Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Micronutrients: Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Recommended Dietary Allowances: The amounts of various substances in the diet recommended by governmental guidelines as needed to sustain healthy life.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Enteral Nutrition: Nutritional support given via the alimentary canal or any route connected to the gastrointestinal system (i.e., the enteral route). This includes oral feeding, sip feeding, and tube feeding using nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Trace Elements: A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Digestive System Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Inorganic Chemicals: A broad class of substances encompassing all those that do not include carbon and its derivatives as their principal elements. However, carbides, carbonates, cyanides, cyanates, and carbon disulfide are included in this class.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Nutrition Processes: Biological actions and events that constitute the steps by which living organisms take in and assimilate NUTRIENTS.United States Department of Agriculture: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.Ruminants: A suborder of the order ARTIODACTYLA whose members have the distinguishing feature of a four-chambered stomach, including the capacious RUMEN. Horns or antlers are usually present, at least in males.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Heterotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.Hydroponics: A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.Baltic States: The collective name for the republics of ESTONIA; LATVIA; and LITHUANIA on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p111)Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Fetal Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, in the FETUS in utero.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Zooplankton: Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.Eucalyptus: A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Elements: Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Viscera: Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Parenteral Nutrition: The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Avitaminosis: A condition due to a deficiency of one or more essential vitamins. (Dorland, 27th ed)Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Vitamin B Complex: A group of water-soluble vitamins, some of which are COENZYMES.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Estuaries: A partially enclosed body of water, and its surrounding coastal habitats, where saltwater from the ocean mixes with fresh water from rivers or streams. The resulting mixture of seawater and fresh water is called brackish water and its salinity can range from 0.5 to 35 ppt. (accessed http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/estuaries/estuaries01_whatis.html)Glucagon-Like Peptide 2: A 33-amino acid peptide derived from the C-terminal of PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. It stimulates intestinal mucosal growth and decreased apoptosis of ENTEROCYTES. GLP-2 enhances gastrointestinal function and plays an important role in nutrient homeostasis.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Plankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Vitamin E: A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Peptones: Derived proteins or mixtures of cleavage products produced by the partial hydrolysis of a native protein either by an acid or by an enzyme. Peptones are readily soluble in water, and are not precipitable by heat, by alkalis, or by saturation with ammonium sulfate. (Dorland, 28th ed)Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Deficiency Diseases: A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Iron, Dietary: Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.Gastric Emptying: The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.Bromeliaceae: A plant family of the order Bromeliales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Food Quality: Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Fat Substitutes: Compounds used in food or in food preparation to replace dietary fats. They may be carbohydrate-, protein-, or fat-based. Fat substitutes are usually lower in calories but provide the same texture as fats.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Phosphorus, Dietary: Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Selenium: An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.Diet, Vegetarian: Dietary practice of completely avoiding meat products in the DIET, consuming VEGETABLES, CEREALS, and NUTS. Some vegetarian diets called lacto-ovo also include milk and egg products.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Microalgae: A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Nutrigenomics: The study of the relationship between NUTRITIONAL PHYSIOLOGY and genetic makeup. It includes the effect of different food components on GENE EXPRESSION and how variations in GENES effect responses to food components.Gastrointestinal Contents: The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Lakes: Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.beta Carotene: A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)Portal System: A system of vessels in which blood, after passing through one capillary bed, is conveyed through a second set of capillaries before it returns to the systemic circulation. It pertains especially to the hepatic portal system.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
It has no digestive tract and absorbs nutrients through its cuticle. It is a hermaphrodite; the testis is located near the ... The body is filled with maturing eggs enclosed in cocoons. When the veliger larvae, which have miniature coiled shells and ... As the juvenile mollusc grows, its posterior end pushes its way into the sea cucumber's body cavity, and the gonads develop, ...
In an adult moth, the body hardens and the wings drop off. During infection, the fungus absorbs water and nutrients from the ... After it kills the host, the fungus continues to absorb water from the body, causing it to harden further. Other insects prone ... The fungal layer is tough due to oxalate crystals, and this slows the decay of the body. When a pupa is infected, it often ... This fungus produces an enzyme that breaks down the chitin in its host's body. Gray muscardine is caused by Isaria javanica. ...
Increase of the body's metabolism. Interference with the body's ability to absorb specific nutrients in food. For example, ... It also helps in increasing the body's response to insulin. Exenatide (Byetta) is a long-acting analogue of the hormone GLP-1, ... Overdose, although rare, lead to a rise in body temperature and, ultimately, fatal hyperthermia. By the end of 1938 DNP had ... These drugs alter one of the fundamental processes of the human body, weight regulation, by altering either appetite, or ...
Mycelia is damaging to trees because they absorb the nutrients by secreting enzymes to breakdown the plant material. It ... The fruiting bodies can be seen even earlier if the season has been exceptionally wet. Armillaria tabescens grows poorly on ... Hyphae are branching structures that release enzymes to absorb nutrients from the host. Armillaria tabescens is a heterothallic ... fruiting bodies are abundant. It is the first to fruit in September, compared to Armillaria mellea and Armillaria gallica. ...
There the nematode absorbs the insect's nutrients, taking glucose directly through its cuticle. It grows and develops over ... The body is pale brown, and the gravid female has a dark stripe down the length of its body due to the presence of up to 14,000 ... Its eye takes up the entire front end of the body, the cylinder filling the entire body cavity. It has a cornea, or a structure ... The body surface is smooth. It tapers at the front end, and the head and tail are rounded. The adult female has a bright red or ...
It also plays a role in absorbing and transforming nutrients. Mucous membranes also protect the body from itself; for instance ... It is mostly of endodermal origin and is continuous with the skin at various body openings such as the eyes, ears, inside the ... A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs. It ... The function of the membrane is to stop pathogens and dirt from entering the body and to prevent bodily tissues from becoming ...
These small snails have no mouth or gut, and absorb nutrients through their body wall. These odd animals look much more like ...
The stomach and its diverticula both produce digestive enzymes and absorb nutrients from the food. It extends through most of ... This anterior body region is called the gnathosoma (or capitulum) and is also found in the Ricinulei. The remainder of the body ... Their bodies are broad and highly flattened and the first pair of legs (the first walking legs in most arachnid orders) are ... The cornea of the eye also acts as a lens, and is continuous with the cuticle of the body. Beneath this is a transparent ...
SNPs may influence the way individuals absorb, transport, store or metabolize nutrients. This may determine requirements for ... The thrifty gene theoretically causes bearers to store high-calorie foods as body fat, a most likely as an evolved protection ... Moreover, different metabolic potential of the human body can imply an advantage in terms of natural selection. For that reason ... Nutrigenetics aims to identify how genetic variation affects response to nutrients. This knowledge can be applied to optimise ...
The absorbed nutrients enter the circulatory system for distribution throughout the body or are stored in the digestive glands ... Then the newly broken down nutrients can be absorbed by the cells nearby. Humans use extracellular digestion when they eat. ... Once the food is broken down extracellularly into nutrients, the cells of the hydra can absorb it for energy. Extracellular ... Fungi can only absorb small molecules through their walls. For fungi to gain their energy needs, they find and absorb organic ...
This produces further enzymes, and also absorbs nutrients through its single-cell-thick lining. The last portion of the ... The bodies of nematodes are covered in numerous sensory bristles and papillae that together provide a sense of touch. Behind ... Inside the female body, the nematode hinders ovarian development and renders the bee less active, thus less effective in pollen ... The nervous system is also the only place in the nematode body that contains cilia, which are all nonmotile and with a sensory ...
Insulin on its own modulates the transportation of nutrients and more throughout the body. There have been several attempts to ... The chemotherapy drug gets absorbed by the cancer. By using the very same mechanisms that cancer cells use to grow and kill ... Cancer cells secrete their own insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) which work together to consume the body's nutrients ... Historically, oncologists have used the highest possible dose that the body can tolerate in order to kill as many cancer cells ...
Seaweed culture can also be used to capture, absorb, and eventually incorporate excessive nutrients into living tissue. " ... farming and harvesting shellfish and seaweed for the purpose of removing nitrogen and other nutrients from natural water bodies ... "Nutrient bioextraction" is the preferred term for bioremediation involving cultured plants and animals. Nutrient bioextraction ... The nutrients from the river would help the seaweed to grow. In the 1940s, the Japanese improved this method by placing nets of ...
Acanthocephalans do not have digestive tracts and absorb nutrients through the tegument, the external layer. The scolex of this ... The main parts of the worm body are the proboscis, neck, and trunk. Because of horizontal markings on the worm, there is the ...
Carbon and oxygen are absorbed from the air, while other nutrients are absorbed from the soil. Nutrient uptake in the soil is ... Main article: Protein (nutrient). Proteins are structural materials in much of the animal body (e.g. muscles, skin, and hair). ... Nutrients[edit]. Main article: Nutrient. The list of nutrients that people are known to require is, in the words of Marion ... Main articles: Mineral (nutrient) and Composition of the human body. Dietary minerals are inorganic chemical elements required ...
... es are able to attain their necessary energetic requirements via the oxidation of absorbed nutrients. Much of the ... When dehydrated, the common ostrich minimises water loss, causing the body temperature to increase further. When the body heat ... The upper colon largely absorbs Na+ and SCFA, and partially absorbs KCl. The middle colon absorbs Na+, SCFA, with little net ... At ambient temperatures below their body temperatures (thermal neutral zone (TNZ)), common ostriches decrease body surface ...
Children with chronic diseases like HIV have a higher risk of malnutrition, since their bodies cannot absorb nutrients as well ... Maternal body size is strongly associated with the size of newborn children. Short stature of the mother and poor maternal ... The level of maternal nutrition during pregnancy can affect newborn body size and composition. Iodine-deficiency in mothers ... However, breastfeeding cannot fully prevent PEM if not enough nutrients are consumed. The World Health Organization estimates ...
They are not metabolised but rather absorbed by the body and the degradation products are themselves nutrients (fats or ... Drug delivery focuses on maximizing bioavailability both at specific places in the body and over a period of time. This can ... Drugs are placed in the body and only activate on encountering a particular signal. For example, a drug with poor solubility ... Phospholipids on the other hand are membrane lipids (already present in the body and surrounding each cell), have a GRAS ( ...
... allowing nutrients to diffuse to all parts of the body. Respiration through the whole surface of the body makes them vulnerable ... In both the adults and the stages that live in snails, the external syncytium absorbs dissolved nutrients from the host. Adult ... Cestodes have no mouths or guts, and the syncitial skin absorbs nutrients - mainly carbohydrates and amino acids - from the ... which restricts them to having flattened shapes that allow oxygen and nutrients to pass through their bodies by diffusion. The ...
Depletion of the body's store of nutrients is a more likely cause of hunger. The primary fuels for the cells of our body are ... these nutrients are absorbed in the blood and nourish our cells. But the digestive tract is sometimes empty; in fact, it is ... There must be a reservoir that stores nutrients to keep the cells of the body nourished when the gut is empty. Indeed, there ... Looking at leptin, the more cells present in a body, the more adipose tissues there are, and thus, the more leptin would be ...
Similarly, the small intestine has a finely wrinkled internal surface, allowing the body to absorb nutrients efficiently. Cells ... Romer, Alfred Sherwood; Parsons, Thomas S. (1977). The Vertebrate Body. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. pp. 349- ...
Processing is an important determinant of what nutrients a dog is actually able to digest and absorb. Plant-based ingredients ... Vague feeding guidelines can contribute to poor weight management because ideal body weight values are not communicated to the ... diets are formulated for their specific nutrients, so every diet prepared must have adequate levels of nutrients; protein, fats ... The amount of calcium required by an animal is related to many other nutrients such as phosphorus intake, as it is important to ...
Rough-walled chambers, on the other hand, are able to absorb nutrients. In an experiment done with india ink and water, the ... or the bodies of dead ants), and the final category is food that the ants themselves consume. All of these waste products ... the nutrients from the ants and the debris left by the ants be absorbed in the plant's chambers. The plant in addition is ... and are then broken down by microbial activity and the nutrients are then taken up by intrusive adventitious roots or absorbed ...
The rhizoids attach the thallus to a substrate (food source) and absorbs nutrients. When the thallus is fully grown, the ... Their thalli (=bodies) consist of two parts: an absorptive branching rhizoidal system that contains no nuclei and a ... absorbs its flagellum, produces a wall around itself, grows a germ tube that penetrates the substrate, and develops into a new ...
People with gastrointestinal or liver problems may be unable to absorb nutrients adequately. People with certain eating ... An underweight person is a person whose body weight is considered too low to be healthy. Underweight people have a body mass ... Essential nutrient List of phytochemicals in food Body image Emaciation Malnutrition Stunted growth "Assessing Your Weight and ... but also intake and absorption of other vital nutrients, especially essential amino acids and micro-nutrients such as vitamins ...
As time passes between meals, the body starts to take nutrients from long-term reservoirs.[20] When the glucose levels of cells ... The brain detects insulin in the blood, which indicates that nutrients are being absorbed by cells and a person is getting full ... Fungi digest organic matter outside their bodies as opposed to animals that digest their food inside their bodies. For humans, ... consuming feces to absorb the nutrients not digested when the food was first ingested.[30]:131-137 An omnivore eats both prey ...
... and meet Recommended Dietary Allowances for nutrients." They give recommendations on meeting nutrient requirements for those ... However, some foods with high contents of both phytate and oxalate, such as soy foods, still provide well-absorbed calcium (71 ... Even semivegetarians are 50% more likely to have hypertension than vegetarians (4). Even when body weights were similar between ... The Table provides information about food sources of nutrients. Food guides for vegetarian children under 4 years of age (36, ...
That means that your body can only absorb these nutrients from the digestive system if you eat them with fats. Higher fat ... Its sugar that actually triggers fat storage in the body. After you absorb sugar from your digestive system, its released ... Without fat in your diet, you cannot properly absorb these vital nutrients, leading to vitamin deficiencies. Vitamin A is ... even the ones our bodies need to stay healthy. We took it too far, and its lead to 50 years of replacing essential nutrients ...
The nutrients that food gives you, from vitamins to proteins, have specific functions in the body that keep you healthy and ... But your body cannot use the nutrients you eat until it breaks them down in small pieces to then absorb them. Your stomach ... Your body absorbs most of the nutrients during the process of moving the food from the stomach to the small intestine, but the ... Your body removes all the nutrients it can from food and absorbs them before the food reaches the rectum. Anything left over ...
... acidifying your body, blocking you from properly ingesting the nutrients from the foods you eat, or the supplements you use, ... IAHF List: During the summer I did an experiment to see if I could increase my energy level, and properly absorb the nutrients ... Sulfur DOES help to detox and de-acidify the body), but it works even BETTER when you use it after doing this cleanse!!). ... Your bowel needs water to process the fecal matter and to get it out of your body naturally and easily. The best liquids for ...
Not every nutrient you swallow is absorbed by your body. But if you could choose, wouldnt you want them to be? ... The issue arises when the supplements either pass directly through the body without being broken down and absorbed, or are ... Cheap supplements do not have enteric coating and either break down before being absorbed or pass clean through the body ... In the human body, the place that the most absorption takes place is the small intestine. At present, one of the best forms of ...
What Makes the Body Not Absorb Nutrients? 3 Severe Stomach or Chest Pains After Eating ... If your intestines are constantly inflamed, they wont be able to move food along properly or absorb nutrients efficiently. ... When you have celiac disease, your body treats gluten from certain grains as a foreign substance. (ref 3/common causes of ...
WARNING: Sugar destroys your bodys ability to absorb these 5 essential nutrients. The sugar industry in the U.S. thrives at a ... High sugar intake robs the body of essential nutrients. The human body can synthesize vitamin C on its own, but eating too much ... Sugar destroys your bodys ability to absorb these 5 essential nutrients ... This prompts the body to use up its magnesium reserves. Magnesium is essential in certain body functions such as blood sugar ...
Your body can easily absorb chias nutrients. The shells of chia seeds are very soft, so when you eat a whole chia seed, your ... Thats why chia is so great! You dont need to grind them - your body can easily absorb the essential nutrients within chias ... so you need to grind all flaxseeds or buy seeds that are already ground so your body can absorb the nutrients. ... body quickly breaks down the shell and easily absorbs all the nutrients contained within the shell. This is very different from ...
In addition, the more nutrients your body absorbs, the healthier your cells become, allowing for an increased oxygen uptake. An ... Your body truly CAN naturally heal itself, stop the clock and reverse the aging process. Feel Younger ---, Live Longer! ... This product contains nutrients that have the ability to activate somatic cells (any cell of a living organism) into stem cells ... Yes! We Have Uncovered the Mystery! The skin is the largest organ in the body. If the skin has regenerative ability, then each ...
Absorbing fats: It absorbs lipid nutrients from the intestine and transports them to the blood. ... Fighting infection: It provides immunity by assisting the bodys immune defense against foreign bodies, such as bacteria. ... and absorb nutrients. Here, gain a detailed understanding of this system and the conditions that harm it. Read now ... Diet, body weight, and obesity. The heavier a patient is, the higher the strain on the areas that are swollen. A healthy diet, ...
WARNING: Sugar destroys your bodys ability to absorb these 5 essential nutrients. ...
The Visible Body Learn Site is our totally free introduction to each human body system, allowing anybody anywhere to easily ... Nutrients In, Waste Out: How the Human Body Absorbs Nutrients and Eliminates Waste. Ingested food is chewed, swallowed, and ... 10 Facts That Explain How the Body Absorbs Nutrients. The digestive system is a kind of processing plant inside the body. It ... One chamber on the left receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs and another pumps that nutrient-rich blood into the body. Two ...
It improves skin condition and vision, and boosts your immune system so your body can fight disease and even some types of ... Drink less alcohol. Alcohol can interfere with your bodys ability to absorb vitamin A (and other needed nutrients).[9] X ... you still wont absorb vitamin A well if you have a medical condition that limits your bodys ability to absorb the fats you ... Eat a meal containing fat with your vitamin. Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that is best absorbed by your body when you eat ...
Calcium is an important nutrient that helps your body maintain healthy bones. If you dont think you are getting enough calcium ... In addition, the foods you eat with calcium will have other nutrients, including ones that help your body absorb and use ... However, your body does absorb calcium better from food than from supplements, so you want to do everything you can to make ... Calcium citrate is most easily absorbed by the body and you can take it on an empty stomach. How much you need depends on how ...
The first complex organisms soaked up sustenance from nutrient-rich oceans 500 million years ago ... But there are physical limitations to this strategy-namely absorbing and distributing nutrients in an ever-larger body cavity- ... Marc Laflamme of Yale University and colleagues wanted to test the theory that these creatures were absorbing nutrients through ... Bizarre Fossil Organisms Likely Absorbed Nutrients through Their Skin. The first complex organisms soaked up sustenance from ...
Get free shipping on Tata Harper Revitalizing Body Oil, 5.0 oz./ 125 mL at Neiman Marcus. Shop the latest luxury fashions from ... Light texture rapidly absorbed. Instructions: Apply Revitalizing Body Oil generously over the body and hands daily. For maximum ... Rice Germ Oil: Supplies essential nutrients to the skin. Calendula Oil: Heals and repairs the skin. Tocopherol or Vitamin E: ... Clarins Body Oil Relax, 3.5 oz. Clarins Body Oil Relax, 3.5 oz. DetailsThis relaxing body treatment oil with 100% pure plant ...
With a little know-how you can even increase what you absorb through a few dietary tips. ... Their task is to metabolize food into digestible nutrients for absorption and use by the body. ... You are what you absorb. That includes the good (vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients) and the bad (environmental toxins, ... Friendly Nutrients. If you combine certain foods, you can boost your absorption of specific nutrients. For example, foods that ...
the body needs more calories, especially during flare-ups. *digestion is poor and nutrients arent absorbed ... Not eating enough food or getting enough nutrients from food can lead to poor growth. So doctors check all children with ...
the body needs more calories, especially during flare-ups. *digestion is poor and nutrients arent absorbed ... Not eating enough food or getting enough nutrients from food can lead to poor growth. So doctors check all children with ...
... allowing these building blocks and nutrients to be absorbed into the body and/or bloodstream through the walls of the digestive ... the auto immune system of the body attacks body tissues, organs and body cells. The result is pain at the start and body organ ... processes nutrients absorbed from the small intestine and produces bile which is used to digest fats.. Pancreas. - secretes ... Absorb nutrients into the bloodstream.. Diagram of the Digestive System. Salivary Glands. - release saliva into the mouth, ...
The digestive system transfers energy stored as food into energy to be used by the body. Each organ has a specific role to play ... In ileum, nutrients are absorbed.. Large intestine absorbs water and processes and transports waste from the body.. secretes ... In jejunum, digestion is completed and nutrients are absorbed. ... Stomach acid also kills bacteria to protect the body.. Minimal ... The digestive system transfers energy stored as food into energy to be used by the body. Each organ has a specific role to play ...
Learn about sodiums role in the body and how to optimize your intake. ... It helps your body digest and absorb nutrients.. Maintaining resting energy. Sodium and potassium are electrolytes in the fluid ... that our bodies use for functions such as maintaining blood pressure and absorbing nutrients. You can also use salt for ... What does your body use sodium chloride for?. Nutrient absorption and transportation. Sodium and chloride play an important ...
Get the most out of your bodybuilding diet with supplements like probiotics that help protein absorb more readily into your ... Enzymes are themselves a protein that typically exists within your body. But you can gain even better benefits from your ... you get the benefits from the foods you absorb into your system. Nutrients that pass through your system without being absorbed ... you get the benefits from the foods you absorb into your system. Nutrients that pass through your system without being absorbed ...
Without fats, the body cannot absorb some necessary nutrients.. Healthful fats include plant oils like extra-virgin olive oil, ... Healthy fats should be consumed with every meal, because many nutrients are fat-soluble. For example, the body cannot absorb ... They also provide, or help the body to synthesize, essential omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. All body tissues need these to ... The key is to replace bad fats with good fats in the diet and not to let the fat-soluble nutrients go to waste. ...
which holds stool until it leaves the body. small intestine The digestive organ that absorbs nutrients from eaten food. ... A form of sugar that is put into your body and lets off a small ... An operation to remove or repair a part of the body. surgical ...
  • They can play key roles in educating vegetarian clients about food sources of specific nutrients, food purchase and preparation, and any dietary modifications that may be necessary to meet individual needs. (csvv.cz)
  • IAHF List: During the summer I did an experiment to see if I could increase my energy level, and properly absorb the nutrients from the food I eat and supplements I use by thoroughly cleaning my organs of elimination, beginning with a really thorough colon cleanse, facilitated by using the products shown above. (ymlp.com)
  • In addition, the presence of adequate levels of certain nutrients may actually help prevent and help reverse certain drug side effects. (poz.com)
  • These problems-deficiencies in certain nutrients-often get worse over time and can contribute to immune dysfunction and disease progression in multiple ways. (poz.com)
  • Your body may not produce enough red blood cells if you lack certain nutrients. (familydoctor.org)
  • It is also becoming clear that there is more than one reason why we might become depleted of certain nutrients. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • This is the most commonly overlooked cause of nutrient depletion, but the number of studies backing it up has jumped significantly. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • when you eat them whole, your body can't break down the shells, so the whole seed, with the precious omega-3s and other nutrients contained within it, just pass through the body undigested. (dummies.com)
  • By doing this cleanse I was able to help the sulfur work that much better to pump my body full of oxygen! (ymlp.com)
  • In addition, the more nutrients your body absorbs, the healthier your cells become, allowing for an increased oxygen uptake. (google.com)
  • The red blood cells in your body contain hemoglobin, which is responsible for carrying oxygen throughout your body. (babycenter.com)
  • The cardiovascular system and the respiratory work together by performing gas exchange which is passing of oxygen from the alveoli into the blood flow and then the carbon dioxide passes trough the blood flow and is breathed out from the body. (bartleby.com)
  • The termrespiration denotes the exchange of the respiratory gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between the organism and the medium in which it lives and between the cells of the body and the tissue fluid that bathes them. (bartleby.com)
  • Water is an important part of blood and helps blood carry oxygen throughout the body. (everything2.com)
  • This is the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from your lungs to the rest of your body. (familydoctor.org)
  • At present, one of the best forms of coating that can transport nutrients is called enteric-coating. (celergen.co.th)
  • Living Silica mineral-based silicon supplement is a formula designed for your well-being and to maximize your body's potential supplying a key trace substance, silicon, your body uses in joints, bones, hair, skin, and nails from the inside out. (amazon.com)
  • The largest organ in the body, the liver is pyramid-shaped and located under your right ribs. (mdanderson.org)
  • Liver cancer can begin in the liver or other parts of the body. (mdanderson.org)
  • Metastatic liver cancer starts somewhere else in the body and metastasizes (spreads) to the liver. (mdanderson.org)
  • The liver is the largest organ in the body. (mdanderson.org)
  • Many HIV-positive people also have other chronic infections to deal with, including hepatitis C and/or hepatitis B . For people coinfected with HIV and hepatitis all of the above is doubled in importance since the body must handle more than one chronic infection, and has a particular need to support the liver, and prevent it from being damaged. (poz.com)
  • In the world of body parts, your liver is huge. (mnn.com)
  • Your liver is the hardest-working organ in your body. (mnn.com)
  • The liver is the only organ in your body that has that ability. (mnn.com)
  • This product contains nutrients that have the ability to activate somatic cells (any cell of a living organism) into stem cells. (google.com)
  • The first mass of cancer cells in the body. (nccn.org)
  • amount of energy that is absorbed by active cells. (nccn.org)
  • The beneficial effect is due to the ability of MSM to sustain cell flow-through, allowing harmful substances to flow out while permitting nutrients to flow in, preventing pressure build up in cells that causes inflammation in the joints and elsewhere, which translates to pain. (nexusmagazine.com)
  • The presence of the enzyme means that the reaction can occur at some reasonable temperature, such as the temperature of a human body or the cells of a plant. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Since those cells and chemicals are created from nutrients, a steady supply is a must for the body's contribution to viral control. (poz.com)
  • Cancer is when cells in the body split without control or order. (epnet.com)
  • Bioavailability measures the extent to which a nutrient can be used by cells in the body. (amazon.com)
  • They are major components of almost every cell and are sometimes called "body builders" due to their role in developing and repairing bone , muscle , skin , and blood cells. (everything2.com)
  • Your body fails to produce enough new blood cells. (familydoctor.org)
  • This occurs when your body destroys red blood cells before they should. (familydoctor.org)
  • Your body can't produce enough red blood cells. (familydoctor.org)
  • Your body destroys red blood cells early and faster that they can be replaced. (familydoctor.org)
  • Bilirubin is a yellow substance that your body makes as it breaks down old blood cells. (mnn.com)
  • Abnormally functioning cancer cells grow out of control, speed up your metabolism, and wear out your entire body by using its resources, which causes weight loss," says Michael Russo, MD, a general surgeon who specializes in bariatric surgery at MemorialCare Center for Obesity at Orange Coast Memorial Medical Center in Fountain Valley, California. (rd.com)
  • Each type of muscle tissue in the human body has a unique structure and a specific role. (visiblebody.com)
  • In addition, when not enough calories are consumed to meet activity demands, the body will break down fat and muscle tissue to use as fuel, resulting in a loss of both strength and endurance. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The recommended daily calorie intake for female athletes is approximately 20 to 23 calories per pound of body weight (45 to 50 calories per kilogram), or even higher for athletes who are building lean muscle mass. (mayoclinic.org)
  • While hormonal changes can contribute to how your body builds and stores muscle as you age, most cases of sarcopenia are linked to poor nutrition as well as inactivity. (rd.com)
  • Many of my functional medicine clients , who are doctors dealing with chronically ill patients, will add a green powder supplement (made up of key organic fruits and veggies) to their patients' regimen to make it easy to get 'caught up' with important nutrients from fruits and vegetables they may have been missing. (mindbodygreen.com)