Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Policy: A course or method of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.United StatesSocioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.Health Transition: Demographic and epidemiologic changes that have occurred in the last five decades in many developing countries and that are characterized by major growth in the number and proportion of middle-aged and elderly persons and in the frequency of the diseases that occur in these age groups. The health transition is the result of efforts to improve maternal and child health via primary care and outreach services and such efforts have been responsible for a decrease in the birth rate; reduced maternal mortality; improved preventive services; reduced infant mortality, and the increased life expectancy that defines the transition. (From Ann Intern Med 1992 Mar 15;116(6):499-504)Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Consumer Advocacy: The promotion and support of consumers' rights and interests.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Social Control Policies: Decisions for determining and guiding present and future objectives from among alternatives.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Great BritainDental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Universal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Resource Allocation: Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Democracy: A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Administrative Personnel: Individuals responsible for the development of policy and supervision of the execution of plans and functional operations.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Local Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Health Planning Councils: Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.BrazilMental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Power (Psychology): The exertion of a strong influence or control over others in a variety of settings--administrative, social, academic, etc.EuropeBudgets: Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Medicaid: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.Public Health Dentistry: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of oral health through promoting organized dental health programs at a community, state, or federal level.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)National Health Insurance, United StatesInformation Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Cost Control: The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Capital Financing: Institutional funding for facilities and for equipment which becomes a part of the assets of the institution.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Diffusion of Innovation: The broad dissemination of new ideas, procedures, techniques, materials, and devices and the degree to which these are accepted and used.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Smoke-Free Policy: Prohibition against tobacco smoking in specific areas to control TOBACCO SMOKE POLLUTION.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Legislation as Topic: The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Family Planning Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, to guide and determine present and future decisions on population control by limiting the number of children or controlling fertility, notably through family planning and contraception within the nuclear family.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Sociology, Medical: The study of the social determinants and social effects of health and disease, and of the social structure of medical institutions or professions.Privatization: Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.IndiaLegislation, Dental: Laws and regulations pertaining to the field of dentistry, proposed for enactment or recently enacted by a legislative body.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.Tobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Lobbying: A process whereby representatives of a particular interest group attempt to influence governmental decision makers to accept the policy desires of the lobbying organization.Fees and Charges: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.Empirical Research: The study, based on direct observation, use of statistical records, interviews, or experimental methods, of actual practices or the actual impact of practices or policies.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.
... health and social policy; disability policy in Europe and internationally; the sociology of knowledge; sociology of the body; ... Body - Power - Difference (since 2007), in cooperation with Thomas Macho, other colleagues and the German publisher transcript ...
Roberts, TA; Auinger, P; Ryan, SA (2004). "Body piercing and high-risk behavior in adolescents". J Adolesc Health. 34 (3): 224- ... Journal of Public Health Policy. 20 (4): 459-470. doi:10.2307/3343131. Stapleton, F Bruder (2004). "Infection after ear ... doi:10.1016/s0005-7967(96)00127-1. Poe, Susannah; Cronin, Anne (2014). "Health risks associated with tattoos and body piercing ... leading to further body modification activities, such as more body piercings, tattoos, daring clothing, and extreme hairstyles ...
"Transfer of nutrition policy to health departments" (Press release). Food Standards Agency. 30 September 2010. Archived from ... "New Scottish food standards body planned". BBC News. BBC. 27 June 2012. "About us: A new food body for Scotland". Food ... There was overwhelming support for the Agency's policy of basing decisions on scientific evidence, and for this policy to be ... Nutrition policy, including nutrition labelling, in England and Wales was transferred from the Food Standards Agency to the ...
In case of violation by a corporate body, the management shall be held responsible. Health in India Drug policy of India " ...
CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Oakley, Ann (2007). Fracture: adventures of a broken body. Bristol: Policy Press. ... Richard Titmuss on the National Health Service. Bristol, UK: Policy Press. ISBN 9781861345608. ... Richard Titmuss's contribution to social policy. Bristol England: Policy Press. ISBN 9781861342997. CS1 maint: Extra text: ... Bristol, UK: Policy Press. ISBN 9781447318101. Oakley, Ann (1986). Telling the truth about Jerusalem: a collection of essays ...
The body, health care, management and policy, tools and approaches. International Labour Organization. pp. 1026-. ISBN 978-92-2 ... "Hierarchy of Controls - NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic". U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. ... "NIOSH Directory of Engineering Controls". U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved 2016-06-13. ... ISBN 978-1-931504-83-6. "Hierarchy of Controls" (PDF). U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Retrieved 2017-03-09 ...
Stellman, Jeanne Mager (1998). Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety: The body, health care, management and policy, ... This enables the body to make "keep or spit out" decisions when there is more than one tastant present. "No single neuron type ... In the human body a stimulus refers to a form of energy which elicits a physiological or psychological action or response. ... 38 World Health Organization, 1998. How the Taste Bud Translates Between Tongue and Brain, 4 August 1992. Zhao GQ, ...
The University of Glasgow offers an MA in Health and Social Policy; an MA Primary Education Programme with Teaching ... Its previous student body was made up by around 250 Glasgow University students and 400 UWS students. Collectively known as ... Dumfries and Galloway Health Board Dr Allan Beveridge, ed. (2005). "Psychiatry in pictures -- 186 (1): 1-a1 -- The British ...
1916-1927) (Sex education: hygiene education and health policies), Rudolstadt/Thür.: Greifenverl., 1928. Elternhygiene : ... Der Mensch, sein Körper und seine Lebenstätigkeit (Man: his body and his life activity), München: Birk, 1927. Sexualpädagogik: ... Hodann was a medical health officer in Reinickendorf, Berlin from 1922 to 1923. He worked at Magnus Hirschfeld's Institute for ...
The Academic Board is LSE's principal academic body, and considers all major issues of general policy affecting the academic ... the Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy, the Centre for Macroeconomics, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE Health ... human resource and employment policy; health and safety; "educational character and mission", and student experience. The ... The principal governance bodies of the LSE are: the LSE Council; the Court of Governors; the Academic Board; and the Director ...
Stewart Coats was appointed chair of Australia's peak policy body for Health Informatics, the Australian Health Information ... Health.pdf. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 February 2011. Retrieved 28 February 2011. Missing or empty ,title= (help) " ... and the George Institute of International Health. Stewart Coats has two brothers, one of whom, Peter, works for Minter Ellison ... liability claims and occupational health and safety prosecutions, and insurance law and is a graduate of the Melbourne Law ...
Its policy work has also focused on the role of universities in supporting the UK's industrial strategy and nurturing arts, ... The initial programme in applied biosciences for health was followed with further programmes, focused on energy and social ... A large proportion of courses (43%) offered by Alliance universities are accredited by professional bodies. In 2015, University ... "UA responds to new REF policy announcements , University Alliance". Retrieved 2017-12-14. "EU structural ...
... the Ministry of Health encompasses general health policies, health law enforcement, children's and seniors' health policies, ... The Chartered Institute of Environmental Health has called the Ministry of Health "the most important governing body of food ... To formulate working programs and policies on rural health, as well as maternal and child health care; to guide the ... The general duties of the SFDA are: To draft health laws, regulations and policies; to propose health development programs and ...
Try a Post-partisan Approach to Public Health Policy." Longwoods Publications. Seeman N. 2008. "Why Barack Obama's Hot Body ... Health innovation researcher Neil Seeman was the first to apply these principles to health policy decision-making, specifically ... "Dear Stephen Harper: Try a Post-partisan Approach to Public Health Policy." Longwoods Publications. Harwood, J. 2008. "' ... The process plays to ego, not good policy." Postpartisan decision-making, in advance of landing on any final policy proposal, ...
Further, it acts as an advisory body to the Government of India in matters related to National Health Policy and Planning. The ... which acts as an advisory body to the Government in matters related to National Health Policy and Planning and as a promoting ... and is awarded for the best unpublished work on community health and medicine, medical education and hospital administration ... agency for continuing medical education (CME) for medical and health professionals. It is a part of the Inter Academy Medical ...
His austerity policy included dismissal of employees and restrictions on savings accounts and health benefits, a policy he ... As the minister of finance he formed an advisory body of economists. It later became the National Economic Council of Czech ... domestic policy and Sobotka's withdrawn resignation in May 2017. Sobotka is the first Prime Minister in 15 years and the third ...
The county board sets policy and laws for the county regarding property, public health services, public safety, and maintenance ... The Cook County Board of Commissioners is the county's legislative body. It made up of 17 commissioners who are elected by ... The Bureau of Health Services administers the county's public health services and is the second largest public health system in ... The Cook County Forest Preserves, organized in 1915, is a separate, independent taxing body, but the Cook County Board of ...
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In this position she retained her previous role and added responsibility for ADF Joint Health, Joint Logistics and Cadet and ... Reserve Policy. In late 2014 she was appointed to the Commission of the Australian Football League, the governing body of ...
... health and social policies; increases participation of people of color in policy debates and policy-making bodies; and ... "African-Americans, Health Disparities, and HIV/AIDS" decries a lack of basic knowledge among many minority youths about HIV/ ... "African-Americans, Health Disparities, and HIV/AIDS" called for expansion of the Housing Opportunities for People with HIV/AIDS ... African-Americans, Health Disparities, and HIV/AIDS" credits widespread, voluntary HIV testing with alerting those who are HIV- ...
Shamian was executive director of Health Canada's Office of Nursing Policy. She helped lead a study that resulted in policy ... Government departments and agencies and academic bodies, including the World Health Organization (WHO), often call on her to ... and health-care policy. Dr. Shamian's campaign to become ICN president focused on uniting nursing, health-care and other groups ... Optimizing the use of evidence and expertise is essential to convince governments and others to improve health-care policy. ...
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5,000,000 to teachers Increase of 257% of HCM (Health Policy) Debt payment in uniforms from 2007 to 2013 for Bs. 1,088,047 ... Open elections of the local public planning council Endowment of more than 300 uniforms, boots and body harnesses to the ... To promote coexistence and human development through meeting spaces and social management policies Crosscutting Axes Citizen ...
In the Landtag, Huml served as a member of the Committee for Social, Health and Family Policy until 2007. In October 2007, she ... Starting in May 2008, she concurrently held a position on the City Council of Bamberg, a body she would serve on until April ... A member of the Christian Social Union of Bavaria, Huml has served as Minister of State for Health and Nursing in the Cabinet ... Newly elected Minister-President Horst Seehofer appointed Huml as Secretary of State for the Ministry of Environment and Health ...
The tobacco control field comprises the activity of disparate health, policy and legal research and reform advocacy bodies ... This broadly organised set of health research and policy development bodies then formed the Framework Convention Alliance to ... Tobacco control is a field of international public health science, policy and practice dedicated to addressing tobacco use and ... Last of all, because it is a great augmentor of all sorts of melancholie in our bodies, a humor fit to prepare our bodies to ...
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia ... was a Christian socialist and campaigned for better education and health for poor children. A few years later the Springburn ... the leadership's view that public education should be secular and Socialist Sunday Schools were for purely educational bodies ...
Concerns at closure of mental health policy body. By Jeremy Dunning on January 12, 2011 in Adults, Mental Health ... The National Mental Health Development Unit, which helps to implement mental health policy, will be wound up on 31 March with ... "It is important that in future there is the capacity for policy development and implementation of the new mental health ... New mental health agency signals an era of co-operation on policy ... Burstow to put mental health on par with physical health. Acute ...
World Health Assembly, 2. (‎1949)‎. Policy on invitations to appoint members to governing bodies of health administrations: ... Policy on invitations to appoint members to governing bodies of health administrations: request from the London School of ... Advocacy strategies for health and development: development communication in action  World Health Organization. Health ... Health impact assessment of agriculture and food policies : lessons learnt from the Republic of Slovenia / Karen Lock ... [‎et ...
UCLA Center for Health Policy Research Building Knowledge. Informing Policy. Improving Health. *Newsroom ... 2005 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS 2005); Diet and Nutrition; Health Behaviors; Obesity/Overweight; Physical ... Health Databytes Blog. An unexpected error occured. The Web application at ... The authors used weighted data from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey to produce population-based estimates of the ...
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  • The government's decision to scrap its main mental health agency has sparked concern in the sector that support to improve services will be withdrawn. (
  • The National Mental Health Development Unit , which helps to implement mental health policy, will be wound up on 31 March with no plans for a successor organisation. (
  • This is despite the fact that the government is due to publish a mental health strategy this month. (
  • Its abolition could create a vacuum, warned Steve Shrubb, director of the NHS Confederation's Mental Health Network. (
  • It is important that in future there is the capacity for policy development and implementation of the new mental health strategy, which we are expecting soon," he said. (
  • Programmes it delivers include Improving Access to Psychological Therapies , a high-profile scheme to widen access to talking therapies for people with common mental health problems. (
  • The unit replaced the National Institute for Mental Health in England (Nihme) in April 2009. (
  • Nihme, formed in 2002, had supported the implementation of the National Service Framework for Mental Health . (
  • Even the most cynical individual would acknowledge the contribution that Nihme and the NMHDU have made in mental health and there's an anxiety over who will provide support," said Shrubb. (
  • The momentum of some aspects of current NMHDU work needs to be sustained, as the mental health community seeks to further improve the experience of service users," he said. (
  • T heresa May today promises the biggest shake-up of mental health provision for 30 years if re-elected to tackle the "burning injustice" of current treatment. (
  • A string of policies designed to end discrimination in mental health treatment and make provision suitable for the 21st century will be implemented instead. (
  • T en thousand more NHS staff will be assigned to mental health work in the next three years to boost treatment under the Tory plans. (
  • A teacher in every primary and secondary school will be trained in mental health first aid to identify signs that children are developing anxiety or depression. (
  • Discrimination laws will be toughened up to protect employees with mental health issues, while Samaritans charity helpline will be government funded until 2022. (
  • It is a victory for The Telegraph's campaign to improve mental health treatment, which has seen members of the royal family go public with their own experiences. (
  • T he pledges will form part of the Conservative manifesto and come after the Prime Minister named improving mental health as a key priority when she took office. (
  • Mrs May said: "On my first day in Downing Street last July, I described shortfalls in mental health services as one of the burning injustices in our country. (
  • T he Act was written at a time when mental health issues did not have the same level of understanding or prominence in public debate as today. (
  • Part of the problem, according to Tory sources, is that mental health case law built up over the years is all based on the old legislation. (
  • Therefore Mrs May will repeal the Act and bring forward a Mental Health Treatment Bill in its place. (
  • Ten thousand extra workers will be put on mental health provision in the NHS. (
  • H owever, campaigners are likely to criticise the failure to promise billions of extra spending on mental health that they have demanded. (
  • A teacher in every state school in England and Wales will also be trained in mental health first aid if the Conservatives are re-elected. (
  • The courses, described as "comprehensive" by Tory sources, will equip teachers to spot developing mental health issues in children and tackle psychotic episodes. (
  • The laws of countries allowing abortion on health grounds can vary in their formulation: Some countries indicate abortion is permitted under broad health or therapeutic grounds, while others specify that abortion is permitted when a woman's mental health is at risk. (
  • For example, in the case of LC v. Peru , the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW Committee) recognized that restrictive interpretations of health exceptions that do not take into account both physical and mental health can result in violations of the right to health. (
  • 6 The General Comment further recognizes that states must also adopt legal frameworks that enable women to access abortion on health grounds 7 and "prior psychiatric examinations are not necessary to establish the risk to mental health. (
  • 11 Furthermore, the Committee of Experts of the Follow-Up Mechanism to the Belém do Pará Convention has recommended that states legalize abortion on therapeutic grounds, including to avoid serious or permanent injury to the woman's physical and mental health. (
  • 13 The WHO defines mental health as "a state of well-being in which every individual realizes his or her own potential, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to her or his community. (
  • California's Mental Health Services Act has infused funding for workforce education and training into the public mental health system. (
  • This study draws on findings from a recent evaluation of how older adults are served by California's public mental health delivery system, and a review of state planning documents and academic literature, to describe gaps and deficiencies in the workforce that serves older adults. (
  • and county mental health/behavioral health departments and their contracted providers. (
  • The National Institute of Mental Health of the National Institutes of Health supported the work. (
  • These obstacles stem from characteristics historically linked to discrimination or exclusion such as race or ethnicity, religion, socioeconomic status, gender, mental health, sexual orientation, or geographic location. (
  • Mental health policy - stumbling in the dark? (
  • Under the [National Mental Health] Strategy, the Federal Government is committed to playing a leadership role in setting national objectives for reform and in measuring the progress of all governments towards them. (
  • A ustralia has a proud recent history of developing mental health plans - broad, collaborative documents involving all state, territory and federal governments. (
  • Bringing together different governments and stakeholders to agree to a national approach to mental health is quite an achievement. (
  • In addition to the National Mental Health Strategy, other mental health plans include the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) National Action Plan on Mental Health (2006) and a series of associated strategies, primarily focused on increasing access to mental health treatment through the Medicare Benefits Schedule. (
  • There are now 10 national reports summarising information about levels of mental health service provision, shifts in funding allocations, and efforts to engage the community, carers and consumers. (
  • The aims of our mental health strategies and plans remain largely unmeasured. (
  • Existing mental health services already have invoicing systems in place to receive government funding for the services they provide. (
  • A report of the Information Strategy Committee of the Australian Health Ministers' Advisory Council National Mental Health Working Group found that less than a third of the key performance measures required for full accountability of public mental health services were available. (
  • There have been several attempts to identify the necessary datasets for more effective monitoring, 10 , 11 but the barriers to collecting these data within the current information systems are overwhelming because current systems rely on data extracted from a disparate range of mental health service systems across Australia. (
  • The most recent report on mental health services in Australia released in 2008 summarised data up until 2005. (
  • Each of the 10 leading health indicators (physical activity, overweight and obesity, tobacco use, substance use, responsible sexual behavior, mental health, injury prevention, environmental quality, immunizations, and access to care) outlined in Healthy People 2010 requires effective health promotion beginning in early childhood. (
  • A Guide to Study Design for the Perplexed," which used simple graphs and easy-to-understand text - in 5 case studies - to illustrate how powerful biases, combined with weak study designs that cannot control for those biases, yielded untrustworthy findings on influenza vaccination policy, health information technology, drug safety, prevention of childhood obesity, and hospital safety ("mortality reduction") programs. (
  • A complex network of research funding, institutional ties, and personal influence allowed Coca-Cola, through connections with a nonprofit group, to exert substantial influence over obesity science and policy solutions in China, nudging government policy into alignment with the company's corporate interests, a Harvard study has found. (
  • Coke wanted to get its solution onto the public health agenda at the earliest possible moment and influence the global discourse on obesity. (
  • Both overweight and obesity are associated with increased health risk for chronic diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, stroke, fatty liver disease and some forms of cancer. (
  • Inadequate consumption of fruits and vegetables, irregular or no exercise, and poor self-reported health status are all significantly associated with increasing rates of overweight and obesity. (
  • The world-wide growth in obesity: an economic research agenda ," Health Economics , John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 10(1), pages 1-7. (
  • An economic analysis of adult obesity: results from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System ," Journal of Health Economics , Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 565-587, May. (
  • Can a citizen's jury transform obesity policy? (
  • A recent announcement that VicHealth will run a citizen's jury to look at solutions to obesity was not met with support from all in the health setting. (
  • To that end, Bay Area public health experts said it's no surprise that San Francisco and Marin, the region's two wealthiest counties, had the lowest obesity rates - 11.8 percent and 13.6 percent, respectively. (
  • In the study, obesity was defined as having a body mass index score of 30 or higher. (
  • Smith emphasized that obesity, like smoking, is as much a community health issue as it is a personal problem. (
  • Dietary Sugar and Body Weight: Have We Reached a Crisis in the Epidemic of Obesity and Diabetes? (
  • Education, Disordered Eating and Obesity Discourse investigates how 'body centred talk' about weight, fat, food and exercise is recycled in schools, enters educational processes, and impacts on the identities and health of young people. (
  • It will interest students, teachers, doctors, health professionals and researchers concerned with obesity and weight issues. (
  • Body Pedagogies, Obesity Discourse and Disordered Eating 3. (
  • Sacred Knowledge, Science and Health Policy: Obesity as Instructional Discourse 4. (
  • Follow your passion by choosing distinctive learning pathways, from biomedical, research, and social determinants of population health and equity, to Indigenous health, economic factors, and global approaches to health issues, such as obesity and heart disease. (
  • Given the many policy challenges he has had to take on since January 20, 2009, plus the one he chose to take on - health policy reform, aka PPACA, there's no question he is in a unique place in history today. (
  • But, it is the Republicans - the "Party of No" on Obamacare - that are carrying the day on bringing health policy in line with health reform on the ground in the U.S. today. (
  • This paper presents a real world side-by-side comparison of Senator Obama ™ s and Senator McCain ™ s positions on health care reform and the key challenges facing the U.S. health care system. (
  • In the current era of health care reform, the Academy's role in advocating for our patients and otolaryngologists is essential. (
  • The public health catastrophe known as the Flint water crisis is also a textbook case about the consequences of immigration policy, including the federal stalemate concerning reform and state-level policymaking, on the health of undocumented immigrants living in this low-income city. (
  • Up until 2003, about half of ILSI-China's work dealt with measurement issues - the organization created a series of China-specific thresholds for body mass index - and advanced at least some prevention efforts aimed at nutrition, but none centered on physical activity. (
  • As a result, birth weight and height provide noisy but useful measures of health and nutrition in utero and in early life, respectively. (
  • Nutrition policy, including nutrition labelling, in England and Wales was transferred from the Food Standards Agency to the Department of Health in England and to the Assembly Government in Wales on 1 October 2010. (
  • The Food Standards Agency offices in Scotland and Northern Ireland have retained their responsibilities for nutrition policy. (
  • Food Standards Scotland took over from the FSA on 1 April 2015 as the public body responsible for food safety, food standards, nutrition, food labelling and meat inspection in Scotland. (
  • Building on extensive methodological work, which has involved pioneering and refining a variety of techniques for measuring energy expenditure, body composition and breast-milk intake in younger ages, I am involved in numerous collaborative projects worldwide where we aim to apply these methods to understand the links between early-life nutrition and later health. (
  • To aid the interpretation of these data and their application to public health nutrition policies, I also work extensively on evolutionary theory, addressing the association between developmental plasticity and health. (
  • For example, In the Matter of B., the Inter-American Court addressed the blanket criminalization of abortion in a case where a pregnant woman was facing serious risks to her life and health. (
  • The authors argue that global health institutions should start tackling the social norms and commercial interests that push men to take risks with their health. (
  • However, due to the inevitable pain and potential health risks associated with baby ear piercing, many are petitioning to ban the optional procedure with no medical benefits. (
  • The incidence of complications of piercing a baby's ears are still unknown, but because of its popularity, many parents and caregivers easily forget that any cosmetic piercing carries inherent dangers and health risks. (
  • Braithwaite R, Stephens T, Sterk C, Braithwaite K. Risks associated with tattooing and body piercing. (
  • The document provides a template for the policy which can be tailored to suit any business and contains guidance on the type of information which should be included within the policy to ensure that the health and safety risks are properly controlled. (
  • Policies, procedures and legislations are here to make sure we have a safe working environment and to reduce any risks from happening. (
  • As such, the clients are subjected to risks of contracting contagious diseases noting that single body-piercing equipment is used on many clients. (
  • Then, search on any target organ system to find the health effects information on that system. (
  • She maintained deep ties to China's public health sector, including the Ministry of Health, even after establishing ILSI-China, Greenhalgh said, which allowed her to work behind the scenes to exert significant policy influence. (
  • Among the new diseases covered by insurance are psychological issues that require hospital care indicated by the Ministry of Health and psoriasis. (
  • At the same time, I would also like to note that the Ministry of Health of Latvia has been actively working on reduction of harmful alcohol consumption and its consequences," she continued, noting that the excise duty rates on alcohol in Latvia have been increasing since 2015. (
  • The aim of this module is to outline the ways in which legislation and professional regulation of midwives can be employed to enhance national and international efforts to reduce maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality and improve reproductive health. (
  • These interviews were supplemented with 20 interviews with health service providers, female health volunteers, local stakeholders, traditional healers and other support staff. (
  • He argues that the conceptualization of a 'sick body' challenges individualistic, masculine, and heroic characterizations of leadership, which have been stubbornly resistant to change and further emboldened by health discourses and practices that promote body mastery. (
  • You should consult the respective privacy policies of these third-party ad servers for more detailed information on their practices as well as for instructions about how to opt-out of certain practices. (
  • Studies that fail to control for history can mislead policy makers and clinicians. (
  • Even worse, poorly designed studies, combined with widespread reporting on those studies by the news media, can distort the decisions of policy makers, leading them to fund ineffective, costly, or even harmful policies. (
  • It is time that policy-makers face up to gender in global health and tackle the interests that stand between us and good health for everyone. (
  • This book examines the major controversies confronting American society, health care professionals and policy makers: access to health care, costs and financing health care and the quality of health care. (
  • In order to further accelerate perinatal survival in the region, policy makers and programme implementers need to immediately address these contextual factors at local health service delivery points. (
  • In this review, we evaluate the epidemiology of tobacco use in low- and middle-income countries and assess the public health policies needed to control tobacco use in such regions for the prevention of cardiovascular disorders and other tobacco-related morbidities and mortality. (
  • Providing all children and families with clear information about health promotion and disease prevention is a national priority. (
  • Results based on varied study designs suggest that episodes of poor health in early life do have lasting negative consequences in a broad swath of settings. (
  • This requires removing obstacles to health such as poverty, discrimination, and their consequences, including powerlessness and lack of access to good jobs with fair pay, quality education and housing, safe environments, and health care. (
  • The consequences for violation of the drug-free policy may include, but are not limited to, a referral for therapeutic help, discipline and/or discharge. (
  • Chronic stress can have serious health consequences, including weight gain, high blood pressure, and heart disease. (
  • Structural Determinants of Health Inequities: The social, economic, and political mechanisms which generate social class inequalities in society. (
  • The most prevalent and severe health inequities occur where there is poverty, systematic racism, and discrimination. (
  • 6 Some of the most common and well-researched health inequities are experienced between groups based on socioeconomic status, race and ethnicity, sexual orientation and gender expression, as well as geographic location. (
  • 11,12 Information is provided in the following sections to help characterize these health inequities. (
  • However, this is not intended to be comprehensive or cover all health inequities. (
  • Future initiatives to reduce child health inequities should include health-promotion strategies that meet the health literacy needs of children, adolescents, and their caregivers. (
  • This programme is suitable for physicians, nurses, environmental health officers, human resource professionals, trade union representatives, health and safety inspectors, managers, civil servants, scientists and others who have responsibility for the health and safety of employees. (
  • To provide information to Oakland University (University) on issues related to occupational and environmental health and safety, and fire and life safety. (
  • the next highest ranking community environmental health concern was lead paint (M=2.2). (
  • Armstrong M. A clinical look at body piercing. (
  • Finally, I also support clinical work at Great Ormond Street Hospital, enabling the measurement of energy metabolism and body composition in patients. (
  • and, because of its growing importance, financial governance and what it means for European health systems. (
  • The continuing high perinatal mortality rates in the mountains of Nepal are not being addressed due to declining standards in the primary health care approach, health providers' professional misbehaviour, local health governance failures, and the lack of cultural acceptance of formalised care by the local communities. (
  • Is there enough money for health in times of crisis? (
  • However, there is growing consensus that the US health care system is in crisis - but there is far less agreement on what to do about it. (
  • However, funding has not kept pace with an existing behavioral health workforce shortage crisis, the rapid growth of an aging population, and the historical lack of geriatric training in higher education for the helping professions. (
  • Understanding the EU role in health is especially important now, when health systems have to deal with a plethora of challenges, the European social model is confronted by the threat posed by the financial crisis, and the EU is facing increasing euro-scepticism in politics. (
  • Because undocumented immigrants are part of this nation and its economy, and live in every state and in urban, suburban, and rural communities, public health planning and emergency response systems should always account for this population, which may be reluctant to call attention to itself, or unaware that a crisis is unfolding. (
  • Discussing all aspects of chronic pain management, this is the second volume in the publisher's series on health care and disease management, published with the Institute of Health Economics (IHE) in Edmonton, Canada. (
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) Constitution defines health as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease. (
  • Men experience a higher burden of disease and lower life expectancy than women, but policies focusing on the health needs of men are notably absent from the strategies of global health organisations, according to a Viewpoint article in this week's Lancet . (
  • The article reinterprets data from the ' Global Burden of Disease: 2010 ' study which shows that all of the top ten causes of premature death and disability, and the top ten behavioural risk factors driving rates of ill-health around the world, affect men more than they affect women ( see tables in Notes to Editors ). (
  • The Gaston County, N.C., Board of Health on Monday said that it will begin a campaign to lower teen pregnancy, HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted disease rates in the county, including opening a discussion with school board members about ways to include information on condoms and birth control in the county's sex education curriculum, the Charlotte Observer reports. (
  • The information provided through The Body should not be used for diagnosing or treating a health problem or a disease. (
  • Longstanding arguments that ill health impedes economic development hit a snag when evidence emerged that the global decline of infectious disease in the mid-20th century did not bring prosperity to the world's unhealthiest countries (Acemoglu and Johnson 2007). (
  • By Kellie Bisset Ebola evidence goes Missing in Action Ebola continued to dominate health headlines this past fortnight as Western media outlets turned their attention from the disease toll to the appropriate emergency response and the political ramifications of quarantine at home. (
  • Income inequality is associated with greater health care expenditures, health care use, 16 and death from cardiovascular disease and suicide. (
  • disease management instead of health promotion, etc. (
  • Lewy body disease is a type of dementia . (
  • The disease is linked to a buildup of abnormal protein deposits called Lewy bodies that build up in the brain. (
  • Lewy body disease is more common in people over 65 years old. (
  • The Human Body in Health & Disease, 7th Edition makes it easier to understand how the body works, both in normal conditions and when things go wrong. (
  • Global Health: Diseases, Programs, Systems, and Policies, Fourth Edition brings together contributions from the world's leading authorities into a single comprehensive text. (
  • It thoroughly examines the wide range of global health challenges facing low- and middle-income countries today and the various approaches nations adopt to deal with them. (
  • Designed for graduate-level students, this text provides an expansive view of today's issues and challenges in global health and be an invaluable resource in the years to come. (
  • The commentary, written by Dr Sarah Hawkes of the UCL Institute for Global Health and Dr Kent Buse of UNAIDS, reviews the responses of major global health institutions and finds that efforts and resources are focused more often on the health needs of women. (
  • The global health community is taking a short-sighted view," continues Dr Buse. (
  • The lecture was sponsored by Fogarty's Center for Global Health Studies in collaboration with the National Cancer Institute's Center for Global Health and the Pan American Health Organization. (
  • the opportunity to engage with the big issues - justice and sustainability, global health and development, the enablers and barriers to health promotion, race, power, and identity, and food consumption. (
  • We use a multilevel econometric approach to model the four classifications of body mass index (BMI) obese, overweight, healthy and underweight - as a function of individual characteristics, lifestyle indicators and external environment. (
  • In the wake of the recent outbreak in Toronto of 75 cases of hepatitis B from contaminated electroencephalogram needles, 6 Health Canada established comprehensive infection control guidelines for practitioners who perform body piercing. (
  • On 31 March 2006, it published its "Survey of benzene levels in soft drinks", which tested 150 products and found that four contained benzene levels above the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for drinking water. (
  • Riverglade House my supervisor asked me to check the procedures and policies relating to health safety and security to see how they link to guidelines and regulations. (
  • Except, that a big study of white English people and white Americans last year showed that richer white Americans had the health status of poorer English people . (
  • For over 20 years, I've begun most educational workshops on body concept and self-esteem by examining the societal messages contained in the words "fat" and "thin," demonstrating that language is not neutral and may hold prescriptions for acceptability. (
  • Innovations in behavioral drivers, care delivery and purchasing strategies for group health benefit plans. (
  • While California has more than 80,000 licensed behavioral health professionals in a variety of disciplines, very few have specialized training in geriatrics. (
  • Most pediatricians are aware of the effects of tobacco smoke on patient and community health, and routinely inquire about and document patients' exposure to ETS. (
  • The health ministers of the three Baltic countries on Friday signed a joint memorandum setting out their common intent regarding the development of alcohol and tobacco policies as well as policies promoting healthy eating habits. (
  • The health ministers of the three Baltic countries signed a joint memorandum on Friday setting out their common intent when it comes to developing alcohol policy and tobacco policy as well as policies promoting healthy eating habits. (
  • Assessments of the work environment, its effects on health, relevant legislation and the effective control of workplace hazards. (
  • Plans to create a new food standards body in Scotland were announced by Ministers in June 2012 and in January 2015 this new body was established through primary legislation. (
  • Among others, the amended legislation now requires the creation of safety committees in factories with 50 workers or more, the establishment of workplace Health Centres in workplaces with over 5000 employees and safety welfare officers in workplaces with more than 500. (
  • The Health and safety act 1974 this legislation breaks down into many different parts that you should abide by at your workplace such as safe operation and maintenance of the working environment. (
  • Future studies should continue to integrate more physiological (e.g., valid body fluid balance, internal body temperature) and biometeorological factors (e.g., cumulative heat stress ) to the existing heat risk assessment models to reduce the assumptions and limitations in them. (
  • The Health Visitor Implementation report published today, sets out progress on key areas of the Health Visitor Implementation programme, which began in February 2011. (
  • In regard to Programme Budget, Professor Diarra-Nama reminded the members of the importance of ensuring that the Subcommittee took into account the decisions of the WHO Governing Bodies and the needs of the Member States. (
  • The labour inspectorate is given new responsibilities to inspect safety and health conditions of workplaces and conduct on-the-spot inspections. (
  • Everyone deserves a chance at a long life in full health, regardless of where they live, their gender, or their economic situation. (
  • Economy Health It is important to keep all economic cogwheels turning But how to make sure that health is not forgotten? (
  • For those interested in forecasting the economic effects of future health improvements in poor countries, two important questions emerge. (
  • Second, how might the economic effects of health improvements differ in the long- and short-term? (
  • If similar dynamics are evident in poor countries, then the aggregate economic benefits of health programs in these settings will take a generation or more to fully emerge. (
  • Now, we have " economic view" on health care written by Greg Manikw , the former chief Bush economic adviser who appears to be reinventing himself as a Romney flack. (
  • Manikw has some interesting ideas about carbon taxes (which of course never saw the light of day while he had any influence in the Administration), but why does the Times "economic view" on health care means regurgitating a bunch of Manhattan Institute talking points? (