Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Electric Impedance: The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Skinfold Thickness: The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Body Fluid Compartments: The two types of spaces between which water and other body fluids are distributed: extracellular and intracellular.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Basal Metabolism: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Body Fat Distribution: Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Physical Fitness: The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Calorimetry, Indirect: Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Deuterium Oxide: The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.Body Constitution: The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Indicator Dilution Techniques: Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Densitometry: The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Sarcopenia: Progressive decline in muscle mass due to aging which results in decreased functional capacity of muscles.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Human Growth Hormone: A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Puberty: A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.Plethysmography, Impedance: Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Deuterium: Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.Waist-Hip Ratio: The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)Neutron Activation Analysis: Activation analysis in which the specimen is bombarded with neutrons. Identification is made by measuring the resulting radioisotopes. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.Waist Circumference: The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Resistance Training: A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Intra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Viscera: Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Anorexia Nervosa: An eating disorder that is characterized by the lack or loss of APPETITE, known as ANOREXIA. Other features include excess fear of becoming OVERWEIGHT; BODY IMAGE disturbance; significant WEIGHT LOSS; refusal to maintain minimal normal weight; and AMENORRHEA. This disorder occurs most frequently in adolescent females. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Somatotypes: Particular categories of body build, determined on the basis of certain physical characteristics. The three basic body types are ectomorph (thin physique), endomorph (rounded physique), and mesomorph (athletic physique).Cachexia: General ill health, malnutrition, and weight loss, usually associated with chronic disease.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Physical Education and Training: Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Plethysmography: Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Weight Lifting: A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Radioisotope Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.TriglyceridesBirth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.TennesseeCohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Growth Disorders: Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Dielectric Spectroscopy: A technique of measuring the dielectric properties of materials, which vary over a range of frequencies depending on the physical properties of the material. The technique involves measuring, over a range of frequencies, ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE and phase shift of an electric field as it passes through the material.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Rest: Freedom from activity.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Subcutaneous Fat: Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Water-Electrolyte Imbalance: Disturbances in the body's WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Potassium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of potassium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. K atoms with atomic weights 37, 38, 40, and 42-45 are radioactive potassium isotopes.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Vagotomy, Truncal: Bilateral dissection of the abdominal branches of the vagus nerve. It is used frequently in the surgical management of duodenal and gastric ulcers, as well as in physiologic studies of gastrointestinal secretion and motility.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Hypopituitarism: Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.Hand Strength: Force exerted when gripping or grasping.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin: A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Athletes: Individuals who have developed skills, physical stamina and strength or participants in SPORTS or other physical activities.HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome: Defective metabolism leading to fat maldistribution in patients infected with HIV. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and probably involves some combination of infection-induced alterations in metabolism, direct effects of antiretroviral therapy, and patient-related factors.Hormone Replacement Therapy: Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Body Surface Area: The two dimensional measure of the outer layer of the body.Animal Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES, as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease in animals.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Nutritional Support: The administration of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient by means other than normal eating. It does not include FLUID THERAPY which normalizes body fluids to restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.GuatemalaAbdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Calorimetry: The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Blood Urea Nitrogen: The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Thigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Sedentary Lifestyle: Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Sports: Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.Protein-Energy Malnutrition: The lack of sufficient energy or protein to meet the body's metabolic demands, as a result of either an inadequate dietary intake of protein, intake of poor quality dietary protein, increased demands due to disease, or increased nutrient losses.HIV Wasting Syndrome: Involuntary weight loss of greater than 10 percent associated with intermittent or constant fever and chronic diarrhea or fatigue for more than 30 days in the absence of a defined cause other than HIV infection. A constant feature is major muscle wasting with scattered myofiber degeneration. A variety of etiologies, which vary among patients, contributes to this syndrome. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, p1611).Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Breakfast: The first meal of the day.Linoleic Acids, Conjugated: A collective term for a group of around nine geometric and positional isomers of LINOLEIC ACID in which the trans/cis double bonds are conjugated, where double bonds alternate with single bonds.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Glycemic Index: A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Linoleic Acid: A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Sexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Subcutaneous Fat, Abdominal: Fatty tissue under the SKIN in the region of the ABDOMEN.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.Prader-Willi Syndrome: An autosomal dominant disorder caused by deletion of the proximal long arm of the paternal chromosome 15 (15q11-q13) or by inheritance of both of the pair of chromosomes 15 from the mother (UNIPARENTAL DISOMY) which are imprinted (GENETIC IMPRINTING) and hence silenced. Clinical manifestations include MENTAL RETARDATION; MUSCULAR HYPOTONIA; HYPERPHAGIA; OBESITY; short stature; HYPOGONADISM; STRABISMUS; and HYPERSOMNOLENCE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p229)Anabolic Agents: These compounds stimulate anabolism and inhibit catabolism. They stimulate the development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Wasting Syndrome: A condition of involuntary weight loss of greater then 10% of baseline body weight. It is characterized by atrophy of muscles and depletion of lean body mass. Wasting is a sign of MALNUTRITION as a result of inadequate dietary intake, malabsorption, or hypermetabolism.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Animals, Suckling: Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.Obesity, Abdominal: A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.

Long-term effects of growth hormone (GH) on body fluid distribution in GH deficient adults: a four months double blind placebo controlled trial. (1/7737)

OBJECTIVE: Short-term growth hormone (GH) treatment normalises body fluid distribution in adult GH deficient patients, but the impact of long-term treatment on body fluid homeostasis has hitherto not been thoroughly examined in placebo controlled trials. To investigate if the water retaining effect of GH persists for a longer time we examined the impact of 4 months GH treatment on extracellular volume (ECV) and plasma volume (PV) in GH deficient adults. DESIGN: Twenty-four (18 male, 6 female) adult GH deficient patients aged 25-64 years were included and received either GH (n=11) or placebo (n=13) in a double blind parallel design. METHODS: Before and at the end of each 4 month period ECV and PV were assessed directly using 82Br- and 125I-albumin respectively, and blood samples were obtained. RESULTS: During GH treatment ECV increased significantly (before: 20.48+/-0.99 l, 4 months: 23.77+/-1.38 l (P<0.01)), but remained unchanged during placebo administration (before: 16.92+/-1.01 l, 4 months: 17.60+/-1.24 l (P=0.37)). The difference between the groups was significant (P<0.05). GH treatment also increased PV (before: 3.39+/-0.27 l. 4 months: 3.71+/-0.261 (P=0.01)), although an insignificant increase in the placebo treated patients (before: 2.81+/-0.18 l, 4 months: 2.89+/-0.20 l (P=0.37)) resulted in an insignificant treatment effect (P=0.07). Serum insulin-like growth factor-I increased significantly during GH treatment and was not affected by placebo treatment. Plasma renin (mIU/l) increased during GH administration (before: 14.73+/-2.16, 4 months: 26.00+/-6.22 (P=0.03)) and remained unchanged following placebo (before: 20.77+/-5.13, 4 months: 20.69+/-6.67 (P=0.99)) leaving no significant treatment effect (P=0.08). CONCLUSION: The long-term impact of GH treatment on body fluid distribution in adult GH deficient patients involves expansion of ECV and probably also PV. These data substantiate the role of GH as a regulator of fluid homeostasis in adult GH deficiency.  (+info)

Changes in body composition and leptin levels during growth hormone (GH) treatment in short children with various GH secretory capacities. (2/7737)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to follow changes in body composition, estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), in relation to changes in leptin during the first year of GH therapy in order to test the hypothesis that leptin is a metabolic signal involved in the regulation of GH secretion in children. DESIGN AND METHODS: In total, 33 prepubertal children were investigated. Their mean (S.D.) chronological age at the start of GH treatment was 11.5 (1.6) years, and their mean height was -2.33 (0.38) S.D. scores (SDS). GH was administered subcutaneously at a daily dose of 0.1 (n=26) or 0.2 (n=7) IU/kg body weight. Ten children were in the Swedish National Registry for children with GH deficiency, and twenty-three children were involved in trials of GH treatment for idiopathic short stature. Spontaneous 24-h GH secretion was studied in 32 of the children. In the 24-h GH profiles, the maximum level of GH was determined and the secretion rate estimated by deconvolution analysis (GHt). Serum leptin levels were measured at the start of GH treatment and after 10 and 30 days and 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment. Body composition measurements, by DXA, were performed at baseline and 12 months after the onset of GH treatment. RESULTS: After 12 months of GH treatment, mean height increased from -2.33 to -1.73 SDS and total body fat decreased significantly by 3.0 (3.3)%. Serum leptin levels were decreased significantly at all time points studied compared with baseline. There was a significant correlation between the change in total body fat and the change in serum leptin levels during the 12 months of GH treatment, whereas the leptin concentration per unit fat mass did not change. In a multiple stepwise linear regression analysis with 12 month change in leptin levels as the dependent variable, the percentage change in fat over 12 months, the baseline fat mass (%) of body mass and GHt accounted for 24.0%, 11.5% and 12.2% of the variability respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant correlations between changes in leptin and fat and endogenous GH secretion in short children with various GH secretory capacities. Leptin may be the messenger by which the adipose tissue affects hypothalamic regulation of GH secretion.  (+info)

Influences of low intensity exercise on body composition, food intake and aerobic power of sedentary young females. (3/7737)

The present study was designed to investigate the influences of aerobic training on the body composition, aerobic power and food intake of sedentary young females in relation to the initial levels of these variables. Thirty one untrained college females (age = 19.8 +/- 0.2 yr, stature = 154.4 +/- 0.8 cm, body mass = 53.3 +/- 1.2 kg, mean +/- SEM) participated in an exercise regimen consisting of 40% of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) for 30 minutes per day on a bicycle ergometer 5 times a week in a training period of 12 weeks. Food consumption was ad libitum but the content of daily food intake was recorded accurately throughout the whole training period and analyzed weekly. The average body mass index (BMI) and fat mass relative to body mass (% FM), estimated from the data of skinfold thickness, decreased significantly after the 12 wk training. There were significant negative correlations between the relative changes (% delta s) and initial levels of both body mass (r = -0.447, p < 0.05) and fat mass (r = -0.638, p < 0.05), but the corresponding correlation for lean body mass (LBM) was not significant (r = 0.186, p > 0.05). While the energy intake during the training period did not differ significantly from that during the control period on the average, the % delta value in energy intake between the two periods was negatively correlated to the energy intake during the control period (r = -0.604, p < 0.05). In addition, there were low but significant negative correlations between both the initial levels of BMI and %FM and % delta in energy intake; r = -0.413 (p < 0.05) for BMI and r = -0.393 (p < 0.05) for %FM. However, no significant correlations were found between % delta in energy intake and those in body composition variables (r = 0.116 to 0.237, p > 0.05). On the average VO2max relative to body mass (VO2max/BM) increased significantly, but VO2max relative to LBM (VO2max/LBM) did not. However, not only VO2max/BM but also VO2max/LBM was negatively correlated to the initial level; r = -0.671 (p < 0.05) for VO2max/BM and r = -0.625 for VO2max/LBM. Thus, the present results indicate that whether the body composition, food intake and aerobic power of sedentary young females can be modified by the exercise regimen eliciting 40% of VO2max depends on their initial levels.  (+info)

Gender-specific differences in dialysis quality (Kt/V): 'big men' are at risk of inadequate haemodialysis treatment. (4/7737)

BACKGROUND: Inadequate dialysis dose is closely related to mortality and morbidity of maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) patients. According to the DOQI guidelines a minimum prescribed dialysis dose of single-pool Kt/V (Kt/Vsp)=1.3, equivalent to equilibrated double pool Kt/V (e-Kt/Vdp)=1.1, is recommended. Knowledge of patient-related risk factors for inadequate delivery of hacmodialysis would be helpful to select patient subgroups for intensive control ofdialysis adequacy. METHODS: A retrospective survey was conducted to assess the prevalence of inadequate dialysis dose according to DOQI criteria during a 7-month period. A total of 320 e-Kt/Vdp measurements in 62 MHD patients were evaluated (mean effective dialysis time 222+/-32 min). Residual renal function (RRF) was expressed as renal weekly Kt/V (r-Kt/Vweek) and included into assessment of total weekly renal and dialytic Kt/V (t-Kt/Vweek). RESULTS: Inadequacy (e-Kt/Vdp<1.10) was prevalent in 37.2% of all measurements and in 22/62 patients (35.5%). In 54% of underdialysed patients r-Kt/Vweek compensated for insufficient dialytic urea removal. Mean weekly Kt/V was inadequate (t-Kt/Vweek<3.30) in 12/62 patients (19.4%) of whom 91.7% (11/12) were male. Body-weight, urea distribution volume (UDV). and body-surface area (BSA) were significantly higher in inadequately is adequately dialysed males. UDV>42.0 litres or BSA>2.0 m2 and a lack of RRF (r-Kt/Vweek<0.3) put 'big men' at increased risk to receive an inadequate dose of dialysis. CONCLUSION: Our data identify patients at risk for inadequate haemodialysis treatment. Special attention should be focused on 'big men' with UDV>42.0 litres or BSA>2.0 m2. In this subset of patients frequent measurements of t-Kt/Vweek and assessment of RRF should be mandatory.  (+info)

Near infra-red interactance for nutritional assessment of dialysis patients. (5/7737)

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is a common problem in dialysis patients and may affect up to one-third of patients. Near-infrared interactance (NIR) is a novel approach to estimate body composition and per cent total body fat. METHODS: We used near-infrared interactance (Futrex 5000) to estimate the body composition including body fat percentage, as well as subjective global assessment (SGA), anthropometric measurements including mid-arm circumference (MAC), triceps and biceps skinfold thickness, calculated mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), body mass index (BMI), and laboratory values. NIR score, SGA assessment and anthropometric parameters were measured shortly after the end of a dialysis session. NIR measurement was made by placing a Futrex sensor on the nonaccess upper arm for several seconds. Serum albumin, transferrin (reflected by total iron binding capacity), and total cholesterol concentrations were performed as well. RESULTS: Thirty-four patients (20 men and 14 women) were selected from a pool of 120 haemodialysis patients. Their ages ranged from 26 to 86 years (58+/-14 years). Time on dialysis ranged from 8 months to 19 years (4.5+/-4.6 years). NIR scores were significantly different in three SGA groups: (A) well-nourished, 32.5+/-6.9%; (B) mildly to moderately malnourished, 29.2+/-5.3%; and (C) severely malnourished, 23.2+/-10.2% (P<0.001). Pearson correlation coefficients (r) between the NIR score and nutritionally relevant parameters were significant (P<0.001) for body mass index (r=+0.81), mid-arm circumference (r=+0.74), triceps skin fold (r=+0.54), biceps skin fold (r=+0.55), and mid-arm muscle circumference (r=+0.54). An inverse correlation was also found between NIR and years dialysed (r=-0.49, P=0.004), denoting a lesser body fat percentage according to NIR for patients dialysed longer. NIR was correlated with serum transferrin (r=+0.41, P=0.016) and cholesterol (r=+0.39, P=0.022) and marginally with serum albumin (r=+0.29, P=0.097). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that NIR, which can be performed within seconds, may serve as an objective indicator of nutritional status in haemodialysis patients. More comparative and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the validity of NIR measurements in nutritional evaluation of dialysis patients.  (+info)

Utilization of bioelectrical impedance to predict carcass composition of Holstein steers at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age. (6/7737)

The objective of this experiment was to study the usefulness of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in determining soft tissue composition (STC) and carcass fat-free mass (CFFM) of Holstein steers at different ages. Growth data and prediction of STC and CFFM were determined for four groups of Holstein steers: 12 of 3 mo, 12 of 6 mo, 15 of 9 mo, and 16 of 12 mo of age. Average weight for animals at 3, 6, 9, and 12 mo were 96.6, 204.7, 354.1, and 465.9 kg, respectively. Average fat content of carcass soft tissue at 3, 6, 9, and 12 mo were 2.6, 9.8, 18.2, and 24.6%, respectively. Average protein content of the carcass soft tissue was 20.7% at 3 mo, 20% at 6 mo, 18.30% at 9 mo, and 16.9% at 12 mo of age. Feed and water were withheld for 20 h before the BIA was applied. Steers were sedated and forced to recumbency in a lateral position on their right sides over a nonconductive surface. Two electrodes were placed on each limb of the right side (metatarsal and metacarpal regions on back and front foot, respectively). Resistance (Rs) and reactance (Xc) were obtained by attaching four terminals to the electrodes. Impedance and other predictors such as Vol1 (L/Rs), Vol2 (L2/(RS2+Xc2).5, Vol3 (geometrical animal volume), L (2 x height + body length), and L2 were calculated from Rs and Xc, and body measurements and were used to generate prediction equations for CFFM and carcass soft tissue composition. Carcass fat-free mass was predicted accurately for all age groups and the pooled data (r2 = .99 at 3 mo, .99 at 6 mo, .97 at 9 mo, .77 at 12 mo, and .98 for the pooled data). Correlation coefficients between impedance readings and CFFM and carcass composition were calculated. Carcass CFFM and kilograms of H2O for the pooled data (across age groups) were both correlated highly to Vol1 (.97), Vol2 (.95), L (.97), and L2 (.97).  (+info)

African runners exhibit greater fatigue resistance, lower lactate accumulation, and higher oxidative enzyme activity. (7/7737)

Nine African and eight Caucasian 10-km runners resident at sea level volunteered. Maximal O2 consumption and peak treadmill velocity (PTV) were measured by using a progressive test, and fatigue resistance [time to fatigue (TTF)] was measured by using a newly developed high-intensity running test: 5 min at 72, 80, and 88% of individual PTV followed by 92% PTV to exhaustion. Skeletal muscle enzyme activities were determined in 12 runners and 12 sedentary control subjects. In a comparison of African and Caucasian runners, mean 10-km race time, maximal O2 consumption, and PTV were similar. In African runners, TTF was 21% longer (P < 0.01), plasma lactate accumulation after 5 min at 88% PTV was 38% lower (P < 0.05), and citrate synthase activity was 50% higher (27.9 +/- 7.5 vs. 18.6 +/- 2.1 micromol. g wet wt-1. min-1, P = 0.02). Africans accumulated lactate at a slower rate with increasing exercise intensity (P < 0.05). Among the entire group of runners, a higher citrate synthase activity was associated with a longer TTF (r = 0.70, P < 0.05), a lower plasma lactate accumulation (r = -0.73, P = 0.01), and a lower respiratory exchange ratio (r = -0.63, P < 0.05). We conclude that the African and Caucasian runners in the present study differed with respect to oxidative enzyme activity, rate of lactate accumulation, and their ability to sustain high-intensity endurance exercise.  (+info)

Effect of leptin deficiency on metabolic rate in ob/ob mice. (8/7737)

Reduced metabolic rate may contribute to weight gain in leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice; however, available studies have been criticized for referencing O2 consumption (VO2) to estimated rather than true lean body mass. To evaluate whether leptin deficiency reduces energy expenditure, four separate experiments were performed: 1) NMR spectroscopy was used to measure fat and nonfat mass, permitting VO2 to be referenced to true nonfat mass; 2) dietary manipulation was used in an attempt to eliminate differences in body weight and composition between ob/ob and C57BL/6J mice; 3) short-term effects of exogenous leptin (0.3 mg. kg-1. day-1) on VO2 were examined; and 4) body weight and composition were compared in leptin-repleted and pair-fed ob/ob animals. ob/ob animals had greater mass, less lean body mass, and a 10% higher metabolic rate when VO2 was referenced to lean mass. Dietary manipulation achieved identical body weight in ob/ob and C57BL/6J animals; however, despite weight gain in C57BL/6J animals, percent fat mass remained higher in ob/ob animals (55 vs. 30%). Exogenous leptin increased VO2 in ob/ob but not control animals. Weight loss in leptin-repleted ob/ob mice was greater than in pair-fed animals (45 vs. 17%). We conclude, on the basis of the observed increase in VO2 and accelerated weight loss seen with leptin repletion, that leptin deficiency causes a reduction in metabolic rate in ob/ob mice. In contrast, these physiological studies suggest that comparison of VO2 in obese and lean animals does not produce useful information on the contribution of leptin to metabolism.  (+info)

A preliminary investigation in our laboratory has demonstrated the advantage of using 4-compartment modeling to assess body composition in SCI adults. In comparing body composition analyses techniques in 20 individuals with SCI, we found Total Error to be 8.0% with Dual X-ray Absorptiometry, 8.4% with hydrodensitometry, 11.5% with bioelectrical impedance analysis, and 21.8% with standard skinfold equations when compared to 4-compartment modeling, the currently accepted gold standard for body composition assessment. To date there is no gold standard for the determination of body composition in SCI individuals ...
A preliminary investigation in our laboratory has demonstrated the advantage of using 4-compartment modeling to assess body composition in SCI adults. In comparing body composition analyses techniques in 20 individuals with SCI, we found Total Error to be 8.0% with Dual X-ray Absorptiometry, 8.4% with hydrodensitometry, 11.5% with bioelectrical impedance analysis, and 21.8% with standard skinfold equations when compared to 4-compartment modeling, the currently accepted gold standard for body composition assessment. To date there is no gold standard for the determination of body composition in SCI individuals ...
Body composition in infancy may be of importance for later health. In particular, infant body composition may be relevant regarding obesity risk in childhood. Recent advances in body composition methodology using air displacement plethysmography (ADP) have provided possibilities to accurately measure body composition of infants in a quick and non-invasive manner. The aims of this thesis were to study associations of parental body composition using ADP, glucose homeostasis during pregnancy and infant genetics with infant body composition also using ADP. When using ADP in adults, a correction for the thoracic gas volume (TGV) is needed and TGV can be predicted using equations developed in nonpregnant adults. Thus another aim was to study the validity of using such equations during pregnancy.. Parent couples were invited to this study at a routine visit to a maternity clinic in Linköping between September 2008 and October 2010. When the mother was in gestational week 32, parental body composition ...
Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world and recent evidence shows that diets high in pork protein, with and without energy restriction, may have favourable effects on body composition. However, it is unclear whether these effects on body composition are specific to pork or whether consumption of other high protein meat diets may have the same benefit. Therefore we aimed to compare regular consumption of pork, beef and chicken on indices of adiposity. In a nine month randomised open-labelled cross-over intervention trial, 49 overweight or obese adults were randomly assigned to consume up to 1 kg/week of pork, chicken or beef, in an otherwise unrestricted diet for three months, followed by two further three month periods consuming each of the alternative meat options. BMI and waist/hip circumference were measured and body composition was determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intake was assessed using three day weighed food diaries. Energy expenditure was estimated from
The objective of this study was to examine the association of self-reported physical activity (PA) with body composition in 290 college students (49% male, 60% White) 18-25 years of age. Outcome measures included: self-reported PA levels calculated in MET-hrs·wk-1 from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ); body mass index (BMI; in kg·m-2); and body composition variables estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean activity levels of the sample were 39.8 ± 23.8 MET-hrs·wk-1. Participants were divided into quartiles of PA levels: ≥0 to |24.0, ≥24.0 to |34.0, ≥34.0 to |51.25, and ≥51.25 MET-hrs·wk-1 and body composition variables were compared by group. Chi-square analyses revealed a significant difference for gender by PA quartile [χ2 (3, N=290) = 32.42, p | 0.0001], and for gender by race by PA quartile [χ2 (9, N=290) = 37.82, p | 0.0001]. MET-hrs·wk-1 was inversely correlated with %BF (r = -0.40, p | 0.0001) but not BMI (r = 0.05, p = 0.43). When
About The BOD POD. The BOD POD Body Composition Tracking System is the only device of its type that uses Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP) to determine body fat and lean body mass in adults, children, and infants. Its non-invasive Gold Standard technology provides highly accurate body composition assessments quickly and easily. About COSMED. COSMED is the manufacturer of innovative body composition, cardio pulmonary, and metabolic assessment devices. COSMED USA, the North American subsidiary of the Italian-based parent company, COSMED srl, is located in Concord, California. Additional offices are located in China, Germany, Australia, and the UK, along with a distributor network covering more than 70 countries. ...
Excessive BF is associated with morbidity and mortality in severe obesity. After surgical treatment, effectiveness of weight loss has strong correlation with changes in body composition (fat and lean mass), emphasizing the importance of its evaluation by a simple, accurate, reproducible and inexpensive method [9-32]. There are three different models of body compartments used for body composition assessment: two compartment (2C) model (Fat Mass and Fat Free Mass), three compartment (3C) model (Fat Mass, Total Body Water and Dry Fat Free Mass) and four compartment (4C) model (Fat Mass, Total Body Water, minerals and residual)[6,7]. The traditional 2C model divides the body into fat and Fat Free Mass (FFM). The assumption that FFM has a constant density in health and disease subjects is an important limitation of the model. The FFM includes protein, TBW, mineral tissue (soft tissue and bone) and glycogen. Then, any difference in the proportions of these components will lead to FM or FFM estimation ...
Vol 40: Body composition measurements.. This article is from Italian Journal of Pediatrics, volume 40.AbstractNone . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
A body composition measuring instrument includes a body composition calculating unit for calculating the body composition of a user by using a plurality of electrodes, a reference value storage region for storing information of a reference value related to the past body composition of the user, a display control unit for performing a control to display a position of the body composition during the time calculated by the body composition calculating unit in reference to a line showing the reference value on a predetermined graph, and a display section for providing a display corresponding to the output from the display control unit.
BackgroundWe aimed to describe newborn body composition and identify which anthropometric ratio (weight/length; BMI; or ponderal index, PI) best predicts fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM).MethodsAir-displacement plethysmography (PEA POD) was used to estimate FM, FFM, and body fat percentage (BF%). Associations between FFM, FM, and BF% and weight/length, BMI, and PI were evaluated in 1,019 newborns using multivariate regression analysis. Charts for FM, FFM, and BF% were generated using a prescriptive subsample (n=247). Standards for the best-predicting anthropometric ratio were calculated utilizing the same population used for the INTERGROWTH-21st Newborn Size Standards (n=20,479).ResultsFFM and FM increased consistently during late pregnancy. Differential FM, BF%, and FFM patterns were observed for those born preterm (34+0-36+6 weeks gestation) and with impaired intrauterine growth. Weight/length by gestational age (GA) was a better predictor of FFM and FM (adjusted R2=0.92 and 0.71, respectively)
AIM: To present a visual representation of changes in body composition, leptin, insulin, estradiol and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in relation to menarche in girls. METHODS: Participants were a subset of healthy girls (n = 108) enrolled in a longitudinal study of growth and development conducted at the General Clinical Research Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Participants were seen annually from before menarche until 4 years postmenarche for measures of body composition and serum levels of leptin, insulin, estradiol and FSH. Body composition was determined by bioelectrical impedance. Standardized body composition and hormone levels were smoothed and plotted relative to menarche to visualize patterns of change. RESULTS: At menarche, the mean percentage body fat (%BF) of girls was 24.6% (SD = 4.1%) after menarche %BF was approximately 27%. Leptin levels averaged 8.4 ng/mL (SD = 4.6) at menarche and were approximately 12 ng/mL after menarche. Changes in leptin
We provide our patients with the most comprehensive body composition testing on the market! • Only takes 17 seconds • Understand your weight • Monitor your fat, lean muscle mass and total body water • Set your goals and track your progress • Receive an easy to read analysis that informs you on where your health stands Experience a cutting-edge bioelectrical impedance analysis with the seca mBCA. Our noninvasive assessment provides an in-depth analysis measuring fat mass, fat-free mass, total body water, intracellular water, extracellular water, and skeletal muscle mass in a rapid 17 seconds. Distinguish between muscle gain and fat loss and understand the real health benefits even when your weight remains the same.
In physical fitness, body composition is used to describe the percentages of fat, bone, water and muscle in human bodies. Because muscular tissue takes up less space in our body than fat tissue, our body composition, as well as our weight, determines leanness. Two people of the same sex and body weight may look completely different because they have a different body composition. The most accurate estimation of body composition is derived from body density by means of the equation of fractional densities which states that the overall density of a mixture containing more than one substance (each with a different density) can be calculated if the proportion and density of each component substance is known. For determination of body composition the body is often assumed to be composed of four basic substances ("four compartment model") with the general form of the equation as follows: 1 / D b = w / D w + f / D f + p / D p + m / D m {\displaystyle 1/Db=w/Dw+f/Df+p/Dp+m/Dm} Where: D b {\displaystyle ...
Analysis of body weight, height and circumferences with a tape measure allow students to compare Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist to Hip Ratio results with other more specific measures of body composition. Field tests including the use of high quality calipers for skinfold measurement allows students to gain experience in making reliable measures of body composition. Exposure to laboratory or clinically based assessment of body composition through Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) and Air Displacement Plethysmography are made available to keep student up to date with technological advances in body composition measurement. ...
The aim of the study was to examine the effect a five week pedometer intervention on anthropometric measurements such as skin calliper measurements, waist and hip measurements and aerobic fitness. Fifteen female students volunteered to participate in the study. Their mean (± s) age, body mass, height and body mass index were 20.8 ± 0.7 years, 70 ± 6 cm, 166 ± 4.3 cm and 25.4 ± 1.9 Kg.m2 respectively. Participants completed a three day baseline step log followed by a five week step log. Pre and post intervention measurements were completed. First a YMCA VO2 sub-maximal test and second skin calliper application on four points of the body, tricep, bicep, subscapual and suprailliac were taken to measure body fat percentage and sum of skinfold. The tests were repeated after the five week intervention. Over the five weeks there was a decrease in body mass, (-0.1kg) body fat percent (-0.9%), and waist circumference (-1.4 cm) albeit not significant. There was a statistical decrease in the sum of ...
Background Altered growth, body composition and abnormalities of skeletal mineralisation have been reported in offspring of mothers with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.. Aims The authors hypothesised that children born to mothers with type 1 diabetes mellitus (CDM) would be taller, have higher body mass index (BMI), greater fat mass, thicker diaphyseal bone cortices and reduced trabecular bone mineral density (BMD), as compared to those born to non-diabetic mothers.. Methods Anthropometric, body composition and bone parameters were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative CT in 67 white Caucasian CDM (35 boys; age 5-18 years) and in 246 (121 boys) age-matched controls.. Results CDM were taller (p,0.0001), heavier (p,0.0001) and had higher BMI (p=0.02), and had 32% more total body fat mass and 7.5% more total body lean mass than controls. At the total body and lumbar spine (L1-L4) sites, CDM had significantly higher bone area and bone mineral content ...
T2D was diagnosed according to the criteria reported in the WHO/IDF 2006 consultation [WHO/IDF consultation. Geneva, Switzerland, 2006]. Hypertension was diagnosed by BP readings and from medical records. Abdominal obesity was assessed by WC using the standards for Asians developed by the International Diabetes Federation (2005). Physical activity of patients was assessed by the number of steps measured by pedometers (Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland).. Anthropometrical indicators included age (years), weight (kg), BMI (kg/m2), WC (cm). Body composition parameters including fat mass (in % of total body weight and total kg), visceral fat rating (units), fat free mass (kg), total body water (% and kg), muscle mass (% and kg), bone mass (% and kg), metabolic age (years), basal metabolic rate (kcal/day), and bioimpedance (Ohms) were measured using a Tanita-SC330S Body Composition Analyzer (Tanita Corp., Tokyo, Japan). On the same blood samples, complete blood cell count, erythrocyte ...
Body composition can be looked at as how much of your body is fat and lean muscle mass. It can tell us more about our training and nutrition.. Our body weight is basically just a product of gravity. It tells us very little except what our body weighs right now.. If we increase our lean muscle mass by 1 kilogram and reduce our body fat by 1 kilogram - expect our body weight to stay the same. If you didnt know this and saw your scales not budge after a month of killing it in the gym - youd be pretty pissed off right? Well now you know so now you can prepare.. Now to measure body composition there are various methods. Skin calipers are a manual tool for assessing body fat - tiny clamps that will grasp onto skin folds around the body and then using calculations can provide your body fat %. The accuracy of skin folds depends on the tester doing it so I suggest a coach or trainer do it. If you find a coach who is good, pay him/her. Its a skill less and less trainers have now a days.. The GOLD ...
We analyzed 197 patients with stage III esophageal cancer who were treated with pac and carboplatin in a prospective study between 2008 and 2013. CL of pac, which was estimated using nonlinear mixed effects modeling (NONMEM) was used as a measure of systemic pac exposure (de Graan et al, 2012). Skeletal muscle index (SMI, cm2/m2), muscle attenuation (MA) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT; cm2) were measured at the level of the 3rd lumbar vertebra on computed tomography (CT) scans performed before treatment. Gender-specific differences in pac CL, based on the 1st quartile and the 4th quartile of the SMI and VAT measurement were analyzed with a Mann-Whitney test. A Spearman rank correlation (r) was calculated to explore the relationship between pac CL and SMI, VAT and MA, respectively. ...
UNLABELLED The contributions of systemic versus local insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) action for mediating fat-free mass (FFM) accretion have yet to be fully clarified, but circulating IGF-I is the preferred measure in clinical practice, and its merits as a biomarker have been demonstrated for a number of physiological outcomes. PURPOSE To test the hypothesis that bioavailable IGF-I would have a stronger association with physical activity-induced FFM accretion than total IGF-I and would serve as a prognostic indicator of FFM accretion. METHODS Seventy-seven young healthy women (21 ± 5 yr, 62.7 ± 8.5 kg, 27.0% ± 6.0% body fat) participated in 8 wk of Army basic training involving intense physical activity. Total and bioavailable IGF-I; IGF binding proteins (IGFBP) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6; and body composition parameters were measured before and after the training. RESULTS There were significant (P≤0.05) increases in FFM (6%) and decreases in fat mass (-13%). Total IGF-I and IGFBP-4 to -6
BCEM - Body Composition and Energy Metabolism. Looking for abbreviations of BCEM? It is Body Composition and Energy Metabolism. Body Composition and Energy Metabolism listed as BCEM
Installment #2 of this series is a bit more "anabolic" than the first serving. It explores the effects of betaine supplementation on the adaptational response to resistance training in female rookies and the longitudinal effect of the NOx-boosting combination of citrulline + glutathione on the body composition of resistance-trained male subjects. As usual, the discussion of the studies is infused with plenty of information from previous research... and for those who want nothing but the gist, there are the practical implications in the bottom line.
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Background. The lean weight index (LWI) is a new body composition measure recently described by our group that indicates better the fat-free mass content, as compared with other anthropometric measures such as body mass index (BMI). BMI reflects both fat and lean mass, and therefore, it is not the ideal body composition index for assessing obesity. This in part may be responsible for the apparently paradoxical protective effect of a high BMI (sometimes interpreted as "protective obesity") in reducing the risk of long-term death in some chronic diseases. We aimed to assess both BMI and LWI as predictors of long-term death in stable outpatients with cerebrovascular disease (CVD).Methods. We analyzed 582 Latin American outpatients with CVD (56.7% men, mean age 68.9 years), pertaining to the Reduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health (REACH) registry. LWI [LWI = BMI / waist-to-height ratio (WHtR)] and BMI were included in adjusted multivariate analyses on 4-year all-cause mortality. A LWI 30 ...
DNA sequences comprising nucleic acids encoding fusion proteins comprising an Fc portion of an antibody attached at the N-terminus of an OB protein moiety, vectors comprising such DNA sequences, host cells comprising such vectors or DNA sequences, and processes for preparing such fusion proteins, and pharmaceutical compositions comprising such fusion proteins, are described. The DNA sequences, vectors comprising such DNA sequences, host cells comprising such vectors or DNA sequences, and processes for preparing such fusion proteins, and pharmaceutical compositions comprising such fusion proteins are useful, for example, in providing therapeutically effective amounts of compositions useful for, for example, increasing insulin sensitivity, decreasing the dose of insulin required for the treatment of diabetes, controlling serum glucose levels, increasing lean tissue mass, increasing overall body strength, or regulating bone resorption, or effecting any combination of such, in subjects in need or desirous
Results from the past 9 years (2,961 players tested) were also compared to the number of years and games played in the NFL. This analysis showed a correlation between fat-free mass and longevity in the professional ranks. This finding is of tremendous importance for the training and evaluation of players, and supports the concept that a fitter athlete will last longer.. NFL teams and NCAA programs currently using the BOD POD have a clearer picture of this draft statistic and what it may mean to a players position on their roaster. They also have a baseline assessment for managing the diet and workout regimens of their players and succeed on the playing field.. This information has helped teams in the selection and retention of top talent as a result of a scientific approach to body composition assessment using the BOD POD and greatly benefits coaches and teams by increasing athletes awareness of the effect of body composition on their performance, longevity, and overall health.. If you want to ...
RJLs Director of Education, Kerrie Saunders, and William Pauly, Director of Global Sales, conducted meetings and interviews with physicians, administrators, naturopaths, chiropractors, and medical support staff members for more than a year, before compiling their findings in each of the four levels of education.. "RJL Systems is proud to continue our leadership in the BIA industry, by being the first to invest in the design of multimedia tools of this caliber, providing an overview of how practitioners tell us they utilize BIA technology to help customize wellness strategies for their patients," said Michael Liedtke, Director of Business Development for RJL Systems.. RJL professional body composition analyzers utilize the science and technology of BIA to provide precise measurements used to assess and estimate the bodys lean dry mass, body fat, intracellular and extracellular water, total body water, lean soft tissue, skeletal muscle mass, bone mineral content, fat free mass, basal metabolic ...
There is increasing evidence that both diet and body composition can have a significant effect on lung function. In addition, weight itself does not tell us the whole story as body composition (for example, total body water or body fat) may be variable regardless of a childs weight.The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between lung function, body composition and immune/inflammatory factors. Children aged 6-11 years, with and without asthma, will be able to participate. We would like to include children with a variety of body shapes and sizes. To be involved in our study, please contact: [email protected] ...
Body composition is what decides a persons whole body look and fitness. Anyone, who wants to look on a beach or wants to live longer, will have to understand the importance of body composition. Body fat percentage is not only important in fitness and health it is also important in the development of many chronic conditions including diabetes and hypertension. It is not only the amount of body fat percentage that is to be concerned about, but the distribution of body fat is also an important aspect in measuring health risk or a healthy body. Researchers have found out to be that central obesity is linked with higher risk of heart diseases and cancers.. The question arises about the measurement of body fat that how a person can measure his body fat and find out about the health and fitness of his body. There are dozens of methods available over the internet for the measurement of body fat percentage, with accuracy ranging from decimals and also a lot of erroneous methods are available.. To save ...
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 7-day Zone diet compared with a normal diet on maximal oxygen uptake (V(O)2 max), running time to exhaustion during endurance performance, and body composition. Eight men, with the following physical characteristics (mean +/- SE), participated in this study: age, 26.1 +/- 1.9 years; height, 178 +/- 1.7 cm; mass, 70.7 +/- 2.1 kg; and V(O)2 max, 54.6 +/- 3.1 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1). All subjects undertook pretesting for V(O)2 max, time to exhaustion (80% V(O)2 max), and body composition (Biostat 1500) before following either the normal diet or the Zone diet for 7 days. These performance trials were performed before and after the dietary period. There was a significant (p , 0.05) decrease in total energy consumption from a mean of 2,314 +/- 334 kcal on a pretest diet to 1,994 +/- 438 kcal on the Zone diet. Subjects showed a significant reduction (p , 0.02) in body mass from 70.7 +/- 2.1 kg to 69.8 +/- 2.1 kg. In the 80% V(O)2 max time to ...
A comprehensive view of physical function, body composition and exercise post-stroke that is based on clinical examination is lacking. The effects of a progressive resistance and balance (PRB) exercise program have not been fully evaluated in community-living individuals after stroke.. The overall aim of this thesis was to explore and describe physical function, physical activity, body composition, nutritional status and psychological factors. Another aim was to evaluate both the short-term and long-term effects of a PRB exercise program.. Physical function, physical activity, body composition, nutritional status and psychological factors were assessed in community-living individuals (65-85 years) approximately 1 year after stroke. Paper I-II (n=195, n=134) had a cross-sectional design and the main outcome was mobility and physical activity. In paper III-IV, (n=67, n=43) individuals were randomly assigned to either a PRB exercise program group or a control group. The main outcomes were balance, ...
Tanitas best-selling body composition analyzer offers the same measurements value as the TBF-410GS but in a portable design. Separate display head can be placed on a desktop in or out of the subjects view. Tanita Bioimpedance Body Composition Analyzer is an eagle-i resource of type Body composition analyzer at Charles Drew University of Medicine and Science.
Obesity is a growing epidemic with no consensus regarding solutions. Thirty healthy overweight and obese female subjects (41.9 ± 12 years, 166 cm ± 7 cm, a 100.5 kg ± 19.6 kg, 46.0% ± 4.0% body fat, and BMI 37.4 ± 6.9) participated in the study. A 14-day dietary intervention examined acute effects of energy balance and macronutrient type on dietary intake, REE, body weight, body composition, and thyroid panel. Significant changes occurred in weight loss over time (p , 0.001); body fat mass over time (p , 0.001) and time x diet (p = 0.02); body fat percentage over time (p , 0.002) and time x diet (p = 0.023); REE over time (p = 0.03), and thyroid panel. Body weight continued to decrease during positive energy balance, yet metabolism rebounded. Results suggest energy balance has a greater overall effect on REE and weight loss than macronutrient type ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endocrine control of body composition in infancy, childhood, and puberty. AU - Veldhuis, Johannes D. AU - Roemmich, James N.. AU - Richmond, Erick J.. AU - Rogol, Alan D.. AU - Lovejoy, Jennifer C.. AU - Sheffield-Moore, Melinda. AU - Mauras, Nelly. AU - Bowers, Cyril Y.. PY - 2005/2. Y1 - 2005/2. N2 - Body composition exhibits marked variations across the early human lifetime. The precise physiological mechanisms that drive such developmental adaptations are difficult to establish. This clinical challenge reflects an array of potentially confounding factors, such as marked intersubject differences in tissue compartments; the incremental nature of longitudinal intrasubject variations in body composition; technical limitations in quantitating the unobserved mass of mineral, fat, water, and muscle ad seriatim; and the multifold contributions of genetic, dietary, environmental, hormonal, nutritional, and behavioral signals to physical and sexual maturation. From an endocrine ...
A fast, bigger grin in the beginning lowers your value in the head with the listener. Just sprinkle a few granules on the back of her tongue in addition to let them dissolve. Most towards the factors that affect body composition are entirely under all your control. The final issue is between Chef Amos and Chef Chad. Interesting physics students have a great ability to conduct thought tests. A significant way is to constantly test your own knowledge by devices all the related concepts together and seeing if there are undoubtedly any contradictions that a revealed by connecting up what you know. Maze Munch is often a game just that carries a monkey eating mangoes. Web site Cambridge, MA, NovaTein Biosciences is a noted manufacturer and dealer of ELISA kits, proteins, peptides and antibody products. Convection Microwave, Model: LMV1630 will not only enhance the image of the kitchen through its exterior design, nonetheless it could be described as large enough and possesses plenty of cooking ...
But it will happen if you keep with it, because biology says so. Initially, the IVF procedure was indicated in cases of fallopian abnormalities. Which is also why spot-reduction doesnt work. The foregoing includes things such as the cells which make up this very bodies, bacteria which live on our skin and on our surfaces around our home beneath our notice, and much more. The standard blunders must be very slim indeed. The body is blond to shady auburn, has a violin-shaped marking on the thorax (mid-division) and is sometimes called a fiddleback spider due to the single markings. Deionised water furthermore used in media preparation as well as in the set-up of the needed items and equipment. It makes you stronger coupled with less prone to injury, and it keeps your body running at a higher level. Normally, black shark teeth become the oldest since they have had the longest time to allow them to turn into stone. Most to do with the factors that affect body composition are entirely under your ...
RJL Systems, a company based in Clinton Township, Michigan, launched last week the latest successor in their line of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA)
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Introduction: Weight loss is an important component of diabetes prevention and management because of the known effect of adiposity on insulin resistance. While both muscle (lean mass) and fat mass are known to serve important metabolic functions, most studies of obesity and diabetes use proxy measures for overall or abdominal obesity without accounting for the composition of that mass. The aim of this study was to examine the association of total and trunk lean body mass and fat mass with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) - an indicator of glucose control in persons with diabetes and a risk marker in non-diabetic populations - in the general U.S. population.. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from the NHANES collected in 1999-2006 in participants aged 18-69 years. Lean body mass and percent body fat were determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA); analyses were weighted and multiple imputation was applied to account for missing DXA data. Associations of body composition ...
Ph.D. McGill University. Courses. Clinical Nutrition. Research Interests. My lab is currently interested in studying the effect of sleep duration on energy balance as well as the impact of functional foods and ingredients on energy balance. Energy balance is measured by assessing energy expenditure, using indirect calorimetry, doubly-labeled water, and actigraphy, and energy intake, via weighed laboratory measurements and taking the difference between the 2. Alternatively, careful evaluation of a persons change in body composition can yield information on his or her metabolic status and energy balance; a reduction in body weight and adipose tissue will indicate a negative energy balance. Body composition measurements of choice in my laboratory are magnetic resonance imaging and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.. Recent Publications - Pubmed. St-Onge MP, Grandner MA, Brown D, Conroy MB, Jean-Louis G, Coons M, Bhatt DL. Sleep duration and quality: Impact on lifestyle behaviors and cardiometabolic ...
Figure 3: The use of a 4-compartment model to assess body composition is a strength of this case study at hand because it isnt as easily fooled as the DXA alone as it was used in Wilsons recent keto paper I wrote about recently (illustration from Ellis 2000). For all dieters out there: Dont trust your DXA blindly: A neat side-finding of the study at hand was that there were "substantial differences in body fat percentage between DXA and 4C". In fact, throughout the first 3 months of the preparation period, DXA overestimated body fat percentage by 4.5% on average compared to the 4-compartment model. Accordingly, Tinsley advises: "When possible, more advanced methods of body composition assessment, such as the 4-compartment model, should be utilized in physique athletes to allow for more accurate evaluation" (Tinsley 2017) especially when accurate data can make the difference between victory and defeat.. More from another ISSN#17 paper: If youre not working with athletes, but ...
This book outlines best practice protocols for body composition analysis of high-performance athletes and provides guidance on the use of new technologies for anthropometry. While surface anthropometry has traditionally been used to assess body composition through the internationally recognised methodology of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK), the recent commercialisation of devices, such as bioelectrical impedance technologies, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), ultrasound, 3D photometry and air-displacement plethysmography (Bod Pod), has led to the non-standardised adoption of new measurement techniques ...
Practitioners can download the BC 4.0 software (Free 30-day trial) from RJL Systems website at http://www.rjlsystems.com/products/software/#section=bc4. Note: If you have purchased a Quantum BIA instrument or BC software from us within the past 12 months, you are eligible to upgrade to BC 4.0 for no charge. Your initial update subscription period will be prorated based on your original purchase date, but you will receive a minimum of 6 months.. "The new software enhances any practice and can be used with any RJL BIA model, as all of our devices deliver safe, accurate and reliable resistance and reactance measurements. RJL is proud to provide the best body composition evidence available, for our countrys pursuit of evidence-based medicine," said William Pauly, Director of Global Sales for RJL.. The measures derived from RJL BIA help physicians, dietitians and educators target strategies - not for the "average patient" - but designed specifically for the individual. For example, BIA technology ...
Hi all There has been alot of discussion lately about how to MEASURE yourself and the accuracy of various measurement styles. So I found this http://ho
Abstract Body composition measurements from DXA have been available since DXA technology was developed 30 ye | John A. Shepherd, Bennett K. Ng, Markus J. Sommer, | Bone |
1. The effects on body composition, measured by direct techniques, of a controlled 25% body-surfacearea thermal injury have been studied in two groups of forty male Wistar rats. 2. The extent of weight loss in the animals was directly related to their energy deficit resulting from a combination of injury, food intake and rate of wound healing. 3. Body fat proved the most labile source of tissue energy, decreasing to a minimum of approximately 30 g/kg body-weight. 4. Relationships between water and fat, and water and protein seen in control animals were not significantly different in the traumatized group ...
A lower body fat percentage comes from healthy and steady weight loss of no more than 2 pounds per week. Slowly lowering body fat levels can result in permanent, manageable weight control that has the possibility to last for years.. Anyone can lose weight quickly but losing weight does not necessarily mean a lower body fat percentage, in fact people who lose weight too fast may actually increase their body fat percentage. When you lose weight rapidly, a large percentage of it is fluid loss, which can easily be regained. So its important to remember that losing weight in a healthy way takes time but can have lasting effects.. Athletes are known to have very little body fat. They usually follow a healthy diet full of protein and know that exercise is absolutely vital. In order to reduce body fat you should implement exercise into your daily routine.. An athletes body burns more body fat because it supplies more oxygen to the muscles than that of the body of a sedentary person. Fat requires ...
The following is an excerpt of an article written by Tony Leyland in 2008.. "Body composition is the result of being fit; it is not in itself a component of fitness. Performance measures are better indicators of health and fitness. (Whether measured in terms of workout or competition times and results; blood lipid profiles; or ECG, liver function, and glucose tolerance tests; among others.) That being said, weight control is important to many, and the principles of proper eating and exercise that produce healthy body composition are at root the same ones that produce elite performance. Taken together, these are key factors that determine where you are on the sickness-wellness-fitness continuum. In his book Good Calories, Bad Calories (which is, I believe, quite simply one of the most important books ever written in the field of nutrition and weight control), Taubes argues that common nutritional guidelines such as the USDA food pyramid and Canadas Food Guide are inappropriate for optimal health ...
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Body Cardio is a Wi-Fi connected scale that pairs with the free Health Mate app to track weight, measure body composition (fat mass, muscle mass, water mass and bone mass), and monitor cardiovascular health.
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All in all, these pages youre reading now are meant to assist you strip off 5, ten, fifteen, or possibly even twenty pounds of stubborn fat more than a 14-day period. For those who have additional weight to lose, you will discover that its really easy to repeat the cycle and use several different tricks contained in this book to keep your weight loss going until you reach your objective. Inside these pages, you will uncover the keys to developing the physique you have usually wanted, because you can use these strategies to turn out to be as lean and healthy as you wish to become. Practically nothing is out of attain! Irrespective of whether youve normally wanted to create "6-pack" abs, attain a super-lean, single-digit body fat percentage, or match into clothes you have only dreamed about just before, the facts you will learn here helps make your dream possible. The ultimate secrets for on-demand weight loss are all inside, as well as sound procedures for stopping the weight from returning, ...
The aim of the present study was to describe postpubertal changes in total and abdominal adiposity in young men and the relation to changes in physical activity (PA). The study included 107 white men with a mean age of 17.1 +/- 1.7 years at baseline. Total percentage body fat (%BF) and abdominal percentage body fat (abd%BF) were measured at baseline and after a mean time of 28, 68, and 92 months using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). PA (h/week) was assessed at each visit by questionnaire. Over the study period, significant increases of 7.8 +/- 5.5%BF and 9.0 +/- 5.6 abd%BF were observed. Subjects who were active athletes throughout the study (n = 24), or nonathletes not changing their level of PA during follow-up (n = 27) increased 5.7 +/- 3.2 and 8.1 +/- 6.7%BF, respectively. Athletes who quit organized training during follow-up period (n = 56) increased by 8.7 +/- 4.9%BF. In the total cohort, the average annual gains in BMI, %BF, and abd%BF were 0.4 kg/m(2), 0.9%BF, and 1.1abd%BF (all ...
So body composition...what is it? Well my lovely fit friends, it is how your body is made up of muscle and fat. Lets take a look at how my body composition has changed over the course of college and what that means for you. Background Story I started college what I considered to be healthy…
Whether therapy leads to a reduction in fat mass with a simultaneous increase in muscle mass can be seen in the Body Composition Chart (BCC) devised by seca. The BCC is the further development of the Body-Mass-Index (BMI). Two indices are generated for the BCC: the fat-free mass index and the fat mass index. As with the BMI, the values are expressed in relation to the patients height, plotted in a system of coordinates and represented in percentiles. The doctor can see at once the level in the categories of "low muscle mass," "obesity," "chronic lack of energy" and "high muscle mass." At a glance the doctor can see if the therapy goal - reduction of fat and increase of muscle - has been achieved. The diabetic patient is motivated when he knows that even though his weight is not changing, his body composition is developing positively ...
The outcome measures were assessed at baseline and 12-week follow-up by personnel who were blinded to the treatment allocation. The data were recorded on standardized forms and entered into a secured Microsoft Excel Access database that included quality control checks (e.g., range checks, notifications of missing data).. Anthropometric and body composition variables were collected at the same time in the morning, between 7:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m. Body weight and height were measured following standard procedures with an electronic scale (Tanita® BC544, Tokyo, Japan) and a mechanical stadiometer platform (Seca® 274, Hamburg, Germany), respectively. BMI was calculated as body weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters (kg/m2). Waist circumference (WC) was measured at the narrowest point between the lower costal border and the iliac crest using a tape measure (Ohaus® 8004-MA, New Jersey, USA). In cases in which this point was not evident, WC was measured at the midpoint between ...
Although in most clinical settings, BMI and waist circumference are used because they are inexpensive and convenient, it is evident that they are not able to precisely determine excess fat mass and its loss during treatment (44). More precise techniques to assess body composition are needed in specialized clinical settings and for research purposes. Therefore, another target of this work was to compare the accuracy of the information provided by the more expensive and less convenient DXA, currently considered the gold standard, with the less expensive and more convenient MF-BIA, as well as with ADP, which is only used in highly specialized centers because of its high cost (45). The results obtained showed that MF-BIA correlates very well with DXA, although with a tendency to slightly underestimate the FM%. These results are consistent with previous work that found that MF-BIA may overestimate the FFM, and thus produce an underestimation of the FM and FM% (45). MF-BIA provided highly relevant ...
All in all, these pages youre reading now are meant to help you strip off five, ten, fifteen, or perhaps even twenty pounds of stubborn fat over a 14-day period. If you have a lot more weight to drop, youll discover that its quite quick to repeat the cycle and use various tricks contained in this book to help keep your weight loss going until you reach your purpose. Inside these pages, you will uncover the keys to developing the physique you have normally wanted, since you can use these strategies to become as lean and healthful as you wish to become. Nothing is out of attain! No matter whether youve generally wanted to develop "6-pack" abs, attain a super-lean, single-digit body fat percentage, or fit into clothes you have only dreamed about prior to, the details youll learn here assists make your dream probable. The ultimate secrets for on-demand weight loss are all inside, together with sound solutions for stopping the weight from returning, as so typically occurs with yo-yo diets. ...
Currently, he is investigating the effects of high-intensity training on cardiovascular function in recreationally-active men and women, with the goal of examining efficacy of this regimen to alter blood pressure, heart rate, and muscular function as well as comparing responses between genders. Men and women are completing 6 days of high-intensity training over a 2-3 week period. Measures of cardiovascular function, energy expenditure, muscular function, and body composition are obtained pre- and post-training. See below for an opportunity to contribute to this exciting line of research! ...
After the selected examples in the previous installment the intention of this 2nd part of the series is to find some more general rules of HIIT program optimization with a special focus on exercise and performance on the one hand and fat loss and improvements in body composition on the other hand.
One other quick-term randomized research journal of the academics of nutrition and dietetic 20 ) intently related to entire grain was carried out over sixteen wk in seventy six males with coronary artery illness. Your present weight and body composition are a result of a few years of your current vitamin and health nutrition info dairy queen blizzards. With common exercise, the physiques power necessities go up. I other interesting articles, there is all the time no less than one, often, references to refereed literature whence I can discover more particulars. Journl Dietitians should also maintain their registered status through continuing schooling and superior levelscertifications for areas of specialization. Approximately 3500 energy 1 pound of fats so for some individuals you are first thought could also be to simply starve yourself and the pounds will fall off right. (Bacteria are tiny-they dont final lengthy without nutrients) This fiber is named Prebiotic Fiber, and your greatest ...
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p,.05. **p,.01.. Acknowledgements. These studies were supported by grants from the New York State AIDS Institute and the National Institutes of Health (AI 21414).. References. 1. Kotler DP, Gaetz HP. Klein EB, Lange M, Holt PR. Enteropathy associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Intern Med 1984;101: 421 -28.. 2. Kotler DP, Wang J, Pierson R. Studies of body composition in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 1985;42:1255-65.. 3. Pierson RN Jr, Lin DHY, Phillips RA. Total-body potassium in health: effects of age, sex, height, and fat. Am J Physiol 1974;226:206-12.. 4. Pierson RN Jr, Wang J, Thornton JC, et al: Body potassium by four-pi 40K counting: an anthropometric correction. Am J Physiol 1984;246:F234-39.. 5. Pierson RN Jr, Wang J, Colt EW, Neumann P. Body composition measurements in normal man: the potassium, sodium, sulfate and tritium spaces in 58 adults. J Chron Dis 1982;35:419-28.. 6. Durnin JVGA, Womersley J. Body fat assessed from ...
It should be said, though, that these results stand in conflict with previous studies by Husain et al. who report more, not less weight and body fat loss in the 20-45 year-old female subjects of their Ramadan fasting study (Husain. 1987). An observation they pin on the "increase in energy expenditure" that comes with preparing the meal for the whole family... well, you know that I am not afraid of calling *bs* by its name and this explanation certainly is*bs*. It is in fact much more likely that the differences could be explained by a lower overall energy intake just as the increase in body weight Frost & Pirani observed in the young men in another cohort was solely a result of the nightly binges (Frost. 1987). I mean, we all know that women are more likely to be concerned about the detrimental effects of a high food intake in the evening on their body composition, so that it is not unlikely that the 20-45 year old women in the Husain study were deliberately limiting their energy intake, while ...
Improve your body composition by shedding excess body fat and adding lean muscle, and youll become a better athlete. This plan requires a mental shift in ho...
Body composition is what decides a persons whole body look and fitness. Anyone, who wants to look on a beach or wants to live longer, will have to understand the importance of body composition. Body fat percentage is not only important in fitness and health it is also important in the development of many chronic conditions including diabetes and hypertension. It is not only the amount of body fat percentage that is to be concerned about, but the distribution of body fat is also an important aspect in measuring health risk or a healthy body. Researchers have found out to be that central obesity is linked with higher risk of heart diseases and cancers.. The question arises about the measurement of body fat that how a person can measure his body fat and find out about the health and fitness of his body. There are dozens of methods available over the internet for the measurement of body fat percentage, with accuracy ranging from decimals and also a lot of erroneous methods are available.. To save ...
Body composition can be more useful than weight alone when assessing changes to your body. Exercise physiologist Ava Kerr explains what you need to know.
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Park Ridge health screenings setPark Ridge Health is offering the following Wellness on Wheels health screenings:u Blood pressure, glucose and body composition analysis, 9 a.m.-noon today at Citgo, 324 Washington St., Hendersonville. The screening is for blood pressure, body fat and hydration percentages, body mass index, height and weight for overall body composition. For those doing glucose testing for diabetes, eat light breakfast only. The screening is free.u Cholesterol screening, 8-11 a.m.
Our study shows that low LBM is a significant predictor of toxicity in female patients administered 5-FU using the convention of dosing per unit of body surface area. We conclude that variation in toxicity between females and males may be partially explained by this feature of body composition.
The supplement / placebo had to be taken with breakfast and lunch (with two pills per serving this would amount to 400mg of caffeine per day and an undisclosed amount of CLA, green tea and BCAAs, of which you can yet probably safely assume that they were underdosed). Body composition and android fat (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), waist and hip circumferences, blood pressure and heart rate were measured at baseline and after 8 weeks of supplementation. Aside from taking the supplement the participants were advised to stick to their regular dietary and activity patterns. Against that background it is not exactly surprising that the wonder pills did not bring about any changes in body composition, android fat, waist or hip circumference; and in contrast to the acute effects of the "hardcore" competition about which you can read in the last post of todays Get Lean & Stay Lean Quickie the product did not even increase the heart rate and blood pressure of the subjects ...
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Body Composition and Cardiovascular Health in School-aged Children The Childhood Health, Activity and Motor Performance School Study Denmark An evaluation on the health effect of sport schools in the Svendborg ...
|b||i|Background/Aims:|/i||/b| Although early infant growth has implications for future health, body composition reference data in infancy are limited. The aim of this study wa
Limited research has been conducted that elucidates the growth and body composition of preterm infants. It is known that these infants do not necessarily achieve extra-utero growth rates and body composition similar to those of their term counterparts. Preterm infants, who have difficulty in achieving these growth rates, could suffer from growth failure. These infants display an increased intra-abdominal adiposity and abnormal body composition when they achieve catch-up growth. These factors affect the quality of weight gain, as these infants are not only shorter and lighter than term infants, they also have more fat mass (FM) and less fat-free mass (FFM), resulting in a higher total fat percentage ...
Let me now discuss the basic science that explains why high intensity exercise is even more important for women than for men when it comes to changes in body composition. The metabolic syndrome and the body composition changes that result from it are due to derangements in carbohydrate metabolism. We evolved from an environment of food scarcity where carbohydrate was the least abundant macronutrient, and where high intensity exertion was required to acquire the food we needed. In our modern environment, carbohydrate is very abundant and high intensity exertion is very rare. Most of the carbohydrates consumed are refined and are quickly/easily absorbed. Our evolutionary background has produced a mechanism for signaling energy storage that is predicated on an abundance of what would be the least abundant macronutrient in our ancestral environment. That macronutrient is carbohydrate. What happens in the metabolic syndrome is something that would have been very foreign to our ancestors. We are ...
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An extremely important study has been published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition providing body composition reference curves for preterm infants.
Body composition isnt a metric typically found through fitness trackers, but youll find several smart scales offering the feature as part of the tracking ...
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The world of wearable technology has certainly gotten a whole lot more competitive in recent times, which is not a bad thing at all. On the contrary, one can say that it is a good thing to happen to us, as there are so many different other kinds of devices which will be able to help make our lives more streamlined and focus. For instance, if you have always wanted to shed some kilos from the waist, but do not really know how much minimum physical activity that you should clock during each "shift", an activity tracker would definitely do you a whole world of good. InBodyBAND, a name that has dealt with body composition analysis for quite some time already, has just launched its very first fitness wearable that is known as the InBodyBAND.. What makes the InBodyBAND so different from the others in the market, or at least being more than a simple activity tracker? For starters, it will be able to come up with your body composition (touted to be the only fitness wearable to do that to boot!), ...
To investigate the relationship between life-style dietary intake of macronutrients, smoking behavior, alcohol consumption and daily physical activity from 13-29 years of age long-term exposure and cardiovascular disease CVD risk factors lipoprotein levels, blood pressure, body fatness, and body composition at the age of 29 years. Methods : The...
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Carriers of the 22-Glu-Lys-23 allele are relatively more resistant to the effects of GCs with respect to the sensitivity of the adrenal feedback mechanism than non-carriers, resulting in a better metabolic health profile. Carriers have a better survival than non-carriers, as well as lower serum CRP levels. The 22-Glu-Lys-23 polymorphism is associated with a sex-specific, beneficial body composition at young-adult age, as well as greater muscle strength in males ...
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Diminished collagen in the body has been attributed to the development of cellulite, joint pain, dry skin, lackluster hair, weak nails, and decreased lean muscle mass. All of these problems naturally begin to occur as we age, which can prove frustrating when you are trying to eat right and exercise regularly. One of the benefits of collagen is that it seems to halt aging in its tracks and allows the body to repair itself with continued use.. Collagen supplements that come in capsule form can help you nip aging in the bud before it gets away from you. With regular use, collagen supplements can improve the overall look of your skin by boosting hydration, improve the condition of the nails and hair, diminish the look of cellulite on the legs and hips, reduce body fat and increase lean muscle mass, and ease joint pain associated with arthritis.. ...
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Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) and Body Composition Analyse. Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) and Body Composition Analyse.
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Background: Appendicular skeletal muscle (or lean) mass (ALM) estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is considered to be a preferred method for sarcopenia studies. However, DXA is expensive, has limited portability, and requires radiation exposure. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is inexpensive, easy to use, and portable; thus BIA might be useful in sarcopenia investigations. However, a large variety of models have been commercially supplied by different companies, and for most consumer products, the equations estimating ALM are not disclosed. It is therefore difficult to use these equations for research purposes. In particular, the BIA equation is often age-dependent, which leads to fundamental difficulty in examining age-related ALM loss. The aims of the current study were: 1) to develop and validate an equation to estimate ALM using multi-frequency BIA (MF-BIA) using theoretical models, and 2) to establish sarcopenia cutoff values using the equation for the Japanese
DISCUSSION. We can consider that our population has a differential in relation to other studies evaluating the effect of DMPA, considering that our group was paired with the control group at baseline for BMI (± 1 kg/m2) and age (± 1 year), becoming a homogeneous group. Our study found that after 12 months of follow-up the injectable DMPA users had significant weight gain (3.01 kg). As most prospective studies evaluating the effect of DMPA were for at least 30 months (6,8,9), we can consider that the follow-up period of our study is short compared to the others, but we can already observe significant changes in important variables studied.. To better assess changes in weight and body composition, we made a subdivision of the DMPA group for weight gain (, 3 kg and , 3 kg), and observed significant changes in weight and body composition in both groups, but the group which gained , 3 kg had the more pronounced changes. This group had a mean gain of 5.53 kg, increased fat mass (2.3 kg) and fat-free ...
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Overweight, energy expenditure and caloric intake are associated with an increased prevalence of asthma. To measure resting energy expenditure and calculate caloric intake of overweight adolescents with asthma and compare results with those of groups of well-nourished adolescents with asthma and overweight adolescents without asthma. Cross-sectional study with 69 adolescents aged 10 to 18 years divided into three matched groups. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric and body composition measurements. Indirect calorimetry was used to measure energy expenditure; caloric intake was estimated from dietary recalls. In each group, there were 23 adolescents (10 girls) aged 12.39±2.40 years. Results for each group (overweight adolescents with asthma; well-nourished adolescents with asthma; and overweight adolescents without asthma) were, respectively: Body mass index = 24.83±2.73 kg/m2, 19.01±2.10 kg/m2, and 25.35±3.66 kg/m2; resting energy expenditure (REE) = 1550.24±547.23 ...
Visceral adipose tissue is harmful to metabolic health. Exercise training reduces visceral adipose tissue mass, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) stimulates lipolysis and is released from skeletal muscle during exercise. We hypothesized that exercise-induced reductions in visceral adipose tissue mass are mediated by IL-6. In this randomized placebo-controlled trial, we assigned abdominally obese adults to tocilizumab (IL-6 receptor antibody) or placebo during a 12-week intervention with either bicycle exercise or no exercise. While exercise reduced visceral adipose tissue mass, this effect of exercise was abolished in the presence of IL-6 blockade. Changes in body weight and total adipose tissue mass showed similar tendencies, whereas lean body mass did not differ between groups. Also, IL-6 blockade increased cholesterol levels, an effect not reversed by exercise. Thus, IL-6 is required for exercise to reduce visceral adipose tissue mass and emphasizes a ...
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Crewther, BT; Heke, TL; Keogh, JW (February 2013). "The effects of a resistance-training program on strength, body composition ... CONCLUSIONS: A limited body of evidence supports a positive effect of PA on CF in young to middle-aged adults. Further research ... Aerobic exercise is any physical activity that uses large muscle groups and causes the body to use more oxygen than it would ... An astronaut, Daniel Tani, working out with a short bar to increase his upper body strength while in a microgravity environment ...
Body composition measurement[edit]. DXA scans can also be used to measure total body composition and fat content with a high ... "Reproducibility of Pediatric Whole Body Bone and Body Composition Measures by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Using the GE ... Whole-body calcium measured by DXA has been validated in adults using in-vivo neutron activation of total body calcium[16][17] ... and body fat composition[12] and has been used to evaluate the effects of pharmaceutical therapy.[13] It may also aid ...
Main article: Composition of the human body. At least twenty chemical elements are known to be required to support human ... Strontium has been found to be involved in the utilization of calcium in the body. It has promoting action on calcium uptake ... Involved in glucose and lipid metabolism, although its mechanisms of action in the body and the amounts needed for optimal ... Diet can meet all the body's chemical element requirements, although supplements can be used when some requirements (e.g., ...
Body composition measurement using impedance. *Measurement of grip-strength. *Breath spirometry. *Ultrasound bone densitometry ... whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan of bones and joints, ultrasound measurements of the carotid arteries and ...
Ethnic composition of student body[44] Student Body[45]. Florida[46]. U.S. Census[47] ... The student government executive branch is led by the Student Body President and includes the Student Body Vice President, ... The student body elects fifty senators during each spring semester and the remaining fifty during the fall semester. The ... The student government judicial branch has two major components: the Supreme Court of the Student Body (headed by a Chief ...
Body composition assessment. End-points in clinical trials including Patient-reported outcomes. Nutrition. Endpoint in clinical ... The major objective was to bring together a multi-disciplinary team of experts in order to develop, as a united body, a ...
Creatinine height ratio, estimating protein in body composition. Places[edit]. *An abbreviation for the U.S. city of Chicago, ...
Body composition is the relative percentage of body fat compared to lean body mass (muscle, bone, water,etc) ... Health related components: those factors that are related to how well the systems of your body work. ...
II: Nutrition and body composition". J. Appl. Physiol. 65 (6): 2545-51. PMID 3215854. Retrieved 2009-03-05. Kayser, B. (October ... where it is generally believed that no human body can acclimatize. The human body can perform best at sea level, where the ... However, the human body has both short-term and long-term adaptations to altitude that allow it to partially compensate for the ... The human body can adapt to high altitude through both immediate and long-term acclimatization. At high altitude, in the short ...
Laulu, M; Simmons, D; Rush, E; Plank, L; Chandu, V (Dec 17, 2004). "Body size, body composition, and fat distribution: a ... men showed greater body fat mass than women. Men showed a total body fat mass of 6.9 kg and women showed a total body fat mass ... Banerji, MA; Faridi, N; Atluri, R; Chaiken, RL; Lebovitz, HE (1999). "Body composition visceral fat, leptin and insulin ... Kirchengast, S; Huber, J (2004). "Body composition characteristics and fat distribution patterns in young infertile women". ...
"The Composition of the Body." On man's body, and a hermetic view ("As above, so below") view of man's body as a microcosm ... What the heavens are made of How many bodies there are in the heavens Why those bodies move Whether those bodies can be ... The human body consists of flesh and blood, bones, veins, sinews, skin and the like; dark and heavy substances originating from ... for these celestial bodies are of a better constitution, of a more beautiful form, of a purer substance, their movements are ...
Roy J. Shephard (1991). "Epidemiological indices, anthropometric and cadaver estimates of body composition". Body composition ... Human body composition (2nd ed.). Human Kinetics. ISBN 9780736046558. Steven B. Heymsfield; Clifford McManus; Janet Smith; ... Dorothy G. Herron; Lynn B. Greenberg (2000). "body composition". In Mathy Doval Mezey. The encyclopedia of elder care: the ... The derived measures attempt to provide better indicators of body composition and nutritional status than the principal ...
Haas VK, Kohn MR, Clarke SD, Allen JR, Madden S, Müller MJ, Gaskin KJ (April 2009). "Body composition changes in female ... Cortisol is produced in the human body by the adrenal gland in the zona fasciculata,[1] the second of three layers comprising ... It is vital for structural support and is found in muscles, tendons, and joints, as well as throughout the entire body. ... Cortisol prevents the release of substances in the body that cause inflammation. It is used to treat conditions resulting from ...
"Body Composition (DEXA) Data for Baz1b". Mouse Resources Portal. www.sanger.ac.uk. External link in ,publisher= (help) Wellcome ... Mutant mice had decreased body weights compared to wildtype control mice. Mutant mice showed increased activity, VO2 and energy ...
Diet composition varies with body size. There are no significant differences in feeding habits between male and female S. ... The upper side of the body is grayish-brown with dark brown spots. The underside is a light greyish-white color. The teeth of S ... The two dorsal fins are located towards the tail end of the body. The texture of their skin is rough, similar to the coarseness ... S. canicula are small, shallow-water sharks with a slender body and a blunt head. ...
"PIREAUS BANK: Board of Directors (BoD) Composition". Piraeus Bank. 2015. Retrieved 19 May 2015. Literature HFSF (August 2013 ...
Influence of body composition on protein and energy requirements: some new insights". Body composition techniques in health and ... Because the human brain can use ketone bodies as major fuel sources, the body is not forced to break down skeletal muscles at a ... This other source is the body's own proteins. After several days of fasting, all cells in the body begin to break down protein ... After prolonged periods of starvation the body has depleted its body fat and begins to burn primarily lean tissue and muscle as ...
She had a bisque head until World War II, then a composition head until 1958 when a hard plastic body and head were used for ... Bleuette has a fully jointed composition body. She was 27 cm (10" 5/8) until 1933, then 29 cm (11 3/8) until production ended ...
... wears body armor of unknown composition. She carries a bow that fires arrows that release "cold energy", and she carries ...
Crewther, BT; Heke, TL; Keogh, JW (February 2013). "The effects of a resistance-training program on strength, body composition ... "It's possible to exercise too much - here's what it can do to your body and brain". Business Insider. Retrieved 16 April 2019. ... CONCLUSIONS: A limited body of evidence supports a positive effect of PA on CF in young to middle-aged adults. Further research ... Aerobic exercise is any physical activity that uses large muscle groups and causes the body to use more oxygen than it would ...
Brodie D, Moscrip V, Hutcheon R (March 1998). "Body composition measurement: a review of hydrodensitometry, anthropometry, and ... Body fat meter[edit]. See also: Bioelectrical impedance analysis. A body fat meter is a widely available tool used to measure ... They tend to under-read body fat percentage.[92] In contrast with clinical tools, one relatively inexpensive type of body fat ... These equations present an inverse correlation between skinfolds and body density-as the sum of skinfolds increases, the body ...
Their body composition includes ultra-cold superfluid helium. Outsiders are estimated to be the most advanced species in Known ...
"GH Treatment Effects on Body Composition in SGA". Growth, Genetics & Hormones. 24 (1). May 2008. "Low birth weight diabetes ... GH therapy at a certain dose induced catch-up of lean body mass (LBM). However percentage body fat decreased in the GH-treated ... Birth weight is the body weight of a baby at its birth. The average birth weight in babies of European heritage is 3.5 ... Singhal A, Wells J, Cole TJ, Fewtrell M, Lucas A (1 March 2003). "Programming of lean body mass: a link between birth weight, ...
Her twisting body contributed to the fountain's composition. Her features express her strength and her human vulnerability, as ...
Ahmad AM, Hopkins MT, Thomas J, Ibrahim H, Fraser WD, Vora JP (June 2001). "Body composition and quality of life in adults with ... changes in body composition, protein, fat, and glucose metabolism". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 92 (8): 3033-9. doi:10.1210/jc. ... body composition, cardiovascular risk factors and quality of life. Less is known about the effects of GH on learning and memory ... including improved body composition (higher muscle mass, lower fat mass); improved weight management; increased energy and ...
Ahmad AM, Hopkins MT, Thomas J, Ibrahim H, Fraser WD, Vora JP (June 2001). "Body composition and quality of life in adults with ... clinical studies have shown that low-dose GH treatment for elderly patients with GH deficiency changes the body composition by ... such as an increase in lean body mass, it is also evident that benefits are being exaggerated by some for commercial gain and ... the combination of which are described as causing the body to make more GH with corresponding beneficial effects. In the United ...
To maintain their bodies, grow, develop, and to reproduce, autotrophs produce organic matter from inorganic substances, ... species composition (type of species), richness (number of species), biomass (the dry weight of plants and animals), ... nestedness appears to be related to body size because the diets of smaller predators tend to be nested subsets of those of ... A food web diagram illustrating species composition shows how change in a single species can directly and indirectly influence ...
Ahmad AM, Hopkins MT, Thomas J, Ibrahim H, Fraser WD, Vora JP (June 2001). "Body composition and quality of life in adults with ... produces positive changes in body composition by increasing muscle mass, decreasing fat mass, increasing bone density and ... The New York Times states that the American Board of Medical Specialties does not recognize this body as having professional ... these men had an increase in lean body mass and a decrease in adipose tissue mass when compared with a group of nine men who ...
Pie charts of typical human body composition by percent of mass, and by percent of atomic composition (atomic percent). ... The composition of the human body can be viewed on an atomic and molecular scale as shown in this article. ... Elemental composition list[edit]. Main article: Dietary element. The average 70 kg (150 lb) adult human body contains ... Body composition may be analyzed in terms of molecular type e.g., water, protein, connective tissue, fats (or lipids), ...
The BOD POD is manufactured by Life Measurement, Inc., and i... ... www.bodpod.com Instructional video demonstrating the BOD POD ... Bod Pod - Body Composition Measurement at Vita Wellness Center - Duration: 1:32. HenryFordTV 2,920 views ... The BOD POD is manufactured by Life Measurement, Inc., and is considered the Practical Gold Standard in body composition ... OMRON Healthcare Europe - BF511 - Body Composition Monitor - Duration: 1:50. OmronHealthcareEMEA 53,004 views ...
Body Composition. I have 4% points to go! As of right now, my weight is 170 pounds and Im hovering right around 22% body fat. ... There are a lot of different metrics used to measure body composition, but personally I feel that % body fat is the best ... lean body composition, and of course the % body fat. My scale is pretty low tech, but when I compare it to the $3,500 machine ... If I did, Im offering a free body composition exam. Jump on my scale and Ill tell you where you are at. Give Michele or me a ...
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A growing body of evidence indicates that excess body weight is associated with a wide range of health conditions, including ... Body fat distribution, body composition, and respiratory function in elderly men. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;82:996-1003.PubMedGoogle ... Body composition and pulmonary function in the elderly: a 7-year longitudinal study. Int J Obes 2008;32:1423-30.CrossRefGoogle ... Relation between body composition, fat distribution, and lung function in elderly men. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:827-31.PubMed ...
Your body composition is heavily impacted by what you eat and how you exercise. Well show you how to attain your ideal ... What impacts body composition?. A lot of people inaccurately assume that they are not in control of their body composition. ... Interval training is an important part of attaining your ideal body composition because it keeps your body guessing and ... which is the fat tissue you have stored throughout the body. These together are commonly referred to as your body composition. ...
Body Composition Clinical Research Trial Listings in Endocrinology Pediatrics/Neonatology Psychiatry/Psychology Nutrition and ... Body Composition Clinical Trials. A listing of Body Composition medical research trials actively recruiting patient volunteers ... Body Composition and Adipose Tissue in HIV HIV lipodystrophy is increasingly recognized as a common and clinically significant ... Body Composition Measurements in Chronic Heart Failure Feeding optimization and nutritional assessment in patients with severe ...
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Quantifying human body composition has played an important role in monitoring all athlete performance and training regimens, ... Body Composition Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Body Composition Assessment Estimate Body ... Assessing body composition and changes in body composition. Another look at dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Ann N Y Acad Sci ... single methods whose raw data are surrogates for body composition (with the notable exception of the body mass index) remain ...
A person can use their body mass index (BMI) to determine whether they have a healthful weight. But, BMI does not take certain ... Body composition. BMI does not reflect the location or amount of body fat, and these factors can impact health. ... A woman tends to have more body fat than a man with the same BMI. Likewise, an older person tends to have more body fat than a ... BMI incorporates height and weight but not body composition, fitness, age, or sex. ...
Body volume index Body mass index "composition of the body - FREE composition of the body information , Encyclopedia.com: Find ... in body composition testing. Total body scans using DEXA give accurate and precise measurements of body composition, including ... "Body Composition Tests". www.heart.org. Retrieved 2015-11-25. Siri William E (1956). "The gross composition of the body". ... "Normal ranges of body weight and body fat". human-kinetics. Retrieved 2015-11-25. "Examples of Body Composition Exercises". ...
Relationship of sarcopenia and body composition with osteoporosis.. He H1,2, Liu Y1,2, Tian Q1,2, Papasian CJ3, Hu T4, Deng HW5 ... Second, we examined the associations of body composition (including muscle mass as a major and important component) and muscle ... The purpose of the study is to investigate the relationship between sarcopenia and body composition and osteoporosis in cohorts ... and grip strength with regional and whole-body BMDs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to explore the ...
Actual target weight may be different since lean body weight may increase (with exercise) or decrease (with diet or ...
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The in vivo evaluation of body composition is essential in many clinical investigations, in order to accurately describe and ... The in vivo evaluation of body composition is essential in many clinical investigations, in order to accurately describe and ... with relevance to the relationship between body composition and energy expenditure. The spatial and temporal dimension, where ... may influence the physiological relevance and the pathological implications of the fat composition of different body ...
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Body+ is a connected body analyzer scale that easily integrates with the free Health Mate app to record and track your weight, ... Body Composition. Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis. Athlete and non-athlete mode. Unit: body fat %, total body water %, muscle ... Full body composition analysis: Monitors weight (kg, lb., st lb.), body fat & water percentage, plus muscle & bone mass ... While people focus on weight, full body composition helps you know what goes into that number, so you can pinpoint your efforts ...
Helping you find trustworthy answers on Body Composition Changes with Aging , Latest evidence made easy ... Find all the evidence you need on Body Composition Changes with Aging via the Trip Database. ... Body Composition Changes with Aging Body Composition Changes with Aging Body Composition Changes with Aging Toggle navigation ... Body Composition Remodeling and Mortality: The Health Aging and Body Composition Study. (PubMed). Body Composition Remodeling ...
The Army Body Composition Program (ABCP) is covered in Army Regulation (AR) 600-9. ABCP is a United States Army program that ... Body Composition and Physical Performance: Applications For the Military Services. Washington (DC): National Academies Press ( ... "The Army Body Composition Program" The Army Weight Control Program was first published on 1 September 1986. The primary goal of ... Army Regulation 600-9 The Army Body Composition Program, Washington, DC: Headquarters, Department of the Army, 28 June 2013 ...
Body composition of the children was assessed using the deuterium technique. Total body water (TBW) content was calculated. ... Body composition was determined based on total body water using deuterium dilution technique. Dietary intake data were obtained ... Body Composition in Preschool Children. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study ... Body Composition and Dietary Intake in Preschool Children Aged 3-5 Years in Daycare Centers. ...
The estimation of body composition changes with exercise, growth, development, and aging and the relation of body composition ... of both fat-free body composition and body composition of various populations will lead to the development of reference bodies ... This paper presents various laboratory methods designed to estimate body composition and documents some of the progress in ... Research progress in validation of laboratory methods of assessing body composition.. Lohman TG. ...
... unit for performing a control to display a position of the body composition during the time calculated by the body composition ... a reference value storage region for storing information of a reference value related to the past body composition of the user ... A body composition measuring instrument includes a body composition calculating unit for calculating the body composition of a ... A body composition measuring instrument includes a body composition calculating unit for calculating the body composition of a ...
A baseline body composition assessment can prevent the loss of metabolically active muscle tissue that burns 90 percent of the ... is measured and input into scientifically validated equations to calculate body composition measurements. Body composition ... I also use a much simpler, transportable, and accurate body composition measurement (within 5% of DXA) - BIA - to assess body ... Body composition assessment is critical for new diet or exercise program. Posted Feb 13, 2019. ...
Body Composition and BMI Growth Charts in Children With Down Syndrome. Jacquelyn A. Hatch-Stein, Babette S. Zemel, Divya Prasad ... Body Composition and BMI Growth Charts in Children With Down Syndrome Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Body Composition and BMI Growth Charts in Children With Down Syndrome. Jacquelyn A. Hatch-Stein, Babette S. Zemel, Divya Prasad ... Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Pediatrics web site. ...
  • Whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry demonstrates better reliability than segmental body composition analysis in college-aged students. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is rapidly becoming more accessible and popular as a technique to monitor body composition . (tripdatabase.com)
  • All treated patients received 555 MBq of 131 I. Body composition (lean mass, fat mass and bone mineral content) was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) at baseline and 12 months after. (isciii.es)
  • Body composition measurement with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is used increasingly for a variety of clinical and research applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common methods of exploring the level of body fat include body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, sum of skinfold measurements, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and newer technologies like dual energy x-ray absorptiometry or DXA. (medibank.com.au)
  • UAE was assessed from three overnight urine collections, and body composition was assessed by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning and abdominal computed tomography scanning. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Body mass index (BMI) and body composition, which was measured using whole body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), were assessed at 3 points in 30 study participants (18 boys and 12 girls) with type 1 diabetes: 3 to 10 days after the diagnosis, 6 weeks later, and at 1 year. (endocrineweb.com)
  • Body composition was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and resting metabolic rate was calculated using their Weir formula. (wur.nl)
  • Total body composition, bone-mineral content (BMC), and BMD (L1-L4, femur, and nondominant forearm) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. (humankinetics.com)
  • Body composition data were obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). (springer.com)
  • Body composition was determined every 6 mo with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and z scores for anthropometric variables were computed from national reference data. (chiro.org)
  • Obesity was determined by both body mass index and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) evaluations. (dovepress.com)
  • LM was assessed using different devices (magnetic resonance imaging, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computer tomography, total body potassium and bioelectrical impedance), body weight-based protein intake, its ratio (per kg LM) and mean protein requirement were calculated. (mdpi.com)
  • Another method is bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), which uses the resistance of electrical flow through the body to estimate body fat. (wikipedia.org)
  • RJL Systems , a company based in Clinton Township, Michigan, launched last week the latest successor in their line of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) products, the Quantum V. The Michigan-based company, often considered the originators and chief innovators of BIA instrumentation for use in determining body composition, has regularly worked to advance their technology since the 1983 release of their initial FDA-cleared Class II medical device. (medgadget.com)
  • Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) measures the voltage drop across the body when a small current is passed between two electrodes. (nursinginpractice.com)
  • The objective of the present study was to determine the association between CT phenotypes-emphysema by low attenuation area and bronchitis by airway wall thickness-and body composition parameters in a large cohort of subjects with and without COPD. (hindawi.com)
  • Evaluation of Dietary Intakes, Body Composition, and Cardiometabolic Parameters in Adolescent Team Sports Elite Athletes: A Cross-sectional Study. (pearltrees.com)
  • The objectives of this study were to obtain values for resting metabolic rate in Italians in relation to parameters of body composition, and to compare them to predicted values using the FAO/WHO/UNU equation. (wur.nl)
  • treatment of SHT has impact on body composition in subjects older than 65 years. (isciii.es)
  • Compound upper-body pushing exercises help improve your body composition by incorporating shoulder blade, elbow and shoulder joint movements. (livestrong.com)
  • Vertically loaded upper-body pulling exercises that help improve your body composition include chinups, pullups and lat pulldowns. (livestrong.com)
  • Lower-body pulling exercises that help improve your body composition activate your gluteal and hamstring muscles by combining hip extension and knee flexion movements. (livestrong.com)
  • but you can do many lifestyle changes to improve your body composition. (medibank.com.au)
  • Following a healthy meal plan, exercising regularly doing activities you enjoy such as walking, cycling, swimming or yoga will not only improve your body composition but also give you a sense of wellbeing. (medibank.com.au)
  • By using a Tanita Body fat and body composition monitor, you can keep a regular check on you body fat levels, helping you stay within the healthy ranges. (kelkoo.co.uk)
  • Competing interests: Dr Wells has received equipment gratis from Tanita UK for childhood body composition studies. (bmj.com)
  • The BC-541 scales are the most popular scales from Tanita, with all the features most people need including Body Composition monitoring. (fitnessmarket.com.au)
  • Buy Tanita BC-541 Body Composition Innerscan scales from Fitness Market and save! (fitnessmarket.com.au)
  • With our efficient dispatching and quick delivery throughout Australia, Tanita BC-541 Body Composition Innerscan scales can be yours sooner. (fitnessmarket.com.au)
  • Below you can rate and add reviews for Tanita BC-541 Body Composition Innerscan scales. (fitnessmarket.com.au)
  • This paper presents various laboratory methods designed to estimate body composition and documents some of the progress in their validation. (nih.gov)
  • PD patients with extra fluid in their bodies are at a significantly higher risk for peritonitis due to gut bacteria, finds a study of 138 patients. (homedialysis.org)
  • Levels significantly above these amounts may indicate excess body fat. (slideserve.com)
  • Comparing with the other groups, significantly higher body heights found at the ages in between 10 - 19, could possibly predicate that the new generations are having better nutrition and overhaul. (scirp.org)
  • In addition, lorcaserin patients lost significantly more body fat than the placebo patients. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • The in vivo evaluation of body composition is essential in many clinical investigations, in order to accurately describe and monitor the nutritional status of a range of medical conditions and physiological processes, including sick and malnourished patients, pregnant women, breastfeeding women and the elderly, as well as in patients with cancer, osteoporosis and many other diseases. (mendeley.com)
  • In Vivo Body Composition Studies (BC2005) 'Linking Structure and Function' will show how recent technological advances in body composition techniques are being used to understand and help solve some of the major public health and clinical problems facing society today. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Body composition can be estimated through various techniques, from field-based tests requiring only a calculator or tape measure, to advanced tests conducted in a clinical or laboratory setting performed by a trained technician. (medibank.com.au)
  • Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see this page from the Clinical Science web site. (clinsci.org)
  • Register today to learn about the alternative, noninvasive imaging methods available to determine body composition in your clinical trial. (xtalks.com)
  • Multicomponent molecular-level models of body composition analysis. (springer.com)
  • This provides a detailed analysis and long term trend monitoring of body composition data, vital in assessing the effectiveness of any health or fitness program. (tanita.com)
  • The gold standard for body composition analysis is cadaver analysis, so no in vivo technique may be considered to meet the highest criteria of accuracy. (bmj.com)
  • Whereas previous BIA device models reported whole body data, the Quantum V system produces a segmental analysis for 13 distinct anatomical zones. (medgadget.com)
  • As Rudy Liedtke, the Chief Executive Officer of RJL Systems and personal holder of the patent for BIA, adds, "this new offering provides a much more comprehensive analysis of segmented body composition that doctors, physical therapists, trainers and nutritionists can use to track and monitor their patients' progress and health improvements. (medgadget.com)
  • Likewise, skinfold analysis for body fat percentage reliability was high in both groups ( rs = .996 and .997, respectively). (humankinetics.com)
  • This publication provides information on the theoretical background as well as on the practical application of state of the art methodology to monitor changes in body composition, based on the analysis of deuterium in saliva by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. (iaea.org)
  • A muscle can only fully recover if it has been fed the proper nutrition on a daily basis because you may never know when the body may need the nutrition for assisting muscular growth or effecting body composition change. (bodybuilding.com)
  • Thus, nine months of annual training, during a five-year period, induced favorable adaptations on body composition, muscular strength, and functional ability in older women. (humankinetics.com)
  • Incorporating these exercises into your regular routine will help you safely and effectively achieve your body composition goals. (healthline.com)
  • Set your sport, activity and body goals and track your progress. (tomtom.com)
  • When was the last time you thought about getting enough fluids in your body to reach your health and fitness goals? (healthtrax.com)
  • Moreover, meeting your daily hydration needs could be the difference between accomplishing your desired body composition goals and not seeing body composition improvements when you think you're doing everything right . (healthtrax.com)
  • Subjects enter a sealed chamber that measures their body volume through the displacement of air in the chamber. (wikipedia.org)
  • Body Cardio measures Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV), recognized by the medical community as an indicator of overall cardiovascular health. (withings.com)
  • Body composition is an excellent tool for determining your health. (constantcontact.com)
  • The authors wish to acknowledge the support from the Medical Commission of the International Olympic Committee in creating the Ad Hoc Research Working Group on Body Composition, Health and Performance. (springer.com)
  • BMI does not reflect the location or amount of body fat, and these factors can impact health. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This body fat and water monitor includes great features and is ideally suited to all individuals who want to see an in-depth picture of their health. (kelkoo.co.uk)
  • The extensive body composition readings give you essential information on the progress and effectiveness of your lifestyle and health regime. (kelkoo.co.uk)
  • Body Cardio gives you an indication of your cardiovascular health with Pulse Wave Velocity, an innovative metric usually restricted to a hospital setting, as well as standing heart rate. (withings.com)
  • BC2005 is organised by the In Vivo Body Composition Group, which comprises a range of experts including biomedical scientists, clinicians and public health specialists. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • Body composition and growth are key components of health in both individuals and populations. (bmj.com)
  • Getting a Grip on Body Composition By Len Kravitz, Ph.D. and Vivian H. Heyward, Ph.D. Health practitioners universally agree that too much body fat is a serious health risk. (pearltrees.com)
  • Also, some research suggests that excessive accumulation of fat at specific body sites may be an important health risk factor (Wilmore, Buskirk, DiGirolamo, & Lohman, 1986). (pearltrees.com)
  • Research progress in validation of laboratory methods of assessing body composition. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to the well-known methods of densitometry, hydrometry, and spectrometry (40K), many other methods will be reviewed briefly for their relation to body composition. (nih.gov)
  • As discussed below, only multicomponent models are now considered sufficiently accurate to act as reference or criterion methods for the molecular approach to measuring body composition (distinguishing fat and fat-free masses), against which other methods should be evaluated. (bmj.com)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: There were 49 volunteers with a wide range of body fat and body fat distribution studied. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Join BioTelemetry Research's Vice President of Musculoskeletal and Metabolic Imaging, Jonathan Riek, PhD, and AMRA's Chief Scientific Officer & Co-Founder, Olof Dahlqvist Leinhard, PhD, as they present alternative, noninvasive imaging methods to determine body composition. (xtalks.com)
  • The relative amounts of each element vary by individual, mainly due to differences in the proportion of fat, muscle and bone in their body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whatever other differences exist between these two reservoirs of body water, none is more clear cut than the fact that within cell water the predominant cation is potassium (scarcely contaminated by sodium) at an approximate concentration of 150 milliequiv. (massmed.org)
  • When examining breastfeeding status at 3 months, no between group (exclusive vs. non-exclusive) differences were found for maternal body composition. (ku.edu)
  • Similarly, when examining differences in breastfeeding status at 6 months, no differences in maternal body composition was found. (ku.edu)
  • Relationship of sarcopenia and body composition with osteoporosis. (nih.gov)
  • They published their findings online in January 2012 in the article "Body composition in children with type 1 diabetes in the first year after diagnosis: relationship to glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk. (endocrineweb.com)
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between infant feeding status at three and six months post-partum and maternal body composition at six months post-partum. (ku.edu)
  • ANOVA assessed the relationship between maternal breastfeeding status at 3 months and maternal body composition at 6 months as well as the relationship between maternal breastfeeding status at 6 months and maternal body composition at 6 months. (ku.edu)
  • Conclusion: No relationship was found between breastfeeding exclusivity assessed at 3 and 6 months post-partum and maternal body composition at 6 months post-partum. (ku.edu)