Body Fat Distribution: Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Body Constitution: The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Intra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.Subcutaneous Fat: Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Skinfold Thickness: The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Waist-Hip Ratio: The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)Viscera: Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.Subcutaneous Fat, Abdominal: Fatty tissue under the SKIN in the region of the ABDOMEN.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome: Defective metabolism leading to fat maldistribution in patients infected with HIV. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and probably involves some combination of infection-induced alterations in metabolism, direct effects of antiretroviral therapy, and patient-related factors.Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Obesity, Abdominal: A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Dominica: An island republic of the West Indies. Its capital is Roseau. It was discovered in 1493 by Columbus and held at different times by the French and the British in the 18th century. A member of the West Indies Federation, it achieved internal self-government in 1967 but became independent in 1978. It was named by Columbus who discovered it on Sunday, Domingo in Spanish, from the Latin Dominica dies, the Lord's Day. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p338 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p151)Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Waist Circumference: The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Cardiovascular Abnormalities: Congenital, inherited, or acquired anomalies of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, including the HEART and BLOOD VESSELS.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.TriglyceridesLinear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Radiography, Abdominal: Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Glucose Clamp Technique: Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Electric Impedance: The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Lipodystrophy: A collection of heterogenous conditions resulting from defective LIPID METABOLISM and characterized by ADIPOSE TISSUE atrophy. Often there is redistribution of body fat resulting in peripheral fat wasting and central adiposity. They include generalized, localized, congenital, and acquired lipodystrophy.Metabolic Diseases: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)Fat Body: A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Basal Metabolism: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Puberty: A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Buttocks: Either of two fleshy protuberances at the lower posterior section of the trunk or HIP in humans and primate on which a person or animal sits, consisting of gluteal MUSCLES and fat.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin: A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.

The effect of stage of growth and implant exposure on performance and carcass composition in steers. (1/434)

Angus and Angus x Limousin cross steers (n = 182; initial BW = 309 +/- 27.8 kg) were used to evaluate the influence of an estradiol-trenbolone acetate implant (containing 24 mg of estradiol and 125 mg of trenbolone acetate) on production efficiency and carcass traits when administered at specific stages of growth. Treatments were 1) control, no implant (NI); 2) early implant (EI) on d 1 (BW = 309 kg); or 3) delayed implant (DI) on d 57 (BW = 385 kg). Comparisons were also made between the NI and implanted treatments (I; EI + DI). Steers were procured at weaning and were backgrounded (47 d) before the initiation of the experiment. Initial predicted carcass composition was 14.9% protein, 13.3% fat, 54.6% moisture, and 17.2% bone. Days on feed were constant across treatment. After 56 d, ADG and G:F were improved (P < 0.01) by implants, NI vs. EI (1.68 vs. 1.90 kg and 0.227 vs. 0.257). At d 57, predicted carcass composition did not differ among treatments. From 57 to 112 d, DI caused higher ADG than NI or EI (NI = 1.65, EI = 1.57, and DI = 1.78 kg; P < 0.05) and higher G:F (NI = 0.155, EI = 0.150, and DI = 0.173; P < 0.01). Cumulative ADG and G:F were improved by implants (1.65 vs. 1.73 kg; P < 0.05) and (0.175 vs. 0.186; P < 0.01) for NI vs. I, respectively, with no differences between treatments that involved implants. Cumulative DMI was similar for all treatments. Implanting increased dressing percentage (63.5 vs. 64.1%; P < 0.05) and increased (P < 0.01) hot carcass weight (341 vs. 353 kg) and LM area (76.5 vs. 81.4 cm(2)) for NI vs. I, respectively. Rib fat and kidney, pelvic, and heart fat were not affected by treatment, and treatment had no effect on the whole carcass proportions of fat, protein, or water. Implants advanced maturity scores (NI = A(51) vs. EI + DI = A(59); P < 0.01). Marbling scores were decreased (P < 0.05) by EI but not by DI (NI = Small(65), EI = Small(20), DI = Small(36)). The percentage of i.m. fat content of the LM was decreased (P < 0.10) by EI and was not affected by DI (NI = 5.1, EI = 4.0, DI = 4.8%). Treatment affected (P < 0.10) the proportion of carcasses with marbling scores greater than Modest(0) (NI = 23.6, EI = 7.8, DI = 22.6%). The results of this study suggest that growth of i.m. fat is sensitive to anabolic growth promotants administered during early periods of growth.  (+info)

Influence of nutrient intake and body fat on concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin, thyroxine, and leptin in plasma of gestating beef cows. (2/434)

Pregnant Angus x Hereford cows (n = 73) were used to determine the effects of amount of nutrient intake and BCS on concentrations of IGF-I, insulin, leptin, and thyroxine in plasma. At 2 to 4 mo of gestation, cows were blocked by BCS and assigned to one of four nutritional treatments: high (H = a 50% concentrate diet fed ad libitum in a drylot) or adequate native grass pastures and one of three amounts of a 40% CP supplement each day (M = moderate, 1.6 kg; L = low, 1.1 kg; or VL = very low, 0.5 kg; as-fed basis). After 110 d of treatment, all cows grazed dormant native grass pasture and received 1.6 kg/d of a 40% CP supplement. At 68, 109, and 123 d of treatment, cows were gathered, and plasma samples were collected by tail venipuncture (fed sample). After 18 h without feed and water, a second plasma sample was collected (fasted sample). At 109 d of treatment, BCS was greatest (P < 0.05) for H cows, similar for M and L cows, and least for VL cows. Concentrations of insulin and leptin were greater (P < 0.05) for H cows than for M and VL cows at 68 and 109 d, but similar for all groups at 123 d. Thyroxine in plasma was greatest (P < 0.05) for H cows at 68 d and similar for cows on all treatments at 123 d. Concentrations of IGF-I, insulin, and leptin in fed and fasted cows were positively correlated with BCS at 109 d. Body condition was predictive of concentrations of IGF-I, insulin, and leptin when cows had different nutrient intakes, but BCS accounted for less than 12% of the variation in plasma concentrations of IGF-I, insulin, and leptin when nutrient intake was the same for all cows. We conclude that amount of nutrient intake has a greater influence than body energy reserves on IGF-I, insulin, and leptin concentrations in the plasma of gestating beef cows.  (+info)

Is epidural lipomatosis associated with abnormality of body fat distribution? A case report. (3/434)

CASE REPORT: To report a case of epidural lipomatosis in a patient with abnormal adipose tissue distribution, glucose intolerance and mixed hyperlipidemia. A 63-year-old male patient presented with low back pain radiating to the left calf on standing and walking (walking distance <100 m). He weighed 97.5 kg, was 1.73 m tall (BMI 32.6 kg/m2) and had a waist circumference of 113 cm. He had a glucose intolerance after a 75-g glucose oral load test. CT-Myelography revealed voluminous epidural lipomatosis around L4-L5 and L5-S1. Low calorie diet and reduction in alcohol intake achieved a weight loss of 17.5 kg in 7 months (80 kg, BMI 25.8 kg/m2, waist circumference 94 cm) and dramatic improvement in low back pain, walking distance (>500 m) and reduction of lipomatosis on CT-scan. Our case suggests a relationship between central obesity phenotype and epidural lipomatosis. Specific insulin resistance treatment might be proposed for these patients if this hypothesis is confirmed in further studies.  (+info)

Identification of genetic markers for fat deposition and meat tenderness on bovine chromosome 5: development of a low-density single nucleotide polymorphism map. (4/434)

As genetic markers, SNP are well suited for the development of genetic tests for production traits in livestock. They are stable through many generations and can provide direct assessment of individual animal's genetic merit if they are in linkage disequilibrium and phase with functional genetic variation. Bovine chromosome 5 has been shown to harbor genetic variation affecting production traits in multiple cattle populations; thus, this chromosome was targeted for SNP-based marker development and subsequent association analysis with carcass and growth phenotypes. Discovery of SNP was performed in a panel of 16 sires representing two sires from each of seven beef breeds and two Holstein sires by PCR amplification and sequencing using primers designed from genomic sequence obtained by low-coverage sequencing of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones. From 550 SNP, 296 (54%) were tentatively identified as having a minor allele frequency >10%. Forty-five SNP derived from 15 BAC were chosen based on minor allele frequency and were genotyped in 564 steers and their sires. Production and carcass data were collected on the steers as a part of the Germplasm Evaluation (GPE), Cycle VII Project at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (Clay Center, NE), which involves of the evaluation of sires from seven of the most popular U.S. breeds. Haplotypes based on seven SNP derived from a BAC containing the bovine genes HEM1 and PDE1B were associated with traits related to carcass fat. Steers homozygous for the major haplotype had 0.15 +/- 0.04 cm less subcutaneous fat, 0.57 +/- 0.18 kg less rib fat, 0.18 +/- 0.07 lower yield grade, 1.11 +/- 0.35% less predicted fat yield, and 0.79 +/- 0.3% greater predicted retail product yield than heterozygotes. The frequency of the major haplotype was 0.70 in the steers, and it ranged from 0.44 (Limousin) to 0.98 (Simmental and Gelbvieh) in a panel consisting of an average of 20 purebred sires from each of the seven breeds. A second set of haplotypes based on four SNP derived from a BAC containing the genes NOL1 and CHD4 was associated with Warner-Bratzler shear force. Steers homozygous for the major haplotype had 0.27 +/- 0.11 kg greater shear force than those heterozygous for the major haplotype and one of two minor haplotypes. The frequency of the major haplotype was 0.59 in the steers and ranged from 0.27 (Hereford) to approximately 0.95 (Angus and Red Angus) in the panel of purebred sires. These results demonstrate the feasibility of targeting QTL regions for SNP-based marker development and that a low level of coverage can identify markers associated with phenotypic traits.  (+info)

Large-scale, multibreed, multitrait analyses of quantitative trait loci experiments: the case of porcine X chromosome. (5/434)

A QTL analysis of multibreed experiments (i.e., crossed populations involving more than two founder breeds) offers clear advantages over classical two-breed crosses, among them increased power and a more comprehensive coverage of the total genetic variability in the species. An alternative to designed multibreed crosses is to reanalyze jointly several experiments involving different breeds. We report a multibreed, multitrait QTL analysis of SSCX that involves five different crosses, six breeds, and almost 3,000 genotyped individuals using a truly multibreed strategy to allow for any number of founder breed origins. Traits analyzed were growth, fat thickness, carcass length, and shoulder and ham weights. Generally, the joint analysis resulted in more significant QTL than the single-experiment analyses. We show that the QTL for fatness, which is highly significant (nominal P < 10(-43)), is of Asiatic origin (Meishan). The next most significant QTL (nominal P < 10(-15)) affected ham weight and seems to be segregating only between Large White and the rest of the breeds. A multitrait, multi-QTL analysis suggests that these are two distinct loci. Additionally, a locus segregating only between Iberian and Landrace affects live weight. The advantages of joint, multibreed analyses clearly outweigh their potential risks.  (+info)

Phenotypic ranges and relationships among carcass and meat palatability traits for fourteen cattle breeds, and heritabilities and expected progeny differences for Warner-Bratzler shear force in three beef cattle breeds. (6/434)

Carcass and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) data from strip loin steaks were obtained from 7,179 progeny of Angus, Brahman, Brangus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Maine-Anjou, Red Angus, Salers, Shorthorn, Simbrah, Simmental, and South Devon sires. Trained sensory panel (TSP) evaluations were obtained on 2,320 steaks sampled from contemporary groups of progeny from one to five sires of each breed. Expected progeny differences for marbling and WBSF were developed for 103 Simmental sires from 1,295 progeny, 23 Shorthorn sires from 310 progeny, and 69 Hereford sires from 1,457 progeny. Pooled phenotypic residual correlations, including all progeny, showed that marbling was lowly correlated with WBSF (-0.21) and with TSP overall tenderness (0.18). The residual correlation between WBSF and TSP tenderness was -0.68, whereas residual correlations for progeny sired by the three Bos indicus breeds were only slightly different than for progeny sired by Bos taurus breeds. The phenotypic range of mean WBSF among sires across breeds was 6.27 kg, and the phenotypic range among breed means was 3.93 kg. Heritability estimates for fat thickness, marbling score, WBSF, and TSP tenderness, juiciness, and flavor were 0.19, 0.68, 0.40, 0.37, 0.46, and 0.07, respectively. Ranges in EPD for WBSF and marbling were -0.41 to +0.26 kg and +0.48 to -0.22, respectively, for Simmentals; -0.41 to +0.36 kg and 0.00 to -0.32, respectively, for Shorthorns; and -0.48 to +0.22 kg and +0.40 to -0.24, respectively, for Herefords. More than 20% of steaks were unacceptable in tenderness. Results of this study demonstrated that 1) selection for marbling would result in little improvement in meat tenderness; 2) heritability of marbling, tenderness, and juiciness are high; and 3) sufficient variation exists in WBSF EPD among widely used Simmental, Shorthorn, and Hereford sires to allow for genetic improvement in LM tenderness.  (+info)

Body fat distribution, liver enzymes, and risk of hypertension: evidence from the Western New York Study. (7/434)

Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) has been associated with hypertension (HTN); however, the nature of this association remains unclear. GGT is a marker of alcohol consumption, but it is also related to the infiltration of fat in the liver (fatty liver). The association between GGT and HTN was examined in a 6-year longitudinal investigation among 1455 men and women who returned for the follow-up visit. Baseline variables included serum GGT, blood pressure, and anthropometric measures. Incident HTN was defined as blood pressure > or =140/90 or on antihypertensive medication at the follow-up visit. To eliminate individuals with potential liver pathology, analyses focused only on individuals with GGT within its normal range (n=897). Participants were divided in quintiles (Q) based on their baseline GGT levels. Multiple logistic regression analyses [odds ratio (95% confidence intervals)] revealed a significant association of GGT with incident hypertension [2.1 (1.1 to 4.0) Q5 versus Q1]. In subgroup analyses, GGT and HTN were significantly associated among both noncurrent and current drinkers, but only for participants above the median of anthropometric measures [eg, body mass index >26.4, 2.3 (0.9 to 5.7), waist circumference >86.1 cm, 3.7 (1.4 to 9.9), and abdominal height >19.8 cm, 3.1 (1.2 to 8.5), for Q5 versus Q1, in fully adjusted models]. These findings suggest that the association between GGT and hypertension is not caused solely by alcohol consumption and indicate that serum GGT, within its normal range, may predict hypertension among individuals with increased central fat distribution, suggesting that fatty liver may represent an important underlying mechanism for this association.  (+info)

Short-term predictors of abdominal obesity in children. (8/434)

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the short-term tracking of abdominal adiposity in children. METHODS: A total of 918 children (477 boys) aged 6-12 years at baseline were followed-up for 2 years. Central obesity was assessed by waist circumference (WaistC), whereas body fat distribution by waist-to-hip ratio. Maturity was assessed by the Khamis-Roche method. Parental fatness and children's cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) were also evaluated. Multiple and logistic regressions were employed to identify the predictors of BMI and WaistC. RESULTS: Tracking of body fatness and body fat distribution was high (r = 0.69-0.86, P < 0.01). More boys remained obese than girls (P < 0.05), whereas a greater percentage of boys moved to a higher quartile of WaistC after the 2-year follow-up (22.0 vs 14.1%, P < 0.01). Sex, child's maturity and WaistC at baseline, CRF, and maternal BMI explained 76% of the variability in BMI and WaistC at the follow-up (n = 290). Children with high WaistC at baseline and low CRF presented 1.9- and 4.3-fold increased risk of remaining in the upper quartile of WaistC at the follow-up (P < 0.01; n = 552). CONCLUSION: Youth with increased WaistC at baseline and low CRF presented an increased chance of maintaining central obesity at the follow-up. More boys than girls moved into a higher quartile of abdominal obesity during the 2-year follow-up period and this should be taken into account in designing programmes for childhood obesity.  (+info)

Ross, Robert, Shaw, Kimberley D., Martel, Yves, de Guise, Jacques, Hudson, Robert et Avruch, Leonard. 1993. « Determination of total and regional adipose tissue distribution by magnetic resonance imaging in android women ». In Human Body Composition : In Vivo Methods, Models, and Assessment. Coll. « Basic life sciences », vol. 60. pp. 177-180. Springer ...
Background: Abdominal fat distributions are reportedly strongly associated with metabolic risks in type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, research on fat distribution in adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus has been limited.. Aim: To investigate fat distribution characteristics in adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus for comparison to those with simple obesity in Japan.. Design/Methods: Sixty-one adolescents 10 to 15 years of age with simple obesity or type 2 diabetes mellitus, who visited our outpatient clinics between 2002 and 2018, were enrolled in this study with ethics approval. Simple obesity was defined as a BMI ≥95%ile without. Serum lipids, ALT and HbA1c were measured without fasting. Visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) were investigated using umbilical level CT scans. Subjects were classified into 2 subgroups: simple obesity group (n=38) or the type 2 diabetes mellitus group (n=23).. Results: Comparisons between the 2 groups are shown in Table 1. VFA and the ...
In a multicenter case-control study that included 403 cases and 297 controls, we examined the relation of past and contemporary body size, including body fat distribution, to the risk of endometrial cancer. The relative contributions of past and contemporary body size were assessed by examining weight and height histories provided by the subjects. Anthropometric indicators thought to reflect early environmental influences (e.g., height and sitting height), current weight, and fat distribution patterns were measured directly. Height was not a risk factor for endometrial cancer, but inexplicably, sitting height was inversely associated with risk. Weight during early adulthood appeared to be directly related to disease risk, but the association was explained by contemporary weight and thus weight gain during adulthood. While contemporary weight was associated with risk of endometrial cancer, the effect was restricted to those in the top quartile. Women whose measured weight at interview exceeded 78 ...
Abstract: The relation of body fat distribution as measured by the ratio of waist to hip circumferences (WHR) to plasma levels of lipids and lipoproteins was studied In 713 men and 520 women who were employed by two Milwaukee companies. Quetelet Index (kg/m2), waist girth, hip girth, and WHR were each positively related to levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B, and the ratio of total to high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. In addition, the anthropometric measures were inversely associated with levels of HDL cholesterol. (Controlling for age, alcohol Intake, exercise level, current smoking status, and oral contraceptive use only slightly reduced the strength of the correlations.) In addition, WHR and Quetelet Index were Independently related to lipid and lipoprotein levels, and the magnitudes of the associations were roughly equivalent For example, the mean (covariate-adjusted) triglyceride level among men in the upper tertile of the Quetelet Index was 37 mg/dl ...
OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that diabetes, body fat distribution, and (in nondiabetic subjects) fasting insulin levels are positively associated with ischemic stroke incidence in the general population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: As part of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, we measured diabetes by using fasting glucose criteria, waist and hip circumferences, and fasting insulin levels with a radioimmunoassay in , 12,000 adults aged 45-64 years who had no cardiovascular disease at baseline. We followed them for 6-8 years for ischemic stroke occurrence (n = 191). RESULTS: After adjustment for age, sex, race, ARIC community, smoking, and education level, the relative risk of ischemic stroke was 3.70 (95% CI 2.7-5.1) for diabetes, 1.74 (1.4-2.2) for a 0.11 increment of waist-to-hip ratio, and 1.19 (1.1-1.3) for a 50-pmol/l increment of fasting insulin among nondiabetic subjects. Ischemic stroke incidence was not statistically significantly associated with BMI ...
Standard care for the treatment of HIV infection involves the use of a combination of three antiretroviral drugs. The initial recommended regimen in antiretroviral-naive patients according to therapeutic guidelines of the US Department of Health and Human Resources (DHHS) includes two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and a third drug from another class (PI or NRTI).. The use of nucleoside analogues, especially stavudine and zidovudine, is associated with untoward side effects, including lipodystrophy hepatic steatosis/lactic acidosis syndrome, peripheral neuropathy, and anemia. However, Truvada has a low potential for both mitochondrial toxicity and fat distribution disturbances.. As described in the Consensus Document of the Spanish Group for the Study of AIDS (GESIDA), and the AIDS National Plan from the Spanish Ministry of Health Recommendations on metabolic alterations and body fat distribution, studies should focus on the evaluation of body fat disturbances after ...
Standard care for the treatment of HIV infection involves the use of a combination of three antiretroviral drugs. The initial recommended regimen in antiretroviral-naive patients according to therapeutic guidelines of the US Department of Health and Human Resources (DHHS) includes two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and a third drug from another class (PI or NRTI).. The use of nucleoside analogues, especially stavudine and zidovudine, is associated with untoward side effects, including lipodystrophy hepatic steatosis/lactic acidosis syndrome, peripheral neuropathy, and anemia. However, Truvada has a low potential for both mitochondrial toxicity and fat distribution disturbances.. As described in the Consensus Document of the Spanish Group for the Study of AIDS (GESIDA), and the AIDS National Plan from the Spanish Ministry of Health Recommendations on metabolic alterations and body fat distribution, studies should focus on the evaluation of body fat disturbances after ...
In the POUNDS LOST Trial, a 2-year, randomized weight-loss intervention, we found that dietary protein intake significantly modified the effect of an FTO variant on changes in body composition and fat distribution. Carriers of the risk allele (A allele) of the rs1558902 genotype had a greater loss of weight and regional fat in response to a high-protein diet compared with noncarriers, whereas an opposite genetic effect was observed regarding changes in fat distribution in response to a low-protein diet. Our data indicate that the modification effects of dietary treatment were more evident with prolonged intervention. We did not observe significant modification of dietary fat intake on the genotype effects.. The rs1558902 genotype was reported to show the strongest association with obesity in the European (25,26) and other ethnic populations (28), and it has strong linkage disequilibrium with other obesity-associated FTO variants such as the rs9939609 genotype. In this study, the MAF of the ...
HUNTER, G. R., T. KEKES-SZABO, S. W. SNYDER, C. NICHOLSON, I. NYIKOS, and L. BERLAND. Fat distribution, physical activity, and cardiovascular risk factors. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 362-369,1997. The purpose of this study was to report the relationship between fat distribution, physical activity PA, and cardiovascular disease...
Addiction, Food, Additives and Preservatives, Adolescent Nutrition, Adult Nutrition, African Americans, Diet of, Africans, Diets of, Aging and Nutrition, Alcohol and Health, Allergies and Intolerances, Alternative Medicines and Therapies, etc…
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How much body fat is too much? Is all body fat bad? Whats the difference between good body fat and bad body fat? Should you even care?
You dont have to be over the hill to want to burn body fat and have a toned body. However, it goes without saying that the older you get, the harder it becomes to maintain a hard body. It is just another cruel trick that nature plays on us as the years pass us by; however, there is something you can do about it though.. First and foremost, if you currently exercise regularly, you should continue to do so. Exercise is perhaps the very best way to boost metabolism and burn calories, even when your body is at rest. If you find that you cannot get rid of stubborn body fat even with regular exercise, you may need to try a supplement that can help you burn body fat by raising your metabolism.. Keep in mind that there are literally hundreds of different weight loss pills on the market today, so you need to do some research before blinding trying any one of them. Ideally, you would want to try a supplement that is completely natural, without any harsh stimulants that can make you feel jittery. Caffeine ...
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I have been reading the forums for a little while now......and Id like some help. What is the fastest way to drop BF??? I am 55, 30%bf, 168lbs,
This is my first post. Please move this if it is in the wrong spot. I am 65 225lbs. 46yrs. 14% body fat. Just lost 25lbs of body fat in 80 days. I am
Looking for online definition of fat distribution in the Medical Dictionary? fat distribution explanation free. What is fat distribution? Meaning of fat distribution medical term. What does fat distribution mean?
Abdominal adiposity is associated with metabolic and hormonal changes, many of which have been associated with the risk of premenopausal breast cancer. In the study to investigate the association between body fat distribution, assessed in 1993 by self-reported waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist to hip ratio, and the incidence of premenopausal breast cancer in the Nurses Health Study II, by the Harvard School of Public Health, posted in PubMed, indicated that during 426,164 person-years of follow-up from 1993 to 2005, 620 cases of breast cancer were diagnosed among 45,799 women. Hormone receptor status information was available for 84% of the breast cancers. The age-standardized incidence rates of breast cancer were 131 per 100,000 person-years among those in the lowest quintile of waist circumference and 136 per 100,000 person-years among those in the highest quintile. No statistically significant associations were found between waist circumference, hip circumference, or the ...
The relationship between antiretroviral treatment of HIV infection, body fat distribution, insulin resistance (HOMA), adipocytokine and apolipoprotein-B (apoB) kinetics was investigated in 12 HIV negative controls and 55 HIV-infected patients including antiretroviral treatment-naïve patients (n=15) and patients taking two nucleoside analogues plus either a protease inhibitor (PI, n=15) or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI, n = 25). The HIV positive treatment groups had mild dyslipidaemia. The apo-B fractional clearance rate (FCR) was reduced in the HIV positive groups. Peripheral fat was lower in treated patients and correlated with duration of therapy. There was a positive correlation between peripheral fat and apo-B clearance rate and a negative correlation with apo-B pool size. Adiponectin was reduced in all HIV positive groups and correlated positively with HDL-cholesterol, apo-B FCR and limb fat and correlated negatively with plasma triglycerides and HOMA. In a linear ...
Women have more body fat than men, but in contrast to the deleterious metabolic consequences of the central obesity typical of men, the pear-shaped body fat distribution of many women is associated with lower cardiometabolic risk. To understand the mechanisms regulating adiposity and adipose tissue distribution in men and women, significant research attention has focused on comparing adipocyte morphological and metabolic properties, as well as the capacity of preadipocytes derived from different depots for proliferation and differentiation. Available evidence points to possible intrinsic, cell autonomous differences in preadipocytes and adipocytes, as well as modulatory roles for sex steroids, the microenvironment within each adipose tissue, and developmental factors. Gluteal-femoral adipose tissues of women may simply provide a safe lipid reservoir for excess energy, or they may directly regulate systemic metabolism via release of metabolic products or adipokines. We provide a brief overview of the
Fukuhara et al. (8) identified visfatin as a peptide predominantly expressed in and secreted from visceral adipose tissue and demonstrated in 101 male and female human subjects a correlation between plasma visfatin concentrations and the amount of visceral fat.. We studied plasma visfatin concentrations in 163 subjects with a wide range of obesity, body fat distribution, insulin sensitivity, and glucose tolerance. We found a significant correlation between visfatin plasma concentrations and measures of obesity, i.e., BMI and body fat content, but not with waist circumference or WHR. Moreover, we found a significant positive relationship between BMI, percent body fat, and waist circumference and visceral visfatin expression. No similar relationship existed for subcutaneous visfatin gene expression. These findings are at least in part compatible with the hypothesis that obesity is associated with increased visceral visfatin expression. It is unclear whether visceral visfatin gene expression is ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Obesity, adipose tissue distribution and health in men - The study of men born in 1913.. AU - Larsson, B.. AU - Seidell, J.C.. AU - Svärdsudd, K.. AU - Welin, L.. AU - Tibblin, G.. AU - Wilhelmsen, L.. AU - Björntorp, P.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. M3 - Article. VL - 13. SP - 37. EP - 44. JO - Appetite. JF - Appetite. SN - 0195-6663. ER - ...
A series of genetic variations linked to fat, obesity, and body shape have been discovered by an international team of 400 experts from more than 250 research institutions.. The scientists, who published their findings in the journal Nature Genetics on Sunday, found a total of 30 different variations which could help explain why some people are overweight, as well as why some people have apple or pear shaped physiques.. One study, led by researchers at Oxford University and the Medical Research Council, involved the analysis of the genetic codes of over 77,000 individuals. They were looking for regions which could be linked to differences in body fat distribution, according to a BBC News report, and discovered 13 areas which could help determine whether fat is more likely to be stored in the waist or the hips.. The researchers note that the genetic variations have a stronger impact on women than men, and that the 13 regions also include functions linked to the development of diabetes, including ...
Africa is experiencing a rapid increase in adult obesity and associated cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs). The H3Africa AWI-Gen Collaborative Centre was established to examine genomic and environmental factors that influence body composition, body fat distribution and CMD risk, with the aim to provide insights towards effective treatment and intervention strategies. It provides a research platform of over 10 500 participants, 40-60 years old, from Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya and South Africa.
New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution. Shungin D, Winkler TW, Croteau-Chonka DC, Ferreira T, Locke AE, Mägi R, Strawbridge RJ, Pers TH, Fischer K, Justice AE, Workalemahu T, Wu JM, Buchkovich ML, Heard-Costa NL, Roman TS, Drong AW, Song C, Gustafsson S, Day FR, Esko T, Fall T, Kutalik Z, Luan J, Randall JC, Scherag A, Vedantam S, Wood AR, Chen J, Fehrmann R, Karjalainen J, Kahali B, Liu CT, Schmidt EM, Absher D, Amin N, Anderson D, Beekman M, Bragg-Gresham JL, Buyske S, Demirkan A, Ehret GB, Feitosa MF, Goel A, Jackson AU, Johnson T, Kleber ME, Kristiansson K, Mangino M, Mateo Leach I, Medina-Gomez C, Palmer CD, Pasko D, Pechlivanis S, Peters MJ, Prokopenko I, Stan?áková A, Ju Sung Y, Tanaka T, Teumer A, Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk JV, Yengo L, Zhang W, Albrecht E, Ärnlöv J, Arscott GM, Bandinelli S, Barrett A, Bellis C, Bennett AJ, Berne C, Blüher M, Böhringer S, Bonnet F, Böttcher Y, Bruinenberg M, Carba DB, Caspersen IH, Clarke R, Daw EW, Deelen J, ...
15 patients diagnosed with CHI completed a 6-month EMS training programme using Miha bodytec machines. The amplitude was chosen by the patients according to their subjective sensation of muscle contraction/pulse sensation at level 8 on a ten-step scale. Before and after the 3 and 6 months of training, the cardiac performance was assessed by means of spiroergometry, electrocardiography (EKG) and echocardiogram. Furthermore, the metabolic status including creatine kinase (CK) and laktatedehydrogenase (LDH) and the patients weight and body fat distribution was determined (impedance scale).. ...
Some people with HIV complain of weight and belly fat gain after they start HIV treatment. But researchers have not been able to determine what causes the ...
To use the Armys body fat calculator, go to an Army body fat calculator website such as Calculator.net or TheCalculator.co; enter in your age, gender, height, neck and waist measurements, and then...
Table of Contents Bacchetti P, Gripshover B, Grunfeld C, et al. Fat distribution in men with HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. October 1, ...
What is the truth about cutting body fat? Explore the latest scientific facts and discoveries that get down the nitty gritty of how fat is affecting you.
Inside a lifestyle associated with blame-shifting all of us frequently search for somebody the reason for the situation. Being obese isnt any various -- whos
Its not by chance youve come! You know there is something youre not being told. Your search has landed you here and your arrival is very much anticipated. Youre In The Right Place! Youre looking for real solutions on how to lose weight and how to keep it off. The good news is…. Youre very […] ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of insulin therapy on body fat distribution in NIDDM patients with secondary sulfonylurea failure. T2 - A preliminary report. AU - Takei, I.. AU - Takayama, S.. AU - Yamauchi, A.. AU - Nakamoto, S.. AU - Kitamura, Y.. AU - Katsukawa, Fuminori. AU - Yamazaki, H.. AU - Saruta, T.. AU - Inoue, S.. PY - 1998/2. Y1 - 1998/2. N2 - Objective: To clarify the influence of insulin therapy on body weight and fat distribution, we compared these parameters in five non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients, with secondary sulfonylurea failure, before and after insulin therapy. Body weight increased significantly after instituting insulin treatment. However, the visceral to subcutaneous fat (V/S) ratio decreased significantly due to a marked increase in S-fat without a change in V-fat. Insulin therapy necessitated by sulfonylurea failure does not appear to accelerate the atherogenic process in NIDDM patients as there is no increase in visceral fat.. AB - Objective: To ...
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin and leptin concentrations and body composition, hematological indices and lipid profile parameters in adults. The study involved 95 volunteers (BMI from 23.3 to 53 kg/m2). Anthropometric parameters were measured: body weight and height, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat mass (BMF), subcutaneous and visceral fat mass (SFM, VFM), lean body mass (LBM), skeletal muscle mass (SMM). In serum we determined adiponectin and leptin concentrations, extracellular hemoglobin, total bilirubin, as well as lipid metabolism (TCh, HDL-Ch, LDL-Ch, TG). Mean adipokine levels were significantly higher in women (p ≤ 0.01), adiponectin significantly negatively correlated with body height and weight, systolic blood pressure and absolute LBM and SMM values. The same relation was observed for erythroid system indicators and lipid indicators. A positive correlation was exceptionally found between adiponectin and HDL-Ch.
Body composition is what decides a persons whole body look and fitness. Anyone, who wants to look on a beach or wants to live longer, will have to understand the importance of body composition. Body fat percentage is not only important in fitness and health it is also important in the development of many chronic conditions including diabetes and hypertension. It is not only the amount of body fat percentage that is to be concerned about, but the distribution of body fat is also an important aspect in measuring health risk or a healthy body. Researchers have found out to be that central obesity is linked with higher risk of heart diseases and cancers.. The question arises about the measurement of body fat that how a person can measure his body fat and find out about the health and fitness of his body. There are dozens of methods available over the internet for the measurement of body fat percentage, with accuracy ranging from decimals and also a lot of erroneous methods are available.. To save ...
Boston, Mass. -- An international consortium has made significant inroads into uncovering the genetic basis of obesity by identifying 18 new gene sites associated with overall obesity and 13 that affect fat distribution. The studies include data from nearly a quarter of a million participants, the largest genetic investigation of human traits to date. The papers, both from the GIANT (Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits) consortium - which consists of more than 400 scientists from 280 research institutions worldwide - will appear in Nature Genetics and are receiving early online publication.. Joel Hirschhorn, MD, PhD, of Childrens Hospital Boston and the Broad Institute, a senior author on the overall obesity paper and involved in both, says, "Different people have different susceptibilities to obesity. Some dont rigorously watch what they eat or how much they exercise and still resist gaining weight, while others constantly struggle to keep their weight from skyrocketing. Some of ...
2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved. Background/Objectives:Central adiposity measures such as waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are associated with cardiometabolic disorders independently of body mass index (BMI) and are gaining clinically utility. Several studies report genetic variants associated with central adiposity, but most utilize only European ancestry populations. Understanding whether the genetic associations discovered among mainly European descendants are shared with African ancestry populations will help elucidate the biological underpinnings of abdominal fat deposition.Subjects/Methods:To identify the underlying functional genetic determinants of body fat distribution, we conducted an array-wide association meta-analysis among persons of African ancestry across seven studies/consortia participating in the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) consortium. We used the Metabochip array, designed ...
Results from the present thesis showed that different measures of body fat distribution differed in their relations to parameters of chronic inflammation. Specifically, VAT, SAT, BMI, and waist circumference (WC) were all associated with high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Additionally, BMI was inversely related to adiponectin and the ratio of visceral to subcutaneous body fat (VSR) was inversely related to resistin. In exploratory subgroup analyses, VAT was the strongest indicator for increased levels of interleukin-6 (IL 6). SAT was the most consistent indicator for increased levels of hs-CRP and BMI was the most consistent indicator for decreased levels of adiponectin. WC represented a weak indicator for increased levels of hs-CRP and decreased levels of adiponectin. In addition, by investigation of the urine and serum metabolom, a more comprehensive approach that does not only focus on single biomarkers was applied in the present thesis. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) ...
Rationale: A high waist circumference is associated with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and CVD in patients with a BMI in a range between 25 and 34.9 kg/m2 (82). Monitoring changes in waist circumference over time may be helpful, in addition to measuring BMI, since it can provide an estimate of increased abdominal fat even in the absence of a change in BMI. Furthermore, in obese patients with metabolic complications, changes in waist circumference are useful predictors of changes in CVD risk factors (537). There are ethnic and age-related differences in body fat distribution that modify the predictive validity of waist circumference as a surrogate for abdominal fat (526). These variations may partly explain differences between ethnic or age groups in the power of waist circumference or waist-to-hip (WHR) ratio to predict disease risks (429, 543). In some populations, waist circumference is a better indicator of relative disease risk than is BMI: examples ...
If you dont write down everything you eat and then analyze your food with a nutrition software program, you may be underestimating your calorie intake. Calories add up quickly.. Your assessment of your body composition shift from initially gaining 15 pounds of body fat to starting an exercise program and converting fat to muscle is probably accurate. You are fortunate to have combined the right food and exercise to accomplish this, which is preferred. You are right in that fat is dead weight to a runner, but you do need some body fat for hormone production as well as cushioning and insulating the internal organs.. Skinfold measurements (also called anthropometry) using a calibrated hand-held caliper is used to estimate the amount of fat under the skin. It cannot measure the fat in and around your internal organs though. Skinfolds are taken at various areas of the body to determine the fat distribution and depend on the gender of the person being measured. It takes lots of experience to become ...
ObjectiveTo investigate body fat distribution and glucose and lipid metabolism in HIV-infected children with the aim of describing the lipodystrophic syndrome in children.DesignCross-sectional study including 39 HIV-infected children aged 3-18 years.Main outcome measuresClinical lipodystrophy was de
HCG (human Chorionic Gonadotrophin) is a glycoproteic hormone, normally secreted by trophoblastic cells of the placenta. It consists of two dissimilar, separately but coordinately translated chains called the Alfa and Beta subunits. When it was discovered by Ascheim and Zondek by 1927 they found out that hCG matured the infantile sex glands of experimental animals, and it was secreted by the human placenta. From there its denomination: Chorionic Gonadotrophin.. The first report on the use of hCG for the management of obesity was published in 1954 by the late Dr. ATW Simeons, a German-born Physician practicing at the Ospedale Salvatori Mundii in Rome.. Working in India, he noticed that the so-called "fat boys," who displayed Adiposogenital dystrophy (or Frölichs syndrome) when treated with hCG improved not only their condition (testicular descent), but he also observed that body fat distribution modified during the treatment course.. Therefore he hypothesized that if those children were ...
One might expect the same to have happened among the Inuit with genes that affect cold tolerance. These indigenous people live in places where winter means an average daily temperature of around -20° F and only a few hours of light each day. Any trait that might help someone eke a living out of such a harsh environment would surely have been favored by natural selection. Indeed, researchers recently scanned the Inuit genome looking for areas that seem to have been acted on by natural selection and honed in on a few regions. One area contains genes that affect how the body processes fatty acids, which makes sense given that the seafood upon which the Inuit depend is unusually high in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Another contains genes related to body fat distribution and the storage of fat in a form that helps generate heat, a trait that could make all the difference in the frigid Arctic winter.. While the Inuits fatty-acid processing gene variants seem to have evolved via the accumulation and ...
While people might be able to spot the implausibility of smoking improving distance running performance, its a lot harder to spot with more specialized topics. For example, if I were to argue that "Intervention X" influences body fat distribution and pulled together a few mechanistic resources supporting my arguments, it would be very difficult for an educated lay-person to know if my arguments were sound or not. Which unfortunately is the situation almost all of us are in, anytime we read anything that is even slightly outside of our own area of research.. Even with systematic reviews, which are the highest form of scientific evidence, there is still a lot of room for subjectivity. You can develop a systematic review in a way that makes it more or less likely that you will find a certain outcome, just as you could with an individual study. Not only that, but the review depends on the objectivity of the people screening articles, who could (intentionally or accidentally) systematically include ...
Compared with never smokers, WHR was higher among current smokers and among those with more smoking pack-years in both men and women. Adjusting for age and BMI and other possible confounding factors such as alcohol intake, total energy intake, physical activity, and educational level only strengthened the difference in the mean WHR between never and current smokers. Waist and hip circumferences varied with cigarette smoking status in both men and women. After adjusting for age, BMI, and other covariates, mean waist circumference was higher and hip circumference was lower among current smokers compared with never smokers.. It is possible that those in the higher WHR quintiles underreport their current smoking habits. However, this underreporting should only bring the association toward the null; therefore, our results could only underestimate the true association. Alternatively, the relationship we found could be explained by underlying differences in the background characteristics of smokers ...
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Lets talk a little bit concerning body fat percentages! The majority of individuals wish to reach a low body fat for no higher reason than to have a set of sculpted 6 pack abdom…
The term body fat is a familiar one. However, most people associate this word to obesity, cholesterol and an unhealthy constitution. Although excess body fat content can have severe implications, the body requires a specific content of body fat for various metabolic and structural functions. Body fat is
Medical science is constantly bringing new evidence that often challenges what we think we know about risk for a disease or how a disease progresses.
The kidney is divided into parenchyma and renal sinus. The renal sinus is hyperechoic and is composed of calyces, the renal pelvis, fat and the major intrarenal vessels. In the normal kidney, the urinary collecting system in the renal sinus is not visible, but it creates a heteroechoic appearance with the interposed fat and vessels. The parenchyma is more hypoechoic and homogenous and is divided into the outermost cortex and the innermost and slightly less echogenic medullary pyramids. Between the pyramids are the cortical infoldings, called columns of Bertin (Figure 1). In the pediatric patient, it is easier to differentiate the hypoechoic medullar pyramids from the more echogenic peripheral zone of the cortex in the parenchyma rim, as well as the columns of Bertin (Figure 2).,ref name=Hansen2015 ...
TO ITS VICTIMS: the Fupa affects sight, making it difficult to see the penis or vagina. It impacts transportation, rendering it challenging to sit in a car or truck comfortably, sitting down close to men and women inside a bus, taking on two seats in an plane, even standing is hard due to unbalance fat distribution that offers a relentless feeling of slipping ahead ...
The brain is not the only part of the body that affects the way we respond to stress. New research shows that body fat can send a stress signal, too.
by admin , Sep 18, 2017 , Clenbuterol , 0 comments. Many of us are on a constant battle against that stubborn body fat.No matter how hard we may try, getting the much-needed freedom from that fat, seems a bit far-fetched. However,there are a few products that can help you get rid of that unwanted body fat by adhering ...
The following day was one of continued uneasiness for the boy, who began to be harrassed by doubts as to whether, after all, he was moving in the right direction ...
Its been a long, hard road, but I did it! And this is how.... In general I do 90 minuted of cardio with 30 minutes of resistance 6 days a week. I
Need help taking your body fat with our calculator? Detailed directions and videos on how use our body fat calculator for men
Leg fat is categorized as subcutaneous, which means it is close to the skins surface. Although this fat is away from the major organs and does not raise...
The burden of obesity has increased globally over the last few decades and its association with insulin resistance and related cardio-metabolic problems have adversely affected our ability to reduce population morbidity and mortality. Traditionally, adipose tissue in the visceral fat depot has been considered a major culprit in the development of insulin resistance. However, there is a growing body of evidence supporting the role of subcutaneous truncal/abdominal adipose tissue in the development of insulin resistance. There are significant differences in the functional characteristics of subcutaneous abdominal/truncal vs. intraabdominal vs. gluteo-femoral fat depots. More recently, mounting evidence has been supporting the role of adipose tissue function in the development of metabolic complications independent of adipose tissue volume or distribution. Decreased capacity for adipocyte differentiation and angiogenesis along with adipocyte hypertrophy can trigger a vicious cycle of inflammation leading
Body fat redistribution (BFR) syndrome, sometimes called fat derangement, is a medical condition characterized by fat loss (or occasionally fat gain), often in the cheeks or face. BFR most often occurs in HIV/AIDS patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy. No firm definition of body fat redistribution syndrome exists as yet. At least four syndromes have been described that are characterized by the accumulation of fat, and one by the loss of fat; combinations of these may occur in an individual. Gender, age, and pre-therapy body weight appear to influence the severity of BFR in patients. BFR is distinct from lipodystrophy, which simply refers to fat loss. The most common manifestations of body fat redistribution are accumulations of fat in the central body in the form of a fat pad on the back of the neck and an accumulation of visceral fat in the abdomen or belly. This fat accumulation is accompanied by a loss of subcutaneous fat in the face, arms, legs, and buttocks. Cosmetic concerns may cause ...
Obesity is associated with impaired glucose tolerance which is a risk factor for cardiovascular risk. However, the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is not usually performed in patients with normal fasting glycaemia, thus offering false reassurance to patients with overweight or obesity who may have post-prandial hyperglycaemia. As an alternative to resource demanding OGTTs, we aimed to examine the predictive value of anthropometric measures of total and central fat distribution for post-prandial hyperglycaemia in patients with overweight and obesity with normal fasting glycaemia enrolled in the DICAMANO study. We studied 447 subjects with overweight/obesity with a fasting glucose value ≤ 5.5 mmol l−1 (99 mg dl−1) and BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 who underwent a 75-g OGTT. Post-prandial hyperglycaemia was defined as a glucose level ≥ 7.8 mmol l−1 (140 mg dl−1) 2-h after the OGTT. The anthropometric measurements included body mass index, body adiposity index, waist circumference, neck circumference,
The body fat percentage (BFP) of a human or other living being is the total mass of fat divided by total body mass; body fat includes essential body fat and storage body fat. Essential body fat is necessary to maintain life and reproductive functions. However, it is advised by dietitians and physical trainers to loose extra fat and make body slim and fit.. Body fat can be divided into two categories: Essential fat and storage fat. As its name implies, essential fat is necessary for normal, healthy functioning. It is stored in small amounts in your bone marrow, organs, central nervous system and muscles.. In men, essential fat is approximately 3% of body weight.. Women, however, have a higher percentage of essential fat - about 12%. This is because their essential fat also includes some sex-specific fat found in the breasts, pelvis, hips and thighs. This sex-specific fat is believed to be critical for normal reproductive function. Storage fat is the other type of body fat. This is the fat you ...
Intra-reader and inter-reader single-slice renal sinus fat measurements. Renal sinus fat measures between one reader (A) and two readers (B) are plotted. Intra-
Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue display important metabolic differences that underlie the association of visceral obesity with obesity-related cardiovascular and metabolic alterations. Recently, visfatin was identified as an adipokine, which is predominantly secreted from visceral adipose tissue both in humans and mice. In this study, we examined whether visfatin plasma concentrations (using enzyme immunosorbent assay) and mRNA expression (using RT-PCR) in visceral and subcutaneous fat correlates with anthropometric and metabolic parameters in 189 subjects with a wide range of obesity, body fat distribution, insulin sensitivity, and glucose tolerance. Visfatin plasma concentration correlates positively with the visceral visfatin mRNA expression (r(2) = 0.17, P , 0.0001), BMI (r(2) = 0.062, P = 0.004), percent body fat (r(2) = 0.048, P = 0.01), and negatively with subcutaneous visfatin mRNA expression (r(2) = 0.18, P , 0.0001). However, in a subgroup of 73 individuals, in which visceral ...
All in all, these pages youre reading now are meant to help you strip off five, ten, fifteen, or perhaps even twenty pounds of stubborn fat over a 14-day period. If you have a lot more weight to drop, youll discover that its quite quick to repeat the cycle and use various tricks contained in this book to help keep your weight loss going until you reach your purpose. Inside these pages, you will uncover the keys to developing the physique you have normally wanted, since you can use these strategies to become as lean and healthful as you wish to become. Nothing is out of attain! No matter whether youve generally wanted to develop "6-pack" abs, attain a super-lean, single-digit body fat percentage, or fit into clothes you have only dreamed about prior to, the details youll learn here assists make your dream probable. The ultimate secrets for on-demand weight loss are all inside, together with sound solutions for stopping the weight from returning, as so typically occurs with yo-yo diets. ...
Every part of our body can face ----a problem once it is displaced from its own position. Fat is not the exception. When some fat is accumulated in an abnormal place in our body, it is called Ectopic Fat, which has been noticed lately. Then, what is the problem ectopic fat can cause? Professor Jihee Ham at Chaum Slimming Clinic will explain this.. What is ectopic fat, which is different from subcutaneous one?. Recently, ectopic fat has attracted more attention among different kinds of fats. The dictionary definition for ectopic is to be in an abnormal place or position other than a normal place. Ectopic fat generally refers to the fat accumulated in a wrong place, at which the fat is not supposed to be.. On the contrary, subcutaneous fat is found underneath the skin between dermis and muscle fascia. Subcutaneous fat helps store energy and maintain the body temperature. It is distributed throughout the body, such as the abdomen, arms, and legs. It is also called non-ectopic fat because ...
All in all, these pages youre reading now are meant to help you strip off five, ten, fifteen, or perhaps even twenty pounds of stubborn fat over a 14-day period. When youve got a lot more weight to drop, youll find that it is quite uncomplicated to repeat the cycle and use many different tricks contained in this book to keep your weight loss going till you reach your target. Inside these pages, you will obtain the keys to producing the body youve generally wanted, since you are able to use these solutions to come to be as lean and healthy as you wish to be. Absolutely nothing is out of reach! No matter whether youve constantly wanted to create "6-pack" abs, attain a super-lean, single-digit body fat percentage, or fit into clothes youve only dreamed about just before, the details youll study right here helps make your dream doable. The ultimate secrets for on-demand weight loss are all inside, in conjunction with sound strategies for preventing the weight from returning, as so typically ...
Calculate your body fat percentage with our body fat calculator. Knowing your body fat can help you lose weight by maintaining the right diet & exercise
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Maintaining a healthy percentage is very important for your long-term health, which is why monitoring your progress is so important.. Factors that can affect body fat levels - either way - are:. 1. Sleep. Not getting enough sleep massively impairs our ability to function at our optimum during exercise, hormonal regulation and organ function. 2. Exercise. Frequency and intensity will affect your results. Aim for at least three 30-minute sessions of exercise a week.. 3. Hydration. Lack of hydration can hinder the process of effective body fat reduction.. 4. Nutrition. Eating a sensible and balanced diet offers the best opportunity to maintain a healthy percentage of fat on the body. Minimising processed food and toxins play a big part here, too!. 5. Resistance training. This helps to build muscle tissue, which in turn elevates your basal metabolic rate and assists in the reduction of body fat.. 6. Hormones. Fluctuations in these can mean more water being stored in the body and fluid retention in ...
Body Fat Percentage Ultimate Guide: Why is it important, how to measure it, how its different from BMI, and how to lower it! Plus, cute animal videos.
Body fat naturally fluctuates throughout your life, so its normal body fat levels to change when youre in your teens. Puberty also affects how...
Body fat is the fat that we all keep to use as extra energy. In this post, I would quickly like to fill you guys in on its role in the body, why too much is bad, why having to little is bad, and why its the best way to judge overall health with regards…
I am a 24-year-old female who is a fitness enthusiast. I have been trying to lose some weight. My weight is 113 pounds ( it was 120 and I lost 7). Recently I got my BMI, lipid profile, cholesterol, etc., tests done and all of them are normal. I have a normal BMI of around 22. However, when I took a body fat test online, it says I have body fat of 38% and I am obese. I am extremely confused, as to which metric to trust and what should be my ideal weight (I have a small frame). Should I be around 100 pounds?
A remote controller for a television/video recorder having a function of measuring a body fat includes a display section for displaying a measurement of the body fat and a message questioning whether or not a user to be examined carries a specific medical device such as a pacemaker, a reply entry section for entering a reply to the message, and a control section for controlling the action of a body fat meter. The control section directs the display section to display the message prior to the measurement of the body fat. Then, when receiving from the reply entry section a reply indicating that the user carries a pacemaker, the control section inhibits the measurement of the body fat and directs the display section to display a message of the inhibition. When receiving from the reply entry section a reply indicating that the user carries no pacemaker, the control section enables the measurement of the body fat of the user through registering the physical data including the weight and the height of the
The model 79140 personal scale is a body fat/body water analyser scale from Salter which shows body weight, plus body fat and body water percentage.
Metrosexual is no longer a dirty word. Just the opposite, men who take care of themselves and actively pursue self-improvement are not only accepted but more and more recognized as trendsetters. Women appreciate metrosexuality; other men are taking notice and follow the trend; the society has no problem with well-groomed men. Needless to say, a man who takes care of himself has a competitive edge in a business world as well. Those who look the part get promoted first, have more career opportunities and usually higher income. In other words, metrosexuality is good for you and is gradually becoming the norm.. For the sake of this article, lets focus on just one aspect: body contouring for men who care about their overall appearance. Both men and women suffer from stubborn fat deposits that afflict even the healthiest and fittest of us. The fat distribution in males and females however follows distinctly different patterns.. For men the main areas of concern are: excessive breast tissue, the ...
What Defines a Good Body Fat Scale A good scale (that ranks high in body fat scale reviews) is the Tanita scale, which measures a true body fat range. The Tanita name is known as one of the leading manufacturers of body fat scales. Good scales can vary in price, with the most expensive ones usually being the most precise ones. Options they carry might include being able to provide a complete body fat chart for children, adults, and athletes.. ...
Fat plays an essential role in maintaining the body. It is the quantity and distribution of body fat that determines whether it is beneficial or harmful to our health.
Online Doctor Chat - Ways to reduce stomach and body fat, Ask a Doctor about Adipose tissue, Online doctor patient chat conversation by Dr. Yogesh D
Im happy to announce that were releasing a free e-book titled Why do We Gain Fat, and How do We Lose it? An Introduction to the Science of Body Fat, by Dan Pardi and myself. This is a slimmed-down version of the longer, fully referenced e-book we offer as part of the Ideal Weight Program. In it, we provide a succinct overview of the science of body fat gain and loss, and the evidence base for our program. It also contains a schematic that ties together the various concepts in visual form. You can download it from the Dans Plan site by following this link to our program overview page ...
Weight alone is not sufficient to determine your overall condition. With impedance analysis scales you can assess what proportion of your...
13-Mathematics-76027-Part III: Regression and Correlation Based on what you have learned from your research on regression analysis and...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adipose tissue metabolism - An aspect we should not neglect?. AU - Jensen, Michael Dennis. PY - 2007/10. Y1 - 2007/10. N2 - Free fatty acids (FFAs) are the most metabolically important products of adipose tissue lipolysis. Experimentally creating high FFA concentrations can reproduce the metabolic abnormalities of obesity in lean, healthy persons and lowering FFA concentrations can improve the metabolic health of upper body obese individuals. FFA concentrations are determined by both the release of FFAs into the bloodstream and the clearance of FFAs from the bloodstream. Normal FFA release rates are different in men and women and total FFA release is closely linked to resting energy expenditure. Upper body subcutaneous fat, visceral fat, and leg fat depots contribute differently to the exposure of various tissues to FFAs. The implications of regional adipose tissue lipolysis to systemic FFA availability and the effect of different approaches to treatment of obesity are ...
A lower body fat percentage comes from healthy and steady weight loss of no more than 2 pounds per week. Slowly lowering body fat levels can result in permanent, manageable weight control that has the possibility to last for years.. Anyone can lose weight quickly but losing weight does not necessarily mean a lower body fat percentage, in fact people who lose weight too fast may actually increase their body fat percentage. When you lose weight rapidly, a large percentage of it is fluid loss, which can easily be regained. So its important to remember that losing weight in a healthy way takes time but can have lasting effects.. Athletes are known to have very little body fat. They usually follow a healthy diet full of protein and know that exercise is absolutely vital. In order to reduce body fat you should implement exercise into your daily routine.. An athletes body burns more body fat because it supplies more oxygen to the muscles than that of the body of a sedentary person. Fat requires ...
A: How fibroids are removed varies, depending on size, location and preference of the surgeon. You are free to attend our next FREE HEALTH TALK/MEDICAL CHECK-UP that is slated to come up on the 17th of this month themed MANAGING YOUR HEALTH WITH PROPER NUTRITION AND SUPPLEMENTS This event is free to attend and you are going to learn a lot from medical experts on how to manage your health naturally. There are also a couple of non-surgical measures to try to alleviate the symptoms of infected fibroids from fibroids, though pregnancy is not recommended with the non-surgical methods. Low Thyroid Function, Peri-menopause, Menopause and Weight Gain: Estrogen decides body fat distribution, and, in women, fat is stored on our hips, bottom, abdomen and thighs. One of the ways he used natural progesterone to eliminate ovarian cysts was by having his patients apply natural progesterone from days 10-26 of the cycle.
Genome-wide association meta-analyses in over 210,000 individuals identify 20 sexually dimorphic genetic variants for body fat distribution. T. W. Winkler1, D. C. Croteau-Chonka2, T. Ferreira3, K. Fischer4, A. E. Locke5, R. Mägi3,4, D. Shungin6,7,8, T. Workalemahu9, J. Wu10, F. Day11, A. U. Jackson5, A. Justice12, R. Strawbridge13, H. Völzke14, L. Qi9, M. C. Zillikens15, C. S. Fox16, E. K. Speliotes17,18, I. Barroso19,20, E. Ingelsson21, J. N. Hirschhorn22, M. I. McCarthy23, P. W. Franks6,8,9, A. P. Morris3, L. A. Cupples10,24, K. E. North12, K. L. Mohlke2, R. J. F. Loos11,25, I. M. Heid1, C. M. Lindgren3, GIANT Consortium 1) Public Health and Gender Studies, Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Regensburg University Medical Center, Regensburg, Germany; 2) Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; 3) Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; 4) Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia; 5) Department ...
China Measuring Tape With Plastic Medical Measurement Body Fat Caliper, Find details about China Fat Caliper, Body Fat Caliper from Measuring Tape With Plastic Medical Measurement Body Fat Caliper - Pro-Health Product Ltd.
Body composition is what decides a persons whole body look and fitness. Anyone, who wants to look on a beach or wants to live longer, will have to understand the importance of body composition. Body fat percentage is not only important in fitness and health it is also important in the development of many chronic conditions including diabetes and hypertension. It is not only the amount of body fat percentage that is to be concerned about, but the distribution of body fat is also an important aspect in measuring health risk or a healthy body. Researchers have found out to be that central obesity is linked with higher risk of heart diseases and cancers.. The question arises about the measurement of body fat that how a person can measure his body fat and find out about the health and fitness of his body. There are dozens of methods available over the internet for the measurement of body fat percentage, with accuracy ranging from decimals and also a lot of erroneous methods are available.. To save ...
Body fat percentage calculator.... How you do know what you really are? http://www.freedieting.com/tools/bod...calculator.htm I put my weight and my
Everything you need to know about your body fat percentage. Find out all the recent research, the formula, how you measure it and what this means to you.
Image by CrossFit Fever Unless you are trying to make weight for a sport, or youre competing in a weight loss contest, you arent trying to lose weight; youre trying to lose body fat. Losing weight doesnt make you look better, losing body fat does. The type of weight you lose is more important than…
Those who have never sought answers to the question before are often astonished by the many responses possible if one asks how to measure body fat. Body fat is essentially the percentage of your body that is made up of fat, and it is considered a critical metric nowadays for people who want to assess overall physical
Probably wont. Fat distribution in the body can be quite different from one to another. If it was one foot, i might think it could be a lipoma, which is a benign fatty growth (almost always, but never can say never in medicine). If it does not affect shoe-wearing comfort, would rec just leaving alone, and lose weight if it is for your general health. Of course, they could be surgically removed. Podiatry consult ...
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People who consistently consume more calories than they burn each day will lose lean muscle and accumulate body fat more easily if their diets contain too little protein and too much fat and carbohydrates, suggests a study published this week in the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Some publications are reviewed showing that those Tanita body fat scales using impedance, are capable of being accurate, and one of these is not boring.
Heres a great read I found from Success Magazines own Christopher Guerriero on your body fat and the importance of water. Enjoy! Would you like to finally
1. Wronska A, Kmiec Z. Structural and biochemical characteristics of various white adipose tissue depots. Acta Physiologica. 2012;205:194-208 2. Camhi SM, Bray GA, Bouchard C. et al. The relationship of waist circumference and BMI to visceral, subcutaneous, and total body fat: sex and race differences. Obesity. 2011;19:402-8 3. Saltiel AR, Kahn CR. Insulin signalling and the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Nature. 2001;414:799-806 4. Ibrahim MM. Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue: structural and functional differences. Obesity reviews. 2009;11:11-8 5. Kershaw EE, Flier JS. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2004;89:2548-56 6. Jensen MD. Role of body fat distribution and the metabolic complications of obesity. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2008;93:s57-s63 7. Li M, Wu H, Luo Z. et al. An atlas of DNA methylomes in porcine adipose and muscle tissues. Nat Commun. 2012;3:850 8. Trapnell C, Pachter L, Salzberg SL. ...
We have used carotid IMT rather than CHD as our outcome. Carotid IMT has been shown to be strongly associated with prevalent and incident CHD.13,18 It has been suggested that the difference in IMT between women and men may be explained by differences in luminal diameter.22 However, this has been shown not to be the case in the large Tromso study.14 There was a differential in the response between women and men in our study and a difference in the nature of the sampling frame for women and men. Men were survivors of a prospective cohort, whereas women were a newly selected random sample. While among the men responders did not appear to differ from non-responders with respect to age, women who responded were younger than those who did not and women were on average slightly younger than men in the final study sample. All results presented in this study are adjusted for age. Mean blood pressure, lipid levels, and waist-hip ratios for both women and men from this study are similar to those for ...
Although the terms overweight and obese are often used interchangeably and considered as gradations of the same thing, they denote different things. The major physical factors contributing to body weight are water weight, muscle tissue mass, bone tissue mass, and fat tissue mass. Overweight refers to having more weight than normal for a particular height and may be the result of water weight, muscle weight, or fat mass. Obese refers specifically to having excess body fat. In most cases people who are overweight also have excessive body fat and therefore body weight is an indicator of obesity in much of the population.. The "ideal" healthy body weight for a particular person is dependent on many things, such as frame size, sex, muscle mass, bone density, age, and height. The perception of the "ideal" body weight is additionally dependent on cultural factors and the mainstream societal advertisement of beauty.. To standardize the "ideal" body weight and relate it to health, scientists have devised ...
To the Editor:. HIV infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In developed countries, life expectancy has increased considerably since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996.1 However, a number of reports have documented some unexpected adverse effects from HAART, including a group of conditions characterized by altered lipid and glucose metabolism and alterations in body fat distribution in patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy.2,3 Clinical presentations have included the accumulation of adipose tissue in the dorsocervical region, commonly referred to as buffalo hump; fatty infiltration and bulging of supraclavicular fat pads, called Madelung disease; visceral abdominal fat accumulation ("crix belly"); benign symmetric lipomatosis; and subcutaneous fat wasting of the face and limbs.. The pathogenesis of body fat redistribution and metabolic changes occurring among HIV-infected patients treated with antiretroviral therapy ...
BACKGROUND Body size has been hypothesized to influence the risk of prostate cancer; however, most epidemiologic studies have relied on body mass index (BMI) to assess adiposity, whereas only a few studies have examined whether body fat distribution predicts prostate cancer. METHODS We examined the association of height, BMI, waist and hip circumference, and waist-hip ratio with prostate cancer risk among 129,502 men without cancer at baseline from 8 countries of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), using Cox regression, with age as time metric, stratifying by study center and age at recruitment, and adjusting for education, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. RESULTS During a mean follow-up of 8.5 years, 2,446 men developed prostate cancer. Waist circumference and waist-hip ratio were positively associated with risk of advanced disease. The relative risk of advanced prostate cancer was 1.06 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.1) per 5-cm
"Contribution of Breast Volume and Weight to Body Fat Distribution in Females". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 53 (1 ... The average breast weighs about 0.5 kilograms (1.1 lb).[97] Each breast contributes to about 4-5% of the body fat.[citation ... To help women meet the perceived ideal female body shape, corset and girdle manufacturers used a calculation called hip spring ... One of the tools used in the development of Tyrer's design has been a projective differential shape body analyzer for 40,000 ...
Björntorp P (September 1997). "Body fat distribution, insulin resistance, and metabolic diseases". Nutrition. 13 (9): 795-803. ... Certain researchers suggest that BPA actually decreases the fat cell count in the body, but at the same time increasing the ... Acting on insulin and leptin in the body, HFCS potentially increases appetite and fat production. Nicotine is the chemical ... A person's body composition is very much predetermined before birth and changes rarely occur in adulthood. Adipocyte numbers ...
Body weight and fat distribution appear to be normal. There is a lack of grossly apparent behavioral phenotypes, including in ... Body weight and fat distribution appear to be normal. Increased anxiety-like behavior is seen. In addition, the antidepressant- ... Body weight and body fat are increased. There are signs of insulin resistance, as in PCOS in humans. Due to the substantially ... the patient also appeared to show minimal widening of the hips and a lack of subcutaneous fat deposition, which is in ...
"Effect of climacteric transition and hormone replacement therapy on body weight and body fat distribution". Gynecological ... "Fat and female fecundity: prospective study of effect of body fat distribution on conception rates". BMJ. 306 (6876): 484-487 ... body fat distribution,[12] and hypertension in type 2 diabetes.[13] Stress[edit]. The stress hormone cortisol is regulated by ... These menopause-induced changes in body fat distribution can be counteracted with hormone replacement therapy.[31] In contrast ...
The WHtR is a measure of the distribution of body fat. Higher values of WHtR indicate higher risk of obesity-related ... Waist-hip ratio Body adiposity index Body volume index Body mass index Sagittal Abdominal Diameter (SAD) Body fat percentage ... stroke or death than the more widely used body mass index. However, a 2011 study that followed 60,000 participants for up to 13 ... Body water Allometric law Ponderal index Rohrer's index CM Lee, Huxley RR, Wildman RP, Woodward M (July 2008). "Indices of ...
Chiolero A, Faeh D, Paccaud F, Cornuz J (1 April 2008). "Consequences of smoking for body weight, body fat distribution, and ... and cultural values favoring a larger body size are believed to contribute to the observed patterns. Attitudes toward body mass ... In this article, researchers found that limiting or prohibiting a child's access to foods high in fat, sugar, and energy led to ... Endocrine changes that occur during periods of malnutrition may promote the storage of fat once more calories become available ...
"Contribution of Breast Volume and Weight to Body Fat Distribution in Females". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 53 (1 ... The average breast weighs about 0.5 kilograms (1.1 lb). Each breast contributes to about 4-5% of the body fat.[citation needed ... To help women meet the perceived ideal female body shape, corset and girdle manufacturers used a calculation called hip spring ... especially when the body is in motion. According to Tyrer, "to get the most supportive and fitted bra it's infinitely better if ...
... body fat distribution, and insulin resistance". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 87 (4): 801-9. PMID 18400700. Young ... New York: Grove Press, p.38 Chiolero, A; Faeh, D; Paccaud, F; Cornuz, J (Apr 2008). "Consequences of smoking for body weight, ... Within all racial groups, it was found that weight concerns and negative body perceptions were a significant factor in an ... style and body image. Moreover, the brand created rift in the market that differentiated between men's and women's cigarettes. ...
Tsai YS, Maeda N (2005). "PPARgamma: a critical determinant of body fat distribution in humans and mice". Trends Cardiovasc. ... PPARG knockout mice fail to generate adipose tissue when fed a high-fat diet. This gene encodes a member of the peroxisome ... The genes activated by PPARG stimulate lipid uptake and adipogenesis by fat cells. ... "Deletion of PPARγ in adipose tissues of mice protects against high fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance". Proc. Natl ...
"Contribution of breast volume and weight to body fat distribution in females". Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 53 (1): 93-100. doi: ... such as with breast implants or fat transfer. Hormonal breast enhancement, through experimental administration of hormonal ...
O'Neill B, Simha V, Kotha V, Garg A (2007). "Body fat distribution and metabolic variables in patients with neonatal progeroid ...
Chiolero A, Faeh D, Paccaud F, Cornuz J (1 April 2008). "Consequences of smoking for body weight, body fat distribution, and ... BMI is closely related to both percentage body fat and total body fat. In children, a healthy weight varies with age and sex. ... Increases in body fat alter the body's response to insulin, potentially leading to insulin resistance. Increased fat also ... It is defined by body mass index (BMI) and further evaluated in terms of fat distribution via the waist-hip ratio and total ...
O'Neill B, Simha V, Kotha V, Garg A (2007). "Body fat distribution and metabolic variables in patients with neonatal progeroid ... Lizzie Velasquez weighs just four stone and has almost zero per cent body fat but she is not anorexic. [...] Despite consuming ... Normal amounts of subcutaneous fat are found in the torso over the chest and abdomen. As such, the breasts are normal in ... but this is not due to actual early aging and is instead due to their paucity of subcutaneous fat. As such, MPL is not truly a ...
"Consequences of smoking for body weight, body fat distribution, and insulin resistance". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 87 (4): 801-9. ... Rosén T, Bosaeus I, Tölli J, Lindstedt G, Bengtsson BA (1993). "Increased body fat mass and decreased extracellular fluid ... "National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance. Diakses tanggal February 17, 2009.. *^ "ISAA Mission Statement". International ... Fumento, Michael (1997). The Fat of the Land: Our Health Crises and How Overweight Americans can Help Themselves. New York: ...
"Effect of climacteric transition and hormone replacement therapy on body weight and body fat distribution". Gynecological ... These menopause-induced changes in body fat distribution can be counteracted with hormone replacement therapy. In contrast, ... body fat distribution, and hypertension in type 2 diabetes. The stress hormone cortisol is regulated by the hypothalamic- ... "Superiority of skinfold measurements and waist over waist-to-hip ratio for determination of body fat distribution in a ...
Association with Age and a Centripetal Distribution of Body Fat". Human Biology; an International Record of Research. 55, no. 2 ... The Tłįchǫ will have their own legislative bodies in the area's four communities, of which the chiefs must be Tłįchǫ, though ...
Evidence for a role of developmental genes in the origin of obesity and body fat distribution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 ... 2006: Joslin researchers find that specific genes can determine both obesity and body-fat distribution in humans. 2009: ... 1996: A molecular pathway (called NF-κB) is identified in fat and the liver that is activated by obesity (and a fatty diet) and ... Researchers in the lab of C. Ronald Kahn, MD discover that brown fat is present in some adults, providing a new target for the ...
"Polymorphism of DsbA-L gene associates with insulin secretion and body fat distribution in Chinese population". Endocrine ...
Studies have identified variants in several genes that may contribute to weight gain and body fat distribution; although, only ... January 2009). "Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation". Nat. ... In people with early-onset severe obesity (defined by an onset before 10 years of age and body mass index over three standard ... Their ability to take advantage of rare periods of abundance by storing energy as fat would be advantageous during times of ...
"Biology of Regional Body Fat Distribution: Relationship of to non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus". Findings in this study ... Its twofold objective is to sponsor research and foster support groups in human body weight control. Most members refer to the ... found those who spent three years in TOPS lost five to seven percent of their body weight and kept it off." TOPS also supports ...
"Can alternating lower body negative and positive pressure during exercise alter regional body fat distribution or skin ... The IVT treatment device consists of a cylindrical space in which the lower body of a lying patient (up until the rips) is ... Blood volume is adapted to the change of pressure within the lower part of the body. The flow of oxygenized blood within the ... The treatment was developed on basis of the LBNPD-method of the NASA (lower body negative pressure device). In 1999, the ...
"Body fat distribution and organ weights of 14 common strains and a 22-strain consomic panel of rats". Physiology & Behavior. ... focusing on how rodent metabolism changes in response to short term exposure to high fat diets.[citation needed] As a ...
"Consequences of smoking for body weight, body fat distribution, and insulin resistance". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 87 (4): 801-9. ... Rosén T, Bosaeus I, Tölli J, Lindstedt G, Bengtsson BA (1993). "Increased body fat mass and decreased extracellular fluid ... Fumento, Michael (1997). The Fat of the Land: Our Health Crises and How Overweight Americans can Help Themselves. New York: ... Fumento, Michael (1997). The Fat of the Land: Our Health Crisis and How Overweight Americans Can Help Themselves. Penguin (Non- ...
A single report has suggested a beneficial effect from treatment with rosiglitazone on fat distribution in acquired partial ... preferential fat gain was in the lower body. Direct drug therapy is administered according to the associated condition. ... Variable fat loss of the palms, but no loss of intramarrow or retro-orbital fat, has been demonstrated. In general, treatment ... As a confirmatory test, whole-body MRI usually clearly demonstrates the extent of lipodystrophy. MRI is not recommended on a ...
2009). "Novel Obesity Risk Loci Do Not Determine Distribution of Body Fat Depots: A Whole-body MRI/MRS study". Obesity (Silver ... January 2009). "Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation". Nat. ...
Demography, Fat Reserves, and Body Size of a Population of Red Deer in New Zealand. Mammalia 35: 369-383. Caughley, G. 1971. An ... The Distribution of Eutherian Body Weights. Drought and Kangaroo Populations: A Response. (Review) Immigrant Killers: ... Demography, Fat Reserves, and Body Size of a Population of Red Deer in New Zealand. An Investigation of Hybridization between ... Caughley, G. 1987 The distribution of eutherian body weights. Oecologia 74: 319-320. Caughley, G. 1987 Drought and kangaroo ...
Lamm Equation Modeling and Sedimentation Coefficient Distributions c(s). Biophysical Journal, Vol. 89, 2005. pp. 619-634. ... regardless of where it was sampled from in the body, was unprecedented and favored the idea that proteins are macromolecules ... Removing fat from milk to produce skimmed milk. *Separating particles from an air-flow using cyclonic separation ...
Fat distribution occurs in women because estrogen lessens the adipose distribution to the abdominal region, and stimulates fat ... the reality is that women's bodies are changing and modernistic fashion body shape ideals, primarily the hourglass body shape, ... it is believed that evolution could have favored fat deposits in the gluteal region and the thighs. Fat distribution in women ... Sex hormones play an important role in specific regions of the body helping with the regulation and accumulation of fat. ...
Lipodystrophy Syndrome Lipodystrophy syndrome is the abnormal distribution of fat in the ... ... Lipodystrophy syndrome is the abnormal distribution of fat in the body. AIDS treatment can cause the body to accumulate fat in ... Overview Incidence Risk Factors Symptoms Evaluation AIDS testing HIV testing Treatment body wasting diet fusion inhibitors ... the trunk and lose fat in the face, arms and legs.. Physical findings include:. * Breast enlargement ...
Defective metabolism leading to fat maldistribution in patients infected with HIV. The etiology appears to be multifactorial ... 10/19/2001 - "To examine the relationships between protease inhibitor (PI) therapy, body fat distribution and metabolic ... the association between circulating levels of PAI-1 and locally produced PAI-1 in adipose tissue and body fat distribution and ... 02/01/2003 - "We examined the relationships of plasma leptin and adiponectin levels to fat distribution and insulin sensitivity ...
Body Fat Distribution Adipose tissue accumulation is referred to as body fat distribution. For individuals with android (apple- ... It is also an indicator for obesity . Gynoid (pear-shaped) distribution is associated with body fat that accumulates around the ... Specific body fat distribution is often determined by measuring the waist-to-hip ratio, which is the circumference of the waist ... faqs.org » Nutrition and Well-Being A to Z » Ar-Bu » Body Fat Distribution ...
A study of more than 1800 men in Iceland suggests that certain patterns of body fat distribution are associated with more ... Body fat distribution may be related to prostate cancer aggressiveness. Men with high levels of visceral fat have an increased ... Analyzing Body Fat Distribution Obesity measures such as BMI and waist circumference have been consistently associated with an ... To examine the role of body fat distribution in prostate cancer risk, the researchers studied data from the Age, Gene/ ...
gluteo-femoral fat depots. More recently, mounting evidence has been supporting the role of adipose tissue function in the ... Traditionally, adipose tissue in the visceral fat depot has been considered a major culprit in the development of insulin ... However, there is a growing body of evidence supporting the role of subcutaneous truncal/abdominal adipose tissue in the ... hypertrophy can trigger a vicious cycle of inflammation leading to subcutaneous adipose tissue dysfunction and ectopic fat ...
It is clear that increased body fat affects health, the news is that its distribution on the body influences the state of ... The total mass of the body is made up of fat mass and fat-free mass. The fat mass can be of two types: essential and excess. ... There is a relationship between overall fat deposits and specific fat deposits: fat around the body middle section is ... sex-specific fat. Thus the total percentage of body fat is higher, moreover, this part of essential fat is hard to dislodge. ...
BRAIN »Insulin »body fat »cardiovascular disease »fat distribution »insulin resistance »subcutaneous fat »visceral fat ... body fat , cardiovascular disease , fat distribution , insulin resistance , subcutaneous fat , visceral fat ... Brain Insulin Sensitivity Determines Body Weight and Fat Distribution. 27.04.2020. Just where fat is deposited in the body and ... It was found that insulin action in the brain not only determines body weight, but also the distribution of fat in the body. ...
Insulin Resistance, Body Fat Distribution, and Sex Hormones in Men. Steven M Haffner, Pauli Karhapää, Leena Mykkänen, Markku ... Insulin Resistance, Body Fat Distribution, and Sex Hormones in Men. Steven M Haffner, Pauli Karhapää, Leena Mykkänen, Markku ... Insulin Resistance, Body Fat Distribution, and Sex Hormones in Men Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... total whole-body glucose disposal (r = −0.54), glucose oxidation (r = −0.23), and nonoxidative whole-body glucose disposal (r ...
... 12.07.2010 ... but there is still a lot to learn about why body fat distribution varies so much between people. Our research helps by putting ... fat cells »heart disease »stem cell research »stem cells »type 2 diabetes »vascular disease »visceral fat ... fat cells , heart disease , stem cell research , stem cells , type 2 diabetes , vascular disease , visceral fat ...
Sexual dimorphism of age-related changes in whole-body fat distribution in the obese.. Kotani K1, Tokunaga K, Fujioka S, ... These data suggest that there is a definite gender difference in the age-related changes in whole-body fat distribution, ... scans in order to clarify age-related changes in whole-body fat distribution in both genders. The subjects were 66 men and 96 ... After calibrating to the total fat volumes, the relationship between age and the relative segmental fat volumes was analysed. ...
As for body fat distribution in the single-treatment group, visceral fat area (VFA) decreased (from 118.3 +/- 54.3 to 101.1 ... Effect of troglitazone on body fat distribution in type 2 diabetic patients.. ... Effect of troglitazone on body fat distribution in type 2 diabetic patients. ... Effect of troglitazone on body fat distribution in type 2 diabetic patients. ...
Body-fat distribution is a risk factor for adverse cardiovascular health consequences. We analyzed the association of body-fat ... Protein-coding variants implicate novel genes related to lipid homeostasis contributing to body-fat distribution.. Justice AE1, ... PROTEIN-CODING VARIANTS IMPLICATE NOVEL GENES RELATED TO LIPID HOMEOSTASIS CONTRIBUTING TO BODY FAT DISTRIBUTION ... PROTEIN-CODING VARIANTS IMPLICATE NOVEL GENES RELATED TO LIPID HOMEOSTASIS CONTRIBUTING TO BODY FAT DISTRIBUTION ...
Recommendations on metabolic alterations and body fat distribution, studies should focus on the evaluation of body fat ... Peripheral Body Fat Distribution After Switching Zidovudine and Lamivudine to Truvada (RECOMB). This study has been completed. ... This study evaluated changes in body fat distribution in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected participants who ... Open-label and Controlled Study to Assess the Evolution of Peripheral Body Fat Distribution After Switching From Zidovudine ...
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e.g. VAT:1.42; 0.84, 2.41). Conclusions In obese women, but less so in men, measures of body fat distribution, of which VAT ... In obese women, all measures of body fat distribution except aSAT (OR per SD:0.76, 95%CI: 0.53, 1.10) were associated with ... Since it is unclear whether body fat distribution is also important in men and women with obesity we investigated the ... Associations between measures of body fat distribution and presence of ≥1 risk factor, such as hypertension or ...
... body fat mass (BMF), subcutaneous and visceral fat mass (SFM, VFM), lean body mass (LBM), skeletal muscle mass (SMM). In serum ... The study involved 95 volunteers (BMI from 23.3 to 53 kg/m2). Anthropometric parameters were measured: body weight and height, ... we observed a positive correlation between LEP and body weight, BMI and WHR. Studies on ADPN and the ADPN/LEP ratio as a ... adiponectin significantly negatively correlated with body height and weight, systolic blood pressure and absolute LBM and SMM ...
OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that diabetes, body fat distribution, and (in nondiabetic subjects) fasting insulin levels ... Prospective associations of fasting insulin, body fat distribution, and diabetes with risk of ischemic stroke. The ... Prospective associations of fasting insulin, body fat distribution, and diabetes with risk of ischemic stroke. The ... Prospective associations of fasting insulin, body fat distribution, and diabetes with risk of ischemic stroke. The ...
Central obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio (WHR), is a marker of body fat distribution. Although ... "Genome-Wide Association of Body Fat Distribution in African Ancestry Populations Suggests New Loci." PLoS Genetics 9 (8): ... Genome-Wide Association of Body Fat Distribution in African Ancestry Populations Suggests New Loci. ... We identified loci associated with fat distribution in AA individuals using meta-analyses of GWA results for WC and WHR (stage ...
Relation of endometrial cancer risk to past and contemporary body size and body fat distribution.. C A Swanson, N Potischman, G ... Relation of endometrial cancer risk to past and contemporary body size and body fat distribution. ... Relation of endometrial cancer risk to past and contemporary body size and body fat distribution. ... Relation of endometrial cancer risk to past and contemporary body size and body fat distribution. ...
FTO Genotype and 2-Year Change in Body Composition and Fat Distribution in Response to Weight-Loss Diets. The POUNDS LOST Trial ... FTO Genotype and 2-Year Change in Body Composition and Fat Distribution in Response to Weight-Loss Diets ... FTO Genotype and 2-Year Change in Body Composition and Fat Distribution in Response to Weight-Loss Diets ... FTO Genotype and 2-Year Change in Body Composition and Fat Distribution in Response to Weight-Loss Diets ...
... Shungin, Dmitry LU ; Winkler, Thomas W; Croteau- ... Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of ... Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of ... To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, ...
3 113JEMDSA Obesity is defined as an excess accumulation of body fat associated with increased fat cell size and number. ... Keyword(s) : Body fat distribution, Ethnicity, Insulin resistance and Measurement * Accreditation : Department of Higher ... oa Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes in South Africa - Body fat distribution and insulin resistance : review ... 3 113JEMDSA Obesity is defined as an excess accumulation of body fat associated with increased fat cell size and number. ...
Influence of body size and body fat distribution on risk of uterine leiomyomata in U.S. black women. Epidemiology 16(3):346-354 ... Obesity, body fat distribution, and risk of breast cancer subtypes in African American women participating in the AMBER ... but few studies have evaluated the impact of obesity and body fat distribution on breast cancer subtypes in AA women. We ... Comparisons of percentage body fat, body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-stature ratio in adults. American J Clin ...
... high-carbohydrate diet on body weight, body composition, and fat distribution in older men and women: a randomized controlled ... PubMed journal article Effects of an ad libitum low-fat, ... body_weight_body_composition_and_fat_distribution_in_older_men_ ... AgedAged, 80 and overBody CompositionBody ConstitutionBody Mass IndexBody WeightDiet, Fat-RestrictedDietary CarbohydratesEnergy ... Effects of an ad libitum low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet on body weight, body composition, and fat distribution in older men ...
Association of Incident Carcinoma of the Endometrium with Body Weight and Fat Distribution in Older Women: Early Findings of ... Association of Incident Carcinoma of the Endometrium with Body Weight and Fat Distribution in Older Women: Early Findings of ... Association of Incident Carcinoma of the Endometrium with Body Weight and Fat Distribution in Older Women: Early Findings of ... Association of Incident Carcinoma of the Endometrium with Body Weight and Fat Distribution in Older Women: Early Findings of ...
  • The relation of body fat distribution as measured by the ratio of waist to hip circumferences (WHR) to plasma levels of lipids and lipoproteins was studied In 713 men and 520 women who were employed by two Milwaukee companies. (uncg.edu)
  • In a population-based prospective cohort study among 6178 children aged 6 years, we measured BMI, fat mass index, android/gynoid ratio, and preperitoneal and subcutaneous fat mass by physical examinations, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and ultrasound, respectively. (eur.nl)
  • Specifically, we will genotype over 4.3 million single nucleotide polymorphisms in 2,000 Multiethnic Cohort participants, common to all four projects, who will undergo body composition assessment by whole-body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging. (grantome.com)
  • Adiposity and body fat distribution were measured by anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), while %DBV and ADBV were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Coronary heart disease and body fat distribution. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Body fat distribution has been cross-sectionally associated with atherosclerotic disease risk factors, but the prospective relation with coronary heart disease remains uncertain. (uea.ac.uk)
  • The authors note that this may reflect differences in metabolic, hormonal, and inflammatory markers between fat locations. (medscape.com)
  • Fact is that the main role in acquiring extra-fat is the food intake that the body cannot burn for various reasons (such as a decreased metabolic rate, low activity level or the physical condition), and, consequently, it creates fat deposits. (streetdirectory.com)
  • Since visceral fat not only plays a role in the development of type 2 diabetes, but also increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer, the study results may also open up new approaches for treatment options beyond metabolic diseases. (innovations-report.com)
  • Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. (lu.se)
  • High carbohydrate intake and weight loss did not result in a decreased resting metabolic rate or reduced fat oxidation. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • CHICAGO The distribution of body fat in older men and women is associated with metabolic syndrome, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, even in normal weight individuals, according to the April 11 issue of Archives of Internal Medicine, one of the JAMA/Archives journals. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Bret H. Goodpaster, Ph.D., of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, and colleagues examined the association between the pattern of distribution of body fat and metabolic syndrome in 3,035 men and women aged 70 to 79. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Body fat distribution in pre-and post-menopausal women: metabolic and anthropometric variables. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Using predefined risk allele scores, the correlation of these scores with precisely quantified body fat distribution assessed by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques and with metabolic traits was investigated. (cdc.gov)
  • Background:Themetabolicsyndromeisadisorderthat includes dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hypertension and is associated with an increased risk of diabetes andcardiovasculardisease.Wedeterminedwhetherpatterns of regional fat deposition are associated with metabolic syndrome in older adults. (scinapse.io)
  • Differences in fat distribution, insulin resistance, and physical activity level are associated with metabolic differences in these women, but account only partially for these differences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with estimates of body fat distribution. (cdc.gov)
  • BMI, HbA1c, serum lipid level, and body fat distribution, which were determined by computed tomography (CT) scan at the umbilical level, were measured and compared before and after troglitazone treatment. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The distribution of body fat was determined using computed tomography (CT) scanning. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The same paper reported on the preliminary data on absolute changes in visceral fat, measured by computed tomography (CT) scan, after 6 months of treatment with sibutramine, as part of the STORM trial. (78stepshealth.us)
  • If fat accumulates in the abdomen, this is particularly unfavorable. (innovations-report.com)
  • CT scans were performed at seven levels (head, fore-arms, upper arms, chest, abdomen, thighs and calves), and the fat volumes of the segments were calculated from the cross-sectional areas of the fat tissues. (nih.gov)
  • They later collected samples of fat from the abdomen and the thigh to see how much of the fat contained in the meal was stored. (youth-rx.com)
  • Fat deposits, especially around the abdomen area, may be an important independent risk factor for diabetes and coronary artery disease. (uwhealth.org)
  • Hormonal disorders or fluctuations can lead to the formation of a lot of visceral fat and a protruding abdomen. (wikipedia.org)
  • We identified loci associated with fat distribution in AA individuals using meta-analyses of GWA results for WC and WHR (stage 1). (harvard.edu)
  • In conclusion, we identified two suggestive loci associated with fat distribution in AA populations in addition to confirming 6 loci previously identified in populations of EA. (harvard.edu)
  • Notably, the genetic loci associated with body fat distribution, which show sexual dimorphism, are located near genes that are expressed in adipose tissues and/or adipose cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • She said: "It is possible that higher visceral fat may be a marker for an underlying physical activity pattern or hormonal milieu that influences both fat distribution and risk of advanced disease. (medscape.com)
  • For example, fat may be preferentially deposited in the visceral depot among leaner men in the presence of a particular hormonal milieu. (medscape.com)
  • Also, for women, the android pattern fat distribution should raise questions with regard to hormonal im ba lances, such situations being a potential cause for health problems such as polycystic ovary syndrome. (streetdirectory.com)
  • Lastly, our final aim will integrate genetic results from Project 2 with those from the other projects to study the interrelationships across data dimensions (diet, lifestyle/behaviors, biochemical and hormonal factors, metabolites, and gut microbial composition), construct best predictive models of body fat amount and distribution, and explore the relation of the predicted values with breast and colorectal cancer risks. (grantome.com)
  • Certain hormonal imbalances can affect the fat distributions of both men and women. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study, led by Professor Kevin Docherty of the University of Aberdeen, found that adding palmitate (a major component in palm oil) to mouse stem cells affected how they responded to androgen and oestrogen - the sex hormones which normally control the types of fat cells that stem cells become. (innovations-report.com)
  • Stress] creates a huge spike of cortisol, which will throw off other hormones in a woman's body," explains Elizabeth Trattner , doctor of Chinese medicine and AZCIM-certified integrative medical practitioner. (healthline.com)
  • With other hormones, such as pituitary hormones and progesterone, they cause enlargement of the breasts through promotion of ductal growth, stromal development, and the accretion of fat. (medscape.com)
  • Insulin therapy necessitated by sulfonylurea failure does not appear to accelerate the atherogenic process in NIDDM patients as there is no increase in visceral fat. (elsevier.com)
  • New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution. (lu.se)
  • To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. (lu.se)
  • Sexual dimorphisms in genetic loci linked to body fat distribution. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Considering the epidemiological and genetic evidence, sexual dimorphism is a prominent feature of body fat distribution. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Genetic determination of body fat distribution and the attributive influence on metabolism. (cdc.gov)
  • Sex differences in body fat distribution may explain sex differences in arterial atherosclerosis. (bmj.com)
  • Message Body (Your Name) thought you would be interested in this article in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. (aacrjournals.org)
  • During development, some groups of stem cells will go on to become adipose cells - the large globular cells that store and metabolise fats from our diets. (innovations-report.com)
  • In the first prospective study of directly measured body fat distribution and prostate cancer risk, investigators found that higher levels of abdominal and thigh fat are associated with an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer. (ehealthweek2010.org)
  • It is clear that increased body fat affects health, the news is that its distribution on the body influences the state of health of specific organs. (streetdirectory.com)
  • New research being presented today (12 July) at the UK National Stem Cell Network Annual Science Meeting in Nottingham shows that adding fat to mouse stem cells grown in the lab affects their response to the signals that push them to develop into one or other of the main types of fat storage cells - subcutaneous (under the skin) or visceral (around the organs). (innovations-report.com)
  • It affects many parts of the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In association with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), there is fat wasting in some areas and increased deposition of fat in other areas. (cms.gov)