An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.
The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.
The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Glucose in blood.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The physical measurements of a body.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.
Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.
Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.
A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
Acquired or learned food preferences.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Individuals' concept of their own bodies.
Abstaining from all food.
A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)
An eating disorder that is characterized by the lack or loss of APPETITE, known as ANOREXIA. Other features include excess fear of becoming OVERWEIGHT; BODY IMAGE disturbance; significant WEIGHT LOSS; refusal to maintain minimal normal weight; and AMENORRHEA. This disorder occurs most frequently in adolescent females. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.
Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.
That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
The consumption of edible substances.
Surgical procedure in which the STOMACH is transected high on the body. The resulting small proximal gastric pouch is joined to any parts of the SMALL INTESTINE by an end-to-side SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS, depending on the amounts of intestinal surface being bypasses. This procedure is used frequently in the treatment of MORBID OBESITY by limiting the size of functional STOMACH, food intake, and food absorption.
A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.
A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
Surgical procedures aimed at affecting metabolism and producing major WEIGHT REDUCTION in patients with MORBID OBESITY.
Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
The first MENSTRUAL CYCLE marked by the initiation of MENSTRUATION.
Particular categories of body build, determined on the basis of certain physical characteristics. The three basic body types are ectomorph (thin physique), endomorph (rounded physique), and mesomorph (athletic physique).
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)
Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.
Surgical procedures involving the STOMACH and sometimes the lower ESOPHAGUS to correct anatomical defects, or to treat MORBID OBESITY by reducing the size of the stomach. There are several subtypes of bariatric gastroplasty, such as vertical banded gastroplasty, silicone ring vertical gastroplasty, and horizontal banded gastroplasty.
Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.
Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.
A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.
A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.
Blood pressure levels that are between normotension and hypertension. Individuals with prehypertension are at a higher risk for developing cardiovascular diseases. Generally, prehypertension is defined as SYSTOLIC PRESSURE of 131-139 mm Hg and/or DIASTOLIC PRESSURE of 81-89 when the optimal is 120/80 mm Hg. For diabetics and other metabolism diseases the prehypertension is around 110-129/70-79 mm Hg.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.

Comparative total mortality in 25 years in Italian and Greek middle aged rural men. (1/19326)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Mortality over 25 years has been low in the Italian and very low in the Greek cohorts of the Seven Countries Study; factors responsible for this particularity were studied in detail. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: 1712 Italian and 1215 Greek men, aged 40-59 years, cohorts of the Seven Countries Study, representing over 95% of the populations in designated rural areas. DESIGN: Entry (1960-61) data included age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), smoking habits, total serum cholesterol, body mass index (BMI), arm circumference, vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in 3/4 seconds (FEV); the same data were obtained 10 years later. Multivariate Cox analysis was performed with all causes death in 25 years as end point. MAIN RESULTS: Italian men had higher entry levels of SBP, arm circumference, BMI, and VC; Greek men had higher cholesterol levels, smoking habits, and FEV. Mortality of Italian men was higher throughout; at 25 years cumulative mortality was 48.3% and 35.3% respectively. Coronary heart disease and stroke mortality increased fivefold in Italy and 10-fold in Greece between years 10 and 25. The only risk factor with a significantly higher contribution to mortality in Italian men was cholesterol. However, differences in entry SBP (higher in Italy) and FEV (higher in Greece) accounted for, according to the Lee method, 75% of the differential mortality between the two populations. At 10 years increases in SBP, cholesterol, BMI, and decreases in smoking habits, VC, FEV, and arm circumference had occurred (deltas). SBP increased more and FEV and VC decreased more in Italy than in Greece. Deltas, fed stepwise in the original model for the prediction of 10 to 25 years mortality, were significant for SBP, smoking, arm circumference, and VC in Greece, and for SBP and VC in Italy. CONCLUSION: Higher mortality in Italian men is related to stronger positive effects of entry SBP and weaker negative (protective) effects of FEV; in addition 10 year increases in SBP are higher and 10 year decreases in FEV are larger in Italy. Unaccounted factors, however, related to, for example, differences in the diet, may also have contributed to the differential mortality of these two Mediterranean populations.  (+info)

Body mass decrease after initial gain following smoking cessation. (2/19326)

BACKGROUND: Although smoking cessation is strongly associated with subsequent weight gain, it is not clear whether the initial gain in weight after smoking cessation remains over time. METHOD: Cross-sectional analyses were made, using data from periodic health examinations for workers, on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the length of smoking cessation. In addition, linear regression coefficients of BMI on the length of cessation were estimated according to alcohol intake and sport activity, to examine the modifying effect of these factors on the weight of former smokers. RESULTS: Means of BMI were 23.1 kg/m2, 23.3 kg/m2, 23.6 kg/m2 for light/medium smokers, heavy smokers and never smokers, respectively. Among former smokers who had smoked > or = 25 cigarettes a day, odds ratio (OR) of BMI >25 kg/m2 were 1.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.05-3.35), 1.32 (95% CI : 0.74-2.34), 0.66 (95% CI: 0.33-1.31) for those with 2-4 years, 5-7 years, and 8-10 years of smoking cessation, respectively. The corresponding OR among those who previously consumed <25 cigarettes a day were 1.06 (95% CI: 0.58-1.94), 1.00 (95% CI: 0.58-1.71), and 1.49 (95% CI: 0.95-2.32). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that although heavy smokers may experience large weight gain and weigh more than never smokers in the few years after smoking cessation, they thereafter lose weight to the never smoker level, while light and moderate smokers gain weight up to the never smoker level without any excess after smoking cessation.  (+info)

Pregnancy, body weight and human immunodeficiency virus infection in African women: a prospective cohort study in Kigali (Rwanda), 1992-1994. Pregnancy and HIV Study Group (EGE). (3/19326)

OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and body weight in African women during and after pregnancy. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was initiated at the Centre Hospitalier de Kigali in July 1992. Every woman seen at the antenatal clinic and with a gestational age of <28 weeks was offered HIV-1 antibody testing. Comparable numbers of HIV-infected (HIV+) and uninfected (HIV-) women were recruited. At inclusion, socio-demographic characteristics and self-reported pre-pregnancy weight were recorded; height and weight were measured. Each woman enrolled had a monthly follow-up until 9 months after delivery, with a clinical examination including weighing. Three anthropometric indices were used to answer the study objectives: weight, body mass index (BMI), and pregnancy balance. RESULTS: As of April 1994, 101 HIV+ and 106 HIV- women were followed until 5 months after delivery. Weight and BMI during pregnancy were lower in HIV+ women than in HIV- women. After delivery, weight and BMI gains were significantly lower in HIV+ women. Until 5 months after delivery, the mean weight variation was -2.2 kg (standard deviation [SD] = 5.9 kg) in HIV+ women and +0.2 kg (SD = 6.6 kg) in HIV- women (P = 0.007) in comparison to pre-pregnancy weight. Comparisons of the slopes of the weight curves did not show statistical differences throughout the pregnancy, but it did during the post-partum period (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that HIV infection could impair nutritional status in pregnant women, especially during the post-partum period. Family planning and maternal and child health services including HIV testing and counselling, should consider a nutritional assessment and intervention programme targeted to HIV+ pregnant women.  (+info)

Thiamine deficiency is prevalent in a selected group of urban Indonesian elderly people. (4/19326)

This cross-sectional study involved 204 elderly individuals (93 males and 111 females). Subjects were randomly recruited using a list on which all 60-75 y-old-people living in seven sub-villages in Jakarta were included. The usual food intake was estimated using semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. Hemoglobin, plasma retinol, vitamin B-12, red blood cell folate and the percentage stimulation of erythrocyte transketolase (ETK), as an indicator of thiamine status, were analyzed. Median energy intake was below the assessed requirement. More than 75% of the subjects had iron and thiamine intakes of approximately 2/3 of the recommended daily intake, and 20.2% of the study population had folate intake of approximately 2/3 of the recommended daily intake. Intakes of vitamins A and B-12 were adequate. Biochemical assessments demonstrated that 36.6% of the subjects had low thiamine levels (ETK stimulation > 25%). The elderly men tended to have lower thiamine levels than the elderly women. The overall prevalence of anemia was 28.9%, and the elderly women were affected more than the elderly men. Low biochemical status of vitamins A, B-12 and RBC folate was found in 5.4%, 8.8 % and 2.9% of the subjects, respectively. Dietary intakes of thiamine and folate were associated with ETK stimulation and plasma vitamin B-12 concentration (r = 0.176, P = 0.012 and r = 0.77, P = 0.001), respectively. Results of this study suggest that anemia, thiamine and possibly vitamin B-12 deficiency are prevalent in the elderly living in Indonesia. Clearly, micronutrient supplementation may be beneficial for the Indonesian elderly population living in underprivileged areas.  (+info)

Natural sporting ability and predisposition to cardiovascular disorders. (5/19326)

We tested the hypothesis that people with a natural ability in 'power sports' (a presumed marker for predominance of type 2, glycolytic muscle fibres) might have increased risks of coronary heart disease (CHD) compared to those with a natural ability in 'endurance sports' (as a marker for predominance of type 1, oxidative muscle fibres). We examined subsequent cardiovascular disorders retrospectively in 231 male former soldiers, aged 34-87 years, who had undergone a course in physical training in the Army School of Physical Training, Aldershot, UK, who assessed themselves as having natural ability in either power (n = 107) or endurance (n = 124) sports. The proportion with CHD, defined as angina and/or coronary angioplasty and/or coronary artery bypass graft and/or heart attack was 18.7% in the 'power group' vs. 9.7% in the 'endurance group' (difference: chi 2 = 3.9, p = 0.05). The proportions with CHD and/or risk factors rose to 39.3% in the 'power group' vs. 25.8% in the 'endurance group' (difference: chi 2 = 4.8, p = 0.03). Under logistic regression analysis, compared to the 'endurance group', the 'power group' had 2.2 (95% CI: 1.00-4.63) the risk of developing CHD, and 1.86 (95% confidence interval: 1.06 to 3.25) the risk of developing CHD and/or risk factors. Men with a natural ability in 'power sports' are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disorders, compared to men with a natural ability in 'endurance sports'. A predominance of type 2, glycolytic muscle fibres, presumably of genetic origin, may predispose to cardiovascular disorders.  (+info)

Relation between obesity and breast cancer in young women. (6/19326)

This study was conducted to assess the relation between body size and risk of breast cancer among young women. A case-control study was conducted among women aged 21-45 years living in three counties in Washington State. Cases were women born after 1944 with invasive or in situ breast cancer that was diagnosed between January 1, 1983, and April 30, 1990. Controls were selected using random digit dialing and were frequency-matched to cases on the basis of age and county of residence. Interviews took place between 1986 and 1992. Body size was evaluated using indices from several different time periods. After adjustment for confounders, a decreased risk of breast cancer was found for women in the highest quintile of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2) as compared with the lowest quintile (for maximum lifetime body mass index, odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51-0.94). Age modified the relation between body size and risk of breast cancer. The odds ratio for women in the highest quintile of maximum body mass index who were aged 21-35 years was 0.29 (95% CI 0.16-0.55), as compared with an odds ratio of 1.5 for women aged 36-45 years (95% CI 0.9-2.5) (p for interaction = 0.003). This study supports prior research showing a decreased risk of breast cancer associated with increased body size among premenopausal or young women. More detailed analysis in this study found a strong effect that was limited to the youngest age group (< or = 35 years).  (+info)

The Sock Test for evaluating activity limitation in patients with musculoskeletal pain. (7/19326)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Assessment within rehabilitation often must reflect patients' perceived functional problems and provide information on whether these problems are caused by impairments of the musculoskeletal system. Such capabilities were examined in a new functional test, the Sock Test, simulating the activity of putting on a sock. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Intertester reliability was examined in 21 patients. Concurrent validity, responsiveness, and predictive validity were examined in a sample of 337 patients and in subgroups of this sample. RESULTS: Intertester reliability was acceptable. Sock Test scores were related to concurrent reports of activity limitation in dressing activities. Scores also reflected questionnaire-derived reports of problems in a broad range of activities of daily living and pain and were responsive to change over time. Increases in age and body mass index increased the likelihood of Sock Test scores indicating activity limitation. Pretest scores were predictive of perceived difficulties in dressing activities after 1 year. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: Sock Test scores reflect perceived activity limitations and restrictions of the musculoskeletal system.  (+info)

A pilot study on the human body vibration induced by low frequency noise. (8/19326)

To understand the basic characteristics of the human body vibration induced by low frequency noise and to use it to evaluate the effects on health, we designed a measuring method with a miniature accelerometer and carried out preliminary measurements. Vibration was measured on the chest and abdomen of 6 male subjects who were exposed to pure tones in the frequency range of 20 to 50 Hz, where the method we designed was proved to be sensitive enough to detect vibration on the body surface. The level and rate of increase with frequency of the vibration turned out to be higher on the chest than on the abdomen. This difference was considered to be due to the mechanical structure of the human body. It also turned out that the measured noise-induced vibration negatively correlated with the subject's BMI (Body Mass Index), which suggested that the health effects of low frequency noise depended not only on the mechanical structure but also on the physical constitution of the human body.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Patterns of childhood body mass index (BMI), overweight and obesity in South Asian and black participants in the English National child measurement programme. T2 - Effect of applying BMI adjustments standardising for ethnic differences in BMI-body fatness associations. AU - Hudda, M. T.. AU - Nightingale, C. M.. AU - Donin, A. S.. AU - Owen, C. G.. AU - Rudnicka, A. R.. AU - Wells, J. C.K.. AU - Rutter, H.. AU - Cook, D. G.. AU - Whincup, P. H.. PY - 2017/11/2. Y1 - 2017/11/2. N2 - Background:The National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) records weight and height and assesses overweight-obesity patterns in English children using body mass index (BMI), which tends to underestimate body fatness in South Asian children and overestimate body fatness in Black children of presumed African ethnicity. Using BMI adjustments to ensure that adjusted BMI was similarly related to body fatness in South Asian, Black and White children, we reassessed population overweight and obesity patterns ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Indirect effects of elevated body mass index on memory performance through altered cerebral metabolite concentrations. AU - Gonzales, Mitzi M.. AU - Tarumi, Takashi. AU - Eagan, Danielle E.. AU - Tanaka, Hirofumi. AU - Vaghasia, Miral. AU - Haley, Andreana P.. PY - 2012/9/1. Y1 - 2012/9/1. N2 - OBJECTIVE: Elevated body mass index (BMI) at midlife is associated with increased risk of cognitive decline in later life. The goal of the current study was to assess mechanisms of early brain vulnerability by examining if higher BMI at midlife affects current cognitive performance through alterations in cerebral neurochemistry. METHODS: Fifty-five participants, aged 40 to 60 years, underwent neuropsychological testing, health screen, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy examining N-acetylaspartate, creatine (Cr), myo-inositol (mI), choline, and glutamate concentrations in occipitoparietal gray matter. Concentrations of N-acetylaspartate, choline, mI, and glutamate were calculated as ...
The genetic background of childhood body mass index (BMI), and the extent to which the well-known associations of childhood BMI with adult diseases are explained by shared genetic factors, are largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of BMI in 61,111 children aged between 2 and 10 years. Twenty-five independent loci reached genome-wide significance in the combined discovery and replication analyses. Two of these, located near NEDD4L and SLC45A3, have not previously been reported in relation to either childhood or adult BMI. Positive genetic correlations of childhood BMI with birth weight and adult BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, diastolic blood pressure and type 2 diabetes were detected (Rg ranging from 0.11 to 0.76, P-values ,0.002). A negative genetic correlation of childhood BMI with age at menarche was observed. Our results suggest that the biological processes underlying childhood BMI largely, but not completely, overlap with those underlying adult BMI. The ...
Body Mass Index May Predict Heart Disease Risk For Type-2 Diabetic Patients New Study Finds. By J. Brent Muhlestein, MD. April 25, 2014. Researchers from …. Body Mass Index, Fasting Plasma Glucose Levels, and C-peptide Levels as Predictors of the Future Insulin Use in Japanese Type 2 Diabetic Patients.. Dec 15, 2016 … A great BMI calculator with advanced features for Body Mass Index. … serious health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.. Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based on height and weight. How to calculate Body Mass Index. Body Mass Index is a simple calculation using …. Sep 9, 2014 … Effects of Body Mass Index, Abdominal Obesity, and Type 2 Diabetes on Mortality in Community-Dwelling Elderly in Sao Paulo, Brazil: Analysis …. aimed at investigating the effect of Body Mass Index on serum lipid profile in type II diabetic patients. The study was descriptive cross sectional in design.. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the hormone insulin is not used ...
Body Mass Index (BMI) or Quetelet index plays an important role in figure out your weight, health and lifestyle choices. Body mass index is developed by Adolphe Quetelet in the 1900s for evaluating body mass. Body mass index is not related to gender or age. BMI values are the same for men and women of all body types and ages.In BMI formulas simply put your weight and height and calculate your BMI value. There are three sets of values used to determine body mass.If your BMI weight status is below then 18.5 than youre in the category of underweight people. There are certain risks of being underweight such as slow wound healing, slow recovery from illness, high blood pressure and lack of period or fertility in females. If youve BMI score less than 18.5 or in between 18.5 - 20 then you required a more nutritional intake that helps you to gain weight and build strong immunity system in the body. You can try Accumass weight gain granules and Ayurvedic medicine to increase your BMI value.
Washington, DC, February 7, 2012 - The Trust for Americas Health (TFAH) has released a new report, Bending the Obesity Cost Curve, which finds that reducing the average body mass index by just five percent in the United States could lead to more than $29 billion in health care savings in just five years, due to reduced obesity-related costs. The analysis found that the country could save $158.1 billion in 10 years and $611.7 billion in 20 years.. Prevention is the key to halting the obesity epidemic, lowering health care costs and creating a long-term path to a healthier and economically sound America, said Jeff Levi, PhD, Executive Director of TFAH, who also serves as Chair of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health. The Prevention and Public Health Fund is now providing resources to support the kind of evidence-based strategies that can achieve this five percent reduction in average BMI, which makes the Fund a critical component of our efforts ...
Obesity is associated with breast white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation, elevated levels of the estrogen biosynthetic enzyme, aromatase, and systemic changes that have been linked to the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Here, we determined whether metabolic obesity, including changes in breast biology and systemic effects, occurs in a subset of women with normal body mass index (BMI). Breast WAT and fasting blood were collected from 72 women with normal BMI (,25 kg/m2) undergoing mastectomy for breast cancer risk reduction or treatment. WAT inflammation was defined by the presence of crown-like structures of the breast (CLS-B) which are composed of dead or dying adipocytes surrounded by macrophages. Severity of inflammation was measured as CLS-B/cm2. The primary objective was to determine whether breast WAT inflammation is associated with aromatase expression and activity. Secondary objectives included assessment of circulating factors and breast adipocyte size. Breast WAT inflammation was ...
Many modifiable risk factors in early infancy have been shown to be associated with childhood overweight and obesity. These risk factors have not been studied within children of South Asian origin in the UK. The aims of this paper are to describe differences in the prevalence of modifiable risk factors for childhood obesity between children of White British and Pakistani origin and investigate the association between these risk factors and childhood BMI measured at age 3 years. We used data from a sub-study of the Born in Bradford birth cohort with detailed follow-up visits throughout early childhood. 987 participants with a BMI measurement at age 3 were included; 39% were White British, 48% were of Pakistani origin and 13% were of other ethnicities. Linear and Poisson regression models were used to assess the association between risk factors and two outcomes at age 3; BMI z-scores and child overweight. Compared to Pakistani mothers, White British mothers were more likely to smoke during pregnancy, have
TY - JOUR. T1 - A dose-response meta-analysis of the impact of body mass index on stroke and all-cause mortality in stroke patients. T2 - a paradox within a paradox. AU - Bagheri, M.. AU - Speakman, J. R.. AU - Shabbidar, S.. AU - Kazemi, F.. AU - Djafarian, K.. N1 - Acknowledgements We thank Dr. Nicola Orsini for helping us with the statistical analysis. This study was supported by Tehran University of Medical Sciences.. PY - 2015/5. Y1 - 2015/5. N2 - The obesity paradox is often attributed to fat acting as a buffer to protect individuals in fragile metabolic states. If this was the case, one would predict that the reverse epidemiology would be apparent across all causes of mortality including that of the particular disease state. We performed a dose-response meta-analysis to assess the impact of body mass index (BMI) on all-cause and stroke-specific mortality among stroke patients. Data from relevant studies were identified by systematically searching PubMed, OVID and Scopus databases and were ...
Introduction: There are conflicting reports on influence of ageing and gender on body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) in different population. This study evaluated the influence of ageing on these parameters in healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: BP, heart rate and BMI was measured in 140 apparently healthy subjects. They were divided into four groups. Group A: males ≤ 50 years of age; Group B: males above 50 years; Group C= females ≤ 50 years; Group D= females above 50 years. Data was analysed using unpaired t test and Mann-Whitney U test. Result: BMI of group B was significantly lower compared to group A (p = 0.004). Diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in group D compared to group C (p = 0.016). Heart rate was significantly lower in group D compared to group C (p= 0.03) Conclusion: There is differential influence of ageing in males and females on body mass index and diastolic blood pressure.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of body mass index on diabetogenesis factors at a fixed fasting plasma glucose level. AU - Lin, Jiunn Diann. AU - Hsu, Chun Hsien. AU - Wu, Chung Ze. AU - Hsieh, An-Tsz. AU - Hsieh, Chang Hsun. AU - Liang, Yao Jen. AU - Chen, Yen Lin. AU - Pei, Dee. AU - Chang, Jin Biou. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Aim The present study evaluated the relative influence of body mass index (BMI) on insulin resistance (IR), first-phase insulin secretion (FPIS), second-phase insulin secretion (SPIS), and glucose effectiveness (GE) at a fixed fasting plasma glucose level in an older ethnic Chinese population. Methods In total, 265 individuals aged 60 years with a fasting plasma glucose level of 5.56 mmol/L were enrolled. Participants had BMIs of 20.0-34.2 kg/m2. IR, FPIS, SPIS, and GE were estimated using our previously developed equations. Pearson correlation analysis was conducted to assess the correlations between the four diabetogenesis factors and BMI. A general linear model was ...
What is body mass index and how is it measured? Body mass index is one important measurement to determine if someone is overweight, underweight, or at a healthy weight. If someones height and weight are known, then body mass index can be measured. There is a simple body mass index formula which is discussed in this article as well as many other body mass index facts.
Do you often worry about your childs weight? Do you think that your child is either too fat or too thin? If you do, you need to know your childs Body Mass Index or BMI, so you would determine whether your childs weight is right for his or her age and height.. The Body Mass Index for kids is also known as BMI-for-age because it is age and gender specific. This index is calculated from ages two to 20 years old. There is a separate chart for boys and girls because each gender has different body fat content, as they grow older.. There are many ways on how you can determine if your child is obese or overweight. But the fastest way of figuring whether your child is healthy or not is through the help of body mass index. In calculating your childs BMI, you need to determine your childs weight in kilograms and his or her height in meter Age calculator .. When you have this data, you may now start calculating using the BMI formula. First you need to multiply the height per meter by itself. Using this ...
can you tell me normal body mass index for women? Answered by Dr. Thomas Namey: BMI!: Good approximation for weight, but not as good as body composit...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impact of pretransplant body mass index on the clinical outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic SCT. AU - Fuji, S.. AU - Takano, K.. AU - Mori, T.. AU - Eto, T.. AU - Taniguchi, S.. AU - Ohashi, K.. AU - Sakamaki, H.. AU - Morishima, Y.. AU - Kato, K.. AU - Miyamura, K.. AU - Suzuki, R.. AU - Fukuda, T.. PY - 2014/12/11. Y1 - 2014/12/11. N2 - To elucidate the impact of pretransplant body mass index (BMI) on the clinical outcome, we performed a retrospective study with registry data including a total of 12 050 patients (age ≥18 years) who received allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) between 2000 and 2010. Patients were stratified as follows: BMI,18.5 kg/m 2, Underweight, n=1791; 18.5≤BMI,25, Normal, n=8444; 25≤BMI,30, Overweight, n=1591; BMI≥30, Obese, n=224. The median age was 45 years (range, 18-77). A multivariate analysis showed that the risk of relapse was significantly higher in the underweight group and lower in the overweight and obese groups compared with the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Joint effect of physical activity and body mass index on mortality for acute myocardial infarction in the elderly. T2 - Role of preinfarction angina as equivalent of ischemic preconditioning. AU - Abete, Pasquale. AU - Cacciatore, Francesco. AU - Della Morte, David. AU - Mazzella, Francesca. AU - Testa, Gianluca. AU - Galizia, Gianluigi. AU - De Santis, Domenico. AU - Longobardi, Giancarlo. AU - Ferrara, Nicola. AU - Rengo, Franco. PY - 2009/2/1. Y1 - 2009/2/1. N2 - BACKGROUND: Preinfarction angina (PrA), clinical equivalent of ischemic preconditioning, confers protection against in-hospital mortality for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in adult but not in elderly patients. This study aims to examine the interaction between physical activity and body mass index (BMI) in preserving the cardioprotective effect of PrA in elderly patients with AMI. DESIGN: Elderly patients (≥65 years old) with AMI admitted to Coronary Care Unit. METHODS: Elderly patients with AMI were ...
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OBJECTIVE: This study investigated how a wide spectrum of body mass index (BMI) values at ages 7 to 13 years are associated with type 2 diabetes throughout adulthood, including potential modifying effects of sex and birth weight.. METHODS: From the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, 292,827 individuals, born between 1930 and 1989, were followed in national registers for type 2 diabetes (women, n = 7,472; men, n = 11,548). Heights and weights were measured at ages 7 to 13 years.. RESULTS: Below-average BMIs, with few exceptions, were not associated with type 2 diabetes. Above-average BMIs had positive associations that were stronger in women than men, stronger in younger birth cohorts, and weaker with older age at diagnosis. Women born 1930-1947, 1948-1965, and 1966-1983 with above-average BMIs at 13 years (≥18.2 kg/m(2) ) had hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) ranging from 2.12 (1.91-2.36) to 2.84 (2.31-3.49) per z score when diagnosed at 30 to 47 years. Birth weight did not ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Does Low Body Mass Index Predict the Hospital Mortality of Adult Western or Asian Patients?. AU - Compher, Charlene. AU - Higashiguchi, Takashi. AU - Yu, Jianchun. AU - Jensen, Gordon L.. PY - 2018/2/1. Y1 - 2018/2/1. N2 - Background: Some strategies for screening and assessment of malnutrition include a low but variable body mass index (BMI) cutoff, while others do not. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate published data for Western and Asian hospital samples to determine how the prevalence of low BMI is associated with increased hospital mortality. Method: A PubMed search of the past 10 years (2006-2016) was conducted with the terms BMI, malnutrition, adult, outcome, and hospital or ICU for articles published in English. Studies that examined BMI levels among Western or Asian populations were included. Forest plots were constructed to determine the odds of hospital mortality in low versus normal BMI groups. Results: Twenty studies met inclusion ...
The body mass index otherwise known as BMI, is a simple calculation using a persons height and weight. The result typically in the range of 15 to 60 is known as the BMI or body mass index score. Most health organizations put a healthy BMI score between 18.5 and 25.0. Some people refer to this as a normal BMI.. Because it measures excess weight and not actually excess fat, BMI is considered a surrogate measure of body fat. However, studies show strong correlations between BMI measurements and the results of more direct body fat measures. If you are concerned about your weight or body size, calculating your body mass index is a good place to start before heading to the doctors office. BMI can predict future weight-related issues including disease and even death, so it is a very helpful tool in screening for health risks and obesity.. Individuals with a body mass index under 18.5 are considered underweight. A BMI this low can indicate an undernourished individual. Your body needs meat on your ...
Definition of body mass index in the Fine Dictionary. Meaning of body mass index with illustrations and photos. Pronunciation of body mass index and its etymology. Related words - body mass index synonyms, antonyms, hypernyms and hyponyms. Example sentences containing body mass index
Definition of body mass index in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is body mass index? Meaning of body mass index as a finance term. What does body mass index mean in finance?
The high prevalence of disease and associated weight loss at older ages limits the validity of prospective cohort studies examining the association between body mass index (BMI) and mortality. I examined mortality associated with excess weight using maximum BMI-a measure that is robust to confounding by illness-induced weight loss. Analyses were carried out on US never-smoking adults ages 50-84 using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1988-1994 and 1999-2004) linked to the National Death Index through 2006. Cox models were used to estimate hazard ratios for mortality according to BMI at time of survey and at maximum. Using maximum BMI, hazard ratios for overweight (BMI, 25.0-29.9 kg/m2), obese class 1 (BMI, 30.0-34.9 kg/m2) and obese class 2 (BMI, 35.0 kg/m2 and above) relative to normal weight (BMI, 18.5-24.9 kg/m2) were 1.28 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89-1.84), 1.67 (95% CI, 1.15-2.40), and 2.15 (95% CI, 1.47-3.14), respectively. The corresponding hazard ratios
Subjects The parents of the subjects selected for the sample of the second growth and development study (Berdasco et al., 1991) were the subjects of this survey. After cleaning the data, the total number of adults was 31 662, of whom 11912 were males and 19 750 were females. This difference in the numbers was probably due to the better attendance of mothers for their appointments. Field work The adults attended the measuring centres where they were weighed, and had their height, upper arm circumference, triceps and subscapular fat-folds measured. The survey was undertaken by eight measuring teams (two anthropometrists each) working simultaneously from May to December 1982. Individuals living in the countrys 14 provinces were measured. In order to assure the best possible quality in the primary data, anthropometrists were trained in the same measuring procedures utilized in the first national growth and development study (Jordan, 1979), namely, those recommended by UN International Biological ...
Background: The elderly is an age group that is susceptible to nutritional problems, especially protein intake which tends to be less intake, so it affects the body mass index. Both of these problems directly or indirectly will also affect the quality of life of the elderly. This study aimed to determine the correlation between body mass index, protein intake and quality of life in the elderly.Methods: In a cross-sectional design, a sample of 165 elderlies aged≥60 years were enrolled and randomized from three community health centers of Karanganyar Regency. The body mass index (BMI), height, weight, protein intake data were obtained through interviews using 24-hour recall form. The quality of life data was prepared through interviews using the WQOOL-BREF questionnaire.Results: There was a significant correlation between protein intake and quality of life; however, there was no correlation between body mass index and the quality of life.Conclusion: Protein intake was shown to have a significant
BMI Calculator Body mass index Posted by bmt in Health & Fitness , July 7, 2014 , 0 Comments. Apk file size: 0 bytes. What is BMI? how to calculator BMI ? - Body mass index - commonly known under the acronym BMI Body Mass Index English name - was used to assess the level of a skinny or fat. - Body mass index calculated by a persons weight (kg) divided by height (measured in meters or centimeters). It can be calculated by the formula given in the definition or standard tables - This indicator can help determine a person is obese or malnourished patients through data on the shape, height and body weight. ** Application is based on the evaluation boards standard World Health Organization (WHO) and dedicated to Asian (IDI & WPRO) App ** BMI helps you quickly and accurately help you determine the condition of which you can adjust the diet and moderate exercise routine to get a healthy body Please vote 5 * and leave your comments for us to improve the content better and will have more exciting ...
A total of 19 760 (80.0%) children attended childcare before age 6. Childcare prior to age 6 was associated with BMI z-score at 7 years (0.004 units per each additional 6 months of care; 95% CI: 0.001, 0.008; p = 0.01). Childcare in a kindergarten was the only type of care associated with BMI (0.009 units; 95% CI: 0.003, 0.02; p = 0.01). For children of higher socio-occupational status mothers, childcare was associated with a 0.008 unit increase in BMI (95% CI: 0.004, 0.01; p , 0.001). ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Body mass index and waist-to-height ratio as a predictors of metabolic syndrome. AU - Rumpe, Sabīne. AU - Daniļenko, Jeļena. PY - 2021/3/24. Y1 - 2021/3/24. N2 - The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare usefulness of the body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) in screening for metabolic syndrome (MS). A cross-sectional study was conducted in MFD Outpatient hospital Ilguciems from October 2017 to March 2018 and continued from October 2020 to December 2020. The patients were asked to complete a questionnaire about their socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors. Patients systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), fasting blood sugar (FBS), serum triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were measured. Disease history were studied. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight and WC) were taken. BMI and WHtR were calculated. All statistical analysis was performed in IBM SPSS 23.0. The ...
Genome-wide association studies have implicated the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene in type 2 diabetes risk, and more recently, in decreased body mass index. Given the contrary direction of genetic effects on these two traits, it has been suggested that the observed association with body mass index may reflect either selection bias or a complex underlying biology at TCF7L2. Using 9031 Hispanic/Latino adults (21-76 years) with complete weight history and genetic data from the community-based Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL, Baseline 2008-2011), we estimated the multivariable association between the additive number of type 2 diabetes increasing-alleles at TCF7L2 (rs7903146-T) and body mass index. We then used structural equation models to simultaneously model the genetic association on changes in body mass index across the life course and estimate the odds of type 2 diabetes per TCF7L2 risk allele. We observed both significant increases in type 2 diabetes prevalence
Methods and Results-We determined the frequency and results of lipid testing in 301 080 children and adolescents aged 3 to 19 enrolled in 3 large US health systems in 2007 to 2010 before the 2011 guidelines were issued. Overall, 9.8% of the study population was tested for lipids. The proportion tested varied by body mass index percentile (5.9% of normal weight, 10.8% of overweight, and 26.9% of obese children) and age (8.9% of 9- to 11-year olds and 24.3% of 17- to 19-year olds). In normal weight individuals, 2.8% of 9- to 11-year olds and 22.0% of 17- to 19-year olds were tested. In multivariable models, age and body mass index category remained strongly associated with lipid testing. Sex, race, ethnicity, and blood pressure were weakly associated with testing. Abnormal lipid levels were found in 8.6% for total cholesterol, 22.5% for high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, 12.0% for non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, 8.0% for low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and 21% for triglycerides ...
As the use of self-reported data to classify obesity continues, the temporal change in the accuracy of self-report measurement when compared to clinical measurement remains unclear. The objective of this study was to examine temporal trends in misclassification patterns, as well as sensitivity and specificity, of clinically measured versus self-report based body mass index (BMI) from three national lifestyle surveys over a 10-year period. The Surveys of Lifestyle Attitudes and Nutrition (SLÁN) were interview based cross-sectional survey/measurements involving nationally representative samples in 1998, 2002 and 2007. Data from a subsample of both self-reported and measured height and weight were available from 66 men and 142 women in 1998, 147 men and 184 women in 2002 and 909 men and 1128 women in 2007. Respondents were classified into the BMI categories normal (| 25 kg m-2), overweight (25- | 30 kg m-2) and obese (≥ 30 kg m-2). Underreporting of BMI increased across the three surveys (14%→21%→24
The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of physical activity and dietary fat intake on Body Mass Index (BMI) of lecturers within a higher learning institutionalized setting. The study adopted a Cross-sectional Correlational Design and included 120 lecturers selected proportionately by simple random sampling techniques from a population of 600 lecturers. Data was collected using questionnaires, which had sections including physical activity checklist adopted from the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ), 24-hour food recall, anthropometric measurements mainly weight and height. Analysis involved the use of bivariate correlations and linear regression. A significant inverse association was registered between BMI and duration (in minutes) spent doing moderate intense physical activity per day (r=-0.322,p,0.01). Physical activity also predicted BMI (r 2=0.096, F=13.616, ß=-3.22, t=-3.69, n=120, P,0.01). However, the association between Body Mass Index and dietary ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tri-ponderal mass index vs body mass index in estimating body fat during adolescence. AU - Peterson, Courtney M.. AU - Su, Haiyan. AU - Thomas, Diana M.. AU - Heo, Moonseong. AU - Golnabi, Amir H.. AU - Pietrobelli, Angelo. AU - Heymsfield, Steven B.. PY - 2017/7. Y1 - 2017/7. N2 - IMPORTANCE Body mass index (BMI) is used to diagnose obesity in adolescents worldwide, despite evidence that weight does not scale with height squared in adolescents. To account for this, health care providers diagnose obesity using BMI percentiles for each age (BMI z scores), but this does not ensure that BMI is accurate in adolescents. OBJECTIVE To compare the accuracy of BMI vs other body fat indices of the form body mass divided by heightn in estimating body fat levels in adolescents. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cross-sectional data from the 1999 to 2006 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed between September 2015 and December 2016. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES ...
Our aim was to examine the degree to which changes in BMI percentile reflect changes in body fat and lean body mass during childhood and how age and gender affe
We examined the lipid values of obese and normal-weight children, to look if there is an association between Body Mass Index (BMI) and lipid profiles. Our study group included 100 volunteers (50 children with normal BMI and 50 with high BMI) who were admitted to Kagithane State Hospital Pediatrics Clinic for various reasons between July 2010 and May 2011. The inclusion criteria were as follows: age between 2 and 14 years, no chronic disease and no developmental defects. The high BMI group had significantly higher Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) levels in comparison to the normal BMI group (p < 0.05). We also found that the high BMI group had higher cholesterol levels close to upper limit than the normal BMI group. We found high triglyceride levels not only in the high BMI group but also in the normal BMI group with a rate of 26% and 24% respectively. The difference of 2% was not significant. We advise that identification and treatment of elevated LDL cholesterol levels is of tremendous significance for
Background:Weight and weight gain throughout infancy are related to later obesity, but whether the strength of the associations varies during the infancy period is uncertain.Aims:Our aims were to identify the period of infancy when change in body weight has the strongest association with adult body mass index (BMI) and also the extent to which these associations during infancy are mediated through childhood BMI.Methods:The Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort, in which participants were followed from birth through 42 years of age, provided information on weight at 12 months and BMI at 42 years for 1633 individuals. Information on weight at birth, 2 weeks, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 months was retrieved from health visitors records and information on BMI at ages 7 and 13 years from school health records. The associations of infant weight and weight gain standard deviation scores (SDS) with adult BMI-SDS were analyzed using multiple linear regression and path analysis.Results:Higher-weight-SDS at all ages from ...
The online calculator calculates the body mass index - BMI body mass index (BMI) - a value that allows you to assess the degree of correspondence of a persons mass and his height. The calculation of body weight is made in accordance with the so-called body mass index (BMI). How to determine normal body weight? This can be done according to the formula of Adolf Quetelet, used in many countries, which allows you to calculate bodyweight depending on the height of the person.
Body Mass Index Calculator. Body Mass Index (BMI) is one of the most accurate ways to determine when extra pounds translate into health risks. BMI is a measure which takes into account a persons weight and height to gauge total body fat in adults. Someone with a BMI of 26 to 27 is about 20 percent overweight, which is generally believed to carry moderate health risks. A BMI of 30 and higher is considered obese. The higher the BMI, the greater the risk of developing additional health problems.. Heart disease, diabetes and high blood pressure are all linked to being overweight. A BMI of 30 and over increases the risk of death from any cause by 50 to 150 percent, according to some estimates. Be sure to consult your doctor or other health professional before beginning any exercise or weight-loss program.. In June 1998, the federal government announced guidelines which create a new definition of a healthy weight -- a BMI of 24 or less. So now a BMI of 25 to 29.9 is considered overweight. Individuals ...
The purpose of this study was to develop and cross-validate an equation for estimating percentage body fat (%BF) from body mass index and other potential independent variables among young persons with intellectual disability. Participants were 128 persons with intellectual disability (62 women; age 16-24 years) split between development (n = 98) and cross-validation (n = 30) samples. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry served as the reference method for %BF. An equation including 1/body mass index and sex (0 = male; 1 = female) was highly accurate in estimating %BF (p , .001; R2 = .82; standard error of estimate = 5.22%). Mean absolute and root mean square errors were small (3.1% and 3.9%, respectively). A Bland-Altman plot indicated nearly zero mean difference between actual and predicted %BF with modest 95% confidence intervals. The prediction equation was %BF = 56.708 − (729.200 × [1/body mass index]) + (12.134 × sex). Health care professionals may use the prediction equation for monitoring ...
Article: The impact of body mass index on the associations of lipids with the risk of coronary heart disease in the Asia Pacific ...
Bhattacharya , S , Campbell , D M , Liston , W A & Bhattacharya , S 2007 , Effect of Body Mass Index on pregnancy outcomes in nulliparous women delivering singleton babies BMC Public Health , vol. 7 , 168 . DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-7- ...
INSTRUCTIONS: Determination of Nutritional Status of Children Within the Ages of Four (4) to Ten (10) Years Using their Body Mass Index (Bmi) project material.. Please, sit back and study the researched project material carefully after a successful download. DO NOT copy word for word.. Our aim of providing this project research material is to reduce the stress of moving from one school library to another all in the name of searching for Determination of Nutritional Status of Children Within the Ages of Four (4) to Ten (10) Years Using their Body Mass Index (Bmi) research materials.. We are not encouraging any form of plagiarism. This service is legal because, all institutions permit their students to read previous projects, books, articles or papers while developing their own works. According to Austin Kleon, All creative work builds on what came before. You are about to download: Determination of Nutritional Status of Children Within the Ages of Four (4) to Ten (10) Years Using their Body ...
The Body Mass Index Percentiles for Girls calculation allows you to evaluate if a patient is at an appropriate weight based on their age, height and weight.
The value of school screening for scoliosis has largely been an appreciation of the high prevalence of small degrees of surface deformity and curvature and the opportunity to study the natural history of these curvatures [1, 2]. Not adequately recognised is the potential, through epidemiological studies of screened subjects, to understand better some factors involved in the pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) [3-13]. In this connection, body mass index (BMI) has been evaluated in relation to both AIS [14-23] and the trunk asymmetry (TA) of normal subjects [7, 16, 23-25]. But no attempts have been made to evaluate how BMI may relate to the pathogenesis of the trunk shape distortion of TA as it has recently for girls with AIS [23].. Employing a new approach of comparing skeletal data between subsets of higher and lower body mass index (BMI) in adolescent girls - preoperative with AIS, screened for AIS and normals, BMI was found to be related to skeletal maturation of the trunk, ...
Body Mass Index (BMI) Calculator (add to your website or run on ours). Calculate body mass index (BMI), BMI classification and weight range in US or Metric.
Simple body Mass IndexbrThe body mass index BMI or Quetelet index is a heuristic proxy for human body fat based on an individuals weight and height brRequirements Windows Phone 81 Windows Phone 8 Windows Phone 75
Objective: To evaluate whether the duration of the active phase of labor is associated with maternal body mass index (BMI), in nulliparous women with spontaneous onset of labor. Study design: Historical prospective cohort study including 63,829 nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy and a spontaneous onset of labor, who delivered between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2009. Data were collected from the Perinatal Revision South registry, a regional perinatal database in Southern Sweden. Women were categorized into six classes of BMI. Overweight and obese women were compared to normal weight women regarding duration of active labor. Adjustments were made for year of delivery, maternal age and infant birth weight. Results: The median duration of labor was significantly longer in obese women (class I obesity (BMI 30-34.9) = 9.1 h, class II obesity (BMI 35-39.9) = 9.2 h and class III obesity (BMI , 40) = 9.8 h) compared to normal-weight women (BMI 18.5-24.9) = 8.8 h (p , 0.001). The risk of ...
Did You Know? The average Americans BMI is 27.8?! Low exercise and poor eating habits are the primary reason BMI numbers in the U.S. are rising. If you fall into the 25 and higher range, do your best to make a change! Go ahead, use this Body Mass Calculator to see your exact BMI and other interesting facts! BMI Calculator provided by BMI or Body Mass Index is not an exact measure of your health but can be used as a guideline for managing a healthy weight according to your height. Body mass index determines whether you are underweight, ideal weight, overweight or obese. A BMI score between 18.5 to 25 is considered as healthy. A BMI score of 18.5 or less means that the person is underweight while that above 25 is an indication of being overweight. People with a BMI score above 30 are considered obese, and should consult a physician as soon as possible ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glycaemic control and body mass index in late-adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus. T2 - a population-based study. AU - Acharya, S H. AU - Philip, S. AU - Viswanath, A K. AU - Boroujerdi, M. AU - Waugh, N R. AU - Pearson, D W M. PY - 2008/3. Y1 - 2008/3. N2 - Aims Studies of children with diabetes up to the age of 15 years report deteriorating glycaemic control in the early teenage years. The aim was to investigate glycaemia and body mass index in older teenagers and young adults. Method A Scottish, regional, population-based, cross-sectional study of 255 young people (117 female, 138 male) with Type 1 diabetes, aged 15-25 years (mean ±sd 19.8 ± 2.8 years, diabetes duration: 8.8 ± 5.4 years) registered on a diabetes database. Glycaemic control, body mass index (BMI) and insulin regimens were assessed in three age groups [group 1 (n = 96) 15-18 years; group 2 (n = 74) 18.1-22 years; and group 3 (n = 85) 22.1-25 years]. Results Subjects in the oldest age ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Secular trends in the association between nativity/length of US residence with body mass index and waist circumference among Mexican-Americans, 1988-2008. AU - Albrecht, Sandra S.. AU - Diez Roux, Ana V.. AU - Aiello, Allison E.. AU - Schulz, Amy J.. AU - Abraido-Lanza, Ana. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - Objectives: We investigated whether associations between nativity/length of US residence and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) varied over the past two decades. Methods: Mexican-Americans aged 20-64 years from the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) III (1988-1994), and NHANES (1999-2008). Sex-stratified multivariable linear regression models further adjusted for age, education, and NHANES period. Results: We found no evidence of secular variation in the nativity/length of US residence gradient for men or women. Foreign-born Mexican-Americans, irrespective of residence length, had lower mean BMI and WC than their US-born counterparts. However among ...
... body mass index; presence or absence of diabetes mellitus; ability to function according to the NYHA scale; percentage of ...
... body-mass index; fitness training; even environmental factors like number of parks, golf courses, etc." In 2003, the ... "Men feel body image pressure too, study finds". The Island Packet. October 7, 2006. Retrieved March 25, 2011. Baker, Peter ( ... "Who needs topless soap stars when you have a great body?" "How healthy is men's health? A shovelful of sugar helps the medicine ... which can increase men's anxieties about their bodies, making them more prone to eating disorders and compulsive over- ...
doi:10.1090/s0273-0979-06-01128-1. "New BMI (New Body Mass Index)". Stephenson, Wesley (29 January 2013). "Does the BMI need ... Following his PhD, Trefethen went on to work at the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences in New York, Massachusetts ... Trefethen was born 30 August 1955 in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of mechanical engineer Lloyd M. Trefethen and codebreaker, ... subscription required) Nick Trefethen publications indexed by Google Scholar Lloyd N. Trefethen at DBLP Bibliography Server ...
The Body Mass Index is used to decipher an individuals excess body weight but not their excess body fat. In this way the ... Body Mass Index (BMI) is a common and useful measurement of body fat that helps individuals understand the difference between ... Individuals who have a Body Mass Index (BMI) that is equal to or greater than 25 kg/m2 are also said to have an increased ... The system can be used to calculate a persons Body Mass Index (BMI) by dividing their weight (in kilograms) by the square of ...
"WHO Mean Body Mass Index (BMI)". World Health Organization. Retrieved 5 February 2019. Akyuz, Ezgi; Samavati, Mehrdad; Kaynak, ... of its adult population having a body mass index (BMI) value that is 30 or above. Air pollution in Turkey is a major cause of ... "Mass Housing Development by a Government Agency and the Politics of Urbanization" (PDF). 14th International Planning History ... As a reaction to the failed coup d'état, the government carried out mass purges. Between 9 October - 25 November 2019, Turkey ...
Developed the body mass index scale. 87) Gaston Roelants, (1937-) athlete. Olympic gold medal for 3000 m steeplechase (1964), ...
Body mass index (BMI) greater than 40. One spouse must have stable employment. The family's annual income must be $10,000 per ...
Ideal body mass index is 19-30. Salpingectomy or laparoscopic tubal occlusion before IVF treatment increases chances for women ... A body mass index (BMI) over 27 causes a 33% decrease in likelihood to have a live birth after the first cycle of IVF, compared ... Mass use of PGD, especially as a means of population control or in the presence of legal measures related to population or ... Warren MA (January 1988). "IVF and women's interests: an analysis of feminist concerns". Bioethics. 2 (1): 37-57. doi:10.1111/j ...
"Overweight and obesity (high body mass index)." Comparative quantification of health risks: global and regional burden of ... "At-home breakfast consumption among New Zealand children: associations with body mass index and related nutrition behaviors." ... "Effects of active video games on body composition: a randomized controlled trial." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition ...
Vegetarians generally have a lower body mass index. These characteristics and other lifestyle factors associated with a ... Some believe that the current mass-demand for meat cannot be satisfied without a mass-production system that disregards the ... Plant foods can provide alpha-linolenic acid which the human body uses to synthesize the long-chain n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA ... The calcium found in broccoli, bok choy, and kale have also been found to have calcium that is well absorbed in the body. ...
Surface Based Body Shape Index. A new method to replace Body mass index. This disambiguation page lists articles associated ...
List of countries by body mass index Downsize Me! "Obesity - Social Report 2008". Ministry of Social Development. 1 June 2008. ...
A health app for calculating the body mass index. Available on Symbian and Nokia Asha and S40 phones. Derivatives and Integrals ...
If details about the patient's body mass index (size); core temp, Systolic, diastolic, central venous pressure CVP (measured ... Justification for its continued use rests on a large body of clinical experience, disadvantages of other cardiac output ... in order to maximize oxygen for delivery to the body tissues. The ability to record results is not a guarantee of patient ... the mixed venous oxygen saturation is an accurate parameter of total body blood flow and therefore cardiac output. The ...
At the time of his death, he weighed 798 lb (362 kg; 57 st) with a Body Mass Index of 105.3. Obesity "Heaviest man". ... "Human Body/Extreme Bodies/Heaviest Man". Guinness World Records. Archived from the original on 2006-09-03. Retrieved 2008-10-28 ... "Human Body/Extreme Bodies/Greatest Weight Loss". Guinness World Records. Archived from the original on 2006-09-01. Retrieved ... and much of his overall body mass was retained fluid. Transportation for Minnoch was extremely difficult. It took over a dozen ...
Higher body mass index is correlated with earlier puberty. See American and British English spelling differences. Gynecology is ... A mass in the inguinal area may be a hernia or may be a testis in an intersex child. The vaginal mucosa in prepubertal children ... An abnormal mass in a child's developing breast or early development of breast tissue may prompt concern. Neonates can have ... In older children, cystic ovarian masses may cause a visible change in body shape, chronic pain, and precocious puberty; ...
Childhood obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) at or above the 96th percentile for children of the same age and sex. ... There is an association between the amount of time a mother works and her child's body mass index (BMI). There is evidence that ... and children's body mass index". Child Dev. 82 (1): 66-81. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01541.x. PMC 3070422. PMID 21291429. ... "Self regulation skills in toddlers were associated with body mass index development and pediatric obesity eight years later. ...
ISBN 978-1-4354-1914-8. Jones RL, Nzekwu MM (2006). "The effects of body mass index on lung volumes". Chest. 130 (3): 827-33. ... In absence of such, estimates of residual volume have been prepared as a proportion of body mass for infants (18.1 ml/kg), or ... The mass of one breath is approximately a gram (0.5-5 g). A litre of air weighs about 1.2 g (1.2 kg/m3). A half litre ordinary ... This is necessary to meet the increased oxygen requirement of the body, which reaches 50 ml/min, 20 ml of which goes to ...
Tremblay, M. S., & Willms, J. D. (2000). Secular trends in body mass index of Canadian children. Canadian Medical Association ...
Increased body mass index is also associated with tearing. Recurrent lifting and overhead motions are at risk for rotator cuff ... Zumstein MA, Frey E, von Rechenberg B, Frigg R, Gerber C, Meyer DC (May 2012). "Device for lengthening of a musculotendinous ... Wirth MA, Basamania C, Rockwood CA (January 1997). "Nonoperative management of full-thickness tears of the rotator cuff". The ... Schär, MO; Rodeo, SA; Zumstein, MA (October 2014). "Biologics in rotator cuff surgery". Shoulder & Elbow. 6 (4): 239-44. doi: ...
Subjects defined as TOFI with body mass index (BMI) ...
BMI=Body Mass Index.. AF is linked to several forms of cardiovascular disease but may occur in otherwise normal hearts. ... Du, X; Dong, J; Ma, C (April 2017). "Is Atrial Fibrillation a Preventable Disease?". Journal of the American College of ... Fibrosis is not limited to the muscle mass of the atria and may occur in the sinus node (SA node) and atrioventricular node (AV ... D'Andrea A, Riegler L, Cocchia R (2010). "Left atrial volume index in highly trained athletes". American Heart Journal. 159 (6 ...
Body mass index (BMI). Education and innovation. *Bloomberg Innovation Index. *Education Index ... Retrieved from "" ...
Body mass index (BMI). Education and innovation. *Bloomberg Innovation Index. *Education Index ... Retrieved from " ...
Body mass index (BMI). Education and innovation. *Bloomberg Innovation Index. *Education Index ... Retrieved from "" ...
Body Mass Index (BMI): proxy for true body fat percentage; years of education and/or GPA: proxy for cognitive ability; ...
... high simple body mass index (a possible signifier of obesity); hypertension (systolic and diastolic blood pressure within ... "Methylxanthine Toxcity Syndrome". Body Restoration: An Owner's Manual. Retrieved 25 January 2016. "Premature ventricular ...
... higher body mass index (BMI), insulin resistance, gestational diabetes, and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in later life. A study in a ... Individuals with a higher fat mass index and higher insulin sensitivity (high Homeostatic Model Assessment [HOMA] index) had ... "DNA methylation and body-mass index: a genome-wide analysis". The Lancet. 383 (9933): 1990-1998. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13) ... folate and homocysteine triad across body mass index: Systematic review of B12 concentrations". Obesity Reviews. 19 (11): 1608- ...
Sander, Heather A.; Ghosh, Debarchana; Hodson, Cody B. (August 2017). "Varying age-gender associations between body mass index ... "Do forests help to keep my body mass index low?". Forest Policy and Economics. 54: 11-17. doi:10.1016/j.forpol.2015.02.003. ... the Harvard School of Public Health examined the association of walkable built environment characteristics with body mass index ...
Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-01197-2.. External links[edit]. Wikimedia Commons has media related to ... There is a large body of literature regarding how different currents interact with geometric properties of neurons.[21] ... Retrieved from "" ... Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-19291-8.. *^ Bower, James M. (2013). 20 years of Computational neuroscience. Berlin, ...
Carmichael SL, Ma C, Rasmussen SA, Honein MA, Lammer EJ, Shaw GM (February 2008). "Craniosynostosis and maternal smoking". ... Syndromal craniosynostosis presents with a skull deformity as well as deformities affecting other parts of the body.[42] ... however it is generally agreed upon that the cephalic index should be used to assess the efficacy of the preferred surgical ... Jentink J, Loane MA, Dolk H, Barisic I, Garne E, Morris JK, de Jong-van den Berg LT (June 2010). "Valproic acid monotherapy in ...
Amherst, Mass.: University of Massachusetts Press. ISBN 1-55849-181-3. *. Stassinos, Elizabeth (1997). "Marriage as Mystery ... In their bodies is the record of their brotherhood." The Chrysanthemum and the SwordEdit. Main article: The Chrysanthemum and ... Retrieved from "" ...
Retrieved from ",_Texas&oldid=971660930" ... Bodies of water. *Buffalo Bayou. *Galveston Bay. *Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. *Houston Ship Channel ...
Also, patients who are morbidly obese (body mass index >40 kg/m2) are significantly less likely to have success from this ...
Also published as Heart of Europe: A History of the Holy Roman Empire, Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University ... "". Retrieved 15 April 2020.. ... The Imperial Diet (Reichstag, or Reichsversammlung) was not a legislative body as is understood today, as its members ... In a famous assessment of the name, the political philosopher Voltaire remarked sardonically: "This body which was called and ...
Detection in body fluidsEdit. Levomethamphetamine can register on urine drug screens as either methamphetamine, amphetamine, or ... Retrieved from "" ... Molar mass. 149.23 g·mol−1. 3D model (JSmol). *Interactive image. SMILES ...
The body mass index cutoffs for when surgery is appropriate are not yet clear.[122] It is recommended that this option be ... defined by a body mass index of greater than 25), lack of physical activity, poor diet, stress, and urbanization.[10][32] ... "In Feinglos MN, Bethel MA (eds.). Type 2 diabetes mellitus: an evidence-based approach to practical management. Contemporary ... In the early stages of insulin resistance, the mass of beta cells expands, increasing the output of insulin to compensate for ...
Despite this, unions were formed and began to acquire political power, eventually resulting in a body of labour law that not ... Labour union demonstrators held at bay by soldiers during the 1912 Lawrence textile strike in Lawrence, Massachusetts ... Retrieved from "" ...
Fungi digest organic matter outside their bodies as opposed to animals that digest their food inside their bodies. For humans, ... Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. pp. 412-426.. *^ Funai, M.D., Edmund. "Ghrelin, Hormone That Stimulates Appetite, Found To Be Higher ... Retrieved from "" ... the body starts to produce the feeling of hunger. The body also stimulates eating by detecting a drop in cellular lipid levels ...
In other words, the mass of any one element at the beginning of a reaction will equal the mass of that element at the end of ... To maintain their bodies, grow, develop, and to reproduce, autotrophs produce organic matter from inorganic substances, ... Retrieved from "" ... The Law of Conservation of Mass dates from Antoine Lavoisier's 1789 discovery that mass is neither created nor destroyed in ...
The entire student body is referred to as the Regiment of Midshipmen[1] and is subdivided into three battalions and six ... In that year, the USTS Nantucket (ex-USS Ranger) was transferred from the Massachusetts Maritime Academy to Kings Point and ... Retrieved from "" ...
Alterations in body shape (lipodystrophy), colloquially known as "Crix belly"[6]. *Increased levels of Bilirubin,[7] causing ... Retrieved from "" ... Molar mass. 613.803 g·mol−1. 3D model (JSmol). *Interactive image. SMILES ...
"The dismembered body of a Metropolitan State... " Boston Globe Aug 12, 1980 ... Retrieved from "" ... Historic districts in Middlesex County, Massachusetts. *National Register of Historic Places in Middlesex County, Massachusetts ... Massachusetts. Founded in 1927, it was at one time the largest and most modern facility of its type in Massachusetts.[2] It was ...
Mind-body interventions: Explore the interconnection between the mind, body, and spirit, under the premise that they affect " ... Breeher L, Mikulski MA, Czeczok T, Leinenkugel K, Fuortes LJ (6 Apr 2015). "A cluster of lead poisoning among consumers of ... Retrieved from "" ... Manipulative and body-based practices: feature manipulation or movement of body parts, such as is done in bodywork, ...
... and body mass.[15] All of these phenotypes are complicated by a great deal of give-and-take between genes and environmental ... Retrieved from "" ... For early geneticists, it was not immediately clear that the smooth variation in traits like body size (i.e., Incomplete ... to obtain livestock or plants with favorable features from populations that show quantitative variation in traits like body ...
How something of such a large molecular mass could be consistently found, regardless of where it was sampled from in the body, ... Retrieved from "" ... Centrifugation is the most common method used for uranium enrichment, relying on the slight mass difference between atoms of ... The same molecular mass was determined, and the presence of a spreading boundary suggested that it was a single compact ...
If the main mass of hair is initially parted into two or more sections along the scalp that are kept separate from one another ... Retrieved from "" ...
"Body and Earth Are Not Two': Kawaguchi Yoshikazu's NATURAL FARMING and American Agriculture Writers". ResearchGate. Retrieved ... Biological decomposition accelerates and the microbiota mass increases at the expense of other organic matter, adversely ... Retrieved from "" ...
... given the nature of the mass grave and DC-Cam's methods, which are more likely to produce an under-count of bodies rather than ... Retrieved from "" ... On 15 April 1998, Pol Pot died in his sleep, apparently of heart failure.[398] His body was preserved with ice and formaldehyde ... These mass killings, coupled with malnutrition and poor medical care, killed between 1.5 and 2 million people, approximately a ...
... their total brain-to-body mass ratio is equal to most great apes and cetaceans.[42] A 2004 review suggests that the ... Retrieved from "" ... Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. pp. 250-254.. *^ Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturæ per regna tria ... Their body feathers start to appear after around 8 days and the primary wing feathers after 10 days.[35] For several days ...
... of slightly increasing Democratic representation in legislative bodies, but would also give Utah an additional, probably ... Retrieved from "" ... Massachusetts 6,016,425 6,349,097 332,672 5.5% 14 Indiana 5,544,159 6,080,485 536,326 9.7% 15 Washington 4,866,692 5,894,121 ...
From elite to mass education." As the World Turns: Implications of Global Shifts in Higher Education for Theory, Research and ... This model incorporates a strict hierarchy of authority and a considerable degree of autonomy for its governing bodies. ... Retrieved from "" ... The senate and the faculty council are entirely advisory bodies which confer the academic degrees. Private institutions can ...
When the player draws a down bow, he is to move his right hand gradually away from his body; when he draws an up bow, towards ... Pressure is added mainly by the index finger of the bowing hand. Another method sometimes used to increase volume is using ... softening the instrument's sound by adding mass to the bridge and therefore reducing its ability to vibrate freely, decreasing ... Another pizzicato position is to maintain the bow grip, then pluck the strings with the right index finger. This position is ...
Li G, Liang Z, Wang X, Yang Y, Shao Z, Li M, Ma Y, Qu F, Morrison DA, Zhang JR (2016). "Addiction of Hypertransformable ... After S. pneumoniae colonizes the air sacs of the lungs, the body responds by stimulating the inflammatory response, causing ... Retrieved from "" ... is generally made based on clinical suspicion along with a positive culture from a sample from virtually any place in the body ...
Similarly, the graphs মা [ma], মী [mi], মু [mu], মূ [mu], মৃ [mri], মে [me~mæ], মৈ [moj], মো [mo] and মৌ [mow] represent the ... Wickramasinghe, Nira (2003). Dressing the Colonised Body: Politics, Clothing, and Identity in Sri Lanka. Orient Longman. p. 26 ... Retrieved from "" ... Ray, P; Hai, MA; Ray, L (1966). "Bengali language handbook". Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington. ASIN B000B9G89C.. ...
Donets, E. D.; Shchegolev, V. A.; Ermakov, V. A. (1965). "Synthesis of the isotope of element 103 (lawrencium) with mass number ... There is normally as little as 0.5 milligrams found within the entire human body; human breast milk contains 4 ppm.[82] Yttrium ... Retrieved from "" ... Donets, E. D.; Shchegolev, V. A.; Ermakov, V. A. (1965). "Synthesis of the isotope of element 103 (lawrencium) with mass number ...
Whole-body PET scan using 18F-FDG. The normal brain and kidneys are labeled, and radioactive urine from breakdown of the FDG is ... Work by Gordon Brownell, Charles Burnham and their associates at the Massachusetts General Hospital beginning in the 1950s ... Retrieved from "" ... April 2005). "Radiation exposure of patients undergoing whole-body dual-modality 18F-FDG PET/CT examinations". J. Nucl. Med. 46 ...
Body Repatriation & Final Resting Place[edit]. United States President Coolidge offered the Battleship Florida to return the ... he flew to Lowell Massachusetts to dedicate a new field there. He went at the request of Edith Nourse Rogers who was ... Retrieved from "" ... John H. Carr,[32] and his family were out picking huckleberries when they discovered his body and the wreckage the next day. ...
Esau, Katherine (2006) [1953]. Evert, Ray F (ed.). Esau's Plant Anatomy: Meristems, Cells, and Tissues of the Plant Body: Their ... Mauseth, James D. (2009). Botany: an introduction to plant biology (4th ed.). Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. ... Retrieved from "" ... Leaves need to support their own mass and align themselves in such a way as to optimize their exposure to the sun, generally ...
Doctors use body mass index (BMI) measurements to assess a childs physical growth in relation to other kids the same age. ... Now they have another tool: body mass index (BMI).. BMI is a calculation that uses height and weight to estimate how much body ... Kids who measure at the 85th to 94th percentiles are considered overweight, because of excess body fat or high lean body mass. ... They also use separate charts for boys and girls to account for differences in growth rates and amounts of body fat as the two ...
An anthropometric index of weight and height. Body Mass Index (BMI) is an anthropometric index of weight and height that is ... Fat-free mass is total body mass excluding the fat. Fat-free mass includes everything from your skin, bones, ligaments, and ... BMI can be considered a proxy for measures of body fat.. Note that the accuracy of BMI as an indicator of body fatness ( ... An indirect measure of body fatness. BMI is not a direct measure of body fatness. However, BMI parallels changes obtained by ...
Doctors use body mass index (BMI) measurements to assess a childs physical growth in relation to other kids the same age. ... Body mass index (BMI) is a calculation that uses height and weight to estimate how much body fat someone has. You can use the ... BMI is not a direct measure of body fat. Kids can have a high BMI if they have a large frame or a lot of muscle, not excess fat ... While BMI is an important indicator of healthy growth and development, BMI is not a perfect measure of body fat. If youre ...
... N/A , 07/15/13 , fwdude Posted on 07/15/2013 9:39:52 AM PDT by fwdude ... and have revisited the health measure called Body Mass Index (BMI.) Just needing the input from some of you who agree or ... In extended times of unrest, a little extra body fat can carry you through lean times on limited food. A little extra body fat ... BMI = mass(lbs)/height²(in.) x 703 The interpretation charts follows: BMI below 18.5 is underweight, from 18.5-24.9 is normal, ...
... Lisa M. Powell, Frank J. Chaloupka. NBER Working Paper No. 15046. Issued ... Published: Economic Contextual Factors and Child Body Mass Index, Lisa M. Powell, Frank J. Chaloupka. in Economic Aspects of ... FE results show that higher fruit and vegetable prices are statistically significantly related to a higher body mass index (BMI ... National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02138; 617-868-3900; email: [email protected] Contact ...
... BMI = Weight in KG / Height (in meters) My BMI Result:. Weight: 75 kg. Height: 1.7 meters. My BMI = 74/ ... Body mass index does not take into account your muscle to fat ratio and as muscle is more dense and heavy then fat, you could ... View Poll Results: Your body mass index. Voters. 19. You may not vote on this poll. ... BMI is a blunt instrument anyway, since it doesnt consider muscle mass vs body fat etc.. The only reliable way to lose weight ...
Their research provides a new twist on an old metric: the body mass index, or BMI, which measures body size based on a persons ... Body mass index is a valuable tool for runners. Written by undefined on Invalid date ... Details of the findings linking the speed a runner needs to achieve and the ideal body mass for performance appear in the July ... The specific amount of body mass that they found was needed to regulate ground forces and racing speeds was relatively small: ...
Economic Contextual Factors and Child Body Mass Index Lisa M. Powell & Frank J. Chaloupka ... 1050 Massachusetts Ave.. Cambridge, MA 02138. 617-868-3900. [email protected] ...
How to calculate Body Mass Index. Body Mass Index is a simple calculation using a persons height and weight. The formula is ... Those with a higher muscle mass, such as athletes, may have a high BMI but not be at greater health risk. Those with a lower ... muscle mass, such as children who have not completed their growth or the elderly who may be losing some muscle mass may have a ... During pregnancy and lactation, a womans body composition changes, so using BMI is not appropriate. ...
Calculated Body Mass Index. ... What is Body Mass Index (BMI) ...
The data for international body mass indexes for 2014 was first published by the World Health Organization in 2015. Data ...
Body Mass Index (BMI) News and Research. RSS Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure that relates body weight to height. BMI is ... Simple way to measure abdominal obesity index In obesity research, the body mass index has been traditionally used to determine ... Elevated body mass index - a measure of weight accounting for a persons height - has been shown to be a likely causal ... Higher body mass index could cause depression even without health problems A largescale genomic analysis has found the ...
Source : Body Building. Building Muscle Mass Tips and Secrets by: dpoon. Building muscles mass is an easy task to achieve as ... Finding Better Usb Mass Storage Solutions by: Lesley Lyon. The USB Mass Storage Device Class (USB MSC) is a set of computing ... Cheap Pen Drives: Mass Storage at Its Best! by: Raisa Raima. The mass storage devices of the past such as floppy diskettes have ... Diet Plan for Building Muscle Mass by: Derek Manuel. One of the major causes of failure when training to gain muscle mass is ...
... an index for assessing overweight and underweight, obtained by dividing body weight in kilograms by height in meters squared: a ... body mass index, body mechanics, body mike, body modification, body of christ, body of stomach ... body fluid, body horror, body image, body language, body louse, .css-4kjeik{font-size:20px;color:#1a1a1a;line-height:23px;}. ... A measurement of the relative percentages of fat and muscle mass in the human body, in which mass in kilograms is divided by ...
Peak bone mass is not achieved until about the age of 25 years. The development of the pelvic birth canal is slower than that ... Low adult body weights may not only reflect the effects of recurrent infection, but a combination of problems of food ... Yet data on those with a low body weight is limited. To obtain comparable data on the risks of general ill health and specific ... These sex differences in the BMI value for survival may prove to be important and may relate to the greater body reserves of ...
Weighing In... Should Schools Assess Body Mass Index (BMI)?. Are schools crossing the line when they measure body fat through ... Weigh in time... A second grade girl brings home a letter from her school revealing her Body Mass Index (BMI) scores taken in ... body mass index. Submitted by alexajoe on June 26, 2015 - 8:37am ... Body mass measurement. Submitted by sheilzasmith on July 3, ... here is android application to calculate your accurate body mass index with comments and ideal weight. ...
The body mass that scientists are using it to look for will change the way you think about index (BMI) was designed to measure ... mass. Which means youll have a little coronary heart disease, overweight or higher death rates-compared to the "extra" body ... on the three limitations of body mass laureate Baruch Blumberg that showed takes is an inexpensive, non-invasive indices." ... Body fat may protect you by affecting often younger than the slimmer altered what is considered a "normal" your bodys ...
Calculator indicates whether your body weight is appropriate for your height and tells you the associated risk factors and ... Body Mass Index Body mass index (BMI) is a simple tool that is generally used to estimate the total amount of body fat. ... Body Adiposity Index Calculator. Need an alternative to body mass index (BMI)? Body adiposity index gives you the percentage of ... Medindia » Health Calculators » Diabetes Tools » Body Mass Index (BMI) Calculator. How to Calculate Body Mass Index (BMI). . ...
This is a val-ue that is de-rived from the height and mass/weight of the in-di-vid-ual. The re-sult of this test can give an ... is a way for doc-tors and per-son-al train-ers alike to tell if you have too much fat on your body. ... Your Body Mass In-dex (BMI) is a way for doc-tors and per-son-al train-ers alike to tell if you have too much fat on your body ... so BMI can over-es-ti-mate body fat in ath-letes with high bone den-si-ty and mus-cle mass, or un-der-es-ti-mate it in old-er ...
Fitness and Health: Body Mass Index, BMI, and Weight Fitness: Your Body Mass Index (BMI) is basically the relationship between ... Although Body Mass Index does not directly measure percent of body fat, higher BMIs are usually associated with an increase in ... Fitness: Body Mass Index (BMI) is an objective standard that is becoming the measurement of choice for most health care ... Body-Mass Index. To use the table, find the appropriate height in the left-hand column labeled Height. Move across to a given ...
The body mass index is a method that healthcare professionals sometimes use to determine whether or not a person has a healthy ... Body Mass Index, or BMI, is the method medical professionals use to determine if someone is a healthy weight. Body Mass Index ... the body mass index might assume that they have very little fat, when the opposite could be true. Still, body mass index works ... So if someones body mass index shows that they are obese, we can assume that they have high fat levels and are at high risk ...
Going by body fat percentage that I had done with calipers recently I am 23% body fat, meaning my lean mass is 185lbs and fat ... According to my last BF calculations, I had 192 lbs of lean mass with a body fat % somewhere around 20% and that was back in ... Location: Mass, USA 28.8 DAMN IT!!! .2 away from Obese... So close, yet so far away ... So at 285 Im still sporting an 18-20% body fat. Im still fat and sporting 50-55 pounds of lard. However, I still say I am in ...
If you are looking for advice, look no further than one of our forums with specialization in Weight Loss, Training, and Body ... BMI (Body Mass Index). BMI (Body Mass Index). The Body Mmass Index (BMI), is a measure which compares a persons weight and ... It may underestimate body fat in older persons and others who have lost muscle mass. The BMI score means the following... ... It does not actually measure the percentage of body fat. It is used only to estimate a healthy body weight based on a persons ...
The purpose of this study was to examine secular changes in the body mass index (BMI) of Canadian children between 1981 and ... Secular trends in the body mass index of Canadian children. Mark S. Tremblay and J. Douglas Willms ... Effect of school-based physical activity interventions on body mass index in children: a meta-analysis ... which may lead to a progressive increase in body mass over time. ... Secular trends in the body mass index of Canadian children ...
The Hirslanden BMI calculator provides you with helpful tips about your body mass index. Find out more now. ... Your body mass index (BMI) is the ratio between your height and your body weight. This guide value acts as a pointer for you in ... The body mass index is based on a simple mathematical formula: It is calculated by taking the body weight in kilograms and ... Assessment of the body mass index also depends on the age of the individual. As the bodies of children and adolescents develop ...
This study aims to investigate the association of urinary concentration of phthalate metabolites with body mass index (BMI) and ... Wang H, Zhou Y, Tang C, He Y, Wu J, Chen Y et al (2013) Urinary phthalate metabolites are associated with body mass index and ... This study aims to investigate the association of urinary concentration of phthalate metabolites with body mass index (BMI) and ... Association of urinary phthalate metabolites concentrations with body mass index and waist circumference. ...
Our studys primary objective was to assess the association between body mass index (BMI) categories and critical forms of ... A growing body of data suggests that obesity influences coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). ... The association between body mass index class and coronavirus disease 2019 outcomes. *Abdallah Al-Salameh. ORCID: ... Al-Salameh, A., Lanoix, JP., Bennis, Y. et al. The association between body mass index class and coronavirus disease 2019 ...
Body mass index z-scores. Body mass index z-scores, also called BMI standard deviation (s.d.) scores, are measures of relative ... Body mass index defined. Body mass index is a measure of weight adjusted for height. It is calculated as weight in kilograms ... Cole TJ, Freeman JV, Preece MA . Body mass index reference curves for the UK, 1990. Arch Dis Childhood 1995; 73: 25-29. ... Body mass index in children and adolescents: considerations for population-based applications. *A Must. 1,2. & ...
The Body Mass Index, a scale scientists use to determine whether someone is overweight, is not the most accurate tool to ... The Body Mass Index, a scale scientists use to determine whether someone is overweight, is not the most accurate tool to ... Both studies relied on the use of the Body Mass Index scale, which is simply a ratio of one's weight in kilograms divided ... And it is a very simple number, which doesn't take into account things like race, age, sex, body frame, or muscle mass. ...
  • By identifying these at-risk kids, doctors can monitor their body fat carefully and try to prevent adult obesity through changes in eating and exercise habits. (
  • In obesity research, the body mass index has been traditionally used to determine if an individual is normal weight, underweight, overweight or obese. (
  • A measurement of the relative percentages of fat and muscle mass in the human body, in which mass in kilograms is divided by height in meters squared and the result used as an index of obesity. (
  • The result is used as an index of obesity. (
  • There are some drawbacks to using this index as a measurement of obesity. (
  • A growing body of data suggests that obesity influences coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). (
  • A growing body of evidence suggests that obesity is among the most common conditions associated with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). (
  • Although BMI is an imperfect tool - it does not distinguish overweight due to excess fat mass from overweight due to excess lean mass - it is the most commonly used measure for assessing obesity in adults. (
  • Obesity rates: Is the Body Mass Index a good measurement? (
  • In part, the scale is used as a global indicator of obesity because it's much easier to gather mass data on height and weight than other factors. (
  • Body Mass Index is one common method used to measure overweight and obesity. (
  • This study determines: 1) differences in teen and parental report of obesity, 2) amount of misclassification using body mass index (BMI) from self-reported versus measured height and weight as an indicator of obesity, and 3) whether misclassification varies by gender and socioeconomic status. (
  • Body mass index (BMI) is one of the most commonly used measures to define obesity. (
  • Studies of adults have demonstrated a high correlation between self-reported and measured height and weight, 8 ,9 although use of BMI based on self-report indexes to define obesity as a categorical variable is considered unreliable in adults. (
  • Is the body mass index (BMI) chart an accurate indicator of obesity? (
  • created the Quetelet Index of Obesity, which is the current BMI formula but with a way cooler name. (
  • 3 As obesity is becoming more prevalent in the UK population, we examined, in a large prospective cohort of middle aged women, the relation between body mass index and the incidence of hospital admissions with liver cirrhosis and deaths from liver cirrhosis and whether the relation is modified by alcohol or by other factors. (
  • According to a recent study in the journal Diabetic Medicine , it might make a difference to your BMI - body-mass index , that is (a standard way of assessing obesity that measures weight relative to height). (
  • Body Mass Index, or BMI is the customary method used to measure obesity. (
  • The nutritionists achieved more understanding in obesity and other abnormal conditions by defining a new unit call Body Mass Index. (
  • 1 In the United States, the prevalence of obesity among children, defined as body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to the 95th centile, has more than tripled since 1970. (
  • Body mass index (BMI) is associated with LA size in adults but this may be mediated (at least in part) by co-morbidities that accompany adult obesity and thus the relationship between LA size and BMI in children is of interest, to assess the effect of increased body mass per se . (
  • The severity of your obesity is determined by a measurement of your Body Mass Index (BMI). (
  • Obesity can affect cognitive function in post-menopausal women, according to a new study, which shows a correlation between brain health and body. (
  • This is the publication that banished the old BMI criteria, and established new Body Mass Index criteria, for the definitions of overweight and Obesity at 25 and 30 kg/m 2 respectively. (
  • Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults , 1999-2010. (
  • BMI measurements and body fat percentage measurements both have a role to play in developing healthy ranges for assessment of future health risks or obesity-related diseases . (
  • The primary measure for tracking the prevalence of obesity has historically been body mass index (BMI). (
  • This paper compares long-run trends in the prevalence of obesity when obesity is defined using skinfold thickness instead of body mass index (BMI), using data from the full series of U.S. National Health Examination Surveys. (
  • The Journal of Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy is an academic journal - hosted by OMICS International - a pioneer in open access publishing-and is listed among the top 10 journals in body mass index. (
  • The Journal of Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy provides a unique platform to researchers and scientist to explore the advanced and latest research developments in the field of body mass index, thus bridging the gap between researchers and young scientists. (
  • BMI calculator may overestimate and underestimate for muscular body mass and athletic body respectively. (
  • Use Total Body Water Calculator to find out your total body water content based various formulas. (
  • Use our online Body Mass Index calculator by just entering the value of Weight in Kilograms or pounds and height to calculate Body mass index (BMI) in SI Units, US Units, UK Units and the category. (
  • A bmi index calculator measures your body mass index after measuring the fat content within your body. (
  • BMI Calculator is a software program used to calculate Body Mass Index. (
  • This online body fat percentage calculator takes your gender, height, neck, waist and hip measurements (in all different units) and gives you your body fat measurement in percentage form. (
  • This calculator to measure body fat is based on a formula developed by the US Navy. (
  • Have you got your own body fat calculator, Doc? (
  • to the top of this page … Halls body fat percentage calculator. (
  • Key in your height and your weight in the following calculator to check your Body Mass Index. (
  • BMI is a calculation that uses height and weight to estimate how much body fat someone has. (
  • Body Mass Index is a simple calculation using a person's height and weight. (
  • Body mass is determined using the mathematical calculation weight in pounds multiplied by 703, divided by height in inches, squared. (
  • Body Mass Index or BMI is a calculation, based upon a person's height and weight. (
  • BMI has become the most widely-used weight-for-height index in large population studies of children and adults, thanks mainly to its ease of calculation and the ready availability of weight and height data. (
  • One place to start is by learning about body mass index, or BMI, a calculation that estimates how much body fat a person has based on his or her weight and height. (
  • During pregnancy and lactation, a woman's body composition changes, so using BMI is not appropriate. (
  • This method does not take into consideration body composition or the amount of lean mass (muscle, bone, etc) and fat mass. (
  • Therefore, BMI is not recommended for use as the sole measurement of either body composition or level of fitness. (
  • Most people think BMI tells you about bodyfat when in fact the BMI measure simply tells you about the relationship between your height and your weight, it does not take body composition into consideration. (
  • This will require a change in body composition where lean, healthy and sexy muscle mass, replaces unattractive body fat. (
  • This is because it is overly simplistic as a weight-to-height ratio and has no predictive power to predict the body composition of an individual due to the many factors that contribute to body composition, none of which are caused by either height or weight. (
  • If you ever have someone do your body composition with a body fat test please take the Lean Body Mass with a grain of salt. (
  • What is the difference between BMI and body composition? (
  • We found no consistent changes in other measures of body composition. (
  • Consequently, many local governments have enacted or are considering policies that mandate increased physical activity in schools, 18 - 22 although the effect of such interventions on body composition has not been assessed. (
  • The objective of this study was to determine whether school-based physical activity interventions improve children's body composition, as measured by BMI. (
  • The reason that the percentage of body fat you have is important is that it is a good indication of your overall body composition. (
  • Whilst body mass index bmi has been the standard measure of how healthy your weight is, this height to weight ratio does have limitations and body composition is one of them. (
  • measurements, whose normal ranges are based on a very large number of people, the percent body fat indicates body composition (and therefore health risks) of each individual . (
  • Even people with a similar age, gender, and body composition can have very different RMRs so it is important to get data that relates specifically to you. (
  • however lifestyle and body composition can play a role as well. (
  • Although BMI is not a direct or perfect measure of body fat, kids at or above the 95th percentile are considered obese, a term doctors use to indicate excess body fat, which increases the risk of weight-related health problems. (
  • According to the BMI Index, all these guys are morbidly obese. (
  • Well except maybe the guy on the left and the guy squatting, they according to the BMI index are just borderline obese. (
  • Women who are overweight or obese have up to twice the risk of developing colorectal cancer before age 50 as women who have what is considered a normal body mass index (BMI), according to new research led by Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. (
  • Body mass index (BMI) during infancy may help to predict if a child will be obese by age four. (
  • The Body Mass Index [BMI] is a range that is determined by your height and weight to know when you are underweight, whether your weight is perfect, whether you have to lose weight because you are overweight, or perhaps even obese. (
  • Overweight to obese subjects experienced a 1 mmHg increase in diastolic pressure for every increase in body mass while normal BMI individuals experienced an increase in 0.89 mmHg diastolic pressure. (
  • It is possible for a healthy, muscular individual with very low body fat to be classified obese using the BMI formula. (
  • So if someone's body mass index shows that they are obese, we can assume that they have high fat levels and are at high risk for various diseases. (
  • But some argue the index too often classifies those who are healthy as being overweight or obese. (
  • How accurate is a Body Mass Index (BMI) reading?I only ask as according to the one I have just done I am overweight bordering obese! (
  • Medical practitioners should not use BMI as a shortcut but instead examine a patient's body fat percentage, family history, eating patterns and activity levels to determine whether or not someone is obese. (
  • Men's Excellent Extra poundsNo one would like to be obese in truth it is unquestionably not match to come to be overweight, or finding as well skinny of which collectively could be averted by comprehension the healthy and balanced body weight array that f. (
  • No one would like to be overweight in simple fact it is unquestionably not suit to come to be obese, or acquiring as well skinny of which with each other could be averted by comprehension the nutritious body weight vary that most effective fits you. (
  • 10-15 A positive association between body mass index (BMI) and asthma and persistent wheeze has been reported in children 2 , 16 , 17 and surveys of predominantly older adults have found that overweight and obese individuals, as defined by BMI, were more likely than those of normal weight to report a history of asthma and bronchitis. (
  • BMI is a common measure of body weight, and most medical professionals use BMI to categorize people as having a normal weight, being overweight, or being obese. (
  • We evaluated the effects of body mass index (BMI) on thermoregulation in obese patients scheduled to undergo laparoscopic abdominal surgery. (
  • In obese patients, subcutaneous fat tissue and body surface area increase. (
  • BMI, which stands for Body Mass Index, has proved to be one of the most unreliable tools to determine whether a person is overweight or obese. (
  • A measurement of the relative percentages of fat and muscle mass in the human body, in which weight in kilograms is divided by height in meters squared. (
  • Body Mass Index (BMI) is an objective standard that is becoming the measurement of choice for most health care professionals. (
  • The Body Mass Index, a scale scientists use to determine whether someone is overweight, is not the most accurate tool to determine whether one needs to lose some pounds, but it's a useful measurement when studying global populations, experts say. (
  • Why is body mass index a standard health measurement? (
  • It takes weight and waist, hips, forearm, wrist and gender to give you a percentage body fat measurement so have a tape measure to hand. (
  • Body Mass Index (BMI) is a common measurement that is used to help define your body weight. (
  • BMI is the commonly accepted index for classifying adiposity in children, teens, and adults. (
  • BMIs are good indicators of healthy or unhealthy weights for adults, regardless of body frame size. (
  • For more information, visit Health Canada's Canadian Guidelines for Body Weight Classification in Adults . (
  • Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat in adults. (
  • Chart adapted from the Canadian Guidelines for Body Weight Classification in Adults. (
  • BMI does not exactly measure body fats but is an easy method used by most health practitioners to identify possible weight problems for adults. (
  • Kids who measure at the 85th to 94th percentiles are considered overweight, because of excess body fat or high lean body mass. (
  • Body mass index does not take into account your muscle to fat ratio and as muscle is more dense and heavy then fat, you could be built like a rhino and be considered overweight but be under the lean category. (
  • When assessing whether preschoolers are overweight, health professionals should use other measures such as waist-to-height ratio in addition to the Body Mass Index (BMI). (
  • an index for assessing overweight and underweight, obtained by dividing body weight in kilograms by height in meters squared: a measure of 25 or more is considered overweight. (
  • People with stockier builds may be considered overweight without having a lot of body fat. (
  • Furthermore, BMI does not consider people with large amounts of muscle mass, as it classifies them as overweight. (
  • Your body mass index (or your bmi) measures how under/overweight you are. (
  • A person's body mass index number, which is computed using height and weight, indicates whether a person is overweight, underweight or in between. (
  • Therefore, body builders and people who have a lot of muscle bulk will have a high BMI but are not overweight. (
  • It makes no accommodation for muscle mass being heavier than fat. (
  • BMI is a blunt instrument anyway, since it doesn't consider muscle mass vs body fat etc. (
  • I've probably lost 10-12 kg of fat, and gained 5-6 kg of muscle mass. (
  • Those with a higher muscle mass, such as athletes, may have a high BMI but not be at greater health risk. (
  • Those with a lower muscle mass, such as children who have not completed their growth or the elderly who may be losing some muscle mass may have a lower BMI. (
  • One of the major causes of failure when training to gain muscle mass is not so much in the gym as it is outside of it. (
  • Too often people think that the only time they need to be focused on building muscle mass is in the hour or so they spe. (
  • However, people should never look for an easier or more convenient way to build muscle mass fast, for th. (
  • There are so many programs on how to gain weight and muscle mass around nowadays. (
  • Studies on CLA and its gain muscle mass effect have been overlooked by the majority "experts" in bodybuildi. (
  • You hear different opinions about the value and importance of DHEA for muscle mass building. (
  • I want to give you short overview on what exactly DHEA does do in process of creating new high quality muscle mass and how you can benefit from u. (
  • So if you lift weights, are genetically lean and muscular, or play a sport that increases muscle mass, BMI can be misleading in terms of finding a healthy bodyweight. (
  • Exercise or workouts can help you gain weight by increasing muscle mass. (
  • The BMI makes no distinction between fat and muscle mass. (
  • 2. Does not measure lean muscle mass. (
  • I took a nutrition class in college and even my professor, who was a licensed practicing nutritionist said that the BMI system was not very accurate, especially for athletes or people with more muscle mass. (
  • It may underestimate body fat in older persons and others who have lost muscle mass. (
  • The BMI cannot be used to assess the health of sports people either, as the ratio of height to weight is distorted by their above-average muscle mass. (
  • Despite the likelihood of misclassification of the small percentage of individuals whose high BMI is due to lean muscle mass (e.g. some professional athletes), the great majority of individuals with high BMI have excess body fat. (
  • And it is a very simple number, which doesn't take into account things like race, age, sex, body frame, or muscle mass. (
  • *BMI may not be an accurate measure for everyone - including people who have more muscle mass (like athletes), seniors with less muscle mass or people under 5 feet tall. (
  • It is not very accurate for pregnant women, people less than five feet tall, or people who have a lot of muscle mass. (
  • While BMI is a good screening tool, it is an ineffective and inaccurate diagnostic tool that ignores both age and gender and does not distinguish between fat and muscle mass, states WebMD. (
  • For example, elderly people who have lost muscle mass may appear as normal. (
  • From the thousands of emails that readers send in with questions, the most popular topics include increasing muscle mass and lowering body fat. (
  • If you want to put on huge amounts of muscle mass, you must utilize a mass building, resistance training program that maximizes your particular set of genetics. (
  • In order to achieve lean muscle mass as a baby boomer female, you must work hard (bust ass) in the gym. (
  • This is seen as unreliable because it doesn't account for muscle mass. (
  • Dear Dr. Donohue: You imply that body mass index can distinguish between body fat and muscle mass. (
  • LBM certainly includes our muscle mass, but also includes everything else our body is made up of other than fat. (
  • BMI does not differentiate between body fat and muscle mass. (
  • This does not necessarily mean that once the percentage of body fat has been deducted from the equation, that everything else that is left is muscle mass . (
  • For example, many bodybuilders, sports stars and athletes who have a lot of muscle mass will score high on the BMI scale, despite being healthy. (
  • It is important to understand that, if you are an athlete or very active, this body mass index does not apply to your profile, because your higher muscle mass skews the results. (
  • These three powerful ingredients are included to increase metabolic function, raise fat burning levels, boost energy, and enhance lean muscle mass, all while reducing hunger and cravings. (
  • Note that the accuracy of BMI as an indicator of body fatness (adiposity) varies depending on the degree of body fatness. (
  • 85th percentile), BMI is more an indicator of fat-free mass ( Freedman and Sherry, 2009 ). (
  • While BMI is an important indicator of healthy growth and development, BMI is not a perfect measure of body fat. (
  • Body Mass Index is an indicator of some types of disease. (
  • BMI is an indicator of total body fat, which is related to the risk of disease and death. (
  • It has long been recognised that BMI is an imperfect indicator of body fat because weight does not distinguish between lean body mass (muscle, bones, blood, water) and fat mass,' said lead author Geoffrey C. Kabat, Ph.D., senior epidemiologist in the department of epidemiology & population health at Einstein. (
  • Our bodies come in different shapes and sizes and as such weight alone is not a good indicator of our health and fat levels. (
  • The Pictures BMI graph takes the approach of the Body Mass Index, while providing us with a graphical indicator of what the numbers mean in terms of our body appearance. (
  • A good indicator of how much fat your teen carries is the body mass index (BMI). (
  • Body Mass Index (BMI) is an indicator of a person's body mass (fatness), calculated using the person's height and weight. (
  • 1) A statistical indicator that measures changes in the economy in general or in particular areas.An example is the cost-of-living index. (
  • an index used to indicate whether a person is over- or underweight. (
  • Underweight results could mean that your body has issues with absorbing nutrients. (
  • It does not actually measure the percentage of body fat. (
  • This means that two individuals can have the same BMI but can have very different percentage of body fat. (
  • If body fat is the operative characteristic, for example, then why should women, who have a higher percentage of body fat than men at any given BMI value, have a shallower slope of blood pressure with BMI? (
  • It is advisable to use Body Mass Index along with Waist to Hip Ratio to get a complete picture of your weight status. (
  • Waist to height ratio calculates your body fat distribution. (
  • The body mass index (BMI) is a statistical figure indicating the ratio of height to weight. (
  • Both studies relied on the use of the Body Mass Index scale, which is simply a ratio of one's weight in kilograms divided by their height in metres squared. (
  • EDITOR,-The ratio of waist circumference to height has been shown to be a stronger predictor of intra-abdominal fat than the body mass index, 1 and this must partly explain why this ratio showed a stronger association with cardiovascular risk than did body mass index in a cross sectional study. (
  • Excess body fat is linked to an increased risk of some diseases including heart disease and some cancers. (
  • It is a simple tool that helps to figure out the amount of excess body fat and the associated risks of carrying this extra weight. (
  • Although Body Mass Index does not directly measure percent of body fat, higher BMIs are usually associated with an increase in body fat and the potential health risks of excess weight. (
  • Conclusions Excess body weight increases the incidence of liver cirrhosis. (
  • In middle aged women in the UK, an estimated 17% of incident or fatal liver cirrhosis is attributable to excess body weight. (
  • 1 2 Evidence from prospective studies suggests that excess body weight may result in a substantial increase in the risk of death from liver cirrhosis. (
  • Calculating body fat percentage is what you need to do. (
  • Calculating your Body Mass Index (BMI) requires knowing both your height and weight, explains the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (
  • A balanced diet is essential for maintaining a healthy body weight which can be assessed by calculating Body mass index (BMI). (
  • In my efforts to be prepared for the civil unrest that is undoubtedly coming, I'm on a mission to get into better shape in my early fifties, and have revisited the health measure called Body Mass Index (BMI. (
  • The data for international body mass indexes for 2014 was first published by the World Health Organization in 2015. (
  • BMI can be a use-ful tool for iden-ti-fy-ing cer-tain health risks but it should be used with cau-tion as it does not take in-to con-sid-er-a-tion body com-po-si-tion. (
  • As far as I understand, body mass index is not an exact or detailed description of your health or fitness level. (
  • As soon as you have done so you are shown your body mass index which you can compare with the weight categories as defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO). (
  • The BMI is a guide value in health terms, but it disregards certain aspects, e.g. how the body mass is made up in each case (fat, muscle, bone density, etc. (
  • Tables drawn up by the World Health Organization (WHO) are used to evaluate the body mass index. (
  • Millar agreed that body fat, rather than weight, is a much better measure of someone's overall health, and that electronic devices and not the BMI are better suited to examine that. (
  • Food and lifestyle are two of the major factors we can scrutinize in order to understand our body and our health as well. (
  • Those three little letters, which stand for body mass index, would have you believe that a simple math problem is all you need to calculate and rate your overall health. (
  • Since Quetelet was a mathematician and not a doctor, he said at the time that the index shouldn't be used to indicate overall health. (
  • Body weight index is important to health and maintaining a good body. (
  • is a good site that you can enter your information and get what you need to find your body weight index and help you reach your health goals. (
  • The CDC warns that BMI shouldn't be used to define body fat or diagnose health conditions. (
  • A regulation adopted by the state Public Health Council in April requires schools to calculate the body mass index, or BMI, of students in grades 1, 4, 7 and 10 and report the numbers to parents and the state. (
  • Staywell®´´, an independent company, offers health and wellness engagement tools and information on behalf of Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts. (
  • Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts is a leading provider of quality health insurance for residents of Massachusetts. (
  • To learn more about our Massachusetts health plans, please visit our Plans & Products page, where you can compare Massachusetts health insurance plans, buy health plans online, and get Mass health insurance quotes. (
  • The body-fat percentage may be a useful tool for predicting an individual's health. (
  • 3 Program in Genetic Epidemiology and Statistical Genetics, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. (
  • BMI is not a direct measure of body fatness. (
  • Although not a perfect measure of body fat, BMI helps identify children who are gaining weight too slowly or too quickly. (
  • BMI is not a direct measure of body fat. (
  • If you are interested, have a professional measure your body fat (calipers are fine), which is what BMI is estimating. (
  • It is not the most accurate measure of how much body fat you have, but it is the easiest and least expensive way to measure it. (
  • Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure that relates body weight to height. (
  • BMI is sometimes used to measure total body fat and whether a person is a healthy weight. (
  • Elevated body mass index - a measure of weight accounting for a person's height - has been shown to be a likely causal contributor to population patterns in mortality, according to a new study led by the University of Bristol using measurements and mortality data from 500,000 people. (
  • As a measure that includes both weight and height, BMI is an approximation of body fat content. (
  • Are schools crossing the line when they measure body fat through BMI scores? (
  • A better way for you to find a healthy weight is to find a professional who can measure your body fat percentage. (
  • He can't just come up with it on his on, he has to have them measure and estimate and get him all stirred up into a fascist body comp frenzy! (
  • The Body Mmass Index (BMI), is a measure which compares a person's weight and height. (
  • Body mass index is a measure of weight adjusted for height. (
  • Typical tests are body fat calipers, scales that used electric impulses to measure various masses and the most accurate is Hydrostatic testing which can be expensive but is the best way to gain accurate results. (
  • BMI is a measure of body fat based on a person's weight and height. (
  • The measure of fat content in human body based on the height and weight is the body mass index (BMI). (
  • A study suggests that body mass index (BMI)-the most commonly used weight-for-height formula for estimating fatness-may not be the best measure for estimating disease risk. (
  • A study by researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University suggests that body mass index (BMI)-the most commonly used weight-for-height formula for estimating fatness-may not be the best measure for estimating disease risk, and particularly the risk of certain types of cancer . (
  • Main outcome measure Body mass index (BMI, weight/height 2 ). (
  • The association between measures of body mass and blood pressure has been extensively documented, usually with body mass index (kg/m 2 ) as the measure of relative weight. (
  • The body mass index (BMI), contrary to popular belief, does not measure body fat. (
  • A body mass index is a measure of your body fat level in accordance to your weight, age, and height. (
  • BMI is a measure that is calculated by dividing body mass by the square of the height. (
  • Although it's not a perfect measure, it gives a fairly accurate assessment of how much of your teen's body is composed of fat. (
  • Body mass index (BMI) is measure of body fat based on height and weight that applies to both adult men and women. (
  • Indexes measure the ups and downs of stock , bond , and some commodities markets , in terms of market prices and weighting of companies in the index . (
  • For those reasons, indexes are often used as performance benchmarks against which to measure the return of investments that resemble those tracked by the index. (
  • This is an indirect measure of the number of calories your body needs to maintain normal physiological function i.e. the amount of calories your body would need at rest to keep your heart, lungs, brain and other organs working properly. (
  • As reported from the above article, The body mass index (BMI), or Quetelet index, is a measure of relative weight based on an individual's mass and height. (
  • Finding a professional that is proficient at skinfolds and can analyze the results for you will be the best way to understand and maintain a healthy weight or help you get on a path to reach a healthy body weight. (
  • have thoughts about harming others a healthy mind and body. (
  • People with small frames may be considered a healthy weight when they actually have an unhealthy level of body fat. (
  • 20 through 24: A BMI between 20 and 22 indicates a healthy amount of body fat and is associated with a long life and with less serious illness. (
  • Body Mass Index , or BMI , is the method medical professionals use to determine if someone is a healthy weight. (
  • It is used only to estimate a healthy body weight based on a person's height. (
  • MEASURES: Dietary quality was calculated using the US Department of Agriculture's Healthy Eating Index-2005. (
  • It is also often a strong driving force behind reaching/sustaining our healthy weight, so to have an idea of how bodies look at different BMIs is useful in that respect also. (
  • Based on a research on aborigines in solitary parts of Australia suggest that the healthy limit on body mass index might be lower than previously thought. (
  • One study that examined 665 people on the relation between BMI and percent body fat found that age , gender and race play a role in what is a healthy body fat percent. (
  • If we are to have healthy ranges or an ideal body fat percentage range then these factors need to be taken into consideration. (
  • If your body weight is healthy, your BMI would fall between 18.5 and 24.9. (
  • The answer 24.56 would be your BMI score and this would mean you'd fit into the 'healthy' body weight category. (
  • Development of a lifestyle-diet quality index for primary schoolchildren and its relation to insulin resistance: the Healthy Lifestyle-Diet Index. (
  • The BMIs of a 5-foot-10-inch, 200-pound running back with 6 percent body fat and a 5-foot-10-inch, 200-pound housewife with 40 percent body fat come out the same -- 28.8. (
  • It may overestimate body fat in athletes and others who have a muscular build. (
  • Body mass index is misleading for the very tall, the very muscular and the very elderly. (
  • Does Body Mass Index Predict Premature Cardiomyopathy Onset for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy? (
  • No association was detected between the body mass index Z scores of Duchenne muscular dystrophy subjects and age of cardiomyopathy onset. (
  • This study aims to investigate the association of urinary concentration of phthalate metabolites with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in 2016 on 242 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years living in Isfahan, Iran. (
  • Waist circumference is another method of assessing your body fat. (
  • To determine the association between measures of adiposity (body mass index and waist circumference) and risk factors for heart disease, type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease, and the clustering of risk factors in middle adolescence. (
  • Waist circumference is not a better predictor of metabolic risk factors than is body mass index. (
  • The aim of this study was to explore the associations of accessibility and availability of supermarkets and fast food outlets with Body Mass Index (BMI) z-score and waist circumference among youth with diabetes. (
  • Their research provides a new twist on an old metric: the body mass index, or BMI , which measures body size based on a person's height and weight. (
  • The age of a person also influences the assessment of their BMI as body weight generally increases as they become older. (
  • As people age, their proportion of body fat generally increases, which is why different guide values apply to the various age groups. (
  • Data gathered over 40 years fromfive national surveys show that U.S.residents, aged 20 to 74 years, showedsignificant increases in diagnoseddiabetes with increased body mass. (
  • The value of an index increases when the aggregate value of the underlying securities increases, and decreases when the aggregate value decreases. (
  • For example, it has been proposed that an investor's basis on a security be indexed for changes in consumer prices so that only real increases in value will be taxed. (
  • The Body Mass Index (BMI) measures the weight status of your body in relation to the fat. (
  • Body mass index measures a person's height in relation to their weight. (
  • Objective To determine the relation between body mass index (BMI) and liver cirrhosis and the contribution that BMI and alcohol consumption make to the incidence of liver cirrhosis in middle aged women in the UK. (
  • Several studies have reported a positive relation of baseline body mass index (BMI) with multiple myeloma, but data on other correlates of energy balance are limited. (
  • The mechanical requirements of running and racing at different speeds are related to the notable differences in body types long-observed among specialized track athletes - and even among animal runners in nature. (
  • However, Weyand and Davis unexpectedly discovered that this same index can guide some athletes toward body sizes that will optimize their performance. (
  • Body Mass Index calculations provide an objective assessment of weight. (
  • Our study's primary objective was to assess the association between body mass index (BMI) categories and critical forms of COVID-19. (
  • Objective To determine cut offs to define thinness in children and adolescents, based on body mass index at age 18 years. (
  • OBJECTIVE: This study examined the relationship between depressive symptomatology, dietary quality, and body weight among a sample of SNAP participants (n=639). (
  • The objective of this study was to estimate the association of body mass index with cardiomyopathy onset. (
  • For instance, BMI may underestimate body fat in an older person who has lost muscle tone. (
  • Peak bone mass is not achieved until about the age of 25 years. (
  • Mus-cle and bone are denser than fat, so BMI can over-es-ti-mate body fat in ath-letes with high bone den-si-ty and mus-cle mass, or un-der-es-ti-mate it in old-er peo-ple who have low bone den-si-ty and mus-cle mass. (
  • It includes considering the amount of bone, muscle, and fat in his or her body. (
  • This type of fat is found in most parts of the body such as nerve sheaths, walls of organs, bone marrow and muscles and is essential to normal functioning. (
  • Sports figures, extremely tall people, extremely short people, bodybuilders, gymnasts, are very likely to have high BMI's as it fails to take into account things like body fat, muscle, bone structure, and who knows what else. (
  • As the body is at risk of deficiency here, such persons have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. (
  • Your body mass index (BMI) and waist size affect your risk of type 2 diabetes , high blood pressure , high cholesterol , and coronary artery disease . (
  • men with a body mass index between 20 and 22.5 kg/m2 had the lowest risk. (
  • Because, BMI correlates with body weight and gives us insight on fat levels. (
  • Fat-free mass includes everything from your skin, bones, ligaments, and tendons, to your organs and water content. (
  • Body mass index z -scores correspond to growth chart percentiles, and can be converted into their equivalent BMI-for-age percentiles by comparison to a normal distribution table, but this is unnecessary for clinical application. (
  • A recent study by Boston University School of Social Work Assistant Professor Daniel Miller found that different characteristics of home and school environments were related to a child's body mass index (BMI) in kindergarten and the rate of BMI growth until fifth grade. (
  • But they also observed that while there was no significant difference between male and female subjects' in neck endurance, body mass index was a significant predictor of neck endurance. (
  • Abstract Associations between body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) have been consistently observed, but remain poorly understood. (
  • Abstract P089: Does Social Support Attenuate the Impact of Poverty Status on Body Mass Index? (
  • You might try other methods, such as the skin fold test, to approximate your percent body fat. (
  • Here are two methods for assessing body fat. (
  • And here is the data for mean and median Body Mass Index (BMI) in kg/m 2 , of Americans during 1988 to 1994. (
  • We were unable to detect a significant difference in median body mass index Z scores in corticosteroid-treated boys compared with corticosteroid-naïve boys (1.11, 95% confidence interval 0.25-1.95, vs 1.05, 95% confidence interval 0.01-1.86, P = .69). (
  • Adult body mass index (BMI) was calculated from reported height and weight. (
  • Although much research has been conducted on the role adult body mass index (BMI) plays in mortality, there have been fewer studies that evaluated the associations of BMI in young adulthood and adult weight trajectory with mortality, and it remains uncertain whether associations differ by race or sex. (
  • According to my last BF calculations, I had 192 lbs of lean mass with a body fat % somewhere around 20% and that was back in 2004. (
  • Your calculations are correct, although it's a bit unfair to give the housewife 40 percent body fat. (
  • Your body mass index (BMI) is an estimate of your body fat that is based on your height and weight. (
  • Your Body Mass Index (BMI) is basically the relationship between your height and weight. (
  • Body Mass Index takes into account a person's height and weight to determine levels of body fat. (
  • Your body weight index is determined by your height and weight. (
  • However, Weyand and Davis found the trade-offs involved in specialization for speed versus endurance conform to precise body-mass rules. (
  • The body mass index is a way of predicting your percent body fat by taking into account your height versus your weight. (
  • Body Mass Index versus Body Fat Percentage, in a fight, who would win Doc? (
  • FE results show that higher fruit and vegetable prices are statistically significantly related to a higher body mass index (BMI) percentile ranking among children with greater effects among low-income children: fruit and vegetable price elasticity for BMI is estimated to be 0.25 for the full sample and 0.60 among low-income children. (
  • 1988) have been used to find body fat percentages for children 8-18 years. (
  • The purpose of this study was to examine secular changes in the body mass index (BMI) of Canadian children between 1981 and 1996. (
  • The BMI cannot be applied to children, older persons or people who do a lot of sport as their body mass differs from average values. (
  • As the bodies of children and adolescents develop neither uniformly or in synchrony, the BMI cannot be used for young persons. (
  • We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effect of school-based physical activity interventions on body mass index (BMI) in children. (
  • For children and teens, age and gender are factored in for BMI screening because body fat can vary so much between boys and girls and by age. (
  • Conclusion In children, higher BMI z-score is an independent determinant of increased LA size after adjusting for age, height, sex and the effects of blood pressure on LV wall thickness and mass. (
  • In older kids and teens, there is a strong connection between BMI and the amount of body fat. (
  • It's a more general method of knowing what the body fat levels are like and what the risks for illness are. (
  • One way of watching weight is by using a mathematical tool known as the body mass index, or BMI, which is used to estimate the amount of fat in your body. (