Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Antipyrine: An analgesic and antipyretic that has been given by mouth and as ear drops. Antipyrine is often used in testing the effects of other drugs or diseases on drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p29)Hydroxyl Radical: The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.Cyclic N-Oxides: Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Tiopronin: Sulfhydryl acylated derivative of GLYCINE.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Receptors, Scavenger: A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 220.127.116.11.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.PicratesScavenger Receptors, Class A: A family of scavenger receptors that mediate the influx of LIPIDS into MACROPHAGES and are involved in FOAM CELL formation.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Hydroxides: Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.Catalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.Acetylcysteine: The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Thiourea: A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.Scavenger Receptors, Class B: A family of scavenger receptors that are predominately localized to CAVEOLAE of the PLASMA MEMBRANE and bind HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Nitrate Reductase (NADH): An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a FLAVOPROTEIN that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM and is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. It was formerly classified as EC 18.104.22.168.Spin Labels: Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Imidazolines: Compounds based on reduced IMIDAZOLES containing a single double bond.Deferoxamine: Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Xanthine Oxidase: An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.Melatonin: A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.PropiophenonesLipid Peroxides: Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.Vitamin E: A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Biphenyl CompoundsAllopurinol: A XANTHINE OXIDASE inhibitor that decreases URIC ACID production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Oxidants: Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).Sulfonic Acids: Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Receptor, Melatonin, MT1: A melatonin receptor subtype that is primarily found in the HYPOTHALAMUS and in the KIDNEY.Benzoic Acid: A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Receptor, Melatonin, MT2: A melatonin receptor subtype primarily found expressed in the BRAIN and RETINA.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Glutathione Peroxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 22.214.171.124.Dimethyl Sulfoxide: A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Spin Trapping: A technique for detecting short-lived reactive FREE RADICALS in biological systems by providing a nitrone or nitrose compound for an addition reaction to occur which produces an ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY-detectable aminoxyl radical. In spin trapping, the compound trapping the radical is called the spin trap and the addition product of the radical is identified as the spin adduct. (Free Rad Res Comm 1990;9(3-6):163)Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Mannitol: A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Receptors, Lipoprotein: Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.Hydroxy Acids: Organic compounds containing both the hydroxyl and carboxyl radicals.Decanoic Acids: 10-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Peroxides: A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)DeoxyriboseNADPH Oxidase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Scavenger Receptors, Class F: A group of structurally related scavenger receptors expressed predominately by ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. They-contain repeats of EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR-like cysteine-rich motifs in their extracellular domains.AnserineAntigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances: Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Carnosine: A naturally occurring dipeptide neuropeptide found in muscles.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Xanthine: A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cell Hypoxia: A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Iron Chelating Agents: Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Hypochlorous Acid: An oxyacid of chlorine (HClO) containing monovalent chlorine that acts as an oxidizing or reducing agent.Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Methylurea Compounds: Urea compounds which are substituted with one or more methyl groups.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Ferrous Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.Benzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.Butylated Hydroxytoluene: A di-tert-butyl PHENOL with antioxidant properties.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Peroxynitrous Acid: A potent oxidant synthesized by the cell during its normal metabolism. Peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction of two free radicals, NITRIC OXIDE and the superoxide anion (SUPEROXIDES).Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Citrullus: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE known for the edible fruit.Benzothiazoles: Compounds with a benzene ring fused to a thiazole ring.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Pregnatrienes: Pregnane derivatives containing three double bonds in the ring structures.Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 126.96.36.199.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Hydroxybenzoates: Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Nitroblue Tetrazolium: Colorless to yellow dye that is reducible to blue or black formazan crystals by certain cells; formerly used to distinguish between nonbacterial and bacterial diseases, the latter causing neutrophils to reduce the dye; used to confirm diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.EthylenediaminesButylated Hydroxyanisole: Mixture of 2- and 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenols that is used as an antioxidant in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.Metalloporphyrins: Porphyrins which are combined with a metal ion. The metal is bound equally to all four nitrogen atoms of the pyrrole rings. They possess characteristic absorption spectra which can be utilized for identification or quantitative estimation of porphyrins and porphyrin-bound compounds.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Radiation-Protective Agents: Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.Chromans: Benzopyrans saturated in the 2 and 3 positions.Nitric Oxide Donors: A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)HydrazinesProstatectomy: Complete or partial surgical removal of the prostate. Three primary approaches are commonly employed: suprapubic - removal through an incision above the pubis and through the urinary bladder; retropubic - as for suprapubic but without entering the urinary bladder; and transurethral (TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE).PeroxidasesParaquat: A poisonous dipyridilium compound used as contact herbicide. Contact with concentrated solutions causes irritation of the skin, cracking and shedding of the nails, and delayed healing of cuts and wounds.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Scavenger Receptors, Class C: A family of scavenger receptors with broad polyanionic ligand binding properties that are expressed in embryonic insect MACROPHAGES.Iron Carbonyl Compounds: Complex of iron atoms chelated with carbonyl ions.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Krameriaceae: A plant family of the order Polygalales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
... a free oxygen radical scavenger and indirect antioxidant is known to reduce the toxicity of a range of drugs has been found in ... This has led to the FDA and other bodies to take steps to investigate these concerns. These concerns have arisen from animal ... Only preservative-free local anesthetic agents may be injected intrathecally. Pethidine also has local anesthetic properties, ... which cause a reversible loss of sensation for a limited region of the body while maintaining consciousness. Combinations of ...
Glutathione in the body scavenges oxidizing free radicals and peroxides and as a thiol nucleophile, attacks dangerous ... Tocopherol and naringenin are bioactive free radical scavengers that act as antioxidants; synthetic catalytic scavengers are ... Their use is wide-ranged: In atmospheric chemistry, the most common scavenger is the hydroxyl radical, a short-lived radical ... A scavenger in chemistry is a chemical substance added to a mixture in order to remove or de-activate impurities and unwanted ...
Kang HS, Kim KR, Jun EM, Park SH, Lee TS, Suh JW, Kim JP (2008). "Cyathuscavins A, B, and C, new free radical scavengers with ... fruiting bodies may be formed from the dikaryotic mycelia. These fruiting bodies produce peridioles containing the basidia upon ... The fruiting bodies are referred to as splash cups, because they are developed to use the force of falling drops of water to ... The fungi is also positively phototrophic, that is, it will orient its fruiting bodies in the direction of the light source. ...
... contains a polyphenolic chemical substructure that stops oxidation by acting as a scavenger of free radicals that are ... to produce metabolites that are more polar than the parent substance and hence are more rapidly excreted from the body. The ... Williams RJ, Spencer JP, Rice-Evans C (Apr 2004). "Flavonoids: antioxidants or signalling molecules?". (review). Free Radical ...
... experimental and clinical studies with NXY-059 and free radical scavengers". Current Drug Targets. CNS and Neurological ... Other antioxidants are not obtained from the diet, but instead are made in the body. For example, ubiquinol (coenzyme Q) is ... and free radicals" (PDF). Free Radical Research. 40 (12): 1230-8. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.476.9259 . doi:10.1080/10715760600911303. ... and free radicals such as the hydroxyl radical (·OH) and the superoxide anion (O2−). The hydroxyl radical is particularly ...
A1M binds and degrades heme, is a radical scavenger as well as a reductase. A model has been proposed in which A1M is described ... and the antioxidative heme scavenger alpha-1-microglobulin in preeclampsia". Free Radic Biol Med. 48: 284-291. doi:10.1016/j. ... It is synthesized in most cells of the body, but mainly in the liver from a gene that codes for the alpha-1-microglobulin/ ... which continuously removes free radicals and oxidizing agents, particularly heme, from the tissues. It is subsequently ...
2008). "Cyathuscavins A, B, and C, new free radical scavengers with DNA protection activity from the Basidiomycete Cyathus ... species of Cyathus have their spores dispersed when water falls into the fruit body. The fruit body is shaped so that the ... Fruit bodies typically grow in clusters, and are found on dead or decaying wood, or on woody fragments in cow or horse dung. ... Fruit bodies are brown to gray-brown in color, and covered with small hair-like structures on the outer surface. Some species, ...
Another hypothesis would be that normally, tissues contain free radical scavengers to avoid damage by oxidizing species ... In addition, the increase in lipid metabolism generates ketone bodies and activates peroxisome proliferating-activated ... Damage to the cell's membrane may in turn cause the release of more free radicals. Such reactive species may also act ... Hypothermia too has been shown to minimize a patient's production of deadly free radicals during reperfusion. Many now suspect ...
... lipoproteins aggregate within the intima of blood vessels and become oxidized by the action of oxygen free radicals generated ... Foamy macrophages are also found in diseases caused by pathogens that persist in the body, such as Chlamydia, Toxoplasma, or ... The macrophages engulf oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) by endocytosis via scavenger receptors, which are distinct from ... are hydrolyzed to unesterified free cholesterol (FC) by lysosomal acid lipase (LPL). Free cholesterol is transported to the ...
Because free radicals are necessary for life, the body has a number of mechanisms to minimize free-radical-induced damage and ... Cannabis sativa showed that extracts have the proton donating ability and could serve as free radical inhibitor or scavengers, ... The free-radical theory of aging proposes that free radicals underlie the aging process itself. Similarly, the process of ... In addition free radicals contribute to alcohol-induced liver damage, perhaps more than alcohol itself. Free radicals produced ...
Mannitol is a powerful scavenger for hydroxyl radicals, which are generated during the peroxidation of lipids in biological ... In arabica green coffee beans, the content of free glucose was 30 to 38 mg/100g, free fructose 23 to 30 mg/100g; free galactose ... of the body. Mature brown to yellow coffee beans contain fewer residues of galactose and arabinose at the side chain of the ... Free monosaccharides are present in mature brown to yellow-green coffee beans. The free part of monosaccharides contains ...
Besides its function as synchronizer of the biological clock, melatonin is a powerful free-radical scavenger and wide-spectrum ... Meltz ML, Reiter RJ, Herman TS, Kumar KS (March 1999). "Melatonin and protection from whole-body irradiation: survival studies ... Melatonin is a poor direct antioxidant, it is, however, a highly efficient direct free radical scavenger and indirect ... melatonin as a broad spectrum antioxidant and free radical scavenger". Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry. 2 (2): 181-97. ...
The antioxidant role of the molecule as a free-radical scavenger was widely studied by Lars Ernster. Numerous scientists around ... There are two major factors that lead to deficiency of CoQ10 in humans: reduced biosynthesis, and increased use by the body. ... Free Radical Research. 40 (5): 445-453. doi:10.1080/10715760600617843. PMID 16551570. Bogentoft 1991[verification needed] ... Ninety-five percent of the human body's energy is generated this way. Therefore, those organs with the highest energy ...
... and bilirubin have been shown to be potent scavengers of peroxyl radicals. They have also been shown to inhibit the ... Some studies have found that people with higher concentration levels of bilirubin and biliverdin in their bodies have a lower ... Macrophages break down senescent erythrocytes and break the heme down into biliverdin, which normally rapidly reduces to free ... though there is no evidence that the sources of the material are neither tetrapyrroles nor free haem from the blood plasma. ...
The radical cation products are then directed towards the mass analyzer by a repeller electrode. The ionization process often ... The detection of this insecticide in blood is very important since an ultra-small quantity in the body is enough to be harmful ... In this method the field free ionization region allows for high precision in the electron energy and also high electron energy ... Autodetachment lifetimes, metastable dissociation, Rydberg electron transfer reactions and field detachment, SF6 Scavenger ...
... an indoleamine considered to be the most potent naturally occurring scavenger of free radicals. In contrast with other ... The bacterial makeup for a given site on a body varies from person to person, not only in type, but also in abundance. Bacteria ... In kinetic competition experiments using free radical-trapping agents, the capacity of IPA to scavenge hydroxyl radicals ... The gut flora has the largest numbers of bacteria and the greatest number of species compared to other areas of the body. In ...
... contains a polyphenolic chemical substructure that stops oxidation by acting as a scavenger of free radicals that are ... or prevention of disease and/or articles intended to affect the structure or any function of the human body." ... Williams RJ, Spencer JP, Rice-Evans C (Apr 2004). "Flavonoids: antioxidants or signalling molecules?". (review). Free Radical ... to produce metabolites that are more polar than the parent substance and hence are more rapidly excreted from the body. The ...
Reactive oxygen free radical species in the heart were quantified by the cytotoxic aldehydes malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy- ... In several clinical trials, cysteine supplementation improved skeletal muscle functions, decreased the body fat/lean body mass ... In addition to other roles that it plays in the cell, GSH functions as a critical scavenger of these ROS. Therefore, GSH ... Milk Whey Protein decreases Oxygen Free Radical Production in a Murine Model of Chronic Iron-Overload Cardiomyopathy Bartfay WJ ...
... a scavenger of free radicals and peroxides. Myricetin is also effective in protecting cells from carcinogenic mutation. ... thus slowing the body's local inflammatory response and delaying the appearance of the first fatty streak and onset of ... Hollman PC, Katan MB (Dec 1999). "Health effects and bioavailability of dietary flavonols". Free Radical Research. 31 Suppl: ... GST has been suggested to protect cells against oxidative stress by protecting cells against free-radicals. In vitro studies ...
Advanced glycation end-product
Free radical biology & medicine. 42 (3): 371-84. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2006.11.006. PMC 1808543 . PMID 17210450. Nandhini ... AGEs affect nearly every type of cell and molecule in the body and are thought to be one factor in aging and some age-related ... Smedsrød B, Melkko J, Araki N, Sano H, Horiuchi S (1997). "Advanced glycation end products are eliminated by scavenger-receptor ... AGE free adducts are the major form through which AGEs are excreted in urine, with AGE-peptides occurring to a lesser extent ...
Mannitol is a powerful scavenger for hydroxyl radicals, which are generated during the peroxidation of lipids in biological ... In arabica green coffee beans, the content of free glucose was 30 to 38 mg/100g, free fructose 23 to 30 mg/100g; free galactose ... of the body. Mature brown to yellow coffee beans contain fewer residues of galactose and arabinose at the side chain of the ... which is a selective hydroxy-radical scavenger. Chlorogenic acids have a bitter taste in low concentrations such as 50 mg/l ...
Free Radic. Res. 41, 615-626 (2007). Watanabe, A. et al.; In vitro free radical scavenging activity of platinum nanoparticles. ... Use of platinum in drug delivery hinges on its ability to not interact in a harmful manner in healthy portions of the body ... Kajita, M. et al.; Platinum Nanoparticle is a Useful Scavenger of Superoxide Anion and Hydrogen Peroxide. ... Being a free electron metal NP like silver and gold, its linear optical response is mainly controlled by the surface plasmon ...
The pathogen is killed by the activity of digestive enzymes or following a respiratory burst that releases free radicals into ... while they can also act as scavengers that rid the body of worn-out cells and other debris, and as antigen-presenting cells ... The ability to mount these tailored responses is maintained in the body by "memory cells". Should a pathogen infect the body ... The T cell then travels throughout the body in search of cells where the MHC I receptors bear this antigen. When an activated T ...
Most campuses take the opportunity to promote safe sex to their students and sometimes offer leaflets on the subject and free ... At Carleton University there are multiple orientations, SPROSH (Sprott Frosh), ENG Frosh, Radical Frosh, and the largest, CUSA/ ... dye their bodies purple) and the University of Toronto Students' Union. Similarly, Ryerson University also has a number of " ... and a scavenger hunt. Western University hosts the largest orientation program in Canada, involving 1200 student volunteers and ...
Gaseous signaling molecules
... increased oxidative stress via free radical accumulation and decreased NO bioavailability. Free radical accumulation occurs due ... For the body to generate nitric oxide through the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway, the reduction of nitrate to nitrite ... as analgesic action of opioids was attenuated by HCN scavengers. They considered endogenous HCN to be a neuromodulator. It was ... Nitric oxide is secreted as free radicals in an immune response and is toxic to bacteria and intracellular parasites, including ...
... was first reported as a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger in 1993. In vitro, melatonin acts as a ... Meltz ML, Reiter RJ, Herman TS, Kumar KS (March 1999). "Melatonin and protection from whole-body irradiation: survival studies ... Melatonin also acts as a high-capacity free radical scavenger within mitochondria which also promotes the expression of ... Some of the metabolites formed via the reaction of melatonin with a free radical include cyclic 3-hydroxymelatonin, N1-acetyl- ...
Innate immune system
Cells of the innate immune system prevent free growth of microorganisms within the body, but many pathogens have evolved ... free oxygen radicals and hypochlorite. Neutrophils are the most abundant type of phagocyte, normally representing 50-60% of the ... pain, either local pain, such as painful joints or a sore throat, or affecting the whole body, such as body aches; and ... eosinophils secrete a range of highly toxic proteins and free radicals that are highly effective in killing parasites, but may ...
Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event
Modern crocodilians can live as scavengers and survive for months without food, and their young are small, grow slowly, and ... This hypothesis was viewed as radical when first proposed, but additional evidence soon emerged. The boundary clay was found to ... The team analyzed combined extinction patterns using a new clumped isotope temperature record from a hiatus-free, expanded K-Pg ... "Cope's rule and the dynamics of body mass evolution in North American fossil mammals" (Submitted manuscript). Science. 280 ...
"Free From Harm. 2015-01-14. Retrieved 2017-11-02.. *^ Debbie Young, 404-679-7292. "US Fish and Wildlife Service 2003 proposed ... Solunar theory says that animals move according to the location of the moon in comparison to their bodies and is said to have ... Steven Hahn, Radical History Review (1982).. *Charles H. Hudson Jr., in Indians, Animals, and the Fur Trade, ed., Shephard ... he concluded that hominids and early humans were mostly scavengers, not hunters, and this idea is popular among some ...
... was first reported as a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger in 1993. In vitro, melatonin acts as a ... Meltz ML, Reiter RJ, Herman TS, Kumar KS (March 1999). "Melatonin and protection from whole-body irradiation: survival studies ... Melatonin also acts as a high-capacity free radical scavenger within mitochondria which also promotes the expression of ... Some of the metabolites formed via the reaction of melatonin with a free radical include cyclic 3-hydroxymelatonin, N1-acetyl- ...
It has been theorized that oxytoceine may act as a free radical scavenger, as donating an electron to a free radical allows ... and is stored in Herring bodies at the axon terminals in the posterior pituitary. It is then released into the blood from the ... "Body temperature and cardiac changes induced by peripherally administered oxytocin, vasopressin and the non-peptide oxytocin ...
The antioxidant role of the molecule as a free-radical scavenger was widely studied by Lars Ernster. Numerous scientists around ... Ninety-five percent of the human body's energy is generated this way. Therefore, those organs with the highest energy ... This process in the human body involves secretion into the small intestine of pancreatic enzymes and bile, which facilitates ... There are two major factors that lead to deficiency of CoQ10 in humans: reduced biosynthesis, and increased use by the body. ...
Body fossilsEdit. Fossils of organisms' bodies are usually the most informative type of evidence. Fossilization is a rare event ... Sydney: Free Press. pp. 1-4. ISBN 978-0-7432-5733-6. .. ". Evolutionary biologists often make sense of the conflicting ... This meant they were destroyed by scavengers or by chemical processes before they reached the sea floor. ... but are opposed to the more radical idea that multicellular life thrived on land more than 600 million years ago. ...
Wojcik, Daniel (1995). Punk and Neo-Tribal Body Art (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi). ISBN 0-87805-735-8 ... Hardcore was a radical departure from that. It wasn't verse-chorus rock. It dispelled any notion of what songwriting is ... Auckland's Scavengers and Suburban Reptiles were followed by the Enemy of Dunedin. Punk rock scenes also grew in other ... "A reviewer for one of the free entertainment magazines of the time caught the act and gave us a great review, calling us a ' ...
... which can go on to produce the highly reactive hydroxyl radical (OH•), initiating a cascade of cytotoxic free radicals; this ... Haem is synthesised in every energy-producing cell in the body and is a key structural component of haemoglobin, myoglobin and ... in vivo may be partially protected against the effects of photodynamic therapy by the presence of singlet oxygen scavengers ( ... generating a photosensitiser radical anion (Psen•−) and a substrate radical cation (Subs•+). The majority of the radicals ...
... is a type of metal poisoning caused by lead in the body. The brain is the most sensitive. Symptoms may ... As scavengers, condors eat carcasses of game that have been shot but not retrieved, and with them the fragments from lead ... Lead and other heavy metals create reactive radicals which damage cell structures including DNA and cell membranes. Lead ... "Effectiveness of Action to Reduce Exposure of Free-Ranging California Condors in Arizona and Utah to Lead from Spent Ammunition ...
... and free radicals such as the hydroxyl radical (·OH) and the superoxide anion (O2−). The hydroxyl radical is particularly ... Other antioxidants are not obtained from the diet, but instead are made in the body. For example, ubiquinol (coenzyme Q) is ... Glutathione peroxidase 1 is the most abundant and is a very efficient scavenger of hydrogen peroxide, while glutathione ... mainly because UV radiation creates free radicals by bond breakage. The free radicals then react with oxygen to produce peroxy ...
The New School
Free University of New York. References. *^ As of June 30, 2019. "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year ( ... She has also started the Urban Hunt (a scavenger hunt around campus and the Village) and Club New (a dance party for first-year ... In October 1917, after Columbia University imposed a loyalty oath to the United States upon the entire faculty and student body ... and The Radical Student Union (RSU). ... New York: Free Press, 1986.. External links. Wikimedia ...
American black bear
McLellan, B. N. (2011). Implications of a high-energy and low-protein diet on the body composition, fitness, and competitive ... Beckmann, J. P., & Berger, J. (2003). Using black bears to test ideal-free distribution models experimentally. Journal of ... Scorzafava, Dick (2007). Radical Bear Hunter. Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0-8117-3418-9. .. ... Over much of their range, American black bears are assured scavengers that can intimidate, using their large size and ...
Free radicals - Fuel cell - Gasoline - Green chemistry - Hormonal contraception - Insulin - Nuclear fuel - Nuclear fusion - ... Chemistry as a body of knowledge distinct from alchemy began to emerge when a clear differentiation was made between them by ... Expand: Absorption (chemistry) - Johannes Thiele (chemist) - Azo coupling - Oxygen Scavengers - Phenmetrazine. *Write about: ... This includes free online chemical databases, publications, patents, computer programs, and various tools. ...
... an indoleamine considered to be the most potent naturally occurring scavenger of free radicals. In contrast with other ... at body sites where they cohabitate, such as in the gastrointestinal tract. ... In kinetic competition experiments using free radical-trapping agents, the capacity of IPA to scavenge hydroxyl radicals ... IPA also potently scavenges hydroxyl radicals. Table 2: Microbial metabolites: their synthesis, mechanisms of action, and ...
Nano-silver applied to tissue-cultured human cells leads to the formation of free radicals, raising concerns of potential ... of his body, and experienced a temporary bluish-grey hue after several days of treatment with Acticoat, a brand of wound ... which is a ROS scavenger, decreased to 81.4% of the control group of silver nanoparticles at 1.6 ppm. ... The reducing sugars have free aldehyde and ketone groups, which enable them to be oxidized into gluconate. The ...
... an indoleamine considered to be the most potent naturally occurring scavenger of free radicals. In contrast with other ... More than 90% of the body's serotonin lies in the gut, as well as about 50% of the body's dopamine and the dual function of ... In kinetic competition experiments using free radical-trapping agents, the capacity of IPA to scavenge hydroxyl radicals ... Interest in the field was sparked by a 2004 study showing that germ-free mice showed an exaggerated HPA axis response to stress ...
As the visual surface of the eye is on the diminishing free cheek (or librigena), the number of lenses tends to go down, and ... The opening created by the arching of the body provides an exit for the molting trilobite. It is absent in some trilobites like ... Trilobites had many lifestyles; some moved over the sea bed as predators, scavengers, or filter feeders, and some swam, feeding ... Radical change in morphology is linked to the loss or gain of distinctive features that mark a change in mode of life. A change ...
A motorist who hits and kills an animal is entitled to keep it, but he must first obtain a free tag from the local authorities ... Advantages of the roadkill diet, apart from its low cost, are that the animals that roadkill scavengers eat are naturally high ... "is good for the body, the environment and the pocket. It's delicious and won't cost much at all. All you need is some veg and ... The theme of environmental responsibility is taken up in a number of publications by radical environmentalists, such as " ...
... and oxygen-free, H2S-dominated lower layers of heterotrophic scavengers, mainly methane-emitting and sulfate-reducing organisms ... Many trace fossils date from significantly earlier than the body fossils of animals that are thought to have been capable of ... Abele, D. (7 November 2002). "Toxic oxygen: The radical life-giver". Nature. 420 (27): 27. Bibcode:2002Natur.420...27A. doi: ... As a result, microbial mats began to produce the atmosphere we know today, in which free oxygen is a vital component. At around ...
Free Radical Biology & Medicine. 27 (1-2): 214-9. doi:10.1016/S0891-5849(99)00082-9. PMID 10443938. Nakajima S, Moriyama T, ... or lost by the turnover of heme proteins such as hemoglobin and thus protects the body from the oxidative damage that free heme ... Hemoglobin and its scavenger protein hemopexin (Hx) associate with HDL[expand acronym] and influence the inflammatory ... This function of hemopexin is to preserve the body's iron. Hemopexin, an acute phase protein, can downregulate the angiotensin ...
"All Will Be Free" (#7-12) This arc focuses on one particular character for each issue. Zoe A man named Abraham visits India on ... When young Hodge drags her body from the cave, she is still alive, was placed into the cell and has been there ever since. ... Jun abandons Hunter and Zoe, who achieve one of the scavenger hunt items. Hunter then has an encounter with a geeky girl who ... He mocks Casey, who is struggling to distribute her flyers, for setting herself up for failure by not being radical enough. He ...
GetHealthyAgain - Product Listing Free Radical Scavengers
Schizandra: Supports all organ systems; strengthens energy throughout body. Supports mental function and combats stress.. White ... PRODUCTS Brain Support Prostate Support Health Repair Detoxification Blood Sugar Digestion Elimination Free Radical Scavengers ... 100% gluten free), (33:1), 90 mg (equals 2970 mg); Norwegian Kelp, 38 mg. Plant Enzymes: Protease, amylase, lactase, lipase, ...
Didox, a unique ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor and free radical scavenger, can protect against doxorubicin caused...
Message Body (Your Name) thought you would be interested in this article in Cancer Research. ... These results further support our premise that a free radical scavenger can be used in conjunction with DOX and not impede its ... Didox, a unique ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor and free radical scavenger, can protect against doxorubicin caused ... Didox, a unique ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor and free radical scavenger, can protect against doxorubicin caused ...
Ecklonia Cava Extract
Powerful Free Radical Scavenger. $39.95. * Caps : 60ct (300mg). MTECE60 In Stock $39.95. ... Everyone that partakes will enjoy a whole body inner strength that they have never experienced before. Provide your body with ... Ecklonia Cava Extract is known as a Super Antioxidant with powerful free radical scavenging ability. It can also cross the ... Promotes weight loss (fights obesity), cardiovascular benefits from heart-healthy compounds that scavenge free radicals in the ...
Hydroxyl Radical and Its Scavengers in Health and Disease
3. Antioxidants and Free Radical Scavengers. There is a belief that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) contribute to oxidative ... In view of the well-known damaging effect of poorly chelated iron in the human body, numerous natural products containing iron ... known to be the most biologically active free radical, is formed in vivo under hypoxic conditions . Moreover, this free ... J. Zielonka, J. Gebicki, and G. Grynkiewicz, "Radical scavenging properties of genistein," Free Radical Biology and Medicine, ...
Carvedilol, a new beta adrenoreceptor blocker and free radical scavenger, attenuates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in...
Message Body (Your Name) thought you would be interested in this article in Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental ... Carvedilol, a new beta adrenoreceptor blocker and free radical scavenger, attenuates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in ... Carvedilol, a new beta adrenoreceptor blocker and free radical scavenger, attenuates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in ... Carvedilol, a new beta adrenoreceptor blocker and free radical scavenger, attenuates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in ...
Zingerone - Wikipedia
ALA - The Free Radical Scavenger
... The science is simple. Our bodies are made of atoms. And atoms are surrounded by electrons, ... Such incomplete atoms are called free radicals. They are unstable and seek other atoms to bind with. In the process, they set ... you need to understand the science behind free radicals. ... ALA - The Free Radical Scavenger. *What Are The Benefits Of ... It damages the bodys cells and is responsible for most of the deadly diseases that plague humanity today. Some of them include ...
GetHealthyAgain - Product Listing Free Radical Scavengers
They have been recognized as a super-food for hundreds of years, and these nutrients are absorbed by the body in oil form. ... PRODUCTS Brain Support Prostate Support Health Repair Detoxification Blood Sugar Digestion Elimination Free Radical Scavengers ... Omega 3 can be converted into DHA (as needed) in the body and is essential in brain and nervous system functions. Camelina oil ... As we age, there is an increase of the production of prostaglandin E2 in the body. While this compound is necessary for ...
Fulvic Acid: Miracle Molecule
Its a ferocious antioxidant and free radical scavenger. *Chelates heavy metals and body toxins, removing them from the system ... Our first line of defense against free radicals is a generous supply of free radical scavengers, called antioxidants. Free ... Each one of the free-radical scavengers eradicate a different category of free-radicals. Its very complicated to get the right ... There are three identified categories of free radicals, and numerous identified free-radical scavengers, Vitamin A, C, E, Gamma ...
Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention - National Cancer Institute
... substances that may protect cells from the damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals. Free radical damage may ... "free radical scavengers.". The body makes some of the antioxidants that it uses to neutralize free radicals. These antioxidants ... may contain large amounts of free radicals or stimulate the bodys cells to produce more free radicals. ... Free radicals that contain the element oxygen are the most common type of free radicals produced in living tissue. Another name ...
Simcere Pharmaceutical - Wikipedia
COFFEE: THE ANTI-OXIDANT | HubPages
This free radicals become a threat that damaged other cells in the body. Anti-oxidant was free radical scavengers. It prevents ... Coffee drinkers have more stiffness in their major vessels of the body instead of being elastic. Heavy drinkers cause the body ... When the cells utilizes oxygen it produces a free radicals naturally. ... If the caffeine remains in the body for longer period the more it do harm than good. By raising the level of amino acid called ...
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Our body produces free radicals as a byproduct of many metabolic processes. Free radicals are molecules with unpaired electrons ... Natural, effective free radical scavengers. • Rich in polyphenols and anthocyanins. • As seen on national media. ... peroxynitrite radicals, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. By eliminating these free radicals from the body, the risks of ... While some free radical production is necessary for metabolism and detoxification, excessive amounts of free radicals may lead ...
What Are Free Radicals
... free radicals. Let us look at what free radicals are, where do they come from, their effects on the body, and how to avoid any ... To provide your body with these free radical scavengers, eat a lot of fresh fruits and vegetables. The body absorbs antioxidant ... Free radicals are simply radicals which are organic molecules. In human body the most common form of free radicals are the ... The unstable free radicals are present in the body and they try to take electrons from any cell. So, how does free radical ...
Add This to Your Daily Regimen and Be Amazed by the Results (Video) | Health | Before It's News
A Free-radical Scavenger and Antioxidant: Fulvic acid can react with both negatively and positively unpaired free electrons to ... Remineralize the body. .. Regulate the thyroid and thymus glands. .. Super-oxygenate the blood. .. Regulate and supercharge the ... render free radicals harmless, changing them into new usable compounds or eliminating them as waste. Fulvic acid also promotes ... Get our Free Ebook, "Suppressed Health Secrets" with Natural Cures THEY dont want you to know! ...
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This Is One of Nature's Little Health Miracles (Video) | Health
A Free-radical Scavenger and Antioxidant: Fulvic acid can react with both negatively and positively unpaired free electrons to ... 2. Supreme Fulvic & Humic Complex aids in the elimination of harmful toxins: In the body, fulvic acid and humic acid molecules ... Get our Free Ebook, "Suppressed Health Secrets" with Natural Cures THEY dont want you to know!. APeX - Far superior to ... render free radicals harmless, changing them into new usable compounds or eliminating them as waste. Fulvic acid also promotes ...
The Vitamin Myth: Why We Think We Need Supplements - The Atlantic
One consequence of oxidation is the generation of electron scavengers called free radicals (evil). Free radicals can damage DNA ... To neutralize free radicals, the body makes its own antioxidants (good). Antioxidants can also be found in fruits and ... The most likely explanation is that free radicals arent as evil as advertised. Although its clear that free radicals can ... Given that free radicals clearly damage cells -- and given that people who eat diets rich in substances that neutralize free ...
Oral Glycerol and High-Dose Rectal Paracetamol to Improve the Prognosis of Childhood Bacterial Meningitis - Full Text View -...
How To Avoid Fast Cellular Aging Process
Antioxidants are free radical scavengers. They work well in getting rid of harmful free radicals in the body. In addition to ... free radicals emerge. These are single electrons that follow a free pathway in our body. When they meet paired electrons along ... free ranging radicals emerge. Chronic stress also works in the same way. Without proper rest and relaxation, the body will not ... Because of that, it can penetrate deeper into the skin to get rid of more harmful free radicals. These tips can help you avoid ...
How To Help Your Body Digest Wheat
Are powerful free radical scavengers * Support optimal weight * Support microbiology health (especially ginger) ... Dont Want To Give Up Gluten For Good? Heres How To Get Your Body Back On Track ... Dont Want To Give Up Gluten For Good? Heres How To Get Your Body Back On Track. ... How To Cook Perfect, Slime-Free Okra: 3 Tricks, From An RD. Jamie Schneider ...
The White House Opposes Congressional Attempts to Hinder DC Marijuana Reform - NORML
Albumin is highly digestible and is a major source of free radical scavengers. Albumin is the current industry standard for ... One way to restore the intestinal track is to eat a high fiber, plant protein diet to achieve an optimal body pH level. This ... Since hemp protein is free of the tryosin inhibitor that are found in soy protein, hemp is the de facto king of plant protein! ... In addition, hemp protein is also free of oligosaccharides that are found in soy protein. Keep in mind that since soy is a ...
Supreme Fulvic & Humic Complex - 5 Star Shine
A Free-radical Scavenger and Antioxidant: Fulvic acid can react with both negatively and positively unpaired free electrons to ... I believe my body is now getting the nutrients it needs to heal and repair itself.. 6. My fingernails used to be very flat and ... Free-radical scavengers, Super oxide dismutases ("SOD"), Phytochemicals, Trace element complexes, Cytokinins, Enzymes, Natural ... free-radical scavengers, super oxide dismutases ("SOD"), nutrients, enzymes, hormones, amino acids, natural antibiotics, ...
nutraMetrix OPC-3® Skin Health Formula
Powerful free-radical scavenger * Supports the immune system - a healthy body means healthy-looking skin ... As one of the most powerful natural scavenger of free radicals, Pycnogenol combats many aggressive free radicals before they ... The increase in activity creates additional free radicals. In fact, these free radicals are known to limit performance, as free ... Provides antioxidant protection for the entire body - minimizes the damage that free radicals can wreak on your body ...
Duanwood Reishi Mini Drops
Ganoderic acids are also antioxidant free-radical scavengers.. Reishi has been found to modulate the activities of nuclear ... In Asia, only the fruiting body is accepted as a tonic herb. The fruiting body is called the "mushroom of immortality," not the ... The fruiting body is the "mushroom," the sexual organ of the fungus that emerges from the mycelium during the growing season. ... Its the "Mushroom Fruiting Body" that Matters Most. It is of critical importance to the consumer to know that it is the ...
Digestive Enzymes: new information lists numerous health benefits of enzymes.
Antioxidant enzyme - protects us from free radical scavengers; reactive compounds that are potentially harmful to our bodies ... The majority of the enzymes produced by our bodies are systemic, and the human body can produces systemic enzymes as it ... Ellen Cutler reminds us that if enzymes are not present in the foods we eat, they must be manufactured by the body:. ... We could not assimilate our food without digestive enzymes, but these "micro-miracles allow our bodies to do so much more. ...
Free Radicals: Destructive Scavengers and the Vital Role Antioxidants Play | Wellness | Diet&Fitness | MyDailyMoment.com
It uses the most energy, and therefore is subject to bombardment with the most free radicals. The significance of this is not ... The brain is the most active part of the body. ... The body is naturally built to handle free radicals. ... Free Radicals: Destructive Scavengers and the Vital Role Antioxidants Play RATE: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Rating 5.00 (1 Vote) ... Free Radicals: Destructive Scavengers and the Vital Role Antioxidants Play. ALSO ON MDM. All Vitamin Supplements Are Not ...
Cholesterol Behind The Numbers: Facts Your Doctors Don't Tell You | One Radio Network
When there is a high level of oxidation present in the body, there also tends to be free radical activity in the tissues. LDL ... Cholesterol is an antioxidant and free radical scavenger. •The bile salts are made from cholesterol. Bile is vital for ... Your body creates more cholesterol as a response to deal with inflammatory issues within the body. So cholesterol is not the ... McEvoy, Michael.Cholesterol Is Powerfully Anti-Inflammatory & Prevents Free Radical Activity. McEvoy, Michael.Good & Bad ...
Alpha Lipoic Acid 250 mg - 60 Veg Capsules
Allergies Information : NaturalHerbsGuide
Simply, if your body thinks that something is harmful to your body, it will take steps to rid itself of the harmful substance. ... Free radical scavengers.. Quercetin. Importance: Moderate. Comments: Lessens allergic reactions to some types of food, pollens ... Simply, if your body thinks that something is harmful to your body, it will take steps to rid itself of the harmful substance. ... Is considered to be an antioxidant that will prove to be beneficial in treating free radical damage and deter an allergy attack ...
OxidationProduction of free radicalsNeutralizeCompoundsImmune systemElectronsPotent free radical sEffective free-radical sActs as a free-radical sUnstableAccumulates with ageLevels of free radicalsNaturallyReduce oxidative stressFight free radicalsProtectsSuperoxideAntioxidant propertiesCigarette smokeHarmfulCellularAmong the most potentHighly reactiveFunctionsNutrientsInflammationExcessiveHydrogen peroxideZincDefenseProteinsChemicalsExcessCellsProducesAtomsUndergoHealthTissuePowerful freeWater-solubleAmountsCollagenToxinsHeavy metalsCell membranesExhaust
- Yet mere presence of extra oxygen does not tell us whether a given product is generated by a single- (free radical) or two-electron oxidation reaction. (hindawi.com)
- Antioxidant is a substance or nutrient in food that can prevent or slow down the oxidation that bring damaged to the body. (hubpages.com)
- As the addition of antioxidants can lead to a decrease of normal biological response to free radicals, which can lead to a more sensitive environment to oxidation. (buzzle.com)
- When fat deposits undergo a chemical oxidation process, free radicals emerge. (a1articles.com)
- When there is a high level of oxidation present in the body, there also tends to be free radical activity in the tissues. (oneradionetwork.com)
- Oxidation is a chemical reaction that can produce free radicals , thereby leading to chain reactions that may damage the cells of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
- Unlike other antioxidants, activated phenolics pose no risk of pro-oxidation - a scenario where antioxidants, once they have seized free radicals, can themselves become harmfully unstable under certain conditions. (edu.au)
- Other antioxidants, for example vitamin C, have only one free arm and after collecting a free radical, can become unstable - this is known as pro-oxidation and can do more harm than good. (edu.au)
- The minerals usually found in vegetables include potassium for proper functioning of nerves and muscles, phosphorus for proper bone formation, magnesium for protein synthesis, calcium for healthy teeth and bones, selenium for protection of cells against damage caused by free radical oxidation, iron for oxygen transport and zinc for a strong immune system. (3fatchicks.com)
- Some of the substances contained in raisins are called antioxidants, which prevent unwanted oxidation from taking place in our bodies. (biofach.de)
- It produces special free radical scavengers called antioxidants (literally meaning anti, or against, oxidation). (mediterrasian.com)
- When excessive oxidation occurs within the body, the basic structure of the DNA is more likely to change. (sbwire.com)
- Oxidation occurs when there are two many free radicals. (sbwire.com)
Production of free radicals4
- Reoxygenation causes increased production of free radicals and increased no. of neutrophils resulting in more inflammation. (brainscape.com)
- The body's defence mechanisms are strengthened by foods rich in antioxidants, and this helps to neutralise excessive production of free radicals. (biofach.de)
- Antioxidants are a group of vitamins, minerals and enzymes that counteract the production of free radicals. (incredibody.com)
- We can't avoid the production of free radicals in our bodies but we can do our best to limit their effects on us. (incredibody.com)
- Antioxidants are chemicals that interact with and neutralize free radicals , thus preventing them from causing damage. (cancer.gov)
- The body makes some of the antioxidants that it uses to neutralize free radicals. (cancer.gov)
- The reason that it takes such massive doses for optimal effect is because high concentrations of ascorbate must be driven into the cells directly affected by the disease process sufficient to neutralize all of the free radicals produced by that process, and have some left over for vitamin C housekeeping functions. (doctoryourself.com)
- Antioxidants hunt down free radicals in the body and effectively neutralize them, stopping the chain reaction before vital molecules are damaged. (mediterrasian.com)
- Contains potent compounds to neutralize both water-soluble and lipid-soluble free radicals. (incredibody.com)
- An antioxidant's job is to neutralize the free radical cells thus protecting the cells in our body from accelerated aging. (lifeplusvitamins.com)
- Fulvic acid can react with both negatively and positively unpaired free electrons to render free radicals harmless, changing them into new usable compounds or eliminating them as waste. (beforeitsnews.com)
- Oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) are bioflavonoids (complex organic plant compounds) found in fruits, vegetables and certain tree barks that provide exceptional nutritional benefits to the human body. (nutrametrix.com)
- Compounds that prevent free radical damage are known as "antioxidants" or free radical "scavengers. (iherb.com)
- They did, and twenty-one years ago I reported that, "sulfhydryl compounds that are excellent radiation protectors are also free-radical scavengers, peroxide decomposers, catalysts of sulfhydryl-disulfide exchange, and possibly can implement repair of damaged sites. (healthy.net)
- This nutrient role of maintaining optimal levels of essential body compounds is different from "drug roles" in which body compounds are just elevated without homeostasis or normal body regulation. (healthy.net)
- Free radicals are actually essential compounds which are used by your body in various ways. (mediterrasian.com)
- Free radicals are also directly involved in the production of hormone-like compounds called prostaglandins which help regulate many different essential bodily functions. (mediterrasian.com)
- Free radicals are unstable compounds formed in the body during metabolism and from exposure to environmental sources such as pollution and cigarette smoke. (earthturns.com)
- Free radicals are necessary to sustain life, but when there are too many of them in a region, these highly reactive compounds are capable of initiating a cancer-causing chain of events. (sbwire.com)
- The anti-oxidant compounds in green tea, such as the catechin polyphenols, actually act as free radical scavengers. (sbwire.com)
- When the body is in balance, these helpful compounds simply pass from the system. (sbwire.com)
- All of these compounds are powerful antioxidants and free radical scavengers, as well. (discount-vitamins-herbs.net)
- Beetroot juice is a good source of vitamin C. Vitamin C is an antioxidant that helps boost your immune system and protect cells from damaging free radicals. (healthline.com)
- The immune system of the body is classified into two categories. (hubpages.com)
- In the case of many infectious diseases, the relief from free radical suppression of the immune system, allows for more effective attack on the pathogen by that immune system. (doctoryourself.com)
- This herb is known to support the immune system and to stimulate the body`s ability to fight viruses. (naturalnews.com)
- As the immune system fights to defend the body, inflammation occurs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Inability of the body to recover also overstresses the immune system, allowing infections to strike when the body is vulnerable. (healthychildren.org)
- According to a recent study at the University of California, the damage caused by excess free radicals also accumulates with age and is a major contributor to conditions such as cancer, heart disease and immune system decline. (mediterrasian.com)
- This, in turn, is thought to affect a number of body processes, including optimal functioning of the immune system. (earthturns.com)
- It can try to steal the electrons from any cellular structure in the body. (buzzle.com)
- The unstable free radicals are present in the body and they try to take electrons from any cell. (buzzle.com)
- These are single electrons that follow a free pathway in our body. (a1articles.com)
- Antioxidants are molecules loaded with extra free electrons. (mydailymoment.com)
- When we have enough antioxidants the free radicals get their electrons from the antioxidants in our body, rather than stealing them from our cells. (mydailymoment.com)
- This is a crucial mechanism since some molecules in our bodies produce an unequal number of electrons and the instability of the number causes them to destroy other cells. (sott.net)
- Free radicals become extremely damaging to the body as they steal electrons from your cells. (healthise.com)
- Stable molecules in the body have pairs of electrons, but free radicals are chemically unstable because they have at least one electron that is not paired. (mediterrasian.com)
- They do this by donating one of their electrons, which makes a free radical stable. (mediterrasian.com)
Potent free radical s2
Effective free-radical s1
Acts as a free-radical s2
- Phenolics have three arms free to catch free radicals and importantly, don't ever become unstable or unsafe in the human body after doing so. (edu.au)
- Betalaines are thought to be free radical scavengers that help find and destroy unstable cells in the body. (healthline.com)
- This is because free radicals are chemically unstable. (mediterrasian.com)
Accumulates with age1
Levels of free radicals2
- The production of abnormally high levels of free radicals is the mechanism by which ionizing radiation kills cells. (cancer.gov)
- Environmental pollution, prevalence of fast and processed foods and fast-paced contemporary lifestyles are exposing us to the highest ever levels of free radicals. (edu.au)
- Free radicals are formed naturally in the body and play an important role in many normal cellular processes ( 1 , 2 ). (cancer.gov)
- Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) is naturally produced in the human body in very small amounts‚ but is also available through food sources. (pureformulas.com)
- Coenzyme Q10, also called ubiquinone, is a fat-soluble nutrient produced naturally in the bodies of cats, dogs, and other mammals. (vetdepot.com)
- The body is naturally built to handle free radicals. (mydailymoment.com)
- Clinical studies completed in September 2005 prove that it's possible to naturally remove an average of 87% of Lead, 91% of Mercury, and 74% of Aluminum from the body within 42 days. (jonbarron.org)
- These foods are rich in antioxidants and work hand-in-hand with your body's own naturally produced antioxidants to offer you the best protection from free radical damage. (mediterrasian.com)
- I do have an organically grown tea & naturally tannin & caffeine-free. (healthy.co.nz)
- The heart of a range of delicious hot and cold red drinks, red espresso is naturally caffeine-free and has 5 X more antioxidants then green tea (as per ORAC measurements). (redespresso.com)
- No. red espresso is made from 100% rooibos tea which is naturally caffeine-free. (redespresso.com)
Reduce oxidative stress1
Fight free radicals2
- By contrast, a diet rich in fruits and vegetables and whole grains protects cardiovascular system and lowers blood pressure by reducing free radical stress [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
- protects every cell in the human body. (expresschemist.co.uk)
- Allicin protects the cells of the body against cancer, and also stops the growth of cancer cells once they develop. (hubpages.com)
- These reactions are essential for the formation of superoxide dismutase, one of the body's most important free radical scavengers. (fredmeyer.com)
- Zinc is an antioxidant by itself but also a key component of the enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD), which neutralizes the most common and possibly most dangerous free radical, superoxide. (incredibody.com)
- To a certain extent, we also tend to get these radicals in our body due to pollution, like cigarette smoke, car exhaust, and industrial fumes. (buzzle.com)
- Exhaust fumes and other environmental pollution, high levels of stress, and cigarette smoke are all believed to increase the amount of free radicals in the body. (mediterrasian.com)
- There is an increasing body of knowledge which links cigarette smoke to osteoporosis and to periodontal disease, although the direct effects of smoke-associated aryl hydrocarbons on bone are not well understood. (discount-vitamins-herbs.net)
- Some are generated in the body as part of normal energy-producing processes, some are generated by pollutants such as air pollution, and some are generated by lifestyle factors such as cigarette smoke. (healthpost.co.nz)
- They are produced when the body gets exposed to harmful ultraviolet rays (from the sun), or gamma rays (from radioactive material), or X-rays. (buzzle.com)
- More often than not, this is caused by the attack of harmful free radicals. (a1articles.com)
- They work well in getting rid of harmful free radicals in the body. (a1articles.com)
- Because of that, it can penetrate deeper into the skin to get rid of more harmful free radicals. (a1articles.com)
- Simply, if your body thinks that something is harmful to your body, it will take steps to rid itself of the harmful substance. (naturalherbsguide.com)
- Researchers are rushing to study the roles of these nutrients in halting the dreaded Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), breaking up lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] , detoxifying harmful chemicals, scavaging free radicals and possibly protecting against some cancer processes. (healthy.net)
- Eliminates harmful metals from the body. (naturalherbsguide.com)
- It is currently understood that LDL-cholesterol is only harmful to the body after it has become oxidised. (healthpost.co.nz)
- What types of cellular structures are damaged by free radicals? (brainscape.com)
- Sulfur-containing nutrients play several critical roles in the body including detoxification and protecting cells and cellular components against oxidative stress. (healthy.net)
- This means that the product also decreased other toxic levels that are stored intra-cellular in the body. (jonbarron.org)
- Eliminating the stored toxins and heavy metal toxins allows the cellular body to remove stored acids and other unbalancing fluids. (jonbarron.org)
- Free radicals attack all your vital cellular structures, such as cell membranes and stimulate processes that have been linked to accelerated cellular aging. (lifeplusvitamins.com)
Among the most potent1
- Omega 3 can be converted into DHA (as needed) in the body and is essential in brain and nervous system functions. (king-cart.com)
- Without proper rest and relaxation, the body will not be able to use its regenerative and rejuvenating functions. (a1articles.com)
- Even mild dehydration impairs body functions. (iherb.com)
- Melatonin, a highly lipophilic hormone, can reach body target cells rapidly, acting as the circadian signal to alter numerous physiological functions in the body. (mdpi.com)
- The reason ascorbate ameliorates so many conditions is that it functions as the -premiere free radical scavenger- (5). (doctoryourself.com)
- It is a well-known adaptogen that tones and normalizes bodily functions and renders the body more resistant to stress. (elephantjournal.com)
- The effects of long-term administration of boiled aqueous extract of Syzigium aromaticum (SYZ), commonly known as clove (which has been locally employed for treating gastrointestinal tract diseases and also used as food spices), on some biochemical indices, such as body weight, liver functions and blood parameters were studied in adult albino rats of both sexes. (who.int)
- They have been recognized as a super-food for hundreds of years, and these nutrients are absorbed by the body in oil form. (king-cart.com)
- When the body does not absorb nutrients the door is open for disease. (life-enthusiast.com)
- Not much has been said about them in "mainstream" nutrition, but today, interest in learning how sulfur-containing nutrients nourish the body is increasing. (healthy.net)
- It floods the body with massive amounts of antioxidants and other essential nutrients. (healthise.com)
- There are five significantly potent immune-boosting nutrients that will give your body an extra wall of defense. (yahoo.com)
- A diet high in raw fruit & vegies feeds the body, unlike the usual diet, which often starves it of needed & valuable nutrients. (healthy.co.nz)
- Because of the severity of your health complaint, your body will be putting all its energy into dealing with this, so you need to be providing it with all the nutrients it needs to do this job as effectively & easily as it can. (healthy.co.nz)
- Cell membranes are almost entirely composed of lipids and are responsible for protecting the cell from free radicals, letting nutrients in and wastes out, and receiving instructions from messenger molecules that tell the cell which activities it should perform. (whfoods.com)
- Nutrients are the "chemicals" that supply the body with energy. (teamunify.com)
- White blood cells, which are involved in the body's natural defense system, use free radicals to destroy viruses and bacteria. (mediterrasian.com)
- But the human body is a very smart piece of machinery, and it's equipped with its own natural defense system against an over-abundance of free radicals. (mediterrasian.com)
- Free radicals may be derived from our environment (sunlight, X-rays, radiation, chemicals), ingested foods or drinks, or produced within our bodies during chemical reactions. (iherb.com)
- Until now, supplements have been created one of two ways - synthetically in a lab or extracted from natural foods using chemicals, both of which are very difficult for the body to break down and absorb. (edu.au)
- Antioxidants made synthetically or extracted from natural food using chemicals such as methanol or ethanol require these same chemicals to break them down, however our bodies don't produce those chemicals. (edu.au)
- Sheep sorrel contains phytoestrogens with notable estrogen-receptor binding activity, which could help to reduce the negative effects of xenoestrogen chemicals in the body. (florahealth.com)
- The stress fighting hormones are actually degenerative to the body over time and produce waste products called free radicals, which are currently believed to be the chemicals of aging and degeneration. (elephantjournal.com)
- Excess free radicals are basically scavengers that steal valuable ingredients necessary for body repair, recovery, and energy production. (healthychildren.org)
- Excess nickel in the body may cause dermatitis ("nickel itch"), respiratory problems, thyroid problems, and possible heart attack. (naturalherbsguide.com)
- This free radicals become a threat that damaged other cells in the body. (hubpages.com)
- In fact, the aging process of the cells can lead to the fast aging process of the whole body. (a1articles.com)
- Yogurt contains Bifidobacterium lactis , which increases the concentrations of helper, activator and total T lymphocyte cells and natural killer cells in the body. (hubpages.com)
- colonic mucosa cells increase mucous production, and accumulated wastes and toxins pass to be discarded by the body. (florahealth.com)
- 24 hours a day, while the body is constantly working, cells are metabolizing and creating energy as they carry out their tasks. (healthise.com)
- Unfortunately, free radicals can also have a damaging effect on healthy cells in your body if they become too numerous. (mediterrasian.com)
- Cancerous cells arise when the DNA of existing cells within the body experiences changes at the molecular level. (sbwire.com)
- Preventing cancer requires an internal body environment that kills potentially malignant cells before they have a chance to reproduce. (sbwire.com)
- On observation it is noted that AgNO 3 treated bacterial cells started to shrink resulting in characteristic apoptotic body formation. (scielo.br)
- This shows that AgNO 3 may induce apoptosis in B . licheniformis at higher concentration of 5 m M . Apoptotic bodies are greatly shrunken compared with normal cells and they are completely absent in cell populations not treated with silver nitrate. (scielo.br)
- By neutralizing the free radicals, these once free radical cells are able to assist with nutritional distribution, proper circulation and overall better health. (lifeplusvitamins.com)
- Real OPCs protect your cells against free radical attack and support the collagen structure of all the organs in your body. (lifeplusvitamins.com)
- This 2-in-1 body scrub rids skin of impurities and dead cells in a single step. (cosmebio.org)
- In view of the well-known damaging effect of poorly chelated iron in the human body, numerous natural products containing iron binding agents can be essential in the maintenance of human health. (hindawi.com)
- However, more tests and studies are required to find the effects of antioxidants on the overall human body health. (buzzle.com)
- nutraMetrix Isotonix OPC-3® Skin Health Formula is formulated to promote skin elasticity, support healthy collagen production, replenish essential vitamins and minerals for the skin, and provide the skin and body with improved antioxidant defenses. (nutrametrix.com)
- Studies indicate that it may help maintain health of the heart by protecting polyunsaturated fats in the body from being oxidised into saturated fats and so protect all membranes including those in the lungs and blood vessels. (expresschemist.co.uk)
- The profound health benefits of phenolics have long been a holy grail for scientists, however until now we couldn't figure out how to extract them from food sources in a way that was compatible with the human body. (edu.au)
- This unique herbal beverage gently supports the health and cleansing of the whole body. (florahealth.com)
- The information in this web site is presented for the educational and free exchange of ideas and speech in relation to health and wellness only. (shirleys-wellness-cafe.com)
- Sign up for a free Medical News Today account to customize your medical and health news experiences. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The problem with heavy metals is that they accumulate in the body causing numerous health problems that can seriously impact literally every major organ in the body. (jonbarron.org)
- Mirai, which means "the future" in Japanese, is a body-care line from Japan designed to minimize signs of aging and support skin health for mature women. (truthinaging.com)
- As a completely soluble, liquid, crystal-free solution of CoQ10 clinically proven to provide superior bioavailability, CoQsol-CF® is the CoQ10 of choice for discriminating health professionals and patients. (nutrametrix.com)
- Ayurveda identifies the cause of any health concerns as the separation of mind, body and consciousness due to the degenerative effects of mental, emotional and physical stress. (elephantjournal.com)
- The Herbal Tea Shop has a quite comprehensive data on teas and the health effects they have on the body. (sbwire.com)
- The skin is the largest organ in the body and it is a mirror of the health of the body's internal organs. (drrathresearch.org)
- Because cilantro changes the electric charge on intracellular deposits of heavy metals to a neutral state, which relaxes their tight bond to body tissue, freeing them up to be flushed from the body. (jonbarron.org)
- 1 It seems that cilantro changes the electric charge on intracellular deposits of heavy metals to a neutral state, which relaxes their tight bond to body tissue, freeing them up to be flushed from the body 2 - exactly the results seen in the Clinical Study. (jonbarron.org)
- In studies undertaken in Germany, high doses of chlorella have been found to be very effective in eliminating heavy metals from the body - from the brain, intestinal wall, muscles, ligaments, connective tissue, and bone. (jonbarron.org)
- In addition to protection of inner tissue structures, the skin helps in regulation of body temperature and elimination of metabolic waste products. (drrathresearch.org)
- Ecklonia Cava Extract is known as a Super Antioxidant with powerful free radical scavenging ability. (life-enthusiast.com)
- They are powerful free radical scavengers that not only work to keep the skin healthy and beautiful, but also provide free radical scavenging abilities which are beneficial in a world filled with smog, pollution and other various unseen toxins. (nutrametrix.com)
- Phenolics are powerful free radical 'scavengers' that cause no harm or negative side-effects. (edu.au)
- This function is not because it is the most powerful free radical scavenger, but because it is possible to saturate every cell of the body with more molecules of ascorbate than any other free radical scavenger. (doctoryourself.com)
- Powerful free radical scavenger and detoxifier. (incredibody.com)
- Multi-Anthocyanidins, derived from flavonoid-rich fruits, are powerful free-radical scavengers. (totaldiscountvitamins.com)
- The extraction technology results in a highly water soluble antioxidant, which is 100% natural and entirely compatible with the human body. (edu.au)
- Something our bodies have in large quantities is water, which is why this new water soluble antioxidant is such a breakthrough. (edu.au)
- Simple ascorbic acid is a water soluble compound, and it does not remain in the body for a long time and is easily excreted. (drrathresearch.org)
- Note: this premiere free radical scavenger function has little to do with nutrition but is a pharmacologic effect of ascorbate when utilized in unnatural amounts for humans. (doctoryourself.com)
- The concentrated formula requires small amounts to be applied to targeted areas of the body. (truthinaging.com)
- Abnormally high concentrations of free radicals in the body can be caused by exposure to ionizing radiation and other environmental toxins. (cancer.gov)
- It also increases the amount of toxins being excreted from the body by absorbing toxins from the bowel and reducing bowel transit time. (florahealth.com)
- Eliminates heavy metal toxins from the body. (naturalherbsguide.com)
- ALA also binds with heavy metals in the body (like mercury, arsenic, and lead) and flushes them out of your system. (stylecraze.com)
- Studies show that heavy metals in the body may be implicated in everything from Alzheimer's to cardiovascular disease, from behavioral problems to kidney dysfunction, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, and even paralysis. (jonbarron.org)
- The results of the clinical study on the formula should certainly be of interest to those looking for a proven , natural, affordable method for removing damaging heavy metals from the body. (jonbarron.org)