Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Brain Stem Neoplasms: Benign and malignant intra-axial tumors of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; or MEDULLA OBLONGATA of the BRAIN STEM. Primary and metastatic neoplasms may occur in this location. Clinical features include ATAXIA, cranial neuropathies (see CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES), NAUSEA, hemiparesis (see HEMIPLEGIA), and quadriparesis. Primary brain stem neoplasms are more frequent in children. Histologic subtypes include GLIOMA; HEMANGIOBLASTOMA; GANGLIOGLIOMA; and EPENDYMOMA.Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem: Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Brain Stem Infarctions: Infarctions that occur in the BRAIN STEM which is comprised of the MIDBRAIN; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA. There are several named syndromes characterized by their distinctive clinical manifestations and specific sites of ischemic injury.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Adult Stem Cells: Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Stem Cell Niche: A particular zone of tissue composed of a specialized microenvironment where stem cells are retained in a undifferentiated, self-renewable state.Neural Stem Cells: Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.Brain Death: A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells from adult organisms that have been reprogrammed into a pluripotential state similar to that of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.Solitary Nucleus: GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Multipotent Stem Cells: Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Respiratory Center: Part of the brain located in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA and PONS. It receives neural, chemical and hormonal signals, and controls the rate and depth of respiratory movements of the DIAPHRAGM and other respiratory muscles.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Hypoglossal Nerve: The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.Stem Cell Factor: A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Reticular Formation: A region extending from the PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA through the MESENCEPHALON, characterized by a diversity of neurons of various sizes and shapes, arranged in different aggregations and enmeshed in a complicated fiber network.Auditory Brain Stem Implants: Multi-channel hearing devices typically used for patients who have tumors on the COCHLEAR NERVE and are unable to benefit from COCHLEAR IMPLANTS after tumor surgery that severs the cochlear nerve. The device electrically stimulates the nerves of cochlea nucleus in the BRAIN STEM rather than the inner ear as in cochlear implants.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Mice, Inbred C57BLImmunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Nerve Tissue ProteinsTrigeminal Nuclei: Nuclei of the trigeminal nerve situated in the brain stem. They include the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), the principal sensory nucleus, the mesencephalic nucleus, and the motor nucleus.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Fetal Stem Cells: Cells derived from a FETUS that retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Decerebrate State: A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Stem Cell Research: Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Tectum Mesencephali: The dorsal portion or roof of the midbrain which is composed of two pairs of bumps, the INFERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPERIOR COLLICULI. These four colliculi are also called the quadrigeminal bodies (TECTUM MESENCEPHALI). They are centers for visual sensorimotor integration.Mesencephalon: The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Efferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Tegmentum Mesencephali: Portion of midbrain situated under the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI. The two ventrolateral cylindrical masses or peduncles are large nerve fiber bundles providing a tract of passage between the FOREBRAIN with the HINDBRAIN. Ventral MIDBRAIN also contains three colorful structures: the GRAY MATTER (PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY), the black substance (SUBSTANTIA NIGRA), and the RED NUCLEUS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Brain Stem Hemorrhage, Traumatic: Bleeding into structures of BRAIN STEM, including the MIDBRAIN; PONS; or MEDULLA OBLONGATA, as the result of CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY is commonly associated. Clinical manifestations may include OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; ATAXIA; PARALYSIS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; and COMA.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Trigeminal Nucleus, Spinal: Nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. It is divided cytoarchitectonically into three parts: oralis, caudalis (TRIGEMINAL CAUDAL NUCLEUS), and interpolaris.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Human Body: The human being as a non-anatomical and non-zoological entity. The emphasis is on the philosophical or artistic treatment of the human being, and includes lay and social attitudes toward the body in history. (From J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Cisterna Magna: One of three principal openings in the SUBARACHNOID SPACE. They are also known as cerebellomedullary cistern, and collectively as cisterns.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization: The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Abducens Nerve: The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.Cerebellar Diseases: Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cranial Nerves: Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated: An acute or subacute inflammatory process of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM characterized histologically by multiple foci of perivascular demyelination. Symptom onset usually occurs several days after an acute viral infection or immunization, but it may coincide with the onset of infection or rarely no antecedent event can be identified. Clinical manifestations include CONFUSION, somnolence, FEVER, nuchal rigidity, and involuntary movements. The illness may progress to COMA and eventually be fatal. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p921)Lampreys: Common name for the only family (Petromyzontidae) of eellike fish in the order Petromyzontiformes. They are jawless but have a sucking mouth with horny teeth.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Audiometry, Evoked Response: A form of electrophysiologic audiometry in which an analog computer is included in the circuit to average out ongoing or spontaneous brain wave activity. A characteristic pattern of response to a sound stimulus may then become evident. Evoked response audiometry is known also as electric response audiometry.Olivary Nucleus: A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Coma: A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Auditory Brain Stem Implantation: Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (AUDITORY BRAIN STEM IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the cochlea nucleus in the BRAIN STEM rather than to the inner ear as in COCHLEAR IMPLANTATION.Subarachnoid Space: The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency: Localized or diffuse reduction in blood flow through the vertebrobasilar arterial system, which supplies the BRAIN STEM; CEREBELLUM; OCCIPITAL LOBE; medial TEMPORAL LOBE; and THALAMUS. Characteristic clinical features include SYNCOPE; lightheadedness; visual disturbances; and VERTIGO. BRAIN STEM INFARCTIONS or other BRAIN INFARCTION may be associated.Raphe Nuclei: Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Brain Waves: Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.Meninges: The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.Telencephalon: The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.Octamer Transcription Factor-3: An octamer transcription factor that is expressed primarily in totipotent embryonic STEM CELLS and GERM CELLS and is down-regulated during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.Strychnine: An alkaloid found in the seeds of STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA. It is a competitive antagonist at glycine receptors and thus a convulsant. It has been used as an analeptic, in the treatment of nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sleep apnea, and as a rat poison.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Cranial Fossa, Posterior: The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Vestibular Nuclei: The four cellular masses in the floor of the fourth ventricle giving rise to a widely dispersed special sensory system. Included is the superior, medial, inferior, and LATERAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Astrocytoma: Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)Vestibulocochlear Nerve: The 8th cranial nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part (VESTIBULAR NERVE) which mediates the sense of balance and head position. The fibers of the cochlear nerve originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS). The fibers of the vestibular nerve arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI.Cell SeparationGlutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Apnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Cochlear Nucleus: The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.Craniotomy: Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Totipotent Stem Cells: Single cells that have the potential to form an entire organism. They have the capacity to specialize into extraembryonic membranes and tissues, the embryo, and all postembryonic tissues and organs. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)RhodanineReproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Cortical Spreading Depression: The decrease in neuronal activity (related to a decrease in metabolic demand) extending from the site of cortical stimulation. It is believed to be responsible for the decrease in cerebral blood flow that accompanies the aura of MIGRAINE WITH AURA. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Fourth Ventricle: An irregularly shaped cavity in the RHOMBENCEPHALON, located between the MEDULLA OBLONGATA; the PONS; and the isthmus in front, and the CEREBELLUM behind. It is continuous with the central canal of the cord below and with the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT above, and through its lateral and median apertures it communicates with the SUBARACHNOID SPACE.Leukoencephalopathies: Any of various diseases affecting the white matter of the central nervous system.Cordotomy: Any operation on the spinal cord. (Stedman, 26th ed)Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Regenerative Medicine: A field of medicine concerned with developing and using strategies aimed at repair or replacement of damaged, diseased, or metabolically deficient organs, tissues, and cells via TISSUE ENGINEERING; CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and ARTIFICIAL ORGANS and BIOARTIFICIAL ORGANS and tissues.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Nestin: A type VI intermediate filament protein expressed mostly in nerve cells where it is associated with the survival, renewal and mitogen-stimulated proliferation of neural progenitor cells.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
Inferior cerebellar peduncle
Dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Deep dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Dissection of brain-stem. Dorsal view. ... and comprises the juxtarestiform body and restiform body. Important fibers running through the inferior cerebellar peduncle ... Cerebral peduncle Juxtarestiform body Middle cerebellar peduncles Superior cerebellar peduncles Upper part of medulla spinalis ... Superficial dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. ... Purkinje cells to the vestibular nuclei in the dorsal brainstem ...
These abnormalities may include: Medial thalami, periaqueductal gray matter, mamillary bodies, and brainstem nuclei edema ( ... stem cell/marrow transplantation cancer, AIDS, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, febrile infections this disease may even occur in ... Depending on the location of the brain lesion different symptoms are more frequent: Brainstem tegmentum. - Ocular: pupillary ... Brainstem lesions may include cranial nerve III, IV, VI and VIII nuclei, the medial thalamic nuclei, and the dorsal nucleus of ...
... part of the brain stem colored. Section of the medulla oblongata at about the middle of the olivary body. ... crossing over from the ipsilateral side in the spinal cord to the contralateral side in the brain stem; below this is the ... The medulla oblongata (or medulla) is located in the brainstem, anterior and partially inferior to the cerebellum. It is a cone ... The control of ventilation via signals from the carotid and aortic bodies. Respiration is regulated by groups of chemoreceptors ...
Damasio's theory of consciousness
... the brain stem, whose nuclei map body signals, and the insular cortex whose function is linked to emotion. These brain areas ... or brain movies. When the body is modified by these neural objects, the second layer of self emerges. This is known as core ... The brain continues to present nonverbal narrative sequence of images in the mind of the organism, based on its relationship to ... This is the most basic level of awareness signified by a collection of neural patterns that are representative of the body's ...
Dorsomedial thalami, periaqueductal gray matter, mamillary bodies, tectal plate and brainstem nuclei are commonly affected. ... chemotherapy, renal dialysis, diuretic therapy, stem cell/marrow transplantation ... Depending on the location of the brain lesion different symptoms are more frequent: *Brainstem tegmentum. - Ocular: pupillary ... Brainstem lesions may include cranial nerve III, IV, VI and VIII nuclei, the medial thalamic nuclei, and the dorsal nucleus of ...
The brain stem or myelencephalon is the brain's posterior. As well as controlling some muscles and body organs, in bony fish at ... the brain stem governs respiration and osmoregulation. Vertebrates are the only chordate group to exhibit a proper brain. A ... The body is often fusiform, a streamlined body plan often found in fast-moving fish. They may also be filiform (eel-shaped) or ... Fish typically have quite small brains relative to body size compared with other vertebrates, typically one-fifteenth the brain ...
The brain stem (or myelencephalon) is the brain's posterior. As well as controlling some muscles and body organs, in bony fish ... The streamlined body of the fish decreases the amount of friction from the water. Since body tissue is denser than water, fish ... Fish typically have quite small brains relative to body size compared with other vertebrates, typically one-fifteenth the brain ... the brain stem governs respiration and osmoregulation. Most fish possess highly developed sense organs. Nearly all daylight ...
Organ donation in Australia
Brain stem death (brain dead) is controversial in Islamic religion. This, along with burial customs of Muslims being they have ... Brain death is also controversial for Buddhists as they believe the spirit remains in the body days after death and interfering ... Donation after brain death. A person is declared brain dead if there is complete loss of all brain function Donation after ... These bodies are used in many teaching facilities and aid in teaching anatomy, surgical techniques or research. Whole body ...
Dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Deep dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Superior terminations of the posterior ... It receives direct input from the mechanoreceptors of the upper body as well as indirect input from them via the spinal cord. ... Deep dissection of cortex and brain-stem. The sensory tract. Fourth ventricle.Posterior view.Deep dissection. Stained brain ... carrying fine touch and proprioceptive information from the upper body (above T6, except the face and ear-the information from ...
Moruzzi, G.; Magoun, H.W. (1949). "Brain stem reticular formation and activation of the EEG". Electroencephalography and ... It has also been shown that homeothermic animals might require sleep to maintain body weight and temperature. The waking ... The brain has a single-minded state of primary consciousness during dreaming, which allows the brain to reach greater ... With the advancement of brain imaging technology, the sleep-waking cycle can be studied as never before. The brain can be ...
Inferno (Marvel Comics)
Implied killed by Cannonball) Face: Weaponized brain stem. Capable of emitting a highly destructive energy blast from face. Due ... Notably also appears to have no cybernetic or demonic parts attached to his body, unlike nearly all of the non-mutant members ... The composition of his body means he is resistant to injury. Bob: Blue skinned, can create miniature duplicates from his blood ... Implied killed by Cannonball) Loca: Possesses demonic and cybernetic body grafts. Adept tracker, capable of sensing and tasting ...
... proprioception and two-point discrimination of the whole body excluding the head. Deep dissection of brain-stem. Ventral view. ... Unlike other ascending tracts of the brain, fibres of the medial lemniscus do not give off collateral branches as they travel ... proprioception and two-point discrimination of the body. The fibres of this decussation are called the internal arcuate fibres ... along the brainstem. The fibres that make up the sensory decussation are responsible for fine touch, ...
Rapid eye movement sleep
Brain stem. Neural activity during REM sleep seems to originate in the brain stem, especially the pontine tegmentum and ... Although the body is paralyzed, the brain acts somewhat awake, with cerebral neurons firing with the same overall intensity as ... a b c d e f g h J. Alan Hobson, Edward F. Pace-Scott, & Robert Stickgold (2000), "Dreaming and the brain: Toward a cognitive ... Research in the 1990s using positron emission tomography (PET) confirmed the role of the brain stem and suggested that, within ...
I. Demonstration of monoamines in the cell bodies of brain stem neurons". Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. Supplementum. 232 ( ... and their cell bodies are confined to a few relatively small brain areas, but they send projections to many other brain areas ... A large number of important drugs exert their effects by interacting with norepinephrine systems in the brain or body. Their ... The general function of norepinephrine is to mobilize the brain and body for action. Norepinephrine release is lowest during ...
... because it contains neural circuits that detect hunger and satiety signals from other parts of the body. The brain stem's ... The body also stimulates eating by detecting a drop in cellular lipid levels (lipoprivation). Both the brain and the liver ... This research shows that the brain stem does in fact play a role in eating. There are two peptides in the hypothalamus that ... Rats that have had the motor neurons in the brain stem disconnected from the neural circuits of the cerebral hemispheres ( ...
Neuroscience of sleep
However, the brain consumes a large proportion of the body's energy at any one time and preservation of energy could only occur ... This is caused by projections from the SCN to the brain stem. This two process model was first proposed in 1982 by Borbely, who ... Body temperature, heart rate, breathing rate, and energy use all decrease. Brain waves get slower and bigger. The excitatory ... Since in quiet waking the brain is responsible for 20% of the body's energy use, this reduction has an independently noticeable ...
History of catecholamine research
I. Demonstration of monoamines in the cell bodies of brain stem neurons". Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. 62, suppl. 247: 1-55 ... This seemed to clarify the fate of the catecholamines in the body, but in 1956 Blaschko suggested that, because the oxidation ... The presence of noradrenaline and adrenaline in the brain has been demonstrated by von Euler (1946) and Holtz (1950). These ... G. Oliver; E. A. Schäfer (1895). "On the physiological action of extracts of pituitary body and certain other glandular organs ...
Somatic nervous system
In the body, 31 segments of nerves are in the spinal cord and 12 are in the brain stem. ... Cranial nerves: They are the nerve fibers that carry information into and out of the brain stem. They include smell, vision, ... 1. (Brain) Precentral gyrus: the origin of nerve signals initiating movement. 2. (Cross Section of Spinal Cord) Corticospinal ... There are 43 segments of nerves in the human body. With each segment, there is a pair of sensory and motor nerves. ...
Central nervous system
5] The CNS is contained within the dorsal body cavity, with the brain housed in the cranial cavity and the spinal cord in the ... All in all 31 spinal nerves project from the brain stem, some forming plexa as they branch out, such as the brachial plexa, ... Brain. Main article: Brain. Rostrally to the spinal cord lies the brain. The brain makes up the largest portion of the ... Brainstem. Main article: Brainstem. The brainstem consists of the medulla, the pons and the midbrain. The medulla can be ...
Anatomy of the cerebellum
... in the latter two groups it is barely distinguishable from the brain-stem. Although the spinocerebellum is present in these ... The middle layer contains only one type of cell body-that of the large Purkinje cell. Purkinje cells are the primary ... Human brain midsagittal view Anterior view of the human cerebellum, with numbers indicating salient landmarks The Brain From ... making this single cell type by far the most numerous neuron in the brain (roughly 70% of all neurons in the brain and spinal ...
The PT in the brain stem is also an important component of the ARAS. Activity of PT cholinergic neurons (REM-on cells) promotes ... As discussed in Chapter 6, these neurons project widely throughout the brain from restricted collections of cell bodies. ... ISBN 978-0-12-385-870-2. Magoun, H. W. (1952). "AN ASCENDING RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM IN THE BRAIN STEM". Ama Archives of ... Finally, Magoun recorded potentials within the medial portion of the brain stem and discovered that auditory stimuli directly ...
Rapid eye movement sleep
Although the body is paralyzed, the brain acts somewhat awake, with cerebral neurons firing with the same overall intensity as ... Research in the 1990s using positron emission tomography (PET) confirmed the role of the brain stem and suggested that, within ... This mechanism can be 'fooled' by artificially warming the brain. REM atonia, an almost complete paralysis of the body, is ... In REM sleep, however, the necessary synaptic downscaling in the brain stem is instead the result of random neuronal firing." ...
Reticular reflex myoclonus is a generalized form of epilepsy originating from the brain stem. Jerks associated with the ... Myoclonus can be described as brief jerks of the body; it can involve any part of the body, but it is mostly seen in limbs or ... EEG is used to read brain wave activity. Spike activity produced from the brain is usually correlated with brief jerks seen on ... If the abnormal brain wave activity is persistent and results from ongoing seizures, then a diagnosis of myoclonic epilepsy may ...
The cell bodies of many of the neurons of most of the cranial nerves are contained in one or more nuclei in the brainstem. ... However, because many of the nerves emerge from the brain stem as rootlets, there is continual debate as to how many nerves ... Cranial nerves relay information between the brain and parts of the body, primarily to and from regions of the head and neck. ... The numbering of the cranial nerves is based on the order in which they emerge from the brain, front to back (brainstem). The ...
Dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Deep dissection of brain-stem. Lateral view. Superior terminations of the posterior ... but from the upper body (above T6, excepting the face and ear - the information from the face and ear is carried by the ... Deep dissection of cortex and brain-stem. The sensory tract. Fourth ventricle. Posterioe view.Deep dissection. Stained brain ... and conscious proprioceptive information from the lower part of the body (below the level of T6 in the spinal cord). The ...
Within the brain, histamine is synthesized exclusively by neurons with their cell bodies in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) ... The PT in the brain stem is also an important component of the ARAS. Activity of PT cholinergic neurons (REM-on cells) promotes ... It is in most cases pragmatically impossible to even measure levels of neurotransmitters in a brain or body at any distinct ... As discussed in Chapter 6, these neurons project widely throughout the brain from restricted collections of cell bodies. ...
Breathing - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Widespread sites of brain stem ventilatory chemoreceptors". Journal of Applied Physiology (American Physiological Society) 75 ( ... Get carbon dioxide (CO2) out of the body. When the body makes energy, carbon dioxide gets left over. The body needs to get rid ... Get oxygen into the body. Every part of the body needs oxygen to survive. The only way humans can get oxygen is to breathe it ... The body also measures the amount of oxygen in the blood. If there is not enough oxygen in the blood, the medulla will tell the ...
Physicians determined that her brain stem was partly sheared, leaving her in a vegetative state. Physicians also noted a number ... of other injuries including broken teeth, numerous contusions and lacerations on Haleigh's body, as well as several burns in ... Poutre had a severe brain injury thought to be caused by abuse by her adoptive mother. The case brought about many changes in ... Physicians involved in the case asserted that Poutre was in a vegetative state, and "virtually brain dead." On Oct. 5, 2005, a ...
Brain Stem Gliomas in Children | Johns Hopkins Pediatric Brain Tumor Center
paralysis of nerves/muscles of the face, or half of the body ... What is a brain stem glioma?. Brain stem gliomas are tumors ... found in the brain stem.. The brainstem is a very delicate location where many pathways from the brain to the spinal cord ... Symptoms of brain tumors in the brainstem (base of brain) may include:. *seizures ... Brain stem gliomas occur almost exclusively in children; the group most often affected is the school-age child. The child ...
Drugs stimulate body's own stem cells to replace brain cells lost in multiple sclerosis
... instructing stem cells in the brain to reverse damage caused by multiple sclerosis. ... Drugs stimulate bodys own stem cells to replace brain cells lost in multiple sclerosis. April 20, 2015, Case Western Reserve ... "It is clear that the discovery of drugs that control the function of stem cells in the body represents a promising new era in ... Two FDA approved drugs were found to stimulate stem cells in the brain and spinal cord to regenerate to the protective coating ...
Brain - Invertebrate Brain, Vertebrate Brain, Human Brain, The Brain Stem, The Diencephalon, The Cerebrum - The cerebellum -...
The brain is a mass of nerve tissue located in an animals head that controls the bodys functions. In simple animals, the ... Brain. Invertebrate Brain, Vertebrate Brain, Human Brain, The Brain Stem, The Diencephalon, The CerebrumThe cerebellum. ... The cerebellum is located below the cerebrum and behind the brain stem, and is shaped like a butterfly. The "wings" are the ... In higher vetebrates, the brain coordinates thinking, memory, learning, and emotions. The brain is part of an animals central ...
Immunohistochemical mapping of enkephalin containing cell bodies, fibers and nerve terminals in the brain stem of the rat<...
Immunohistochemical mapping of enkephalin containing cell bodies, fibers and nerve terminals in the brain stem of the rat. In: ... Immunohistochemical mapping of enkephalin containing cell bodies, fibers and nerve terminals in the brain stem of the rat. ... Immunohistochemical mapping of enkephalin containing cell bodies, fibers and nerve terminals in the brain stem of the rat. / ... T1 - Immunohistochemical mapping of enkephalin containing cell bodies, fibers and nerve terminals in the brain stem of the rat ...
What Parts of the Brain Control the Parts of Your Body? | Livestrong.com
Brain Stem. The brain stem sits at the base of the brain and connects the rest of the brain to the spinal cord. Bryn Mawr ... The main parts of the brain include the cerebrum, cerebellum, limbic system, brain stem and pituitary gland ... What Parts of the Brain Control the Parts of Your Body? Rhonda Merritt ... The cerebellum is explained by scientists as Newhorizons.org as a brain structure that helps the bodys motor and nonmotor ...
The Brain Stem and Chiropractic | Brantford, ON | Whole Body Health
Whats the Brain Stem?. You may have heard of the brain stem, but do you know what its in charge of? What its basic function ... house the lowest part of the brain stem, which coordinates all communication between the brain and the body. Keeping this area ... The brain stem acts as a bridge between the lower most part of your brain (cerebrum) and your spinal cord; it carries messages ... through your nerves to your brain and messages from your brain through your nerves back to your body parts. The brain stem is ...
Stem Cells can Cause Kids Brain Cancer
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Parkinson's: How stem cells can help repair the brain
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The Classical Pathways of Occipital Lobe Epileptic Propagation Revised in the Light of White Matter Dissection
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Ovariectomy Augments Hypertension Through Rho-Kinase Activation in the Brain Stem in Female Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats |...
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Body's fatty folds may help fight kidney failure
Im Focus: Stem cell divisions in the adult brain seen for the first time. Scientists from the University of Zurich have ... Bodys fatty folds may help fight kidney failure. 21.03.2014. Stem cells from the bodys omentum may preserve and improve ... Stem cells from a chronic kidney disease patients own omentum may help heal diseased kidneys without the need for an outside ... A fatty fold of tissue within the abdomen that is a rich source of stem cells can help heal diseased kidneys when fused to the ...
Reason for body's response to borrelia discovered
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Genetic Study of Lewy Body Dementia Supports Ties to Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases - Neuroscience News
... associated with Lewy Body dementia. Researchers also found the genetic profiles of patients with LBD showed higher chances of ... Alzheimers diseaseBIN1brain researchdementiaLewy bodiesLewy body dementianeurobiologyNeurologyNeuroscienceNIHParkinsons ... a devastating disorder that riddles the brain with clumps of abnormal protein deposits called Lewy bodies. Lewy bodies are also ... "Lewy body dementia is a devastating brain disorder for which we have no effective treatments. Patients often appear to suffer ...
Brainstem | anatomy | Britannica.com
Brainstem, area at the base of the brain that lies between the deep structures of the cerebral hemispheres and the cervical ... Alternative Title: brain stem. Brainstem, area at the base of the brain that lies between the deep structures of the cerebral ... The brainstem is a sort of automatic control centre for several important involuntary actions of the body, such as heartbeat, ... brain. Brain. , the mass of nerve tissue in the anterior end of an organism. The brain integrates sensory information and ...
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An insect-like mushroom body in a crustacean brain | eLife
... or an extraordinary example of convergent evolution with the insect mushroom body. ... An insect-like mushroom body in one group of crustaceans, the mantis shrimps (Stomatopoda), suggests either an ancient origin ... Reconstruction of the lower Cambrian stem arthropod brain. Request a detailed protocol Depiction of the fossilized brain of ... Scattered neuron cell bodies in the cell body cluster (cbc) show elevated DC0 immunoreactivity (H, I), as do some cell bodies ...
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How the brain stem controls involuntary functions | Britannica
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The origin of fever: study shows it stems from the brain
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Brainstem death - Wikipedia
ABC of brain stem death. BMJ Publishing Group, 1996, p.30 Shewmon DA. Brain body disconnection : implications for the ... Are brain dead (or brain stem dead) patients neurologically recoverable? In Finis Vitae-brain death is not true death. ... Brain death. Lancet 1980;2:1022 Evans DW. The demise of brain death in Britain. In Beyond brain death-the case against brain ... Pallis, C. From Brain Death to Brain Stem Death, BMJ, 285, November 1982 Coimbra CG. Implications of ischemic penumbra for the ...
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CerebellumSpinalCerebrumGliomasConnectsMedullaTumorAdultNerveNervous systemGliomaNeuronTissueMalignantScientistsInstructing stem cellsResearchersAuditoryStructuresSymptomsBody'sPonsEmbryonicTissuesImportant involuntary actions of the bodyMidbrainImpulsesRegenerative medicineTemperatureParkinson'sHypothalamusFibersAutonomicMetastatic brain tumorsInvoluntaryRegulatesFunctionsSensoryAbnormalTraumatic BrainBlood-brain bNeurologicalOlivary bodyDisordersCoordinatesOrganoidsCerebrospinalNeural progenitor cellsNucleiPerson'sHippocampusCarriesCenter for Stem Cell BiologyStrokeHumanCranial nervesGeneticallySevereLewyCell biologyTherapies
- The cerebellum is located below the cerebrum and behind the brain stem, and is shaped like a butterfly. (jrank.org)
- The cerebellum is explained by scientists as Newhorizons.org as a brain structure that helps the body's motor and nonmotor regions work effectively. (livestrong.com)
- The cerebellum is located at the lower back of the brain. (livestrong.com)
- All efferent and afferent pathways between the cerebrum and cerebellum course through the brainstem, and many of them decussate, or cross, within this structure. (britannica.com)
- Sagittal section of the human brain, showing structures of the cerebellum, brainstem, and cerebral ventricles. (britannica.com)
- present in cerebral cortex, cerebellum and brain stem. (cdc.gov)
- Brainstem death is a clinical syndrome defined by the absence of reflexes with pathways through the brainstem-the "stalk" of the brain, which connects the spinal cord to the mid-brain, cerebellum and cerebral hemispheres-in a deeply comatose, ventilator-dependent patient. (wikipedia.org)
- Children's brain and spinal cord tumors can be located in the spinal cord or in any of the brain 's three main parts: the cerebrum, cerebellum, or brain stem. (webmd.com)
- The medulla oblongata (or medulla) is located in the brainstem , anterior and partially inferior to the cerebellum . (wikipedia.org)
- Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Brain Function - Brainstem & Cerebellum in minutes with SmartDraw. (smartdraw.com)
- The brain is the body organ composed of nerve cells and supportive tissues like glial cells and meninges - there are three major parts - they control your activity like breathing (brain stem), activity like moving muscles to walk (cerebellum) and your senses like sight and our memory, emotions, thinking and personality (cerebrum). (medicinenet.com)
- The cerebellum is located in the lower, back part of the brain. (healthline.com)
- The posterior fossa/infratentorial area (the lower back part of the brain) contains the cerebellum, tectum, fourth ventricle, and brain stem (midbrain, pons, and medulla). (nih.gov)
- The juxtarestiform body carries both afferent and efferent fibers connecting the vestibular nuclei and the flocculonodular lobe and fastigial nucleus of the cerebellum. (wikipedia.org)
- The juxtarestiform body coordinates balance and eye movements by communication between the vestibular apparatus and the cerebellum. (wikipedia.org)
- Two FDA approved drugs were found to stimulate stem cells in the brain and spinal cord to regenerate to the protective coating around neurons that is damaged in diseases such as multiple sclerosis. (medicalxpress.com)
- The disease is the most common chronic neurological disorder among young adults, and results from aberrant immune cells destroying the protective coating, called myelin, around nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. (medicalxpress.com)
- These OPCs are normally found throughout the adult brain and spinal cord, and therefore inaccessible to study. (medicalxpress.com)
- It works with the peripheral nervous system, which carries impulses to and from the brain and spinal cord via nerves running throughout the body. (jrank.org)
- The brain stem sits at the base of the brain and connects the rest of the brain to the spinal cord. (livestrong.com)
- Basically, all nerve communication between the brain and the spinal cord passes through the brain stem, so you can certainly understand its importance! (brantfordchiropractor.com)
- Chiropractors are trained to locate and correct nerve interference in the upper (cervical) spine that may interfere with the nerve communication between the spinal cord and the brain stem. (brantfordchiropractor.com)
- Numerous Lewy bodies were widely evident microscopically in brainstem nuclei and the intermediolateral cell columns of the spinal cord, as well as in the sympathetic ganglia, but were rare or absent in the cerebral cortex and other supratentorial structures. (elsevier.com)
- This case represents a specific clinicopathologic form of Lewy body disease occurring predominantly in the brainstem, spinal cord, and sympathetic ganglia. (elsevier.com)
- Brainstem , area at the base of the brain that lies between the deep structures of the cerebral hemispheres and the cervical spinal cord . (britannica.com)
- Cell therapies derived from patients' own cells are widely expected to be useful in treating spinal cord injuries, strokes and other conditions throughout the body, with little or no risk of immune rejection. (scitechdaily.com)
- What Causes Children's Brain & Spinal Cord Tumors? (webmd.com)
- The brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system . (webmd.com)
- Brain and spinal cord tumors in children are the result of cells growing out of control. (webmd.com)
- The brain stem is connected to the spinal cord. (webmd.com)
- The spinal cord connects the brain with nerves throughout the body. (webmd.com)
- Benign brain and spinal cord tumors can affect the brain, brain stem, and spinal cord. (webmd.com)
- In rare cases, children have inherited genes that increase the risk of a brain or spinal cord tumor. (webmd.com)
- Unless they've got a higher genetic risk, children aren't routinely tested for brain or spinal cord tumors. (webmd.com)
- That means there's no standard age for children to be diagnosed with a brain or spinal cord tumor. (webmd.com)
- If her doctor suspects a tumor, your child may undergo imaging tests like a CT scan or MRI to get a picture of her brain or spinal cord. (webmd.com)
- Most children with brain or spinal cord tumors can be treated successfully. (webmd.com)
- Now that large neural stem cell quantities are viable, scientists are raising the possibility of repairing spinal cord injuries or curing brain diseases like Parkinson's . (engadget.com)
- Trials typically rely on research first conducted on mice or using spinal fluid, and those often fail to replicate the complex neurological activity in the human brain. (winthrop.org)
- Tests that examine the brain and spinal cord are used to detect (find) childhood astrocytomas. (oncolink.org)
- It can form anywhere in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord ). (oncolink.org)
- The part that connects the brain to the spinal cord, in the lowest part of the brain (just above the back of the neck). (oncolink.org)
- Spinal cord nerves carry messages between the brain and the rest of the body, such as a message from the brain to cause muscles to move or a message from the skin to the brain to feel touch. (oncolink.org)
- The most common types of primary brain tumors among adults are astrocytoma, meningiom (a tumor that arises from the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord) and oligodendroglioma. (medicinenet.com)
- Diagnosis of a brain tumor is done by a neurologic exam (by a neurologist or neurosurgeon), CT (computer tomography scan) and/or magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ), and other tests like an angiogram , spinal tap and biopsy. (medicinenet.com)
- Other nerves run through the spinal cord to connect the brain with the other parts of the body. (medicinenet.com)
- Within the brain and spinal cord, glial cells surround nerve cells and hold them in place. (medicinenet.com)
- The brain stem connects the brain with the spinal cord. (medicinenet.com)
- Consists of nervous tissue outside the brain and the spinal cord. (studystack.com)
- This system consists of your brain, brain stem, spinal cord and spinal column. (blogtalkradio.com)
- It generally affects the kidneys and/or the pancreas with some occasionally growing in the brain, eyes and spinal cord. (smore.com)
- X-rays can provide visual evidence of tumors in the CNS, brain, brain stem, or spinal cord indicating Von Hippel Lindau Syndrome. (smore.com)
- The brainstem is a very delicate location where many pathways from the brain to the spinal cord travel. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- The brainstem sits just above the spinal cord and controls speech, breathing, body temperature and impulses sent from the brain to various body parts. (gofundme.com)
- Kidshealth.org says that the right half of the cerebrum controls the left side of the body, and vice versa. (livestrong.com)
- The cerebrum uses information from our senses to tell us what is going on around us and tells our body how to respond. (medicinenet.com)
- The supratentorial area (the upper part of the brain) contains the cerebrum, lateral ventricle and third ventricle (with cerebrospinal fluid shown in blue), choroid plexus, pineal gland, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and optic nerve. (nih.gov)
- At this point, no one can say gliomas arise from neural stem cells. (ucsf.edu)
- One of the impediments to the treatment of brain tumors (e.g., gliomas) has been the degree to which they expand, infiltrate surrounding tissue, and migrate widely into normal brain, usually rendering them "elusive" to effective resection, irradiation, chemotherapy, or gene therapy. (pnas.org)
- We demonstrate that neural stem cells (NSCs), when implanted into experimental intracranial gliomas in vivo in adult rodents, distribute themselves quickly and extensively throughout the tumor bed and migrate uniquely in juxtaposition to widely expanding and aggressively advancing tumor cells, while continuing to stably express a foreign gene. (pnas.org)
- Brain stem gliomas are tumors found in the brain stem. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Bryn Mawr College explains that the brain stem is made of the midbrain, pons and medulla, and it is responsible for vital functions such as breathing, heart rate and digestion. (livestrong.com)
- The brainstem is divided into three sections in humans: the midbrain (mesencephalon), the pons (metencephalon), and the medulla oblongata (myelencephalon). (britannica.com)
- Section of the medulla oblongata at about the middle of the olivary body . (wikipedia.org)
- The region between the anterolateral and posterolateral sulcus in the upper part of the medulla is marked by a pair of swellings known as olivary bodies (also called olives ). (wikipedia.org)
- The soma (cell bodies) in these nuclei are the second-order neurons of the posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway , and their axons, called the internal arcuate fibers or fasciculi, decussate from one side of the medulla to the other to form the medial lemniscus . (wikipedia.org)
- Sometimes called ' olives ,' olivary bodies are a pair of distinct, oval structures, situated one on each side of the anterior (front) surface of the medulla oblongata. (healthline.com)
- The part of the brain that contains the medulla oblongata and other vital portions of the brain. (petmd.com)
- A report from researchers at the University of Chicago, published early online in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, shows that by activating "OFF" cells and shutting down "ON" cells in the ventromedial medulla (VMM) - a small region in the brain stem - animals provide themselves with a form of "eating-induced analgesia," allowing them to complete essential tasks even in a difficult situation. (emaxhealth.com)
- The part of the vertebrate brain located at the base of the brain and made up of the medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain. (dictionary.com)
- Light has been shed on the role of stem cells in medulloblastomas, the most common type of children's brain tumor, in a new study. (medindia.net)
- Researchers from Baylor College of Medicine have said that the master gene Math1 is involved in the genesis of the most common childhood brain tumor. (medindia.net)
- UCSF scientists have discovered that a tiny filament extending from cells, until recently regarded as a remnant of evolution, may play a role in the most common malignant brain tumor in children. (medindia.net)
- An MRI image shows a tumor in the brain extending beyond the skull, involving the sphenoid sinus and infratemporal fossa. (montefiore.org)
- In the Aug. 25 issue of New England Journal of Medicine, a team of UCSF stem cell scientists and neurosurgeons reports on the increasing evidence from labs around the world that stem cells found in the brain -- known as neural stem cells -- may be the cause of the most common form of primary brain tumor. (ucsf.edu)
- But at the time, the team, including co-author Mitchel Berger, MD , professor and chairman of the UCSF Department of Neurological Surgery and director of the UCSF Brain Tumor Research Center, also noted that data suggested disregulated forms of these cells could play a role in several disease processes. (ucsf.edu)
- In the current review article, the team examined a body of evidence that they say signals a watershed moment in the convergence of neural stem cell research and brain tumor research. (ucsf.edu)
- When a tumor grows into or presses on an area of the brain, it may stop that part of the brain from working the way it should. (oncolink.org)
- A primary brain tumor is a tumor which begins in the brain tissue. (medicinenet.com)
- If a cancerous tumor starts elsewhere in the body, it can spread cancer cells, which grow in the brain. (medicinenet.com)
- Neurologists base the treatment of brain tumors on the type, location, and size of the tumor, your health, and age. (medicinenet.com)
- The next step will be to test whether these T cells can selectively kill tumor cells but not other cells in the body," lead researcher, Hiroshi Kawamoto, said in a press release . (singularityhub.com)
- Can neural stem cells be used to track down and destroy migratory brain tumor cells while also providing a means of repairing tumor-associated damage? (pnas.org)
- More broadly, they suggest that NSC migration can be extensive, even in the adult brain and along nonstereotypical routes, if pathology (as modeled here by tumor) is present. (pnas.org)
- We hypothesized that pathology promotes NSC migration to an extent not assumed possible based on knowledge drawn from the normal adult brain and that, therefore, an approach for targeting gene therapy to the most migratory tumor cells in the adult central nervous system (CNS) might be the use of inherently migratory NSCs to deliver therapeutic genes and/or their products. (pnas.org)
- To make an appointment or request a consultation, contact the Johns Hopkins Pediatric Brain Tumor Center at 410-955-7337 . (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- We know that there are stem cells throughout the adult nervous system that are capable of repairing the damage caused by multiple sclerosis, but until now, we had no way to direct them to act," said Paul Tesar, PhD, the Dr. Donald and Ruth Weber Goodman Professor of Innovative Therapeutics, and associate professor in the Department of Genetics & Genome Sciences at the Case Western Reserve School of Medicine. (medicalxpress.com)
- But here we asked if we could find a faster and less invasive approach by using drugs to activate native stem cells already in the adult nervous system and direct them to form new myelin. (medicalxpress.com)
- Although adult stem cells have shown promise in treating experimental acute kidney diseases, it's unknown whether they might also alleviate chronic kidney diseases. (innovations-report.com)
- Scientists from the University of Zurich have succeeded for the first time in tracking individual stem cells and their neuronal progeny over months within the intact adult brain. (innovations-report.com)
- Whereas the GCSF protein, as expected, stimulated such stem cells to proliferate and start maturing towards adult white blood cells, the GCSF-mimicking antibody had a markedly different effect. (scitechdaily.com)
- Researchers have successfully filmed the division of stem cells in an adult mouse brain, for the first time. (bionews.org.uk)
- Most of the stem cells had only a few rounds of cell division before they matured into neurons, which integrated into the adult mouse hippocampus and no longer divided. (bionews.org.uk)
- Theoretically, if scientists could deduce how to prompt embryonic or adult stem cells to evolve into the various specialized cells of the body, the cells could be transplanted into patients, replacing, for example, the key brain cells destroyed in Parkinson's disease. (ucsf.edu)
- Scientists are studying the earliest stages of embryonic and adult stem cell growth in the culture dish and in animal models with the ultimate goal of identifying the genetic missteps that cause such diseases as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and that account for some cases of birth defects and infertility. (ucsf.edu)
- Scientists also are conducting studies on adult stem cells to determine whether disregulated stem cells cause some cancers. (ucsf.edu)
- Recently, separate studies have implicated ciliated ependymal (CE) cells, and special subependymal zone (SEZ) astrocytes as candidates for NSC in the adult brain. (pnas.org)
- Cells isolated from the postnatal and adult brain that can grow as multipotent proliferative clones-neurospheres ( 1 )-are capable of giving rise to neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. (pnas.org)
- It has been shown that the periventricular subependymal zone (SEZ) is a source of neurogenesis, and this region presumably contains the highest concentration of NSC in the postnatal and adult brain ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
- Furthermore, it has been hypothesized that a basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-responsive NSC isolated from adult rat brain may in fact be a glial precursor, possibly an "astrocyte-like" cell ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
- Dozens of adult stem cell treatments are moving through clinical trials and showing early success, raising hopes that some could reach the market within five years. (foxnews.com)
- Stem Cells In Brain Have Potential For Sensing Damage And To Repair ( Adult stem cells have the ability to tr. (bio-medicine.org)
- Adult stem cells have the ability to trace damaged tissue in the brain. (bio-medicine.org)
- Adult stem cells have the ability to trace damaged tissue in the brain and repair it accordingly, says a US led study on mice. (bio-medicine.org)
- The brain is a mass of nerve tissue located in an animal's head that controls the body's functions. (jrank.org)
- Enkephalin immunoreactive perikarya, fibers and nerve terminals, visualized by the indirect immunohistofluorescent method in colchicine-pretreated animals, are localized in many discrete regions of the rat brain stem. (elsevier.com)
- In still other nuclei, such as the nucleus of the facial nerve and the locus coeruleus, fiber and terminal densities without associated cell bodies are evident. (elsevier.com)
- MayoClinic.com describes the brain as "containing billions of nerve cells arranged in patterns that coordinate thought, emotion, behavior, movement and sensation. (livestrong.com)
- This fist-sized structure contains more nerve cells than all the rest of the brain combined. (livestrong.com)
- According to the University of Maryland Medical Center, the pituitary gland is located at the base of the brain and is connected to the hypothalamus by nerve fibers. (livestrong.com)
- If successful, using stem cells as a source of transplantable dopamine-producing nerve cells could revolutionize care of the [Parkinson's] patient in the future," they say. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The movements stem from a disruption in brain function leading to abnormal nerve impulses. (childrens.com)
- c diVuse or extensive processes aVecting the whole brain c supratentorial mass lesions causing tentorial herniation with brain stem compression (associated with other neurological signs such as third nerve palsy and crossed hemiparesis) c brain stem lesions-for example, compression from posterior fossa mass lesions such as cerebellar haemorrhage/infarction and disorders primarily aVecting the brain stem (for example, basilar artery thrombosis). (scribd.com)
- Cochlear Nuclei All auditory nerve fibers terminate within the cochlear nuclei (CN), which comprise highly complex groupings of cells that together form a protuberance on the lateral surface of the brain stem at the medullopontine junction. (scribd.com)
- The descending branches of those same nerve fibers make contact as pericellular nests of boutons terminaux or boutons en passage neurons of different classes within PVCN and DCN, and here the transformations are quite different from those in AVCN. (scribd.com)
- In addition to auditory nerve input, there is a rich network of interneurons that forms circuits within and between CN subdivisions (Lorente de No, 1981) along with a substantial set of afferents derived from neurons in other regions of the auditory brain stem. (scribd.com)
- The column of nerve tissue that runs from the brain stem down the center of the back. (oncolink.org)
- The olivary bodies are composed of nerve tissue and measure about 1.25 cm in length. (healthline.com)
- The brain is part of an animal's central nervous system , which receives and transmits impulses. (jrank.org)
- Because of the important neural structures concentrated in this small portion of the nervous system , even very small lesions of the brainstem may have profound effects. (britannica.com)
- Causes include side effects of medication, damage to the nervous system, and disorders that affect the brain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Also, damage to the brain or nervous system can cause myoclonus. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Only a half-inch in diameter, the brain stem controls all basic activities of the central nervous system: consciousness, blood pressure and breathing. (strokeassociation.org)
- The central nervous system controls many important body functions. (oncolink.org)
- The mammalian brain contains a population of neural stem cells (NSC) that can both self-renew and generate progeny along the three lineage pathways of the central nervous system (CNS), but the in vivo identification and localization of NSC in the postnatal CNS has proved elusive. (pnas.org)
- the part of the nervous system that regulates certain automatic functions of the body, for example, heart rate, temperature, and bowel movements. (rettsyndrome.org)
- Harris and colleagues examined if widespread pain, thought to be a marker of centralization in the nervous system, actually originates in the brain. (eurekalert.org)
- To study rare diseases affecting neurotransmitter biosynthesis and neurotransmission, stem cell models carrying patient-specific mutations have become highly important as most of the cell types present in the human brain and the central nervous system (CNS), including motoneurons, neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia, can be differentiated from iPSCs following distinct developmental programs. (springer.com)
- A fatty fold of tissue within the abdomen that is a rich source of stem cells can help heal diseased kidneys when fused to the organs, according to a study conducted in rats. (innovations-report.com)
- Ashok Singh, PhD (John Stroger, Jr Hospital of Cook County) and his colleagues attempted to overcome this hurdle in rats with kidney disease by connecting the omentum, a fatty fold of tissue that lies close to the kidney and is a rich source of stem cells, to the kidney. (innovations-report.com)
- In rats with kidney disease, functioning of the kidney improved when the organ was fused with the omentum, a fatty fold of tissue that lies close to the kidney and is a rich source of stem cells. (innovations-report.com)
- They first removed the outer layers of brain tissue in living mice to uncover the hippocampus and genetically labelled 63 individual stem cells. (bionews.org.uk)
- Last year, the same team reported the discovery of a ribbon of neural stem cells in the human brain (Nature, Feb. 19, 2004), offering hope that the cells could someday be used to develop strategies for regenerating damaged brain tissue. (ucsf.edu)
- They may also spread into other brain tissue, or to other parts of the body. (webmd.com)
- Malignant brain tumors are likely to grow quickly and spread into other brain tissue. (oncolink.org)
- The brain is a soft, spongy mass of tissue . (medicinenet.com)
- Normally when we hear about induced pluripotency scientists are turning one cell type into another - skin cells into heart or brain cells , for example - in an effort to replace tissue lost or damaged due to disease. (singularityhub.com)
- CNN) - We've seen beating heart tissue, windpipes and bladders all grown from stem cells. (wqad.com)
- They're not actually functioning brains - in the same way that a car with the engine on its roof or wheels on its hood isn't a drivable vehicle - but the parts are there, and that's an important scientific advancement, according to Juergen Knoblich, senior author of a new study on using stem cells to grow brain tissue. (wqad.com)
- These pea-sized structures are made of human brain tissue, and they can help researchers explore important questions about brain development and disorders that occur during these first stages of life. (wqad.com)
- They show that neural stem cells in mice have the ability to sense damage in their environment that leads to their subsequent proliferation to help restore local tissue integrity. (bio-medicine.org)
- The next step is to determine how these stem cells sense damage and then begin to work on the injured tissue. (bio-medicine.org)
- This study was conducted to throw light upon the molecular programs that control neural stem cells in the postnatal mouse and how the neural stem cells respond to tissue damage. (bio-medicine.org)
- Recent advances in hardware and the use of sophisticated processing software such as LCModel (Stephen Provencher, Oakville, Ontario, Canada) or the MRUI 1 , 2 have significantly improved automatic assignment and quantitation of metabolites of in vivo MR spectra of human brain tissue. (ajnr.org)
- Also included are less prominent metabolites, such as glucose (Glc), scyllo-inositol (sI), taurine (Tau), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), aspartate (Asp), and others that are known to be present in measurable concentrations in healthy or diseased brain tissue. (ajnr.org)
- However, in a subset of in vivo MR spectra acquired from pediatric brain tumors, we have observed a residual, nonrandom signal that cannot be attributed to any of the metabolites included in the basis set used for LCModel processing in this institution or that have been reported in the literature for brain tissue. (ajnr.org)
- Thus, the goals of this study were to determine the molecule of origin, the prevalence and concentration of this chemical in various pediatric brain tumors, and to review MR spectra of nontumorous tissue for the presence of the signal. (ajnr.org)
- This cell division strategy, called asymmetric mitosis, allows stem cells to produce large amounts of tissue in a relatively long period of time. (healthcanal.com)
- Scientists are using stem cell-derived tissue models to reduce the number of drug failures in clinical trials. (futurity.org)
- The researchers have developed a screening system for predicting developmental neurotoxicity-damage caused to nervous tissue by toxic substances-using stem cells to model features of the developing human brain. (futurity.org)
- To begin, the team produced model human neural tissue by culturing stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells, vascular cells, and microglia on engineered hydrogels. (futurity.org)
- These precursor cells self-assembled into three-dimensional neural tissue constructs with features that resemble the developing human brain. (futurity.org)
- The neural tissue constructs developed in this project are the first to incorporate vascular and microglial components into a 3D model of brain development derived from human pluripotent stem cells. (futurity.org)
- Childhood astrocytoma is a disease in which benign (noncancer) or malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the brain. (oncolink.org)
- Both benign and malignant brain tumors can cause signs and symptoms and almost all need treatment. (oncolink.org)
- Primary brain tumors can be either malignant (contain cancer cells) or benign (do not contain cancer cells). (medicinenet.com)
- Malignant brain tumors, e.g., glioblastoma multiforme, remain virtually untreatable and inevitably lethal despite extensive surgical excision and adjuvant radio- and chemotherapy ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
- Scientists have recreated a critical brain component, the blood-brain barrier, that functioned as it would in the individual who provided the cells to make it. (stemcellsdaily.com)
- So, it is crucial that scientists come up with more effective strategies for repairing the brain damage that Parkinson's disease causes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In a study led by National Institutes of Health (NIH) researchers, scientists found that five genes may play a critical role in determining whether a person will suffer from Lewy body dementia, a devastating disorder that riddles the brain with clumps of abnormal protein deposits called Lewy bodies. (neurosciencenews.com)
- Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute have found a simple way to turn bone marrow stem cells directly into brain precursor cells, such as those shown here. (scitechdaily.com)
- While looking for lab-grown antibodies that can activate a growth-stimulating receptor on marrow cells, a team of scientists at the Lerner lab discovered a way to turn bone marrow stem cells directly into brain cells. (scitechdaily.com)
- La Jolla, California - In a serendipitous discovery, scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have found a way to turn bone marrow stem cells directly into brain cells. (scitechdaily.com)
- Scientists revealed an innovative method which can be used to transplant blood-forming stem cells directly into the brain. (bionews.org.uk)
- Finding treatments and cures for Alzheimer's has been extremely challenging for scientists, since the brain is the most inaccessible and complex organ in the body. (winthrop.org)
- T cells have the natural ability to target and destroy cancer cells and scientists have long since sought a way to recruit these innate defenders to rid the body of tumors. (singularityhub.com)
- Scientists Can Now Clone Brain Organoids. (singularityhub.com)
- Scientists have created what they are calling "cerebral organoids" using stem cells. (wqad.com)
- The scientists have still not deciphered the precise mechanism by which the stem cells carried out the response. (bio-medicine.org)
Instructing stem cells1
- Led by researchers at Case Western Reserve, a multi-institutional team used a new discovery approach to identify drugs that could activate mouse and human brain stem cells in the laboratory. (medicalxpress.com)
- Specifically, the researchers developed a unique process to create massive quantities of a special type of stem cell called an oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC). (medicalxpress.com)
- Researchers can also derive stem cells from the person's own blood. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Researchers demonstrate the close relationship between body perception and our ability to store new memories. (neurosciencenews.com)
- The researchers then tested an unanchored, soluble version of this antibody on cultures of bone marrow stem cells from human volunteers. (scitechdaily.com)
- The researchers used a microscopy technique called two-photon imaging to capture pictures of the stem cells dividing. (bionews.org.uk)
- For some time, researchers have been debating where this signal originates, but new developments at the Linköping University in Sweden have finally settled the matter: prostaglandin originates in the brain. (zmescience.com)
- Aspirin is great for fever and researchers should it works its magic by suppressing prostaglandins producing throughout the body. (zmescience.com)
- But UCSF researchers are working on another angle of stem cell research -- one focused on illuminating disease. (ucsf.edu)
- But researchers haven't found convincing evidence that links these things to childhood brain tumors . (webmd.com)
- That's where researchers might come to the rescue: they've developed a method of growing neural stem cells in large volumes, but without chewing up too much valuable real estate. (engadget.com)
- Researchers and doctors do not know exact cause of brain tumors. (medicinenet.com)
- The researchers behind the current study seek a new tactic from stem cell pluripotency: instead of making one thing from another, they seek to take a good thing and simply make more of it. (singularityhub.com)
- In a new study, however, researchers from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle were able to use genetically modified stem cells to protect the bone marrow. (foxnews.com)
- Researchers took bone marrow from patients with brain cancer and isolated the stem cells. (foxnews.com)
- The case sent a chill through the scientific community when it came to light 15 years ago and typifies some of the hurdles researchers have faced while trying to bring stem cell therapies to the market. (foxnews.com)
- Researchers used human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (IPS cells) for this research. (wqad.com)
- The researchers used this model to look at a neurodevelopmental disease called microcephaly, a disorder in which the size of the brain is reduced. (wqad.com)
- To understand the neural basis of this form of pain suppression, the researchers next inserted electrodes to monitor brain activity in feeding rats. (emaxhealth.com)
- These datasets provide valuable information about changes in gene expression that researchers can mine to better understand mechanisms that might be disrupted during human brain development," he says. (futurity.org)
- Cheapest Auditory Brainstem Implants price in Tasmania, Australia is $605. (placidway.com)
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- PlacidWay Medical Tourism provides cost comparison for Auditory Brainstem Implants, ENT Prices in Tasmania, Australia. (placidway.com)
- Explore Auditory Brainstem Implants prices worldwide. (placidway.com)
- Auditory and Vestibular Systems The Central Auditory System John F. Brugge Structure and Organization The major ascending auditory pathways of the brain stem and thalamus are shown schematically in Figure 1. (scribd.com)
- The olivary body works specifically in the areas of motor (movement) learning function, as well as auditory (sound) perception. (healthline.com)
- The superior olivary nucleus is the part of the olivary body that belongs to the auditory system and assists with sound perception. (healthline.com)
- Contribution to the differentiation of peripheral versus central tinnitus via auditory brain stem response evaluation. (biomedsearch.com)
- Auditory brain stem response (ABR) parameters were evaluated in 54 subjects with unilateral idiopathic subjective tinnitus in order to verify the possibility of detecting its site of origin. (biomedsearch.com)
- Auditory brainstem responses of the cat: on- and off-responses. (biomedsearch.com)
- The binaural interaction component (BIC) of the auditory brainstem response is a noninvasive electroencephalographic signature of neural processing of binaural sounds. (jneurosci.org)
- We explore here the hypothesis that the BIC emerges from excitatory-inhibitory interactions in auditory brainstem neurons. (jneurosci.org)
- The binaural component of sound-evoked auditory brainstem responses is one such measure of binaural auditory coding fidelity in the early stages of the auditory system. (jneurosci.org)
- The BIC of the auditory brainstem response. (jneurosci.org)
- The brain stem is also made up of several different structures that control some of the most basic functions that keep you alive - your breathing, your heart rate and your blood pressure. (brantfordchiropractor.com)
- Known as mushroom bodies, these structures help to form and store memories. (elifesciences.org)
- This suggests that mushroom bodies are evolutionarily ancient structures that arose in a common ancestor of insects and crustaceans, before being lost or radically modified in most of the crustaceans. (elifesciences.org)
- The team at Montefiore's Comprehensive Skull/Cranial Base Center uses the latest in cutting-edge technology, including high-powered illumination of tumors, real-time electrophysiologic monitoring of vital brain structures and stereotactic image guidance to help navigate the brain regions during surgery. (montefiore.org)
- This picture shows the brain and nearby structures. (medicinenet.com)
- Acts on the anterior body structures. (abcam.com)
- Also, the hippocampus, a seahorse-shaped structure crucial for memory, was rarely detected in these brain-like structures. (wqad.com)
- Since the brainstem contains a compact arrangement of diverse structures, what will normally happen with a single lesion? (flashcardmachine.com)
- The authors say that stem cells could "provide superior treatment, possibly using different types of cells to treat different symptoms" of Parkinson's. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- A gene therapy relieves Parkinson's disease symptoms by rewiring the brain circuits involved in movement. (bionews.org.uk)
- Neurons derived from human stem cells have successfully been used to treat and relieve symptoms of Parkinson's disease in a primate animal model. (bionews.org.uk)
- Brain stem strokes can have complex symptoms, and they can be difficult to diagnose. (strokeassociation.org)
- The signs symptoms of brain tumors depend on their size, type, and location. (medicinenet.com)
- Go over the answers to the pretest and tell the students that in the next steps they will be linking these symptoms to the specific regions of the brain. (cdc.gov)
- Our approach was to find drugs that could catalyze the body's own stem cells to replace the cells lost in multiple sclerosis. (medicalxpress.com)
- What he found instead is that prostaglandin can be synthesized from two enzymes in the blood vessels inside the brain, before reaching the hypothalamus where the body's thermostat is located. (zmescience.com)
- The Pons serves a specific function in the brain, it sorts and relays messages between different sections of the brain. (ask.com)
- A major structure in the upper part of the brain stem is called the pons. (ask.com)
- The pons serves as a communications and coordination center between the two hemispheres of the brain. (ask.com)
- Both embryonic stem cells and IPS cells have the ability to turn into any part of the body. (wqad.com)
- But embryonic stem cells are very controversial because in the process of retrieving them for research, the 4- or 5-day-old embryo they are taken from is destroyed. (wqad.com)
- There did not appear to be an obvious difference between organoids derived from embryonic stem cells and those produced from IPS cells, said Knoblich, also of the Austrian Academy of Science. (wqad.com)
- The clash between research advocates and religious groups over the use of embryonic stem cells could be resolved by using placentas, according to a report from University of Pittsburgh's McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine (via Pittsburgh Live ). (medgadget.com)
- Unlike embryonic stem cells, which are obtained only by destroying human embryos, these cells can be extracted from the same placentas that now are routinely discarded after birth. (medgadget.com)
- They thus could be a non-controversial alternative to embryonic stem cells. (medgadget.com)
- We think it would be easier to get these to the clinic than [embryonic stem] cells," said Stephen Strom, an associate professor of pathology at the Pitt medical school. (medgadget.com)
- Not only do amniotic epithelial cells lack the controversy of embryonic stem cells, but they also do not generate the tumors associated with embryonic stem cells, he said. (medgadget.com)
- To replace damaged cells, much of the stem cell field has focused on direct transplantation of stem cell-derived tissues for regenerative medicine, and that approach is likely to provide enormous benefit down the road," said Tesar, also a New York Stem Cell Foundation Robertson Investigator and member of the National Center for Regenerative Medicine. (medicalxpress.com)
- This finding is of great interest because the same type of cells are also present in the human brain, and this knowledge can be put to therapeutic use in future, to treat brain tissues damaged by disorders such as traumatic injury. (bio-medicine.org)
- In tissues, e.g., the brain, the terms homo and heteroreceptor complexes are instead used since the receptors also bind to a substantial number of adapter proteins many of which remain to be identified. (springer.com)
- Homo and heteroreceptor receptor complexes with allosteric receptor-receptor interactions give a new dimension to molecular neuroscience and brain integration and represents a new biological principle to integrate biological signals in all tissues. (springer.com)
Important involuntary actions of the body2
- The brainstem is a sort of automatic control centre for several important involuntary actions of the body, such as heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, and many reflexes. (britannica.com)
- The brain stem is an automatic control center for many such important involuntary actions of the body. (britannica.com)
- More than 3 decades ago, pioneering studies that transplanted stem cells to treat Parkinson's used "fetal cells obtained from the midbrain of aborted embryos. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- At this early stage of human development, several key regions of the brain are already distinctive features, including the dorsal cortex, the ventral forebrain, the choroid plexus - which generates cerebrospinal fluid - and regions that resemble the midbrain and hindbrain. (wqad.com)
- For the analysis of defects in neurotransmission associated with rare neurometabolic diseases, different types of brain organoids have been made available during the last years including forebrain, midbrain and cerebral organoids. (springer.com)
- The brain is also responsible for a variety of involuntary behavior , including keeping the heart beating, and maintaining blood pressure and temperature . (jrank.org)
- The hypothalamus controls emotions, and regulates temperature by telling the body to sweat when overheated and to shiver when cold. (livestrong.com)
- It controls body temperature, hunger, and thirst. (oncolink.org)
- Apparatus for altering the body temperature of a patient comprises an enclosure defining an interior space for receiving at least a portion of a patient's body therein. (google.com)
- A control system is preprogrammed with a target temperature for the body temperature of the patient. (google.com)
- 5. Apparatus as set forth in claim 4 wherein the control system is preprogrammed to shut off the liquid delivery system when the core body temperature of the patient reaches within 2 C. of the target temperature to prevent the patient's core body temperature from falling below the target temperature. (google.com)
- 6. Apparatus as set forth in claim 5 wherein the control system is preprogrammed to shut off the liquid delivery system when the core body temperature reaches within 1 C. of the target temperature. (google.com)
- 7. Apparatus as set forth in claim 4 wherein the control system is preprogrammed to send a warning to a user if the core body temperature falls below the target temperature. (google.com)
- New research examines the potential of stem cell therapy in the replacement of damaged neurons in Parkinson's disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- New research , which now appears in a special supplement to the Journal of Parkinson's Disease , evaluates the potential of stem cell therapy for treating this neurodegenerative condition. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In their review, Dr. Henchcliffe and Prof. Parmar examined the evolution of stem cell therapy and its uses for replacing damaged neurons in Parkinson's. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Lewy bodies are also a hallmark of Parkinson's disease. (neurosciencenews.com)
- The results, published in Nature Genetics , not only supported the disease's ties to Parkinson's disease but also suggested that people who have Lewy body dementia may share similar genetic profiles to those who have Alzheimer's disease. (neurosciencenews.com)
- In the future, we hope that we will be able to use neural stem cells for brain repair - for example for diseases such as cognitive ageing, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease or major depression,' Professor Jessberger concluded. (bionews.org.uk)
- The limbic system is referred to as the "emotional brain,' according to Bryn Mawr College, and it contains the thalamus, hypothalamus and hippocampus. (livestrong.com)
- Here we demonstrate that MBH leucine engages a neural energy regulatory circuit by stimulating POMC (proopiomelanocortin) neurons of the MBH, oxytocin neurons of the paraventricular hypothalamus, and neurons within the brainstem nucleus of the solitary tract to acutely suppress food intake by reducing meal size. (nih.gov)
- Our data identify a novel, specific hypothalamus-brainstem circuit that links amino acid availability and nutrient sensing to the control of food intake. (nih.gov)
Metastatic brain tumors3
- In simple animals, the brain functions like a switchboard picking up signals from sense organs and passing information to muscles. (jrank.org)
- Depending on its severity, this type of stroke could be fatal because of the major functions that the brain stem controls, or it could affect the person's vision, speech, body movements, and sensation of pain. (brantfordchiropractor.com)
- The brainstem houses many of the control centres for vital body functions, such as swallowing, breathing , and vasomotor control. (britannica.com)
- No previously described crustacean possesses a mushroom body as defined by strict morphological criteria although crustacean centers called hemiellipsoid bodies, which serve functions in sensory integration, have been viewed as evolutionarily convergent with mushroom bodies. (elifesciences.org)
- Brain stem strokes can impair any or all of these functions. (strokeassociation.org)
- A stroke affecting the brain stem is potentially life threatening since this area of the brain controls functions such as breathing and instructing the heart to beat. (smartdraw.com)
- Further research into the brains and behavior of the mantis shrimp may provide insights into how mushroom bodies construct memories of a complex sensory world. (elifesciences.org)
- Interestingly, when we put these individuals into the brain imaging scanner, we found that those who had widespread pain had increased gray matter and brain connectivity within sensory and motor cortical areas, when compared to pain-free controls. (eurekalert.org)
- Speech disorders , vestibular disturbance, abnormal consciousness , dysphagia , and respiratory disturbance are a few examples of possible outcomes of brainstem disorders. (britannica.com)
- Many eye issues stem from an abnormal development of blood vessels, which can lead to vision impairment. (healthline.com)
- Elsewhere in the world the concept upon which the certification of death on neurological grounds is based is that of permanent cessation of all function in all parts of the brain-whole brain death-with which the reductionist United Kingdom concept should not be confused. (wikipedia.org)
- Brain death implies the complete and permanent absence of neurological function in the cortex and the brainstem . (dictionary.com)
- In more advanced forms, particularly vertebrates , a more analytical brain coordinates complex behaviors. (jrank.org)
- The first two vertebrae of the cervical spine (atlas and axis) house the lowest part of the brain stem, which coordinates all communication between the brain and the body. (brantfordchiropractor.com)
- The organoids, as described in the journal Nature, have components resembling those of a brain of a 9- or 10-week-old embryo, said lead study author Madeline Lancaster, a researcher at the Institute of Molecular Biotechnology at the Austrian Academy of Science in Vienna, at a press briefing Tuesday. (wqad.com)
- We actually think that the cross-talk between these different regions - the communication between these different brain regions within the organoids - is really important for each individual region's development," she said. (wqad.com)
- In the organoids made from the microcephaly patient's cells, it appeared that more stem cells had been turned into neurons - a process called differentiation - than in the mini brains derived from healthy patients' cells. (wqad.com)
Neural progenitor cells1
- Marked neuronal loss was seen in the locus ceruleus, raphe nuclei, dorsal vagal nuclei, and intermediolateral cell columns, but neurons in the substantia nigra, other brain regions, and sympathetic ganglia appeared undiminished. (elsevier.com)
- which can be related to specific groups of brainstem nuclei. (frontiersin.org)
- They are caused by the largest nuclei of the olivary bodies, the inferior olivary nuclei . (wikipedia.org)
- The study has shown how the hippocampus, a brain structure involved in learning and memory, generates new cells throughout life. (bionews.org.uk)
- In the past, it was deemed technically impossible to follow single cell stem cells in the brain over time given the deep localisation of the hippocampus in the brain,' said senior author Professor Sebastian Jessberger , from the Brain Research Institute at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. (bionews.org.uk)
Center for Stem Cell Biology2
- By identifying the signals that instruct mouse progenitor cells to become cells that make tubes and later insulin-producing beta cells, we can transfer this knowledge to human stem cells to more robustly make beta cells, says Professor and Head of Department Henrik Semb from the Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Stem Cell Biology at the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences. (medindia.net)
- We looked at the entire portfolio of gene expression in these constructs and how they respond to chemicals at different stages in development," explains James Thomson, a professor in University of California, Santa Barbara's department of molecular, cellular, and developmental biology, where he serves as co-director of the Center for Stem Cell Biology and Engineering. (futurity.org)
- You may know someone who has had a stroke that affected the brain stem. (brantfordchiropractor.com)
- A brain stem stroke can also cause double vision, slurred speech and decreased level of consciousness. (strokeassociation.org)
- If a stroke in the brain stem results from a clot, the faster blood flow can be restored, the better the chances for recovery. (strokeassociation.org)
- Whether a survivor has minor or severe deficits depends on the location of the stroke within the brain stem, the extent of injury and how quickly treatment is provided. (strokeassociation.org)
- Risk factors for brain stem stroke are the same as for strokes in other areas of the brain: high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease, atrial fibrillation and smoking. (strokeassociation.org)
- Brain stem stroke may also cause double vision, nausea and loss of coordination. (smartdraw.com)
- After lots of test, doctors were still unsure what had caused the 'seizure' or what was wrong with him, a stroke and brain haemorrhage were both ruled out as nothing was showing on scans. (gofundme.com)
- Daz had suffered a huge and rare brainstem stroke, which was not clearly noticeable on the scans as it's at the very base of the brain. (gofundme.com)
- We all need the brainstem to function for survival, making a brainstem stroke life threatening. (gofundme.com)
- Cells can also be reprogrammed directly in the brain by injecting the conversion genes instead of the human skin cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Read about features, types, and other must-know topics in our STEM Human Torso Body Anatomy Medical Model Heart Brain Skeleton Medical School Educational buying guide to make an informed choice. (ivex.club)
- Order finest STEM Human Torso Body Anatomy Medical Model Heart Brain Skeleton Medical School Educational Look for the STEM Human Torso Body Anatomy Medical Model Heart Brain Skeleton Medical School Educational package that is finest for you. (ivex.club)
- As well as deepening our understanding of how brain cells develop throughout life, it is hoped the study will help advance research into therapies for human diseases. (bionews.org.uk)
- In 1995, after a review by a Working Group of the Royal College of Physicians of London, the Conference of Medical Royal Colleges formally adopted the "more correct" term for the syndrome, "brainstem death"-championed by Pallis in a set of 1982 articles in the British Medical Journal -and advanced a new definition of human death as the basis for equating this syndrome with the death of the person. (wikipedia.org)
- This is part of our five week unit on the human body. (mindmeister.com)
- The cutting-edge research conducted by Drs. Reiss, Aaron Pinkhasov, Irving Gomolin, Joshua De Leon and Lora Kasselman, however, innovates by using human stem cells reengineered to behave like brain neurons, and in this way NYU Winthrop believes it will achieve the closest approximation to brain behavior possible. (winthrop.org)
- Single-cell genome analyses reveal the amount of mutations a human brain cell will collect from its fetal beginnings until death. (the-scientist.com)
- The main aim of this study is to produce pancreatic beta cells from stem cells in the human body. (medindia.net)
- Immature stem cells in the human body can be stimulated to mature into insulin-producing cells. (medindia.net)
- Now we can use this knowledge to more efficiently turn human stem cells into beta cells in the laboratory with the hope to use them to replace lost beta cells in patients suffering from diabetes', says Henrik Semb. (medindia.net)
- If we can figure out how this happens, and determine that it occurs in human neural stem cells," says Chay T. Kuo, a researcher in Jan's lab, "we may be able to increase the effect and harness it for therapeutic use. (bio-medicine.org)
- The ability to reprogram somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has revolutionized the way of modeling human disease. (springer.com)
- Aasen T, Raya A, Barrero MJ et al (2008) Efficient and rapid generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from human keratinocytes. (springer.com)
- In this study, mice, genetically engineered to have holes in a region of their brain, recovered due to the work of stem cells in the area. (bio-medicine.org)
- Kuo and his colleagues genetically engineered neural stem cells and ependymal cells in the SVZ of newborn mice in such a way that they lacked two key proteins, named Numb and Numblike. (bio-medicine.org)
- Repeated blows can cause permanent damage over time, and a single severe blow, even if it doesn't crack the skull or damage the brain, can disrupt the brain's normal operation and knock the victim unconscious [sound of heart beating]. (britannica.com)
- If the brain stem is damaged, the repercussions can be severe--paralysis, coma, death. (britannica.com)
- They were drafted in response to a perceived need for guidance in the management of deeply comatose patients with severe brain damage who were being kept alive by mechanical ventilators but showing no signs of recovery. (wikipedia.org)
- A person may have vertigo, dizziness and severe imbalance without the hallmark of most strokes - weakness on one side of the body. (strokeassociation.org)
- More severe brain stem strokes can cause locked-in syndrome, a condition in which survivors can move only their eyes. (strokeassociation.org)
- Doctors group brain tumors are classified by grade (grade I, grade II, grade III, or grade IV -the most severe). (medicinenet.com)
- A postnatal mouse brains autopsy conducted 7 and 14 days after the genetic modification revealed that absence of proteins Numb and Numblike led to severe brain ventricle enlargement. (bio-medicine.org)
- The first-generation cells are now being trialed and new advances in stem cell biology and genetic engineering promise even better cells and therapies in the future. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Stem cells can now be developed into beta cells of pancreas, to generate insulin in diabetic patients found a new study published in Nature Cell Biology journal. (medindia.net)