The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The two types of spaces between which water and other body fluids are distributed: extracellular and intracellular.
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.
A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.
The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.
The consumption of edible substances.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Progressive decline in muscle mass due to aging which results in decreased functional capacity of muscles.
Glucose in blood.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.
Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.
The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)
Activation analysis in which the specimen is bombarded with neutrons. Identification is made by measuring the resulting radioisotopes. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The physical measurements of a body.
Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.
The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.
Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.
Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.
Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
An eating disorder that is characterized by the lack or loss of APPETITE, known as ANOREXIA. Other features include excess fear of becoming OVERWEIGHT; BODY IMAGE disturbance; significant WEIGHT LOSS; refusal to maintain minimal normal weight; and AMENORRHEA. This disorder occurs most frequently in adolescent females. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
Particular categories of body build, determined on the basis of certain physical characteristics. The three basic body types are ectomorph (thin physique), endomorph (rounded physique), and mesomorph (athletic physique).
General ill health, malnutrition, and weight loss, usually associated with chronic disease.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.
Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
A technique of measuring the dielectric properties of materials, which vary over a range of frequencies depending on the physical properties of the material. The technique involves measuring, over a range of frequencies, ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE and phase shift of an electric field as it passes through the material.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Freedom from activity.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.
The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.
An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.
The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
Disturbances in the body's WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Unstable isotopes of potassium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. K atoms with atomic weights 37, 38, 40, and 42-45 are radioactive potassium isotopes.
The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.
Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.
Force exerted when gripping or grasping.
Abstaining from all food.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Individuals who have developed skills, physical stamina and strength or participants in SPORTS or other physical activities.
Defective metabolism leading to fat maldistribution in patients infected with HIV. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and probably involves some combination of infection-induced alterations in metabolism, direct effects of antiretroviral therapy, and patient-related factors.
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
The two dimensional measure of the outer layer of the body.
The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES, as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease in animals.
A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.
The administration of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient by means other than normal eating. It does not include FLUID THERAPY which normalizes body fluids to restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An infant during the first month after birth.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.
The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.
Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.
The lack of sufficient energy or protein to meet the body's metabolic demands, as a result of either an inadequate dietary intake of protein, intake of poor quality dietary protein, increased demands due to disease, or increased nutrient losses.
Involuntary weight loss of greater than 10 percent associated with intermittent or constant fever and chronic diarrhea or fatigue for more than 30 days in the absence of a defined cause other than HIV infection. A constant feature is major muscle wasting with scattered myofiber degeneration. A variety of etiologies, which vary among patients, contributes to this syndrome. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, p1611).
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.
The first meal of the day.
A collective term for a group of around nine geometric and positional isomers of LINOLEIC ACID in which the trans/cis double bonds are conjugated, where double bonds alternate with single bonds.
The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.
A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN in the region of the ABDOMEN.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.
Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.
An autosomal dominant disorder caused by deletion of the proximal long arm of the paternal chromosome 15 (15q11-q13) or by inheritance of both of the pair of chromosomes 15 from the mother (UNIPARENTAL DISOMY) which are imprinted (GENETIC IMPRINTING) and hence silenced. Clinical manifestations include MENTAL RETARDATION; MUSCULAR HYPOTONIA; HYPERPHAGIA; OBESITY; short stature; HYPOGONADISM; STRABISMUS; and HYPERSOMNOLENCE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p229)
These compounds stimulate anabolism and inhibit catabolism. They stimulate the development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A condition of involuntary weight loss of greater then 10% of baseline body weight. It is characterized by atrophy of muscles and depletion of lean body mass. Wasting is a sign of MALNUTRITION as a result of inadequate dietary intake, malabsorption, or hypermetabolism.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

Long-term effects of growth hormone (GH) on body fluid distribution in GH deficient adults: a four months double blind placebo controlled trial. (1/7737)

OBJECTIVE: Short-term growth hormone (GH) treatment normalises body fluid distribution in adult GH deficient patients, but the impact of long-term treatment on body fluid homeostasis has hitherto not been thoroughly examined in placebo controlled trials. To investigate if the water retaining effect of GH persists for a longer time we examined the impact of 4 months GH treatment on extracellular volume (ECV) and plasma volume (PV) in GH deficient adults. DESIGN: Twenty-four (18 male, 6 female) adult GH deficient patients aged 25-64 years were included and received either GH (n=11) or placebo (n=13) in a double blind parallel design. METHODS: Before and at the end of each 4 month period ECV and PV were assessed directly using 82Br- and 125I-albumin respectively, and blood samples were obtained. RESULTS: During GH treatment ECV increased significantly (before: 20.48+/-0.99 l, 4 months: 23.77+/-1.38 l (P<0.01)), but remained unchanged during placebo administration (before: 16.92+/-1.01 l, 4 months: 17.60+/-1.24 l (P=0.37)). The difference between the groups was significant (P<0.05). GH treatment also increased PV (before: 3.39+/-0.27 l. 4 months: 3.71+/-0.261 (P=0.01)), although an insignificant increase in the placebo treated patients (before: 2.81+/-0.18 l, 4 months: 2.89+/-0.20 l (P=0.37)) resulted in an insignificant treatment effect (P=0.07). Serum insulin-like growth factor-I increased significantly during GH treatment and was not affected by placebo treatment. Plasma renin (mIU/l) increased during GH administration (before: 14.73+/-2.16, 4 months: 26.00+/-6.22 (P=0.03)) and remained unchanged following placebo (before: 20.77+/-5.13, 4 months: 20.69+/-6.67 (P=0.99)) leaving no significant treatment effect (P=0.08). CONCLUSION: The long-term impact of GH treatment on body fluid distribution in adult GH deficient patients involves expansion of ECV and probably also PV. These data substantiate the role of GH as a regulator of fluid homeostasis in adult GH deficiency.  (+info)

Changes in body composition and leptin levels during growth hormone (GH) treatment in short children with various GH secretory capacities. (2/7737)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to follow changes in body composition, estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), in relation to changes in leptin during the first year of GH therapy in order to test the hypothesis that leptin is a metabolic signal involved in the regulation of GH secretion in children. DESIGN AND METHODS: In total, 33 prepubertal children were investigated. Their mean (S.D.) chronological age at the start of GH treatment was 11.5 (1.6) years, and their mean height was -2.33 (0.38) S.D. scores (SDS). GH was administered subcutaneously at a daily dose of 0.1 (n=26) or 0.2 (n=7) IU/kg body weight. Ten children were in the Swedish National Registry for children with GH deficiency, and twenty-three children were involved in trials of GH treatment for idiopathic short stature. Spontaneous 24-h GH secretion was studied in 32 of the children. In the 24-h GH profiles, the maximum level of GH was determined and the secretion rate estimated by deconvolution analysis (GHt). Serum leptin levels were measured at the start of GH treatment and after 10 and 30 days and 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment. Body composition measurements, by DXA, were performed at baseline and 12 months after the onset of GH treatment. RESULTS: After 12 months of GH treatment, mean height increased from -2.33 to -1.73 SDS and total body fat decreased significantly by 3.0 (3.3)%. Serum leptin levels were decreased significantly at all time points studied compared with baseline. There was a significant correlation between the change in total body fat and the change in serum leptin levels during the 12 months of GH treatment, whereas the leptin concentration per unit fat mass did not change. In a multiple stepwise linear regression analysis with 12 month change in leptin levels as the dependent variable, the percentage change in fat over 12 months, the baseline fat mass (%) of body mass and GHt accounted for 24.0%, 11.5% and 12.2% of the variability respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant correlations between changes in leptin and fat and endogenous GH secretion in short children with various GH secretory capacities. Leptin may be the messenger by which the adipose tissue affects hypothalamic regulation of GH secretion.  (+info)

Influences of low intensity exercise on body composition, food intake and aerobic power of sedentary young females. (3/7737)

The present study was designed to investigate the influences of aerobic training on the body composition, aerobic power and food intake of sedentary young females in relation to the initial levels of these variables. Thirty one untrained college females (age = 19.8 +/- 0.2 yr, stature = 154.4 +/- 0.8 cm, body mass = 53.3 +/- 1.2 kg, mean +/- SEM) participated in an exercise regimen consisting of 40% of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) for 30 minutes per day on a bicycle ergometer 5 times a week in a training period of 12 weeks. Food consumption was ad libitum but the content of daily food intake was recorded accurately throughout the whole training period and analyzed weekly. The average body mass index (BMI) and fat mass relative to body mass (% FM), estimated from the data of skinfold thickness, decreased significantly after the 12 wk training. There were significant negative correlations between the relative changes (% delta s) and initial levels of both body mass (r = -0.447, p < 0.05) and fat mass (r = -0.638, p < 0.05), but the corresponding correlation for lean body mass (LBM) was not significant (r = 0.186, p > 0.05). While the energy intake during the training period did not differ significantly from that during the control period on the average, the % delta value in energy intake between the two periods was negatively correlated to the energy intake during the control period (r = -0.604, p < 0.05). In addition, there were low but significant negative correlations between both the initial levels of BMI and %FM and % delta in energy intake; r = -0.413 (p < 0.05) for BMI and r = -0.393 (p < 0.05) for %FM. However, no significant correlations were found between % delta in energy intake and those in body composition variables (r = 0.116 to 0.237, p > 0.05). On the average VO2max relative to body mass (VO2max/BM) increased significantly, but VO2max relative to LBM (VO2max/LBM) did not. However, not only VO2max/BM but also VO2max/LBM was negatively correlated to the initial level; r = -0.671 (p < 0.05) for VO2max/BM and r = -0.625 for VO2max/LBM. Thus, the present results indicate that whether the body composition, food intake and aerobic power of sedentary young females can be modified by the exercise regimen eliciting 40% of VO2max depends on their initial levels.  (+info)

Gender-specific differences in dialysis quality (Kt/V): 'big men' are at risk of inadequate haemodialysis treatment. (4/7737)

BACKGROUND: Inadequate dialysis dose is closely related to mortality and morbidity of maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) patients. According to the DOQI guidelines a minimum prescribed dialysis dose of single-pool Kt/V (Kt/Vsp)=1.3, equivalent to equilibrated double pool Kt/V (e-Kt/Vdp)=1.1, is recommended. Knowledge of patient-related risk factors for inadequate delivery of hacmodialysis would be helpful to select patient subgroups for intensive control ofdialysis adequacy. METHODS: A retrospective survey was conducted to assess the prevalence of inadequate dialysis dose according to DOQI criteria during a 7-month period. A total of 320 e-Kt/Vdp measurements in 62 MHD patients were evaluated (mean effective dialysis time 222+/-32 min). Residual renal function (RRF) was expressed as renal weekly Kt/V (r-Kt/Vweek) and included into assessment of total weekly renal and dialytic Kt/V (t-Kt/Vweek). RESULTS: Inadequacy (e-Kt/Vdp<1.10) was prevalent in 37.2% of all measurements and in 22/62 patients (35.5%). In 54% of underdialysed patients r-Kt/Vweek compensated for insufficient dialytic urea removal. Mean weekly Kt/V was inadequate (t-Kt/Vweek<3.30) in 12/62 patients (19.4%) of whom 91.7% (11/12) were male. Body-weight, urea distribution volume (UDV). and body-surface area (BSA) were significantly higher in inadequately is adequately dialysed males. UDV>42.0 litres or BSA>2.0 m2 and a lack of RRF (r-Kt/Vweek<0.3) put 'big men' at increased risk to receive an inadequate dose of dialysis. CONCLUSION: Our data identify patients at risk for inadequate haemodialysis treatment. Special attention should be focused on 'big men' with UDV>42.0 litres or BSA>2.0 m2. In this subset of patients frequent measurements of t-Kt/Vweek and assessment of RRF should be mandatory.  (+info)

Near infra-red interactance for nutritional assessment of dialysis patients. (5/7737)

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is a common problem in dialysis patients and may affect up to one-third of patients. Near-infrared interactance (NIR) is a novel approach to estimate body composition and per cent total body fat. METHODS: We used near-infrared interactance (Futrex 5000) to estimate the body composition including body fat percentage, as well as subjective global assessment (SGA), anthropometric measurements including mid-arm circumference (MAC), triceps and biceps skinfold thickness, calculated mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), body mass index (BMI), and laboratory values. NIR score, SGA assessment and anthropometric parameters were measured shortly after the end of a dialysis session. NIR measurement was made by placing a Futrex sensor on the nonaccess upper arm for several seconds. Serum albumin, transferrin (reflected by total iron binding capacity), and total cholesterol concentrations were performed as well. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients (20 men and 14 women) were selected from a pool of 120 haemodialysis patients. Their ages ranged from 26 to 86 years (58+/-14 years). Time on dialysis ranged from 8 months to 19 years (4.5+/-4.6 years). NIR scores were significantly different in three SGA groups: (A) well-nourished, 32.5+/-6.9%; (B) mildly to moderately malnourished, 29.2+/-5.3%; and (C) severely malnourished, 23.2+/-10.2% (P<0.001). Pearson correlation coefficients (r) between the NIR score and nutritionally relevant parameters were significant (P<0.001) for body mass index (r=+0.81), mid-arm circumference (r=+0.74), triceps skin fold (r=+0.54), biceps skin fold (r=+0.55), and mid-arm muscle circumference (r=+0.54). An inverse correlation was also found between NIR and years dialysed (r=-0.49, P=0.004), denoting a lesser body fat percentage according to NIR for patients dialysed longer. NIR was correlated with serum transferrin (r=+0.41, P=0.016) and cholesterol (r=+0.39, P=0.022) and marginally with serum albumin (r=+0.29, P=0.097). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that NIR, which can be performed within seconds, may serve as an objective indicator of nutritional status in haemodialysis patients. More comparative and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the validity of NIR measurements in nutritional evaluation of dialysis patients.  (+info)

Utilization of bioelectrical impedance to predict carcass composition of Holstein steers at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age. (6/7737)

The objective of this experiment was to study the usefulness of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in determining soft tissue composition (STC) and carcass fat-free mass (CFFM) of Holstein steers at different ages. Growth data and prediction of STC and CFFM were determined for four groups of Holstein steers: 12 of 3 mo, 12 of 6 mo, 15 of 9 mo, and 16 of 12 mo of age. Average weight for animals at 3, 6, 9, and 12 mo were 96.6, 204.7, 354.1, and 465.9 kg, respectively. Average fat content of carcass soft tissue at 3, 6, 9, and 12 mo were 2.6, 9.8, 18.2, and 24.6%, respectively. Average protein content of the carcass soft tissue was 20.7% at 3 mo, 20% at 6 mo, 18.30% at 9 mo, and 16.9% at 12 mo of age. Feed and water were withheld for 20 h before the BIA was applied. Steers were sedated and forced to recumbency in a lateral position on their right sides over a nonconductive surface. Two electrodes were placed on each limb of the right side (metatarsal and metacarpal regions on back and front foot, respectively). Resistance (Rs) and reactance (Xc) were obtained by attaching four terminals to the electrodes. Impedance and other predictors such as Vol1 (L/Rs), Vol2 (L2/(RS2+Xc2).5, Vol3 (geometrical animal volume), L (2 x height + body length), and L2 were calculated from Rs and Xc, and body measurements and were used to generate prediction equations for CFFM and carcass soft tissue composition. Carcass fat-free mass was predicted accurately for all age groups and the pooled data (r2 = .99 at 3 mo, .99 at 6 mo, .97 at 9 mo, .77 at 12 mo, and .98 for the pooled data). Correlation coefficients between impedance readings and CFFM and carcass composition were calculated. Carcass CFFM and kilograms of H2O for the pooled data (across age groups) were both correlated highly to Vol1 (.97), Vol2 (.95), L (.97), and L2 (.97).  (+info)

African runners exhibit greater fatigue resistance, lower lactate accumulation, and higher oxidative enzyme activity. (7/7737)

Nine African and eight Caucasian 10-km runners resident at sea level volunteered. Maximal O2 consumption and peak treadmill velocity (PTV) were measured by using a progressive test, and fatigue resistance [time to fatigue (TTF)] was measured by using a newly developed high-intensity running test: 5 min at 72, 80, and 88% of individual PTV followed by 92% PTV to exhaustion. Skeletal muscle enzyme activities were determined in 12 runners and 12 sedentary control subjects. In a comparison of African and Caucasian runners, mean 10-km race time, maximal O2 consumption, and PTV were similar. In African runners, TTF was 21% longer (P < 0.01), plasma lactate accumulation after 5 min at 88% PTV was 38% lower (P < 0.05), and citrate synthase activity was 50% higher (27.9 +/- 7.5 vs. 18.6 +/- 2.1 micromol. g wet wt-1. min-1, P = 0.02). Africans accumulated lactate at a slower rate with increasing exercise intensity (P < 0.05). Among the entire group of runners, a higher citrate synthase activity was associated with a longer TTF (r = 0.70, P < 0.05), a lower plasma lactate accumulation (r = -0.73, P = 0.01), and a lower respiratory exchange ratio (r = -0.63, P < 0.05). We conclude that the African and Caucasian runners in the present study differed with respect to oxidative enzyme activity, rate of lactate accumulation, and their ability to sustain high-intensity endurance exercise.  (+info)

Effect of leptin deficiency on metabolic rate in ob/ob mice. (8/7737)

Reduced metabolic rate may contribute to weight gain in leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice; however, available studies have been criticized for referencing O2 consumption (VO2) to estimated rather than true lean body mass. To evaluate whether leptin deficiency reduces energy expenditure, four separate experiments were performed: 1) NMR spectroscopy was used to measure fat and nonfat mass, permitting VO2 to be referenced to true nonfat mass; 2) dietary manipulation was used in an attempt to eliminate differences in body weight and composition between ob/ob and C57BL/6J mice; 3) short-term effects of exogenous leptin (0.3 mg. kg-1. day-1) on VO2 were examined; and 4) body weight and composition were compared in leptin-repleted and pair-fed ob/ob animals. ob/ob animals had greater mass, less lean body mass, and a 10% higher metabolic rate when VO2 was referenced to lean mass. Dietary manipulation achieved identical body weight in ob/ob and C57BL/6J animals; however, despite weight gain in C57BL/6J animals, percent fat mass remained higher in ob/ob animals (55 vs. 30%). Exogenous leptin increased VO2 in ob/ob but not control animals. Weight loss in leptin-repleted ob/ob mice was greater than in pair-fed animals (45 vs. 17%). We conclude, on the basis of the observed increase in VO2 and accelerated weight loss seen with leptin repletion, that leptin deficiency causes a reduction in metabolic rate in ob/ob mice. In contrast, these physiological studies suggest that comparison of VO2 in obese and lean animals does not produce useful information on the contribution of leptin to metabolism.  (+info)

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

There are several different types of obesity, including:

1. Central obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
2. Peripheral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat in the hips, thighs, and arms.
3. Visceral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the internal organs in the abdominal cavity.
4. Mixed obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by both central and peripheral obesity.

Obesity can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lack of physical activity, poor diet, sleep deprivation, and certain medications. Treatment for obesity typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, such as increased physical activity and a healthy diet, and in some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to achieve weight loss.

Preventing obesity is important for overall health and well-being, and can be achieved through a variety of strategies, including:

1. Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is low in added sugars, saturated fats, and refined carbohydrates.
2. Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, jogging, or swimming.
3. Getting enough sleep each night.
4. Managing stress levels through relaxation techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing.
5. Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and quitting smoking.
6. Monitoring weight and body mass index (BMI) on a regular basis to identify any changes or potential health risks.
7. Seeking professional help from a healthcare provider or registered dietitian for personalized guidance on weight management and healthy lifestyle choices.

There are many different approaches to weight loss, and what works best for one person may not work for another. Some common strategies for weight loss include:

* Caloric restriction: Reducing daily caloric intake to create a calorie deficit that promotes weight loss.
* Portion control: Eating smaller amounts of food and avoiding overeating.
* Increased physical activity: Engaging in regular exercise, such as walking, running, swimming, or weightlifting, to burn more calories and build muscle mass.
* Behavioral modifications: Changing habits and behaviors related to eating and exercise, such as keeping a food diary or enlisting the support of a weight loss buddy.

Weight loss can have numerous health benefits, including:

* Improved blood sugar control
* Reduced risk of heart disease and stroke
* Lowered blood pressure
* Improved joint health and reduced risk of osteoarthritis
* Improved sleep quality
* Boosted mood and reduced stress levels
* Increased energy levels

However, weight loss can also be challenging, and it is important to approach it in a healthy and sustainable way. Crash diets and other extreme weight loss methods are not effective in the long term and can lead to nutrient deficiencies and other negative health consequences. Instead, it is important to focus on making sustainable lifestyle changes that can be maintained over time.

Some common misconceptions about weight loss include:

* All weight loss methods are effective for everyone.
* Weight loss should always be the primary goal of a fitness or health program.
* Crash diets and other extreme weight loss methods are a good way to lose weight quickly.
* Weight loss supplements and fad diets are a reliable way to achieve significant weight loss.

The most effective ways to lose weight and maintain weight loss include:

* Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is high in nutrient-dense foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats.
* Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, running, swimming, or weight training.
* Getting enough sleep and managing stress levels.
* Aiming for a gradual weight loss of 1-2 pounds per week.
* Focusing on overall health and wellness rather than just the number on the scale.

It is important to remember that weight loss is not always linear and can vary from week to week. It is also important to be patient and consistent with your weight loss efforts, as it can take time to see significant results.

Overall, weight loss can be a challenging but rewarding process, and it is important to approach it in a healthy and sustainable way. By focusing on overall health and wellness rather than just the number on the scale, you can achieve a healthy weight and improve your overall quality of life.

There are several different types of weight gain, including:

1. Clinical obesity: This is defined as a BMI of 30 or higher, and is typically associated with a range of serious health problems, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer.
2. Central obesity: This refers to excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
3. Muscle gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in muscle mass, rather than fat. This type of weight gain is generally considered healthy and can improve overall fitness and athletic performance.
4. Fat gain: This occurs when an individual gains weight due to an increase in body fat, rather than muscle or bone density. Fat gain can increase the risk of health problems such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes.

Weight gain can be measured using a variety of methods, including:

1. Body mass index (BMI): This is a widely used measure of weight gain that compares an individual's weight to their height. A BMI of 18.5-24.9 is considered normal, while a BMI of 25-29.9 is considered overweight, and a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese.
2. Waist circumference: This measures the distance around an individual's waistline and can be used to assess central obesity.
3. Skinfold measurements: These involve measuring the thickness of fat at specific points on the body, such as the abdomen or thighs.
4. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a non-invasive test that uses X-rays to measure bone density and body composition.
5. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive test that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage and other physiological parameters.

Causes of weight gain:

1. Poor diet: Consuming high amounts of processed foods, sugar, and saturated fats can lead to weight gain.
2. Lack of physical activity: Engaging in regular exercise can help burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.
3. Genetics: An individual's genetic makeup can affect their metabolism and body composition, making them more prone to weight gain.
4. Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances in hormones such as insulin, thyroid, and cortisol can contribute to weight gain.
5. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and antidepressants, can cause weight gain as a side effect.
6. Sleep deprivation: Lack of sleep can disrupt hormones that regulate appetite and metabolism, leading to weight gain.
7. Stress: Chronic stress can lead to emotional eating and weight gain.
8. Age: Metabolism slows down with age, making it more difficult to maintain a healthy weight.
9. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions such as hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can also contribute to weight gain.

Treatment options for obesity:

1. Lifestyle modifications: A combination of diet, exercise, and stress management techniques can help individuals achieve and maintain a healthy weight.
2. Medications: Prescription medications such as orlistat, phentermine-topiramate, and liraglutide can aid in weight loss.
3. Bariatric surgery: Surgical procedures such as gastric bypass surgery and sleeve gastrectomy can be effective for severe obesity.
4. Behavioral therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of counseling can help individuals develop healthy eating habits and improve their physical activity levels.
5. Meal replacement plans: Meal replacement plans such as Medifast can provide individuals with a structured diet that is high in protein, fiber, and vitamins, and low in calories and sugar.
6. Weight loss supplements: Supplements such as green tea extract, garcinia cambogia, and forskolin can help boost weight loss efforts.
7. Portion control: Using smaller plates and measuring cups can help individuals regulate their portion sizes and maintain a healthy weight.
8. Mindful eating: Paying attention to hunger and fullness cues, eating slowly, and savoring food can help individuals develop healthy eating habits.
9. Physical activity: Engaging in regular physical activity such as walking, running, swimming, or cycling can help individuals burn calories and maintain a healthy weight.

It's important to note that there is no one-size-fits-all approach to treating obesity, and the most effective treatment plan will depend on the individual's specific needs and circumstances. Consulting with a healthcare professional such as a registered dietitian or a physician can help individuals develop a personalized treatment plan that is safe and effective.

Being overweight can increase the risk of various health problems, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain types of cancer. It can also affect a person's mental health and overall quality of life.

There are several ways to assess whether someone is overweight or not. One common method is using the BMI, which is calculated based on height and weight. Another method is measuring body fat percentage, which can be done with specialized tools such as skinfold calipers or bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA).

Losing weight and maintaining a healthy weight can be achieved through a combination of diet, exercise, and lifestyle changes. Some examples of healthy weight loss strategies include:

* Eating a balanced diet that is high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein sources
* Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, running, swimming, or weight training
* Avoiding fad diets and quick fixes
* Getting enough sleep and managing stress levels
* Setting realistic weight loss goals and tracking progress over time.

Muscle mass is an important component of overall body strength, and as people age, their muscles naturally begin to atrophy due to a combination of hormonal changes and disuse. This leads to a decrease in the amount of protein available for other bodily functions, which can further exacerbate the decline in physical functioning.

Sarcopenia can be caused by various factors such as inactivity, malnutrition, chronic diseases like diabetes and heart disease, and genetics. It is a major risk factor for falls, disability, and cognitive decline in the elderly population.

There is no single test to diagnose sarcopenia, but healthcare professionals use a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests to assess muscle mass and function. Treatment options include resistance training exercises, nutritional supplements, and medications such as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and growth hormone-releasing peptides.

In conclusion, sarcopenia is a progressive condition that affects the muscles in older adults, leading to a loss of strength and physical functioning. It can be caused by various factors, and healthcare professionals use a combination of physical examination and laboratory tests to diagnose and treat it.

In medicine, thinness is sometimes used as a diagnostic criterion for certain conditions, such as anorexia nervosa or cancer cachexia. In these cases, thinness can be a sign of a serious underlying condition that requires medical attention.

However, it's important to note that thinness alone is not enough to diagnose any medical condition. Other factors, such as a person's overall health, medical history, and physical examination findings, must also be taken into account when making a diagnosis. Additionally, it's important to recognize that being underweight or having a low BMI does not necessarily mean that someone is unhealthy or has a medical condition. Many people with a healthy weight and body composition can still experience negative health effects from societal pressure to be thin.

Overall, the concept of thinness in medicine is complex and multifaceted, and it's important for healthcare providers to consider all relevant factors when evaluating a patient's weight and overall health.

There are several factors that can contribute to the development of insulin resistance, including:

1. Genetics: Insulin resistance can be inherited, and some people may be more prone to developing the condition based on their genetic makeup.
2. Obesity: Excess body fat, particularly around the abdominal area, can contribute to insulin resistance.
3. Physical inactivity: A sedentary lifestyle can lead to insulin resistance.
4. Poor diet: Consuming a diet high in refined carbohydrates and sugar can contribute to insulin resistance.
5. Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and Cushing's syndrome, can increase the risk of developing insulin resistance.
6. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and some antipsychotic drugs, can increase insulin resistance.
7. Hormonal imbalances: Hormonal changes during pregnancy or menopause can lead to insulin resistance.
8. Sleep apnea: Sleep apnea can contribute to insulin resistance.
9. Chronic stress: Chronic stress can lead to insulin resistance.
10. Aging: Insulin resistance tends to increase with age, particularly after the age of 45.

There are several ways to diagnose insulin resistance, including:

1. Fasting blood sugar test: This test measures the level of glucose in the blood after an overnight fast.
2. Glucose tolerance test: This test measures the body's ability to regulate blood sugar levels after consuming a sugary drink.
3. Insulin sensitivity test: This test measures the body's ability to respond to insulin.
4. Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA): This is a mathematical formula that uses the results of a fasting glucose and insulin test to estimate insulin resistance.
5. Adiponectin test: This test measures the level of adiponectin, a protein produced by fat cells that helps regulate blood sugar levels. Low levels of adiponectin are associated with insulin resistance.

There is no cure for insulin resistance, but it can be managed through lifestyle changes and medication. Lifestyle changes include:

1. Diet: A healthy diet that is low in processed carbohydrates and added sugars can help improve insulin sensitivity.
2. Exercise: Regular physical activity, such as aerobic exercise and strength training, can improve insulin sensitivity.
3. Weight loss: Losing weight, particularly around the abdominal area, can improve insulin sensitivity.
4. Stress management: Strategies to manage stress, such as meditation or yoga, can help improve insulin sensitivity.
5. Sleep: Getting adequate sleep is important for maintaining healthy insulin levels.

Medications that may be used to treat insulin resistance include:

1. Metformin: This is a commonly used medication to treat type 2 diabetes and improve insulin sensitivity.
2. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs): These medications, such as pioglitazone, improve insulin sensitivity by increasing the body's ability to use insulin.
3. Sulfonylureas: These medications stimulate the release of insulin from the pancreas, which can help improve insulin sensitivity.
4. DPP-4 inhibitors: These medications, such as sitagliptin, work by reducing the breakdown of the hormone incretin, which helps to increase insulin secretion and improve insulin sensitivity.
5. GLP-1 receptor agonists: These medications, such as exenatide, mimic the action of the hormone GLP-1 and help to improve insulin sensitivity.

It is important to note that these medications may have side effects, so it is important to discuss the potential benefits and risks with your healthcare provider before starting treatment. Additionally, lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise can also be effective in improving insulin sensitivity and managing blood sugar levels.

Types of Nutrition Disorders:

1. Malnutrition: This occurs when the body does not receive enough nutrients to maintain proper bodily functions. Malnutrition can be caused by a lack of access to healthy food, digestive problems, or other underlying health issues.
2. Obesity: This is a condition where excess body fat accumulates to the point that it negatively affects health. Obesity can increase the risk of various diseases, such as diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.
3. Anorexia Nervosa: This is an eating disorder characterized by a fear of gaining weight or becoming obese. People with anorexia nervosa may restrict their food intake to an extreme degree, leading to malnutrition and other health problems.
4. Bulimia Nervosa: This is another eating disorder where individuals engage in binge eating followed by purging or other compensatory behaviors to rid the body of calories consumed. Bulimia nervosa can also lead to malnutrition and other health issues.
5. Diabetes Mellitus: This is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood sugar levels. Type 2 diabetes, in particular, has been linked to poor dietary habits and a lack of physical activity.
6. Cardiovascular Disease: Poor dietary habits and a lack of physical activity can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, which includes heart disease and stroke.
7. Osteoporosis: A diet low in calcium and vitamin D can contribute to the development of osteoporosis, a condition characterized by brittle bones and an increased risk of fractures.
8. Gout: This is a type of arthritis caused by high levels of uric acid in the blood. A diet rich in purine-containing foods such as red meat, seafood, and certain grains can increase the risk of developing gout.
9. Dental Problems: Poor dietary habits, particularly a diet high in sugar, can contribute to dental problems such as cavities and gum disease.
10. Mental Health Disorders: Malnutrition and other health problems caused by poor dietary habits can also contribute to mental health disorders such as depression and anxiety.

In conclusion, poor dietary habits can have significant negative effects on an individual's overall health and well-being. It is essential to adopt healthy dietary habits such as consuming a balanced diet, limiting processed foods and sugars, and increasing physical activity to maintain good health and prevent chronic diseases.

Anorexia Nervosa can be further divided into two subtypes:

1. Restrictive Type: This type of anorexia is characterized by restrictive eating patterns, such as limiting food intake and avoiding certain types of food. People with this type may have a fear of gaining weight or becoming fat.
2. Binge/Purge Type: This type of anorexia is characterized by episodes of binge eating followed by purging behaviors, such as vomiting, using laxatives, or exercising excessively. People with this type may feel a loss of control during binge episodes and may experience guilt or shame afterward.

Symptoms of Anorexia Nervosa can include:

* Restrictive eating habits
* Obsession with weight loss or body image
* Denial of hunger or fatigue
* Excessive exercise
* Difficulty maintaining a healthy weight
* Osteoporosis or other medical complications

Treatment for Anorexia Nervosa typically involves a combination of psychotherapy, nutrition counseling, and medication. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a common form of psychotherapy used to help individuals with anorexia nervosa change their negative thought patterns and behaviors related to food and body image. Family-based therapy can also be effective in treating adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

It is important to note that Anorexia Nervosa is a serious mental health condition that can have life-threatening consequences if left untreated. If you or someone you know is struggling with anorexia, it is important to seek professional help as soon as possible. With appropriate treatment and support, individuals with anorexia nervosa can recover and lead a healthy, fulfilling life.

The exact cause of cachexia is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to a combination of factors such as inflammation, hormonal imbalances, and changes in metabolism. Treatment for cachexia often focuses on addressing the underlying cause of the wasting, such as managing cancer or HIV/AIDS, as well as providing nutritional support and addressing any related complications.

In the medical field, cachexia is a serious condition that requires careful management to improve quality of life and outcomes for patients. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the signs and symptoms of cachexia and to provide appropriate treatment and support to affected individuals.

Low birth weight is defined as less than 2500 grams (5 pounds 8 ounces) and is associated with a higher risk of health problems, including respiratory distress, infection, and developmental delays. Premature birth is also a risk factor for low birth weight, as premature infants may not have had enough time to grow to a healthy weight before delivery.

On the other hand, high birth weight is associated with an increased risk of macrosomia, a condition in which the baby is significantly larger than average and may require a cesarean section (C-section) or assisted delivery. Macrosomia can also increase the risk of injury to the mother during delivery.

Birth weight can be influenced by various factors during pregnancy, including maternal nutrition, prenatal care, and fetal growth patterns. However, it is important to note that birth weight alone is not a definitive indicator of a baby's health or future development. Other factors, such as the baby's overall physical condition, Apgar score (a measure of the baby's well-being at birth), and postnatal care, are also important indicators of long-term health outcomes.

Some common types of growth disorders include:

1. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD): A condition in which the body does not produce enough growth hormone, leading to short stature and slow growth.
2. Turner syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects females, causing short stature, incomplete sexual development, and other health problems.
3. Prader-Willi syndrome: A rare genetic disorder that causes excessive hunger, obesity, and other physical and behavioral abnormalities.
4. Chronic kidney disease (CKD): A condition in which the kidneys gradually lose function over time, leading to growth retardation and other health problems.
5. Thalassemia: A genetic disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin, leading to anemia, fatigue, and other health problems.
6. Hypothyroidism: A condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones, leading to slow growth and other health problems.
7. Cushing's syndrome: A rare hormonal disorder that can cause rapid growth and obesity.
8. Marfan syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the body's connective tissue, causing tall stature, long limbs, and other physical abnormalities.
9. Noonan syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the development of the heart, lungs, and other organs, leading to short stature and other health problems.
10. Williams syndrome: A rare genetic disorder that causes growth delays, cardiovascular problems, and other health issues.

Growth disorders can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as hormone level assessments or genetic testing. Treatment depends on the specific condition and may include medication, hormone therapy, surgery, or other interventions. Early diagnosis and treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for individuals with growth disorders.

1. Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM): This type of malnutrition is caused by a lack of protein and energy in the diet. It is common in developing countries and can lead to weight loss, weakness, and stunted growth in children.
2. Iron deficiency anemia: This type of malnutrition is caused by a lack of iron in the diet, which is necessary for the production of hemoglobin in red blood cells. Symptoms include fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
3. Vitamin and mineral deficiencies: Malnutrition can also be caused by a lack of essential vitamins and minerals such as vitamin A, vitamin D, calcium, and iodine. Symptoms vary depending on the specific deficiency but can include skin problems, impaired immune function, and poor wound healing.
4. Obesity: This type of malnutrition is caused by consuming too many calories and not enough nutrients. It can lead to a range of health problems including diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease.

Signs and symptoms of malnutrition can include:

* Weight loss or weight gain
* Fatigue or weakness
* Poor wound healing
* Hair loss
* Skin problems
* Increased infections
* Poor appetite or overeating
* Digestive problems such as diarrhea or constipation
* Impaired immune function

Treatment for malnutrition depends on the underlying cause and may include:

* Dietary changes: Eating a balanced diet that includes a variety of nutrient-rich foods can help to correct nutrient deficiencies.
* Nutritional supplements: In some cases, nutritional supplements such as vitamins or minerals may be recommended to help address specific deficiencies.
* Medical treatment: Certain medical conditions that contribute to malnutrition, such as digestive disorders or infections, may require treatment with medication or other interventions.

Prevention is key, and there are several steps you can take to help prevent malnutrition:

* Eat a balanced diet that includes a variety of nutrient-rich foods.
* Avoid restrictive diets or fad diets that limit specific food groups.
* Stay hydrated by drinking plenty of water.
* Avoid excessive alcohol consumption, which can interfere with nutrient absorption and lead to malnutrition.
* Maintain a healthy weight through a combination of a balanced diet and regular exercise.

It is important to note that malnutrition can be subtle and may not always be easily recognizable. If you suspect you or someone you know may be experiencing malnutrition, it is important to seek medical attention to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Water-electrolyte imbalance can be caused by various factors such as excessive sweating, diarrhea, vomiting, burns, and certain medications. It can also be a complication of other medical conditions like kidney disease, heart failure, and liver disease.

Symptoms of water-electrolyte imbalance may include:

* Dehydration or overhydration
* Changes in blood pH (acidosis or alkalosis)
* Electrolyte abnormalities (such as low sodium, high potassium, or low bicarbonate)
* Muscle weakness or cramping
* Confusion or disorientation
* Heart arrhythmias

Treatment of water-electrolyte imbalance depends on the underlying cause and the severity of symptoms. Fluid replacement, electrolyte supplements, and medications to correct pH levels may be prescribed by a healthcare professional. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the condition.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of water-electrolyte imbalance, as untreated imbalances can lead to serious complications such as seizures, coma, and even death.

The symptoms of hypopituitarism can vary depending on the specific hormone deficiency and can include:

1. Growth hormone deficiency: Short stature, delayed puberty, and decreased muscle mass.
2. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency: Weakness, fatigue, weight loss, and low blood pressure.
3. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) deficiency: Hypothyroidism, decreased metabolism, dry skin, and constipation.
4. Prolactin deficiency: Lack of milk production in lactating women, erectile dysfunction, and infertility.
5. Vasopressin (ADH) deficiency: Increased thirst and urination.
6. Oxytocin deficiency: Difficulty breastfeeding, low milk supply, and uterine atony.

Hypopituitarism can be caused by a variety of factors such as:

1. Traumatic brain injury or surgery
2. Tumors, cysts, or inflammation in the pituitary gland or hypothalamus
3. Radiation therapy
4. Infections such as meningitis or encephalitis
5. Autoimmune disorders such as hypophyseal lymphocytic infiltration
6. Genetic mutations

Diagnosis of hypopituitarism involves a series of tests to assess the levels of hormones in the blood and urine, as well as imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans to evaluate the pituitary gland. Treatment depends on the specific hormone deficiency and can include hormone replacement therapy, surgery, or radiation therapy. In some cases, hypopituitarism may be a temporary condition that resolves once the underlying cause is treated. However, in other cases, it may be a lifelong condition requiring ongoing management.

In conclusion, hypopituitarism is a rare but potentially debilitating disorder that can affect various aspects of human physiology. It is important to be aware of the signs and symptoms of hypopituitarism and seek medical attention if they persist or worsen over time. With proper diagnosis and treatment, individuals with hypopituitarism can lead relatively normal lives.

HALS typically involves the accumulation of fat in the face, neck, and torso, while the arms and legs become thin and wasted. This can lead to a characteristic "buffalo hump" appearance on the back of the neck and a "spare tire" around the waist. In addition to the cosmetic changes, HALS can also cause metabolic problems such as insulin resistance, high blood sugar, and high levels of lipids (fats) in the blood.

HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome is thought to be caused by a combination of factors, including genetics, hormonal imbalances, and side effects of certain HIV medications. Treatment for HALS typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, including lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise, as well as medication therapy to manage metabolic abnormalities and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.

HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome is a significant health concern for individuals living with HIV, as it can increase the risk of other serious health problems such as heart disease and stroke. It is important for individuals infected with HIV to be aware of the risk of developing HALS and to work closely with their healthcare provider to manage this condition effectively.

1. Abdominal obesity (excess fat around the waistline)
2. High blood pressure (hypertension)
3. Elevated fasting glucose (high blood sugar)
4. High serum triglycerides (elevated levels of triglycerides in the blood)
5. Low HDL cholesterol (low levels of "good" cholesterol)

Having three or more of these conditions is considered a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome X. It is estimated that approximately 34% of adults in the United States have this syndrome, and it is more common in women than men. Risk factors for developing metabolic syndrome include obesity, lack of physical activity, poor diet, and a family history of type 2 diabetes or CVD.

The term "metabolic syndrome" was first introduced in the medical literature in the late 1980s, and since then, it has been the subject of extensive research. The exact causes of metabolic syndrome are not yet fully understood, but it is believed to be related to insulin resistance, inflammation, and changes in body fat distribution.

Treatment for metabolic syndrome typically involves lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, regular physical activity, and a healthy diet. Medications such as blood pressure-lowering drugs, cholesterol-lowering drugs, and anti-diabetic medications may also be prescribed if necessary. It is important to note that not everyone with metabolic syndrome will develop type 2 diabetes or CVD, but the risk is increased. Therefore, early detection and treatment are crucial in preventing these complications.

Causes and risk factors:

1. Poverty and lack of access to nutritious food
2. Poor sanitation and hygiene
3. Inadequate healthcare and nutritional education
4. Conflict and displacement
5. Chronic illnesses such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis


1. Wasting and stunting of children
2. Poor appetite and weight loss
3. Fatigue, weakness, and lethargy
4. Increased susceptibility to infections
5. Poor wound healing and skin problems


1. Stunted growth and development
2. Weakened immune system
3. Increased risk of infections and diseases such as diarrhea, pneumonia, and malaria
4. Poor cognitive development and reduced educational attainment
5. Increased risk of mortality


1. Clinical evaluation of symptoms and physical examination
2. Anthropometric measurements such as height and weight
3. Laboratory tests to assess nutrient deficiencies and infections
4. Dietary assessment to determine food intake and nutrient adequacy

Treatment and prevention:

1. Providing access to nutrient-dense foods, particularly protein-rich foods such as meat, poultry, fish, beans, and dairy products
2. Addressing underlying causes such as poverty and poor sanitation
3. Implementing nutritional education programs to promote healthy eating habits
4. Providing micronutrient supplements and fortified foods
5. Addressing infectious diseases and providing appropriate medical care

In conclusion, protein-energy malnutrition is a serious condition that affects millions of people worldwide, particularly in developing countries. It can have severe consequences on physical growth, cognitive development, and overall health. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term health problems and improve quality of life. Addressing underlying causes such as poverty and poor sanitation is also essential to prevent the condition from occurring in the first place.

The exact cause of HIV Wasting Syndrome is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to a combination of factors, including chronic inflammation, immune activation, and the direct effects of HIV on the body's metabolism. The syndrome typically affects individuals with advanced stages of HIV infection and can have a significant impact on their quality of life, functional status, and survival.

Symptoms of HIV Wasting Syndrome include:

1. Weight loss (more than 10% of body weight)
2. Muscle wasting and weakness
3. Fatigue
4. Decreased appetite
5. Diarrhea
6. Nausea and vomiting
7. Abdominal pain
8. Dehydration
9. Poor wound healing
10. Fever

Diagnosis of HIV Wasting Syndrome is based on a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include measurements of serum albumin, prealbumin, and transferrin, as well as assessment of inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Imaging studies, such as computed tomography (CT) or positron emission tomography (PET), may be used to evaluate body composition and tissue distribution.

Treatment of HIV Wasting Syndrome involves a combination of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and supportive care, including:

1. ART to suppress HIV replication and reduce inflammation
2. Nutritional support with high-calorie diets or supplements
3. Prophylaxis for opportunistic infections
4. Management of related complications such as diarrhea, nausea, and pain
5. Physical therapy to maintain muscle mass and strength.

In addition, HIV Wasting Syndrome is also associated with other comorbidities such as HIV-associated neuropathy, HIV-associated dementia, and HIV-related kidney disease, which can further complicate the management of wasting syndrome. Therefore, it is important to address these comorbidities simultaneously while managing HIV Wasting Syndrome.

PWS is characterized by a range of physical, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms, including:

1. Delayed growth and development: Individuals with PWS often have slowed growth before birth and may be born with low birth weight. They may also experience delayed puberty and short stature compared to their peers.
2. Intellectual disability: Many individuals with PWS have intellectual disability, which can range from mild to severe.
3. Behavioral problems: PWS is often associated with behavioral challenges, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
4. Feeding and eating difficulties: Individuals with PWS may have difficulty feeding and swallowing, which can lead to nutritional deficiencies and other health problems. They may also experience a condition called "hyperphagia," which is characterized by excessive hunger and overeating.
5. Sleep disturbances: PWS is often associated with sleep disturbances, such as insomnia and restlessness.
6. Short stature: Individuals with PWS tend to be shorter than their peers, with an average adult height of around 4 feet 10 inches (147 cm).
7. Body composition: PWS is often characterized by a high percentage of body fat, which can increase the risk of obesity and other health problems.
8. Hormonal imbalances: PWS can disrupt the balance of hormones in the body, leading to issues such as hypogonadism (low testosterone levels) and hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid).
9. Dental problems: Individuals with PWS are at increased risk of dental problems, including tooth decay and gum disease.
10. Vision and hearing problems: Some individuals with PWS may experience vision and hearing problems, such as nearsightedness, farsightedness, and hearing loss.

It's important to note that every individual with PWS is unique, and not all will experience all of these symptoms. Additionally, the severity of the disorder can vary widely from person to person. With proper medical care and management, however, many individuals with PWS can lead fulfilling and productive lives.

Wasting syndrome is characterized by weight loss, muscle wasting, and a decrease in body condition score. It can also lead to a range of other health problems such as dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and decreased immune function.

To diagnose wasting syndrome in your cat, your veterinarian will need to perform a series of tests to rule out other potential causes of weight loss and muscle wasting. These tests may include blood work, urinalysis, and imaging studies such as X-rays or ultrasound.

Treatment for wasting syndrome will depend on the underlying cause of the condition. For example, if the condition is caused by chronic kidney disease, treatment may involve managing the symptoms of the disease and providing supportive care such as fluid therapy and medication to help slow the progression of the disease.

In addition to medical treatment, there are several things you can do at home to help your cat feel more comfortable and manage their weight loss. These include:

* Providing a high-quality, nutrient-rich diet that is appropriate for your cat's age, health status, and lifestyle.
* Encouraging your cat to drink plenty of water by placing multiple water bowls around the house and making water more appealing through the use of flavored or scented water.
* Providing a safe and comfortable environment for your cat to rest and relax.
* Monitoring your cat's weight and body condition score regularly and working with your veterinarian to adjust their diet and treatment plan as needed.

It is important to work closely with your veterinarian to manage wasting syndrome in your cat, as this condition can have a significant impact on their quality of life and longevity. With proper diagnosis and treatment, many cats are able to recover from wasting syndrome and lead happy, healthy lives.

1. Coronary artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart.
2. Heart failure: A condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.
3. Arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms that can be too fast, too slow, or irregular.
4. Heart valve disease: Problems with the heart valves that control blood flow through the heart.
5. Heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy): Disease of the heart muscle that can lead to heart failure.
6. Congenital heart disease: Defects in the heart's structure and function that are present at birth.
7. Peripheral artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the arms, legs, and other organs.
8. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot that forms in a deep vein, usually in the leg.
9. Pulmonary embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, which can be caused by a blood clot or other debris.
10. Stroke: A condition in which there is a lack of oxygen to the brain due to a blockage or rupture of blood vessels.

There are several ways to measure abdominal obesity, including:

1. Waist circumference: Measured by circling the natural waistline with a tape measure. Excess fat around the waistline is defined as a circumference of 35 inches or more for women and 40 inches or more for men.
2. Waist-to-hip ratio: Measured by dividing the circumference of the natural waistline by the circumference of the hips. A ratio of 0.8 or higher indicates abdominal obesity.
3. Body fat distribution: Measured using techniques such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) or bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). These methods can estimate the amount of fat in various areas of the body, including the abdomen.

There are several factors that contribute to the development of abdominal obesity, including:

1. Genetics: Inheritance plays a role in the distribution of body fat, with some people more prone to accumulating fat around the midsection.
2. Poor diet: Consuming high amounts of processed foods, sugar, and saturated fats can contribute to weight gain and abdominal obesity.
3. Lack of physical activity: Sedentary lifestyle can lead to a decrease in muscle mass and an increase in body fat, including around the abdomen.
4. Age: As people age, their metabolism slows down, leading to weight gain and increased risk of obesity.
5. Hormonal imbalances: Certain hormonal imbalances, such as hypothyroidism or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), can increase the risk of developing abdominal obesity.

Abdominal obesity is a significant health risk due to its association with various chronic diseases, including:

1. Type 2 diabetes: Excess fat around the abdominal area can lead to insulin resistance and increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
2. Cardiovascular disease: Abdominal obesity is a major risk factor for heart disease, as excess fat in this area can increase the risk of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and triglycerides.
3. Cancer: Studies have shown that central obesity is associated with an increased risk of certain types of cancer, including colon, breast, and pancreatic cancer.
4. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): Abdominal obesity can lead to the development of NAFLD, a condition characterized by fat accumulation in the liver, which can increase the risk of liver damage and other health complications.
5. Sleep apnea: Excess fat around the abdomen can increase the risk of sleep apnea, a condition characterized by pauses in breathing during sleep.
6. Respiratory problems: Abdominal obesity can increase the risk of respiratory problems, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
7. Osteoarthritis: Excess weight, particularly around the abdomen, can increase the risk of osteoarthritis in the knees and hips.
8. Mental health: Central obesity has been linked to an increased risk of depression and other mental health conditions.
9. Fertility problems: Abdominal obesity can affect fertility in both men and women, as excess fat can disrupt hormone levels and reduce the likelihood of conception.
10. Reduced life expectancy: Abdominal obesity is associated with a shorter life expectancy, as it increases the risk of various chronic diseases that can reduce lifespan.

Type 2 diabetes can be managed through a combination of diet, exercise, and medication. In some cases, lifestyle changes may be enough to control blood sugar levels, while in other cases, medication or insulin therapy may be necessary. Regular monitoring of blood sugar levels and follow-up with a healthcare provider are important for managing the condition and preventing complications.

Common symptoms of type 2 diabetes include:

* Increased thirst and urination
* Fatigue
* Blurred vision
* Cuts or bruises that are slow to heal
* Tingling or numbness in the hands and feet
* Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections

If left untreated, type 2 diabetes can lead to a range of complications, including:

* Heart disease and stroke
* Kidney damage and failure
* Nerve damage and pain
* Eye damage and blindness
* Foot damage and amputation

The exact cause of type 2 diabetes is not known, but it is believed to be linked to a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as:

* Obesity and excess body weight
* Lack of physical activity
* Poor diet and nutrition
* Age and family history
* Certain ethnicities (e.g., African American, Hispanic/Latino, Native American)
* History of gestational diabetes or delivering a baby over 9 lbs.

There is no cure for type 2 diabetes, but it can be managed and controlled through a combination of lifestyle changes and medication. With proper treatment and self-care, people with type 2 diabetes can lead long, healthy lives.

Mobility limitations can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, affecting their ability to perform daily activities such as bathing, dressing, grooming, cooking, and cleaning, as well as their ability to participate in social and recreational activities. They may also limit a person's access to healthcare services, education, employment, and other resources.

There are several types of mobility limitations, including:

1. Physical mobility limitation: resulting from physical disabilities or injuries that affect the musculoskeletal system, such as paralysis, amputations, or muscular dystrophy.
2. Cognitive mobility limitation: resulting from cognitive impairments such as dementia, Alzheimer's disease, or traumatic brain injury.
3. Environmental mobility limitation: resulting from environmental barriers such as stairs, uneven terrain, or lack of accessibility features in buildings and public spaces.
4. Technological mobility limitation: resulting from the lack of accessible transportation options, such as inadequate public transportation or the absence of wheelchair-accessible vehicles.

Assessing mobility limitations involves a comprehensive evaluation of an individual's physical, cognitive, and environmental factors to identify any barriers to movement and develop strategies for improving mobility and independence. This may involve working with healthcare professionals such as physicians, occupational therapists, and rehabilitation specialists to create a personalized treatment plan that addresses the individual's specific needs and goals.

Overall, addressing mobility limitations is essential for promoting health equity, improving quality of life, and enabling individuals with disabilities or chronic conditions to participate fully in their communities. By recognizing and addressing the various factors that contribute to mobility limitations, we can help create a more inclusive and accessible society for all.

Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects can affect various aspects of the child's development, including:

1. Physical growth and development: PDEDs can lead to changes in the child's physical growth patterns, such as reduced birth weight, short stature, or delayed puberty.
2. Brain development: Prenatal exposure to certain substances can affect brain development, leading to learning disabilities, memory problems, and cognitive delays.
3. Behavioral and emotional development: Children exposed to PDEDs may exhibit behavioral and emotional difficulties, such as anxiety, depression, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
4. Immune system functioning: Prenatal exposure to certain substances can affect the immune system's development, making children more susceptible to infections and autoimmune diseases.
5. Reproductive health: Exposure to certain chemicals during fetal development may disrupt the reproductive system, leading to fertility problems or an increased risk of infertility later in life.

The diagnosis of Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects often requires a comprehensive medical history and physical examination, as well as specialized tests such as imaging studies or laboratory assessments. Treatment for PDEDs typically involves addressing the underlying cause of exposure and providing appropriate interventions to manage any associated symptoms or developmental delays.

In summary, Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects can have a profound impact on a child's growth, development, and overall health later in life. It is essential for healthcare providers to be aware of the potential risks and to monitor children exposed to substances during fetal development for any signs of PDEDs. With early diagnosis and appropriate interventions, it may be possible to mitigate or prevent some of these effects and improve outcomes for affected children.

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List of organs of the human body Hydrostatic weighing Dietary element Composition of blood List of human blood components Body ... and how it was absorbed by the human body. Transferrins can bind aluminium. The composition of the human body expressed in ... The composition of the human body can be viewed on an atomic and molecular scale as shown in this article. The estimated gross ... Body composition may be analyzed in various ways. This can be done in terms of the chemical elements present, or by molecular ...
Body composition assessment. End-points in clinical trials including Patient-reported outcomes. Nutrition. Endpoint in clinical ... The major objective was to bring together a multi-disciplinary team of experts in order to develop, as a united body, a ... Cachexia has been coined the "last illness" and is sometimes called "body wasting". The prevalence of cachexia ranges from 5-15 ... "This Potentially Fatal Syndrome Makes Your Body Literally Waste Away-And It's More Common Than You Know". Prevention. 2017-09- ...
Although it may not give an accurate reading of real body fat percentage, it is a reliable measure of body composition change ... body fat includes essential body fat and storage body fat. Essential body fat is necessary to maintain life and reproductive ... While BMI largely increases as adiposity increases, due to differences in body composition, other indicators of body fat give ... BMI to body fat percentage formula, Deurenberg P, Weststrate JA, Seidell JC (March 1991). "Body mass index as a measure of body ...
"Marasmus: Background, Pathophysiology, Body Composition". 2019-02-02. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) ... Body weight is reduced to less than 62% of the normal (expected) body weight for the age. Marasmus occurrence increases prior ... Ultimately, marasmus can progress to the point of no return when the body's ability for protein synthesis is lost. At this ... Other symptoms of marasmus include unusual body temperature (hypothermia, pyrexia); anemia; dehydration (as characterized with ...
II: Nutrition and body composition". J. Appl. Physiol. 65 (6): 2545-51. doi:10.1152/jappl.1988.65.6.2545. PMID 3215854. Kayser ... where it is generally believed that no human body can acclimatize. The human body can perform best at sea level, where the ... However, the human body has both short-term and long-term adaptations to altitude that allow it to partially compensate for the ... The human body can adapt to high altitude through both immediate and long-term acclimatization. At high altitude, in the short ...
Humans are sexually dimorphic in body size, body structure, and body composition. Men tend to be taller and heavier than women ... These include greater muscle mass, the growth of facial hair and a lower body fat composition. Male anatomy is distinguished ... "Sexual dimorphism of body composition". Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. Normal and Abnormal Sex ... Secondary sexual characteristics that are specific to men include: Broadened shoulders; Increased body hair; An enlarged larynx ...
Abdominal obesity Body composition Healthline. June 8th, 2021. What Does 'Skinny Fat' Mean? Ruderman, N; Chisholm, D; Pi-Sunyer ... Diagnostic performance of body mass index to identify obesity as defined by body adiposity: a systematic review and ... "Metabolic and body composition factors in subgroups of obesity:what do we know?". J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 89 (6): 2569-2575. ... Normal weight obesity, more commonly referred to as skinny fat, is the condition of having normal body weight, but with a high ...
II: Nutrition and body composition". J. Appl. Physiol. 65 (6): 2545-51. doi:10.1152/jappl.1988.65.6.2545. PMID 3215854. ... In the death zone and higher, no human body can acclimatize. The body uses up its store of oxygen faster than it can be ... The human body has optimal endurance below 150 m (490 ft) elevation. The concentration of oxygen (O2) in air is 20.9% so the ... An extended stay in the zone without supplementary oxygen will result in deterioration of body functions, loss of consciousness ...
"The Composition of the Body." On man's body, and a hermetic view ("As above, so below") view of man's body as a microcosm ... What the heavens are made of How many bodies there are in the heavens Why those bodies move Whether those bodies can be ... The human body consists of flesh and blood, bones, veins, sinews, skin and the like; dark and heavy substances originating from ... for these celestial bodies are of a better constitution, of a more beautiful form, of a purer substance, their movements are ...
Human Body Composition (2 ed.). Human Kinetics. p. 8. ISBN 978-0736046558. Human Body Composition Second Edition Page 9 The ... He was one of the early developers of in vivo neutron activation analysis for body composition in 1971. Working with H.C. ... "Use of a High Repetition Rate Neutron Generator for in-vivo Body Composition Measurement via Neutron Inelastic Scattering" J.J ... he led a group using whole-body counting to identify and measure radioactive material in the body. He later was part of a team ...
"Body Composition (DEXA) Data for Baz1b". Mouse Resources Portal. Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "X-ray Imaging ... Mutant mice had decreased body weights compared to wildtype control mice. Mutant mice showed increased activity, VO2 and energy ...
Pitt, G.C.; Bullard, R.T. (1968). "Some Interspecific Aspects of Body Composition". Body Composition of Animals and Man. ... Skeletal muscles make up 56.5 % of the Canada lynx's body weight. The long, thick fur, uniformly coloured with little to no ... feet sink deeper in the snow due to their smaller size and hence a larger body mass to foot area ratio, prompting them to ...
The change in body composition may be difficult to detect due to obesity, changes in fat mass, or edema. Changes in weight, ... Ylihärsilä H, Kajantie E, Osmond C, Forsén T, Barker DJ, Eriksson JG (September 2007). "Birth size, adult body composition and ... Sarcopenia is a factor in changing body composition associated with aging populations; and certain muscle regions are expected ... Gale CR, Martyn CN, Kellingray S, Eastell R, Cooper C (January 2001). "Intrauterine programming of adult body composition". The ...
Diet composition varies with body size. There are no significant differences in feeding habits between male and female S. ... The upper side of the body is greyish brown with dark brown spots. The underside is a light greyish white. The teeth of S. ... The two dorsal fins are located towards the tail end of the body. The texture of their skin is rough, similar to the coarseness ... S. canicula are small, shallow-water sharks with a slender body and a blunt head. ...
Pitts, G.C.; Bullard, R.T. (1968). "Some Interspecific Aspects of Body Composition in Mammals". Body Composition in Animals and ... Skeletal muscles make up 58,5 % of the bobcat's body weight. At birth, it weighs 270-340 g (9+1⁄2-12 oz) and is about 25 cm (10 ... Its coat is variable, though generally tan to grayish-brown, with black streaks on the body and dark bars on the forelegs and ...
... and Body Composition, Study. (April 2007). "Multitasking: Association Between Poorer Performance and a History of Recurrent ... Another study examined the relationship between body sway and cognitive function and their relationship during multitasking and ...
Sisante, J. (September 9, 2010). "Composition of truth body is finally complete". GMA News. Retrieved August 6, 2019. Santos, R ...
"PIREAUS BANK: Board of Directors (BoD) Composition". Piraeus Bank. 2015. Retrieved 19 May 2015. Hellenic Financial Stability ...
She had a bisque head until World War II, then a composition head until 1958 when a hard plastic body and head were used for ... Bleuette has a fully jointed composition body. She was 27 cm (10" 5/8) tall until 1933, then 29 cm (11" 3/8) until production ...
Hartgens, F.; Van Marken Lichtenbelt, W.; Ebbing, S.; Vollaard, N.; Rietjens, G.; Kuipers, H. (2004). "Body Composition and ... Body Composition: Effect of Nandrolone Decanoate" (PDF). Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 36 (3): 484-489. doi:10.1249/ ... This is thought to result in a much lower incidence and magnitude of facial/body hair growth, scalp hair loss, and possibly ... Nandrolone decanoate is a nandrolone ester and a long-lasting prodrug of nandrolone in the body. Nandrolone decanoate was first ...
... wears body armor of unknown composition. She carries a bow that fires arrows that release "cold energy", and she carries ...
Roy J. Shephard (1991). "Epidemiological indices, anthropometric and cadaver estimates of body composition". Body composition ... Dorothy G. Herron; Lynn B. Greenberg (2000). "body composition". In Mathy Doval Mezey (ed.). The encyclopedia of elder care: ... Michael R. Hawes; Alan D. Martin (2001). "Human body composition". In Roger Eston; Thomas Reilly (eds.). Kinanthropometry and ... The derived measures attempt to provide better indicators of body composition and nutritional status than the principal ...
identified 42 proteins that localize to processing bodies. Luo Y, Na Z, Slavoff SA (May 2018). "P-Bodies: Composition, ... are found exclusively in multivesicular bodies or GW-bodies and are not localized to P-bodies. Also of note, P-bodies are not ... "GW-bodies" and "decapping-bodies"; however "P-bodies" was the term chosen and is now widely used and accepted in the scientific ... Based on the evidence that P-bodies sometimes are the site of mRNA decay and sometimes the mRNA can exit the P-bodies and re- ...
Lee, Yujin; Krawinkel, Michael (2009). "Body composition and nutrient intake of Buddhist vegetarians". Asia Pacific Journal of ... you should reflect on the deed with the body, thus: "That deed which I am desirous of doing with the body is a deed of the body ... This purification of body and soul harmonizes the inner and outer spheres of an individual. Muslims aim to improve their body ... this is known as the psychosomatic union between the body and the soul). Saint Gregory Palamas argued that man's body is not an ...
Mehlig K, Freyer E, Tognon G, Malmros V, Lissner L, Bosaeus I. Body composition by dualenergy X-ray spectrometry and ... Mediterranean diet, overweight and body composition in children from eight European countries: Cross-sectional and prospective ... Nutritional epidemiology, dietary assessment, anthropometry (including body composition). Public health, main areas: obesity, ... overweight and body composition in children from eight European countries: cross-sectional and prospective results from the ...
"GH Treatment Effects on Body Composition in SGA". Growth, Genetics & Hormones. 24 (1). May 2008. Archived from the original on ... Growth hormone (GH) therapy at a certain dose induced catch-up of lean body mass (LBM). However percentage body fat decreased ... Stress causes the body to produce stress hormones called glucocorticoids that can suppress the immune system., as well as ... Birth weight is the body weight of a baby at its birth. The average birth weight in babies of European descent is 3.5 kilograms ...
"josephine banig roberto - original composition - move your body". January 18, 2011. Retrieved February 25, 2015 - via YouTube. ... Arsenio Hall commented that "I can't believe that kind of voice comes out of that body." Banig was asked to perform on the show ... Jhoanna is a co-producer and co-songwriter on all of her original compositions. She attended St Mary's College of Meycauayan ... from VIVA Records where she introduced her first composition, Musika. In 1989 she made her film debut in Viva Films' feature ...
Their body composition includes ultra-cold superfluid helium. Outsiders are estimated to be the most advanced species in Known ... Lit's nickname comes from the fact that he spent a good deal of time in low and zero-g during his body's growth period, and is ... A sauropod-like neck, with no head, extends about as high as the bandersnatch's body. The tip is thick and rounded, entirely ... Most humans in this period of time on Earth are in excellent health, with autodocs to maintain their bodies and boosterspice to ...
In the conventions of art history, the body is something to look at: nudes; figures in the landscape; portraiture. Dalziel + ... video installation shows over 240 video portraits shot in the city of Glasgow and is accompanied Craig Armstrong's composition ... Scullion have produced a significant body of work that has been shown widely nationally and internationally including the ... Scullion say something else - the human body is something to look with. Film & video Endlessly - 1997 - Video Installation ...
Notable among the southern cultures was the artwork of the Selknam people, also known as Ona, who decorated their bodies as ... which can be seen in the simplicity of the composition of religious scenes, as well as local traditions, customs and mannerisms ... which taught the anatomical study of bodies, the chiaroscuro style, and subjects clothed in aristocratic attire. For the ... and their command of drawing and harmonious composition. They are also known for remaining disassociated from the political ...
The actor explained that for his part, he had to shave his body including his head, and wear eye make-up, since the character ... I thought Art Deco would make sense for the horror genre because it can be dark and spiky and odd and the composition is ... beyond which an obscure image revealed a blond woman putting a body to bed. Later that month, Entertainment Weekly exclusively ...
His dissertation "O utworach szeregów i pęków inwolucyjnych" (Compositions series and involution pencils) allowed him to become ... during the night of October 1943 the Sonderkommando composed of Jewish prisoners unearthed the bodies of the murdered Polish ...
Russell, Brian D. The Song of the Sea: The Date of Composition and Influence of Exodus 15: 1-21, New York: Peter Lang, 2007. ... As a church administrator, she served two presbyteries that function as regional governing bodies, in the positions of ... After her initial work supporting local compositions of Filipino hymns, she turned to early biblical liturgies in her PhD ... "A Fire in Our Bodies: Six Women Leading the Way"). Poethig participated in the controversial 1993 interfaith Re-Imagining ...
It has also held that the separation of the judicial power implies that a body exercising that power must do so in a manner ... In 1920, the Engineer's case (after changes in the composition of the Court) swept away this doctrine. The court now insisted ... Constitutional law in the Commonwealth of Australia consists mostly of that body of doctrine which interprets the Commonwealth ... in anything other than a body whose members have life tenure. In Kruger v Commonwealth (1997) the High Court considered claims ...
... the main Assyrian administrative body during this time. The composition of the city assembly is not known, but it is generally ...
The body of the word was so nearly the same in the two languages that only the endings would put obstacles in the way of mutual ... and there are no references in extant works to other compositions....How incomplete our materials are can be illustrated by the ... The pagan and Christian streams mingle in Old English, one of the richest and most significant bodies of literature preserved ...
... time-dependent mass movements consisting of or within targeted gigantic fluid bodies and submerged solid material bodies can be ... the system can be designed to not reveal potentially sensitive details of the object design and composition. The Multi-Mode ... Prettyman, Thomas (2014). "Deep mapping of small solar system bodies with galactic cosmic ray secondary particle showers" (PDF ... to obtain three-dimensional internal images of the body. While medical CAT scanners use a rotating X-ray generator around the ...
"Kajal Aggarwal resumes work on Kamal Hassan's Indian 2: 'Post baby, my body isn't the same it used to be'". Hindustan Times. 21 ... he eventually quoted Indian is a cult album and one of his favourites from Rahman's composition. In an interview with India ...
... stand Membership of the preselecting body System used by the body to make the choice Additional rules determining composition ... and there may be party rules governing the composition of the body of candidates as a whole that may require modification of ... The bodies that most commonly preselect candidates for political office (the selectors or "selectorate") are party members or ... However it can be possible for a regional or national party body or leader to intervene to ensure a particular candidate is ...
This moment formed the basis of the plot of the composition. Tavasiev was thinking about the future development of Ufa and ... the hollow body of the horse and the figure of the rider. In 1970, for the monument to Salawat Yulayev, Soslanbek Dafaevich ... The installation of the architectural composition in this place was associated with financial difficulties, it would have to ...
Her second calf, Tali, died shortly after birth and J35 carried her body for 17 days in an apparent show of grief that ... Center for Whale Research (June 17, 2018). "Southern Resident Orca Community Demographics, Composition of Pods, Births and ... J35 carried the calf's body on her rostrum while following the pod around the San Juan Islands and interior waters of British ...
... that the composition of the Constitutional Court was unconstitutional and that the appeal should be judged only once that body ...
The median lethal dose (LD50) of marcellomycin depends strongly on the animal and varies from a few mg/kg of body weight (dogs ... that is they have the same chemical compositions; however, one C-H and one COOCH3 group exchange places. Those two groups are ...
Other influences on the development of this style were European electronic body music (EBM) groups of the mid-1980s such as DAF ... and various composition environments. Some of the more popular programs for achieving such ends included commercial releases ... the latter being part of a larger body of work and group called Galaxy 2 Galaxy, a self-described jazz project based on ... the earliest compositions by Cybotron (1981), Moroder's "From Here to Eternity" (1977), and Manuel Göttsching's "proto-techno ...
Palestrina dedicated to Julius III his first published compositions (1554), a book of Masses. It was the first book of Masses ... as an official body, never actually banned any church music and failed to make any ruling or official statement on the subject ... Contemporary analysis highlighted the modern qualities in the compositions of Palestrina such as research of color and sonority ... ISBN 978-0-7316-8792-3. Swindale, Owen (1962). Polyphonic Composition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Journal and ...
If a candidate died, officials wrapped his body in a straw mat and tossed it over the high walls that ringed the compound. At ... During the Tang period, a set curricular schedule took shape where the three steps of reading, writing, and the composition of ... Next, while undergoing the personal body search and being scolded by the clerks and shouted at by the soldiers, he is just like ... Sometime between 730 and 740, after the Tang restoration, a section requiring the composition of original poetry (including ...
This apparatus had no way of measuring the gas composition during use. During the 1930s and all through World War II, the ... McCafferty, Marty (2013). "DAN Diving Incident Reports: Compressed Gas Tears Skin, Penetrates Body". Divers Alert Network. ... Many closed circuit rebreathers use advanced electronics to monitor and regulate the composition of the breathing gas. ... operations and to assist with the detection of crime which may involve bodies of water. In some cases search and rescue diving ...
Combat Composition of the Soviet Army, 1944, p. 207 Sharp, "Red Guards", p. 48 Combat Composition of the Soviet Army, 1944, p. ... a 75mm gun and four machine guns as well as finding the bodies of 100 German men and officers. A truck loaded with uniforms and ... Combat Composition of the Soviet Army, 1943, pp. 280, 308 Combat Composition of the Soviet Army, 1944, p. 48 Affairs ... Combat Composition of the Soviet Army, 1942, p. 29 Affairs Directorate of the Ministry of Defense of the Soviet Union 1967a, p ...
However, in their composition, Poussin, painting in his seventies, used all the experience acquired through his life. ... In the original the body of Christ rises from the grapes. This has suggested an iconographic interpretation of the apple tree ... Fascinated by the picture, particularly its "sublime" colour, he was nevertheless critical of its composition and found it too ... The figures in the composition recall classic depictions in mediaeval miniatures. As Clark (1961) comments, the work is a ...
In accordance with her intention, Gertrude was buried in the Pilis Abbey, while certain parts of her body were buried in the ... Körmendi considered the author maybe used the mid-13th-century edition of the Hungarian chronicle composition. The Austrian ... A royal charter from 1214 refers to that "a certain part of her [Gertrude's] body" was buried in Lelesz. Pauler argued Andrew ... Illuminated Chronicle (Chronicon Pictum): also known as the 14th-century Hungarian chronicle composition, the only medieval ...
The work was further inspired by ASMR and its effects on the body. The work debuted with hexagram collective from Montreal, at ... She is known for new media artworks and electroacoustic music composition and her art is inspired by technology and emotions, ... In 2019 she began doctoral studies in music (composition and sound creation) at Université de Montréal under the direction of ... "This is Your Brain on Music: Researchers to create tunes written by body's emotional responses." National Post. SSHRC Research ...
... and agreeing that there were none except to push forward at once a strong body of cavalry to Paris - which would be the easier ... an attempt to trick the Uppsala orchestra into performing a composition containing an excerpt from the "La Marseillaise" led to ... arguing that the three orders were no more than arbitrary divisions of one body. By the end of June, the monarchy had ...
The Navy Board is the body responsible for the day-to-day running of His Majesty's Naval Service. Its composition is similar to ... The composition is as follows: Civilian Chris Weston Brian Gilvary Lance Batchelor Helen Miles Auriol Stevens Finance Director ...
Gatrell, Caroline (March 2011). "Managing the Maternal Body: A Comprehensive Review and Transdisciplinary Analysis: Managing ... and Panel Composition". Journal of Management. 30 (4): 435-452. doi:10.1016/ S2CID 145444585. Wade, Kim J.; ... Body Image. 1 (4): 373-384. doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2004.10.004. PMID 18089167. Bellizzi, Joseph A.; Hasty, Ronald W. (1 January ... body orientation and lean, hand movement, posture, etc.). Oftentimes physical attractiveness is included as part of nonverbal ...
... and original musical compositions (the ballet Viy includes the recording of Oleksandr Rodin's opus performed by the National ... parts of his flexible and omnipotent body. -Anna Arhipova on the costumes for the ballet The Little Prince In 2014, the costume ...
The density of LNG is roughly 0.41 kg/litre to 0.5 kg/litre, depending on temperature, pressure, and composition, compared to ... is the responsible body for LNG operators around the world and seeks to disseminate knowledge regarding the safe transport of ...
... and depend on the size of the impacting body and its composition. In the case of small meteoroids, the light emission ... Only in the case of the impact of SL9 was it possible to observe the impacting body before the collision with Jupiter; in all ... The region of impact did not show any presence of debris field, so the impactor was a small body. On September 10, 2012 at 11: ... From the observation of the impact events on Jupiter, it is possible to deduce information on the composition of comets and ...
J Microsc 267:27-33 Wernick J.H. (1973) Structure and Composition in Relation to Properties. In: Hannay N.B. (eds) The Chemical ... Neodymium commonly exists in two allotropic forms, with a transformation from a double hexagonal to a body-centered cubic ...
... exposure to certain phthalates during gestation and childhood may be associated with adolescent body composition, particularly ... Gestational and childhood phthalate exposures and adolescent body composition: The HOME study Taylor M Etzel 1 , Joseph M Braun ... Gestational and childhood phthalate exposures and adolescent body composition: The HOME study Taylor M Etzel et al. Environ Res ... Slightly weaker but similar patterns of association were found with other body composition measures; associations did not ...
Body composition describes all elements that make up your body. They include fat mass, muscle mass, bones and water. ... About body composition: what is your body made of?. Body composition includes all the elements that make up your body. It ... What is body composition?. The term "body composition" usually describes the percentage of fat, bone and muscle mass in your ... Body Composition 101. Body composition can give you a more accurate overall picture of your health, compared to other ...
This Total Body Composition Monitor measures your weight including body fat and body water as a percentage of your total weight ... How, exactly, does this scale differ - how is it able to "read" the "total body composition"? ... "harmless electric signal up one leg and down the other giving a reading of the lower portion of the body only - specifically ...
... on WN Network delivers the latest Videos and Editable pages for News & Events, including ... Composition of the human body. The composition of the human body can be looked at from the point of view of either mass ... most of the mass of the human body is oxygen, but most of the atoms in the human body are hydrogen atoms. Both mass-composition ... Body composition may also be analyzed in terms of molecular type (e.g., water, protein, connective tissue, fats (or lipids) ...
... Med Sci Sports ... Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between body weight and composition, muscular strength, ... as well as body composition and muscular strength, were measured in 60 college-aged women. The women were divided into three ... and total body BMC (2.44 +/- 0.30 kg) than the low body weight, sedentary (LWS) group, but were only greater than the average ...
Association Between Body Composition and Pain in Spinal Cord Injury. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Association Among Body Composition, Chronic Pain, Evoked Pain Sensitivity, and Adiposity-related Systemic Inflammation in ... Conditions that preclude measurement of body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA; e.g., lower limb contracture ... and explore the influence of body composition on these responses, in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury ...
... composition and weight-related health conditions in healthier older persons. Change in body composition in old age, ... The reasons for changes in weight and body composition in old age and the influence of these changes on health outcomes are not ... Serial measurement of body composition using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry will be accompanied by measures of anthropometry ... DYNAMICS OF HEALTH, AGING AND BODY COMPOSITION - FIELD CENTER NIH GUIDE, Volume 23, Number 45, December 23, 1994 RFP AVAILABLE ...
KEY FINDINGS Body composition analysis implicates a series of tests to measure the - Market research report and industry ... Global Body Composition Analyzer Market Forecast 2019-2027 Global Body Composition Analyzer Market Forecast 2019-2027 ... Global Body Composition Analyzer Market Forecast 2019-2027. KEY FINDINGS. Body composition analysis implicates a series of ... Table 43 Body Composition Analyzer Company Market Position 2017 Figures List. Figure 1 Global Body Composition Analyzer Market ...
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Single Cell Proteins Affect Growth Performance and Body Composition of Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. ...
Keywords : Body composition; Breast cancer; Quality of life; Obesity; Sarcopenia. · abstract in Spanish · text in English · ... PORCIUNCULA FRENZEL, Aline; ABERICI PASTORE, Carla and GONZALEZ, María Cristina. The influence of body composition on quality ... Objetive: To assess the role of body composition on quality of life and the impact of chemotherapy on both, in women with ... Body composition was estimated through bioelectrical impedance. The quality of life was evaluated using the World Health ...
... research that will help fill existing knowledge gaps and to identify opportunities to improve measurement of body composition ... Body Composition Measurements from Birth through 5 Years: Challenges, Gaps, and Existing & Emerging Technologies. May 30. - 31 ... Measurement of body composition during infancy and childhood has important uses in primary and specialty health care settings, ... Director of Body Composition Unit. Co-Director, New York Obesity Nutrition Research Center. Division of Endocrinology in ...
4. Ryder J, Ball S. Three-Dimensional Body Scanning as a Novel Technique for Body Composition Assessment: A Preliminary ... body fat and body water. The machine passes a low level electrical current through a persons body at touch points in the hands ... This machine measures body composition using Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) to give you a fast, non-invasive and ... 5. Separately Assess Body Weight, Body Fat, and BMI. Running & Fitnews. March 2011;29(2):3-8.. 6. Stahn A, Terblanche E, ...
Army to evaluate relationship between body composition and physical fitnessFORT EUSTIS, VA - The U.S. Army Center for Initial ... is leading the facilitation of a comprehensive body composition study examining the association between body composition and ... researchers will assess body size and composition by measuring Soldiers height, weight, circumferences, and body composition ... The study will use four measurement techniques to assess body composition: (1) standard AR 600-9 tape test, (2) dual-energy X- ...
... but not with measures of obesity and body composition. Studies are needed to determine the optimal amount of avocado that would ... and measures of obesity and body composition. Participants aged 12-18 years old (n = 534) from selected public and Adventist ... body fat (%BF) were determined from the anthropometric data. Compared to non-consumers, avocado consumers had significantly ... BMIz for general body adiposity, WHtR for central adiposity) and body composition (FFM, FM, and %BF) (data not shown). Table 4 ...
Useful measures of body composition beyond BMI could help physicians identify African American women at higher risk of death ... Most studies of this association have used body mass index (BMI) to estimate body fat and composition and have not thoroughly ... Understanding the association between body composition, including the amount and distribution of fat in the body, and breast ... Body Composition and Breast Cancer Survival in African American Women. Obesity is associated with both increased risk of breast ...
Couples body composition and time-to-pregnancy Rajeshwari Sundaram 1 , Sunni L Mumford 2 , Germaine M Buck Louis 3 ... Couples body composition and time-to-pregnancy Rajeshwari Sundaram et al. Hum Reprod. 2017. . ... Study question: Is couples body compositions associated with reduced fecundity as measured by a longer time-to-pregnancy (TTP ... Limitations, reasons for caution: BMI and waist circumference are proxy measures of body composition and residual confounding ...
An Interaction of Inorganic Arsenic Exposure With Body Weight and Composition on Type 2 Diabetes Indicators in Diversity ... An Interaction of Inorganic Arsenic Exposure With Body Weight and Composition on Type 2 Diabetes Indicators in Diversity ... Abstract An Interaction of Inorganic Arsenic Exposure With Body Weight and Composition on Type 2 Diabetes Indicators in ... Synopsis An Interaction of Inorganic Arsenic Exposure With Body Weight and Composition on Type 2 Diabetes Indicators in ...
Morphological characteristics in the body composition were evaluated by a battery of 10 variables: body height, body weight, ... To evaluate the body composition, Tanita body fat scale - model BC-418MA, was used. The principle of this scale is based on ... and three body composition assessment variables: body mass index, fat percentage and muscle mass. Anthropometer, caliper, and ... If the body composition is analyzed, it is wellknown that low fat percentage is desirable for high physical performance in all ...
The effects of chronic betaine supplementation on body composition and performance in collegiate females: a double-blind, ... Adaptation, PhysiologicalBetaineBody CompositionDietary SupplementsDouble-Blind MethodFemaleHumansMuscle StrengthMuscle, ... Body composition (BodPod), rectus femoris muscle thickness (B-mode Ultrasound), vertical jump, back squat 1RM and bench press ... Body composition (BodPod), rectus femoris muscle thickness (B-mode Ultrasound), vertical jump, back squat 1RM and bench press ...
The Art of Dance Composition: Writing the Body is an introduction to modern dance composition, providing clear and structured ... The Art of Dance Composition: Writing the Body includes access to performance videos that demonstrate the concepts illustrated ... The Art of Dance Composition: Writing the Body (Paperback). By Jenefer Davies ... and design relate to bodies moving through space. It approaches the practice of composition from many avenues, including the ...
The company is currently supplying devices to multiple branches of the U.S. military, including the Army, Air Force, and Navy.
... on body composition.9,13. To clarify the relationship between body composition and activity our study investigated the ... Body composition. The children in this study were compared with 1990 British growth references.18 When height was compared with ... Correlations between body composition (BMI z score, waist circumference) and Vo2max with time in minutes spent sedentary, and ... Physical fitness and body composition. Physical fitness was higher overall in boys than girls, and in boys there was a ...
Anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken, and socioeconomic data were gathered. Data were collected between ... The association between dietary intake of folate (F) and vitamin B12 (VB12) with body composition (BC) of adolescents aged 10- ... The impact of micronutrient consumption on body composition was also investigated. The sample population comprised 273 ... No relationship was found between body fat percentage and the consumption of FA or VB12. ...
Having a tool that enables us to track not only total body weight but body composition, segmental body fat and hydration; has ... based practice to a body composition based workflow. The percentage of body fat and the percentage of body muscle is way more ... They enable body composition to be analysed in relation to exact measurements of actual body weight, and the eight fixed ... The seca measurement results provide body composition (fat mass and fat-free mass) or the determination of total body water in ...
Lubans, D. R. & Cliff, D. P. (2011). Muscular fitness, body composition and physical self-perception in adolescents. Journal of ...
PURPOSE: The purpose of this preliminary study was to collect objective measures of body composition and cardiorespiratory ... This increase in body weight - and therefore BMI - was due to both lean and fat mass increases. In these 8 weeks, there was no ... RESULTS: Body weight increased significantly (p=0.022) by 1.68% (from 67.1±16.8 to 68.2±16.9kg), resulting in an increased BMI ... It was hypothesized that body weight, specifically fat mass, would be increased in the first semester of college. It was also ...
The developments of three components of body composition are inter-related during growth. BM was the most heritable trait while ... Besides body size, diet index (explaining 9% of variance), breast feeding duration (6%) and mothers BM (9%) predicted high BM ... The importance of monitoring body composition during puberty resides in the fact that many aspects of body composition during ... Body composition assessments. Bone mass (BM in kg), lean tissue mass (LM in kg), and fat mass (FM in kg) of the whole body were ...
Anthropometry, grip strength, body composition, and bone mass, size, and density were determined by dual-energy X-ray ... Anthropometry, grip strength, body composition, and bone mass, size, and density were determined by dual-energy X-ray ... L. Tack et al., "Proandrogenic and antiandrogenic progestins in transgender youth : differential effects on body composition ... Objective: To study prospectively the evolution of body composition and bone mass in late-pubertal trans adolescents using the ...
  • In a clinical setting, tests may include dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), in which x-ray beams of different intensities are passed through a person's body, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an imaging technique that estimates the volume of fat in your body. (
  • Serial measurement of body composition using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry will be accompanied by measures of anthropometry, strength, fitness, and physical function. (
  • BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) of the total body, and BMD of the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and femoral neck (via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), as well as body composition and muscular strength, were measured in 60 college-aged women. (
  • 1.Company J, Ball S. Body Composition Comparison: Bioelectric Impedance Analysis with Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry in Adult Athletes. (
  • The study will use four measurement techniques to assess body composition: (1) standard AR 600-9 tape test, (2) dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), (3) three-dimensional total body scanning (3D scanning), and (4) bio-electrical impedance analysis (BIA). (
  • Anthropometry, grip strength, body composition, and bone mass, size, and density were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography before the start of progestin and before addition of cross-sex hormones. (
  • Several techniques can be used to assess body composition , such as arm measurements, calf circumference, grip strength , bioelectrical impedance analysis , and imaging examinations, including computed tomography and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry . (
  • Understanding the association between body composition, including the amount and distribution of fat in the body, and breast cancer is important. (
  • FORT EUSTIS, VA - The U.S. Army Center for Initial Military Training (USACIMT), together with the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM), is leading the facilitation of a comprehensive body composition study examining the association between body composition and Soldier physical performance. (
  • To investigate the relationships between the time spent in specific intensities of activity and inactivity, cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in children. (
  • The purpose of this preliminary study was to collect objective measures of body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness levels within the first semester of current freshman students of a rural university. (
  • The global body composition analyzer market is anticipated to grow at a CAGR of 12.09% between 2019 and 2027 and generate revenue of $1301.5 million by 2027. (
  • Geographically, the global body composition analyzer market has been segmented on the basis of four major regions, namely, North America, Europe, Asia Pacific and the remaining countries collectively forming the Rest of World regional segment. (
  • The Asia-Pacific market for body composition analyzer is projected to be the fastest-growing region for the body composition analyzer market. (
  • One of the interesting experiences we had was trying out InBody 's body composition analyzer. (
  • The medical Body Composition Analyzer (mBCA 515) helps him determining the proportion of his patients visceral fat, as well as the course of their skeletal muscle mass. (
  • In a patient-focused setting, Dr. Nguyen, MD, and her colleagues use seca's medical body composition analyzer in addition to blood tests to quickly determine a patient's state of health. (
  • National reference data for body composition distributions by age, sex, race/ethnicity from survey measurements (e.g. (
  • Most studies of this association have used body mass index (BMI) to estimate body fat and composition and have not thoroughly evaluated other measurements, such as waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, percent body fat (e.g., visceral or subcutaneous) or fat mass index, to identify women at higher risk of developing breast cancer or of death after a breast cancer diagnosis. (
  • Anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken, and socioeconomic data were gathered. (
  • We have additionally used the seca measurements to assess the success of our KXU medispa whole body cryo therapy and red light PhotoBioModulation (infrared red) treatments with excellent results. (
  • This review of available evidence suggests that arm measurements seem to be well-established in assessing body composition in children who are critically ill , and that bioelectrical impedance analysis with phase angle, handgrip strength, calf circumference and ultrasound seem to be promising in this evaluation. (
  • Researchers can better understand the longitudinal associations between body composition and various health/disease outcomes throughout the lifespan, beginning at birth, and the impact of various obesity prevention and weight management interventions. (
  • There are also presently no approaches that can be used across all ages from birth to adolescence or adulthood for tracking the natural history of obesity or the longitudinal outcomes of intervention research on body composition. (
  • BMI may not be a good marker of body composition, particularly in Black/African American women, who have higher rates of obesity and a higher risk of death after breast cancer diagnosis than do women from other racial or ethnic populations. (
  • In this paper, we examined if habitual intake of avocado among adolescents is associated with their diet quality, food and nutrient intake, and measures of obesity and body composition. (
  • CONCLUSION: Body fat in active NFL players was lower than predicted by standard measures of obesity. (
  • there are controversial data in relation to the reduction in body mass index standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) needed to improve adiposity in the pediatric population with obesity . (
  • The researchers factored in body mass index (a weight-to-height ratio) to the criteria as well, to account for effects of obesity. (
  • Objective: To study prospectively the evolution of body composition and bone mass in late-pubertal trans adolescents using the proandrogenic or antiandrogenic progestins lynestrenol (L) and cyproterone acetate (CA), respectively. (
  • Effects of whole-body vibration on muscle strength, bone mineral content and density, and balance and body composition of children and adolescents with Down syndrome: a systematic review. (
  • The aim of this study is to verify the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training on the muscle strength of children and adolescents with Down syndrome. (
  • We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane, SciELO, Lilacs and PUBMED databases and included manual searches to identify randomised controlled trials to investigate the effects of WBV on the structure and body function of children and adolescents with Down syndrome. (
  • Results of this study showed that WBV training improves muscle strength, BMD, body composition and balance of children and adolescents with Down syndrome, and a more in-depth analysis of its effects on other variables in this population is required, as well as of parameters to be used. (
  • Body composition can give you a more accurate overall picture of your health, compared to other calculations such as BMI or body fat percentage , which don't account for factors such as lean muscle mass. (
  • The term "body composition" usually describes the percentage of fat, bone and muscle mass in your body. (
  • This Total Body Composition Monitor measures your weight including body fat and body water as a percentage of your total weight, making it the perfect gift for health conscious folks as they keep track of their weight before the onslaught of fatty foods that come our way every holiday season. (
  • These tests reveal the percentage of water in the body, the ratio of fat to lean muscle tissue, metabolic rate (BMR), and body mass index (BMI). (
  • Morphological characteristics in the body composition were evaluated by a battery of 10 variables: body height, body weight, waist circumference, triceps skinfold, biceps skinfold, skinfold of the back, abdominal skinfold, body mass index, fat percentage and muscle mass. (
  • No relationship was found between body fat percentage and the consumption of FA or VB12. (
  • The percentage of body fat and the percentage of body muscle is way more important clinically than a number on a scale. (
  • Body mass and body fat percentage remained unchanged in FAST and FED during the whole period of the investigation. (
  • One popular method frequently used at home is bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) , in which low-voltage electric currents circulate through the body via electrodes. (
  • BIA scales are the most widely used means of assessing body composition via bioelectrical impedance analysis from home. (
  • If DEXA scans have a higher level of accuracy, having your body composition regularly checked to track muscle gains or fat loss via other less expensive methods such as bioelectrical impedance is very useful. (
  • One of the companies, namely, Bodystat Ltd. (Bodystat) is engaged in researching bioelectrical impedance technology to manufacture advanced electronics that can measure body composition and hydration accurately within the human body, noninvasively. (
  • Body composition was estimated through bioelectrical impedance. (
  • This machine measures body composition using Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) to give you a fast, non-invasive and accurate reading of your lean body mass , body fat and body water. (
  • 0.001), body mass index (p = 0.03) and weight (p = 0.02) while quality of life stayed the same during the study. (
  • 4. Ryder J, Ball S. Three-Dimensional Body Scanning as a Novel Technique for Body Composition Assessment: A Preliminary Investigation. (
  • As expected, this preliminary assessment revealed that body weight and fat mass increased in students within the first semester of freshman year. (
  • Extending the value of routine lung screening CT with quantitative body composition assessment. (
  • Therefore, the inclusion of body composition assessment is important in the evaluation of these patients because, in addition to the nutrition aspect, body composition seems to predict clinical prognosis . (
  • Because your body composition is constantly changing, it's also important to use the same measurement method over time. (
  • Measurement of body composition during infancy and childhood has important uses in primary and specialty health care settings, clinical research, and national surveys and surveillance. (
  • These limitations and challenges can be considerable for body composition measurement in children from birth to 5 years. (
  • To identify specific needs for research that will help fill existing knowledge gaps and to identify opportunities to improve measurement of body composition components in infants from birth through age 5 years, with a special focus on measures that can be used longitudinally and for evaluation of intervention studies. (
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between body weight and composition, muscular strength, physical activity, and bone mineral density (BMD) in eumenorrheic college-aged women. (
  • Las características morfológicas en la composición corporal se evaluaron mediante una batería de 10 variables: altura corporal, peso corporal, circunferencia de la cintura, pliegue de tríceps, pliegue de bíceps, pliegue de la espalda, pliegue abdominal, índice de masa corporal, porcentaje de grasa y masa muscular. (
  • In adults and children, body composition has been acknowledged as a suitable metric to assess many health outcomes. (
  • To assess the role of body composition on quality of life and the impact of chemotherapy on both, in women with breast cancer. (
  • 5. Separately Assess Body Weight, Body Fat, and BMI. (
  • During the study, researchers will assess body size and composition by measuring Soldiers' height, weight, circumferences, and body composition and examine them in relationship to their most recent physical fitness score (either the ACFT or APFT) as well as the dates and types of physical limitations due to injury. (
  • A two-stage fully automatic pipeline is developed to assess the cross-sectional area of body composition components including subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), muscle, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and bone on T5, T8 and T10 vertebral levels. (
  • This meta-analysis aimed to assess the effects of exercise interventions on body composition and quality of life in overweight /obese breast cancer survivors . (
  • Salud, Servicios y Asesorías en Infectología, Hospital Militar to assess risk factors. (
  • The machine passes a low level electrical current through a person's body at touch points in the hands and feet. (
  • What is the best way to measure body composition? (
  • Conclusion: Proandrogenic and antiandrogenic progestins induce body composition changes in line with the desired appearance within 1 year of treatment. (
  • In conclusion, automatic body composition analysis using routine lung screening LDCT is feasible. (
  • The findings were similar for waist circumference alone, FMI, and total percent body fat. (
  • The study suggests that using these clinically useful measures of body composition beyond BMI, such as WHR and waist circumference, could help physicians identify Black/African American women who are at higher risk of death after a breast cancer diagnosis. (
  • DYNAMICS OF HEALTH, AGING AND BODY COMPOSITION - FIELD CENTER NIH GUIDE, Volume 23, Number 45, December 23, 1994 RFP AVAILABLE: NIH-AG-95-04 P.T. 34 Keywords: Epidemiology Physiology, Human Aging/Gerontology National Institute on Aging The National Institute on Aging (NIA) will support through a research contract, an epidemiologic study, Dynamics of Health, Aging and Body Composition (HEALTH ABC). (
  • The primary objective of the study is to examine the incidence of physical disability in relation to body composition and weight-related health conditions in healthier older persons. (
  • The study of the human body involves anatomy and physiology . (
  • When evaluating other measures of body composition, an NIMHD-supported study found additional clinical tools can be used to identify Black/African American women with a higher risk of death after being diagnosed with breast cancer. (
  • This study assessed 70 women, 77 and 73% of those were initially overweight and had excess of body fat, respectively. (
  • The results of the study will help inform potential future changes to the Army Body Composition Program. (
  • In this longitudinal study, we examined the development of three components of body composition during growth and attempted to answer the following questions: i) Do BM, LM and FM track, and if so, how are they inter-related from prepuberty to early adulthood? (
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance training in a fasted versus a fed state during Ramadan on body composition and metabolic parameters in bodybuilders. (
  • We study the feasibility of body composition analysis using chest low dose computed tomography (LDCT). (
  • In this study, we think of dancing as a privileged agent in the production of bodies and subjectivities. (
  • They measured the women's height, weight, and waist and hip circumference and calculated their body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). (
  • Unlike body mass index (BMI) , which calculates your weight range (as underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese) based on only your weight and height, body composition takes into account the various components your body is made of. (
  • They also used a special scale to measure the amount of fat in the women's bodies and calculated fat mass index (FMI). (
  • This type of read out can be a useful tool in knowing what your body is comprised of, whereas stepping on the scale or measuring your body mass index (BMI) gives you somewhat limited data to work with. (
  • Compared to routine care, exercise intervention significantly decreased the body mass index [WMD (95% CI) = -1.37 (-2.50, -0.23) kg/m2] and body fat [WMD (95% CI) = -3.80 (-6.59, -1.01) %] of overweight /obese breast cancer survivors . (
  • Exercise intervention significantly decreased the body mass index and body fat of overweight /obese breast cancer survivors . (
  • Mainly used in physical fitness, since weight alone may not be a good indicator of how health you are, the term "body composition" was borrowed from the chemical interpretation of body composition , which focuses on the molecular distribution of the human body to differentiate the amount of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and other elements. (
  • When we compare two people who are classified as "obese" according to BMI standards, but who have the same size, weight and age, their body composition may still be drastically different. (
  • The reasons for changes in weight and body composition in old age and the influence of these changes on health outcomes are not fully understood. (
  • The women were divided into three groups: 1) low body weight athletes involved in weight-bearing, collegiate sports (N = 20), 2) matched low body weight and sedentary (N = 20), and 3) average body weight and sedentary (N = 20). (
  • The largest share of the revenue for body composition analyzers in the APAC market came from healthcare facilities, followed by weight loss and therapy facilities. (
  • It has been more than 30 years since the Army first started using body fat standards in place of height and weight tables. (
  • David Voellinger, MD, describes the shift in focus from a weight loss (BMI) based practice to a body composition based workflow. (
  • It was hypothesized that body weight, specifically fat mass, would be increased in the first semester of college. (
  • Body weight increased significantly (p=0.022) by 1.68% (from 67.1±16.8 to 68.2±16.9kg), resulting in an increased BMI (p=0.018) by 1.8% (from 24.5±5.2 to 24.9±5.3 kg/m 2 ). (
  • This increase in body weight - and therefore BMI - was due to both lean and fat mass increases. (
  • There are many unanswered questions regarding the patterns and health impact of changes in weight and body composition in old age. (
  • Certain body composition phenotypes, like sarcopenia, are well established as predictive markers for post-surgery complications and overall survival of lung cancer patients. (
  • With the relatively long life of body composition analyzers, along with rapid innovations in this product segment, the resale of these products will enhance significantly. (
  • Moreover, women with excess of body fat showed a significantly lower initial general health score, compared to those with normal body fat (p = 0.02). (
  • Results: Using L, lean mass [+3.2 kg (8.6%)] and grip strength [+3 kg (10.6%)] significantly increased, which coincided with a more masculine body shape in trans boys. (
  • The current passes through the muscle, fat and water at different rates making it possible to get an accurate reading of a participants body composition. (
  • Participants of Ramadan often maintain physical activity during the holy month for recreation and health purposes, and this has the potential to further affect body mass and produce dehydration. (
  • The significance of the differences between the players of the three the most successful football clubs in the morphological characteristics and variables for assessing body composition were determined by ANOVA and LSD post hoc test. (
  • El ANOVA y el LSD post hoc determinaron la importancia de las diferencias entre los jugadores de los tres clubes de fútbol más exitosos en las características morfológicas y las variables para evaluar la composición corporal. (
  • La prueba de ANOVA encontró que los jugadores de fútbol de los tres clubes mencionados tienen diferencias estadísticamente significativas en una variable que estima la circunferencia de la cintura. (
  • magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), multicompartment models including TBW by deuterium dilution, total body potassium counting, and bone mineral content by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). (
  • The studies included in this systematic review showed that WBV training has positive effects on bone mineral density (BMD), body composition and balance. (
  • Major objectives relate to observations that change in body composition in old age, particularly the increase in body fat and the decline in lean mass and bone mineral, represent a common pathway by which multiple diseases contribute to disability. (
  • The Art of Dance Composition: Writing the Body is an introduction to modern dance composition, providing clear and structured approaches to designing and defining movement that demystify the creative process. (
  • It approaches the practice of composition from many avenues, including the use of digital tools such as video and video editing software, digital mapping, and motion capture, and through improvisation, sourced gestures, and inspiration from visual art, found objects, and chance methodology. (
  • Change in body composition in old age, particularly loss of muscle mass and bone, may be a common pathway by which several diseases contribute to risk of disability. (
  • They have limitations in measuring other parameters such as body water level and muscle mass. (
  • Based on your results, the InBody will make its suggestions for how much muscle and fat you should gain or lose in order for you to achieve your ideal body composition. (
  • Body composition (BodPod), rectus femoris muscle thickness (B-mode Ultrasound), vertical jump, back squat 1RM and bench press 1RM were assessed pre- and post-training. (
  • The body composition analysis provides him with accurate information about a test subject's fat mass, fat-free mass, and skeletal muscle mass. (
  • ALM was obtained through total body scans measuring bone-free muscle mass in the arms and legs. (
  • Exercise interventions on body composition and quality of life of overweight/obese breast cancer survivors: a meta-analysis. (
  • A better understanding of the most appropriate body composition measures to evaluate risk of developing and death from breast cancer after diagnosis in Black/African American women could ultimately help reduce this health disparity. (
  • Besides body size, diet index (explaining 9% of variance), breast feeding duration (6%) and mother's BM (9%) predicted high BM. (
  • We highlight the importance of further investigation about the impact of body fat accumulation on those women's quality of life. (
  • David Nieman, PhD, Director of the Human Performance Lab at Appalachian State University is using a seca mBCA 514 medical body composition analyser to accurately determine the fat-free mass and thus come to the RMR in seconds, rather than the more time intensive but less accurate methods using a metabolic chamber or cart. (
  • Together these studies emphasized that when studying the development of body composition, bone mass (BM), lean mass (LM), and fat mass (FM) should be considered together. (
  • Although there are several methods to estimate body fat level, none of them provide a high degree of accurate results. (
  • The aim of this research was to determine the differences among the football players of three the most successful football clubs in Kosovo, FC Trepca ´89, FC Prishtina and FC Besa Peje in a terms of morphological characteristics and body composition. (
  • but, whether betaine enhances body composition or performance in female subjects is currently unknown. (
  • Felice Gersh, Medical Director at the Integrative Medical Group of Irvine, describes how she uses body composition analysis on Patients that are on the Fasting Mimicking Diet. (
  • To illustrate both views, the adult male human body is approximately 57% water , and water is 11% hydrogen by mass but 67% by count of atoms (i.e. 67 atomic percent ). (
  • Body composition may also be analyzed in terms of molecular type (e.g., water , protein , connective tissue , fats (or lipids ) apatite (in bones), carbohydrates (such as glycogen and glucose ) and DNA . (
  • Body composition analysis implicates a series of tests to measure the ratio of different body compounds. (
  • A subgroup analysis showed the duration of intervention was a source of heterogeneity on body composition . (
  • From conception to old age, body composition is constantly changing, and it is changing at atomic, molecular, cellular, tissue and whole body level. (
  • Additional information will provide relationships between type and duty time loss due to injury or pregnancy and associations to body composition and physical performance. (
  • In girls, body composition was related to fitness but not to specific components of physical activity. (
  • It would appear plausible to assume that higher levels and intensities of physical activity in children result in a more favourable body composition. (
  • 11 There is further uncertainty when one examines gender differences as some investigators have found a relationship between levels of physical activity and body composition in boys but not in girls. (
  • The composition of the human body can be looked at from the point of view of either mass composition, or atomic composition. (
  • Both mass-composition and atomic composition figures are given below (see pie graphs and table). (
  • Described as the BBC's "first major TV series on human biology", it took over two years to make and aimed to be the definitive set of programmes on the human body. (
  • In order to set up cost-effective programmes promoting healthy growth in body composition, more attention should be paid to what factors contribute to intra- and inter-individual variation in BM, LM and FM during adolescent growth, and in what ways. (
  • The developments of three components of body composition are inter-related during growth. (

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