The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.
The fundamental principles and laws adopted by an organization for the regulation and governing of its affairs.
Medical practice or discipline that is based on the knowledge, cultures, and beliefs of the people of KOREA.
Particular categories of body build, determined on the basis of certain physical characteristics. The three basic body types are ectomorph (thin physique), endomorph (rounded physique), and mesomorph (athletic physique).
The vital life force in the body, supposedly able to be regulated by acupuncture. It corresponds roughly to the Greek pneuma, the Latin spiritus, and the ancient Indian prana. The concept of life-breath or vital energy was formulated as an indication of the awareness of man, originally directed externally toward nature or society but later turned inward to the self or life within. (From Comparison between Concepts of Life-Breath in East and West, 15th International Symposium on the Comparative History of Medicine - East and West, August 26-September 3, 1990, Shizuoka, Japan, pp. ix-x)
Abnormal number or structure of the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Some sex chromosome aberrations are associated with SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS and SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS OF SEX DEVELOPMENT.
In Chinese philosophy and religion, two principles, one negative, dark, and feminine (yin) and one positive, bright, and masculine (yang), from whose interaction all things are produced and all things are dissolved. As a concept the two polar elements referred originally to the shady and sunny sides of a valley or a hill but it developed into the relationship of any contrasting pair: those specified above (female-male, etc.) as well as cold-hot, wet-dry, weak-strong, etc. It is not a distinct system of thought by itself but permeates Chinese life and thought. A balance of yin and yang is essential to health. A deficiency of either principle can manifest as disease. (Encyclopedia Americana)
Abnormal genetic constitution in males characterized by an extra Y chromosome.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
The traditional Hindu system of medicine which is based on customs, beliefs, and practices of the Hindu culture. Ayurveda means "the science of Life": veda - science, ayur - life.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The small pointed seeds are grown for hay in North America and western Europe and important as food in China and other Asian countries.
The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
Systematic physical exercise. This includes calisthenics, a system of light gymnastics for promoting strength and grace of carriage.
A syndrome of defective gonadal development in phenotypic females associated with the karyotype 45,X (or 45,XO). Patients generally are of short stature with undifferentiated GONADS (streak gonads), SEXUAL INFANTILISM, HYPOGONADISM, webbing of the neck, cubitus valgus, elevated GONADOTROPINS, decreased ESTRADIOL level in blood, and CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. NOONAN SYNDROME (also called Pseudo-Turner Syndrome and Male Turner Syndrome) resembles this disorder; however, it occurs in males and females with a normal karyotype and is inherited as an autosomal dominant.
A type of defective gonadal development in patients with a wide spectrum of chromosomal mosaic variants. Their karyotypes are of partial sex chromosome monosomy resulting from an absence or an abnormal second sex chromosome (X or Y). Karyotypes include 45,X/46,XX; 45,X/46,XX/47,XXX; 46,XXp-; 45,X/46,XY; 45,X/47,XYY; 46,XYpi; etc. The spectrum of phenotypes may range from phenotypic female to phenotypic male including variations in gonads and internal and external genitalia, depending on the ratio in each gonad of 45,X primordial germ cells to those with normal 46,XX or 46,XY constitution.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
A form of male HYPOGONADISM, characterized by the presence of an extra X CHROMOSOME, small TESTES, seminiferous tubule dysgenesis, elevated levels of GONADOTROPINS, low serum TESTOSTERONE, underdeveloped secondary sex characteristics, and male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE). Patients tend to have long legs and a slim, tall stature. GYNECOMASTIA is present in many of the patients. The classic form has the karyotype 47,XXY. Several karyotype variants include 48,XXYY; 48,XXXY; 49,XXXXY, and mosaic patterns ( 46,XY/47,XXY; 47,XXY/48,XXXY, etc.).
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
Validation of the SEX of an individual by inspection of the GONADS and/or by genetic tests.
The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or concept, it is a country located in South America, known officially as the Federative Republic of Brazil. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or science, I'd be happy to help answer those!
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.

The developmental basis for allometry in insects. (1/1380)

Within all species of animals, the size of each organ bears a specific relationship to overall body size. These patterns of organ size relative to total body size are called static allometry and have enchanted biologists for centuries, yet the mechanisms generating these patterns have attracted little experimental study. We review recent and older work on holometabolous insect development that sheds light on these mechanisms. In insects, static allometry can be divided into at least two processes: (1) the autonomous specification of organ identity, perhaps including the approximate size of the organ, and (2) the determination of the final size of organs based on total body size. We present three models to explain the second process: (1) all organs autonomously absorb nutrients and grow at organ-specific rates, (2) a centralized system measures a close correlate of total body size and distributes this information to all organs, and (3) autonomous organ growth is combined with feedback between growing organs to modulate final sizes. We provide evidence supporting models 2 and 3 and also suggest that hormones are the messengers of size information. Advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of allometry will come through the integrated study of whole tissues using techniques from development, genetics, endocrinology and population biology.  (+info)

VEGF is required for growth and survival in neonatal mice. (2/1380)

We employed two independent approaches to inactivate the angiogenic protein VEGF in newborn mice: inducible, Cre-loxP- mediated gene targeting, or administration of mFlt(1-3)-IgG, a soluble VEGF receptor chimeric protein. Partial inhibition of VEGF achieved by inducible gene targeting resulted in increased mortality, stunted body growth and impaired organ development, most notably of the liver. Administration of mFlt(1-3)-IgG, which achieves a higher degree of VEGF inhibition, resulted in nearly complete growth arrest and lethality. Ultrastructural analysis documented alterations in endothelial and other cell types. Histological and biochemical changes consistent with liver and renal failure were observed. Endothelial cells isolated from the liver of mFlt(1-3)-IgG-treated neonates demonstrated an increased apoptotic index, indicating that VEGF is required not only for proliferation but also for survival of endothelial cells. However, such treatment resulted in less significant alterations as the animal matured, and the dependence on VEGF was eventually lost some time after the fourth postnatal week. Administration of mFlt(1-3)-IgG to juvenile mice failed to induce apoptosis in liver endothelial cells. Thus, VEGF is essential for growth and survival in early postnatal life. However, in the fully developed animal, VEGF is likely to be involved primarily in active angiogenesis processes such as corpus luteum development.  (+info)

Regulation of body length and male tail ray pattern formation of Caenorhabditis elegans by a member of TGF-beta family. (3/1380)

We have identified a new member of the TGF-beta superfamily, CET-1, from Caenorhabditis elegans, which is expressed in the ventral nerve cord and other neurons. cet-1 null mutants have shortened bodies and male tail abnormal phenotype resembling sma mutants, suggesting cet-1, sma-2, sma-3 and sma-4 share a common pathway. Overexpression experiments demonstrated that cet-1 function requires wild-type sma genes. Interestingly, CET-1 appears to affect body length in a dose-dependent manner. Heterozygotes for cet-1 displayed body lengths ranging between null mutant and wild type, and overexpression of CET-1 in wild-type worms elongated body length close to lon mutants. In male sensory ray patterning, lack of cet-1 function results in ray fusions. Epistasis analysis revealed that mab-21 lies downstream and is negatively regulated by the cet-1/sma pathway in the male tail. Our results show that cet-1 controls diverse biological processes during C. elegans development probably through different target genes.  (+info)

Constitutional, biochemical and lifestyle correlates of fibrinogen and factor VII activity in Polish urban and rural populations. (4/1380)

BACKGROUND: Fibrinogen and factor VII activity are known to be related to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, but population differences in clotting factors and modifiable characteristics that influence their levels have not been widely explored. METHODS: This paper examines correlates of plasma fibrinogen concentration and factor VII activity in 2443 men and women aged 35-64 in random samples selected from the residents in two districts in urban Warsaw (618 men and 651 women) and from rural Tarnobrzeg Province (556 men and 618 women) screened in 1987-1988, and assesses which characteristics might explain urban-rural differences. Fibrinogen and factor VII activity were determined using coagulation methods. RESULTS: Fibrinogen was 12.9 mg/dl higher in men and 14.1 mg/dl higher in women in Tarnobrzeg compared to Warsaw. Factor VII activity was higher in Warsaw (9.2% in men and 15.3% in women). After adjustment for selected characteristics, fibrinogen was higher in smokers compared to non-smokers by 28 mg/dl in men and 22 mg/dl in women. In women, a 15 mg/dl increase in HDL-cholesterol was associated with a 10 mg/dl decrease in fibrinogen (P < 0.01). After adjustment for other variables, a higher factor VII activity in Warsaw remained significant (a difference of 9.4% in men and 14.8% in women). Lower fibrinogen in Warsaw remained significant only in women (15.4 mg/dl difference). CONCLUSIONS: The study confirmed that sex, age, BMI, smoking and blood lipids are related to clotting factors. However, with the exception of gender differences and smoking, associations between clotting factors and other variables were small and of questionable practical importance.  (+info)

Relation between obesity and breast cancer in young women. (5/1380)

This study was conducted to assess the relation between body size and risk of breast cancer among young women. A case-control study was conducted among women aged 21-45 years living in three counties in Washington State. Cases were women born after 1944 with invasive or in situ breast cancer that was diagnosed between January 1, 1983, and April 30, 1990. Controls were selected using random digit dialing and were frequency-matched to cases on the basis of age and county of residence. Interviews took place between 1986 and 1992. Body size was evaluated using indices from several different time periods. After adjustment for confounders, a decreased risk of breast cancer was found for women in the highest quintile of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2) as compared with the lowest quintile (for maximum lifetime body mass index, odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51-0.94). Age modified the relation between body size and risk of breast cancer. The odds ratio for women in the highest quintile of maximum body mass index who were aged 21-35 years was 0.29 (95% CI 0.16-0.55), as compared with an odds ratio of 1.5 for women aged 36-45 years (95% CI 0.9-2.5) (p for interaction = 0.003). This study supports prior research showing a decreased risk of breast cancer associated with increased body size among premenopausal or young women. More detailed analysis in this study found a strong effect that was limited to the youngest age group (< or = 35 years).  (+info)

Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) protects postimplantation murine embryos from the embryolethal effects of hyperthermia. (6/1380)

Previous work has shown that there is a positive correlation between the induction of Hsp70 and its transient nuclear localization and the acquisition and loss of induced thermotolerance in postimplantation rat embryos. To determine whether Hsp70 is sufficient to induce thermotolerance in postimplantation mammalian embryos, we used a transgenic mouse in which the normally strictly inducible Hsp70 is constitutively expressed in the embryo under the control of a beta-actin promoter. Day 8.0 mouse embryos heterozygous for the Hsp70 transgene were not protected from the embryotoxic effects of hyperthermia (43 degrees C); however, homozygous embryos, expressing approximately twice as much Hsp70 as heterozygous embryos, were partially protected (increased embryo viability) from the embryolethal effects of hyperthermia. Although the viability of transgenic embryos was significantly increased compared with that of nontransgenic embryos, this protection did not extend to embryo growth and development. To determine whether the failure to achieve a more robust protection was related to the expression of insufficient Hsp70 in transgenic embryos, we undertook experiments to determine whether the level of Hsp70 correlated with the level of thermotolerance induced by various lengths of a 41 degrees C heat shock. A 41 degrees C, 5-minute heat shock failed to induce Hsp70 or thermotolerance, a 41 degrees C, 15-minute heat shock induced Hsp70 and a significant level of thermotolerance, while a 41 degrees C, 60-minute heat shock induced an even higher level of Hsp70 as well as a higher level of thermotolerance. Quantitation of Hsp70 levels indicated that thermotolerance was associated with levels of Hsp70 of 820 pg/microg embryo protein or greater. Subsequent quantitation of the amount of Hsp70 expressed in homozygous transgenic embryos indicated a level of 577 pg/microg embryo protein, that is, a level below that associated with induced thermotolerance. Overall, results presented indicate that Hsp70 does play a direct role in the induction of thermotolerance in postimplantation mouse embryos; however, the level of thermotolerance is dependent on the level of Hsp70 expressed.  (+info)

Environmental contaminants and body fat distribution. (7/1380)

The effect of body mass index (BMI) and waist:hip ratio (WHR) on plasma levels of organochlorines [i.e., 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE)] was investigated in a sample of black and white women drawn from a population-based study in North Carolina. Organochlorine levels were determined in plasma samples from 99 women selected on the basis of race (black versus white) and quartile of the WHR (1st versus 4th). Of a panel of 20 organochlorine compounds tested, only DDE was detectable in most study subjects. Measurements of height, weight, and waist and hip circumferences were taken during an in-person interview. Information was elicited regarding dietary, residential, and breast-feeding histories. Results of multiple regression analyses indicate that black women had significantly higher plasma levels of DDE than white women. These levels were independent of BMI and WHR. BMI but not WHR was also found to be an independent predictor of DDE plasma level. These results suggest that black/white differences should be considered in studies that explore the relationship between environmental contaminants and various disease outcomes, such as breast cancer risk. In addition, BMI may affect circulating levels of contaminants and should also be considered a potentially important modifying factor for exposure to lipophilic substances.  (+info)

The diameter of the common femoral artery in healthy human: influence of sex, age, and body size. (8/1380)

PURPOSE: To determine the relevance of dilatations of the common femoral artery (CFA), knowledge of the normal CFA diameter is essential. The diameter of the CFA in healthy male and female subjects of different ages was investigated. METHODS: The diameter of the CFA was measured in 122 healthy volunteers (59 male, 63 female; 8 to 81 years of age) with echo-tracking B-mode ultrasound scan. The influence of age, sex, height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and systolic blood pressure was analyzed by means of a multiple regression model. RESULTS: The CFA increased steadily in diameter throughout life. From 25 years onwards, the diameter was larger in men than in women. Significant correlations were found between the CFA diameter and weight (r = 0.58 and r = 0.57 in male and female subjects, respectively; P <.0001), height (r = 0.49 and r = 0.54 in male and female subjects, respectively; P <.0001), and BSA (r = 0.60 and r = 0.62 in male and female subjects, respectively; P <.0001). Age and BSA were used to create a model for prediction of the CFA diameter (r = 0.71 and r = 0.77 in male and female subjects, respectively; P <.0001). CONCLUSION: The diameter of the CFA increases with age, initially during growth but also in adults. This is related to age, body size, and sex male subjects have larger arteries than female subjects. It is now possible to predict the normal CFA diameter, and nomograms that may be used in the study of aneurysmal disease are presented.  (+info)

The term "body constitution" is often used in traditional systems of medicine, such as Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda. It refers to the unique combination of physical and psychological characteristics that make up an individual's inherent nature and predisposition to certain health conditions. In TCM, for example, a person's body constitution may be classified as being predominantly hot, cold, damp, or dry, which can influence their susceptibility to certain diseases and their response to treatment. Similarly, in Ayurveda, an individual's constitution is determined by the balance of three fundamental energies or doshas: Vata, Pitta, and Kapha. Understanding a person's body constitution is thought to be essential for developing a personalized approach to healthcare that addresses their unique needs and tendencies. However, it should be noted that this concept is not widely recognized in modern Western medicine.

The terms "constitution" and "bylaws" refer to the governing documents of an organization, such as a medical association or society. The constitution typically outlines the organization's purpose, objectives, and basic policies, while the bylaws provide more detailed rules and regulations for the internal management and governance of the organization.

The constitution usually includes provisions related to the organization's name, membership, officers, meetings, and decision-making processes. It may also include statements regarding the organization's ethical principles and code of conduct.

The bylaws typically cover issues such as the duties and responsibilities of officers, the election and appointment of board members, the conduct of meetings, and the management of finances. They may also specify procedures for amending the constitution and bylaws, as well as any other rules or regulations that govern the organization's operations.

Together, the constitution and bylaws provide a framework for how the medical association or society is governed and operated, ensuring that its activities are conducted in an orderly and transparent manner.

Korean traditional medicine (KTM) is a system of medicine that has been practiced in Korea for thousands of years. It is also known as Hanbang medicine or Han-ui. KTM is based on the principles of Daoism and the concept of Yin and Yang, and it emphasizes the balance and harmony between the body, mind, and environment.

Korean traditional medicine includes a variety of treatments such as acupuncture, herbal medicine, moxibustion, cupping, and dietary therapy. The use of herbs is a major component of KTM, with thousands of different herbs being used to treat various health conditions. These herbs can be taken in the form of teas, powders, pills, or decoctions.

Acupuncture is also an important part of KTM and involves the insertion of fine needles into specific points on the body to stimulate the flow of Qi (vital energy) and restore balance. Moxibustion involves burning herbs near the skin to warm the area and promote healing, while cupping uses suction cups to increase circulation and relieve pain.

Korean traditional medicine places great emphasis on prevention and encourages individuals to maintain a healthy lifestyle through proper diet, exercise, stress management, and other self-care practices. Practitioners of KTM undergo rigorous training and must pass national exams in order to become licensed.

Somatotype is a term used in the field of human biology and medicine, particularly in anthropometry, which refers to the scientific study of measurements of the human body. It was introduced by American psychologist William H. Sheldon in the 1940s as part of his concept of "constitutional psychology."

Somatotype is a classification system that categorizes human body types based on their skeletal frame, muscle development, and body fat distribution. The system uses a three-number rating scale to describe an individual's somatotype, with each number ranging from 1 to 7:

1. Endomorphy (softness, roundness): Refers to the degree of relative body fatness or adiposity, which is determined by measuring skinfold thicknesses at various sites on the body. Higher values indicate a greater amount of body fat.
2. Mesomorphy (muscularity, hardness): Represents the degree of muscular development and bone structure, assessed through measurements of muscle circumferences and skeletal breadths. Higher values suggest a more muscular and robust build.
3. Ectomorphy (linearity, slenderness): Describes the relative leanness and linearity of the body, evaluated using height-to-weight ratios and other anthropometric measures. Higher values indicate a leaner and more delicate physique.

An individual's somatotype is typically expressed as a set of three numbers, such as 4-6-2 or 2-5-3, representing their endomorphy, mesomorphy, and ectomorphy ratings, respectively. It is important to note that somatotypes are not fixed and can change over time due to factors like aging, lifestyle choices, and exercise habits.

While Sheldon's constitutional psychology theory has been largely discredited, the concept of somatotyping remains a valuable tool in various fields such as sports science, health, and fitness for assessing and comparing body composition and structure.

"Qi" is a concept in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and martial arts that refers to a vital energy or life force that is believed to flow through the body. It is considered to be essential for maintaining good health and can be influenced by various factors such as diet, exercise, emotions, and environment. However, it's important to note that "Qi" is not a term recognized in modern Western medicine and its definition and significance are based on cultural and philosophical beliefs rather than scientific evidence.

Sex chromosome aberrations refer to structural and numerical abnormalities in the sex chromosomes, which are typically represented as X and Y chromosomes in humans. These aberrations can result in variations in the number of sex chromosomes, such as Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY), Turner syndrome (45,X), and Jacobs/XYY syndrome (47,XYY). They can also include structural changes, such as deletions, duplications, or translocations of sex chromosome material.

Sex chromosome aberrations may lead to a range of phenotypic effects, including differences in physical characteristics, cognitive development, fertility, and susceptibility to certain health conditions. The manifestation and severity of these impacts can vary widely depending on the specific type and extent of the aberration, as well as individual genetic factors and environmental influences.

It is important to note that while sex chromosome aberrations may pose challenges and require medical management, they do not inherently define or limit a person's potential, identity, or worth. Comprehensive care, support, and education can help individuals with sex chromosome aberrations lead fulfilling lives and reach their full potential.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the concept of Yin and Yang does not have a medical definition. It is a philosophical concept from Chinese culture, often used in traditional Chinese medicine, that describes how seemingly opposite or contrary forces may actually be interconnected and interdependent in the natural world. In this context, yin and yang are used to describe the complementary aspects of and interdependence between various phenomena.

Yin is characterized as feminine, passive, receptive, and associated with night, darkness, and cold. Yang, on the other hand, is characterized as masculine, active, creative, and associated with day, light, and warmth. The concept of yin and yang is often used to describe the balance and harmony in health and well-being, and any imbalance between these two forces is believed to cause disease or illness. However, it's important to note that this concept is not a medical diagnosis or treatment approach and should not be considered as such.

XYY karyotype is a chromosomal abnormality where an individual's cells have one extra Y chromosome, resulting in a 47, XYY pattern of sex chromosomes. This condition is also known as Jacob's syndrome or XYY syndrome. Typically, human cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes, with one pair being the sex chromosomes (XX in females and XY in males). In an XYY karyotype, there are two Y chromosomes and one X chromosome, which can lead to developmental differences and various health concerns.

Individuals with XYY karyotype may have a higher risk of developing learning disabilities, speech and language delays, and behavioral issues such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorders. However, many people with XYY karyotype do not experience significant health problems and can lead typical lives with appropriate support and interventions.

It is important to note that an XYY karyotype does not typically affect physical characteristics, and most individuals with this condition are phenotypically male. However, they may be taller than their peers due to the influence of the extra Y chromosome on growth hormones.

Sex chromosomes, often denoted as X and Y, are one of the 23 pairs of human chromosomes found in each cell of the body. Normally, females have two X chromosomes (46,XX), and males have one X and one Y chromosome (46,XY). The sex chromosomes play a significant role in determining the sex of an individual. They contain genes that contribute to physical differences between men and women. Any variations or abnormalities in the number or structure of these chromosomes can lead to various genetic disorders and conditions related to sexual development and reproduction.

Karyotyping is a medical laboratory test used to study the chromosomes in a cell. It involves obtaining a sample of cells from a patient, usually from blood or bone marrow, and then staining the chromosomes so they can be easily seen under a microscope. The chromosomes are then arranged in pairs based on their size, shape, and other features to create a karyotype. This visual representation allows for the identification and analysis of any chromosomal abnormalities, such as extra or missing chromosomes, or structural changes like translocations or inversions. These abnormalities can provide important information about genetic disorders, diseases, and developmental problems.

Ayurvedic medicine, also known as Ayurveda, is a traditional system of medicine that has been practiced in India for thousands of years. It is based on the belief that health and wellness depend on a delicate balance between the mind, body, and spirit. The goal of Ayurvedic medicine is to promote good health, rather than fight disease.

In Ayurveda, each person has a unique constitution, or dosha, that is determined by the balance of three energies: Vata (air and space), Pitta (fire and water), and Kapha (water and earth). These doshas are believed to govern all physical and mental processes and to be responsible for an individual's physical and mental health.

Ayurvedic treatments may include herbal remedies, special diets, detoxification programs, meditation, yoga, and massage therapy. The aim of Ayurvedic medicine is to cleanse the body of toxins, balance the doshas, and promote good health and well-being.

It's important to note that while some people find Ayurvedic practices helpful for maintaining their overall health, there is limited scientific evidence supporting the safety and effectiveness of many Ayurvedic treatments. Additionally, some Ayurvedic products may contain harmful levels of heavy metals, such as lead, mercury, and arsenic, which can be toxic if ingested or absorbed through the skin. It's important to consult with a qualified healthcare provider before starting any new treatment regimen, including Ayurvedic medicine.

Polyploidy is a condition in which a cell or an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes, unlike the typical diploid state where there are only two sets (one from each parent). Polyploidy can occur through various mechanisms such as errors during cell division, fusion of egg and sperm cells that have an abnormal number of chromosomes, or through the reproduction process in plants.

Polyploidy is common in the plant kingdom, where it often leads to larger size, increased biomass, and sometimes hybrid vigor. However, in animals, polyploidy is less common and usually occurs in only certain types of cells or tissues, as most animals require a specific number of chromosomes for normal development and reproduction. In humans, polyploidy is typically not compatible with life and can lead to developmental abnormalities and miscarriage.

Setaria Plant, also known as "foxtail millet," does not have a specific medical definition. However, it is worth noting that certain species of the Setaria genus can cause human health issues. For instance, Setaria viridis (green foxtail) and Setaria italica (Italian foxtail) are weedy grasses that can produce bothersome symptoms if their awns (bristle-like appendages on the ear of the plant) become embedded in human skin. This occurrence is more common in agricultural or gardening settings where individuals come into direct contact with the plants. The awns can cause mechanical irritation, inflammation, and infection in some cases.

Nonetheless, Setaria plants are primarily known for their agricultural importance as cereal crops and animal feed rather than their medical significance.

The Y chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes in humans and many other animals, along with the X chromosome. The Y chromosome contains the genetic information that helps to determine an individual's sex as male. It is significantly smaller than the X chromosome and contains fewer genes.

The Y chromosome is present in males, who inherit it from their father. Females, on the other hand, have two X chromosomes, one inherited from each parent. The Y chromosome includes a gene called SRY (sex-determining region Y), which initiates the development of male sexual characteristics during embryonic development.

It is worth noting that the Y chromosome has a relatively high rate of genetic mutation and degeneration compared to other chromosomes, leading to concerns about its long-term viability in human evolution. However, current evidence suggests that the Y chromosome has been stable for at least the past 25 million years.

Mosaicism, in the context of genetics and medicine, refers to the presence of two or more cell lines with different genetic compositions in an individual who has developed from a single fertilized egg. This means that some cells have one genetic makeup, while others have a different genetic makeup. This condition can occur due to various reasons such as errors during cell division after fertilization.

Mosaicism can involve chromosomes (where whole or parts of chromosomes are present in some cells but not in others) or it can involve single genes (where a particular gene is present in one form in some cells and a different form in others). The symptoms and severity of mosaicism can vary widely, depending on the type and location of the genetic difference and the proportion of cells that are affected. Some individuals with mosaicism may not experience any noticeable effects, while others may have significant health problems.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Gymnastics" is not a medical term. It is an athletic discipline consisting of physical exercises requiring balance, strength, flexibility, agility, coordination, and endurance. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you!

Turner Syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects females, caused by complete or partial absence of one X chromosome. The typical karyotype is 45,X0 instead of the normal 46,XX in women. This condition leads to distinctive physical features and medical issues in growth, development, and fertility. Characteristic features include short stature, webbed neck, low-set ears, and swelling of the hands and feet. Other potential symptoms can include heart defects, hearing and vision problems, skeletal abnormalities, kidney issues, and learning disabilities. Not all individuals with Turner Syndrome will have every symptom, but most will require medical interventions and monitoring throughout their lives to address various health concerns associated with the condition.

Gonadal dysgenesis, mixed is a medical condition that refers to the abnormal development and function of the gonads (ovaries or testes). In this form of gonadal dysgenesis, both ovarian and testicular tissues are present in the same individual, but they are not properly organized or functioning. This can lead to ambiguous genitalia, infertility, and an increased risk of developing gonadal tumors. The condition is often associated with genetic disorders such as Turner, Klinefelter, or other sex chromosome abnormalities.

Chromosome aberrations refer to structural and numerical changes in the chromosomes that can occur spontaneously or as a result of exposure to mutagenic agents. These changes can affect the genetic material encoded in the chromosomes, leading to various consequences such as developmental abnormalities, cancer, or infertility.

Structural aberrations include deletions, duplications, inversions, translocations, and rings, which result from breaks and rearrangements of chromosome segments. Numerical aberrations involve changes in the number of chromosomes, such as aneuploidy (extra or missing chromosomes) or polyploidy (multiples of a complete set of chromosomes).

Chromosome aberrations can be detected and analyzed using various cytogenetic techniques, including karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). These methods allow for the identification and characterization of chromosomal changes at the molecular level, providing valuable information for genetic counseling, diagnosis, and research.

The X chromosome is one of the two types of sex-determining chromosomes in humans (the other being the Y chromosome). It's one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes that make up a person's genetic material. Females typically have two copies of the X chromosome (XX), while males usually have one X and one Y chromosome (XY).

The X chromosome contains hundreds of genes that are responsible for the production of various proteins, many of which are essential for normal bodily functions. Some of the critical roles of the X chromosome include:

1. Sex Determination: The presence or absence of the Y chromosome determines whether an individual is male or female. If there is no Y chromosome, the individual will typically develop as a female.
2. Genetic Disorders: Since females have two copies of the X chromosome, they are less likely to be affected by X-linked genetic disorders than males. Males, having only one X chromosome, will express any recessive X-linked traits they inherit.
3. Dosage Compensation: To compensate for the difference in gene dosage between males and females, a process called X-inactivation occurs during female embryonic development. One of the two X chromosomes is randomly inactivated in each cell, resulting in a single functional copy per cell.

The X chromosome plays a crucial role in human genetics and development, contributing to various traits and characteristics, including sex determination and dosage compensation.

Klinefelter Syndrome: A genetic disorder in males, caused by the presence of one or more extra X chromosomes, typically resulting in XXY karyotype. It is characterized by small testes, infertility, gynecomastia (breast enlargement), tall stature, and often mild to moderate intellectual disability. The symptoms can vary greatly among individuals with Klinefelter Syndrome. Some men may not experience any significant health problems and may never be diagnosed, while others may have serious medical or developmental issues that require treatment. It is one of the most common chromosomal disorders, affecting about 1 in every 500-1,000 newborn males.

In situ hybridization, fluorescence (FISH) is a type of molecular cytogenetic technique used to detect and localize the presence or absence of specific DNA sequences on chromosomes through the use of fluorescent probes. This technique allows for the direct visualization of genetic material at a cellular level, making it possible to identify chromosomal abnormalities such as deletions, duplications, translocations, and other rearrangements.

The process involves denaturing the DNA in the sample to separate the double-stranded molecules into single strands, then adding fluorescently labeled probes that are complementary to the target DNA sequence. The probe hybridizes to the complementary sequence in the sample, and the location of the probe is detected by fluorescence microscopy.

FISH has a wide range of applications in both clinical and research settings, including prenatal diagnosis, cancer diagnosis and monitoring, and the study of gene expression and regulation. It is a powerful tool for identifying genetic abnormalities and understanding their role in human disease.

Diploidy is a term used in genetics to describe the state of having two sets of chromosomes in each cell. In diploid organisms, one set of chromosomes is inherited from each parent, resulting in a total of 2 sets of chromosomes.

In humans, for example, most cells are diploid and contain 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs. This includes 22 pairs of autosomal chromosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes (XX in females or XY in males). Diploidy is a characteristic feature of many complex organisms, including animals, plants, and fungi.

Diploid cells can undergo a process called meiosis, which results in the formation of haploid cells that contain only one set of chromosomes. These haploid cells can then combine with other haploid cells during fertilization to form a new diploid organism.

Abnormalities in diploidy can lead to genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, which occurs when an individual has three copies of chromosome 21 instead of the typical two. This extra copy of the chromosome can result in developmental delays and intellectual disabilities.

Chromosomes are thread-like structures that contain genetic material, i.e., DNA and proteins, present in the nucleus of human cells. In humans, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes, in each diploid cell. Twenty-two of these pairs are called autosomal chromosomes, which come in identical pairs and contain genes that determine various traits unrelated to sex.

The last pair is referred to as the sex chromosomes (X and Y), which determines a person's biological sex. Females have two X chromosomes (46, XX), while males possess one X and one Y chromosome (46, XY). Chromosomes vary in size, with the largest being chromosome 1 and the smallest being the Y chromosome.

Human chromosomes are typically visualized during mitosis or meiosis using staining techniques that highlight their banding patterns, allowing for identification of specific regions and genes. Chromosomal abnormalities can lead to various genetic disorders, including Down syndrome (trisomy 21), Turner syndrome (monosomy X), and Klinefelter syndrome (XXY).

Aneuploidy is a medical term that refers to an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell. Chromosomes are thread-like structures located inside the nucleus of cells that contain genetic information in the form of genes.

In humans, the normal number of chromosomes in a cell is 46, arranged in 23 pairs. Aneuploidy occurs when there is an extra or missing chromosome in one or more of these pairs. For example, Down syndrome is a condition that results from an extra copy of chromosome 21, also known as trisomy 21.

Aneuploidy can arise during the formation of gametes (sperm or egg cells) due to errors in the process of cell division called meiosis. These errors can result in eggs or sperm with an abnormal number of chromosomes, which can then lead to aneuploidy in the resulting embryo.

Aneuploidy is a significant cause of birth defects and miscarriages. The severity of the condition depends on which chromosomes are affected and the extent of the abnormality. In some cases, aneuploidy may have no noticeable effects, while in others it can lead to serious health problems or developmental delays.

Chromosomes are thread-like structures that exist in the nucleus of cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes. They are composed of DNA and proteins, and are typically present in pairs in the nucleus, with one set inherited from each parent. In humans, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes for a total of 46 chromosomes. Chromosomes come in different shapes and forms, including sex chromosomes (X and Y) that determine the biological sex of an individual. Changes or abnormalities in the number or structure of chromosomes can lead to genetic disorders and diseases.

Chromosomes in plants are thread-like structures that contain genetic material, DNA, and proteins. They are present in the nucleus of every cell and are inherited from the parent plants during sexual reproduction. Chromosomes come in pairs, with each pair consisting of one chromosome from each parent.

In plants, like in other organisms, chromosomes play a crucial role in inheritance, development, and reproduction. They carry genetic information that determines various traits and characteristics of the plant, such as its physical appearance, growth patterns, and resistance to diseases.

Plant chromosomes are typically much larger than those found in animals, making them easier to study under a microscope. The number of chromosomes varies among different plant species, ranging from as few as 2 in some ferns to over 1000 in certain varieties of wheat.

During cell division, the chromosomes replicate and then separate into two identical sets, ensuring that each new cell receives a complete set of genetic information. This process is critical for the growth and development of the plant, as well as for the production of viable seeds and offspring.

Genetic hybridization is a biological process that involves the crossing of two individuals from different populations or species, which can lead to the creation of offspring with new combinations of genetic material. This occurs when the gametes (sex cells) from each parent combine during fertilization, resulting in a zygote with a unique genetic makeup.

In genetics, hybridization can also refer to the process of introducing new genetic material into an organism through various means, such as genetic engineering or selective breeding. This type of hybridization is often used in agriculture and biotechnology to create crops or animals with desirable traits, such as increased disease resistance or higher yields.

It's important to note that the term "hybrid" can refer to both crosses between different populations within a single species (intraspecific hybrids) and crosses between different species (interspecific hybrids). The latter is often more challenging, as significant genetic differences between the two parental species can lead to various reproductive barriers, making it difficult for the hybrid offspring to produce viable offspring of their own.

Sex determination analysis is a medical or biological examination used to establish the genetic or phenotypic sex of an individual. This can be done through various methods, including:

1. Genetic testing: Examination of an individual's DNA to identify the presence of specific sex chromosomes (XX for females and XY for males). This is typically performed through a blood or tissue sample.
2. Chromosomal analysis: Microscopic examination of an individual's chromosomes to determine their number and structure. In humans, females typically have 46 chromosomes, including two X chromosomes (46,XX), while males typically have 46 chromosomes, including one X and one Y chromosome (46,XY).
3. Phenotypic analysis: Observation of an individual's physical characteristics, such as the presence or absence of certain sex organs or secondary sexual characteristics, to determine their phenotypic sex.

Sex determination analysis is used in various medical and research contexts, including prenatal testing, diagnosis of disorders of sex development (DSDs), forensic investigations, and population studies. It's important to note that while sex determination analysis can provide information about an individual's genetic or phenotypic sex, it does not necessarily reflect their gender identity, which is a personal sense of being male, female, or something else.

Ploidy is a term used in genetics to describe the number of sets of chromosomes in a cell or an organism. The ploidy level can have important implications for genetic inheritance and expression, as well as for evolutionary processes such as speciation and hybridization.

In most animals, including humans, the normal ploidy level is diploid, meaning that each cell contains two sets of chromosomes - one set inherited from each parent. However, there are also many examples of polyploidy, in which an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes.

Polyploidy can arise through various mechanisms, such as genome duplication or hybridization between different species. In some cases, polyploidy may confer evolutionary advantages, such as increased genetic diversity and adaptability to new environments. However, it can also lead to reproductive isolation and the formation of new species.

In plants, polyploidy is relatively common and has played a significant role in their evolution and diversification. Many crop plants are polyploids, including wheat, cotton, and tobacco. In some cases, artificial induction of polyploidy has been used to create new varieties with desirable traits for agriculture and horticulture.

Overall, ploidy is an important concept in genetics and evolution, with implications for a wide range of biological processes and phenomena.

Chromosome banding is a technique used in cytogenetics to identify and describe the physical structure and organization of chromosomes. This method involves staining the chromosomes with specific dyes that bind differently to the DNA and proteins in various regions of the chromosome, resulting in a distinct pattern of light and dark bands when viewed under a microscope.

The most commonly used banding techniques are G-banding (Giemsa banding) and R-banding (reverse banding). In G-banding, the chromosomes are stained with Giemsa dye, which preferentially binds to the AT-rich regions, creating a characteristic banding pattern. The bands are numbered from the centromere (the constriction point where the chromatids join) outwards, with the darker bands (rich in A-T base pairs and histone proteins) labeled as "q" arms and the lighter bands (rich in G-C base pairs and arginine-rich proteins) labeled as "p" arms.

R-banding, on the other hand, uses a different staining procedure that results in a reversed banding pattern compared to G-banding. The darker R-bands correspond to the lighter G-bands, and vice versa. This technique is particularly useful for identifying and analyzing specific regions of chromosomes that may be difficult to visualize with G-banding alone.

Chromosome banding plays a crucial role in diagnosing genetic disorders, identifying chromosomal abnormalities, and studying the structure and function of chromosomes in both clinical and research settings.

Trisomy is a genetic condition where there is an extra copy of a particular chromosome, resulting in 47 chromosomes instead of the typical 46 in a cell. This usually occurs due to an error in cell division during the development of the egg, sperm, or embryo.

Instead of the normal pair, there are three copies (trisomy) of that chromosome. The most common form of trisomy is Trisomy 21, also known as Down syndrome, where there is an extra copy of chromosome 21. Other forms include Trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) and Trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome), which are associated with more severe developmental issues and shorter lifespans.

Trisomy can also occur in a mosaic form, where some cells have the extra chromosome while others do not, leading to varying degrees of symptoms depending on the proportion of affected cells.

Meiosis is a type of cell division that results in the formation of four daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. It is a key process in sexual reproduction, where it generates gametes or sex cells (sperm and eggs).

The process of meiosis involves one round of DNA replication followed by two successive nuclear divisions, meiosis I and meiosis II. In meiosis I, homologous chromosomes pair, form chiasma and exchange genetic material through crossing over, then separate from each other. In meiosis II, sister chromatids separate, leading to the formation of four haploid cells. This process ensures genetic diversity in offspring by shuffling and recombining genetic information during the formation of gametes.

Spermatozoa are the male reproductive cells, or gametes, that are produced in the testes. They are microscopic, flagellated (tail-equipped) cells that are highly specialized for fertilization. A spermatozoon consists of a head, neck, and tail. The head contains the genetic material within the nucleus, covered by a cap-like structure called the acrosome which contains enzymes to help the sperm penetrate the female's egg (ovum). The long, thin tail propels the sperm forward through fluid, such as semen, enabling its journey towards the egg for fertilization.

"Sex determination processes" refer to the series of genetic and biological events that occur during embryonic and fetal development which lead to the development of male or female physical characteristics. In humans, this process is typically determined by the presence or absence of a Y chromosome in the fertilized egg. If the egg has a Y chromosome, it will develop into a male (genetically XY) and if it does not have a Y chromosome, it will develop into a female (genetically XX).

The sex determination process involves the activation and repression of specific genes on the sex chromosomes, which direct the development of the gonads (ovaries or testes) and the production of hormones that influence the development of secondary sexual characteristics. This includes the development of internal and external genitalia, as well as other sex-specific physical traits.

It is important to note that while sex is typically determined by genetics and biology, gender identity is a separate construct that can be self-identified and may not align with an individual's biological sex.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Republic of Korea" is a geopolitical term referring to a country located in East Asia, also known as South Korea. It does not have a specific medical definition. The term refers to the political, social, and cultural aspects of the country, rather than medical conditions or health-related concepts. If you have any questions related to medical definitions or health, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

Germ cells are the reproductive cells, also known as sex cells, that combine to form offspring in sexual reproduction. In females, germ cells are called ova or egg cells, and in males, they are called spermatozoa or sperm cells. These cells are unique because they carry half the genetic material necessary for creating new life. They are produced through a process called meiosis, which reduces their chromosome number by half, ensuring that when two germ cells combine during fertilization, the normal diploid number of chromosomes is restored.

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "History, 20th Century" is a broad and complex topic that refers to the events, developments, and transformations that occurred throughout the world during the 1900s. It is not a medical term or concept. If you're interested in learning more about this historical period, I would recommend consulting a history textbook, reputable online resources, or speaking with a historian. They can provide detailed information about the political, social, economic, and cultural changes that took place during the 20th century.

Chromosome disorders are a group of genetic conditions caused by abnormalities in the number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosomes are thread-like structures located in the nucleus of cells that contain most of the body's genetic material, which is composed of DNA and proteins. Normally, humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes.

Chromosome disorders can result from changes in the number of chromosomes (aneuploidy) or structural abnormalities in one or more chromosomes. Some common examples of chromosome disorders include:

1. Down syndrome: a condition caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21, resulting in intellectual disability, developmental delays, and distinctive physical features.
2. Turner syndrome: a condition that affects only females and is caused by the absence of all or part of one X chromosome, resulting in short stature, lack of sexual development, and other symptoms.
3. Klinefelter syndrome: a condition that affects only males and is caused by an extra copy of the X chromosome, resulting in tall stature, infertility, and other symptoms.
4. Cri-du-chat syndrome: a condition caused by a deletion of part of the short arm of chromosome 5, resulting in intellectual disability, developmental delays, and a distinctive cat-like cry.
5. Fragile X syndrome: a condition caused by a mutation in the FMR1 gene on the X chromosome, resulting in intellectual disability, behavioral problems, and physical symptoms.

Chromosome disorders can be diagnosed through various genetic tests, such as karyotyping, chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA), or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Treatment for these conditions depends on the specific disorder and its associated symptoms and may include medical interventions, therapies, and educational support.

Human chromosome pair 13 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell in the human body. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled around histone proteins, forming a complex structure called a chromatin.

Chromosomes carry genetic information in the form of genes, which are sequences of DNA that code for specific traits and functions. Human cells typically have 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes. Chromosome pair 13 is one of the autosomal pairs, meaning it is not a sex chromosome (X or Y).

Chromosome pair 13 contains several important genes that are associated with various genetic disorders, such as cri-du-chat syndrome and Phelan-McDermid syndrome. Cri-du-chat syndrome is caused by a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 13 (13p), resulting in distinctive cat-like crying sounds in infants, developmental delays, and intellectual disabilities. Phelan-McDermid syndrome is caused by a deletion or mutation of the terminal end of the long arm of chromosome 13 (13q), leading to developmental delays, intellectual disability, absent or delayed speech, and autistic behaviors.

It's important to note that while some genetic disorders are associated with specific chromosomal abnormalities, many factors can contribute to the development and expression of these conditions, including environmental influences and interactions between multiple genes.

A plant genome refers to the complete set of genetic material or DNA present in the cells of a plant. It contains all the hereditary information necessary for the development and functioning of the plant, including its structural and functional characteristics. The plant genome includes both coding regions that contain instructions for producing proteins and non-coding regions that have various regulatory functions.

The plant genome is composed of several types of DNA molecules, including chromosomes, which are located in the nucleus of the cell. Each chromosome contains one or more genes, which are segments of DNA that code for specific proteins or RNA molecules. Plants typically have multiple sets of chromosomes, with each set containing a complete copy of the genome.

The study of plant genomes is an active area of research in modern biology, with important applications in areas such as crop improvement, evolutionary biology, and medical research. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies have made it possible to determine the complete sequences of many plant genomes, providing valuable insights into their structure, function, and evolution.

Haploidy is a term used in genetics to describe the condition of having half the normal number of chromosomes in a cell or an organism. In humans, for example, a haploid cell contains 23 chromosomes, whereas a diploid cell has 46 chromosomes.

Haploid cells are typically produced through a process called meiosis, which is a type of cell division that occurs in the reproductive organs of sexually reproducing organisms. During meiosis, a diploid cell undergoes two rounds of division to produce four haploid cells, each containing only one set of chromosomes.

In humans, haploid cells are found in the sperm and egg cells, which fuse together during fertilization to create a diploid zygote with 46 chromosomes. Haploidy is important for maintaining the correct number of chromosomes in future generations and preventing genetic abnormalities that can result from having too many or too few chromosomes.

A genetic locus (plural: loci) is a specific location on a chromosome where a particular gene or DNA sequence is found. It is the precise position where a specific genetic element, such as a gene or marker, is located on a chromsomere. This location is defined in terms of its relationship to other genetic markers and features on the same chromosome. Genetic loci can be used in linkage and association studies to identify the inheritance patterns and potential relationships between genes and various traits or diseases.

"Genetic crosses" refer to the breeding of individuals with different genetic characteristics to produce offspring with specific combinations of traits. This process is commonly used in genetics research to study the inheritance patterns and function of specific genes.

There are several types of genetic crosses, including:

1. Monohybrid cross: A cross between two individuals that differ in the expression of a single gene or trait.
2. Dihybrid cross: A cross between two individuals that differ in the expression of two genes or traits.
3. Backcross: A cross between an individual from a hybrid population and one of its parental lines.
4. Testcross: A cross between an individual with unknown genotype and a homozygous recessive individual.
5. Reciprocal cross: A cross in which the male and female parents are reversed to determine if there is any effect of sex on the expression of the trait.

These genetic crosses help researchers to understand the mode of inheritance, linkage, recombination, and other genetic phenomena.

An allele is a variant form of a gene that is located at a specific position on a specific chromosome. Alleles are alternative forms of the same gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same locus or position on homologous chromosomes.

Each person typically inherits two copies of each gene, one from each parent. If the two alleles are identical, a person is said to be homozygous for that trait. If the alleles are different, the person is heterozygous.

For example, the ABO blood group system has three alleles, A, B, and O, which determine a person's blood type. If a person inherits two A alleles, they will have type A blood; if they inherit one A and one B allele, they will have type AB blood; if they inherit two B alleles, they will have type B blood; and if they inherit two O alleles, they will have type O blood.

Alleles can also influence traits such as eye color, hair color, height, and other physical characteristics. Some alleles are dominant, meaning that only one copy of the allele is needed to express the trait, while others are recessive, meaning that two copies of the allele are needed to express the trait.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

An oocyte, also known as an egg cell or female gamete, is a large specialized cell found in the ovary of female organisms. It contains half the number of chromosomes as a normal diploid cell, as it is the product of meiotic division. Oocytes are surrounded by follicle cells and are responsible for the production of female offspring upon fertilization with sperm. The term "oocyte" specifically refers to the immature egg cell before it reaches full maturity and is ready for fertilization, at which point it is referred to as an ovum or egg.

A chimera, in the context of medicine and biology, is a single organism that is composed of cells with different genetics. This can occur naturally in some situations, such as when fraternal twins do not fully separate in utero and end up sharing some organs or tissues. The term "chimera" can also refer to an organism that contains cells from two different species, which can happen in certain types of genetic research or medical treatments. For example, a patient's cells might be genetically modified in a lab and then introduced into their body to treat a disease; if some of these modified cells mix with the patient's original cells, the result could be a chimera.

It's worth noting that the term "chimera" comes from Greek mythology, where it referred to a fire-breathing monster that was part lion, part goat, and part snake. In modern scientific usage, the term has a specific technical meaning related to genetics and organisms, but it may still evoke images of fantastical creatures for some people.

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the genetic material present in the cells of all living organisms, including plants. In plants, DNA is located in the nucleus of a cell, as well as in chloroplasts and mitochondria. Plant DNA contains the instructions for the development, growth, and function of the plant, and is passed down from one generation to the next through the process of reproduction.

The structure of DNA is a double helix, formed by two strands of nucleotides that are linked together by hydrogen bonds. Each nucleotide contains a sugar molecule (deoxyribose), a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. There are four types of nitrogenous bases in DNA: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Adenine pairs with thymine, and guanine pairs with cytosine, forming the rungs of the ladder that make up the double helix.

The genetic information in DNA is encoded in the sequence of these nitrogenous bases. Large sequences of bases form genes, which provide the instructions for the production of proteins. The process of gene expression involves transcribing the DNA sequence into a complementary RNA molecule, which is then translated into a protein.

Plant DNA is similar to animal DNA in many ways, but there are also some differences. For example, plant DNA contains a higher proportion of repetitive sequences and transposable elements, which are mobile genetic elements that can move around the genome and cause mutations. Additionally, plant cells have cell walls and chloroplasts, which are not present in animal cells, and these structures contain their own DNA.

A genome is the complete set of genetic material (DNA, or in some viruses, RNA) present in a single cell of an organism. It includes all of the genes, both coding and noncoding, as well as other regulatory elements that together determine the unique characteristics of that organism. The human genome, for example, contains approximately 3 billion base pairs and about 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes.

The term "genome" was first coined by Hans Winkler in 1920, derived from the word "gene" and the suffix "-ome," which refers to a complete set of something. The study of genomes is known as genomics.

Understanding the genome can provide valuable insights into the genetic basis of diseases, evolution, and other biological processes. With advancements in sequencing technologies, it has become possible to determine the entire genomic sequence of many organisms, including humans, and use this information for various applications such as personalized medicine, gene therapy, and biotechnology.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Genetic variation refers to the differences in DNA sequences among individuals and populations. These variations can result from mutations, genetic recombination, or gene flow between populations. Genetic variation is essential for evolution by providing the raw material upon which natural selection acts. It can occur within a single gene, between different genes, or at larger scales, such as differences in the number of chromosomes or entire sets of chromosomes. The study of genetic variation is crucial in understanding the genetic basis of diseases and traits, as well as the evolutionary history and relationships among species.

Male infertility is a condition characterized by the inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female. It is typically defined as the failure to achieve a pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse.

The causes of male infertility can be varied and include issues with sperm production, such as low sperm count or poor sperm quality, problems with sperm delivery, such as obstructions in the reproductive tract, or hormonal imbalances that affect sperm production. Other factors that may contribute to male infertility include genetic disorders, environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and certain medical conditions or treatments.

It is important to note that male infertility can often be treated or managed with medical interventions, such as medication, surgery, or assisted reproductive technologies (ART). A healthcare provider can help diagnose the underlying cause of male infertility and recommend appropriate treatment options.

Fertilization in vitro, also known as in-vitro fertilization (IVF), is a medical procedure where an egg (oocyte) and sperm are combined in a laboratory dish to facilitate fertilization. The fertilized egg (embryo) is then transferred to a uterus with the hope of establishing a successful pregnancy. This procedure is often used when other assisted reproductive technologies have been unsuccessful or are not applicable, such as in cases of blocked fallopian tubes, severe male factor infertility, and unexplained infertility. The process involves ovarian stimulation, egg retrieval, fertilization, embryo culture, and embryo transfer. In some cases, additional techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) may be used to increase the chances of success.

Translocation, genetic, refers to a type of chromosomal abnormality in which a segment of a chromosome is transferred from one chromosome to another, resulting in an altered genome. This can occur between two non-homologous chromosomes (non-reciprocal translocation) or between two homologous chromosomes (reciprocal translocation). Genetic translocations can lead to various clinical consequences, depending on the genes involved and the location of the translocation. Some translocations may result in no apparent effects, while others can cause developmental abnormalities, cancer, or other genetic disorders. In some cases, translocations can also increase the risk of having offspring with genetic conditions.

The testis, also known as the testicle, is a male reproductive organ that is part of the endocrine system. It is located in the scrotum, outside of the abdominal cavity. The main function of the testis is to produce sperm and testosterone, the primary male sex hormone.

The testis is composed of many tiny tubules called seminiferous tubules, where sperm are produced. These tubules are surrounded by a network of blood vessels, nerves, and supportive tissues. The sperm then travel through a series of ducts to the epididymis, where they mature and become capable of fertilization.

Testosterone is produced in the Leydig cells, which are located in the interstitial tissue between the seminiferous tubules. Testosterone plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair, deep voice, and muscle mass. It also supports sperm production and sexual function.

Abnormalities in testicular function can lead to infertility, hormonal imbalances, and other health problems. Regular self-examinations and medical check-ups are recommended for early detection and treatment of any potential issues.

Chromosome mapping, also known as physical mapping, is the process of determining the location and order of specific genes or genetic markers on a chromosome. This is typically done by using various laboratory techniques to identify landmarks along the chromosome, such as restriction enzyme cutting sites or patterns of DNA sequence repeats. The resulting map provides important information about the organization and structure of the genome, and can be used for a variety of purposes, including identifying the location of genes associated with genetic diseases, studying evolutionary relationships between organisms, and developing genetic markers for use in breeding or forensic applications.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

A gene is a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA that carries genetic information. Genes are the fundamental units of heredity and are responsible for the development and function of all living organisms. They code for proteins or RNA molecules, which carry out various functions within cells and are essential for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs.

Each gene has a specific location on a chromosome, and each person inherits two copies of every gene, one from each parent. Variations in the sequence of nucleotides in a gene can lead to differences in traits between individuals, including physical characteristics, susceptibility to disease, and responses to environmental factors.

Medical genetics is the study of genes and their role in health and disease. It involves understanding how genes contribute to the development and progression of various medical conditions, as well as identifying genetic risk factors and developing strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

Genetic polymorphism refers to the occurrence of multiple forms (called alleles) of a particular gene within a population. These variations in the DNA sequence do not generally affect the function or survival of the organism, but they can contribute to differences in traits among individuals. Genetic polymorphisms can be caused by single nucleotide changes (SNPs), insertions or deletions of DNA segments, or other types of genetic rearrangements. They are important for understanding genetic diversity and evolution, as well as for identifying genetic factors that may contribute to disease susceptibility in humans.

I apologize, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or condition. It is the largest country in both South America and Latin America by land area and population. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, please provide more information and I will do my best to help.

Genetic recombination is the process by which genetic material is exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA during meiosis, resulting in new combinations of genes on each chromosome. This exchange occurs during crossover, where segments of DNA are swapped between non-sister homologous chromatids, creating genetic diversity among the offspring. It is a crucial mechanism for generating genetic variability and facilitating evolutionary change within populations. Additionally, recombination also plays an essential role in DNA repair processes through mechanisms such as homologous recombinational repair (HRR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ).

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

A heterozygote is an individual who has inherited two different alleles (versions) of a particular gene, one from each parent. This means that the individual's genotype for that gene contains both a dominant and a recessive allele. The dominant allele will be expressed phenotypically (outwardly visible), while the recessive allele may or may not have any effect on the individual's observable traits, depending on the specific gene and its function. Heterozygotes are often represented as 'Aa', where 'A' is the dominant allele and 'a' is the recessive allele.

Gene frequency, also known as allele frequency, is a measure in population genetics that reflects the proportion of a particular gene or allele (variant of a gene) in a given population. It is calculated as the number of copies of a specific allele divided by the total number of all alleles at that genetic locus in the population.

For example, if we consider a gene with two possible alleles, A and a, the gene frequency of allele A (denoted as p) can be calculated as follows:

p = (number of copies of allele A) / (total number of all alleles at that locus)

Similarly, the gene frequency of allele a (denoted as q) would be:

q = (number of copies of allele a) / (total number of all alleles at that locus)

Since there are only two possible alleles for this gene in this example, p + q = 1. These frequencies can help researchers understand genetic diversity and evolutionary processes within populations.

Genetic markers are specific segments of DNA that are used in genetic mapping and genotyping to identify specific genetic locations, diseases, or traits. They can be composed of short tandem repeats (STRs), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), or variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs). These markers are useful in various fields such as genetic research, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and breeding programs. They can help to track inheritance patterns, identify genetic predispositions to diseases, and solve crimes by linking biological evidence to suspects or victims.

A gene in plants, like in other organisms, is a hereditary unit that carries genetic information from one generation to the next. It is a segment of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) that contains the instructions for the development and function of an organism. Genes in plants determine various traits such as flower color, plant height, resistance to diseases, and many others. They are responsible for encoding proteins and RNA molecules that play crucial roles in the growth, development, and reproduction of plants. Plant genes can be manipulated through traditional breeding methods or genetic engineering techniques to improve crop yield, enhance disease resistance, and increase nutritional value.

Microsatellite repeats, also known as short tandem repeats (STRs), are repetitive DNA sequences made up of units of 1-6 base pairs that are repeated in a head-to-tail manner. These repeats are spread throughout the human genome and are highly polymorphic, meaning they can have different numbers of repeat units in different individuals.

Microsatellites are useful as genetic markers because of their high degree of variability. They are commonly used in forensic science to identify individuals, in genealogy to trace ancestry, and in medical research to study genetic diseases and disorders. Mutations in microsatellite repeats have been associated with various neurological conditions, including Huntington's disease and fragile X syndrome.

I am not aware of a specific medical definition for the term "China." Generally, it is used to refer to:

1. The People's Republic of China (PRC), which is a country in East Asia. It is the most populous country in the world and the fourth largest by geographical area. Its capital city is Beijing.
2. In a historical context, "China" was used to refer to various dynasties and empires that existed in East Asia over thousands of years. The term "Middle Kingdom" or "Zhongguo" (中国) has been used by the Chinese people to refer to their country for centuries.
3. In a more general sense, "China" can also be used to describe products or goods that originate from or are associated with the People's Republic of China.

If you have a specific context in which you encountered the term "China" related to medicine, please provide it so I can give a more accurate response.

Biological evolution is the change in the genetic composition of populations of organisms over time, from one generation to the next. It is a process that results in descendants differing genetically from their ancestors. Biological evolution can be driven by several mechanisms, including natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, and mutation. These processes can lead to changes in the frequency of alleles (variants of a gene) within populations, resulting in the development of new species and the extinction of others over long periods of time. Biological evolution provides a unifying explanation for the diversity of life on Earth and is supported by extensive evidence from many different fields of science, including genetics, paleontology, comparative anatomy, and biogeography.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

'Drosophila melanogaster' is the scientific name for a species of fruit fly that is commonly used as a model organism in various fields of biological research, including genetics, developmental biology, and evolutionary biology. Its small size, short generation time, large number of offspring, and ease of cultivation make it an ideal subject for laboratory studies. The fruit fly's genome has been fully sequenced, and many of its genes have counterparts in the human genome, which facilitates the understanding of genetic mechanisms and their role in human health and disease.

Here is a brief medical definition:

Drosophila melanogaster (droh-suh-fih-luh meh-lon-guh-ster): A species of fruit fly used extensively as a model organism in genetic, developmental, and evolutionary research. Its genome has been sequenced, revealing many genes with human counterparts, making it valuable for understanding genetic mechanisms and their role in human health and disease.

The cell nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle found in the eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus). It contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as DNA molecules in complex with proteins, RNA molecules, and histones to form chromosomes.

The primary function of the cell nucleus is to regulate and control the activities of the cell, including growth, metabolism, protein synthesis, and reproduction. It also plays a crucial role in the process of mitosis (cell division) by separating and protecting the genetic material during this process. The nuclear membrane, or nuclear envelope, surrounding the nucleus is composed of two lipid bilayers with numerous pores that allow for the selective transport of molecules between the nucleoplasm (nucleus interior) and the cytoplasm (cell exterior).

The cell nucleus is a vital structure in eukaryotic cells, and its dysfunction can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Molecular evolution is the process of change in the DNA sequence or protein structure over time, driven by mechanisms such as mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and natural selection. It refers to the evolutionary study of changes in DNA, RNA, and proteins, and how these changes accumulate and lead to new species and diversity of life. Molecular evolution can be used to understand the history and relationships among different organisms, as well as the functional consequences of genetic changes.

A Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) is an analytical approach used in genetic research to identify associations between genetic variants, typically Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), and specific traits or diseases across the entire genome. This method involves scanning the genomes of many individuals, usually thousands, to find genetic markers that occur more frequently in people with a particular disease or trait than in those without it.

The goal of a GWAS is to identify genetic loci (positions on chromosomes) associated with a trait or disease, which can help researchers understand the underlying genetic architecture and biological mechanisms contributing to the condition. It's important to note that while GWAS can identify associations between genetic variants and traits/diseases, these studies do not necessarily prove causation. Further functional validation studies are often required to confirm the role of identified genetic variants in the development or progression of a trait or disease.

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"Constitution 1978". Paclii.org. Retrieved 2016-03-10. "Treaty bodies Treaties". Tbinternet.ohchr.org. Retrieved 2016-03-10. " ... The Constitution of Solomon Islands was enacted in 1978. This however led to conflicts between cultures and armed conflict in ... As per The Constitution of Solomon Islands Statutory Instruments Chapter II outlines the Fundamental Rights and Freedoms of the ... This review resulted in the Federal Constitution of the Solomon Islands Bill 2004 (SI) and various other amendments. The Human ...
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Her body was found discarded beside the road on September 25, 1975, near a rest stop outside of Seguin, Texas. Her vehicle was ... "Woman slain by phone cord in Musella". The Atlanta Constitution. 25 Aug 1974. Archived from the original on 13 March 2022. ... Hillard's body was found in nearby woods, while Griffin's remains were found in Crawford County, Georgia on August 29, 1975. ... In October, Bates' nude body was found. He had been strangled and dumped in the woods. Now driving Bates' car, Knowles bound ...
ISBN 0-618-08825-3. "King Body Taken to New Site". The Atlanta Constitution. January 14, 1970. p. 7. Archived from the original ... Time magazine wrote: In Memphis, before it was carried south toward home, King's body lay in state at the R.S. Lewis & Sons ... and her four children were present during the predawn hours Tuesday as King's body in its crypt was transferred from South View ... Later that day, police and National Guardsmen escorted the long procession of cars which carried King's body to the airport for ...
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"Body of drowned fishing guide recovered from Lake George". Orlando Sentinel. May 14, 1977. p. 26. Retrieved July 12, 2022 - via ... "Atlanta Athletes Play Basketball To Keep in Shape for the Summer Baseball Grind". The Atlanta Constitution. January 19, 1936. p ... His body was recovered two days later. "Johnnie Chambers statistics at Baseball-Reference". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved ... Old Guard' Is Thinned by Passing of Johnny Chambers". The Atlanta Constitution. May 20, 1977. p. 77. Retrieved July 17, 2022 - ...
Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Archived from the original on November 15, 2013. Retrieved June 27, 2014. Hibberd, James (January ... Two bodies. A swap. Simple right? And yet just about any and every list of so-called body swap movies ignores that clear ... The following shows have a body swap as a major storyline or feature a character who has swapped bodies over multiple episodes ... Hunter, Rob (April 1, 2014). "10 Body Swap Movies That Aren't Actually Body Swap Movies No Matter How Often You Put Them On ...
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"King Body Taken to New Site". The Atlanta Constitution. January 14, 1970. p. 7. Archived from the original on June 8, 2020. ... and her four children were present during the predawn hours Tuesday as King's body in its crypt was transferred from South View ... "Jones". Atlanta Constitution. December 5, 1984. p. 15 - via newspapers.com. Henderson 2018, p. 220. Henderson 2018, p. 219. ... Powell, Kay (May 19, 2006). "John J. Hicks Jr., 64, jazz pianist from Atlanta". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. p. D5. ...
"J. Sprole Lyons Heads Decatur School Body". The Atlanta Constitution. Georgia, Atlanta. May 11, 1933. p. 15. Retrieved June 22 ... "News of the Churches". The Atlanta Constitution. Georgia, Atlanta. May 6, 1933. p. 11. Retrieved June 22, 2018 - via Newspapers ... "Midway Presbyterian". The Atlanta Constitution. Georgia, Atlanta. March 5, 1932. p. 20. Retrieved June 22, 2018 - via ...
A constitution for the Australian Liberal Union was adopted, where it was agreed that the organisation would be governed by an ... A United Body". The Sydney Morning Herald. 27 May 1909. Kemp 2019, p. 172. "Great liberal union". The Sydney Morning Herald. 29 ... The constitution provided that the union would regularly confer with the federal parliamentary party, and that its work would ... "Constitution and council". The Age. 23 May 1912. "Liberal organisation". The Age. 23 May 1912. "Federal Liberal policy". The ...
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Cook, Rhonda; Miles, Kent A.; Towers, Chip (May 9, 2009). "Zinkhan's body found in grave he dug". Atlanta Journal-Constitution ... Zinkhan's body was claimed by a son from a previous marriage one day before it was scheduled for burial in a pauper's grave. ... "Son claims body of professor accused in killings". CNN. May 16, 2009. Wikinews has related news: Professor sought after three ... "Authorities: Body of UGA professor identified". CNN. May 11, 2009. Retrieved May 3, 2010. "UGA Professor Fired, Still on the ...
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"Creating Community: A History of Early Transgender Support in Atlanta (2015), Dallas Denny: Body of Work". Archived from the ... "Undetected fire kills 2 in Smyrna". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. May 15, 1996. Archived from the original on October 25, ... "Richards-Williams, obituary". The Atlanta Constitution. May 16, 1996. Archived from the original on October 13, 2020. Retrieved ... and strappy body suits made from strips of leather and other materials. She was awarded the title Glamour Goddess at the First ...
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ISLAMABAD: Parliament is the Supreme Body under Constitution having sole right to legislate, whereas Supreme Court has the ... Parliament is the supreme body under constitution having sole right to legislate: Babar. 2 years ago ... power to interpret the legislation under the provisions of constitution. It was said by the Special Advisor to Prime Minister ...
... improve the body shape through medicinal diets; and improve the appearance with high-tech beauty products and devices, so as to ... damp-heat constitution, qi-stagnation constitution, and blood stasis constitution. Such body constitutions are resulted from ... there are nine types of body constitutions: balanced constitution, Yin deficiency constitution, Yang deficiency constitution, ... However, in TCM, we relate it to ones body constitution. Body constitution means the relatively stable individualized ...
My body is not an assigned role. My body is not a silent voice. My body is not a fiction. ... My body is not a fiction.. My body is real.. My body is sometimes feminine.. My body is lesbian.. My body is free.. My body is ... My body is alive.. My body is a dancer.. And, in front of you, who look at me, my body strolls and dances,. In the space, among ... My body is seen as disabled.. My body is not an assigned role.. My body is not a silent voice.. ...
... you can learn about your body constitution and what food you can take or tea recipes you can try out to alleviate any symptoms ... Body Constitution is the individuals body condition that makes an individual susceptible to certain diseases but not others. ... In this talk, you can learn about your body constitution and what food you can take or tea recipes you can try out to alleviate ...
Abcarian: What does it take to keep regular bodies on Paris runways? ... Column: The GOPs electoral mapmaking may win elections, but it also subverts the Constitution By Noah Berlatsky ... Small wonder that such a party has elevated to the presidency a man whose disdain for the Constitution is palpable. ...
Constitution aimed at candidates who have supported an "insurrection." The lawsuit, citing the […] ... Dianne Feinsteins body returns to … A government shutdown is averted for now with a temporary … ... The lawsuit contends Trump is ineligible to run for the White House again under a rarely used clause in the U.S. Constitution ... The lawsuit contends Trump is ineligible to run for the White House again under a rarely used clause in the U.S. Constitution ...
deputies to the legislative body. members of the general council of the communes. members of the administrative councils of ... The Civil Constitution of the Clergy (French: "Constitution civile du clergé") was a law passed on 12 July 1790 during the ... The Civil Constitution of the Clergys main accomplishment was placing the church under the state, this document outlines the ... Be loyal to the nation of France (this includes the law and the king). Support the constitution that is decreed by the National ...
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Body of Blind Sheikh to be repatriated to Cairo Thursday. February 22, 2017 ... Jamaa al-Islamiya to celebrate constitution, Morsy on revolutions anniversary. Al-Masry Al-YoumJanuary 11, 2013 ... has also called on all Egyptians to take to the streets on the revolutions anniversary to protest against the Constitution. ... Construction and Development Party are discussing plans to take to the streets on 25 January to celebrate the new Constitution ...
"Body Constitution" by people in this website by year, and whether "Body Constitution" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Body Constitution" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Body Constitution" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Body Constitution". ...
Through thousands of years TCM has built a theory around body constitutions, similar to doshas if you are familiar with ... Your practitioner will look at a persons body constitution as constantly changing like the waves we ride through this crazy ... Everyones body is different, so something that my body reacts to wont be the same as yours exactly. ... Your body is not the same as it was 5 years ago or 5 days ago but with helping ourselves through diet and lifestyle changes we ...
In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), yang deficiency is one of nine body constitutions - a unique combination of structural, ... Yang nature represents motion, heat, brightness, expansion and vital energy of the body. ... Get to Know Your Body Constitution: Yang Deficiency. Are you especially sensitive to the cold, and do you often feel sluggish? ... In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), yang deficiency is one of nine body constitutions - a unique combination of structural, ...
Ayurveda 101: Understanding your Body Type, Dosha, or Constitution. Ayurve-huh? Farmtrue Co-Founders Lynn Goodwin and Kim Welch ... The doshas, Vata, Pitta, and Kapha are the basis for understanding our mind/body type. Just like nature, we are composed of the ... GHEEFOOD + DRINKBODY CAREFACE CARELIFESTYLE + MEDITATIONBUNDLES + KITSGIFT CARDEVENTS + WORKSHOPSSHOP ALL ... Learning more about yourself and how your body responds to foods and seasonal changes is the starting point for supporting a ...
Transition (1990 - 1994) - Constitution Making - MPNP Views on a Constitution-Making Body. Tabled by the SA Government at ... 6. An elected constitution-making body constituted and functioning in such a manner that consensus among all significant ... The second approach which we initially preferred, is to have a multi party conference as the constitution making body deciding ... The mekjority is not the only interested party in constitution-making. A constitution is a structuring of the political process ...
SILVA, Diego Rodrigues y HERZBERG, Eliana. Parental functions and constitution of body image: repercussions to children with ... Therefore, this paper aims to discuss parenting and construction of body image in situations of physical disability. It was ... The parental functions surpass childs needs, promoting subjective constitution that inserts him/her into the social bond. ... These experiences of the parent-child relationship shape body image that articulates with the biological apparatus, enabling ...
Bereket Simon put on a nice act at the press conference; but his body language betrayed his words. Simon wore a morose face as ... ethiopia constitution article 17, ethiopia constitution article 20, ethiopia constitution article 55, ethiopia constitution ... ethiopia constitution article 74, ethiopia constitution article 75, ethiopia constitution article 76, ethiopia constitution ... Ethiopia constitution Article 12, Ethiopia constitution Article 19, ethiopia constitution article 20, Ethiopia Corruption, ...
4) Any body cavity search must be performed under sanitary conditions.. (5) No law enforcement officer shall order a strip ... 901.211 Strip searches of persons arrested; body cavity search.-. (1) As used in this section, the term "strip search" means ...
5) The same system of quorum and majorities will be applicable to any elective body established by this Constitution.. Article ... Article 137 About the Supremacy of the Constitution. (1) The Constitution is the supreme law of the Republic. The Constitution ... Article 272 About a Judicial Police Body. The law may create a judicial police body, subordinated to the judicial branch, which ... The judicial branch is the guardian of the Constitution. It interprets the Constitution, complies with it, and orders its ...
The referendum on December 12th 1993 approved the new Constitution of the Russian Federation, a fundamental law of the state, ... Under the Constitution of the RSFSR, the supreme body of power in the country was the All-Russia Congress of Soviets, and in ... The Constitution of 1993 substantially changed the structure of the supreme bodies of state power and took a serious step ... The referendum on the new Constitution was held on December 12, 1993, simultaneously with the election of the legislative body ...
9.3.3 REASON #3. When you marry with a marriage license, you place yourself under a body of law which is immoral. ... FAMILY CONSTITUTION. (last updated 16FEB05, version 1.30!). DOWNLOAD FAMILY CONSTITUTION. (last updated 16FEB05, version 1.30!) ... The Family Constitution draws on works from several prominent Christian authors, such as:. *Dr. James Dobson of Focus on the ... The Family Constitution is a document intended as the spiritual and legal foundation for starting and running an enduring and ...
943.1718 Body cameras; policies and procedures.-. (1) As used in this section, the term:. (a) "Body camera" means a portable ... d) A provision permitting a law enforcement officer using a body camera to review the recorded footage from the body camera, ... 4) Chapter 934 does not apply to body camera recordings made by law enforcement agencies that elect to use body cameras. ... and storage of body cameras and the data recorded by body cameras. The policies and procedures must include:. (a) General ...
This is the first in a series of six events themed around the constitution. ... THE ROYAL IRISH ACADEMY IS IRELANDS LEADING BODY OF EXPERTS IN THE SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES. The Royal Irish Academy/Acadamh ... Constitutions, referendums and the family. 2nd March 2016. 2.. Reviewing constitutions: the role of constitutional conventions ... Constitutions and these islands: beyond Brexit: Part II-Belfast September 2016. 4.. The idea of a republic: freedom and ...
Adaptive displays of body constitution in gravity cyclists Authors. * Damjan Siriški Faculty of Sports Studies, Masaryk ... Siriški, D., & Novotný, J. (2021). Adaptive displays of body constitution in gravity cyclists. Journal of Human Sport and ... The objective of our study was to investigate somatotype, body constitution and motor skills of elite cyclists of technical ... body constitution and motoric tests relate with characteristics of training and use of specific training methods. In this study ...
VIII of the State Constitution, the legislative body of each municipality has the power to enact legislation concerning any ... 166.0213 Governing body meetings.-. (1) The governing body of a municipality having a population of 500 or fewer residents may ... 3) The local governing body of a municipality may not exercise its power of eminent domain unless the governing body adopts a ... 7) The term "governing body" means the council, commission, or other board or body in which the general legislative powers of ...
Early voting has started in Uzbekistan in a referendum on a new constitution that would allow 65-year-old President Shavkat ... European soccers governing body has controversially decided to let Russian youth teams return to international competition. ... TASHKENT -- Early voting has started in Uzbekistan in a referendum on a new constitution that would allow 65-year-old President ... According to Uzbek lawmakers, the amendments will change about two-thirds of the constitution, with the number of articles in ...
Drawn up at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787, the Constitution was signed on Sept. 17, 1787, and ... CE5 Constitution of the United States, document embodying the fundamental principles upon which the American republic is ... Our editors update and regularly refine this enormous body of information to bring you reliable information. ... entitled Text of the Constitution of the United States. that accompanies this article for the text of the Constitution. ). ...
"J. Sprole Lyons Heads Decatur School Body". The Atlanta Constitution. Georgia, Atlanta. May 11, 1933. p. 15. Retrieved June 22, ... "The Atlanta Constitution. Georgia, Atlanta. March 5, 1932. p. 20. Retrieved June 22, 2018 - via Newspapers.com.. ... "The Atlanta Constitution. Georgia, Atlanta. May 6, 1933. p. 11. Retrieved June 22, 2018 - via Newspapers.com.. ...
Text; Format: print Publication details: Geneva : World Health Organization, 2001Other title: ICF , International classification of functioning and disability : ICIDH-2.Title translated: Classification internationale du fonctionnement, du handicap et de la santé : CIF; Clasificación internacional del funcionamiento de la discapacidad y de la salud : CIF.Online access: Click here to access online , Click here to access online , Click here to access online , Click here to access online , Click here to access online , Click here to access online , Click here to access online , Click here to access online , Click here to access online , Click here to access online , Click here to access online Availability: Items available for loan: WHO HQ (3)Call number: W 15 2001IN, ... Items available for reference: WHO HQ: Not For Loan (2)Call number: W 15 2001IN KOR, ... ...
Most ideal body constitution. Individuals who have a neutral body constitution are generally blessed with a strong physique, ... Special Constitution. Individuals who have a qi-deficient body constitution tend to be highly sensitive to medications, food, ... Body Constitution basically refers to the individuals body composition and condition such that every individual is different ... After reading through these 9 types of body constitutions, you should be equipped with the fundamental knowledge of our body ...
  • Drawn up at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787, the Constitution was signed on Sept. 17, 1787, and ratified by the required number of states (nine) by June 21, 1788. (infoplease.com)
  • But let s ask what the politicians pushing the new constitution of 1787 i.e., the Federalists promised as the benefits of the new constitution. (freedom4um.com)
  • The enormous state that has grown out of the constitution of 1787 has indeed rendered invasion by foreign powers virtually impossible. (freedom4um.com)
  • Put to one side that the Constitution has not "endured for 220 years," unless one recognizes, as Joyce Appleby once put it, that it was "in the shop" over a decade in the 1860s, not least because the bad brakes and slick tires built into the original 1787 Constitution in fact helped drive us over a cliff, as Mark Graber has demonstrated in his magnificent book on Dred Scott. (blogspot.com)
  • Body Constitution is the individual's body condition that makes an individual susceptible to certain diseases but not others. (pulsetcm.sg)
  • Body Constitution basically refers to the individual's body composition and condition such that every individual is different in terms of physical, physiological, and psychological functions. (syoujin.sg)
  • Over the years of practice, we discovered that there are five main types of body constitutions found in overweight customers: Yang deficiency constitution, phlegm-damp constitution, damp-heat constitution, qi-stagnation constitution, and blood stasis constitution. (spachina.com)
  • Yang nature represents motion, heat, brightness, expansion and vital energy of the body. (mynooci.hk)
  • In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), yang deficiency is one of nine body constitutions - a unique combination of structural, physiological, and psychological features. (mynooci.hk)
  • Individuals who have a yang-deficient body constitution are more sensitive to the cold. (syoujin.sg)
  • For more information on the global governing bodies, kindly visit the following link . (who.int)
  • Dampness flows throughout the body with the meridians, breeding a variety of chronic diseases, including obesity. (spachina.com)
  • As the dampness flows throughout the body with the meridians, it makes the whole body or certain parts of the body overweight. (spachina.com)
  • Individuals who have a phlegm and dampness body constitution are usually overweight, have heavy limbs, and may be sweating profusely. (syoujin.sg)
  • ISLAMABAD: Parliament is the Supreme Body under Constitution having sole right to legislate, whereas Supreme Court has the power to interpret the legislation under the provisions of constitution. (thefrontierpost.com)
  • In the Republic of Paraguay the sovereignty rests with the people, who exercise it in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution. (unibe.ch)
  • 4) The provisions of this section shall be so construed as to secure for municipalities the broad exercise of home rule powers granted by the constitution. (fl.us)
  • An examination of the Tennessee Constitution in this context may also be useful in the general debate over the meaning of the Second Amendment to the Federal Constitution. (guncite.com)
  • [6] A discussion of the right to bear arms, as is true with a discussion of any state constitutional provision, tends to call up thoughts of the corresponding provision in the Federal Constitution. (guncite.com)
  • [10] Whatever the merits of this "collective right" argument in the context of the Federal Constitution, [11] it is unpersuasive in the context of the Tennessee provision for two reasons. (guncite.com)
  • All are considered autonomous bodies by the Federal Constitution of 1988 and none have authority over the others. (cdc.gov)
  • Body Constitution" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (childrensmercy.org)
  • Partial correlation coefficients (r) were calculated to compare the relationship of change in S(I) from baseline to 5 years later (DeltaS(I)) with baseline waist circumference (waist) as a measure of abdominal obesity and body mass index (BMI) as a measure of overall obesity. (nih.gov)
  • We examined whether central adiposity and metabolic markers explain the association of body mass index (BMI as kg/m(2)) with abnormal serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity in a national, population-based study. (nih.gov)
  • VIII of the State Constitution, municipalities shall have the governmental, corporate, and proprietary powers to enable them to conduct municipal government, perform municipal functions, and render municipal services, and may exercise any power for municipal purposes, except when expressly prohibited by law. (fl.us)
  • It is the further intent of the Legislature to extend to municipalities the exercise of powers for municipal governmental, corporate, or proprietary purposes not expressly prohibited by the constitution, general or special law, or county charter and to remove any limitations, judicially imposed or otherwise, on the exercise of home rule powers other than those so expressly prohibited. (fl.us)
  • Individuals who have a neutral body constitution are generally blessed with a strong physique, stable emotions, and a cheerful disposition. (syoujin.sg)
  • For a more in depth understanding of the document and the actions prior to, and after, its enactment please see the Civil Constitution of the Clergy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The doshas, Vata, Pitta, and Kapha are the basis for understanding our mind/body type. (farmtrue.com)
  • Understanding your body constitution and adopting the relevant lifestyle changes can help you achieve optimal health and prevent diseases. (syoujin.sg)
  • when conceiving the interlocutions, it is understood that the objectification of the body envisions the intentionality of returning to the jovial physical body and when considering self-knowledge, appreciation of your body and the experience of corporeity, a better understanding of yourself and the other is possible through intersubjectivity that contributes to the unveiling of changes in the being itself. (bvsalud.org)
  • Adopted in 1977, the new Constitution of the USSR (the Brezhnev Constitution - after the name of the country's leader at that time) preserved the procedure of exercising constitutional control and concretely pointed out this function in the list of the powers of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. (pravda.ru)
  • to vest legislative, judicial, and executive powers in one and the same body of men, and that, too, in a body daily changing its members, can never be wise. (famousamericans.net)
  • We need only look around us to see how the federal government taxes, regulates, spies, sues, and imprisons countless Americans with federal powers that are in no way authorized in the constitution itself. (freedom4um.com)
  • Each monograph describes the form of government and outlines the workings of the central state powers and of administrative bodies. (lu.se)
  • Individuals who have a qi-stagnation body constitution are often easily stressed and prone to depression. (syoujin.sg)
  • It was no coincidence with Lerner that an American culture so influenced by Protestant Christianity would fix on the Constitution: "The very habits of mind begotten by an authoritarian Bible and a religion of submission to a higher power have been carried over to an authoritarian Constitution and a philosophy of submission to a higher law. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The referendum on December 12th 1993 approved the new Constitution of the Russian Federation, a fundamental law of the state, one of the most important democractic institutions. (pravda.ru)
  • Constitution of the United States, document embodying the fundamental principles upon which the American republic is conducted. (infoplease.com)
  • After reading through these 9 types of body constitutions, you should be equipped with the fundamental knowledge of our body constitutions. (syoujin.sg)
  • In 1993 first President of Russia Boris Yeltsin convened the Constitutional Conference to work out a new Constitution. (pravda.ru)
  • Constitutions, referendums and the family' will take the form of a discussion on the recent changes to the conception of the family in Irish law due to recent constitutional amendments and legislative changes. (ria.ie)
  • While this 'conveniently accounted for' the original constitutions establishing the three colonies/dominions, it bequeathed difficulties for the ultimate granting of constitutional independence. (nzlii.org)
  • On the Left, claims of constitutional failure generally revolve around the idea that the constitution doesn t empower the federal government enough. (freedom4um.com)
  • For example, Chris Edelson of the American Constitutional Society believes the constitution has failed because the US government hasn t done enough about global warming and racial injustice. (freedom4um.com)
  • Constitutional Issues: Watergate and the Constitution. (archives.gov)
  • Body constitution means the relatively stable individualized characteristics of morphological structure, physiological function, and mental state. (spachina.com)
  • The lawsuit contends Trump is ineligible to run for the White House again under a rarely used clause in the U.S. Constitution aimed at candidates who have supported an "insurrection. (wspa.com)
  • DENVER (AP) - A liberal group on Wednesday filed a lawsuit to bar former President Donald Trump from the primary ballot in Colorado, arguing he is ineligible to run for the White House again under a rarely used clause in the U.S. Constitution aimed at candidates who have supported an "insurrection. (wspa.com)
  • Liberal groups have demanded that states' top election officials bar Trump under the clause that prohibits those who "engaged in an insurrection or rebellion" against the Constitution from holding higher office. (wspa.com)
  • Section Three of the 14th Amendment prohibits those who swore an oath to uphold the Constitution and then "engaged in insurrection" against it from holding higher office. (nbc4i.com)
  • T he death of Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia has roused debate about the role of the Constitution of the United States. (thetrumpet.com)
  • In the case of state constitutions, two important articles started the trend: one by Justice Hans Linde, of the Oregon Supreme Court, [1] and one by Justice William J. Brennan Jr., of the United States Supreme Court. (guncite.com)
  • What, then, is genuinely learned by reference to Constitution "worship" or comparing the Supreme Court to the Vatican? (encyclopedia.com)
  • The referendum on the new Constitution was held on December 12, 1993, simultaneously with the election of the legislative body of Russia - the Federal Assembly. (pravda.ru)
  • TASHKENT -- Early voting has started in Uzbekistan in a referendum on a new constitution that would allow 65-year-old President Shavkat Mirziyoev to run again and opens the way for him to retain power until 2040. (rferl.org)
  • From its very beginnings, the Constitution has been subject to stormy controversies, not only in interpretation of some of its phrases, but also between the "loose constructionists" and "strict constructionists. (infoplease.com)
  • Can an employee on an aerial lift continue to use a body belt if the body belt is used to restrain the employee from falling rather than arresting a fall, such as with a personal fall arrest system? (osha.gov)
  • On the other hand, many classical liberals (i.e., libertarians) have declared the constitution a failure because it has failed to restrain the US government from violating human rights such as life and property. (freedom4um.com)
  • When it comes to the Constitution s ability to restrain government power, it is apparent that the text of the document is insufficient to counter efforts to empower the federal government rather than limit it. (freedom4um.com)
  • Article I, section 3, clause 7 of the Constitution provides that a person removed from office by impeachment and conviction "shall nevertheless be liable to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to the Law. (archives.gov)
  • I have no problem with the Equal Protection Clause, the Due Process Clause, or the other such "open-textured" parts of the Constitution. (blogspot.com)
  • Rather, the provision is aimed at the "citizens of this State," which seems to rule out any sort of governmental body. (guncite.com)
  • 27 amendments have been adopted (see the table entitled Text of the Constitution of the United States that accompanies this article for the text of the Constitution ). (infoplease.com)
  • [2] In the case of the right to bear arms, the initial article was Sanford Levinson's The Embarrassing Second Amendment , [3] which concluded--perhaps surprisingly in light of its author's left-leaning stance--that the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution must be taken seriously, even by those of us in legal academia, despite a fairly widespread desire to wish it away. (guncite.com)
  • Perhaps the most important scholarly formulation of the role played by the Constitution within what later scholars would come to call the American civil religion was Max Lerner's 1937 article "Constitution and Court as Symbols. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Constitution itself, in Article VI, even as it prohibits religious tests for public office, formally requires all public officials to take an oath recognizing the supremacy of the Constitution over alternate sources of political authority. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The main functions of the Regional Committee include formulating regional policies and supervising the regional office as set out in Article 50 of the WHO Constitution. (who.int)
  • At the demand of the Central Executive Committee, conclusions were given on the legality of the acts of the bodies of power of the Union Republics, and judicial controversies between the Union Republics were settled. (pravda.ru)
  • Here, we note a paradox: dominant fictional bodies are considered more legitimate than real bodies, and serve as the basis upon which norms and practices are determined. (thefunambulist.net)
  • d) Perform a periodic review of actual agency body camera practices to ensure conformity with the agency's policies and procedures. (fl.us)
  • body cavity search. (fl.us)
  • 4) Any body cavity search must be performed under sanitary conditions. (fl.us)
  • Results of search for 'su:{Body constitution. (who.int)
  • The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Differences in somatotype, body constitution and motoric tests relate with characteristics of training and use of specific training methods. (ua.es)
  • However, in TCM, we relate it to one's body constitution. (spachina.com)
  • Naturally, our body constitution comes largely at birth from our parents. (syoujin.sg)
  • The answer depends largely on the one claiming the constitution has failed. (freedom4um.com)
  • Chapter 1 of the Vermont Constitution is a bill of rights, or, as the Constitution itself says, 'A Declaration of the Rights of the Inhabitants of the State of Vermont. (usconstitution.net)
  • Though not all the factors that contribute to your body constitution are changeable, once you know which type you are, you'll know how to ease your discomfort from the root. (mynooci.hk)
  • Both houses of this Parliament will have to approve the constitution. (nelsonmandela.org)
  • A third possibility, to which the S A Government would now give preference, is to charge the envisaged elected and bicameral transitional Parliament contained in its transitional proposals, also with the task of constitution-making. (nelsonmandela.org)
  • The Constitution of the USSR, adopted in 1936 (called the Stalin Constitution - after the name of the head of the state - Joseph Stalin), finally established the priority of the federal legislation over republican. (pravda.ru)
  • d) A provision permitting a law enforcement officer using a body camera to review the recorded footage from the body camera, upon his or her own initiative or request, before writing a report or providing a statement regarding any event arising within the scope of his or her official duties. (fl.us)
  • Footage from the body camera he was wearing that day was shown in court. (nbc4i.com)
  • This is very rare with this day and age as there are so many internal and external factors that throw our bodies off such as environmental, eating habits, exercise or lack of and mental states. (theacupunctureroom.ca)
  • The second approach which we initially preferred, is to have a multi party conference as the constitution making body deciding by consensus, e.g. this conference Codesa itself or some multi-party body set up by Codesa and representative of all parties having a meaningful support base. (nelsonmandela.org)
  • It is often assumed that I have no regular social life, because disabled bodies are so rarely seen in the outside world. (thefunambulist.net)
  • My body is not an assigned role. (thefunambulist.net)
  • For almost all the persons mentioned and many others besides, the lesson has to do with the central role of the Constitution, as declared by the Court, in providing the basis of national unity. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Individuals who have a blood stasis body constitution tend to lack lustre on their skin, often appearing with dark eye circles, a dull complexion and skin pigmentation issues. (syoujin.sg)
  • The term "Super-Organism" was coined to describe humans as a result of characterization of the breadth and diversity of microbes that live on the external surface as well as in the blood, tissues, and cells of the human body. (cdc.gov)
  • Spleen's main function is to absorb and transport liquid inside the body. (spachina.com)
  • The Civil Constitution of the Clergy's main accomplishment was placing the church under the state, this document outlines the rules and regulations the Clergy had to follow. (wikipedia.org)
  • In social space, bodies are described in certain manners: there are hegemonic manners of perceiving and describing bodies, and there are hegemonic fictional bodies, which we call "corporal scripts. (thefunambulist.net)
  • Therefore, we are led to conclude that spatiality and architecture actually contribute to creating these fictional bodies, and in turn their corresponding corporal scripts. (thefunambulist.net)
  • The amendments changing the constitution, initiated by Mirziyoev last year and approved by lawmakers in March, are expected to be backed by a majority of voters in the tightly controlled former Soviet republic, which, according to Uzbek officials, will 'nullify' Mirziyoev's previous and current terms, allowing him to run for another two consecutive terms. (rferl.org)
  • According to Uzbek lawmakers, the amendments will change about two-thirds of the constitution, with the number of articles in the document rising to 155 from 128. (rferl.org)
  • The Constitution of the Russian Federation was adopted in the difficult transitory period for the country and became one of the most important factors of the stabilisation of new state and economic structures. (pravda.ru)
  • She's talking about one aspect of our Constitution, but, just as surely, she ignores another, what I now believe at least equally (and, if truth be known, more) important aspect. (blogspot.com)
  • The more important problem is that the Constitution does most certainly does not consist only of "majestic generalities. (blogspot.com)
  • The original constitution was modeled after that of Pennsylvania, written by Benjamin Franklin. (usconstitution.net)
  • The law will regulate the freedom to dispose ones own body, but only for scientific or medical purposes. (unibe.ch)
  • 1) No one will be deprived of his physical freedom or taken to court, except under causes and conditions established by this Constitution and the law. (unibe.ch)
  • In truth, America's Constitution has given more freedom to more people than any other government charter in history. (thetrumpet.com)
  • When it comes to the matter of freedom, of course, the record is even worse, and the constitution has been used to justify countless assaults on liberty from Japanese internment to unleashing armies of spies against the American people. (freedom4um.com)
  • They often present with a dull complexion, spots on the face, dark-red lips, dark circles under eyes, lusterless or rough skin, unknown bruise on the body surface, and varicose veins. (theacupunctureroom.ca)
  • The wording of the Constitution is general, necessitating interpretation, and any short summary is only rough and approximate. (infoplease.com)
  • It is constituted as a social state of law, which is unitary, indivisible, and decentralized as prescribed by this Constitution and the laws. (unibe.ch)
  • Under this Constitution, the supreme body of state power was the Congress of the Soviets of the USSR, and in the periods between its session - the Central Executive Committee (TsIK) of the USSR, and in periods between its sessions - the Plenum of the TsIK of the USSR. (pravda.ru)
  • The Constitution of 1993 substantially changed the structure of the supreme bodies of state power and took a serious step towards perfecting the federal system in Russia. (pravda.ru)
  • 3. The Italian province of Carnaro is a State chosen by the people which has for basis the power of productive labour and for constitution the widest and most varied forms of autonomy such as were in use during the four centuries of our glorious communal period. (wikisource.org)
  • In other words, appealing to the text of the Constitution to claim illegitimacy for the latest government power grab is pointless and irrelevant to the task of actually limiting the power of the state. (freedom4um.com)
  • The Vermont Constitution is the basic law for the state of Vermont. (usconstitution.net)
  • Chapter 2 of the constitution is the framework of the government of the state, establishing the three branches of government and their members. (usconstitution.net)
  • Support the constitution that is decreed by the National Assembly and accepted by the king. (wikipedia.org)
  • a) "Body camera" means a portable electronic recording device that is worn on a law enforcement officer's person that records audio and video data of the officer's law-enforcement-related encounters and activities. (fl.us)
  • Heidi Schreck's What the Constitution Means to Me was the hit of the fall season and we've moved it across town to the GREENWICH HOUSE THEATER (27 Barrow Street) to run for FIVE MORE WEEKS! (nytw.org)
  • To enable more young people to see What the Constitution Means to Me , the front row at every performance will be available for $30 for audiences 30 and under. (nytw.org)
  • What the Constitution Means to Me was commissioned by True Love Productions. (nytw.org)
  • To the extent that [any duty of a Roman Catholic] conflicts with what I think the Constitution means or requires, then my religious beliefs have to give way. (encyclopedia.com)
  • They promised three things: that the constitution would ensure the government would respect the freedoms of the citizenry, that it would provide a means of keeping the peace among the member states, and that it would provide a strong military defense. (freedom4um.com)
  • Therefore, this paper aims to discuss parenting and construction of body image in situations of physical disability. (bvsalud.org)
  • The physical measurements of a body. (bvsalud.org)
  • Our editors update and regularly refine this enormous body of information to bring you reliable information. (infoplease.com)
  • the controlling functions were concentrated in the supreme body of Soviet power. (pravda.ru)
  • Under the Constitution of the RSFSR, the supreme body of power in the country was the All-Russia Congress of Soviets, and in the periods between its session - the All-Russia Central Executive Committee (VTsIK - Russian abbreviation). (pravda.ru)
  • The Congress of the Soviets could annul any legal act of any body of power which contradicted the Constitution or the legal acts of the Congress of the Soviets. (pravda.ru)
  • Every American should be concerned about this because the Constitution was written by men who had escaped tyranny, who well knew the dangers of government having too much power. (thetrumpet.com)
  • a) General guidelines for the proper use, maintenance, and storage of body cameras. (fl.us)
  • e) General guidelines for the proper storage, retention, and release of audio and video data recorded by body cameras. (fl.us)
  • The Constitution is concise, and its very brevity and its general statement of principles have, by accident more than by design, made possible the extension of meaning that has fostered growth. (infoplease.com)
  • In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), body constitution is a basic concept used to diagnose ailments and provide suitable treatments. (syoujin.sg)
  • For example, female bodies are often described as mothers or sexual objects: they are configured as people who stays indoors, which leads to particularly violent interactions when women make use of public space. (thefunambulist.net)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Body Constitution" by people in this website by year, and whether "Body Constitution" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Body Constitution" by people in Profiles. (childrensmercy.org)
  • The S A Government has, however, for long been on record as being against this approach which reduces the importance of a negotiating process, with multiparty involvement, in working out a constitution representative of the people on a truly broad basis. (nelsonmandela.org)
  • People who belong to this body constitution usually have a thin physique, and don't respond well to stressful situations. (syoujin.sg)
  • She conflated constitutionalism with racism, saying: "The people vowing to protect the Constitution are vowing to protect white supremacy and genocide. (thetrumpet.com)
  • Individuals who have a qi-deficient body constitution tend to be more feeble, prone to fatigue and shortness of breath, and may easily catch the common flu. (syoujin.sg)
  • Individuals who have a yin-deficient body constitution are likely to adapt poorly to hot and dry environments, and may be more prone to constipation, warm palms and soles, and dry nose or mouth. (syoujin.sg)
  • Individuals who have a damp-heat body constitution lean towards oily skin and susceptibility to acne, jaundice, and ailments with heat symptoms. (syoujin.sg)
  • Individuals who have a qi-deficient body constitution tend to be highly sensitive to medications, food, smell, and are vulnerable to nasal and skin allergies for example, blocked nose and rashes. (syoujin.sg)
  • Others with responsibility for editing (e.g. technical or copy editors) or working on a peer-reviewed medical journal, or working in any branch of scientific communication in the Region, individuals representing scientific publications or publishing bodies in the Region, and scientists, researchers, academics and faculty members in the Region are eligible for associate membership. (who.int)
  • In simple terms, body constitution is decided by both congenital and acquired factors. (spachina.com)
  • 4) Chapter 934 does not apply to body camera recordings made by law enforcement agencies that elect to use body cameras. (fl.us)
  • The Human Microbiome Project, a NIH initiative to understand the complexity, constitution, and diversity of microbes living on and in the human body, was recently completed in 2012. (cdc.gov)
  • They often present with an oily face that erupts acne or pimple frequently, a bitter or strength taste in the mouth, fatigue or heaviness of the body, uncompleted feeling after defecation or dry stools, yellow urine, excess vaginal discharges in female, wet scrota in male, and a yellow and greasy tongue coating. (theacupunctureroom.ca)
  • After Congress and now the judiciary today folded on the government nationalization of Chryser, I am beginning to wonder whether the Constitution has any meaning at all. (blogspot.com)