Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.
Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)
Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN in the region of the ABDOMEN.
That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.
Defective metabolism leading to fat maldistribution in patients infected with HIV. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and probably involves some combination of infection-induced alterations in metabolism, direct effects of antiretroviral therapy, and patient-related factors.
The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
An island republic of the West Indies. Its capital is Roseau. It was discovered in 1493 by Columbus and held at different times by the French and the British in the 18th century. A member of the West Indies Federation, it achieved internal self-government in 1967 but became independent in 1978. It was named by Columbus who discovered it on Sunday, Domingo in Spanish, from the Latin Dominica dies, the Lord's Day. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p338 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p151)
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
Glucose in blood.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Congenital, inherited, or acquired anomalies of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, including the HEART and BLOOD VESSELS.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.
Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
A collection of heterogenous conditions resulting from defective LIPID METABOLISM and characterized by ADIPOSE TISSUE atrophy. Often there is redistribution of body fat resulting in peripheral fat wasting and central adiposity. They include generalized, localized, congenital, and acquired lipodystrophy.
Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.
The physical measurements of a body.
Abstaining from all food.
A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.
Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.
Either of two fleshy protuberances at the lower posterior section of the trunk or HIP in humans and primate on which a person or animal sits, consisting of gluteal MUSCLES and fat.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.

The effect of stage of growth and implant exposure on performance and carcass composition in steers. (1/434)

Angus and Angus x Limousin cross steers (n = 182; initial BW = 309 +/- 27.8 kg) were used to evaluate the influence of an estradiol-trenbolone acetate implant (containing 24 mg of estradiol and 125 mg of trenbolone acetate) on production efficiency and carcass traits when administered at specific stages of growth. Treatments were 1) control, no implant (NI); 2) early implant (EI) on d 1 (BW = 309 kg); or 3) delayed implant (DI) on d 57 (BW = 385 kg). Comparisons were also made between the NI and implanted treatments (I; EI + DI). Steers were procured at weaning and were backgrounded (47 d) before the initiation of the experiment. Initial predicted carcass composition was 14.9% protein, 13.3% fat, 54.6% moisture, and 17.2% bone. Days on feed were constant across treatment. After 56 d, ADG and G:F were improved (P < 0.01) by implants, NI vs. EI (1.68 vs. 1.90 kg and 0.227 vs. 0.257). At d 57, predicted carcass composition did not differ among treatments. From 57 to 112 d, DI caused higher ADG than NI or EI (NI = 1.65, EI = 1.57, and DI = 1.78 kg; P < 0.05) and higher G:F (NI = 0.155, EI = 0.150, and DI = 0.173; P < 0.01). Cumulative ADG and G:F were improved by implants (1.65 vs. 1.73 kg; P < 0.05) and (0.175 vs. 0.186; P < 0.01) for NI vs. I, respectively, with no differences between treatments that involved implants. Cumulative DMI was similar for all treatments. Implanting increased dressing percentage (63.5 vs. 64.1%; P < 0.05) and increased (P < 0.01) hot carcass weight (341 vs. 353 kg) and LM area (76.5 vs. 81.4 cm(2)) for NI vs. I, respectively. Rib fat and kidney, pelvic, and heart fat were not affected by treatment, and treatment had no effect on the whole carcass proportions of fat, protein, or water. Implants advanced maturity scores (NI = A(51) vs. EI + DI = A(59); P < 0.01). Marbling scores were decreased (P < 0.05) by EI but not by DI (NI = Small(65), EI = Small(20), DI = Small(36)). The percentage of i.m. fat content of the LM was decreased (P < 0.10) by EI and was not affected by DI (NI = 5.1, EI = 4.0, DI = 4.8%). Treatment affected (P < 0.10) the proportion of carcasses with marbling scores greater than Modest(0) (NI = 23.6, EI = 7.8, DI = 22.6%). The results of this study suggest that growth of i.m. fat is sensitive to anabolic growth promotants administered during early periods of growth.  (+info)

Influence of nutrient intake and body fat on concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin, thyroxine, and leptin in plasma of gestating beef cows. (2/434)

Pregnant Angus x Hereford cows (n = 73) were used to determine the effects of amount of nutrient intake and BCS on concentrations of IGF-I, insulin, leptin, and thyroxine in plasma. At 2 to 4 mo of gestation, cows were blocked by BCS and assigned to one of four nutritional treatments: high (H = a 50% concentrate diet fed ad libitum in a drylot) or adequate native grass pastures and one of three amounts of a 40% CP supplement each day (M = moderate, 1.6 kg; L = low, 1.1 kg; or VL = very low, 0.5 kg; as-fed basis). After 110 d of treatment, all cows grazed dormant native grass pasture and received 1.6 kg/d of a 40% CP supplement. At 68, 109, and 123 d of treatment, cows were gathered, and plasma samples were collected by tail venipuncture (fed sample). After 18 h without feed and water, a second plasma sample was collected (fasted sample). At 109 d of treatment, BCS was greatest (P < 0.05) for H cows, similar for M and L cows, and least for VL cows. Concentrations of insulin and leptin were greater (P < 0.05) for H cows than for M and VL cows at 68 and 109 d, but similar for all groups at 123 d. Thyroxine in plasma was greatest (P < 0.05) for H cows at 68 d and similar for cows on all treatments at 123 d. Concentrations of IGF-I, insulin, and leptin in fed and fasted cows were positively correlated with BCS at 109 d. Body condition was predictive of concentrations of IGF-I, insulin, and leptin when cows had different nutrient intakes, but BCS accounted for less than 12% of the variation in plasma concentrations of IGF-I, insulin, and leptin when nutrient intake was the same for all cows. We conclude that amount of nutrient intake has a greater influence than body energy reserves on IGF-I, insulin, and leptin concentrations in the plasma of gestating beef cows.  (+info)

Is epidural lipomatosis associated with abnormality of body fat distribution? A case report. (3/434)

CASE REPORT: To report a case of epidural lipomatosis in a patient with abnormal adipose tissue distribution, glucose intolerance and mixed hyperlipidemia. A 63-year-old male patient presented with low back pain radiating to the left calf on standing and walking (walking distance <100 m). He weighed 97.5 kg, was 1.73 m tall (BMI 32.6 kg/m2) and had a waist circumference of 113 cm. He had a glucose intolerance after a 75-g glucose oral load test. CT-Myelography revealed voluminous epidural lipomatosis around L4-L5 and L5-S1. Low calorie diet and reduction in alcohol intake achieved a weight loss of 17.5 kg in 7 months (80 kg, BMI 25.8 kg/m2, waist circumference 94 cm) and dramatic improvement in low back pain, walking distance (>500 m) and reduction of lipomatosis on CT-scan. Our case suggests a relationship between central obesity phenotype and epidural lipomatosis. Specific insulin resistance treatment might be proposed for these patients if this hypothesis is confirmed in further studies.  (+info)

Identification of genetic markers for fat deposition and meat tenderness on bovine chromosome 5: development of a low-density single nucleotide polymorphism map. (4/434)

As genetic markers, SNP are well suited for the development of genetic tests for production traits in livestock. They are stable through many generations and can provide direct assessment of individual animal's genetic merit if they are in linkage disequilibrium and phase with functional genetic variation. Bovine chromosome 5 has been shown to harbor genetic variation affecting production traits in multiple cattle populations; thus, this chromosome was targeted for SNP-based marker development and subsequent association analysis with carcass and growth phenotypes. Discovery of SNP was performed in a panel of 16 sires representing two sires from each of seven beef breeds and two Holstein sires by PCR amplification and sequencing using primers designed from genomic sequence obtained by low-coverage sequencing of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones. From 550 SNP, 296 (54%) were tentatively identified as having a minor allele frequency >10%. Forty-five SNP derived from 15 BAC were chosen based on minor allele frequency and were genotyped in 564 steers and their sires. Production and carcass data were collected on the steers as a part of the Germplasm Evaluation (GPE), Cycle VII Project at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (Clay Center, NE), which involves of the evaluation of sires from seven of the most popular U.S. breeds. Haplotypes based on seven SNP derived from a BAC containing the bovine genes HEM1 and PDE1B were associated with traits related to carcass fat. Steers homozygous for the major haplotype had 0.15 +/- 0.04 cm less subcutaneous fat, 0.57 +/- 0.18 kg less rib fat, 0.18 +/- 0.07 lower yield grade, 1.11 +/- 0.35% less predicted fat yield, and 0.79 +/- 0.3% greater predicted retail product yield than heterozygotes. The frequency of the major haplotype was 0.70 in the steers, and it ranged from 0.44 (Limousin) to 0.98 (Simmental and Gelbvieh) in a panel consisting of an average of 20 purebred sires from each of the seven breeds. A second set of haplotypes based on four SNP derived from a BAC containing the genes NOL1 and CHD4 was associated with Warner-Bratzler shear force. Steers homozygous for the major haplotype had 0.27 +/- 0.11 kg greater shear force than those heterozygous for the major haplotype and one of two minor haplotypes. The frequency of the major haplotype was 0.59 in the steers and ranged from 0.27 (Hereford) to approximately 0.95 (Angus and Red Angus) in the panel of purebred sires. These results demonstrate the feasibility of targeting QTL regions for SNP-based marker development and that a low level of coverage can identify markers associated with phenotypic traits.  (+info)

Large-scale, multibreed, multitrait analyses of quantitative trait loci experiments: the case of porcine X chromosome. (5/434)

A QTL analysis of multibreed experiments (i.e., crossed populations involving more than two founder breeds) offers clear advantages over classical two-breed crosses, among them increased power and a more comprehensive coverage of the total genetic variability in the species. An alternative to designed multibreed crosses is to reanalyze jointly several experiments involving different breeds. We report a multibreed, multitrait QTL analysis of SSCX that involves five different crosses, six breeds, and almost 3,000 genotyped individuals using a truly multibreed strategy to allow for any number of founder breed origins. Traits analyzed were growth, fat thickness, carcass length, and shoulder and ham weights. Generally, the joint analysis resulted in more significant QTL than the single-experiment analyses. We show that the QTL for fatness, which is highly significant (nominal P < 10(-43)), is of Asiatic origin (Meishan). The next most significant QTL (nominal P < 10(-15)) affected ham weight and seems to be segregating only between Large White and the rest of the breeds. A multitrait, multi-QTL analysis suggests that these are two distinct loci. Additionally, a locus segregating only between Iberian and Landrace affects live weight. The advantages of joint, multibreed analyses clearly outweigh their potential risks.  (+info)

Phenotypic ranges and relationships among carcass and meat palatability traits for fourteen cattle breeds, and heritabilities and expected progeny differences for Warner-Bratzler shear force in three beef cattle breeds. (6/434)

Carcass and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) data from strip loin steaks were obtained from 7,179 progeny of Angus, Brahman, Brangus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Maine-Anjou, Red Angus, Salers, Shorthorn, Simbrah, Simmental, and South Devon sires. Trained sensory panel (TSP) evaluations were obtained on 2,320 steaks sampled from contemporary groups of progeny from one to five sires of each breed. Expected progeny differences for marbling and WBSF were developed for 103 Simmental sires from 1,295 progeny, 23 Shorthorn sires from 310 progeny, and 69 Hereford sires from 1,457 progeny. Pooled phenotypic residual correlations, including all progeny, showed that marbling was lowly correlated with WBSF (-0.21) and with TSP overall tenderness (0.18). The residual correlation between WBSF and TSP tenderness was -0.68, whereas residual correlations for progeny sired by the three Bos indicus breeds were only slightly different than for progeny sired by Bos taurus breeds. The phenotypic range of mean WBSF among sires across breeds was 6.27 kg, and the phenotypic range among breed means was 3.93 kg. Heritability estimates for fat thickness, marbling score, WBSF, and TSP tenderness, juiciness, and flavor were 0.19, 0.68, 0.40, 0.37, 0.46, and 0.07, respectively. Ranges in EPD for WBSF and marbling were -0.41 to +0.26 kg and +0.48 to -0.22, respectively, for Simmentals; -0.41 to +0.36 kg and 0.00 to -0.32, respectively, for Shorthorns; and -0.48 to +0.22 kg and +0.40 to -0.24, respectively, for Herefords. More than 20% of steaks were unacceptable in tenderness. Results of this study demonstrated that 1) selection for marbling would result in little improvement in meat tenderness; 2) heritability of marbling, tenderness, and juiciness are high; and 3) sufficient variation exists in WBSF EPD among widely used Simmental, Shorthorn, and Hereford sires to allow for genetic improvement in LM tenderness.  (+info)

Body fat distribution, liver enzymes, and risk of hypertension: evidence from the Western New York Study. (7/434)

Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) has been associated with hypertension (HTN); however, the nature of this association remains unclear. GGT is a marker of alcohol consumption, but it is also related to the infiltration of fat in the liver (fatty liver). The association between GGT and HTN was examined in a 6-year longitudinal investigation among 1455 men and women who returned for the follow-up visit. Baseline variables included serum GGT, blood pressure, and anthropometric measures. Incident HTN was defined as blood pressure > or =140/90 or on antihypertensive medication at the follow-up visit. To eliminate individuals with potential liver pathology, analyses focused only on individuals with GGT within its normal range (n=897). Participants were divided in quintiles (Q) based on their baseline GGT levels. Multiple logistic regression analyses [odds ratio (95% confidence intervals)] revealed a significant association of GGT with incident hypertension [2.1 (1.1 to 4.0) Q5 versus Q1]. In subgroup analyses, GGT and HTN were significantly associated among both noncurrent and current drinkers, but only for participants above the median of anthropometric measures [eg, body mass index >26.4, 2.3 (0.9 to 5.7), waist circumference >86.1 cm, 3.7 (1.4 to 9.9), and abdominal height >19.8 cm, 3.1 (1.2 to 8.5), for Q5 versus Q1, in fully adjusted models]. These findings suggest that the association between GGT and hypertension is not caused solely by alcohol consumption and indicate that serum GGT, within its normal range, may predict hypertension among individuals with increased central fat distribution, suggesting that fatty liver may represent an important underlying mechanism for this association.  (+info)

Short-term predictors of abdominal obesity in children. (8/434)

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the short-term tracking of abdominal adiposity in children. METHODS: A total of 918 children (477 boys) aged 6-12 years at baseline were followed-up for 2 years. Central obesity was assessed by waist circumference (WaistC), whereas body fat distribution by waist-to-hip ratio. Maturity was assessed by the Khamis-Roche method. Parental fatness and children's cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) were also evaluated. Multiple and logistic regressions were employed to identify the predictors of BMI and WaistC. RESULTS: Tracking of body fatness and body fat distribution was high (r = 0.69-0.86, P < 0.01). More boys remained obese than girls (P < 0.05), whereas a greater percentage of boys moved to a higher quartile of WaistC after the 2-year follow-up (22.0 vs 14.1%, P < 0.01). Sex, child's maturity and WaistC at baseline, CRF, and maternal BMI explained 76% of the variability in BMI and WaistC at the follow-up (n = 290). Children with high WaistC at baseline and low CRF presented 1.9- and 4.3-fold increased risk of remaining in the upper quartile of WaistC at the follow-up (P < 0.01; n = 552). CONCLUSION: Youth with increased WaistC at baseline and low CRF presented an increased chance of maintaining central obesity at the follow-up. More boys than girls moved into a higher quartile of abdominal obesity during the 2-year follow-up period and this should be taken into account in designing programmes for childhood obesity.  (+info)

Ross, Robert, Shaw, Kimberley D., Martel, Yves, de Guise, Jacques, Hudson, Robert et Avruch, Leonard. 1993. « Determination of total and regional adipose tissue distribution by magnetic resonance imaging in android women ». In Human Body Composition : In Vivo Methods, Models, and Assessment. Coll. « Basic life sciences », vol. 60. pp. 177-180. Springer ...
Background: Abdominal fat distributions are reportedly strongly associated with metabolic risks in type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, research on fat distribution in adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus has been limited.. Aim: To investigate fat distribution characteristics in adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus for comparison to those with simple obesity in Japan.. Design/Methods: Sixty-one adolescents 10 to 15 years of age with simple obesity or type 2 diabetes mellitus, who visited our outpatient clinics between 2002 and 2018, were enrolled in this study with ethics approval. Simple obesity was defined as a BMI ≥95%ile without. Serum lipids, ALT and HbA1c were measured without fasting. Visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) were investigated using umbilical level CT scans. Subjects were classified into 2 subgroups: simple obesity group (n=38) or the type 2 diabetes mellitus group (n=23).. Results: Comparisons between the 2 groups are shown in Table 1. VFA and the ...
In a multicenter case-control study that included 403 cases and 297 controls, we examined the relation of past and contemporary body size, including body fat distribution, to the risk of endometrial cancer. The relative contributions of past and contemporary body size were assessed by examining weight and height histories provided by the subjects. Anthropometric indicators thought to reflect early environmental influences (e.g., height and sitting height), current weight, and fat distribution patterns were measured directly. Height was not a risk factor for endometrial cancer, but inexplicably, sitting height was inversely associated with risk. Weight during early adulthood appeared to be directly related to disease risk, but the association was explained by contemporary weight and thus weight gain during adulthood. While contemporary weight was associated with risk of endometrial cancer, the effect was restricted to those in the top quartile. Women whose measured weight at interview exceeded 78 ...
Abstract: The relation of body fat distribution as measured by the ratio of waist to hip circumferences (WHR) to plasma levels of lipids and lipoproteins was studied In 713 men and 520 women who were employed by two Milwaukee companies. Quetelet Index (kg/m2), waist girth, hip girth, and WHR were each positively related to levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B, and the ratio of total to high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. In addition, the anthropometric measures were inversely associated with levels of HDL cholesterol. (Controlling for age, alcohol Intake, exercise level, current smoking status, and oral contraceptive use only slightly reduced the strength of the correlations.) In addition, WHR and Quetelet Index were Independently related to lipid and lipoprotein levels, and the magnitudes of the associations were roughly equivalent For example, the mean (covariate-adjusted) triglyceride level among men in the upper tertile of the Quetelet Index was 37 mg/dl ...
OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that diabetes, body fat distribution, and (in nondiabetic subjects) fasting insulin levels are positively associated with ischemic stroke incidence in the general population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: As part of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, we measured diabetes by using fasting glucose criteria, waist and hip circumferences, and fasting insulin levels with a radioimmunoassay in , 12,000 adults aged 45-64 years who had no cardiovascular disease at baseline. We followed them for 6-8 years for ischemic stroke occurrence (n = 191). RESULTS: After adjustment for age, sex, race, ARIC community, smoking, and education level, the relative risk of ischemic stroke was 3.70 (95% CI 2.7-5.1) for diabetes, 1.74 (1.4-2.2) for a 0.11 increment of waist-to-hip ratio, and 1.19 (1.1-1.3) for a 50-pmol/l increment of fasting insulin among nondiabetic subjects. Ischemic stroke incidence was not statistically significantly associated with BMI ...
Centralized obesity has been associated with increased risk of non-insulin dependent diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Paramount to a sensitive index of body fat distribution is that it contain a measure of lower limb fat (Ashwell et al. 1978; 1982; Mueller and Stallones 1981). However, many epidemiological studies of body fat distribution, which have used skinfold measurements, have been limited to estimating centralized obesity from the triceps and subscapular or other conventional upper body sites. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivities, specificities, and positive predictive values of skinfold indices of body fat distribution when only sites on the upper body are available. We were able to do this in a large population-based data set, the Canadian YMCA-LIFE study, which in-cluded adults 25 to 64 years of age and skinfold sites from upper and lower anatomical regions of the body.Sensitivities, specificities, and positive predictive values did not vary systematically with age
Standard care for the treatment of HIV infection involves the use of a combination of three antiretroviral drugs. The initial recommended regimen in antiretroviral-naive patients according to therapeutic guidelines of the US Department of Health and Human Resources (DHHS) includes two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and a third drug from another class (PI or NRTI).. The use of nucleoside analogues, especially stavudine and zidovudine, is associated with untoward side effects, including lipodystrophy hepatic steatosis/lactic acidosis syndrome, peripheral neuropathy, and anemia. However, Truvada has a low potential for both mitochondrial toxicity and fat distribution disturbances.. As described in the Consensus Document of the Spanish Group for the Study of AIDS (GESIDA), and the AIDS National Plan from the Spanish Ministry of Health Recommendations on metabolic alterations and body fat distribution, studies should focus on the evaluation of body fat disturbances after ...
Standard care for the treatment of HIV infection involves the use of a combination of three antiretroviral drugs. The initial recommended regimen in antiretroviral-naive patients according to therapeutic guidelines of the US Department of Health and Human Resources (DHHS) includes two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and a third drug from another class (PI or NRTI).. The use of nucleoside analogues, especially stavudine and zidovudine, is associated with untoward side effects, including lipodystrophy hepatic steatosis/lactic acidosis syndrome, peripheral neuropathy, and anemia. However, Truvada has a low potential for both mitochondrial toxicity and fat distribution disturbances.. As described in the Consensus Document of the Spanish Group for the Study of AIDS (GESIDA), and the AIDS National Plan from the Spanish Ministry of Health Recommendations on metabolic alterations and body fat distribution, studies should focus on the evaluation of body fat disturbances after ...
In the POUNDS LOST Trial, a 2-year, randomized weight-loss intervention, we found that dietary protein intake significantly modified the effect of an FTO variant on changes in body composition and fat distribution. Carriers of the risk allele (A allele) of the rs1558902 genotype had a greater loss of weight and regional fat in response to a high-protein diet compared with noncarriers, whereas an opposite genetic effect was observed regarding changes in fat distribution in response to a low-protein diet. Our data indicate that the modification effects of dietary treatment were more evident with prolonged intervention. We did not observe significant modification of dietary fat intake on the genotype effects.. The rs1558902 genotype was reported to show the strongest association with obesity in the European (25,26) and other ethnic populations (28), and it has strong linkage disequilibrium with other obesity-associated FTO variants such as the rs9939609 genotype. In this study, the MAF of the ...
HUNTER, G. R., T. KEKES-SZABO, S. W. SNYDER, C. NICHOLSON, I. NYIKOS, and L. BERLAND. Fat distribution, physical activity, and cardiovascular risk factors. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 362-369,1997. The purpose of this study was to report the relationship between fat distribution, physical activity PA, and cardiovascular disease...
We suggest that adiposity and in particular visceral adipose tissue is a key promoter of low-grade chronic inflammation. This observation may in part account for the association of CRP with markers of the metabolic syndrome. Future studies should confirm whether CRP concentrations are elevated in So …
Questionnaires may be useful for large-scale epidemiologic studies. However, this approach is fraught with many difficulties. The major difficulty with the questionnaire approach is that it relies on the ability of the subject (or the parent) to recall behavioral information accurately. Also, it is difficult to translate qualitative information on physical activity (eg, playing for 30 minutes) to quantitative data (ie, kcal per exercise session). Although many different types of questionnaires exist, very few (if any) have been developed specifically and validated for use in children.. As described in more detail by Montoye et al,62 the most frequently used questionnaires in adults include the Minnesota, Paffenberger, Five-City 7-Day Recall, Baecke, and Framingham questionnaires as well as dozens of others that have been described in the literature. Although some validity and reliability studies have been performed, the lack of use of strong criterion methods makes it difficult to interpret the ...
Addiction, Food, Additives and Preservatives, Adolescent Nutrition, Adult Nutrition, African Americans, Diet of, Africans, Diets of, Aging and Nutrition, Alcohol and Health, Allergies and Intolerances, Alternative Medicines and Therapies, etc…
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Evangelou, E., Gao, H., Chu, C., Ntritsos, G., Blakeley, P., Butts, A., Pazoki, R., Suzuki, H., Koskeridis, F., Yiorkas, A., Karaman, I., Elliott, J., Luo, Q., Aeschbacher, S., Bartz, T., Baumeister, S., Braund, P., Brown, M., Brody, J., Clarke, T., Dimou, N., Faul, J., Homuth, G., Jackson, A., Kentistou, K., Joshi, P., Lemaitre, R., Lind, P., Lyytikäinen, L., Mangino, M., Milaneschi, Y., Nelson, C., Nolte, I., Perälä, M., Polasek, O., Porteous, D., Ratliff, S., Smith, J., Stančáková, A., Teumer, A., Tuominen, S., Thériault, S., Vangipurapu, J., Whitfield, J., Wood, A., Yao, J., Yu, B., Zhao, W., Arking, D., Auvinen, J., Liu, C., Männikkö, M., Risch, L., Rotter, J., Snieder, H., Veijola, J., Blakemore, A., Boehnke, M., Campbell, H., Conen, D., Eriksson, J., Grabe, H., Guo, X., van der Harst, P., Hartman, C., Hayward, C., Heath, A., Jarvelin, M., Kähönen, M., Kardia, S., Kühne, M., Kuusisto, J., Laakso, M., Lahti, J., Lehtimäki, T., McIntosh, A., Mohlke, K., Morrison, A., Martin, N., ...
Principal Investigator:DOUCHI Tsutomu, Project Period (FY):1997 - 1999, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Obstetrics and gynecology
Central body fat distribution, independent of BMI, is tied to unfavorable patterns of renal hemodynamics that could explain the increased renal risk reported in previous studies.
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You dont have to be over the hill to want to burn body fat and have a toned body. However, it goes without saying that the older you get, the harder it becomes to maintain a hard body. It is just another cruel trick that nature plays on us as the years pass us by; however, there is something you can do about it though.. First and foremost, if you currently exercise regularly, you should continue to do so. Exercise is perhaps the very best way to boost metabolism and burn calories, even when your body is at rest. If you find that you cannot get rid of stubborn body fat even with regular exercise, you may need to try a supplement that can help you burn body fat by raising your metabolism.. Keep in mind that there are literally hundreds of different weight loss pills on the market today, so you need to do some research before blinding trying any one of them. Ideally, you would want to try a supplement that is completely natural, without any harsh stimulants that can make you feel jittery. Caffeine ...
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Abdominal adiposity is associated with metabolic and hormonal changes, many of which have been associated with the risk of premenopausal breast cancer. In the study to investigate the association between body fat distribution, assessed in 1993 by self-reported waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist to hip ratio, and the incidence of premenopausal breast cancer in the Nurses Health Study II, by the Harvard School of Public Health, posted in PubMed, indicated that during 426,164 person-years of follow-up from 1993 to 2005, 620 cases of breast cancer were diagnosed among 45,799 women. Hormone receptor status information was available for 84% of the breast cancers. The age-standardized incidence rates of breast cancer were 131 per 100,000 person-years among those in the lowest quintile of waist circumference and 136 per 100,000 person-years among those in the highest quintile. No statistically significant associations were found between waist circumference, hip circumference, or the ...
The relationship between antiretroviral treatment of HIV infection, body fat distribution, insulin resistance (HOMA), adipocytokine and apolipoprotein-B (apoB) kinetics was investigated in 12 HIV negative controls and 55 HIV-infected patients including antiretroviral treatment-naïve patients (n=15) and patients taking two nucleoside analogues plus either a protease inhibitor (PI, n=15) or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI, n = 25). The HIV positive treatment groups had mild dyslipidaemia. The apo-B fractional clearance rate (FCR) was reduced in the HIV positive groups. Peripheral fat was lower in treated patients and correlated with duration of therapy. There was a positive correlation between peripheral fat and apo-B clearance rate and a negative correlation with apo-B pool size. Adiponectin was reduced in all HIV positive groups and correlated positively with HDL-cholesterol, apo-B FCR and limb fat and correlated negatively with plasma triglycerides and HOMA. In a linear ...
Difference between body fat percentage and bmi. . Body Fat Percentage in Colombian Adults with Overweight or Obesity. a convenient tool for assessing body fat percentage (BF%) in a sample of t-test showed a significant mean difference in BF% between the methods. BMI is also uninformative with regard to body fat distribution. waist-to-hip ratio (​WHR; WC/HC), height (cm) and body fat percentage (BF%). patterns in both sexes and no statistical differences between the effect estimates.. proteina isolada de soja 90 tabela nutricional.
Women have more body fat than men, but in contrast to the deleterious metabolic consequences of the central obesity typical of men, the pear-shaped body fat distribution of many women is associated with lower cardiometabolic risk. To understand the mechanisms regulating adiposity and adipose tissue distribution in men and women, significant research attention has focused on comparing adipocyte morphological and metabolic properties, as well as the capacity of preadipocytes derived from different depots for proliferation and differentiation. Available evidence points to possible intrinsic, cell autonomous differences in preadipocytes and adipocytes, as well as modulatory roles for sex steroids, the microenvironment within each adipose tissue, and developmental factors. Gluteal-femoral adipose tissues of women may simply provide a safe lipid reservoir for excess energy, or they may directly regulate systemic metabolism via release of metabolic products or adipokines. We provide a brief overview of the
Fukuhara et al. (8) identified visfatin as a peptide predominantly expressed in and secreted from visceral adipose tissue and demonstrated in 101 male and female human subjects a correlation between plasma visfatin concentrations and the amount of visceral fat.. We studied plasma visfatin concentrations in 163 subjects with a wide range of obesity, body fat distribution, insulin sensitivity, and glucose tolerance. We found a significant correlation between visfatin plasma concentrations and measures of obesity, i.e., BMI and body fat content, but not with waist circumference or WHR. Moreover, we found a significant positive relationship between BMI, percent body fat, and waist circumference and visceral visfatin expression. No similar relationship existed for subcutaneous visfatin gene expression. These findings are at least in part compatible with the hypothesis that obesity is associated with increased visceral visfatin expression. It is unclear whether visceral visfatin gene expression is ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Obesity, adipose tissue distribution and health in men - The study of men born in 1913.. AU - Larsson, B.. AU - Seidell, J.C.. AU - Svärdsudd, K.. AU - Welin, L.. AU - Tibblin, G.. AU - Wilhelmsen, L.. AU - Björntorp, P.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. M3 - Article. VL - 13. SP - 37. EP - 44. JO - Appetite. JF - Appetite. SN - 0195-6663. ER - ...
A series of genetic variations linked to fat, obesity, and body shape have been discovered by an international team of 400 experts from more than 250 research institutions.. The scientists, who published their findings in the journal Nature Genetics on Sunday, found a total of 30 different variations which could help explain why some people are overweight, as well as why some people have apple or pear shaped physiques.. One study, led by researchers at Oxford University and the Medical Research Council, involved the analysis of the genetic codes of over 77,000 individuals. They were looking for regions which could be linked to differences in body fat distribution, according to a BBC News report, and discovered 13 areas which could help determine whether fat is more likely to be stored in the waist or the hips.. The researchers note that the genetic variations have a stronger impact on women than men, and that the 13 regions also include functions linked to the development of diabetes, including ...
Africa is experiencing a rapid increase in adult obesity and associated cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs). The H3Africa AWI-Gen Collaborative Centre was established to examine genomic and environmental factors that influence body composition, body fat distribution and CMD risk, with the aim to provide insights towards effective treatment and intervention strategies. It provides a research platform of over 10 500 participants, 40-60 years old, from Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya and South Africa.
New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution. Shungin D, Winkler TW, Croteau-Chonka DC, Ferreira T, Locke AE, Mägi R, Strawbridge RJ, Pers TH, Fischer K, Justice AE, Workalemahu T, Wu JM, Buchkovich ML, Heard-Costa NL, Roman TS, Drong AW, Song C, Gustafsson S, Day FR, Esko T, Fall T, Kutalik Z, Luan J, Randall JC, Scherag A, Vedantam S, Wood AR, Chen J, Fehrmann R, Karjalainen J, Kahali B, Liu CT, Schmidt EM, Absher D, Amin N, Anderson D, Beekman M, Bragg-Gresham JL, Buyske S, Demirkan A, Ehret GB, Feitosa MF, Goel A, Jackson AU, Johnson T, Kleber ME, Kristiansson K, Mangino M, Mateo Leach I, Medina-Gomez C, Palmer CD, Pasko D, Pechlivanis S, Peters MJ, Prokopenko I, Stan?áková A, Ju Sung Y, Tanaka T, Teumer A, Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk JV, Yengo L, Zhang W, Albrecht E, Ärnlöv J, Arscott GM, Bandinelli S, Barrett A, Bellis C, Bennett AJ, Berne C, Blüher M, Böhringer S, Bonnet F, Böttcher Y, Bruinenberg M, Carba DB, Caspersen IH, Clarke R, Daw EW, Deelen J, ...
15 patients diagnosed with CHI completed a 6-month EMS training programme using Miha bodytec machines. The amplitude was chosen by the patients according to their subjective sensation of muscle contraction/pulse sensation at level 8 on a ten-step scale. Before and after the 3 and 6 months of training, the cardiac performance was assessed by means of spiroergometry, electrocardiography (EKG) and echocardiogram. Furthermore, the metabolic status including creatine kinase (CK) and laktatedehydrogenase (LDH) and the patients weight and body fat distribution was determined (impedance scale).. ...
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If you compare the results of both method, you will find that the variation of the body fat percentage for men are very high for some values. And there is no exact body fat range classification based on the calculated results. Different authorities have different classification based on their research. So, use this result as your brief reference. Always consult your doctor or your health advisor to give you a better objective valuation.. The guidance to use this spreadsheet is simple, just enter your body fat parameter measurement in the corresponding boxes, and the excel formula will give you the body fat percentage and the health classification range based on that percentage. ...
Some people with HIV complain of weight and belly fat gain after they start HIV treatment. But researchers have not been able to determine what causes the ...
To use the Armys body fat calculator, go to an Army body fat calculator website such as Calculator.net or TheCalculator.co; enter in your age, gender, height, neck and waist measurements, and then...
Table of Contents Bacchetti P, Gripshover B, Grunfeld C, et al. Fat distribution in men with HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. October 1, ...
What is the truth about cutting body fat? Explore the latest scientific facts and discoveries that get down the nitty gritty of how fat is affecting you.
Inside a lifestyle associated with blame-shifting all of us frequently search for somebody the reason for the situation. Being obese isnt any various -- whos
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Action HoloRam® Reguline-M acts as a bio-regulator of the natural metabolic processes that promote the physiological balance of the weight and the distribution of body fat. Explanation HoloRam® Reguline-M is a precise combination of activated a
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of insulin therapy on body fat distribution in NIDDM patients with secondary sulfonylurea failure. T2 - A preliminary report. AU - Takei, I.. AU - Takayama, S.. AU - Yamauchi, A.. AU - Nakamoto, S.. AU - Kitamura, Y.. AU - Katsukawa, Fuminori. AU - Yamazaki, H.. AU - Saruta, T.. AU - Inoue, S.. PY - 1998/2. Y1 - 1998/2. N2 - Objective: To clarify the influence of insulin therapy on body weight and fat distribution, we compared these parameters in five non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients, with secondary sulfonylurea failure, before and after insulin therapy. Body weight increased significantly after instituting insulin treatment. However, the visceral to subcutaneous fat (V/S) ratio decreased significantly due to a marked increase in S-fat without a change in V-fat. Insulin therapy necessitated by sulfonylurea failure does not appear to accelerate the atherogenic process in NIDDM patients as there is no increase in visceral fat.. AB - Objective: To ...
Background Although it is well established that a higher body weight is protective against osteoporosis, the effects of body fat and fat distribution on bone mineral density (BMD) after adjustment for body weight remains uncertain. Objective To examine the relationship between body fat and fat distribution and BMD beyond its weight-bearing effect in middle-aged Chinese adults. Method The study had a community-based cross-sectional design and involved 1,767 women and 698 men aged 50-75 years. The BMD of the lumbar spine, total hip, and whole body, and the fat mass (FM) and percentage fat mass (%FM) of the total body and segments of the body were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. General information on the participants was collected using structured questionnaire interviews. Result After adjusting for potential confounders, an analysis of covariance showed the weight-adjusted (WA-) total FM (or %FM) to be negatively associated with BMD in all of the studied sites (P|0.05) in both women and
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body composition, hematological indices and lipid profile parameters in adults. The study involved 95 volunteers (BMI from 23.3 to 53 kg/m2). Anthropometric parameters were measured: body weight and height, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat mass (BMF), subcutaneous and visceral fat mass (SFM, VFM), lean body mass (LBM), skeletal muscle mass (SMM). In serum we determined adiponectin and leptin concentrations, extracellular hemoglobin, total bilirubin, as well as lipid metabolism (TCh, HDL-Ch, LDL-Ch, TG). Mean adipokine levels were significantly higher in women (p ≤ 0.01), adiponectin significantly negatively correlated with body height and weight, systolic blood pressure and absolute LBM and SMM values. The same relation was observed for erythroid system indicators and lipid indicators. A positive correlation was exceptionally found between adiponectin and HDL-Ch.
Body composition is what decides a persons whole body look and fitness. Anyone, who wants to look on a beach or wants to live longer, will have to understand the importance of body composition. Body fat percentage is not only important in fitness and health it is also important in the development of many chronic conditions including diabetes and hypertension. It is not only the amount of body fat percentage that is to be concerned about, but the distribution of body fat is also an important aspect in measuring health risk or a healthy body. Researchers have found out to be that central obesity is linked with higher risk of heart diseases and cancers.. The question arises about the measurement of body fat that how a person can measure his body fat and find out about the health and fitness of his body. There are dozens of methods available over the internet for the measurement of body fat percentage, with accuracy ranging from decimals and also a lot of erroneous methods are available.. To save ...
Boston, Mass. -- An international consortium has made significant inroads into uncovering the genetic basis of obesity by identifying 18 new gene sites associated with overall obesity and 13 that affect fat distribution. The studies include data from nearly a quarter of a million participants, the largest genetic investigation of human traits to date. The papers, both from the GIANT (Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits) consortium - which consists of more than 400 scientists from 280 research institutions worldwide - will appear in Nature Genetics and are receiving early online publication.. Joel Hirschhorn, MD, PhD, of Childrens Hospital Boston and the Broad Institute, a senior author on the overall obesity paper and involved in both, says, Different people have different susceptibilities to obesity. Some dont rigorously watch what they eat or how much they exercise and still resist gaining weight, while others constantly struggle to keep their weight from skyrocketing. Some of ...
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:Central adiposity measures such as waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are associated with cardiometabolic disorders independently of body mass index (BMI) and are gaining clinically utility. Several studies report genetic variants associated with central adiposity, but most utilize only European ancestry populations. Understanding whether the genetic associations discovered among mainly European descendants are shared with African ancestry populations will help elucidate the biological underpinnings of abdominal fat deposition. SUBJECTS/METHODS:To identify the underlying functional genetic determinants of body fat distribution, we conducted an array-wide association meta-analysis among persons of African ancestry across seven studies/consortia participating in the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) consortium. We used the Metabochip array, designed for fine-mapping cardiovascular-associated loci, to explore novel array-wide ...
2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved. Background/Objectives:Central adiposity measures such as waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are associated with cardiometabolic disorders independently of body mass index (BMI) and are gaining clinically utility. Several studies report genetic variants associated with central adiposity, but most utilize only European ancestry populations. Understanding whether the genetic associations discovered among mainly European descendants are shared with African ancestry populations will help elucidate the biological underpinnings of abdominal fat deposition.Subjects/Methods:To identify the underlying functional genetic determinants of body fat distribution, we conducted an array-wide association meta-analysis among persons of African ancestry across seven studies/consortia participating in the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) consortium. We used the Metabochip array, designed ...
Results from the present thesis showed that different measures of body fat distribution differed in their relations to parameters of chronic inflammation. Specifically, VAT, SAT, BMI, and waist circumference (WC) were all associated with high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Additionally, BMI was inversely related to adiponectin and the ratio of visceral to subcutaneous body fat (VSR) was inversely related to resistin. In exploratory subgroup analyses, VAT was the strongest indicator for increased levels of interleukin-6 (IL 6). SAT was the most consistent indicator for increased levels of hs-CRP and BMI was the most consistent indicator for decreased levels of adiponectin. WC represented a weak indicator for increased levels of hs-CRP and decreased levels of adiponectin. In addition, by investigation of the urine and serum metabolom, a more comprehensive approach that does not only focus on single biomarkers was applied in the present thesis. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) ...
Rationale: A high waist circumference is associated with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and CVD in patients with a BMI in a range between 25 and 34.9 kg/m2 (82). Monitoring changes in waist circumference over time may be helpful, in addition to measuring BMI, since it can provide an estimate of increased abdominal fat even in the absence of a change in BMI. Furthermore, in obese patients with metabolic complications, changes in waist circumference are useful predictors of changes in CVD risk factors (537). There are ethnic and age-related differences in body fat distribution that modify the predictive validity of waist circumference as a surrogate for abdominal fat (526). These variations may partly explain differences between ethnic or age groups in the power of waist circumference or waist-to-hip (WHR) ratio to predict disease risks (429, 543). In some populations, waist circumference is a better indicator of relative disease risk than is BMI: examples ...
If you dont write down everything you eat and then analyze your food with a nutrition software program, you may be underestimating your calorie intake. Calories add up quickly.. Your assessment of your body composition shift from initially gaining 15 pounds of body fat to starting an exercise program and converting fat to muscle is probably accurate. You are fortunate to have combined the right food and exercise to accomplish this, which is preferred. You are right in that fat is dead weight to a runner, but you do need some body fat for hormone production as well as cushioning and insulating the internal organs.. Skinfold measurements (also called anthropometry) using a calibrated hand-held caliper is used to estimate the amount of fat under the skin. It cannot measure the fat in and around your internal organs though. Skinfolds are taken at various areas of the body to determine the fat distribution and depend on the gender of the person being measured. It takes lots of experience to become ...
ObjectiveTo investigate body fat distribution and glucose and lipid metabolism in HIV-infected children with the aim of describing the lipodystrophic syndrome in children.DesignCross-sectional study including 39 HIV-infected children aged 3-18 years.Main outcome measuresClinical lipodystrophy was de
HCG (human Chorionic Gonadotrophin) is a glycoproteic hormone, normally secreted by trophoblastic cells of the placenta. It consists of two dissimilar, separately but coordinately translated chains called the Alfa and Beta subunits. When it was discovered by Ascheim and Zondek by 1927 they found out that hCG matured the infantile sex glands of experimental animals, and it was secreted by the human placenta. From there its denomination: Chorionic Gonadotrophin.. The first report on the use of hCG for the management of obesity was published in 1954 by the late Dr. ATW Simeons, a German-born Physician practicing at the Ospedale Salvatori Mundii in Rome.. Working in India, he noticed that the so-called fat boys, who displayed Adiposogenital dystrophy (or Frölichs syndrome) when treated with hCG improved not only their condition (testicular descent), but he also observed that body fat distribution modified during the treatment course.. Therefore he hypothesized that if those children were ...
One might expect the same to have happened among the Inuit with genes that affect cold tolerance. These indigenous people live in places where winter means an average daily temperature of around -20° F and only a few hours of light each day. Any trait that might help someone eke a living out of such a harsh environment would surely have been favored by natural selection. Indeed, researchers recently scanned the Inuit genome looking for areas that seem to have been acted on by natural selection and honed in on a few regions. One area contains genes that affect how the body processes fatty acids, which makes sense given that the seafood upon which the Inuit depend is unusually high in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Another contains genes related to body fat distribution and the storage of fat in a form that helps generate heat, a trait that could make all the difference in the frigid Arctic winter.. While the Inuits fatty-acid processing gene variants seem to have evolved via the accumulation and ...
While people might be able to spot the implausibility of smoking improving distance running performance, its a lot harder to spot with more specialized topics. For example, if I were to argue that Intervention X influences body fat distribution and pulled together a few mechanistic resources supporting my arguments, it would be very difficult for an educated lay-person to know if my arguments were sound or not. Which unfortunately is the situation almost all of us are in, anytime we read anything that is even slightly outside of our own area of research.. Even with systematic reviews, which are the highest form of scientific evidence, there is still a lot of room for subjectivity. You can develop a systematic review in a way that makes it more or less likely that you will find a certain outcome, just as you could with an individual study. Not only that, but the review depends on the objectivity of the people screening articles, who could (intentionally or accidentally) systematically include ...
Compared with never smokers, WHR was higher among current smokers and among those with more smoking pack-years in both men and women. Adjusting for age and BMI and other possible confounding factors such as alcohol intake, total energy intake, physical activity, and educational level only strengthened the difference in the mean WHR between never and current smokers. Waist and hip circumferences varied with cigarette smoking status in both men and women. After adjusting for age, BMI, and other covariates, mean waist circumference was higher and hip circumference was lower among current smokers compared with never smokers.. It is possible that those in the higher WHR quintiles underreport their current smoking habits. However, this underreporting should only bring the association toward the null; therefore, our results could only underestimate the true association. Alternatively, the relationship we found could be explained by underlying differences in the background characteristics of smokers ...
Two new studies of overweight and obese adults identified new relationships between fat and cardiometabolic risk. In the first study, women with deep belly fat, as well as fat in their muscles and livers, were found to be at greater risk for cardiometabolic disease, such as heart disease, diabetes and stroke, compared to men. In the second study, young adults-and particularly women-with low muscle mass in relation to BMI were found to be at greater risk for cardiometabolic disease.
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Two risk factors that place males at greater risk for heart disease than women appear to be influenced by genes on the X chromosome, report researchers at the NIH and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School.
Lets talk a little bit concerning body fat percentages! The majority of individuals wish to reach a low body fat for no higher reason than to have a set of sculpted 6 pack abdom…
The term body fat is a familiar one. However, most people associate this word to obesity, cholesterol and an unhealthy constitution. Although excess body fat content can have severe implications, the body requires a specific content of body fat for various metabolic and structural functions. Body fat is
Medical science is constantly bringing new evidence that often challenges what we think we know about risk for a disease or how a disease progresses.
The kidney is divided into parenchyma and renal sinus. The renal sinus is hyperechoic and is composed of calyces, the renal pelvis, fat and the major intrarenal vessels. In the normal kidney, the urinary collecting system in the renal sinus is not visible, but it creates a heteroechoic appearance with the interposed fat and vessels. The parenchyma is more hypoechoic and homogenous and is divided into the outermost cortex and the innermost and slightly less echogenic medullary pyramids. Between the pyramids are the cortical infoldings, called columns of Bertin (Figure 1). In the pediatric patient, it is easier to differentiate the hypoechoic medullar pyramids from the more echogenic peripheral zone of the cortex in the parenchyma rim, as well as the columns of Bertin (Figure 2).,ref name=Hansen2015 ...
TO ITS VICTIMS: the Fupa affects sight, making it difficult to see the penis or vagina. It impacts transportation, rendering it challenging to sit in a car or truck comfortably, sitting down close to men and women inside a bus, taking on two seats in an plane, even standing is hard due to unbalance fat distribution that offers a relentless feeling of slipping ahead ...
The brain is not the only part of the body that affects the way we respond to stress. New research shows that body fat can send a stress signal, too.
by admin , Sep 18, 2017 , Clenbuterol , 0 comments. Many of us are on a constant battle against that stubborn body fat.No matter how hard we may try, getting the much-needed freedom from that fat, seems a bit far-fetched. However,there are a few products that can help you get rid of that unwanted body fat by adhering ...
The following day was one of continued uneasiness for the boy, who began to be harrassed by doubts as to whether, after all, he was moving in the right direction ...
Its been a long, hard road, but I did it! And this is how.... In general I do 90 minuted of cardio with 30 minutes of resistance 6 days a week. I
Need help taking your body fat with our calculator? Detailed directions and videos on how use our body fat calculator for men
Leg fat is categorized as subcutaneous, which means it is close to the skins surface. Although this fat is away from the major organs and does not raise...
You have a lot to gain and nothing to lose (except perhaps some extra body fat) by reducing or eliminating added sugars from your diet. Heres how to do it.
The WHtR is a measure of the distribution of body fat. Higher values of WHtR indicate higher risk of obesity-related ... Allometric law Body fat percentage Body proportions (in figurative art) Body water Leg-to-body ratio Ponderal index Waist-hip ... stroke or death than the more widely used body mass index. However, a 2011 study that followed 60,000 participants for up to 13 ...
Chiolero A, Faeh D, Paccaud F, Cornuz J (1 April 2008). "Consequences of smoking for body weight, body fat distribution, and ... and cultural values favoring a larger body size are believed to contribute to the observed patterns. Attitudes toward body mass ... In this article, researchers found that limiting or prohibiting a child's access to foods high in fat, sugar, and energy led to ... Endocrine changes that occur during periods of malnutrition may promote the storage of fat once more calories become available ...
... which then help determine fat distribution delivery throughout the body. Chylomicrons, the least dense cholesterol transport ... However, during the first seven hours after ingestion of cholesterol, as absorbed fats are being distributed around the body ... Chylomicrons carry fats from the intestine to muscle and other tissues in need of fatty acids for energy or fat production. ... Elevated cholesterol levels are treated with a strict diet consisting of low saturated fat, trans fat-free, low cholesterol ...
A single report has suggested a beneficial effect from treatment with rosiglitazone on fat distribution in acquired partial ... preferential fat gain was in the lower body.[citation needed] Direct drug therapy is administered according to the associated ... Variable fat loss of the palms, but no loss of intramarrow or retro-orbital fat, has been demonstrated.[citation needed] In ... As a confirmatory test, whole-body MRI usually clearly demonstrates the extent of lipodystrophy. MRI is not recommended on a ...
Among men and women, there are differences in body weight, height, body fat distribution, heart rate, stroke volume, and ... Statin treatment reduces cardiovascular mortality by about 31%. Decrease body fat if overweight or obese. The effect of weight ... High trans-fat intake has adverse effects on blood lipids and circulating inflammatory markers, and elimination of trans-fat ... High dietary intakes of saturated fat, trans-fats and salt, and low intake of fruits, vegetables and fish are linked to ...
"Contribution of Breast Volume and Weight to Body Fat Distribution in Females". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 53 (1 ... The average breast weighs about 0.5 kilograms (1.1 lb).[97] Each breast contributes to about 4-5% of the body fat.[citation ... To help women meet the perceived ideal female body shape, corset and girdle manufacturers used a calculation called hip spring ... One of the tools used in the development of Tyrer's design has been a projective differential shape body analyzer for 40,000 ...
Western populations today are exposed to dioxins at doses leading to concentrations of 5 to 100 picograms/g (as TEQ in body fat ... Because PCBs are somewhat volatile, they have also been transported long distances by air leading to global distribution ... Concentrations in fat seem to be relatively similar, be it serum fat, adipose tissue fat, or milk fat. This permits measuring ... body fat, smoking status, and breast-feeding". Environmental Health Perspectives. 117 (3): 417-25. doi:10.1289/ehp.11781. PMC ...
"Effect of climacteric transition and hormone replacement therapy on body weight and body fat distribution". Gynecological ... "Fat and female fecundity: prospective study of effect of body fat distribution on conception rates". BMJ. 306 (6876): 484-487 ... body fat distribution,[12] and hypertension in type 2 diabetes.[13] Stress[edit]. The stress hormone cortisol is regulated by ... These menopause-induced changes in body fat distribution can be counteracted with hormone replacement therapy.[31] In contrast ...
"Consequences of smoking for body weight, body fat distribution, and insulin resistance". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 87 (4): 801-9. ... Rosén T, Bosaeus I, Tölli J, Lindstedt G, Bengtsson BA (1993). "Increased body fat mass and decreased extracellular fluid ... "National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance. Diakses tanggal February 17, 2009.. *^ "ISAA Mission Statement". International ... Fumento, Michael (1997). The Fat of the Land: Our Health Crises and How Overweight Americans can Help Themselves. New York: ...
... "fat shadow" image can also be generated, which gives an overall impression of fat distribution throughout the body It has been ... Sung RY, Lau P, Yu CW, Lam PK, Nelson EA (September 2001). "Measurement of body fat using leg to leg bioimpedance". Arch. Dis. ... DXA scans can also be used to measure total body composition and fat content with a high degree of accuracy comparable to ... DXA has been demonstrated to measure skeletal maturity and body fat composition and has been used to evaluate the effects of ...
... body fat distribution MeSH G06.184.179.134.500 - adiposity MeSH G06.184.179.180 - body fluid compartments MeSH G06.184.227.710 ... tissue distribution MeSH G06.535.790.550 - oxidative phosphorylation MeSH G06.535.790.605 - photophosphorylation MeSH G06.535. ...
Association with Age and a Centripetal Distribution of Body Fat". Human Biology; an International Record of Research. 55, no. 2 ... The Tłįchǫ will have their own legislative bodies in the area's four communities, of which the chiefs must be Tłįchǫ, though ...
Consequences of smoking for body weight, body fat distribution, and insulin resistance". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 87 (4): 801-9. PMID ... Increased body fat mass and decreased extracellular fluid volume in adults with growth hormone deficiency". Clin. Endocrinol. ( ... The Fat of the Land: Our Health Crises and How Overweight Americans can Help Themselves. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14- ... The Fat of the Land: Our Health Crisis and How Overweight Americans Can Help Themselves. Penguin (Non-Classics). p. 126. ISBN 0 ...
Chiolero A, Faeh D, Paccaud F, Cornuz J (April 2008). "Consequences of smoking for body weight, body fat distribution, and ... BMI is closely related to both percentage body fat and total body fat.[22] In children, a healthy weight varies with age and ... Increases in body fat alter the body's response to insulin, potentially leading to insulin resistance. Increased fat also ... It is defined by body mass index (BMI) and further evaluated in terms of fat distribution via the waist-hip ratio and total ...
In humans and related organisms, there are five major body compartments: the blood plasma, interstitial fluids, fat tissues, ... This analysis is used in attempts to mathematically describe distribution of small molecules throughout organisms with multiple ... In pharmacokinetics, a compartment is a defined volume of body fluids, typically of the human body, but also those of other ... The relative percents of body mass of these are included in the following table. Fluid compartments Rang, H. P. (2003). ...
"Consequences of smoking for body weight, body fat distribution, and insulin resistance". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 87 (4): 801-9. ... Rosén T, Bosaeus I, Tölli J, Lindstedt G, Bengtsson BA (1993). "Increased body fat mass and decreased extracellular fluid ... Fumento, Michael (1997). The Fat of the Land: Our Health Crises and How Overweight Americans can Help Themselves. New York: ... Fumento, Michael (1997). The Fat of the Land: Our Health Crisis and How Overweight Americans Can Help Themselves. Penguin (Non- ...
"Effect of climacteric transition and hormone replacement therapy on body weight and body fat distribution". Gynecological ... These menopause-induced changes in body fat distribution can be counteracted with hormone replacement therapy. In contrast, ... body fat distribution, and hypertension in type 2 diabetes. The stress hormone cortisol is regulated by the hypothalamic- ... "Superiority of skinfold measurements and waist over waist-to-hip ratio for determination of body fat distribution in a ...
Chiolero A, Faeh D, Paccaud F, Cornuz J. Consequences of smoking for body weight, body fat distribution, and insulin resistance ... 肥胖指的是體脂肪過度堆積而對健康造成負面影響的身體狀態[8]:6。肥胖最初的定義以身體質量指數(Body Mass Index, BMI)為指標,之後也加入了其他標準,例如評估腰臀比或其他心血管病症風險因子[20][21]:14。BMI與體脂肪率和體脂肪 ... Increased body fat mass and decreased extracellular fluid volume in adults with
For example, a liposoluble drug will tend to accumulate in body fat and water-soluble drugs will tend to accumulate in ... The volume of distribution (VD) of a drug is a property that quantifies the extent of its distribution. It can be defined as ... Distribution in pharmacology is a branch of pharmacokinetics which describes the reversible transfer of a drug from one ... The distribution of a drug between tissues is dependent on vascular permeability, regional blood flow, cardiac output and ...
The role of fat body, oenocytes and oenocytoids". Tissue and Cell. 20 (6): 919-932. doi:10.1016/0040-8166(88)90033-X. PMID ... Locke, M.; Krishnan, N. (1971). "The distribution of phenoloxidases and polyphenols during cuticle formation". Tissue and Cell ...
... the body will shift into ketosis and use mostly fat and muscle for energy. Intermittent fasting can be used to train the body ... This table outlines the estimated distribution of energy consumption at different intensity levels for a healthy 20-year-old ... body composition, and muscular strength." The body uses different amounts of energy substrates (carbohydrates or fats) ... It has been found that intensity has an effect on what fuel the body uses and what kind of adaptations the body makes after ...
Human population density was very low, around only one person per square mile.[3] This was most likely due to low body fat, ... Distribution[edit]. At the beginning of the Paleolithic, hominins were found primarily in eastern Africa, east of the Great ... The Lower Paleolithic Homo erectus possibly invented rafts (c. 840,000 - c. 800,000 BP) to travel over large bodies of water, ... Gavashelishvili, A.; Tarkhnishvili, D. (2016). "Biomes and human distribution during the last ice age". Global Ecology and ...
... where it is connected to the body. The head-and-body length is 11-13.7 centimetres (4.3-5.4 in); the hindfeet measure 1.7 ... The IUCN lists this opossum as least concern given its wide distribution and presumably large numbers, but deforestation and ... The elegant fat-tailed mouse opossum is the type species of Thylamys, and is placed in the family Didelphidae. It was first ... The elegant fat-tailed opossum can occur in a variety of habitats - from cloud forests to chaparrals. The IUCN classifies the ...
They subsist entirely on their fat reserves while dormant, and do not cache food; a typical mouse may lose 25% of its body ... 1991). "Distribution and ecology of six rare species of prairie rodents in Manitoba". Canadian Field-Naturalist. 105: 1-12. ... Falk, J.W. & Millar, J.S. (1987). "Reproduction by female Zapus princeps in relation to age, size, and body fat". Canadian ... Some individuals have white spots on the upper body, or on the tip of the tail. The two sexes are similar in appearance and ...
... and fat harvested from the person's own body (autologous fat transfer).[161] ... described as discrete slightly raised scars in a linear distribution similar to a tram track). The latter is thought to be ... "The Body Project: An Intimate History of American Girls. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. pp. 57-94. ISBN 9780307755742. . ... some soldiers in tropical climates developed such severe and widespread tropical acne on their bodies that they were declared ...
Unlike in other species more affected by white-nose syndrome, big brown bats are able to retain more of their body fat ... Young, R. T. (1908). "Notes on the distribution of Colorado mammals, with a description of a new species of bat (Eptesicus ... It meets the criteria for this designation because it has a wide geographic distribution, a large population size, occurrence ... Adult body length is 110-130 mm (4.3-5.1 in). Its forearm is usually longer than 48 mm (1.9 in). Its wingspan is 32.5-35 cm ( ...
HRT may, however, reverse some characteristics, such as distribution of body fat and muscle, as well as menstruation in trans ... SRS may encompass any surgical procedures which will reshape a male body into a body with a female appearance or vice versa, or ... "have the lifelong advantage of a body that matches their gender identities without the irreversible body changes of a low voice ... "An established body of medical research demonstrates the effectiveness and medical necessity of mental health care, hormone ...
When heat-stressed, moose may fail to adequately forage in summer and may not gain adequate body fat to survive the winter. ... Habitat, range, and distribution. Habitat. Moose require habitat with adequate edible plants (e.g., pond grasses, young trees ... and the fat that is present consists of a higher proportion of polyunsaturated fats rather than saturated fats.[144] ... The body weight per footprint surface area of the moose foot is intermediate between that of the pronghorn foot, (which have ...
... pattern of body fat distribution around the hips, thighs, and buttocks is subcutaneous fat, and therefore poses less of a ... Body fat meter[edit]. See also: Bioelectrical impedance analysis. A body fat meter is a widely available tool used to measure ... Visceral fat[edit]. See also: Abdominal obesity. Visceral fat or abdominal fat[8] (also known as organ fat or intra-abdominal ... They tend to under-read body fat percentage.[92] In contrast with clinical tools, one relatively inexpensive type of body fat ...
... and in the distribution of drugs with changes in body fat and muscle and drug elimination. ... The aged body is different physiologically from the younger adult body, and during old age, the decline of various organ ... and how their bodies should be anointed with oil, and recommended exercises such as walking or horse-riding. Thesis III of the ... caused by the loss of moisture in body tissue. The works of Aëtius describe the mental and physical symptoms of aging. ...
Lamm Equation Modeling and Sedimentation Coefficient Distributions c(s). Biophysical Journal, Vol. 89, 2005. pp. 619-634. ... regardless of where it was sampled from in the body, was unprecedented and favored the idea that proteins are macromolecules ... Removing fat from milk to produce skimmed milk. *Separating particles from an air-flow using cyclonic separation ...
... the body to convert consumed carbohydrates into fat and to suppress carbohydrate and fat oxidation.[22][23] Ethanol is directly ... Alcohol laws regulate the manufacture, packaging, labelling, distribution, sale, consumption, blood alcohol content of motor ... Such laws may take the form of permitting distribution only to licensed stores, monopoly stores, or pubs and they are often ... Excessive daily calorie intake may contribute to an increase in body weight and "beer belly". In addition to the direct effect ...
... reduced body hair growth/density, decreased muscle mass and strength, feminine changes in fat mass and distribution, and ... However, because estrogens are made from androgens in the body, antiandrogens that suppress androgen production can cause low ... from mediating their biological effects in the body. They act by blocking the androgen receptor (AR) and/or inhibiting or ... the development of masculine secondary sexual characteristics like male-pattern facial and body hair growth (or hirsutism), ...
They are warm-blooded, and have a layer of fat, or blubber, under the skin. With streamlined fusiform bodies and two limbs that ... These vary from size, to coloration, to distribution, but they all share a similar hunting style. They use a suction technique ... This milk contains high amounts of fat which is meant to hasten the development of blubber; it contains so much fat that it has ... These animals have very large heads, which can make up as much as 40% of their body mass, and much of the head is the mouth. ...
"Iguana Internal Body Parts". Reptile & Parrots Forum. Retrieved 2017-04-22.. *^ Wang, Tobias; Altimiras, Jordi; Klein, Wilfried ... Global reptile distribution (excluding birds) Because some reptiles are more closely related to birds than they are to other ... The yolk sac (2) surrounding the yolk (3) contains protein and fat rich nutrients that are absorbed by the embryo via vessels ( ... The Vertebrate Body. 5th ed. Saunders, Philadelphia. (6th ed. 1985) *^ Gilbert, SF; Corfe, I (May 2013). "Turtle origins: ...
... bioarchaeologists focus on these parts of the body when determining sex, although other body parts can also be used. The female ... or fat in the diet. Compared to other plants, legumes have lower 14N/15N ratios because they can fix molecular nitrogen, rather ... Bazarsad posits several reasons for this distribution of cribra orbitalia: adults may have lower rates of cribra orbitalia than ... That as the body attempts to compensate for low iron levels by increasing red blood cell production in the young, sieve-like ...
Raw ginger is composed of 79% water, 18% carbohydrates, 2% protein, and 1% fat (table). In 100 grams (a standard amount used to ... Dry ginger is most popularly traded between Asian countries through a unique distribution system involving a network of small ... "body" (describing the shape of its root), but that may be folk etymology.[6] The word probably was readopted in Middle English ... since these farms are family run the distribution of work is more dependent on the family situation rather than gender. For ...
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses, 2nd Edition by John B. Dunning Jr. (Editor). CRC Press (2008 ... a b Radović, A., & Mikuska, T. (2009). Population size, distribution and habitat selection of the white-tailed eagle Haliaeetus ... this led to some fishermen using eagle fat, smeared on their bait, to increase their catch.[17] ... The distribution and breeding ecology of the White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla (L.) in Iceland. B.Sc. (Hons.) thesis. ...
... who had previously adapted King's 1982 novella The Body into the 1986 film Stand by Me, planned to cast Tom Cruise as Andy and ... Frank Medrano plays Fat Ass, one of Andy's fellow new inmates who is beaten to death by Hadley,[5][14] and Bill Bolender plays ... s domestic distribution rights-holder Columbia Pictures, which offered a list of lower-priced titles, one of which was Gilda.[ ...
One study showed pu'er tea suppresses fat production in rats.[39] Pu'er tea is widely sold, by itself or in blends, with ... Its shape is similar to tuóchá, but larger in size, with a much thicker body decorated with pumpkin-like ribbing. This shape ... Pu'er tea distribution in Yunnan]. 7yunnan.cn. 2006. Archived from the original on 2006-12-02.. ... unsubstantiated claims that it promotes loss of body weight in humans. Unlike pu'er, some Bianxiao brick tea has been found to ...
... s also play a role in the production of bile acids important for the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins, ... Evert RF, Eichhorn SE (2006). Esau's Plant Anatomy: Meristems, Cells, and Tissues of the Plant Body: Their Structure, Function ... Distribution of peroxisomes (white) in HEK 293 cells during mitosis. Peroxisome in rat neonatal cardiomyocyte ...
It is a retinoid, meaning it is related to vitamin A, and is found in small quantities naturally in the body. Its isomer, ... Oral Isotretinoin is best absorbed when taken with a high-fat meal, because it has a high level of lipophilicity.[74] The ... officially discontinued both the manufacture and distribution of their Accutane brand in the United States due to what the ... in various cells in the body. Cell death may be instigated in the meibomian glands,[30][55] hypothalamic cells,[56] hippocampus ...
Animal fats including tallow, lard, yellow grease, chicken fat,[94] and the by-products of the production of Omega-3 fatty ... Distribution[edit]. Since the passage of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, biodiesel use has been increasing in the United States. ... Recently, alligator fat was identified as a source to produce biodiesel. Every year, about 15 million pounds of alligator fat ... "Biodiesel from Animal Fat". E85.whipnet.net. Retrieved 2008-01-07.. *^ "Biodiesel produced from "tra", "basa" catfish oil". ...
... or aggregate bodies into their principles; and of composing such bodies from those principles.[37] In 1837, Jean-Baptiste Dumas ... rendering fat into soap, making glass, and making alloys like bronze. Chemistry was preceded by its protoscience, alchemy, ... the energies and distributions characterize the availability of an electron to bond to another atom. ... drawing the spirits from bodies and bonding the spirits within bodies by the early 4th century Greek-Egyptian alchemist Zosimos ...
Fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K are not considered essential but have shown to significantly improve the number of brood ... Apis cerana japonica forming a ball around two hornets: The body heat trapped by the ball will overheat and kill the hornets. ... their distribution later converging. ... Origin, systematics and distribution[edit]. Distribution of ... The sting and associated venom sac of honey bees are modified so as to pull free of the body once lodged (autotomy), and the ...
"When you feel your own equal in the body of a beautiful woman, just as ready to forget the world for you as you for her - oh my ... "During sixty years from 1937 he also wrote over forty articles on the origins, distribution, and nature of life, taking the ... "Fat Man" weapon dropped on Nagasaki, Japan.[33] ... awarded the Fields medal for his work on distributions.[314]. * ... "of the black body form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation.[326] ...
Distribution and diversity[edit]. Main article: List of locust species. Several species of grasshoppers swarm as locusts in ... The adults are larger with different body proportions, less sexual dimorphism, and higher metabolic rates. They mature more ... A serving of 100 g of desert locust provides 11.5 g of fat, 53.5% of which is unsaturated, and 286 mg of cholesterol.[81] Among ... The desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) is probably the best known species owing to its wide distribution (North Africa, ...
... and may bind non-specifically to a variety of entities in the brain and body, such as adipose tissue (fat).[25][26] ... Dronabinol has a large apparent volume of distribution, approximately 10 L/kg, because of its lipid solubility. The plasma ... Detection in body fluidsEdit. Main article: Cannabis drug testing. THC and its 11-OH-THC and THC-COOH metabolites can be ... THC is metabolized mainly to 11-OH-THC by the body. This metabolite is still psychoactive and is further oxidized to 11-nor-9- ...
... as well as the rest of the lower body. Clothes for the lower body, as well as the clothes of menstruating women, are washed ... "Changes in the Spatial Distribution of the Roma Population in Hungary During the Last Decades" (PDF). Területi Statisztika. doi ... "There are Gypsies in America? Where?", My big, fat American Gypsy wedding, TLC, 17 April 2012. ... Distribution of the Romani people in Europe (2007 Council of Europe "average estimates", totalling 9.8 million)[228] ...
Research councils are (usually public) bodies that provide research funding in the form of research grants or scholarships. ... a fat substitute manufactured by the Procter & Gamble (P&G), and their financial relationships with the food and beverage ... Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council in the United Kingdom has devised an alternative method of fund-distribution ... The bodies providing public funding are often referred to as research councils. ...
Female subjects on average had a higher percentage of body fat (mean, 26.0; range, 16.7-36.8%) than males (mean, 18.0; range, ... "Determination of Volume of Distribution for Ethanol in Male and Female Subjects". Journal of Analytical Toxicology. 20 (5): ... Body weight 40 kg. 90 lb 45 kg. 100 lb 55 kg. 120 lb 64 kg. 140 lb 73 kg. 160 lb 82 kg. 180 lb 91 kg. 200 lb 100 kg. 220 lb 109 ... r is the ratio of body water to total weight. It varies between individuals but averages about 0.68 for men and 0.55 for women ...
... and possibly female's naturally higher percentage of body fat. Famine is also accompanied by lower fertility. Famines therefore ... Food shortages in a population are caused either by a lack of food or by difficulties in food distribution; it may be worsened ... The distribution of food has been affected by conflict. Most programmes now direct their aid towards Africa. ... The observations of the Famine Commission of 1880 support the notion that food distribution is more to blame for famines than ...
The differing degrees of water retention are thought to be a result of varying body fat mass.[61] In comparison to smaller ... Distribution and habitat. Common ostriches formerly occupied Africa north and south of the Sahara, East Africa, Africa south of ... At ambient temperatures below their body temperatures (thermal neutral zone (TNZ)), common ostriches decrease body surface ... causing the body temperature to increase further.[62] When the body heat is allowed to increase the temperature gradient ...
... the body not being able to use the vitamin, or an increase in the excretion of the vitamin from the body. Subclinical ... Binding Form of Vitamin B2 in Bovine Milk: its concentration, distribution, and binding linkage, J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol., 37, ... "Maternal intake of fat, riboflavin and nicotinamide and the risk of having offspring with congenital heart defects". European ... It is required by the body for cellular respiration.[1] Food sources include eggs, green vegetables, milk, and meat.[3] ...
"Consequences of smoking for body weight, body fat distribution, and insulin resistance". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. Vol. 87 no. 4. str ... Rosén T, Bosaeus I, Tölli J, Lindstedt G, Bengtsson BA (1993). "Increased body fat mass and decreased extracellular fluid ... Fumento, Michael (1997). The Fat of the Land: Our Health Crisis and How Overweight Americans Can Help Themselves. Penguin (Non- ... 1995). "Body weight and mortality among women". N. Engl. J. Med. Vol. 333 no. 11. str. 677-85. doi:10.1056/NEJM199509143331101 ...
The body and the broad, flat tail of the platypus are covered with dense, brown fur that traps a layer of insulating air to ... Except for its loss from the state of South Australia, the platypus occupies the same general distribution as it did prior to ... The platypus uses its tail for storage of fat reserves (an adaptation also found in animals such as the Tasmanian devil[19]). ... The platypus has an average body temperature of about 32 °C (90 °F) rather than the 37 °C (99 °F) typical of placental mammals. ...
There are two main approaches to health science: the study and research of the body and health-related issues to understand how ... Vaccination programs and distribution of condoms to prevent the spread of communicable diseases are examples of common ... Each section shows the recommended intake for each food group (i.e. Protein, Fat, Carbohydrates, and Sugars). Making healthy ... Environmental: all matters related to health external to the human body and over which the individual has little or no control; ...
Body Fat Distribution Adipose tissue accumulation is referred to as body fat distribution. For individuals with android (apple- ... It is also an indicator for obesity . Gynoid (pear-shaped) distribution is associated with body fat that accumulates around the ... Specific body fat distribution is often determined by measuring the waist-to-hip ratio, which is the circumference of the waist ... faqs.org » Nutrition and Well-Being A to Z » Ar-Bu » Body Fat Distribution ...
Recommendations on metabolic alterations and body fat distribution, studies should focus on the evaluation of body fat ... Peripheral Body Fat Distribution After Switching Zidovudine and Lamivudine to Truvada (RECOMB). This study has been completed. ... This study evaluated changes in body fat distribution in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected participants who ... Open-label and Controlled Study to Assess the Evolution of Peripheral Body Fat Distribution After Switching From Zidovudine ...
... assessment of body fat distribution is equally as important as measurement of total body fat. Traditionally, body fat ... Body Composition and Fat Distribution. Current techniques for assessing body composition and fat distribution in children are ... Body Fat Distribution. In adults, intraabdominal adipose tissue (body fat around the visceral organs) is related to negative ... Moreover, additional studies are needed to examine 1) the relationship between body fat and fat distribution and health risk in ...
Relation of endometrial cancer risk to past and contemporary body size and body fat distribution.. C A Swanson, N Potischman, G ... Relation of endometrial cancer risk to past and contemporary body size and body fat distribution. ... Relation of endometrial cancer risk to past and contemporary body size and body fat distribution. ... Relation of endometrial cancer risk to past and contemporary body size and body fat distribution. ...
Body Fat Distribution, Plasma Lipids, and Lipoproteins. UNCG Author/Contributor (non-UNCG co-authors, if there are any, appear ... Body Fat Distribution, Plasma Lipids, and Lipoproteins. PDF (Portable Document Format). 944 KB. Created on 8/27/2010. Views: ... Abstract: The relation of body fat distribution as measured by the ratio of waist to hip circumferences (WHR) to plasma levels ...
Trunk-leg fat ratio, percentage of body fat, and body fat mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (QDR 2000).. ... percentage of body fat, and body fat mass with age were loose. On multiple regression analysis, only the trunk-leg fat ratio ... Conclusions: Menopause and aging independently induce upper body adiposity. Upper body fat distribution is the most important ... menopause / aging / body fat distribution / obesity / hyperlipidemia / dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry / 閉経婦人 / アンドロゲン(A) / 環境 ...
Body Fat: our own Janus. Thomas, E.L. and Bell, J.D. 2014. Body Fat: our own Janus. Physiology News. 96, pp. 24-27. ... Body fat metabolism: observation by MR imaging and spectroscopy. Thomas, E.L. and Bell, J.D. 1999. Body fat metabolism: ... Whole body fat: content and distribution. Thomas, E.L., Fitzpatrick, J., Malik, S.J., Taylor-Robinson, S.D. and Bell, J.D. 2013 ... Development of a rapid and efficient magnetic resonance imaging technique for analysis of body fat distribution. NMR in ...
Relationship between socio-economic and cultural status, psychological factors and body fat distribution in middle-aged women ... Relationship between socio-economic and cultural status, psychological factors and body fat distribution in middle-aged women ...
This study is looking to show differences in body fat distribution between the two study treatment arms. Differences in lipids ... Potential differences include: differences in body fat distribution, in lipid parameters, in adherence and in neurocognitive ( ...
Paramount to a sensitive index of body fat distribution is that it contain a measure of lower limb fat (Ashwell et al. 1978; ... and positive predictive values of skinfold indices of body fat distribution when only sites on the upper body are available. We ... Simple percent extremity fat indices (e.g. triceps/(triceps + subscapular) X 100) were as effective in discriminating body fat ... many epidemiological studies of body fat distribution, which have used skinfold measurements, have been limited to estimating ...
A study of more than 1800 men in Iceland suggests that certain patterns of body fat distribution are associated with more ... Body fat distribution may be related to prostate cancer aggressiveness. Men with high levels of visceral fat have an increased ... Analyzing Body Fat Distribution Obesity measures such as BMI and waist circumference have been consistently associated with an ... To examine the role of body fat distribution in prostate cancer risk, the researchers studied data from the Age, Gene/ ...
... that suggests an increased prevalence of psychosocial stress factors is associated with visceral distribution of body fat. ... Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see this page from the Diabetes Care web site. ... the endocrine aberrations may provide a cause for visceral fat accumulation, probably due to regional differences in steroid- ... which contributes to an endocrine aberration leading to metabolic aberrations and visceral fat accumulation, which in turn ...
gluteo-femoral fat depots. More recently, mounting evidence has been supporting the role of adipose tissue function in the ... Traditionally, adipose tissue in the visceral fat depot has been considered a major culprit in the development of insulin ... However, there is a growing body of evidence supporting the role of subcutaneous truncal/abdominal adipose tissue in the ... hypertrophy can trigger a vicious cycle of inflammation leading to subcutaneous adipose tissue dysfunction and ectopic fat ...
It is clear that increased body fat affects health, the news is that its distribution on the body influences the state of ... The total mass of the body is made up of fat mass and fat-free mass. The fat mass can be of two types: essential and excess. ... There is a relationship between overall fat deposits and specific fat deposits: fat around the body middle section is ... sex-specific fat. Thus the total percentage of body fat is higher, moreover, this part of essential fat is hard to dislodge. ...
BRAIN »Insulin »body fat »cardiovascular disease »fat distribution »insulin resistance »subcutaneous fat »visceral fat ... body fat , cardiovascular disease , fat distribution , insulin resistance , subcutaneous fat , visceral fat ... Brain Insulin Sensitivity Determines Body Weight and Fat Distribution. 27.04.2020. Just where fat is deposited in the body and ... It was found that insulin action in the brain not only determines body weight, but also the distribution of fat in the body. ...
Plasma glucose and insulin levels during oral glucose loading were significantly higher in women with predominantly upper body ... The importance of body fat distribution as a predictor of metabolic aberrations was evaluated in 9 nonobese and 25 obese, ... Relation of body fat distribution to metabolic complications of obesity J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1982 Feb;54(2):254-60. doi: ... The importance of body fat distribution as a predictor of metabolic aberrations was evaluated in 9 nonobese and 25 obese, ...
Insulin Resistance, Body Fat Distribution, and Sex Hormones in Men. Steven M Haffner, Pauli Karhapää, Leena Mykkänen, Markku ... Insulin Resistance, Body Fat Distribution, and Sex Hormones in Men. Steven M Haffner, Pauli Karhapää, Leena Mykkänen, Markku ... Insulin Resistance, Body Fat Distribution, and Sex Hormones in Men Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... total whole-body glucose disposal (r = −0.54), glucose oxidation (r = −0.23), and nonoxidative whole-body glucose disposal (r ...
... 12.07.2010 ... but there is still a lot to learn about why body fat distribution varies so much between people. Our research helps by putting ... fat cells »heart disease »stem cell research »stem cells »type 2 diabetes »vascular disease »visceral fat ... fat cells , heart disease , stem cell research , stem cells , type 2 diabetes , vascular disease , visceral fat ...
Sexual dimorphism of age-related changes in whole-body fat distribution in the obese.. Kotani K1, Tokunaga K, Fujioka S, ... These data suggest that there is a definite gender difference in the age-related changes in whole-body fat distribution, ... scans in order to clarify age-related changes in whole-body fat distribution in both genders. The subjects were 66 men and 96 ... After calibrating to the total fat volumes, the relationship between age and the relative segmental fat volumes was analysed. ...
As for body fat distribution in the single-treatment group, visceral fat area (VFA) decreased (from 118.3 +/- 54.3 to 101.1 ... Effect of troglitazone on body fat distribution in type 2 diabetic patients.. ... Effect of troglitazone on body fat distribution in type 2 diabetic patients. ... Effect of troglitazone on body fat distribution in type 2 diabetic patients. ...
Body-fat distribution is a risk factor for adverse cardiovascular health consequences. We analyzed the association of body-fat ... Protein-coding variants implicate novel genes related to lipid homeostasis contributing to body-fat distribution.. Justice AE1, ... PROTEIN-CODING VARIANTS IMPLICATE NOVEL GENES RELATED TO LIPID HOMEOSTASIS CONTRIBUTING TO BODY FAT DISTRIBUTION ... PROTEIN-CODING VARIANTS IMPLICATE NOVEL GENES RELATED TO LIPID HOMEOSTASIS CONTRIBUTING TO BODY FAT DISTRIBUTION ...
List of therapeutic drug classes that are associated with significant weight gain and changes in fat distribution ( ... Drugs Affecting Body Weight and Fat Distribution DRUGS AFFECTING BODY WEIGHT AND FAT DISTRIBUTION. ... Drugs That Affect Body Weight, Body Fat Distribution, and Metabolism. 2019 Feb 11. In: Feingold KR, Anawalt B, Boyce A, et al ... Induces intrahepatic fat accumulation with up to six-fold increase in hepatic fat content and more severe increase in ...
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e.g. VAT:1.42; 0.84, 2.41). Conclusions In obese women, but less so in men, measures of body fat distribution, of which VAT ... In obese women, all measures of body fat distribution except aSAT (OR per SD:0.76, 95%CI: 0.53, 1.10) were associated with ... Since it is unclear whether body fat distribution is also important in men and women with obesity we investigated the ... Associations between measures of body fat distribution and presence of ≥1 risk factor, such as hypertension or ...
... body fat mass (BMF), subcutaneous and visceral fat mass (SFM, VFM), lean body mass (LBM), skeletal muscle mass (SMM). In serum ... The study involved 95 volunteers (BMI from 23.3 to 53 kg/m2). Anthropometric parameters were measured: body weight and height, ... we observed a positive correlation between LEP and body weight, BMI and WHR. Studies on ADPN and the ADPN/LEP ratio as a ... adiponectin significantly negatively correlated with body height and weight, systolic blood pressure and absolute LBM and SMM ...
Central obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio (WHR), is a marker of body fat distribution. Although ... "Genome-Wide Association of Body Fat Distribution in African Ancestry Populations Suggests New Loci." PLoS Genetics 9 (8): ... Genome-Wide Association of Body Fat Distribution in African Ancestry Populations Suggests New Loci. ... We identified loci associated with fat distribution in AA individuals using meta-analyses of GWA results for WC and WHR (stage ...
New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution.. Shungin, Dmitry LU ; Winkler, Thomas W; Croteau- ... Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of ... Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of ... To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, ...
The purpose of this report was to examine cross-sectional data to determine the effects of body composition and fa … ... Effects of body composition and fat distribution on ventilatory function in adults Am J Clin Nutr. 1998 Jul;68(1):35-41. doi: ... Body fat and fat-free mass were estimated from skinfold-thickness measurements. Adjusted FVC was not significantly associated ... Previous reports that considered only body mass index or body mass failed to distinguish the opposing effects of fat-free mass ...
3 113JEMDSA Obesity is defined as an excess accumulation of body fat associated with increased fat cell size and number. ... Keyword(s) : Body fat distribution, Ethnicity, Insulin resistance and Measurement * Accreditation : Department of Higher ... oa Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa - Body fat distribution and insulin resistance : review ... 3 113JEMDSA Obesity is defined as an excess accumulation of body fat associated with increased fat cell size and number. ...
Influence of body size and body fat distribution on risk of uterine leiomyomata in U.S. black women. Epidemiology 16(3):346-354 ... Obesity, body fat distribution, and risk of breast cancer subtypes in African American women participating in the AMBER ... but few studies have evaluated the impact of obesity and body fat distribution on breast cancer subtypes in AA women. We ... Comparisons of percentage body fat, body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-stature ratio in adults. American J Clin ...
... high-carbohydrate diet on body weight, body composition, and fat distribution in older men and women: a randomized controlled ... PubMed journal article Effects of an ad libitum low-fat, ... body_weight_body_composition_and_fat_distribution_in_older_men_ ... AgedAged, 80 and overBody CompositionBody ConstitutionBody Mass IndexBody WeightDiet, Fat-RestrictedDietary CarbohydratesEnergy ... Effects of an ad libitum low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet on body weight, body composition, and fat distribution in older men ...
Association of Incident Carcinoma of the Endometrium with Body Weight and Fat Distribution in Older Women: Early Findings of ... Association of Incident Carcinoma of the Endometrium with Body Weight and Fat Distribution in Older Women: Early Findings of ... Association of Incident Carcinoma of the Endometrium with Body Weight and Fat Distribution in Older Women: Early Findings of ... Association of Incident Carcinoma of the Endometrium with Body Weight and Fat Distribution in Older Women: Early Findings of ...
New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution. Shungin, Dmitry; Winkler, Thomas W.; Croteau-Chonka ... Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology  Locke, Adam E.; Kahali, Bratati; Berndt, Sonja I.; ...
Visceral fat (fat found in the deeper tissues and around the bod...,Location,of,body,fat,associated,with,cardiovascular,risk, ... even,at,normal,body,weight,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest ... CHICAGO The distribution of body fat in older men and women is associ...Metabolic syndrome a disorder that includes ... CHICAGO The distribution of body fat in older men and women is associated with metabolic syndrome, a risk factor for ...
To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, ... transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential ... We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci ... Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of ...
Body composition and fat distribution were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography. We found ... " body composition, and fat distribution in response to a high-protein diet, whereas an opposite genetic effect was observed on ... suggest that a high-protein diet may be beneficial for weight loss and improvement of body composition and fat distribution in ... whole body total percentage of fat mass, total adipose tissue mass, visceral adipose tissue mass, and superficial adipose ...
  • Accurate assessment of body composition is important in many areas of obesity and nutrition-related research. (aappublications.org)
  • Upper-body obesity (waist-to-thigh circumference ratio) was a risk factor independent of body weight. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These data indicate that both obesity and the distribution of adipose tissue accumulated during adult life increase endometrial cancer risk substantially. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, many epidemiological studies of body fat distribution, which have used skinfold measurements, have been limited to estimating centralized obesity from the triceps and subscapular or other conventional upper body sites. (wayne.edu)
  • We were able to do this in a large population-based data set, the Canadian YMCA-LIFE study, which in-cluded adults 25 to 64 years of age and skinfold sites from upper and lower anatomical regions of the body.Sensitivities, specificities, and positive predictive values did not vary systematically with age group, sex or obesity level. (wayne.edu)
  • Trunk-leg fat ratio, percentage of body fat, and body fat mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (QDR 2000). (nii.ac.jp)
  • Potential differences include: differences in body fat distribution, in lipid parameters, in adherence and in neurocognitive (brain) function. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Ethnic differences in body fat deposition and liver fat content in two UK based cohorts. (westminster.ac.uk)
  • If total body density and the specific densities of fat and fat-free mass are known, an equation can be generated for converting total body density to percentage of body fat based on the Archimedes principle. (aappublications.org)
  • 0.001), the correlations of BMI, percentage of body fat, and body fat mass with age were loose. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Fat and fat-free mass are terms used frequently that refer to the classic two-component body composition model in which body mass is broken down into fat and nonfat tissue masses. (aappublications.org)
  • The technique is a two-compartment model and is based on the different tissue densities of the fat and fat-free compartments of the body. (aappublications.org)
  • Upper body fat distribution is the most important determinant of hyperlipidemia among the anthropometric variables. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivities, specificities, and positive predictive values of skinfold indices of body fat distribution when only sites on the upper body are available. (wayne.edu)
  • In addition to providing fundamental whole-body descriptive characteristics, accurate measures of body composition often are required as scaling factors to normalize physiologic variables (eg, metabolic rate, physical activity, physical fitness, etc). (aappublications.org)
  • Measurement of the masses of the individual compartments of body mass is extremely challenging, because no direct method exists other than in vivo neutron activation analysis (very limited availability) and chemical analysis of the cadaver (useful for animal studies only). (aappublications.org)
  • The lack of direct methods has led to development of various models and indirect methods for estimation of fat and fat-free mass, all of which are imperfect and require a number of assumptions, many of which require age-specific considerations, because the usual assumptions in multicompartmental models (eg, hydration of fat-free mass, density of fat-free mass) are known to be influenced by age and state of maturation. (aappublications.org)
  • The most widely used approach is to measure body volume by underwater weight and determine density by dividing body mass by body volume. (aappublications.org)
  • however, the density of fat-free mass is known to be influenced by factors such as age, gender, and ethnicity, 3 and little information exists in children. (aappublications.org)
  • This study is looking to show differences in body fat distribution between the two study treatment arms. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The relative contributions of past and contemporary body size were assessed by examining weight and height histories provided by the subjects. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Anthropometric indicators thought to reflect early environmental influences (e.g., height and sitting height), current weight, and fat distribution patterns were measured directly. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This method provides minimal image distortion and allows rapid coverage of the whole body. (westminster.ac.uk)
  • Publications] Tsutomu Douchi: 'Body Fat Distribution in Women with Polycytic Ovary Syndrome Its Implication in the Future Risks for Life Style-associated Diseases'Jpn. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Relationship between socio-economic and cultural status, psychological factors and body fat distribution in middle-aged women living in Northern Italy. (bordeaux-neurocampus.fr)
  • Objectives: To investigate the effects of aging- and menopausal related change in body fat distribution on lifestyle-associated diseases such as hyperlipidemia. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Aging- and menopausal related change in body fat distribution may be attributable to sedentariness with increasing age, decrease in ovarian steroids, less energy expenditure, and relatively high androgen environment. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This study evaluated changes in body fat distribution in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected participants who either switched from a zidovudine- plus lamivudine- containing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen to a regimen containing Truvada® (a fixed-dose combination tablet of emtricitabine [FTC, 200 mg] and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate [TDF, 300 mg]) or who remained on a zidovudine- plus lamivudine-containing regimen. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Relation of endometrial cancer risk to past and contemporary body size and body fat distribution. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In a multicenter case-control study that included 403 cases and 297 controls, we examined the relation of past and contemporary body size, including body fat distribution, to the risk of endometrial cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Pilot Phase IV, Multicenter, Randomized, Open-label and Controlled Study to Assess the Evolution of Peripheral Body Fat Distribution After Switching From Zidovudine Containing Backbone to Truvada in HIV-1-infected Patients on HAART (RECOMB Study). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • For individuals with android (apple-shaped) distribution, fat is centered around the abdominal area. (faqs.org)
  • Android fat distribution is defined as a ratio greater than 1.0 for men and 0.8 for women. (faqs.org)
  • Scientists ascertained that the specific body shapes are: the android shape, or apple shape, common among men (fat deposits on the middle section of the body, mostly on the abdomen) and the gynoid, or pear shape, more common among women (fat deposited on hips and bottom). (streetdirectory.com)
  • Also, for women, the android pattern fat distribution should raise questions with regard to hormonal im ba lances, such situations being a potential cause for health problems such as polycystic ovary syndrome. (streetdirectory.com)
  • A high android/ gynoid fat mass ratio was associated with a lower FENO, whereas a high preperitoneal fat mass was associated with a higher FENO. (eur.nl)
  • An 'android' fat distribution pattern is so called because more men than women exhibit it. (davidwolfe.com)
  • We propose in Aim 1 to conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of body fat distribution. (grantome.com)
  • The purpose of this report was to examine cross-sectional data to determine the effects of body composition and fat distribution on ventilatory function in 1235 adults (621 men and 614 women). (nih.gov)
  • Carriers of the risk allele had a greater reduction in weight, body composition, and fat distribution in response to a high-protein diet, whereas an opposite genetic effect was observed on changes in fat distribution in response to a low-protein diet. (harvard.edu)
  • Our data suggest that a high-protein diet may be beneficial for weight loss and improvement of body composition and fat distribution in individuals with the risk allele of the FTO variant rs1558902. (harvard.edu)
  • Age-related changes in body composition and fat distribution may be associated with the pulmonary impairment observed in the elderly. (semanticscholar.org)
  • BMI, HbA1c, serum lipid level, and body fat distribution, which were determined by computed tomography (CT) scan at the umbilical level, were measured and compared before and after troglitazone treatment. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The distribution of body fat was determined using computed tomography (CT) scanning. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The same paper reported on the preliminary data on absolute changes in visceral fat, measured by computed tomography (CT) scan, after 6 months of treatment with sibutramine, as part of the STORM trial. (78stepshealth.us)
  • Bioelectrical impedance for measurement of total body fat and computed tomography for visceral and subcutaneous fat at umbilicus levels were performed in 34 obese and 10 lean men. (elsevier.com)
  • The animals were weighed weekly and Computed Tomography was used at the beginning (1st week) and end (18th week) of the experiment for evaluating the distribution of visceral fat . (bvsalud.org)
  • The importance of body fat distribution as a predictor of metabolic aberrations was evaluated in 9 nonobese and 25 obese, apparently healthy women. (nih.gov)
  • Fasting plasma triglyceride levels were also significantly higher in the upper body segment obese women. (nih.gov)
  • Sexual dimorphism of age-related changes in whole-body fat distribution in the obese. (nih.gov)
  • FTO rs1558902 was genotyped in 742 obese adults who were randomly assigned to one of four diets differing in the proportions of fat, protein, and carbohydrate. (harvard.edu)
  • 108) treatment with dexfenfluramine in obese type 2 diabetic subjects resulted in a selective reduction of visceral fat area, measured by magnetic resonance imaging. (78stepshealth.us)
  • Obese refers specifically to having excess body fat. (hawaii.edu)
  • Therefore, BMI can sometimes underestimate the amount of body fat in overweight or obese people and overestimate it in more muscular people. (hawaii.edu)
  • Prospective studies utilizing standardized anthropometric methods for the assessment of body fat distribution as well as precise, consistent methods for the measurement of the metabolic variables in the obese and non-obese are necessary.In particular, longitudinal studies investigating the effects of intervention treatments on body fat distribution are warranted. (bsu.edu)
  • Men are considered borderline at 25% body fat and clinically obese at 30%, while women are borderline at 30% and clinically obese at 35% body fat. (freedieting.com)
  • If you are obese, you will find it easier to use a body fat analyzer. (freedieting.com)
  • This explains why body fat analyzers are better for more obese people, as the amount if internal fat will normally be higher (and is not picked up by the fat calipers). (freedieting.com)
  • The obese type II diabetes mellitus group had the highest GHBP levels and the most visceral fat. (elsevier.com)
  • Body fat distribution in pre-and post-menopausal women: metabolic and anthropometric variables. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Upper body fat distribution is the most important determinant of hyperlipidemia among the anthropometric variables. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Risk of breast, endometrial, colorectal, and renal cancers in postmenopausal women in association with a body shape index and other anthropometric measures. (openrepository.com)
  • Chapel Hill, North Carolina - A new breakthrough from the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits consortium, which includes many public health researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, identifies multiple genetic variants associated with how the body regulates and distributes body-fat tissue. (mindzilla.com)
  • Premenopausal and postmenopausal women with upper body fat distribution appear to be a subset of women who have a more favorable prognosis as measured by less lymph node involvement, smaller tumors, and higher levels of ER in their tumors. (fredhutch.org)
  • Relation of endometrial cancer risk to past and contemporary body size and body fat distribution. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In a multicenter case-control study that included 403 cases and 297 controls, we examined the relation of past and contemporary body size, including body fat distribution, to the risk of endometrial cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Relation between body composition, fat distribution, and lung function in elderly men. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Lastly, our final aim will integrate genetic results from Project 2 with those from the other projects to study the interrelationships across data dimensions (diet, lifestyle/behaviors, biochemical and hormonal factors, metabolites, and gut microbial composition), construct best predictive models of body fat amount and distribution, and explore the relation of the predicted values with breast and colorectal cancer risks. (grantome.com)
  • Body fat distribution has been cross-sectionally associated with atherosclerotic disease risk factors, but the prospective relation with coronary heart disease remains uncertain. (uea.ac.uk)
  • The pear-shaped overweight persons are at greater risk of mechanical problems, as most of their body fat is distributed around their hips, thighs and bottom. (streetdirectory.com)
  • Professor Docherty concluded: "The number one way of reducing the number of overweight people is improving diet and encouraging exercise, but we hope our research might eventually offer insights that lead to new treatments including drugs to reduce these high-risk fat stores around organs. (innovations-report.com)
  • Storing excess visceral fat is thought to greatly increase a person's risk of developing type 2 diabetes and a range of associated problems including heart disease so having more visceral fat cells could predispose a person to those problems if they are overweight. (innovations-report.com)
  • Objective: We studied the association of body fat distribution and body composition with flow-resistance relations in overweight. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusion: CFD is associated with more severe abnormalities in body composition and with higher CO independently of FFM in overweight, nonobese subjects. (elsevier.com)
  • It highly affected body composition reported as additional fat for overweight in compare with acceptable according to Ideal BFP categories. (org.ua)
  • It higher influenced the distribution of total body fat reported as additional excess fat among overweight category compared to the acceptable group. (org.ua)
  • Visceral fat - the so-called "pot-belly" - indicates a much higher risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes than subcutaneous fat. (innovations-report.com)
  • Location of body fat associated with cardiovascular risk even at normal b. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Effects of age on body fat distribution and cardiovascular risk factors in women. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Exercises that incorporate lower-body resistance training, paired with cardiovascular workouts, are essential to removing this fat issue. (davidwolfe.com)
  • Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with estimates of body fat distribution. (cdc.gov)
  • We, therefore, compared whole-body adipose tissue distribution by magnetic resonance imaging in 10 CGL patients, of whom seven (six females, one male) had CGL1 and three (two males, one female) had CGL2. (elsevier.com)
  • The mechanisms by which WL with and without exercise impact regional fat loss should be explored as reductions in abdominal fat area and subcutaneous FCW appear to influence glucose metabolism. (figshare.com)
  • Further analysis revealed pathways and gene sets that influenced not only metabolism but also the regulation of body fat tissue, bone growth and adiponectin, a hormone that controls glucose levels and breaks down fat. (mindzilla.com)
  • Genetic determination of body fat distribution and the attributive influence on metabolism. (cdc.gov)
  • Simha, V & Garg, A 2003, ' Phenotypic Heterogeneity in Body Fat Distribution in Patients with Congenital Generalized Lipodystrophy Caused by Mutations in the AGPAT2 or Seipin Genes ', Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism , vol. 88, no. 11, pp. 5433-5437. (elsevier.com)
  • The knowledge gained by this study may significantly advance our understanding of the biological factors driving body fat distribution and their effects on the development of common cancers among several racial/ethnic populations. (grantome.com)
  • There is some evidence that suggests an increased prevalence of psychosocial stress factors is associated with visceral distribution of body fat. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • There is a relationship between overall fat deposits and specific fat deposits: fat around the body middle section is associated with visceral fat, so, abdominal fat is the most serious health risk. (streetdirectory.com)
  • We identified loci associated with fat distribution in AA individuals using meta-analyses of GWA results for WC and WHR (stage 1). (harvard.edu)
  • In conclusion, we identified two suggestive loci associated with fat distribution in AA populations in addition to confirming 6 loci previously identified in populations of EA. (harvard.edu)
  • Notably, the genetic loci associated with body fat distribution, which show sexual dimorphism, are located near genes that are expressed in adipose tissues and/or adipose cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Our study reveals a novel key mechanism that regulates fat distribution in humans. (innovations-report.com)
  • Humans can store fat either beneath the skin in subcutaneous cells, or around internal organs in visceral cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body composition, hematological indices and lipid profile parameters in adults. (mdpi.com)
  • NC percentiles were produced using the LMS method, and NC was compared with other parameters which define body fat distribution. (wiley.com)
  • Skinfold measurements are generally more accurate predictors of body fat than BMI. (freedieting.com)
  • Effect of troglitazone on body fat distribution in type 2 diabetic patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • To expand on this finding, we investigated at the clinical level how long-term administration of troglitazone influences the body fat distribution in type 2 diabetic patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It is clear that increased body fat affects health, the news is that its distribution on the body influences the state of health of specific organs. (streetdirectory.com)
  • New research being presented today (12 July) at the UK National Stem Cell Network Annual Science Meeting in Nottingham shows that adding fat to mouse stem cells grown in the lab affects their response to the signals that push them to develop into one or other of the main types of fat storage cells - subcutaneous (under the skin) or visceral (around the organs). (innovations-report.com)
  • We conclude that CGL patients with Seipin mutations have a more severe lack of body fat, which affects both metabolically active and mechanical adipose tissue, compared with patients with mutations in the AGPAT2 gene. (elsevier.com)
  • It affects many parts of the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. (lu.se)
  • Sexual dimorphisms in genetic loci linked to body fat distribution. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Considering the epidemiological and genetic evidence, sexual dimorphism is a prominent feature of body fat distribution. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Coronary heart disease and body fat distribution. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Fat deposits, especially around the abdomen area, may be an important independent risk factor for diabetes and coronary artery disease. (uwhealth.org)
  • 102 cm in men) and 260 with peripheral fat distribution (PFD). (elsevier.com)
  • After calibrating to the total fat volumes, the relationship between age and the relative segmental fat volumes was analysed. (nih.gov)
  • We examined the associations of total body and abdominal fat measures with respiratory resistance (Rint), fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), and risks of wheezing and asthma in school-aged children. (eur.nl)
  • Total body potassium and body fat: relevance to aging. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A total of 65 SNPs with reported genome-wide significant associations regarding estimates of body fat distribution were genotyped. (cdc.gov)
  • Message Body (Your Name) thought you would be interested in this article in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Kari E. North, professor of epidemiology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Global Public Health, is joint lead author of the new study, "Protein-Coding Variants Implicate Novel Genes Related to Lipid Homeostasis 1 Contributing to Body Fat Distribution," published February 18 in Nature Genetics . (mindzilla.com)
  • In a paper recently published in the international, peer-reviewed journal PLoS ONE , Concordia University's Sylvia Santosa, assistant professor in the Department of Exercise Science, shows that low testosterone levels lead to changes in fat cells in the lower body but not in the upper body. (youth-rx.com)
  • The study sheds light on how testosterone controls where fat is stored, and reveals that men who have low levels of testosterone show a shift in how they store body fat. (youth-rx.com)
  • They found that abnormal protein levels provided clues as to how the presence of testosterone changes the functioning of fat cells. (youth-rx.com)
  • Being around 10% body fat is a lot more effective for testosterone levels and muscular tissue building possibility than severe leanness. (blogarama.com)
  • Generally, the amount of this sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in the plasma will determine the distribution of testosterone between free and bound forms, and the free testosterone concentration will determine its half-life. (drugs.com)
  • For the first time, we were able to examine, on a large scale, how low-frequency and rare variants influence body fat distribution," said Kari E. North. (mindzilla.com)
  • Publications] Hirofumi Ijuin: 'The contribution of Menopause to changes in Body-fat Distribution'The Journal of obstetrics and Gynaecology Research. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This research suggests that the distribution of visceral versus subcutaneous adipose cells is at least in part down to the nutrition available to stem cells during the early stages of development. (innovations-report.com)