Respiratory Tract Infections
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Parvovirus B19, Human
Human bocavirus infection in young children in the United States: molecular epidemiological profile and clinical characteristics of a newly emerging respiratory virus. (1/69)BACKGROUND: Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a newly identified human parvovirus that was originally identified in the respiratory secretions of children with respiratory tract disease. To further investigate the epidemiological profile and clinical characteristics of HBoV infection, we screened infants and children <2 years of age (hereafter referred to as "children") for HBoV. METHODS: Children for whom respiratory specimens submitted to a diagnostic laboratory tested negative for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses (types 1-3), influenza A and B viruses, and adenovirus, as well as asymptomatic children, underwent screening for HBoV by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Respiratory specimens were obtained from the children from 1 January 2004 through 31 December 2004. RESULTS: Twenty-two (5.2%) of the 425 children who had a respiratory specimen submitted to the diagnostic laboratory and 0 of the 96 asymptomatic children were found to be positive for HBoV by PCR (P=.02). Fever, rhinorrhea, cough, and wheezing were observed in > or =50% of the HBoV-positive children. Of the 17 children who had chest radiography performed, 12 (70.6%) had abnormal findings. HBoV appeared to have a seasonal distribution. Nucleotide polymorphisms were detected in the viral capsid protein (VP) 1/VP2 genes. Two distinct HBoV genotypes circulated during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: HBoV is circulating in the United States and is associated with both upper and lower respiratory tract disease in infants and young children. (+info)
Human bocavirus infection among children, Jordan. (2/69)Human bocavirus was detected in 57 (18.3%) of 312 children with acute respiratory infection (ARI) who required hospitalization in Jordan. It was also detected in 30 (21.7%) of 138 children with severe ARI, in 27 (15.5%) of 174 with mild or moderate disease, and in 41 (72%) of 57 with other pathogens. (+info)
Detection of human bocavirus in Canadian children in a 1-year study. (3/69)Human bocavirus was detected by PCR in 65 (5.1%) of 1,265 respiratory specimens collected in 2002 and 2003 from the Stollery Children's Hospital from children <17 years of age. The spectrum of illness included upper respiratory infection, croup, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia with a prominence of cough and fever. (+info)
High prevalence of human bocavirus detected in young children with severe acute lower respiratory tract disease by use of a standard PCR protocol and a novel real-time PCR protocol. (4/69)The human bocavirus (HBoV) was recently isolated from respiratory tract samples. Within a study collective of children with severe lower respiratory tract disease, the patients testing positive for HBoV (12.8%) had a higher rate of underlying cardiopulmonary disease. Viral loads in respiratory tract specimens varied from 10(2) to 10(10) genome equivalents/ml. (+info)
Human bocavirus: a novel parvovirus epidemiologically associated with pneumonia requiring hospitalization in Thailand. (5/69)BACKGROUND: We detected human bocavirus (HBoV) infection in 4.5% of hospitalized patients with pneumonia in rural Thailand. However, the role of HBoV as a pathogen is unclear. METHODS: We compared HBoV infection in patients with pneumonia with that in asymptomatic control patients enrolled between 1 September 2004 and 31 August 2005 in the same hospitals in Thailand. We examined outpatients with influenza-like illness for HBoV infection and tested for 13 additional respiratory viruses. Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of HBoV infection are described. RESULTS: HBoV infection was detected in 20 (3.9%) of 512 outpatients and 3 (1%) of 280 control patients. Coinfection with other viruses was detected in 83% of patients with pneumonia and in 90% of outpatients. Compared with control patients, HBoV infection was significantly associated with pneumonia requiring hospitalization (adjusted odds ratio, 3.56 [95% confidence interval, 1.06-11.91]; P=.04). Eighty-three percent of HBoV infections were detected in patients with pneumonia who were <5 years old. More patients with pneumonia associated with HBoV-respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) coinfections had wheezing than patients with RSV and HPIV infections alone (9 [53%] of 17 vs. 32 [23%] of 138]; P=.01). CONCLUSIONS: HBoV infection was epidemiologically associated with pneumonia among young children in rural Thailand, but infection and illness may be dependent on coinfection with other viruses. (+info)
Human bocavirus and acute wheezing in children. (6/69)BACKGROUND: Human bocavirus is a newly discovered parvovirus. It has been detected primarily in children with acute lower respiratory tract infection, but its occurrence, clinical profile, and role as a causative agent of respiratory tract disease are not clear. METHODS: We investigated the presence of human bocavirus by quantitative polymerase chain reaction of nasopharyngeal aspirate specimens and selected serum samples obtained from 259 children (median age, 1.6 years) who had been hospitalized for acute expiratory wheezing. The samples were analyzed for 16 respiratory viruses by polymerase chain reaction, virus culture, antigen detection, and serological assays. RESULTS: At least 1 potential etiologic agent was detected in 95% of children, and >1 agent was detected in 34% of children. Human bocavirus was detected in 49 children (19%). A large proportion of the cases were mixed infections with other viruses, but human bocavirus was the only virus detected in 12 children (5%). High viral loads of human bocavirus were noted mainly in the absence of other viral agents, suggesting a causative role for acute wheezing. In addition, infections that had uncertain clinical relevance and low viral loads were prevalent. Human bocavirus DNA was frequently detected in serum specimens obtained from patients with acute wheezing, suggesting systemic infection. CONCLUSIONS: Human bocavirus is prevalent among children with acute wheezing and can cause systemic infection. Results suggest a model for bocavirus infection in which high viral loads are potentially associated with respiratory symptoms and low viral loads indicate asymptomatic shedding. Therefore, quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis may be important for additional studies of human bocavirus. (+info)
Human bocavirus infection, People's Republic of China. (7/69)A newly identified parvovirus, human bocavirus (HBoV), was found in 21 (8.3%) of 252 nasopharyngeal aspirates from hospitalized children with lower respiratory tract infection in Hunan Province, People's Republic of China. Viral loads were 10(4) to 10(10) copies/mL. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene showed a single genetic lineage of HBoV worldwide. (+info)
Comparison of tissue distribution, persistence, and molecular epidemiology of parvovirus B19 and novel human parvoviruses PARV4 and human bocavirus. (8/69)BACKGROUND: PARV4 and human bocavirus (HBoV) are newly discovered human parvoviruses with poorly understood epidemiologies and disease associations. We investigated the frequencies of persistence, tissue distribution, and influence of immunosuppression on replication of these viruses. METHODS: At autopsy, bone marrow, lymphoid tissue, and brain tissue from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and those without AIDS and from HIV-uninfected individuals were screened for parvovirus B19, PARV4, and HBoV DNA by means of quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses. RESULTS: B19 DNA was detected both in HIV-infected study subjects (13 of 24) and in HIV-uninfected study subjects (8 of 8), whereas PARV4 DNA was detected only in HIV-infected study subjects (17 of 24). HBoV DNA was not detected in any study subjects. The degree of immunosuppression with HIV infection did not influence B19 or PARV4 viral loads. B19 or PARV4 plasma viremia was not detected in any study subjects (n=76; viral load <25 DNA copies/mL). A significantly older age distribution was found for study subjects infected with B19 genotype 2, compared with those infected with B19 genotype 1. Two genotypes of PARV4 were detected; study subjects carrying prototype PARV4 (genotype 1) were younger (all born after 1958) than those infected with genotype 2 (PARV5; study subjects born between 1949 and 1956). CONCLUSIONS: Tight immune control of replication of B19 and PARV4 was retained despite profound immunosuppression. Recent genotype replacement of PARV4, combined with absent sequence diversity among genotype 1 sequences, suggests a recent, epidemic spread in the United Kingdom, potentially through transmission routes shared by HIV. (+info)
The most common parvoviridae infection in animals is feline panleukopenia (FPV) or canine parvovirus (CPV), which affects dogs and cats. These infections are highly contagious and can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, and loss of appetite. In severe cases, they can lead to life-threatening complications such as anemia, bone marrow failure, and death.
There is no specific treatment for parvoviridae infections, but supportive care such as fluid therapy, antibiotics, and anti-inflammatory medication can help manage symptoms and prevent complications. Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent parvoviridae infections, and vaccines are available for dogs, cats, and other animals.
In humans, parvoviridae infections are rare but can occur through contact with infected animals or contaminated feces. The most common human parvoviridae infection is erythema infectiosum (Fifth disease), which causes a rash, fever, and mild symptoms. Pregnant women who contract parvoviridae infections may experience complications such as miscarriage or preterm labor. There is no specific treatment for human parvoviridae infections, but supportive care can help manage symptoms.
The common types of RTIs include:
1. Common cold: A viral infection that affects the upper respiratory tract, causing symptoms such as runny nose, sneezing, coughing, and mild fever.
2. Influenza (flu): A viral infection that can affect both the upper and lower respiratory tract, causing symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, and body aches.
3. Bronchitis: An inflammation of the bronchial tubes, which can be caused by viruses or bacteria, resulting in symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.
4. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi, leading to symptoms such as fever, chills, coughing, and difficulty breathing.
5. Tonsillitis: An inflammation of the tonsils, which can be caused by bacteria or viruses, resulting in symptoms such as sore throat, difficulty swallowing, and bad breath.
6. Sinusitis: An inflammation of the sinuses, which can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or fungi, leading to symptoms such as headache, facial pain, and nasal congestion.
7. Laryngitis: An inflammation of the larynx (voice box), which can be caused by viruses or bacteria, resulting in symptoms such as hoarseness, loss of voice, and difficulty speaking.
RTIs can be diagnosed through physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays, blood tests, and nasal swab cultures. Treatment for RTIs depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, antiviral medications, and supportive care to manage symptoms.
It's important to note that RTIs can be contagious and can spread through contact with an infected person or by touching contaminated surfaces. Therefore, it's essential to practice good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently, covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
Gastroenteritis can be classified into different types based on the cause:
Viral gastroenteritis - This is the most common type of gastroenteritis and is caused by norovirus or rotavirus.
Bacterial gastroenteritis - This type is caused by bacteria such as salmonella, E. coli, or campylobacter.
Parasitic gastroenteritis - This is caused by parasites such as giardia or cryptosporidium.
Foodborne gastroenteritis - This type is caused by consuming contaminated food or water.
Gastroenteritis can be treated with antibiotics for bacterial infections, anti-diarrheal medications, and hydration therapy to prevent dehydration. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
Prevention measures include proper hand washing, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and avoiding contaminated food and water. Vaccines are also available for some types of gastroenteritis such as rotavirus.
1. Common cold: A viral infection that affects the upper respiratory tract and causes symptoms such as sneezing, running nose, coughing, and mild fever.
2. Influenza (flu): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinus and ear infections.
3. Measles: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, rashes, coughing, and redness of the eyes.
4. Rubella (German measles): A mild viral infection that can cause fever, rashes, headache, and swollen lymph nodes.
5. Chickenpox: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, itching, and a characteristic rash of small blisters on the skin.
6. Herpes simplex virus (HSV): A viral infection that can cause genital herpes, cold sores, or other skin lesions.
7. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): A viral infection that attacks the immune system and can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
8. Hepatitis B: A viral infection that affects the liver, causing inflammation and damage to liver cells.
9. Hepatitis C: Another viral infection that affects the liver, often leading to chronic liver disease and liver cancer.
10. Ebola: A deadly viral infection that causes fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and internal bleeding.
11. SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia and respiratory failure.
12. West Nile virus: A viral infection that can cause fever, headache, and muscle pain, as well as more severe symptoms such as meningitis or encephalitis.
Viral infections can be spread through contact with an infected person or contaminated surfaces, objects, or insects such as mosquitoes. Prevention strategies include:
1. Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
3. Covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing.
4. Avoiding sharing personal items such as towels or utensils.
5. Using condoms or other barrier methods during sexual activity.
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viral infections, such as HPV and hepatitis B.
7. Using insect repellents to prevent mosquito bites.
8. Screening blood products and organs for certain viruses before transfusion or transplantation.
Treatment for viral infections depends on the specific virus and the severity of the illness. Antiviral medications may be used to reduce the replication of the virus and alleviate symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, or mechanical ventilation.
Prevention is key in avoiding viral infections, so taking the necessary precautions and practicing good hygiene can go a long way in protecting oneself and others from these common and potentially debilitating illnesses.
A type of pneumonia caused by a viral infection. The most common viruses that cause pneumonia are the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza virus, and adenovirus.
Symptoms include fever, cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing, and loss of appetite.
Treatment typically involves antiviral medications and supportive care to manage symptoms and improve lung function. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
Prevention measures include vaccination against the flu and RSV, good hygiene practices such as frequent handwashing, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
Carnivore bocaparvovirus 1
History of coronavirus
Human coronavirus HKU1
Respiratory tract infection
NASBA (molecular biology)
Pediatric Bocavirus Medication
Bocavirus - Volume 13, Number 4-April 2007 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC
Bocavirus Viremia and Hepatitis in an Immunocompetent Child - Balkan Medical Journal
CDC EID News Synopsis February 2010
Frontiers | Molecular Survey of Viral and Bacterial Causes of Childhood Diarrhea in Khartoum State, Sudan
Pediatric Bronchitis Workup: Approach Considerations, Testing in Hospitalized Children, Asthma Testing
Latent infection of human bocavirus accompanied by flare of chronic cough, fatigue and episodes of viral replication in an...
Janet A Englund, MD
Biblio | Page 16 | Marine Mammal Institute | Oregon State University
Common cold in Team Finland during 2018 Winter Olympic Games (PyeongChang): epidemiology, diagnosis including molecular point...
Febrile Illness Evaluation in a Broad Range of Endemicities (FIEBRE) | LSHTM
MH DELETED MN ADDED MN
Pesquisa | Portal Regional da BVS
OPUS Würzburg | Search
New Study Exposes the "60% Effective" Flu Shot as 98.5% Useless
Pre-Clinical (in vitro) | Technology Transfer
Complete Respiratory Infection Test [Medical Centre] - Hasu Diagnostics
Code System Concept
Molecular Arrays - Randox Biosciences
Respiratory Pathogens Kits - Anatolia Geneworks
Forschung: Institut für Biometrie und Klinische Epidemiologie - Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin
CDC-Authored Genomics and Precision Health Publications Database|Home|PHGKB
- Human bocavirus (HBoV) was first described in 2005 in nasopharyngeal aspirates of children with respiratory tract infection. (nih.gov)
- Phylogenetic analysis of the complete VP1 nucleotide (A) and amino acid (B) sequences of human bocavirus (HBoV). (cdc.gov)
- So far, many studies have shown that Human Bocavirus ( HBoV) is the main pathogen of the respiratory tract. (balkanmedicaljournal.org)
- The aim was to describe the prevalence , molecular epidemiology and clinical manifestations of human bocavirus (HBoV) in patients attended at a tertiary hospital in Barcelona, Spain . (bvsalud.org)
- CDC researchers have developed a real-time PCR assay for the detection and viral-load quantitative estimations of human bocavirus (HBoV) from clinical specimens. (nih.gov)
- Introduction: The human bocavirus (HBoV) is a parvovirus and is associated with mild to lifethreatening acute or persisting respiratory infections, frequently accompanied by further pathogens. (rsu.lv)
- Background: DNA of the polyomaviruses WU (WUPyV) and KI (KIPyV) and of human bocavirus (HBoV) has been detected with varying frequency in respiratory tract samples of children. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
- The viruses most frequently associated with respiratory tract infections include respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza viruses (PIV), influenza viruses (Flu), adenoviruses (AdV), human rhinoviruses (hRV), and enteroviruses, and less commonly, human metapneumovirus (hMPV), human bocavirus (HBoV), and human coronaviruses (HCoV). (datexis.com)
- The genotypes of adenovirus and bocavirus were determined by sequencing. (frontiersin.org)
- The phylogenetic tree identified adenovirus belonged to genotype 41 and bocavirus belonged to two different clades within human bocavirus 1. (frontiersin.org)
- Our findings represent the first report that adenovirus 41 is a cause of diarrhea in Sudan and that human bocavirus 1 is the principal bocavirus strain circulating in Sudan. (frontiersin.org)
Nasopharyngeal aspirates of children2
- Blessing K, Neske F, Herre U, Kreth HW, Weissbrich B. Prolonged detection of human bocavirus DNA in nasopharyngeal aspirates of children with respiratory tract disease. (medscape.com)
- 15. Human bocavirus detection in nasopharyngeal aspirates of children without clinical symptoms of respiratory infection. (nih.gov)
- Human bocavirus: a novel parvovirus epidemiologically associated with pneumonia requiring hospitalization in Thailand. (medscape.com)
- A genus in the subfamily PARVOVIRINAE comprising three species: Bovine parvovirus, Canine minute virus, and HUMAN BOCAVIRUS . (nih.gov)
- Género de la subfamilia PARVOVIRINAE que comprende tres especies: parvovirus bovino, virus diminuto canino y BOCAVIRUS HUMANO. (bvsalud.org)
Infection in children2
- Human bocavirus: passenger or pathogen in acute respiratory tract infections? (medscape.com)
- High viral load of human bocavirus correlates with duration of wheezing in children with severe lower respiratory tract infection. (medscape.com)
- Edner N, Castillo-Rodas P, Falk L, Hedman K, Söderlund-Venermo M, Allander T. Life-threatening respiratory tract disease with human bocavirus-1 infection in a 4-year-old child. (medscape.com)
- Korppi M. Polymerase chain reaction in respiratory samples alone is not a reliable marker of bocavirus infection. (medscape.com)
- We report a case of lower respiratory tract infection with human bocavirus 1 (HboV1) in an immunodeficient 6-month-old boy leading to respiratory failure with fatal outcome. (nih.gov)
- Human bocavirus in children suffering from acute lower respiratory tract infection in Beijing Children's Hospital. (nih.gov)
- Additionally, symptoms affiliated with bocavirus infections overlap with numerous other respiratory illnesses. (nih.gov)
- 2. Pediatric hospitalization of acute respiratory tract infections with Human Bocavirus in Hong Kong. (nih.gov)
- 4. Clinical characteristics of human bocavirus infections compared with other respiratory viruses in Spanish children. (nih.gov)
- 10. Human bocavirus respiratory infections in children. (nih.gov)
- 13. The human bocavirus role in acute respiratory tract infections of pediatric patients as defined by viral load quantification. (nih.gov)
- 19. Human bocavirus as an important cause of respiratory tract infection in Taiwanese children. (nih.gov)
- Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), which belongs to the genus Bocaparvovirus of the Parvoviridae family, causes acute respiratory tract infections in young children. (nih.gov)
- A novel bocavirus associated with acute gastroenteritis in Australian children. (medscape.com)
- Human bocavirus and acute wheezing in children. (medscape.com)
- Brebion A, Vanlieferinghen P, Déchelotte P, Boutry M, Peigue-Lafeuille H, Henquell C. Fatal sub-acute myocarditis associated with human bocavirus 2 in a 13-month-old child. (medscape.com)
- Vincent, Alan, and Raul Rabadan converse about polio survivors in iron lungs, bocavirus, structure of mimivirus, and genome sequence analysis of influenza H1N1 viruses. (microbe.tv)
- Molecular characterization and clinical impact of human bocavirus at a tertiary hospital in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) during the 2014-2017 seasons. (bvsalud.org)
- 12. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of human bocavirus in Danish infants: results from a prospective birth cohort study. (nih.gov)
- 18. Human bocavirus: clinical significance and implications. (nih.gov)
- A newly identified bocavirus species in human stool. (medscape.com)
- Human Bocavirus viremia with high viral loads may be associated with hepatitis. (balkanmedicaljournal.org)
- Human bocavirus: Current knowledge and future challenges. (medscape.com)
- No medication is known to be effective in the treatment of human bocavirus infection. (medscape.com)
- 2009). A newly identified bocavirus species in human stool . (oregonstate.edu)
- HELINI Bocavirus Real-time PCR Kit is an in vitro nucleic acid amplification (PCR) kit for the detection and quantification of Bocavirus specific DNA. (helini.in)
- 2009). Frequent detection of highly diverse variants of cardiovirus, cosavirus, bocavirus, and circovirus in sewage samples collected in the United States . (oregonstate.edu)