and birth weight.. METHODS: From the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, 292,827 individuals, born between 1930 and 1989, were followed in national registers for type 2 diabetes (women, n = 7,472; men, n = 11,548). Heights and weights were measured at ages 7 to 13 years.. RESULTS: Below-average BMIs, with few exceptions, were not associated with type 2 diabetes. Above-average BMIs had positive associations that were stronger in women than men, stronger in younger birth cohorts, and weaker with older age at diagnosis. Women born 1930-1947, 1948-1965, and 1966-1983 with above-average BMIs at 13 years (≥18.2 kg/m(2) ) had hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) ranging from 2.12 (1.91-2.36) to 2.84 (2.31-3.49) per z score when diagnosed at 30 to 47 years. Birth weight did not ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Does Low Body Mass Index Predict the Hospital Mortality of Adult Western or Asian Patients?. AU - Compher, Charlene. AU - Higashiguchi, Takashi. AU - Yu, Jianchun. AU - Jensen, Gordon L.. PY - 2018/2/1. Y1 - 2018/2/1. N2 - Background: Some strategies for screening and assessment of malnutrition include a low but variable body mass index (BMI) cutoff, while others do not. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate published data for Western and Asian hospital samples to determine how the prevalence of low BMI is associated with increased hospital mortality. Method: A PubMed search of the past 10 years (2006-2016) was conducted with the terms "BMI," "malnutrition," "adult," "outcome," and "hospital" or "ICU" for articles published in English. Studies that examined BMI levels among Western or Asian populations were included. Forest plots were constructed to determine the odds of hospital mortality in low versus normal BMI groups. Results: Twenty studies met inclusion ...
The body mass index otherwise known as BMI, is a simple calculation using a persons height and weight. The result typically in the range of 15 to 60 is known as the BMI or body mass index score. Most health organizations put a healthy BMI score between 18.5 and 25.0. Some people refer to this as a normal BMI.. Because it measures excess weight and not actually excess fat, BMI is considered a surrogate measure of body fat. However, studies show strong correlations between BMI measurements and the results of more direct body fat measures. If you are concerned about your weight or body size, calculating your body mass index is a good place to start before heading to the doctors office. BMI can predict future weight-related issues including disease and even death, so it is a very helpful tool in screening for health risks and obesity.. Individuals with a body mass index under 18.5 are considered underweight. A BMI this low can indicate an undernourished individual. Your body needs "meat on your ...
Definition of body mass index in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is body mass index? Meaning of body mass index as a finance term. What does body mass index mean in finance?
The high prevalence of disease and associated weight loss at older ages limits the validity of prospective cohort studies examining the association between body mass index (BMI) and mortality. I examined mortality associated with excess weight using maximum BMI-a measure that is robust to confounding by illness-induced weight loss. Analyses were carried out on US never-smoking adults ages 50-84 using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1988-1994 and 1999-2004) linked to the National Death Index through 2006. Cox models were used to estimate hazard ratios for mortality according to BMI at time of survey and at maximum. Using maximum BMI, hazard ratios for overweight (BMI, 25.0-29.9 kg/m2), obese class 1 (BMI, 30.0-34.9 kg/m2) and obese class 2 (BMI, 35.0 kg/m2 and above) relative to normal weight (BMI, 18.5-24.9 kg/m2) were 1.28 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89-1.84), 1.67 (95% CI, 1.15-2.40), and 2.15 (95% CI, 1.47-3.14), respectively. The corresponding hazard ratios
Subjects The parents of the subjects selected for the sample of the second growth and development study (Berdasco et al., 1991) were the subjects of this survey. After cleaning the data, the total number of adults was 31 662, of whom 11912 were males and 19 750 were females. This difference in the numbers was probably due to the better attendance of mothers for their appointments. Field work The adults attended the measuring centres where they were weighed, and had their height, upper arm circumference, triceps and subscapular fat-folds measured. The survey was undertaken by eight measuring teams (two anthropometrists each) working simultaneously from May to December 1982. Individuals living in the countrys 14 provinces were measured. In order to assure the best possible quality in the primary data, anthropometrists were trained in the same measuring procedures utilized in the first national growth and development study (Jordan, 1979), namely, those recommended by UN International Biological ...
Background: The elderly is an age group that is susceptible to nutritional problems, especially protein intake which tends to be less intake, so it affects the body mass index. Both of these problems directly or indirectly will also affect the quality of life of the elderly. This study aimed to determine the correlation between body mass index, protein intake and quality of life in the elderly.Methods: In a cross-sectional design, a sample of 165 elderlies aged≥60 years were enrolled and randomized from three community health centers of Karanganyar Regency. The body mass index (BMI), height, weight, protein intake data were obtained through interviews using 24-hour recall form. The quality of life data was prepared through interviews using the WQOOL-BREF questionnaire.Results: There was a significant correlation between protein intake and quality of life; however, there was no correlation between body mass index and the quality of life.Conclusion: Protein intake was shown to have a significant
BMI Calculator Body mass index Posted by bmt in Health & Fitness , July 7, 2014 , 0 Comments. Apk file size: 0 bytes. What is BMI? how to calculator BMI ? - Body mass index - commonly known under the acronym BMI Body Mass Index English name - was used to assess the level of a skinny or fat. - Body mass index calculated by a persons weight (kg) divided by height (measured in meters or centimeters). It can be calculated by the formula given in the definition or standard tables - This indicator can help determine a person is obese or malnourished patients through data on the shape, height and body weight. ** Application is based on the evaluation boards standard World Health Organization (WHO) and dedicated to Asian (IDI & WPRO) App ** BMI helps you quickly and accurately help you determine the condition of which you can adjust the diet and moderate exercise routine to get a healthy body Please vote 5 * and leave your comments for us to improve the content better and will have more exciting ...
A total of 19 760 (80.0%) children attended childcare before age 6. Childcare prior to age 6 was associated with BMI z-score at 7 years (0.004 units per each additional 6 months of care; 95% CI: 0.001, 0.008; p = 0.01). Childcare in a kindergarten was the only type of care associated with BMI (0.009 units; 95% CI: 0.003, 0.02; p = 0.01). For children of higher socio-occupational status mothers, childcare was associated with a 0.008 unit increase in BMI (95% CI: 0.004, 0.01; p , 0.001). ...
Genome-wide association studies have implicated the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene in type 2 diabetes risk, and more recently, in decreased body mass index. Given the contrary direction of genetic effects on these two traits, it has been suggested that the observed association with body mass index may reflect either selection bias or a complex underlying biology at TCF7L2. Using 9031 Hispanic/Latino adults (21-76 years) with complete weight history and genetic data from the community-based Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL, Baseline 2008-2011), we estimated the multivariable association between the additive number of type 2 diabetes increasing-alleles at TCF7L2 (rs7903146-T) and body mass index. We then used structural equation models to simultaneously model the genetic association on changes in body mass index across the life course and estimate the odds of type 2 diabetes per TCF7L2 risk allele. We observed both significant increases in type 2 diabetes prevalence
Methods and Results-We determined the frequency and results of lipid testing in 301 080 children and adolescents aged 3 to 19 enrolled in 3 large US health systems in 2007 to 2010 before the 2011 guidelines were issued. Overall, 9.8% of the study population was tested for lipids. The proportion tested varied by body mass index percentile (5.9% of normal weight, 10.8% of overweight, and 26.9% of obese children) and age (8.9% of 9- to 11-year olds and 24.3% of 17- to 19-year olds). In normal weight individuals, 2.8% of 9- to 11-year olds and 22.0% of 17- to 19-year olds were tested. In multivariable models, age and body mass index category remained strongly associated with lipid testing. Sex, race, ethnicity, and blood pressure were weakly associated with testing. Abnormal lipid levels were found in 8.6% for total cholesterol, 22.5% for high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, 12.0% for non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, 8.0% for low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and 21% for triglycerides ...
As the use of self-reported data to classify obesity continues, the temporal change in the accuracy of self-report measurement when compared to clinical measurement remains unclear. The objective of this study was to examine temporal trends in misclassification patterns, as well as sensitivity and specificity, of clinically measured versus self-report based body mass index (BMI) from three national lifestyle surveys over a 10-year period. The Surveys of Lifestyle Attitudes and Nutrition (SLÁN) were interview based cross-sectional survey/measurements involving nationally representative samples in 1998, 2002 and 2007. Data from a subsample of both self-reported and measured height and weight were available from 66 men and 142 women in 1998, 147 men and 184 women in 2002 and 909 men and 1128 women in 2007. Respondents were classified into the BMI categories normal (| 25 kg m-2), overweight (25- | 30 kg m-2) and obese (≥ 30 kg m-2). Underreporting of BMI increased across the three surveys (14%→21%→24
The online calculator calculates the body mass index - BMI body mass index (BMI) - a value that allows you to assess the degree of correspondence of a persons mass and his height. The calculation of body weight is made in accordance with the so-called body mass index (BMI). How to determine normal body weight? This can be done according to the formula of Adolf Quetelet, used in many countries, which allows you to calculate bodyweight depending on the height of the person.
Body Mass Index Calculator. Body Mass Index (BMI) is one of the most accurate ways to determine when extra pounds translate into health risks. BMI is a measure which takes into account a persons weight and height to gauge total body fat in adults. Someone with a BMI of 26 to 27 is about 20 percent overweight, which is generally believed to carry moderate health risks. A BMI of 30 and higher is considered obese. The higher the BMI, the greater the risk of developing additional health problems.. Heart disease, diabetes and high blood pressure are all linked to being overweight. A BMI of 30 and over increases the risk of death from any cause by 50 to 150 percent, according to some estimates. Be sure to consult your doctor or other health professional before beginning any exercise or weight-loss program.. In June 1998, the federal government announced guidelines which create a new definition of a healthy weight -- a BMI of 24 or less. So now a BMI of 25 to 29.9 is considered overweight. Individuals ...
Article: The impact of body mass index on the associations of lipids with the risk of coronary heart disease in the Asia Pacific ...
The Body Mass Index Percentiles for Girls calculation allows you to evaluate if a patient is at an appropriate weight based on their age, height and weight.
The value of school screening for scoliosis has largely been an appreciation of the high prevalence of small degrees of surface deformity and curvature and the opportunity to study the natural history of these curvatures [1, 2]. Not adequately recognised is the potential, through epidemiological studies of screened subjects, to understand better some factors involved in the pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) [3-13]. In this connection, body mass index (BMI) has been evaluated in relation to both AIS [14-23] and the trunk asymmetry (TA) of normal subjects [7, 16, 23-25]. But no attempts have been made to evaluate how BMI may relate to the pathogenesis of the trunk shape distortion of TA as it has recently for girls with AIS [23].. Employing a new approach of comparing skeletal data between subsets of higher and lower body mass index (BMI) in adolescent girls - preoperative with AIS, screened for AIS and normals, BMI was found to be related to skeletal maturation of the trunk, ...
Body Mass Index (BMI) Calculator (add to your website or run on ours). Calculate body mass index (BMI), BMI classification and weight range in US or Metric.
Simple body Mass IndexbrThe body mass index BMI or Quetelet index is a heuristic proxy for human body fat based on an individuals weight and height brRequirements Windows Phone 81 Windows Phone 8 Windows Phone 75
Did You Know? The average Americans BMI is 27.8?! Low exercise and poor eating habits are the primary reason BMI numbers in the U.S. are rising. If you fall into the 25 and higher range, do your best to make a change! Go ahead, use this Body Mass Calculator to see your exact BMI and other interesting facts! BMI Calculator provided by calculators.tech BMI or Body Mass Index is not an exact measure of your health but can be used as a guideline for managing a healthy weight according to your height. Body mass index determines whether you are underweight, ideal weight, overweight or obese. A BMI score between 18.5 to 25 is considered as healthy. A BMI score of 18.5 or less means that the person is underweight while that above 25 is an indication of being overweight. People with a BMI score above 30 are considered obese, and should consult a physician as soon as possible ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Secular trends in the association between nativity/length of US residence with body mass index and waist circumference among Mexican-Americans, 1988-2008. AU - Albrecht, Sandra S.. AU - Diez Roux, Ana V.. AU - Aiello, Allison E.. AU - Schulz, Amy J.. AU - Abraido-Lanza, Ana. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - Objectives: We investigated whether associations between nativity/length of US residence and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) varied over the past two decades. Methods: Mexican-Americans aged 20-64 years from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) III (1988-1994), and NHANES (1999-2008). Sex-stratified multivariable linear regression models further adjusted for age, education, and NHANES period. Results: We found no evidence of secular variation in the nativity/length of US residence gradient for men or women. Foreign-born Mexican-Americans, irrespective of residence length, had lower mean BMI and WC than their US-born counterparts. However among ...
Results highlight adolescent bedtimes as a potential target for weight management: Later bedtimes may lead to an increase in body mass index over time. A new study suggests that going to bed late during the workweek from adolescence to adulthood is associated with an increase in body mass index over time. Results of hierarchal linear models involving a nationally representative sample of more than 3,000 participants show that going to bed during the workweek each additional hour later is associated with an increase in BMI of 2.1 kg/m2. Moreover, surprising to the researchers, the relationship between bedtime and BMI was not significantly changed or moderated by total sleep time, exercise frequency or screen time.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assortative marriages by body mass index have increased simultaneously with the obesity epidemic. AU - Adeltoft, Teresa Ajslev. AU - Ängquist, Lars Henrik. AU - Silventoinen, Karri. AU - Gamborg, Michael. AU - Allison, David B. AU - Baker, Jennifer L. AU - Sørensen, Thorkild I A. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - Background: The genetic predisposition to obesity may have contributed to the obesity epidemic through assortative mating. We investigated whether spouses were positively assorted by body mass index (BMI; = kg/m(2)) in late childhood, and whether changes in assorted marriage by upper BMI-percentiles occurred during the obesity epidemic. Methods: In the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) boys and girls with measures of BMI at age 13 years later became 37,792 spousal-pairs who married between 1945 and 2010. Trends in the spousal BMI correlations using sex-, age-, and birth cohort-specific BMI z-scores across time were investigated. Odds ratios (ORs) of marriage ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Associations of Body Mass Index and Body Fat With Markers of Inflammation and Nutrition Among Patients Receiving Hemodialysis. AU - Delgado, Cynthia. AU - Chertow, Glenn M.. AU - Kaysen, George. AU - Dalrymple, Lorien. AU - Kornak, John. AU - Grimes, Barbara. AU - Johansen, Kirsten L.. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - Background: Understanding the extent to which visceral and subcutaneous body fat are associated with markers of nutrition and inflammation in patients on dialysis therapy could shed light on the obesity paradox and the biology of subcutaneous fat. Study Design: Cross-sectional. Setting & Participants: 609 adults receiving hemodialysis who participated in the ACTIVE/ADIPOSE Study. Predictors: Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy-derived estimates of percent body fat. Outcomes: C-Reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), prealbumin, albumin, leptin, and adiponectin concentrations. Measurements: We performed linear ...
... (BMI) is a number calculated from a persons weight and height. BMI provides a reliable indicator of body fatness for most people and is used to screen for weight categories that may lead to health problems. Body Mass Index (BMI) is a number calculated from a persons weight and height. BMI is a reliable indicator of body fatness for people. BMI does not measure body fat directly, but research has shown that BMI correlates to direct measures of body fat. BMI can be considered an alternative for direct measures of body fat. Additionally, BMI is an inexpensive and easy-to-perform method of screening for weight categories that may lead to health problems. Calculating BMI is one of the best methods for population assessment of overweight and obesity. Because calculation requires only height and weight, it is inexpensive and easy to use for clinicians and for the general public. The use of BMI allows people to compare their own weight status to that of the general population. BMI is ...
Body Mass Index or BMI is a calculation, based upon a persons height and weight. It is used to determine whether someone is underweight, a healthy weight or overweight. There are numerous websites with BMI calculators which enable you to see if you are a healthy weight or not. How do they work? You type in your height, weight and gender or select them from a series of drop down menus. Then click on calculate. You will also be given the option of an imperial or metric calculation.. As soon as you have done so you are shown your body mass index which you can compare with the weight categories as defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO). These categories are as follows:. ...
Title: The Impact of Body Mass Index and Type 2 Diabetes on Breast Cancer: Current Therapeutic Measures of Prevention. VOLUME: 4 ISSUE: 4. Author(s):F. Resta, V. Triggiani, C. Sabba, B. Licchelli, S. Ghiyasaldin, A. Liso, F. Schittulli, M. Quaranta, A. Paradiso, E. Tafaro and E. Guastamacchia. Affiliation:Geriatria, Dip. Clinica Medica Immunologia e Malattie Infettive, Policlinico Piazza G. Cesare 11, 70124Bari (Italy).. Keywords:body mass index, diabetes, menopause, breast cancer. Abstract: Epidemiological data have suggested a possible relationship between obesity, diabetes mellitus and cancer risk, particularly breast cancer. We set out to investigate the effect of body mass index and diabetes mellitus on the presence of breast cancer in the Apulian population. We selected 1,663 women affected with primary breast cancer and 4,702 control patients. All patients with breast cancer underwent surgical excision of the tumor and their tumors were histologically confirmed. The prevalence of type 2 ...
Background: Obesity has been shown to be an indicator of poor prognosis for patients with primary breast cancer (BC) regardless of the use of adjuvant systemic therapy. Patients and methods: This is a retrospective analysis of 2,887 node-positive BC patients enrolled in the BIG 02-98 adjuvant study, a randomised phase III trial whose primary objective was to evaluate disease-free survival (DFS) by adding docetaxel to doxorubicin-based chemotherapy. In the current analysis, the effect of body mass index (BMI) on DFS and overall survival (OS) was assessed. BMI was obtained before the first cycle of chemotherapy. Obesity was defined as a BMI a parts per thousand yen 30 kg/mA(2). Results: In total, 547 (19%) patients were obese at baseline, while 2,340 (81%) patients were non-obese. Estimated 5-year OS was 87.5% for non-obese and 82.9% for obese patients (HR 1.34; P = 0.013). Estimated 5-years DFS was 75.9% for non-obese and 70.0% for obese patients (HR 1.20; P = 0.041). In a multivariate model, ...
This portfolio is an investigation into how the median Body Mass Index of a girl will change as she ages. Body Mass Index (BMI) is a comparison between a persons height (in meters) and weight (in kilograms) in order to determine whether one is overwei...
Math 30 IB Standard Level Body Mass Index Portfolio Assignment Words May 4th, 11 Pages This portfolio is an investigation into how the median Body Mass Index of a girl will change as she ages.
Objective: To estimate the relationship of Food Craving (FC) behavior with females Body Mass Index (BMI), and body-composition. Design, setting and participants: A cross-sectional study of 302 reproductive-age women from middle-socioeconomic class was conducted at the Health & Occupational-Environmental Laboratory. Variable Measures: A FC behavior questionnaire (FCQ) was designed and validated in 151 female subjects. This questionnaire evaluated five dimensions: FC-leisure, FC-psychological reactance, FC-depression, FC-anxiety/stress, and FC-anger. Dependent variables were Body Mass Index (BMI, kg/m2) and the body fat mass. Interventions: A second group of 151 women completed the FCQ. Anthropometrical variables were recorded using the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry procedure. Analysis: A multiple regression-analysis using STAT- ISTICS version 7 was performed to determine the relationship of FC behavior with anthropometrical variables described. Results: We demonstrated
If you are running health or weight loss related website based on Joomla and would like to have a body mass index calculator on your site, here is a free module that will do the job for you. The module will display the BMI based on the height and weight of the person, no age is required for this module. It works for woman and men, and also for children.. Unfortunately the current version support only metric units (kilograms and centimeters), but Im planning to add the possibility to switch to US units (feet, inches and pounds) as well.. The module will automatically calculate the body mass index with the power of jQuery and will display it without the need to hit any submit button, so your page will not reload when user use the module.. The body mass index calculator module does not has an included language file, however I designed it so user can change the name of the labels in the module parameters:. ...
This study aimed to examine the associations of body mass index (BMI) across adult life with cognitive function in 2,637 participants aged 60 years or over from NHANES 2011-2014. The primary outcome was a composite score based on test scores on word list learning, animal naming, and digit symbol substitution. Exposures of interest included BMI at age 25, BMI 10 years before the survey, BMI at the survey (current BMI), and BMI burden calculated from age 25 to age at survey. BMI at age 25 was inversely associated with the composite score (β=-0.0271±0.0130 per kg/m2, P=0.038) and positively with low cognitive performance (odd ratio=1.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.07, P=0.010), defined as below 20 percentile of the composite score. Similar results were observed for BMI 10 years before the survey and BMI burden. Current BMI was positively associated with the composite score (β=0.0369±0.0113, P=0.001) and inversely associated with low cognitive performance (odd ratio=0
Assessment of weight Related health Risks Assessment of weight and health risk involves using three key measures: Body mass index (BMI) Waist circumference Risk factors for diseases and conditions associated with obesity Body Mass Index (BMI) BMI is a useful measure of overweight and obesity. It is calculated from your height and…
Multiparity amongst women with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 Kg/m2 is a common occurrence despite there being a known clear association with a decline in fecundity in women who are overweight or obese. These women, also pose further concerns, as they are at increased risk of antenatal complications such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes. Over the years, a number of different modalities of fertility treatments have been tried and tested in this cohort of women to find the optimal treatment to improve their reproductive capacity. There has been an exponential increase in knowledge and understanding towards managing patients with a raised BMI, particularly through assisted reproductive treatments. Although the efficacies of various forms of fertility treatments have been shown to be affected by a rise in BMI, there is yet to be a definitive understanding as to the optimal management of these patients. The literature supports weight loss alone as an effective intervention in improving the
Reports on body mass index (BMI) trajectories from childhood into late adolescence, their determinants, and subsequent cardiometabolic risk markers, particularly among European populations have been few. Moreover, sex-specific investigation is necessary considering the sex difference in BMI, and the sex-specific association between BMI and some cardiometabolic risk markers. Using a sample from the DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed study, we explored sex-specific trajectories of the BMI standard deviation score (SDS) from 4 to 18 years of age in 354 males and 335 females by latent (class) growth models. The determinants of trajectory were assessed by logistic regression. We identified cardiometabolic risk markers that were highly associated with BMI SDS trajectory by random forest regression, and finally we used generalized linear models to investigate differences in the identified cardiometabolic risk markers between pairs of trajectories. We observed four: low-normal
Objective Genetic factors play an important role in modulating the vulnerability to body mass index (BMI). The purpose of this study is to identify novel genetic variants for BMI using genome-wide association (GWA) meta-analysis. Methods PLINK software was used to perform meta-analysis of two GWA studies (the FUSION and Marshfield samples) of 5218 Caucasian individuals with BMI. A replication study was conducted using the SAGE sample with 762 individuals. Results Through meta-analysis we identified 33 SNPs associated with BMI with p | 10− 4. The most significant association was observed with rs2967951 (p = 1.19 × 10− 6) at 5p15.2 within ROPN1L gene. Two additional SNPs within ROPN1L and 5 SNPs within MARCH6 (the top SNP was rs2607292 with 4.27 × 10− 6) further supported the association with BMI on 5p15.2 (p | 1.8 × 10− 5). Conditional analysis on 5p15.2 could not distinguish the effects of ROPN1L and MARCH6. Several SNPs within MARCH6 and ROPN1L were replicated in the SAGE sample (p | 0.05).
DEAR DR. DONOHUE: I lost my body mass index chart. My druggist told me to use the Internet to get another. One problem: Im a senior citizen with no computer. Will you be so kind as to send me a chart with the body mass index? - J.L. ANSWER: I dont have body mass index…
BMI CalculatorKnowing BMI can help adult men and women understand their overall health. Use the BMI calculator below to determine your body mass index by inputting your height and weight. Understanding your Body Mass IndexNow that you know your body mass index you are one step closer to masterin ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Body mass index misclassification due to kyphotic posture in Japanese community-dwelling adults aged 65 years and older. AU - Nishiwaki, Yuji. AU - Michikawa, Takehiro. AU - Eto, Norihito. AU - Takebayashi, Toru. PY - 2011/3. Y1 - 2011/3. N2 - Background: In older adults, kyphosis (slouching posture) can lead to underestimation of height, which may in turn lead to overestimation of body mass index (BMI). We investigated the extent to which inaccurate BMI assessments led to misclassification of elderly people as normal weight (when they were actually underweight) or overweight (actually normal weight). Methods: Anthropometric measurements were taken in 2005 and 2006 for 842 residents aged 65 years or older (women: 491; men: 351). We calculated BMI from measured height and weight (observed BMI) and then predicted BMI from height as determined by demi-span, which is unaffected by kyphosis (predicted BMI). Kyphosis was assessed by the number of blocks placed under the occiput ...
A recent concept is that obesity, assessed by body mass index (BMI), is not always a sign of poor health. Thus, in order to use obesity metrics in clinical decision making, it is important to clarify the relationship between waist circumference (WC), a proxy for abdominal obesity, and mortality. Data were used from 8,796,759 subjects aged between 30 and 90 years, who had participated in the Korea National Health Screening Examination between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2009 and survived at least 1 year post screening. Data from a mean follow-up time of an additional 5.3 years (time at risk) were analyzed for the relationship between WC and mortality according to age, sex, and BMI category. An increased WC of more than 90 cm in men and 85 cm in women showed a definite negative influence on mortality. However, the detailed relationship between WC and mortality was J-shaped or U-shaped according to age, sex, and BMI category. In the normal BMI group, the optimal WC range with the lowest mortality was
Maternal overweight and obesity are associated with adverse offspring outcome in later life. The causal biological effectors are uncertain. Postulating that initiating events may be alterations to infant body composition established in utero, we tested the hypothesis that neonatal adipose tissue (AT) content and distribution and liver lipid are influenced by maternal BMI. We studied 105 healthy mother-neonate pairs. We assessed infant AT compartments by whole body MR imaging and intrahepatocellular lipid content by 1H MR spectroscopy. Maternal BMI ranged from 16.7 to 36.0. With each unit increase in maternal BMI, having adjusted for infant sex and weight, there was an increase in infant total (8 mL; 95% CI, 0.09-14.0; p = 0.03), abdominal (2 mL; 95% CI, 0.7-4.0; p = 0.005), and nonabdominal (5 mL; 95% CI, 0.09-11.0; p = 0.054) AT, and having adjusted for infant sex and postnatal age, an increase of 8.6% (95% CI, 1.1-16.8; p = 0.03) in intrahepatocellular lipid. Infant abdominal AT and liver ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vascular Structure and Function in Women. Relationship with Body Mass Index. AU - Olson, Thomas P.. AU - Schmitz, Kathryn H.. AU - Leon, Arthur S.. AU - Dengel, Donald R.. PY - 2006/6/1. Y1 - 2006/6/1. N2 - Background: The purpose of the present study was to compare endothelial function in lean (body mass index [BMI] = 18.0-24.9 kg/m2); overweight (BMI = 25-29.9 kg/m2); and obese (BMI ,30 kg/m2), healthy, eumenorrheic women. Methods: Eighteen lean, 22 overweight, and 19 obese eumenorrheic middle-aged women were studied. Vascular structure and function were assessed via non-invasive ultrasound imaging of the carotid and brachial arteries. Body composition, blood pressure, fasting blood lipids, glucose, and insulin also were measured. Results: The groups demonstrated significantly (p,0.001) different mean values for total body, lean body, and fat masses. The obese group demonstrated significantly (p,0.05) elevated fasting glucose and insulin levels and lower high-density ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Determination of vitamin D in relation to body mass index and race in a defined population of black and white women. AU - Coney, Ponjola. AU - Demers, Laurence. AU - Dodson, William. AU - Kunselman, Allen. AU - Ladson, Gwinnett. AU - Legro, Richard. PY - 2012/1/1. Y1 - 2012/1/1. N2 - Objective: To examine the contributions of obesity and race to levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in a defined cohort of black and white women. Methods: An interventional study was conducted from October 2004 to March 2008, among 219 healthy female volunteers. Serum 25(OH)D and PTH levels were determined in 117 African American women and 102 white women and the results were compared with body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat, serum lipids, and PTH levels. Results: Black women had lower median levels of 25(OH)D compared with white women (27.3 nmol/L vs 52.4 nmol/L; P , 0.001). Serum levels of 25(OH)D below 50 nmol/L were found in 98% of black women and 45% of ...
A balanced diet is essential for maintaining a healthy body weight which can be assessed by calculating Body mass index (BMI).. The nutritionists achieved more understanding in obesity and other abnormal conditions by defining a new unit call Body Mass Index.. This BMI is body mass in Kg/square of height in meters.. It is highly correlated with body fat. Healthy people have a BMI of 20-25. BMI of 25-30 Overweight. BMI of ,30 are said to be obese and those with a BMI ,40 to be morbidly obese. Ref:- Pg:394; Text Book of Pharmacology by H.P.Rang & M.M.Dale; Fifth Edition. ...
In a study reported in JAMA Oncology, Islami et al assessed the population attributable fraction (PAF)-the proportion of a given outcome attributable to a given risk factor-of incident cancer cases associated with excess body weight among individual U.S. states during 2011 to 2015. The estimates ranged from 3.9% to 6.0% among men and 7.1% to 11.4% among women.. In the study, sex-, age-, and state-specific adjusted prevalence estimates for 4 high body mass index categories (25.0-29.9, 30.0-34.9, 35.0-39.9, and ≥ 40 kg/m2) and corresponding relative risks for cancer from large-scale pooled analyses or meta-analyses were used to compute the PAFs among adults 30 years or older in 2011 to 2015 for each U.S. state for esophageal adenocarcinoma; multiple myeloma; and cancers of the gastric cardia, colorectum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, female breast, corpus uteri, ovary, kidney/renal pelvis, and thyroid.. Proportions of Cases Attributable to Excess Body Weight. Each year, approximately 37,670 ...
Against a backdrop of rising levels of obesity, we describe and estimate associations of body mass index (BMI), age and gender with time to revision for participants undergoing primary total hip (THR) or knee (TKR) replacement in the UK.Population-based cohort study.Routinely collected primary care data from a representative sample of general practices, including linked data on all secondary care events.Population-based cohort study of 63 162 patients with THR and 54 276 with TKR in the UK General Practice Research Database between 1988 and 2011.Risk of THR and TKR revision associated with BMI, age and gender, after adjusting for the competing risk of death.The 5-year cumulative incidence rate for THR was 2.2% for men and 1.8% for women (TKR 2.3% for men, 1.6% for women). The adjusted overall subhazard ratio (SHR) for patients with THR undergoing subsequent hip revision surgery, with a competing risk of death, were estimated at 1.020 (95% CI 1.009 to 1.032) per additional unit (kg/m(2)) of BMI, 1.23 (95
TY - JOUR. T1 - Body mass index and lung cancer risk in women. AU - Kabat, Geoffrey C.. AU - Miller, Anthony B.. AU - Rohan, Thomas E.. PY - 2007/9. Y1 - 2007/9. N2 - BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested that leanness in adulthood may be a risk factor for lung cancer; however, there is justifiable concern that the observed association may be due to residual confounding by smoking, preclinical weight loss, competing causes of death, or some combination of these. METHODS: To examine this association we used data from the Canadian National Breast Screening Study, which included 89,835 women ages 40-59 years at recruitment between 1980 and 1985. During a mean of 16 years of follow-up, we observed 750 incident lung cancer cases. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between body mass index (BMI) and lung cancer. RESULTS: After adjustment for pack-years of smoking and other covariates, there was some evidence for inverse ...
Background: Obesity and its measure of body mass index are strongly determined by parental body size. Debate continues as to whether both parents contribute equally to offspring body mass which is key to understanding the aetiology of the disease. The aim of this study was to use cohort data from three generations of one family to examine the relative maternal and paternal associations with offspring body mass index and how these associations compare with family height to demonstrate evidence of genetic or environmental cross-generational transmission. Methods: 669 of 1082 families were followed up in 2007/8 as part of the Lifeways study, a prospective observational cross-generation linkage cohort. Height and weight were measured in 529 Irish children aged 5 to 7 years and were self-reported by parents and grandparents. All adults provided information on self-rated health, education status, and indicators of income, diet and physical activity. Associations between the weight, height, and body ...
The body mass index is a calculation of body fat based on weight and height standardized and specific to adult men and women. the bmi calculator will automatically calculate your body mass index.
The body mass index (BMI ), or Quetelet index, is a statistical measure of the weight of a person scaled according to height. BMI provides a reliable
Aim: Obesity is a prevalent condition associated with a heightened risk of cardiovascular disease. We assessed the association between normal weight, overweight, and obesity defined by body mass index (BMI) and cardiac structure and function in a sample of 4,845 older adults, aged 66-90 years.. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of ARIC cohort participants during visit 5 (2011-2013), excluding those with prevalent coronary heart disease, heart failure, or prior myocardial infarction, or race other than black or white. The sample was grouped into 3 categories: normal (n=1326, BMI ,25 kg/m2), overweight (n=1881, BMI 25-30 kg/m2), and obese (n=1638, BMI ≥30 kg/m2). Cardiac structure and function were assessed by 2D echocardiography by a core lab. Non-parametric trend, χ2 tests, linear, and logistic regression were used for this analysis. A two-sided p-value ,0.05 was considered significant.. Results: Participants who were obese were younger, more likely to be black, and had higher ...
Background : Declining levels of physical activity at workplaces, during leisure time and when travelling, accompanied by increasing exposure to the mass media, are major determinants of the global obesity epidemic. This study aimed to assess physical activity, the body mass index (BMI) and energy intake of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected and HIV-infected black women in Mangaung. Method : A random sample of 500 black women was selected in Mangaung. Physical activity levels, dietary intake and BMI were determined in younger and older women, aged 25-34 and 35-44 years, respectively. Results : Of the 488 women who qualified for participation, 61% of the younger women and 38% of the older women were HIV-infected. Low physical activity levels were reported in most women, and more than 50% were overweight or obese. The BMI of HIV-infected younger women with low physical activity levels (24.9 kg/m2) was significantly lower than that of the HIV-uninfected younger women (27.2 kg/m2) (p-value 0.02).
TY - JOUR. T1 - Body mass index-related mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and heterogeneity in obesity paradox studies. T2 - A dose-response meta-analysis. AU - Kwon, Yeongkeun. AU - Kim, Hyun Jung. AU - Park, Sungsoo. AU - Park, Yong Gyu. AU - Cho, Kyung-Hwan. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - Objective We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies to quantify the association between body mass index (BMI) and the risks of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods We included studies assessing the impact of BMI on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Data were combined using a random-effects dose-response model. Results Sixteen cohort studies on all-cause mortality (n = 445,125) and two studies on cardiovascular mortality (n = 92,841) were evaluated in the meta-analysis. A non-linear association was observed between BMI and all-cause mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes. With a BMI nadir ...
Obesity is a serious international health problem that increases the risk of several common diseases. The genetic factors predisposing to obesity are poorly understood. A genome-wide search for type 2 diabetes-susceptibility genes identified a common variant in the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene that predisposes to diabetes through an effect on body mass index (BMI). An additive association of the variant with BMI was replicated in 13 cohorts with 38,759 participants. The 16% of adults who are homozygous for the risk allele weighed about 3 kilograms more and had 1.67-fold increased odds of obesity when compared with those not inheriting a risk allele. This association was observed from age 7 years upward and reflects a specific increase in fat mass.
Purpose This study was designed to study the interaction of sex and BMI on ventilatory functions in Egyptian school children. Design A cross-sectional study among the school children aged 8-12 years. Patients and methods Two hundred and nineteen normal children of both sexes (118 boys and 101 girls), their ages ranged between 8 and 12 years, were selected from one of the Egyptian governmental primary schools, Educational Administration, East Cairo, participated in this study. They were divided into two groups based on their BMI (low BMI 115 and normal BMI 104 consequently). Then each group was subdivided according to the sex (67 boys and 48 girls for low BMI subgroup while in normal BMI subgroup 51 boys and 53 girls were included). Anthropometric measurements were used to calculate the BMI. Ventilatory functions were measured using a spirometer. Results The results revealed statistically significant interaction between the effect of sex and BMI on forced vital capacity (P≤0.0001), forced ...
This web page allows you to calculate the body mass index (BMI) of your patients between the ages of 2 and 20 years, as well as the exact BMI percentile and z-score (standard deviation), based on the Center for Disease Control (CDC) growth charts. Z-scores are particularly useful to monitor changes in patients with a BMI above the 99th percentile or below the 1st percentile.. All fields are required. Please enter a value for every field. The default unit values are kg and cm.. ...
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Body mass index (BMI) is measured as a persons weight in kilograms (kg) divided by her height (in meters), squared. The WHO define a BMI |=18.5 as underweight; 18.5 to |25 as normal/healthy; 25.0 to |30 as overweight; and |30.0 as obese.
BACKGROUND: To investigate the relationship between adiposity and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in normal weight individuals. METHODS: The study subjects were those over 19 years old, less than 23 kg/m2 of body mass index (BMI). They were examined in a health promotion center of a general hospital from June to November, 2001 (309 men and 369 women). Height, weight, BMI, blood pressure (BP), serum lipids and fasting blood glucose (FBS) were checked. Percent body percent (%BF) was obtained by bioelectrical method. Normal weight subjects were divided into two groups according to their %BF; then, the groups were evaluated for the presence of CVD risk factors. RESULTS: The average age of the study subjects was 43.66+/-11.26 years old in men and 41.11+/-10.90 years old in women. The average BMI was 21.15+/-1.47 kg/m2 in men and 20.68+/-1.53 kg/m2 in women. High %BF group showed significantly increased frequency of higher BP, FBS, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and ...
Objective To investigate the distribution profile of body mass index (BMI) in children aged from 7~13 years old in Tongling city.Methods Two primary schools in Tongling urban area were randomly selected by the method of cluster sampling, 3 076 students aged from 7~13 years old body weight and height were measured, BMI was calculated by one year interval from age 7 to 13 years old and its distribution pattern was compared with the Chinese BMI norm.Results All the BMI values of means, medians and percentiles of male children were significantly higher than those of female. And BMI values increased gradually with age. The BMI norm was established composed by cut- off points of P85 for overweight and P95 for obesity for Tongling children. Compared with the Chinese BMI norm, P85 and P95 were lower for Tongling male and female children aged from 7 to 13.Conclusion The BMI distribution characteristics of Tongling children aged from 7 to 13 are different from the Chinese BMI charts. New established BMI
In 1998, the federal government developed the body mass index (BMI) to determine ideal weights. Body mass index is calculated as 703 times the weight in pounds divided by the square of the height in inches, the obtained number is then rounded to the nearest whole number (Hint: 23.5 will be rounded to 24; 23.1…
Found out why a healthy weight range important and how to calculate your bmi. Understanding your healthy weight: body mass index (bmi) and waist.
Having a healthy weight is good for your wellbeing and helping to reduce the risk of diseases. You can use the Body Mass Index (BMI) calculator to work out if youre underweight, overweight or at an ideal weight for your height. The BMI calculator is a useful online tool but keep in mind that it can be influenced by gender, age and ethnicity.
... is a measure of body weight relative to height. BMI can be used to determine if people are at a healthy weight, overweight, or obese.
One of the biggest questions guys and girls have as they grow and develop is whether theyre the right weight. One place to start is by learning about body mass index, or BMI, a calculation that estimates how much body fat a person has based on his or her weight and height.. BMI can help doctors identify people who are overweight and at risk of developing medical problems like high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and diabetes. Doctors can monitor that persons weight and make recommendations about healthy eating and exercise.. Our BMI calculator can help you find out what your BMI is. When you get your results, its a good idea to ask a doctor or health professional to help you figure out what they mean. Thats because BMI is not perfect. For example, its very common for teens to gain weight quickly - and see their BMI go up - during puberty. Those changes may be a normal part of development (for example, someone with a large frame or lots of muscle can have a high BMI). Or, the changes can ...
One of the biggest questions guys and girls have as they grow and develop is whether theyre the right weight. One place to start is by learning about body mass index, or BMI, a calculation that estimates how much body fat a person has based on his or her weight and height.. BMI can help doctors identify people who are overweight and at risk of developing medical problems like high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and diabetes. Doctors can monitor that persons weight and make recommendations about healthy eating and exercise.. Our BMI calculator can help you find out what your BMI is. When you get your results, its a good idea to ask a doctor or health professional to help you figure out what they mean. Thats because BMI is not perfect. For example, its very common for teens to gain weight quickly - and see their BMI go up - during puberty. Those changes may be a normal part of development (for example, someone with a large frame or lots of muscle can have a high BMI.) Or, the changes can ...
Have you ever wondered who lives longer: vegans or meat-eaters? Get ready because were about to answer the eternal question of whats the ideal diet for a longer life. 9. Body Mass Index The body mass index or BMI is a value defined as the body mass divided by the square of the body height […]. ...
Background: To examine the association of education with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Method: This study included 141,230 male and 336,637 female EPIC-participants, who were recruited between 1992 and 2000. Education, which was assessed by questionnaire, was classified into four categories; BMI and WC, measured by trained personnel in most participating centers, were modeled as continuous dependent variables. Associations were estimated using multilevel mixed effects linear regression models. Results: Compared with the lowest education level, BMI and WC were significantly lower for all three higher education categories, which was consistent for all countries. Women with university degree had a 2.1 kg/m(2) lower BMI compared with women with lowest education level. For men, a statistically significant, but less pronounced difference was observed (1.3 kg/m(2)). The association between WC and education ...
Rummo, Pasquale E.; Guilkey, David K.; Ng, Shu Wen; Meyer, Katie A.; Popkin, Barry M.; Reis, Jared P.; Shikany, James M.; & Gordon-Larsen, Penny. (2017). Does Unmeasured Confounding Influence Associations between the Food Environment and Body Mass Index over Time? The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. International Journal of Epidemiology, 46(5), 1456-64. PMCID: PMC Journal - In Process
Use this Tool to calculate your Body Mass Index (BMI), to determine if you are Overweight or not. Get Diet Product suggestions for your Body Type.
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... is a calculation that uses your height and weight to estimate how much body fat you have. BMI, although not a perfect method for judging someones weight, is often a good way to check on how a kid is growing.
... is a calculation that uses your height and weight to estimate how much body fat you have. BMI, although not a perfect method for judging someones weight, is often a good way to check on how a kid is growing.
... is a calculation that uses your height and weight to estimate how much body fat you have. BMI, although not a perfect method for judging someones weight, is often a good way to check on how a kid is growing.
Aim: To examine the relationship between reported vigorous physical activity (VPA) and body mass index (BMI) in children (6-7 years) and adolescents (13-14 years). Methods: In the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Phase Three, 75 895 childrens parents and 199 502 adolescents answered questions relating to VPA, height and weight. The association between VPA and BMI was analysed using general linear models, adjusting for country gross national index. Results: Compared to children who undertook no VPA, those in the infrequent group (once or twice per week) and those in the frequent group (three or more times per week) had mean (95% CI) BMI values 0.07 kg/m 2 (0.03-0.11) and 0.09 kg/m 2 (0.03-0.15) greater, respectively (p = 0.001). Compared to adolescents reporting no VPA, those in the infrequent group had a BMI 0.19 kg/m 2 (0.15-0.23) greater while those in the frequent group had a BMI 0.01 kg/m 2 (−0.03-0.05) greater (p , 0.0001). Conclusion: Reported VPA is not ...
Doctors use body mass index (BMI) measurements to assess a childs physical growth in relation to other kids the same age. Heres how to calculate BMI and understand what the numbers mean.
Body Mass Index BMI Calculator is a useful tool for assessing overweight. It is a simple indicator of the relationship between your height and your weight.
Calculate your Body Mass Index (BMI), which is an indication of whether you are underweight, overweight, or within recommended weight.
Kendall to Participate in NYS Department of Health BMI Survey. Each year, a sample of school districts across the state are selected to take part in a survey by the NYS Department of Health that involves reporting a summary of students weight status categories. As part of a required school health examination, a student is weighed, and his/her height is measured by the school nurse. These numbers are used to compute the students body mass index or BMI. The BMI helps the doctor or nurse know if the students weight is in a healthy range, is too high or too low. No names or information about individual students are sent. The information submitted to the NYS Department of Health is used to develop programs that promote health in children.. In 2018, Kendall was selected to take part in this survey. Parents have the option to exclude their childs weight status group information from the survey if they wish. If you do not want your childs weight status group information included in the report we ...
Great for fitness tracking, this 100-sheet tear pad provides body mass index (BMI) for adults 20 & older. Also explains BMI classifications & limitations.
A total of 851 patients were enrolled; however, 22 patients were excluded for missing data on height and/or weight, leaving 829 (57% female, mean age 49 years, and 40% were white). The median BMI was 29.9 kg/m2, and the mean BMI was 31.0 kg/m2 (standard deviation 8.12 kg/m2). The overall rate of diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome within 90 days was 2.8% (0.0%, 3.0%, 4.9%, 2.3%, and 0.0% for underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese patients, respectively). The overall rate of diagnosis of pulmonary embolism within 90 days was 1.7% (0.0%, 1.2%, 0.4%, 3.1%, and 1.9% for underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese patients, respectively). Morbidly obese patients without computed tomographic (CT) scanning stayed in the hospital 34% longer than normal weight patients (p = 0.073), and morbidly obese patients with CT scanning stayed in the hospital 44% longer than normal weight patients (p = 0.083). BMI was not a significant predictor of radiation ...
Use the Body Mass Index (BMI) Calculator to determine how healthy are you? BMI reading is the first level of assessment of your health.
Assessing childrens weight using body mass index may mean that the obesity epidemic is being underestimated, said The Daily Telegraph. Body mass index, or BMI, looks at how appropriate a persons weight is...
Body Mass Index (BMI) is a figure derived from an equation used by specialists to determine whether or not a person lies within a healthy weight range.
The structural relationships between body mass index, perceived health and happiness have been studied in a survey of 700 native Dutch citizens. We found an indirect effect of body mass index on happiness, via perceived health. Age had an inverted U-shaped relationship with body mass index, and both education and smoking had a negative effect on body mass index. Being married, doing paid work, owning a house, and doing sports had positive effects on perceived health, suggesting that living a regular life may lead to a better perceived health. Being married positively affected happiness. The other socio-demographic variables either had no effects on happiness or indirect effects via body mass index and perceived health ...
Increased body mass index has emerged as a potential risk factor for pancreatic cancer. The authors examined whether the association between body mass index and pancreatic cancer was modified by gender, smoking, and diabetes in residents of southeastern Michigan, 1996-1999. A total of 231 patients with newly diagnosed adenocarcinoma of the exocrine pancreas were compared with 388 general population controls. In-person interviews were conducted to ascertain information on demographic and lifestyle factors. Unconditional logistic regression models estimated the association between body mass index and pancreatic cancer. Males risk for pancreatic cancer significantly increased with increasing body mass index (ptrend = 0.048), while no relation was found for women (ptrend = 0.37). Among nonsmokers, those in the highest category of body mass index were 3.3 times (95% confidence interval: 1.2, 9.2) more likely to have pancreatic cancer compared with those with low body mass index. In contrast, no ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Combined values of serum albumin, C-reactive protein and body mass index at dialysis initiation accurately predicts long-term mortality. AU - Takahashi, Ryo. AU - Ito, Yasuhiko. AU - Takahashi, Hiroshi. AU - Ishii, Hideki. AU - Kasuga, Hirotake. AU - Mizuno, Masashi. AU - Suzuki, Yasuhiro. AU - Yuzawa, Yukio. AU - Maruyama, Shoichi. AU - Murohara, Toyoaki. AU - Imai, Enyu. AU - Matsuo, Seiichi. PY - 2012/8/1. Y1 - 2012/8/1. N2 - Background: Protein-energy wasting and chronic inflammation are prevalent in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We investigated the combination of serum albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and body mass index (BMI) at initiation of hemodialysis therapy as a predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in Japanese ESRD patients. Methods: A total of 1,228 consecutive Japanese ESRD patients on hemodialysis therapy were enrolled and followed for up to 10 years. Patients were divided into quartiles according to levels of albumin, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Associations of the pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with pregnancy outcomes in Taiwanese women. AU - Tsai, I. Hsien. AU - Chen, Chih Ping. AU - Sun, Fang Ju. AU - Wu, Chia Hsun. AU - Yeh, Sung Ling. PY - 2012/3. Y1 - 2012/3. N2 - Background: Pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain (GWG) are important factors in both maternal and infant outcomes. Little information is available in relation to different levels of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and body weight gain on obstetric outcomes in Taiwan. This study investigated the associations between pregnancy complications with pre-pregnant BMI and GWG, in Taiwanese women. Methods: Data were extracted from a delivery room information bank on all women delivering singleton babies in a medical center. Eight hundred and sixty pregnant women were included. The collected variables included basic information, GWG, and pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Pregnant women were categorized according to their ...
The skeletal system is considered an endocrine organ today. Associations between bone Gla proteins, body mass index and insulin resistance are intriguing novel field due to being possible explanations for the interactions between bone and endocrine system. The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations between insulin resistance and body mass index (BMI) with plasma osteocalcin, phylloquinone levels and dietary vitamin K intakes in healthy non-obese adults. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 77 healthy non-obese adults. Anthropometric measurements and 24-hour food consumption record were taken from each individual. Blood glucose, insulin, osteocalcin (OC), undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC), vitamin K levels were analyzed. The homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) value was calculated. Multiple linear regression models were performed using the backward method in order to determine the significant predictors of BMI and HOMA-IR. Mean age and ...
We sought to investigate the thickness of plantar fascia, measured by means of ultrasonographic evaluation in healthy, asymptomatic subjects, and its relationship to body mass index, ankle joint dorsiflexion range of motion, and foot pronation in static stance. One hundred two feet of 51 healthy volunteers were examined. Sonographic evaluation with a 10-MHz linear array transducer was performed 1 and 2 cm distal to its insertion. Physical examination was also performed to assess body mass index, ankle joint dorsiflexion, and degree of foot pronation in static stance. Both examinations were performed in a blinded manner. Body mass index showed moderate correlation with plantar fascia thickness at the 1- and 2-cm locations. Ankle dorsiflexion range of motion showed no correlation at either location. Foot pronation showed an inverse correlation with plantar fascia thickness at the 2-cm location and no correlation at the 1-cm location. In conclusion, body mass index and foot supination at the ...
Background: In obese patients, total hip arthroplasty (THA) can be technically demanding with increased perioperative risks. The aim of this prospective cohort study is to evaluate the effect of body mass index (BMI) on radiological restoration of femoral offset (FO) and leg length as well as acetabular cup positioning.. Methods: In this prospective study, patients with unilateral primary osteoarthritis (OA) treated with THA between September 2010 and December 2013 were considered for inclusion. The perioperative plain radiographs were standardised and used to measure the preoperative degree of hip osteoarthritis, postoperative FO, leg length discrepancy (LLD), acetabular component inclination and anteversion.. Results: We included 213 patients (74.5% of those considered for inclusion) with a mean BMI of 27.7 (SD 4.5) in the final analysis. The postoperative FO was improper in 55% and the LLD in 15%, while the cup inclination and anteversion were improper in 13 and 23% of patients respectively. ...
Both sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake and body mass index (BMI) are associated with elevated serum urate concentrations and gout risk. The aim of this study was to determine whether the associations of SSB intake with serum urate and gout are moderated by BMI. The effects of chronic SSB intake on serum urate and gout status were analysed in a large cross-sectional population study. The effects of an acute fructose load on serum urate and fractional excretion of uric acid (FEUA) were examined over 180 minutes in a short-term intervention study. In all analyses, the responses were compared in those with BMI |25 mg/kg2 (low BMI) and ≥25 mg/kg2 (high BMI). In the serum urate analysis (n = 12,870), chronic SSB intake was associated with increased serum urate in the high BMI group, but not in the low BMI group (P difference = 3.6 × 10−3). In the gout analysis (n = 2578), chronic high SSB intake was associated with gout in the high BMI group, but not in the low BMI group (P
TY - JOUR. T1 - Correlation between orbital volume, body mass index, and eyeball position in healthy East Asians. AU - Yoo, Jun Ho. AU - Lee, Young Hen. AU - Lee, Hwa. AU - Kim, Jung Wan. AU - Chang, Minwook. AU - Park, Minsoo. AU - Baek, Se Hyun. PY - 2013/5/1. Y1 - 2013/5/1. N2 - PURPOSE: The objectives of this study were measure the orbital volume of healthy Koreans and analyze the differences between orbital tissue volume with respect to age and sex and to assess any correlation between body mass index (BMI), eyeball position, and orbital volume. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the scan results of patients who had undergone orbital computed tomography scans between November 2010 and November 2011. We assessed the scan results of 184 orbits in 92 adults who had no pathology of the orbit. The individuals were classified into 3 groups with respect to age. Orbital volume, effective orbital volume (defined as the difference between orbital and eyeball volume), extraocular muscle volume, ...
... body mass index; presence or absence of diabetes mellitus; ability to function according to the NYHA scale; percentage of ...
Body mass index for adults. [www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/body-mass-index-bmi-for-adults] "Gastric Bypass Surgery Roux En-Y". ... the body mass index (BMI). The BMI is defined as the body weight (in kilograms), divided by the square of the height (in meters ... The operation is prescribed to treat morbid obesity (defined as a body mass index greater than 40), type 2 diabetes, ... A growing body of evidence suggests that profound changes in body weight and metabolism resulting from RYGB cannot be explained ...
There are two differences, however: the IDF definition states that if body mass index (BMI) is greater than 30 kg/m2, central ... or body mass index > 30 kg/m2 Microalbuminuria: urinary albumin excretion ratio ≥ 20 µg/min or albumin:creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg ... Jean Vague, in 1947, observed that upper body obesity appeared to predispose to diabetes, atherosclerosis, gout and calculi. ... "Is higher dairy consumption associated with lower body weight and fewer metabolic disturbances? The Hoorn Study". The American ...
At the time of her death she had a body mass index (BMI) of just 14.5. She weighed 44 kg (96.8 lbs) at a height of 1.75 m (5 ft ... "Global Database on Body Mass Index". World Health Organization. Retrieved 13 November 2012. "Italian fashion designers ban size ...
Young was listed at 6 feet 5 inches (1.96 m) and 372 pounds (169 kg), giving him a Body Mass Index of 38.2 (over 30 is ... "BMI Classification". Global Database on Body Mass Index. World Health Organization. 2006. Retrieved July 27, 2012. Clair, ...
The Body Mass Index is used to decipher an individuals excess body weight but not their excess body fat. In this way the ... Body Mass Index (BMI) is a common and useful measurement of body fat that helps individuals understand the difference between ... Individuals who have a Body Mass Index (BMI) that is equal to or greater than 25 kg/m2 are also said to have an increased ... The system can be used to calculate a persons Body Mass Index (BMI) by dividing their weight (in kilograms) by the square of ...
Body mass index (BMI) greater than 40. One spouse must have stable employment. The family's annual income must be $10,000 per ...
There is evidence that vegetarians tend to have a lower body mass index, lower risk of obesity, lower blood cholesterol levels ... Vegetarians generally have a lower body mass index. These characteristics and other lifestyle factors associated with a ... Tonstad, S.; Butler, T.; Yan, R.; Fraser, G. E. (2009). "Type of Vegetarian Diet, Body Weight, and Prevalence of Type 2 ...
A health app for calculating the body mass index. Available on Symbian and Nokia Asha and S40 phones. Derivatives and Integrals ...
If details about the patient's body mass index (size); core temp, Systolic, diastolic, central venous pressure CVP (measured ... Justification for its continued use rests on a large body of clinical experience, disadvantages of other cardiac output ... in order to maximize oxygen for delivery to the body tissues. The ability to record results is not a guarantee of patient ... the mixed venous oxygen saturation is an accurate parameter of total body blood flow and therefore cardiac output. The ...
At the time of his death, he weighed 798 lb (362 kg; 57.0 st) with a Body Mass Index of 105.3. Obesity "Jon Brower Minnoch - ... Robert Schwartz that over 900 lbs (408 kg) of his overall body mass was retained fluid. Transportation for Minnoch was ... "Human Body/Extreme Bodies/Heaviest Man". Guinness World Records. Archived from the original on 2006-09-03. Retrieved 2008-10-28 ... "Human Body/Extreme Bodies/Greatest Weight Loss". Guinness World Records. Archived from the original on 2006-09-01. Retrieved ...
Higher body mass index is correlated with earlier puberty. See American and British English spelling differences. Gynecology is ... A mass in the inguinal area may be a hernia or may be a testis in an intersex child. The vaginal mucosa in prepubertal children ... An abnormal mass in a child's developing breast or early development of breast tissue may prompt concern. Neonates can have ... In older children, cystic ovarian masses may cause a visible change in body shape, chronic pain, and precocious puberty; ...
In fact, her body mass index was 16.29 (BMIs ... Kirsten continued to travel and speak on body-image issues and ...
Childhood obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) at or above the 96th percentile for children of the same age and sex. ... There is an association between the amount of time a mother works and her child's body mass index (BMI). There is evidence that ... and children's body mass index". Child Dev. 82: 66-81. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01541.x. PMC 3070422 . PMID 21291429. ... "Self regulation skills in toddlers were associated with body mass index development and pediatric obesity eight years later. ...
Body Mass Index (BMI) Now Available for Parents". Pennsylvania Department of Education (2013). "Disclosure of Interscholastic ...
Subjects defined as TOFI with body mass index (BMI) ...
List of countries by Body Mass Index (BMI) Downsize Me! "Obesity - Social Report 2008". Ministry of Social Development. 1 June ...
Body Mass Index (BMI): proxy for true body fat percentage; years of education and/or GPA: proxy for cognitive ability; ...
"DNA methylation and body-mass index: a genome-wide analysis". Lancet. 383 (9933): 1990-1998. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62674-4 ... Maynard MA, Evans AJ, Hosomi T, Hara S, Jewett MA, Ohh M (2006). "Human HIF-3alpha4 is a dominant-negative regulator of HIF-1 ... Maynard MA, Qi H, Chung J, Lee EH, Kondo Y, Hara S, Conaway RC, Conaway JW, Ohh M (2003). "Multiple splice variants of the ...
... body mass index > 25) History of gestational diabetes or infant born with birth weight greater than 9 lb (4 kg) High risk ... Body Mass Index) result Family history of diabetes Cardiovascular disease Increased triglycerides levels Low levels of good ... The ADA guidelines recommend modest weight loss (5-10% body weight), moderate-intensity exercise (30 minutes daily), and ... uptake and utilization of glucose by the peripheral tissues of the body, and insulin secretion by the pancreatic beta islet ...
"Body Mass Index and the Risk of Stroke in Men". Beydoun, MA; Beydoun, HA; Wang, Y (May 2008). "Obesity and central obesity as ... They contend that some people are naturally a larger body type, and that in some cases losing a large amount of weight could in ... She does, however, note that it is possible to have healthy behaviours that provide health benefits at a wide variety of body ... This may reflect the loss of subcutaneous fat and beneficial mass from organs and muscle in addition to visceral fat when there ...
According to body mass index's criteria, no patient was emaciated. Schenck and Mahowald said, "virtually all patients had ... accurate non-distorted appraisals of their body size, shape, and weight. Furthermore, unlike the patients in Stunkard's series ...
Increasing the average body mass index from what is now considered underweight to what is now the normal range played a ... It is defined by body mass index (BMI) and further evaluated in terms of fat distribution via the waist-hip ratio and total ... NHLBI p.xiv Gray DS, Fujioka K (1991). "Use of relative weight and Body Mass Index for the determination of adiposity". J Clin ... "Body-mass index and all-cause mortality: individual-participant-data meta-analysis of 239 prospective studies in four ...
It further postulates that normal to low body mass index or normal values of cholesterol may be detrimental and associated with ... Prospective Studies Collaboration (2009). "Body-mass index and cause-specific mortality in 900 000 adults: collaborative ... those with a body mass index between 30.0-34.9 had lower mortality than those with what would normally be considered an ideal ... "Body mass index and mortality in heart failure: A meta-analysis". American Heart Journal. 156 (1): 13-22. doi:10.1016/j.ahj. ...
... and body mass index in adulthood". International Journal of Obesity. 34 (9): 1442-1445. doi:10.1038/ijo.2010.72. Shakory, ... with one study demonstrating a relationship with higher body mass index and another demonstrating a higher risk for metabolic ... There is a substantial body of literature that supports an association between adult insecure attachment and a wide variety of ...
Stets, K.; Koehler, S.; Bronson, W.; Bronson, M. (June 2010). "Weight and Body Mass Index Change after Total Joint Arthroplasty ... in orthopedic surgery at Lenox Hill Hospital and in pediatric orthopedics at Children's Hospital Boston in Massachusetts. He ...
Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-01197-2.. External links[edit]. Wikimedia Commons has media related to ... There is a large body of literature regarding how different currents interact with geometric properties of neurons.[21] ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Computational_neuroscience&oldid=872350151" ... Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-19291-8.. *^ Bower, James M. (2013). 20 years of Computational neuroscience. Berlin, ...
"Mean Body Mass Index trends (kg/m2), ages 18+, 2010-2014". World Health Organisation. Retrieved 25 February 2016. Rosenthal, ... Source: Forbes.com List of countries by Body Mass Index (BMI) "Prevalence of obesity, ages 18+, 2010-2014". World Health ... were clinically obese with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or greater. The data showed the incidence of obesity in French women ...
T1 - Pre‐pregnancy body mass index is associated with dietary inflammatory index and C‐reactive protein concentrations during ... Pre‐pregnancy body mass index is associated with dietary inflammatory index and C‐reactive protein concentrations during ... Pre‐pregnancy body mass index is associated with dietary inflammatory index and C‐reactive protein concentrations during ... Pre‐pregnancy body mass index is associated with dietary inflammatory index and C‐reactive protein concentrations during ...
BMI can be used as a screening tool but is not diagnostic of the body fatness or health of an individual. Learn more. ... Beyond body mass index. Obes. Rev., 2(3), pp.141-7.. 13Wagner, D.R. & Heyward, V.H., 2000. Measures of body composition in ... Body mass index (BMI) is a persons weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters. BMI is an inexpensive and ... 18Bhaskaran K, Douglas I, Forbes H, dos-Santos-Silva I, Leon DA, Smeeth L. Body-mass index and risk of 22 specific cancers: a ...
Allometry Body adiposity index Body Shape Index Body volume index Body water Corpulence index List of countries by Body Mass ... The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of an individual. The BMI is ... "body mass index" (BMI) for the ratio of human body weight to squared height was coined in a paper published in the July 1972 ... "BMI: is the body mass index formula flawed?". Medical News Today. Archived from the original on 2015-07-23. "BMI Not a Good ...
One place to start is by learning about body mass index, or BMI. ... Body Mass Index (BMI). Resources. Please Note: By clicking a ...
... is a calculation that uses your height and weight to estimate how much body fat you have. BMI, although not a perfect method ... your body mass index (BMI) is pretty darn important (PDI).. Did you know you had a BMI? Body mass index is a calculation that ... A more muscular kid might have a higher weight and BMI but not have too much body fat. A smaller kid could have an ideal BMI, ... Too much body fat is a problem because it can lead to illnesses and other health problems. ...
Body Mass Index (BMI) is a persons weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters. A high BMI can be an ... Adult Body Mass Index Calculator Widget. Add this widget to your Web site to let anyone calculate their BMI. BMI provides a ... How Do I Interpret Body Mass Index Information?. *About BMI for Adults. Information about BMI and interpreting this number for ... This Excel spreadsheet can be used by school, child care, and other professionals who want to compute Body Mass Index (BMI)-for ...
Mean body mass index (BMI) provides a simplified measure of the comparative weight of populations on a country by country basis ... list of countries by adult mean body weight and incidence of obese and overweight populations as calculated by body mass index ... BMI calculates a persons mass (weight) divided by the square of their height. An individual with a BMI of 25 kg/m2 or more is ... Mean data highlights the central tendency of the population data and is but one method of calculating relative body weight ...
... N/A , 07/15/13 , fwdude Posted on 07/15/2013 9:39:52 AM PDT by fwdude ... and have revisited the health measure called Body Mass Index (BMI.) Just needing the input from some of you who agree or ... In extended times of unrest, a little extra body fat can carry you through lean times on limited food. A little extra body fat ... BMI = mass(lbs)/height²(in.) x 703 The interpretation charts follows: BMI below 18.5 is underweight, from 18.5-24.9 is normal, ...
In people with diabetes, fat mass index, not body mass index, is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular events, ... A new study on the cognitive and emotional functioning of people with a high body mass index (BMI), which was published in the ... Fat mass index, not BMI, linked to higher risk of cardiovascular events in diabetic patients ... Weight gain during adulthood has been tied to increased cancer risk, but there is a little body of knowledge that has ...
En Español , Your body mass index (BMI) is an estimate of your body fat that is based on your height and weight. Doctors use ... Calculate Your Body Mass Index. Your BMI can tell you whether youre carrying too much, too little or just the right amount of ... For instance, BMI may underestimate body fat in an older person who has lost muscle tone.). If you have questions or concerns ...
body mass index BMI is short for body mass index, a numerical value of weight relative to height. BMIs are good indicators of ... healthy or unhealthy weights for adults, regardless of body frame size. A BMI of less than 25 indicates a healthy weight. A BMI ...
... BMI = Weight in KG / Height (in meters) My BMI Result:. Weight: 75 kg. Height: 1.7 meters. My BMI = 74/ ... Body mass index does not take into account your muscle to fat ratio and as muscle is more dense and heavy then fat, you could ... View Poll Results: Your body mass index. Voters. 19. You may not vote on this poll. ... BMI is a blunt instrument anyway, since it doesnt consider muscle mass vs body fat etc.. The only reliable way to lose weight ...
How to calculate Body Mass Index. Body Mass Index is a simple calculation using a persons height and weight. The formula is ... Those with a higher muscle mass, such as athletes, may have a high BMI but not be at greater health risk. Those with a lower ... muscle mass, such as children who have not completed their growth or the elderly who may be losing some muscle mass may have a ... During pregnancy and lactation, a womans body composition changes, so using BMI is not appropriate. ...
... October 17, 2013. To know your Body Mass Index (BMI), please tell us your height ( ... Different body types, ages and other circumstances can have influence in the result. Results for children should be compared to ...
A recent report suggests that body-mass index (BMI)-a metric commonly used in wellness programs-might not be the best indicator ... However, the actual-to-expected cost ratio is much more consistent if we use the Rohrers Index, Shreve says. This ... Research suggests that other metrics, such as the Rohrers Index (RI), better coincide with medical claim costs. ...
Body Mass Index (BMI) News and Research. RSS Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure that relates body weight to height. BMI is ... Simple way to measure abdominal obesity index In obesity research, the body mass index has been traditionally used to determine ... Elevated body mass index - a measure of weight accounting for a persons height - has been shown to be a likely causal ... Higher body mass index could cause depression even without health problems A largescale genomic analysis has found the ...
but was part of the initiative called Healthy Schools. sugar (school C). body mass index (BMI) and other adiposity indices ... multiple factors that contribute to the rising obesity Body mass index. 2000. Baranowski J. 39: 24-30. Edigraf. Parhofer KG. ... Vio F. Berry C. Summerbell C. Res Q Exerc Sport index. Public Health Nutr 2002. Waters E. Vio F. Med Sci Sports Exe 1983. ... Predicting body composition from anthropometry in pre- adolescent children. Garcia F. Research Protocol 37 Garcia A. Morgese G ...
One place to start is by learning about body mass index, or BMI, a calculation that estimates how much body fat a person has ... Body Mass Index (BMI). One of the biggest questions guys and girls have as they grow and develop is whether theyre the right ...
... an index for assessing overweight and underweight, obtained by dividing body weight in kilograms by height in meters squared: a ... body mass index, body mechanics, body mike, body modification, body of christ, body of stomach ... body fluid, body horror, body image, body language, body louse, .css-4kjeik{font-size:20px;color:#1a1a1a;line-height:23px;}. ... A measurement of the relative percentages of fat and muscle mass in the human body, in which mass in kilograms is divided by ...
Peak bone mass is not achieved until about the age of 25 years. The development of the pelvic birth canal is slower than that ... Low adult body weights may not only reflect the effects of recurrent infection, but a combination of problems of food ... Yet data on those with a low body weight is limited. To obtain comparable data on the risks of general ill health and specific ... These sex differences in the BMI value for survival may prove to be important and may relate to the greater body reserves of ...
Impact of multiple food environments on body mass index.. Dornelles A1. ... the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and multiple food environments have not been fully explored. We examined the ...
Free Body Mass Index (BMI) Calculator to find your ideal weight! Use this Free Body Mass Index (BMI)... ... Body Mass Index Calc - BMI: Android app (4.1 ★, 1,000+ downloads) → ... Standard Body Mass Index. Calculator,English BMI Calculator,English Body Mass Index Calculator,Children Body Mass Index. ... Standard Body Mass Index. Calculator,English BMI Calculator,English Body Mass Index Calculator,Children Body Mass Index. ...
The body mass that scientists are using it to look for will change the way you think about index (BMI) was designed to measure ... mass. Which means youll have a little coronary heart disease, overweight or higher death rates-compared to the "extra" body ... on the three limitations of body mass laureate Baruch Blumberg that showed takes is an inexpensive, non-invasive indices." ... Body fat may protect you by affecting often younger than the slimmer altered what is considered a "normal" your bodys ...
Calculator indicates whether your body weight is appropriate for your height and tells you the associated risk factors and ... Body Mass Index Body mass index (BMI) is a simple tool that is generally used to estimate the total amount of body fat. ... Body Adiposity Index Calculator. Need an alternative to body mass index (BMI)? Body adiposity index gives you the percentage of ... Medindia » Health Calculators » Diabetes Tools » Body Mass Index (BMI) Calculator. How to Calculate Body Mass Index (BMI). . ...
Body Mass Index. The body mass index is a way of predicting your percent body fat by taking into account your height versus ... Problems with Body Mass Index. There is one major problem with the BMI scale; it cannot be used universally for all individuals ... Your body mass index is directly related to your blood pressure. According to a study published in a 1994 issue of the "Journal ... Individuals with a body mass index of 19 to 24 are considered normal. According to "Exercise Physiology" by George A. Brooks, ...
  • Our aim is to examine the association between pre‐pregnancy BMI and the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII)™ and C‐reactive protein (CRP) concentrations during pregnancy. (syr.edu)
  • The DII, a literature‐based dietary index to assess the inflammatory properties of diet, was estimated based on a one‐day 24‐h recall. (syr.edu)
  • The BMIs of a 5-foot-10-inch, 200-pound running back with 6 percent body fat and a 5-foot-10-inch, 200-pound housewife with 40 percent body fat come out the same -- 28.8. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • It is also often a strong driving force behind reaching/sustaining our healthy weight, so to have an idea of how bodies look at different BMIs is useful in that respect also. (healthyweightforum.org)
  • Weight gain during adulthood has been tied to increased cancer risk, but there is a little body of knowledge that has identified accurate timing and duration of weight gain. (news-medical.net)
  • In people with diabetes, fat mass index, not body mass index, is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular events, according to new research in CMAJ. (news-medical.net)
  • Those with a higher muscle mass, such as athletes, may have a high BMI but not be at greater health risk. (diabetes.ca)
  • A new study considers a new risk factor: body mass index. (digitaljournal.com)
  • Body mass index in women aged 18 to 45 and subsequent risk of heart failure. (gu.se)
  • Therefore, we investigated the relationship between risk of hospitalization for HF and body mass index (BMI).This was a prospective registry-based cohort study. (gu.se)
  • As the body is at risk of deficiency here, such persons have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. (hirslanden.ch)
  • To evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI) with cancer risk in diabetic patients may improve current understanding of potential mechanisms. (springer.com)
  • Overweight body habitus throughout childhood is a risk factor for young adult asthma. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • BMI is an estimate of body fat and a good gauge of your risk for diseases that can occur with more body fat. (healthstatus.com)
  • It has been criticized for not adequately screening people at risk of developing cardiometabolic disease and for not distinguishing between fat mass and fat free mass, or specific parts of the body where fat is located. (eurekalert.org)
  • Waist circumference is not a better predictor of metabolic risk factors than is body mass index. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Herein we prospectively assessed the influence of the baseline body mass index (BMI) on the response to headache preventive treatment. (wiley.com)
  • Several studies have reported a positive relation of baseline body mass index (BMI) with multiple myeloma, but data on other correlates of energy balance are limited. (aacrjournals.org)
  • BMI is sometimes used to measure total body fat and whether a person is a healthy weight. (news-medical.net)
  • have thoughts about harming others a healthy mind and body. (scribd.com)
  • People with small frames may be considered a healthy weight when they actually have an unhealthy level of body fat. (cyberparent.com)
  • 20 through 24: A BMI between 20 and 22 indicates a healthy amount of body fat and is associated with a long life and with less serious illness. (cyberparent.com)
  • Body Mass Index , or BMI , is the method medical professionals use to determine if someone is a healthy weight. (wisegeek.com)
  • A muscular person may have a high BMI but still have a healthy level of body fat. (northshore.org)
  • Many millennia ago our ancestors had to actively hunt and scavenge for food which kept their bodies healthy and fit. (hubpages.com)
  • Body Mass Index, or BMI, is used to determine whether children are at a healthy weight or not. (alaska.gov)
  • Based on a research on aborigines in solitary parts of Australia suggest that the healthy limit on body mass index might be lower than previously thought. (bio-medicine.org)
  • A more muscular kid might have a higher weight and BMI but not have too much body fat. (kidshealth.org)
  • It may overestimate body fat in athletes and others who have a muscular build. (exrx.net)
  • One downside of measuring BMI alone is that it may overestimate body fat in athletes or people with a muscular build. (nursingcenter.com)
  • Body mass index is misleading for the very tall, the very muscular and the very elderly. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Although the relationship between residential food environments and health outcomes have been extensively studied, the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and multiple food environments have not been fully explored. (nih.gov)
  • Your Body Mass Index (BMI) is basically the relationship between your height and weight. (cyberparent.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Relationship between childhood body mass index and young adult asthma. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: This study examined the relationship between depressive symptomatology, dietary quality, and body weight among a sample of SNAP participants (n=639). (rand.org)
  • The birth weights appeared to be linearly correlated with both maternal body weights and heights. (fao.org)
  • Objective: To evaluate whether the duration of the active phase of labor is associated with maternal body mass index (BMI), in nulliparous women with spontaneous onset of labor. (diva-portal.org)
  • A person with very little muscle may have a normal BMI but have unhealthy levels of body fat. (northshore.org)
  • Economic freedom is part of the environment in which individuals make choices about food intake and physical activity, and may encourage unhealthy behavior and affect body weight by changing the opportunity sets. (repec.org)
  • BMI can be a use-ful tool for iden-ti-fy-ing cer-tain health risks but it should be used with cau-tion as it does not take in-to con-sid-er-a-tion body com-po-si-tion. (co.tt)
  • It's a more general method of knowing what the body fat levels are like and what the risks for illness are. (wisegeek.com)
  • Body Mass Index calculations provide an objective assessment of weight. (wisegeek.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of elevated body mass index (BMI) at a young age and young adult asthma. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A frequent use of the BMI is to assess how much an individual's body weight departs from what is normal or desirable for a person's height. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individuals with a body mass index of 19 to 24 are considered normal. (livestrong.com)
  • Body mass index z -scores correspond to growth chart percentiles, and can be converted into their equivalent BMI-for-age percentiles by comparison to a normal distribution table, but this is unnecessary for clinical application. (nature.com)
  • And a kid with a small frame may have a normal BMI but too much body fat. (nemours.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to examine secular changes in the body mass index (BMI) of Canadian children between 1981 and 1996. (cmaj.ca)
  • Objectives To examine how body mass index (BMI) and change in BMI are associated with mortality in old (7079) and very old (80) individuals. (gu.se)
  • Most studies, however, examine a linear association between Body Mass Index (BMI) and depression. (blogspot.com)
  • This Excel spreadsheet can be used by school, child care, and other professionals who want to compute Body Mass Index (BMI)-for-age for a group of up to 2000 children, such as for a school class room or grade. (cdc.gov)
  • The BMI cannot be applied to children, older persons or people who do a lot of sport as their body mass differs from average values. (hirslanden.ch)
  • As the bodies of children and adolescents develop neither uniformly or in synchrony, the BMI cannot be used for young persons. (hirslanden.ch)
  • Television, computer use and body mass index in Australian primary school children. (biomedsearch.com)
  • For children and teens, age and gender are factored in for BMI screening because body fat can vary so much between boys and girls and by age. (patriotledger.com)