African horse sickness virus
Hemorrhagic Disease Virus, Epizootic
Viral Core Proteins
The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)
Inclusion Bodies, Viral
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
Viral Nonstructural Proteins
African Horse Sickness
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
Viral Structural Proteins
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
RNA, usually prepared by transcription from cloned DNA, which complements a specific mRNA or DNA and is generally used for studies of virus genes, distribution of specific RNA in tissues and cells, integration of viral DNA into genomes, transcription, etc. Whereas DNA PROBES are preferred for use at a more macroscopic level for detection of the presence of DNA/RNA from specific species or subspecies, RNA probes are preferred for genetic studies. Conventional labels for the RNA probe include radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. RNA probes may be further divided by category into plus-sense RNA probes, minus-sense RNA probes, and antisense RNA probes.
Antigenic profile of African horse sickness virus serotype 4 VP5 and identification of a neutralizing epitope shared with bluetongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus. (1/353)African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a fatal disease in horses. The virus capsid is composed of a double protein layer, the outermost of which is formed by two proteins: VP2 and VP5. VP2 is known to determine the serotype of the virus and to contain the neutralizing epitopes. The biological function of VP5, the other component of the capsid, is unknown. In this report, AHSV VP5, expressed in insect cells alone or together with VP2, was able to induce AHSV-specific neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, two VP5-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that were able to neutralize the virus in a plaque reduction assay were generated. To dissect the antigenic structure of AHSV VP5, the protein was cloned in Escherichia coli using the pET3 system. The immunoreactivity of both MAbs, and horse and rabbit polyclonal antisera, with 17 overlapping fragments from VP5 was analyzed. The most immunodominant region was found in the N-terminal 330 residues of VP5, defining two antigenic regions, I (residues 151-200) and II (residues 83-120). The epitopes were further defined by PEPSCAN analysis with 12mer peptides, which determined eight antigenic sites in the N-terminal half of the molecule. Neutralizing epitopes were defined at positions 85-92 (PDPLSPGE) for MAb 10AE12 and at 179-185 (EEDLRTR) for MAb 10AC6. Epitope 10AE12 is highly conserved between the different orbiviruses. MAb 10AE12 was able to recognize bluetongue virus VP5 and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus VP5 by several techniques. These data will be especially useful for vaccine development and diagnostic purposes. (+info)
The highly ordered double-stranded RNA genome of bluetongue virus revealed by crystallography. (2/353)The concentration of double-stranded RNA within the bluetongue virus core renders the genome segments liquid crystalline. Powder diffraction rings confirm this local ordering with a 30 A separation between strands. Determination of the structure of the bluetongue virus core serotype 10 and comparison with that of serotype 1 reveals most of the genomic double-stranded RNA, packaged as well-ordered layers surrounding putative transcription complexes at the apices of the particle. The outer layer of RNA is sufficiently well ordered by interaction with the capsid that a model can be built and extended to the less-ordered inner layers, providing a structural framework for understanding the mechanism of this complex transcriptional machine. We show that the genome segments maintain local order during transcription. (+info)
Expression and functional characterization of bluetongue virus VP2 protein: role in cell entry. (3/353)Segment 2 of bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 10, which encodes the outer capsid protein VP2, was tagged with the S-peptide fragment of RNase A and expressed by a recombinant baculovirus. The recombinant protein was subsequently purified to homogeneity by virtue of the S tag, and the oligomeric nature of the purified protein was determined. The data obtained indicated that the majority of the protein forms a dimer and, to a lesser extent, some trimer. The recombinant protein was used to determine various biological functions of VP2. The purified VP2 was shown to have virus hemagglutinin activity and was antigenically indistinguishable from the VP2 of the virion. Whether VP2 is responsible for BTV entry into permissive cells was subsequently assessed by cell surface attachment and internalization studies with an immunofluorescence assay system. The results demonstrated that VP2 alone is responsible for virus entry into mammalian cells. By competition assay, it appeared that both VP2 and the BTV virion attached to the same cell surface molecule(s). The purified VP2 also had a strong affinity for binding to glycophorin A, a sialoglycoprotein component of erythrocytes, indicating that VP2 may be responsible for BTV transmission by the Culicoides vector to vertebrate hosts during blood feeding. Further, by various enzymatic treatments of BTV-permissive L929 cells, preliminary data have been obtained which indicated that the BTV receptor molecule(s) is likely to be a glycoprotein and that either the protein moiety of the glycoprotein or a second protein molecule could also serve as a coreceptor for BTV infection. (+info)
Incursion of bluetongue virus into the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia. (4/353)Bluetongue virus was isolated from a sentinel herd in British Columbia. Virus isolation was by intravenous inoculation of embryonated chicken eggs and subculture in BHK-21 cells. The cytopathic agent was identified as bluetongue virus by electron microscopy and the immunoperoxidase test. The serotype was identified as serotype 11 by virus neutralization. (+info)
NTP binding and phosphohydrolase activity associated with purified bluetongue virus non-structural protein NS2. (5/353)The bluetongue virus ssRNA-binding protein, NS2, is a phosphoprotein that forms viral inclusion bodies in infected cells. Recombinant NS2 was expressed in the baculovirus expression system and purified to homogeneity from insect cells. Purified NS2 bound nucleosides. Further investigation revealed that the protein bound ATP and GTP and could hydrolyse both nucleosides to their corresponding NMPs, with a higher efficiency for the hydrolysis of ATP. The increased efficiency of hydrolysis of ATP correlated with a higher binding affinity of NS2 for ATP than GTP. Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) were able to function as the required divalent cation in the reactions. The phosphohydrolase activity was not sensitive to ouabain, an inhibitor of cellular ATPases, suggesting that this activity was not the result of a cellular contaminant. (+info)
Functional dissection of the major structural protein of bluetongue virus: identification of key residues within VP7 essential for capsid assembly. (6/353)A lattice of VP7 trimers forms the surface of the icosahedral bluetongue virus (BTV) core. To investigate the role of VP7 oligomerization in core assembly, a series of residues for substitution were predicted based on crystal structures of BTV type 10 VP7 molecule targeting the monomer-monomer contacts within the trimer. Seven site-specific substitution mutations of VP7 have been created using cDNA clones and were employed to produce seven recombinant baculoviruses. The effects of these mutations on VP7 solubility, ability to trimerize and formation of core-like particles (CLPs) in the presence of the scaffolding VP3 protein, were investigated. Of the seven VP7 mutants examined, three severely affected the stability of CLP, while two other mutants had lesser effect on CLP stability. Only one mutant had no apparent effect on the formation of the stable capsid. One mutant in which the conserved tyrosine at residue 271 (lower domain helix 6) was replaced by arginine formed insoluble aggregates, implying an effect in the folding of the molecule despite the prediction that such a change would be accommodated. All six soluble VP7 mutants were purified, and their ability to trimerize was examined. All mutants, including those that did not form stable CLPs, assembled into stable trimers, implying that single substitution may not be sufficient to perturb the complex monomer-monomer contacts, although subtle changes within the VP7 trimer could destabilize the core. The study highlights some of the key residues that are crucial for BTV core assembly and illustrates how the structure of VP7 in isolation underrepresents the dynamic nature of the assembly process at the biological level. (+info)
Malignant catarrhal fever: polymerase chain reaction survey for ovine herpesvirus 2 and other persistent herpesvirus and retrovirus infections of dairy cattle and bison. (7/353)Using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for sequences of ovine herpesvirus 2 (OHV2), this virus was shown to be significantly associated with sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF) in terminal cases of disease in 34 cattle and 53 bison. Ovine herpesvirus 2 was not detected in cattle (38) and bison (10) that succumbed to other diseases. Other persistent herpesviruses, retroviruses, and pestivirus, some of which have been previously isolated from cases of SA-MCF, were not associated with the disease. These included bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4), bovine lymphotrophic herpesvirus (BLHV), bovine syncytial virus (BSV, also known as bovine spumavirus), bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). A PCR survey for OHV2 in DNA from individual cow's peripheral blood lymphocytes in 4 dairies showed that the 1 dairy that was in close contact to sheep had a prevalence of OHV2 of 21.3%, whereas the 3 other dairies had no OHV2. Prevalence of the other herpesviruses and retroviruses in the dairy cows was variable, ranging from 2% to 51% for BHV4, 52% to 78.7% for BLHV, and 10% to 34% for BSV. Bovine lymphotrophic herpesvirus and BSV were also found in a few (1-4 of 21 tested) cases of terminal SA-MCF, but BIV and BVDV were not found in either the dairy cows sampled, or in the cases of SA-MCE No significant correlation was found between the presence of any 2 viruses (OHV2, BHV4, BLHV, BSV) in the dairy cows or terminal cases of SA-MCE (+info)
Multimers of the bluetongue virus nonstructural protein, NS2, possess nucleotidyl phosphatase activity: similarities between NS2 and rotavirus NSP2. (8/353)The nonstructural protein, NS2, of bluetongue virus is a nonspecific single- stranded RNA-binding protein that forms large homomultimers and accumulates in viral inclusion bodies of infected cells. NS2 shares these features with the nonstructural protein, NSP2, of rotavirus, which like BTV is a member of the family Reoviridae. Recently, NSP2 was shown to have an NTPase activity and an autokinase activity that catalyzed its phosphorylation in vitro. To examine NS2 for similar enzymatic activities, the protein was expressed in bacteria with a C-terminal His-tag and purified to homogeneity. Recombinant (r)NS2 possessed nonspecific RNA-binding activity and formed 8-10S homomultimers of the same approximate size as rNSP2 homomultimers. Notably, enzymatic assays performed with rNS2 showed that the protein hydrolyzed the alpha, beta, and gamma phosphodiester bonds of all four NTPs. Therefore, rNS2 possesses a nucleotidyl phosphatase activity instead of the NTPase activity of NSP2, which only hydrolyzes the gamma phosphodiester bonds of NTPs. NS2 did not exhibit any autokinase activity in vitro, unlike NSP2. However, both NS2 and NSP2 were phosphorylated in vitro by cellular kinases. Although the nature of the enzymatic activities differs significantly, the fact that both NS2 and NSP2 hydrolyze NTPs, undergo phosphorylation, bind RNA, and assemble into multimers consisting of 6 +/- 2 subunits suggests that they are functional homologs. (+info)
Genetic reassortment of bluetongue virus Serotype 11 strains in the bovine<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic reassortment of bluetongue virus Serotype 11 strains in the bovine. AU - Oberst, R. D.. AU - Stott, Jeffrey L. AU - Blanchard, Myra. AU - Osburn, Bennie. PY - 1987. Y1 - 1987. N2 - Reassortants of bluetongue virus Serotype 11 (BTV-11) were isolated from a yearling heifer experimentally infected with two electrophoretically different strains (UC-2 and UC-8) by subcutaneous inoculation. Viruses were recovered by direct titration of sonicated blood samples onto Vero cell monolayers, which were overlaid with agarose and later plaque purified. The parental electropherotype of UC-8 was identified as the predominant virus strain during the infection; UC-2 was not isolated. UC-2 inffectivity was shown by reassortants which contained genome segments that were identical in migration pattern to the parental UC-2 electropherotype. The observations demonstrate that segmental reassortment can occur during mixed infections in the bovine, between strains of the same BTV serotype.. AB - ...
Importance of ovine cytotoxic T cells in protection against bluetongue virus infection - DRO
Jeggo, M. H., Wardley, R. C. and Brownlie, J. 1985, Importance of ovine cytotoxic T cells in protection against bluetongue virus infection, Progress in clinical and biological research, vol. 178, pp. 477-487. ...
Genome Sequence of Bluetongue Virus Type 2 from India: Evidence for Reassortment between Outer Capsid Protein Genes |...
Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the type species of the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae (1, 2), that exists as at least 27 distinct serotypes (3, 4). The BTV can infect most ruminants, causing severe bluetongue disease (BT). The BTV particle is icosahedral and nonenveloped and is composed of a three-layered protein capsid surrounding 10 double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome segments ranging in size from 3,944 to 822 bp. The genome segments, identified as segments 1 to 10 (Seg-1 to Seg-10) in order of decreasing size (2), encode 7 structural proteins (VP1 to VP7) and 5 nonstructural proteins (NS1, NS2, NS3/3a, NS4, and NS5) (5-9).. BTV strains from different continents have evolved separately, acquiring multiple point mutations, developing characteristic regional variants/topotypes of each genome segment. Full-genome sequence data are available for BTV-2 from Taiwan (10), belonging to the major eastern (e) topotype; a reassortant-strain of BTV-2 carrying a western (w) Seg-5 (11); and five BTV-2(w) ...
Nucleotide Sequence of cDNA Clones Encoding the Outer Capsid Protein, VP5, of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 10 | Microbiology...
Summary The complete sequence of the RNA segment that codes for a major outer capsid protein (VP5) of bluetongue virus serotype 10 has been determined from overlapping cDNA clones inserted into pBR322. The segment 5 RNA of the virus (M5 RNA) is deduced to be 1638 base pairs long (1.05 × 106 daltons) and has an open reading frame in one strand capable of coding for a protein with a calculated size of 59163 daltons (526 amino acids) and a net charge of -4.5 at neutral pH.
Bluetongue virus, type 10 ATCC ® VR-1231AF™
Bluetongue virus, type 10 ATCC ® VR-1231AF™ Designation: Bluetongue virus type 10 immune ascitic fluid [V-519-701-562] Application:
Transplacental infection in goats experimentally infected with a European strain of bluetongue virus serotype 8 -...
The capability of the recently emerged European strain of bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) to cross the ruminant placenta has been established in experimental and field studies in both sheep and cattle. Seroprevalence rates in goats in North-Western Europe were high during the recent outbreak of BTV-8; however the capability of the virus to infect goats through the transplacental route has not been established.. In the present study, four Saanen goats were inoculated with the European strain of BTV-8 at 62 days of gestation; this resulted in mild clinical signs, however gross lesions observed post mortem were more severe. Viral RNA was detected by real-time RT-PCR in blood and tissue samples from three fetuses harvested from two goats at 43 days post infection. Conventional RT-PCR and genome sequencing targeting viral segment 2 confirmed infection of brain tissue with BTV-8 in two of these fetuses. In total, five of six fetuses demonstrated lesions that may have been associated with ...
Get PDF - Complete nucleotide sequence of gene segment 8 encoding non-structural protein NS2 of SA bluetongue virus serotype 10
Hall, S.J.; van Dijk, A.A.; Huismans, H., 1989: Complete nucleotide sequence of gene segment 8 encoding non-structural protein NS2 of SA bluetongue virus serotype 10
Bluetongue Viruses Based on Modified-Live Vaccine Serotype 6 with Exchanged Outer Shell Proteins Confer Full Protection in...
Since 1998, Bluetongue virus (BTV)-serotypes 1, 2, 4, 9, and 16 have invaded European countries around the Mediterranean Basin. In 2006, a huge BT outbreak started after incursion of BTV serotype 8 (BTV8) in North-Western Europe. IN 2008, BTV6 and BTV11 were reported in the Netherlands and Germany, and in Belgium, respectively. In addition, Toggenburg orbivirus (TOV) was detected in 2008 in Swiss goats, which was recognized as a new serotype of BTV (BTV25). The (re-)emergency of BTV serotypes needs a rapid response to supply effective vaccines. Reverse genetics has been developed for BTV1 and more recently also for BTV6. This latter strain, BTV6/net08, is closely related to live-attenuated vaccine for serotype 6 as determined by full genome sequencing. Here, we used this strain as backbone and exchanged segment 2 and 6, respectively Seg-2 (VP2) and Seg-6 (VP5), for those of BTV serotype 1 and 8 using reverse genetics. These so-called serotyped vaccine viruses, as mono-serotype and ...
Sequence analysis of bluetongue virus serotype 8 from the Netherlands 2006 and comparison to other European strains - Surrey...
Maan, S, Maan, NS, Ross-Smith, N, Batten, CA, Shaw, AE, Anthony, SJ, Samuel, AR, Darpel, KE, Veronesi, E, Oura, CAL et al, Singh, KP, Nomikou, K, Potgieter, AC, Attoui, H, van Rooij, E, van Rijn, P, De Clercq, K, Vandenbussche, F, Zientara, S, Breard, E, Sailleau, C, Beer, M, Hoffman, B, Mellor, PS and Mertens, PPC. (2008) Sequence analysis of bluetongue virus serotype 8 from the Netherlands 2006 and comparison to other European strains ...
Sequence of genome segment 9 of bluetongue virus (serotype 1, South Africa) and expression analysis demonstrating that...
Bluetongue virus (BTV) VP6 is often resolved into two closely migrating bands by SDS-PAGE (VP6 and VP6a). RNA segment 9 of BTV-serotype 1 South Africa (encoding VP6) has been cloned as cDNA, and the complete sequence has been determined. Expression of this clone both in vitro and in tissue culture produced the same polypeptide doublet as seen previously in extracts from BTV-infected cells. Modification of the cDNA, including the removal of the first initiation codon, demonstrated that the two forms of VP6 are derived from initiation of protein synthesis at two distinct sites and not by post-translational modification.
Viraemia and clinical disease in Dorset Poll sheep following vaccination with live attenuated bluetongue virus vaccines...
The spread of bluetongue virus (BTV) is most successfully controlled by vaccination of susceptible ruminant populations. Currently two different types of BTV vaccines are used for this purpose; inactivated, mostly monovalent vaccine formulations and modified live virus vaccines (MLVs). Clinical signs and viraemia in Dorset Poll sheep vaccinated with BTV-4 and BTV-16 MLVs or inoculated with homogenates of midges (C. sonorensis and C. nubeculosus) previously infected with BTV-4 MLV are presented. All sheep vaccinated with the two MLVs mounted an infectious viraemia lasting for a minimum of 9 up to 23 days post vaccination and developed a range of clinical signs associated with BTV infection. Peak viraemia titres recorded in individual sheep ranged from 3.5 to 6.83 log(10)TCID(50)/ml indicating a high potential for infection of vector insects and onward transmission. The implications of these results are discussed with reference to the current outbreaks of BTV occurring in northern Europe and in ...
Bluetongue in Europe | PALE-Blu Project
Bluetongue virus (BTV) is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges and was previously confined to tropical and sub-tropical regions but is now endemic in several Southern European countries, including Cyprus, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Italy and France (Corsica). Epidemiological studies and phylogenetic analyses (primarily by members of the PALE-Blu consortium) have identified new introductions or discoveries of the virus in Europe each year since 1998, involving eleven distinct BTV serotypes (BTV-1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 11, 14, 16, 25, and 27).. Bluetongue disease (BT) represents an important threat to livestock health and food production in Europe and neighbouring countries. The continuing arrival of new exotic strains from neighbouring regions, suggests that incursions by BTV (and possibly by related orbiviruses and other arboviruses) are likely to continue in Europe for the foreseeable future.. BTV Outbreaks: The first outbreak of bluetongue (BT) ever recorded in Northern Europe (caused by BTV8) ...
Widespread reassortment shapes the evolution and epidemiology of bluetongue virus following European invasion - Enlighten:...
Genetic exchange by a process of genome-segment reassortment represents an important mechanism for evolutionary change in all viruses with segmented genomes, yet in many cases a detailed understanding of its frequency and biological consequences is lacking. We provide a comprehensive assessment of reassortment in bluetongue virus (BTV), a globally important insect-borne pathogen of livestock, during recent outbreaks in Europe. Full-genome sequences were generated and analysed for over 150 isolates belonging to the different BTV serotypes that have emerged in the region over the last 5 decades. Based on this novel dataset we confirm that reassortment is a frequent process that plays an important and on-going role in evolution of the virus. We found evidence for reassortment in all ten segments without a significant bias towards any particular segment. However, we observed biases in the relative frequency at which particular segments were associated with each other during reassortment. This ...
Why did Bluetongue spread the way it did? Environmental factors influencing the velocity of Bluetongue Virus serotype 8...
Understanding where and how fast an infectious disease will spread during an epidemic is critical for its control. However, the task is a challenging one as numerous factors may interact and drive the spread of a disease, specifically when vector-borne diseases are involved. We advocate the use of simultaneous autoregressive models to identify environmental features that significantly impact the velocity of disease spread. We illustrate this approach by exploring several environmental factors influencing the velocity of bluetongue (BT) spread in France during the 2007-2008 epizootic wave to determine which ones were the most important drivers. We used velocities of BT spread estimated in 4,495 municipalities and tested sixteen covariates defining five thematic groups of related variables: elevation, meteorological-related variables, landscape-related variables, host availability, and vaccination. We found that ecological factors associated with vector abundance and activity (elevation and ...
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1.A.93 The Bluetongue Virus Non-Structural Protein 3 Viroporin (NS3) Family NS3 possesses properties commonly associated with viroporins. Han and Harty 2004 reported that: (i) NS3 localizes to the Golgi apparatus and plasma membrane, (ii) NS3 can homo-oligomerize in transfected cells, (iii) targeting of NS3 to the Golgi apparatus and plasma membrane correlates with the enhanced permeability of cells to the translation inhibitor hygromycin B (hyg-B), (iv) amino acids 118-148 comprising TMS1 of NS3 are critical for Golgi targeting and hyg-B permeability, and (v) deletion of amino acids 156-181 comprising transmembrane region 2 (TM2) of NS3 has little to no affect on Golgi targeting and hyg-B permeability. These viroporin-like properties may contribute to the role of NS3 in virus release and may have important implications for pathogenicity of bluetongue virus infections.. Bluetongue, an arthropod-borne non-contagious hemorrhagic disease of small ruminants, is caused by bluetongue virus (BTV). ...
Spatio-temporal modelling of bluetongue virus distribution in Northern Australia based on remotely sensed bioclimatic variables
The presence of Bluetongue virus (BTV) in Northern Australia poses an ongoing threat for animal health and although clinical disease has not been detected in livestock, it limits export of livestock from the infected areas. BTV presence is governed by variable environmental conditions, which influence vector and host habitats. The National Arbovirus Monitoring Program (NAMP) was established to determine the extent of virus activity and control the risk of infection spread. Groups of young cattle, previously unexposed to infection, are regularly tested to detect evidence of transmission. This approach is labour and cost intensive and difficult to operate in the remote areas of Northern Australia. The resulting data are therefore characterised by spatial and temporal gaps. The aim of this research is to assess the use of remotely sensed environmental and climatic data as a means of predicting the distribution of BTV seroprevalence throughout Northern Australia to complement conventional ...
Bluetongue virus warning as midge season approaches - Pendle Today
The British Veterinary Association has warned of the possibility of the Bluetongue virus taking hold in the UK, following reports of BTV-8 in cattle in northern France.
Ongoing Bluetongue Virus Outbreaks in Europe - The Dairy Site
EU - Bluetongue Virus (BTV) continues to be a problem in Europe, with France reporting more than 90 outbreaks in the last few weeks, according to Sandrine Moine, PhD, R&D Manager at Thermo Fisher Scientific. Diagnostic tests can quickly and reliably identify the virus and help veterinarians contain the disease.
Evolution and Phylogenetic Analysis of Full-Length VP3 Genes of Eastern Mediterranean Bluetongue Virus Isolates - pdf descargar
Evolution and Phylogenetic Analysis of Full-Length VP3 Genes of Eastern Mediterranean Bluetongue Virus Isolates. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Viruses | Free Full-Text | Emergence of a Novel Reassortant Strain of Bluetongue Serotype 6 in Israel, 2017: Clinical...
Reassortment contributes to the evolution of RNA viruses with segmented genomes, including Bluetongue virus (BTV). Recently, co-circulation of natural and vaccine BTV variants in Europe, and their ensuing reassortment, were proposed to promote appearance of novel European BTV strains, with potential implications for pathogenicity, spread and vaccination policies. Similarly, the geographical features of the Mediterranean basin, which spans over portions of three continents, may facilitate the appearance of clinically relevant reassortants via co-circulation of BTV strains of African, Asian and European origins. In August–October 2017, BTV serotype 6 (BTV-6) was identified in young animals exhibiting classical clinical signs of Bluetongue (BT) at Israeli sheep and cattle farms. Sequencing and pairwise analysis of this Israeli BTV-6 isolate revealed the closest sequence homology of its serotype-defining Segment 2 was with that of South African reference BTV-6 strain 5011 (93.88% identity). In
Improving epidemiological modelling using satellite derived soil moisture proxies | Belgian Platform on Earth Observation
Bluetongue is a viral disease of ruminants which is transmitted by Culicoides midges. Since the late 1990s a series of bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes have invaded Mediterranean Europe. In 2006 other BTV serotypes also invaded temperate Europe. This twofold invasion pattern has resulted in large economic loses mainly for sheep farmers. In Mediterranean Europe bluetongue is
Bluetongue disease is a viral infection that has killed approximately 2 million cattle in Europe over the past two decades. A new study has revealed the atomic structure of the Bluetongue virus, including the means by which it infects healthy host cells. Scientists hope to use this information to aid in the creation of vaccines and drug treatments for bluetongue disease.. A team led by Hong Zhou, a professor of microbiology, immunology and molecular genetics and faculty director of the Electron Imaging Center for Nanomachines at UCLAs California Nanosystems Institute, collaborated on the research with a team led by Polly Roy, professor of virology at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. The research was published in the journal Nature Structural and Molecular Biology.. Using cryo-electron microscopy, the researchers discovered the Bluetongue viruss two-step process for infecting healthy cells. The virus has sensor proteins on its surface that detect changes in the acidity of its ...
Oesophageal paresis associated with bluetongue virus serotype 8 in cattle | Veterinary Record
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Bluetongue virus serotype 9 | EVAg
Simply ask us ! One of the most interesting features of EVAgs catalogue is its flexibility, please do not hesitate to contact us by using our contact form. We can add to the catalogue tailor-made products on demand, as well as access to plateforms, or services. With the large panel of virology laboratories in our consortium, there are good chances that we would have what you are looking for. If you are interested in acquiring cell-lines, please visit this page: access-cell-lines.. If you are interested in acquiring insect vectors, please visit this page: access-insect-vectors.. ...
Bluetongue virus serotype 15 | EVAg
Simply ask us ! One of the most interesting features of EVAgs catalogue is its flexibility, please do not hesitate to contact us by using our contact form. We can add to the catalogue tailor-made products on demand, as well as access to plateforms, or services. With the large panel of virology laboratories in our consortium, there are good chances that we would have what you are looking for. If you are interested in acquiring cell-lines, please visit this page: access-cell-lines.. If you are interested in acquiring insect vectors, please visit this page: access-insect-vectors.. ...
Hemorrhagic disease (HD) is an infectious viral disease transmitted by tiny biting flies (often referred to as midges, gnats, or no-see-ums) in the genus Culicoides. HD is caused by two closely related viruses in the genus Obrbivirus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) and bluetongue virus. There are 2 subtypes of EHD virus and 5 subtypes of bluetongue in North America. Because disease features produced by these viruses are indistinguishable, a general term, hemorrhagic disease, often is used when the specific virus is unknown. Although EHD and bluetongue virus are infectious to a wide range of wild ruminants, susceptibility varies among species. Clinical disease has been reported in white-tailed deer, mule deer, bighorn sheep, elk, and pronghorn. Antibodies or virus have been detected in bison and mountain goats; however, these infections were not associated with disease. Although large die-offs of HD have not been reported in Arizona, antibodies for the disease have been documented in mule ...
Bluetongue in Denmark during 2008 | Veterinary Record
Following the first ever case of bluetongue in Denmark during late 2007, further outbreaks were observed in Denmark during 2008, despite vaccination against bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 8 (BTV-8) in the southern part of the country. In total, 15 separate outbreaks of infection were identified, mostly as a result of clinical suspicions but also because of surveillance of bulk milk samples. These outbreaks led to extensions of the original vaccination zone planned for 2008. Blood samples from clinical suspects were analysed using ELISA and real-time RT-PCR assays for the presence of anti-BTV antibodies and viral RNA, respectively. A newly infected calf from the primary outbreak in 2008 was studied for a period of three months, during which time it seroconverted to BTV, but the presence of viral RNA in its blood was maintained throughout this time. Each outbreak was caused by BTV-8, as determined by a serotype-specific real-time RT-PCR assay. Furthermore, the nucleotide sequence of a portion of ...
Bluetongue Found in Ontario - Ontario Goat
The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) has confirmed a positive case of Bluetongue virus in Ontario as part of routine surveillance testing.. Bluetongue is not contagious, but is spread by biting midges and can infect cattle, bison, deer, goats and sheep. There is no human health or food safety risk and the virus cannot survive outside the biting midge or animal host. The virus also cannot be spread through contact with animal carcasses or other animal products (meat, fibre).. Cattle and goats show very few clinical signs of infection. Cattle may exhibit a mild to moderate fever, and swelling of the coronary band above the hoof, so they walk stiffly and are reluctant to get up. Other symptoms include: nasal discharge, swelling of the head and neck, runny eyes, swelling and sores in the mouth, and drooling. Goats tend to exhibit mild to moderate fever, runny eyes and drooling. The disease can only be confirmed by a lab test and there is no treatment.. The strain detected in Ontario is native ...
Bluetongue - WUR
Bluetongue (BT) is a disease in ruminants caused by an Orbivirus that is transmitted by midges. There are at least 24 serotypes of Bluetongue virus (BTV). Wageningen Bioveterinary Research conducts research on this disease.
Mariah Hill Alpacas Livestock Exports: BLUETONGUE…comparison
Compare Australia to your country…if you live in Europe. THs is an accurate map of Australia overlaid over the majority of Europe. This map alone, shows you why there is no risk of Bluetongue Virus reaching the southern states of Australia, and why the zones and Australias NAMP research and continual mapping systems gives your country assurances they need. There has been 1 naturally occurred case of BTV tested in Australia, and that was in 1979. That was in a cattle, at a place called Dumpty Doo, which is approx. near the red oval dot, in the ocean at the top of Norway on the left. I am situated in Melbourne which is approx. in the Mediterranean near Crete. And in between is a huge desert. Lets see how big Australia is - Australia- · 7, 692, 030 square km · (China: 9,597,000 sq km) · Lowest, flattest, geographically uniform continent · very old Land use: 6% arable, 58% pasture, 14% forest, 22% other (mostly desert) · Blue Tongue- Australia 1 Bluetongue is an insect-borne, viral disease ...
Bluetongue Virus Returns to Southern Italy
ITALY – Bluetongue has returned to the country’s south western peninsula, identified in cattle on two small holdings.
How French Authorities, Industry Mobilised to Contain the Recent Bluetongue Outbreak - The Cattle Site
FRANCE - French authorities, veterinarians and farmers have mobilised to manage a recent outbreak of bluetongue virus (BTV), thanks to support from Thermo Fisher Scientific.
ID Screen® Bluetongue Milk Indirect
Kramps, J.A, et al., Validation of a commercial ELISA for the detection of bluetongue virus (BTV)-specific antibodies in individual milk samples of Dutch dairy cows, Vet. Microbiol. (2008), doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2008.01.004 ...
Bluevac BTV8 (bluetongue virus inactivated, serotype...) - Povzetek glavnih značilnosti zdravila - QI04AA02 - Vetxed...
4.4Posebna opozorila za vsako ciljno živalsko vrsto. Občasno lahko prisotnost maternalnih protiteles pri ovcah minimalne priporočene starosti vpliva na zaščito, ki jo zagotavlja cepivo.. Na voljo ni nobenih informacij o uporabi cepiva pri seropozitivnem govedu niti pri govedu z maternalnimi protitelesi.. Ob uporabi cepiva pri drugih domačih in divjih vrstah prežvekovalcev, ki jih ogroža okužba, je potrebna previdnost; pred množičnim cepljenjem je priporočljivo testno cepljenje manjšega števila živali. Učinkovitost pri drugih vrstah se lahko razlikuje od dokazane učinkovitosti pri ovcah in govedu.. 4.5Posebni previdnostni ukrepi. Posebni previdnostni ukrepi za uporabo pri živalih. Cepite le zdrave živali.. Posebni previdnostni ukrepi, ki jih mora izvajati oseba, ki živalim daje zdravilo. Ni smiselno.. 4.6Neželeni učinki (pogostost in resnost). Povprečno povišanje telesne temperature, ki varira med 0,5 in 1,0 ° C, je pogosta reakcija pri ovcah in govedu. Povišana telesna ...
Bluevac BTV8 (bluetongue virus inactivated, serotype...) - Písomná informácia pre používateľa - QI04AA02 - Vetxed.healthsonar...
10.OCHRANNÁ LEHOTA. 0 dní.. 11.OSOBITNÉ BEZPEČNOSTNÉ OPATRENIA NA UCHOVÁVANIE. Uchovávať mimo dohľadu a dosahu detí. Uchovávať a prepravovať v chlade (2 °C - 8 °C). Nezmrazovať.. Chrániť pred svetlom.. Čas použiteľnosti po prvom otvorení obalu: 10 hodín.. Nepoužívať tento veterinárny liek po dátume exspirácie uvedenom na štítku/ škatuli.. 12.OSOBITNÉ UPOZORNENIA. Osobitné bezpečnostné opatrenia pre každý cieľový druh:. Príležitostne môže prítomnosť materských protilátok u oviec v minimálnom odporúčanom veku narúšať ochranu navodenú vakcínou.. Nie sú dostupné žiadne informácie o použití vakcíny u séropozitívneho hovädzieho dobytka vrátane hovädzieho dobytka, ktorý má materské protilátky.. Pri použití v prípade iných domácich a voľne žijúcich prežúvavcov, u ktorých sa predpokladá riziko infekcie, by sa vakcína mala používať obozretne a odporúča sa vyskúšať vakcínu na malom počte zvierat pred hromadným ...
Bluetongue comes to UK - Country Life
Testing for foot and mouth disease (FMD) has led to the first confirmed case of the bluetongue virus on a farm near Ipswich. The virus, found in a highland cow on the site, does not harm humans but can be fatal to sheep, and affect the milk yields in cows. It is transferred by midges and other biting insects; Defra has said that the case will not be classified as an outbreak until the virus is found in an insect on the site. The cow, named Debbie, was removed and culled yesterday, and scientists are urging caution from farmers and livestock owners: It remains vitally important that farmers maintain vigilance for this disease and report any suspect cases, particularly as clinical signs may be similar to foot and mouth disease, said Chief Veterinary Officer Debbie Reynolds. Indeed this diagnosis comes as another case of FMD was found on a farm within the control zone in Surrey, and cattle were duly culled there at the weekend, bringing the total number of farms the disease has been found on to ...
Mass Vaccination Response to Rampant Bluetongue - The Cattle Site
TURKEY – Turkish veterinary authorities have vaccinated 30,000 sheep in a bid to put the brakes on the ever spreading Bluetongue virus.
An investigation into the possibility of bluetongue virus transmission by transfer of infected ovine embryos
Aliquots of wash fluids were taken from wells 1, 2 and 10 in each wash plate, as well as from the media in which the embryos were held before (virus bath) and after washing (holding medium). All the specimens were processed separately on BHK-21 cells.. Embryos were added to 200 µL Eagles minimum essential medium (EMEM) (BioWhittaker, Cambrex) in Eppendorf tubes (AEC-Amersham, Johannesburg), homogenised for 30 s and centrifuged for 5 min at 9300 rcf using an Eppendorf 5415 R centrifuge. Supernatants were aliquoted in 96-well plates in triplicate in 25-µL volumes per well. A 100-µL volume of BHK-21 cells in EMEM was added and the plates were incubated for 6 days at 37 ºC in an incubator containing 5% CO2 before reading. The cells were monitored for the cytopathic effects of BTV. Negative cell cultures were blind-passaged after 7 days for two additional passages.. Experiment 2. The objective of this experiment was to recover embryos from viraemic donors at the peak of viraemia. The same ewes ...
Traps, transmission models and the weather: integrating catch data, serological surveying and climate time series for...
Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a vector-borne disease affecting ruminants, causing morbidity and mortality amongst commercial livestock herds. Historically, BTV was not endemic in Europe, however in the past two decades various BTV serotypes have periodically invaded Southern and Eastern Europe. In 2006 the first epizootic of BTV was observed above latitude 50N anywhere in the world, centred near Maastricht.
iAH Search interface 2.4 - Results of the search |page 1|
Modumo, Jacob and Venter, Estelle H. Determination of the minimum protective dose for bluetongue virus serotype 2 and 8 vaccines in sheep. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc., 2012, vol.83, no.1, p.24-30. ISSN 1019- ...
LSHTM Research Online
In the absence of strategies for reliable induction of antibodies broadly neutralizing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), vaccine efforts have shifted toward the induction of cell-mediated immunity. Here we describe the construction and immunogenicity of novel T-cell vaccine NS1.HIVA, which delivers the HIV-1 clade A consensus-derived immunogen HIVA on the surface of tubular structures spontaneously formed by protein NS1 of bluetongue virus. We demonstrated that NS1 tubules can accommodate a protein as large as 527 amino acids without losing their self-assembly capability. When injected into BALB/c mice by several routes, chimeric NS1.HIVA tubules induced HIV-1-specific major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted T cells. These could be boosted by modified virus Ankara expressing the same immunogen and generate a memory capable of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) production, proliferation, and lysis of sensitized target cells. Induced memory T cells readily produced IFN-gamma 230 ...
PM = FAIL - 150 slow loop lines found - What does it means? - Copter 3.5 - ArduPilot Discourse
Hi! I'm getting this ''fail'' in the auto analysis, what does it means? The rest i think is good (incluind the vibs). Pixhawk 2.1 with V3.5.3 - T-Motor 4012-13 (4x) / payload: sony a5100 / 12k 6s. AWG: 3593gr | Usi…
46 Bluetongue Dating divergence times for bluetongue virus and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus serotypes The nucleotide sequences of Seg-2 from BTV and EHDV provide a basis for the calculation of molecular evolutionary rates (MER) using Bayesian methodologies (Drummond and Rambaut, 2007). Upper and lower limits for the evolutionary rate of Seg-2 were estimated at 10À4 and 10À5 changes/site/year. These values were used to calculate the time at which different BTV serotypes diverged from a common ancestor (using the formula: divergence time = [geneticdistance/2*1/MER]). Nomikou), India (personal communication: Dr. S. , 2004), Taiwan and Indonesia. Equine encephalosis virus Equine encephalosis virus is associated with disease of horses in southern Africa. The virus was first identified in 1967 from horses that died from an unknown peracute illness. Serological investigations revealed that widespread EEV infections of horses had occurred during the summer of 1967 but that Bluetongue virus, ...
Publication : USDA ARS
Citation: Wilson, W.C., O Hearn, E.S. 2006. Preliminary development of a real-time PCR for all serotypes of Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus. American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians. Interpretive Summary: Epizootic hemorrhagic diseases virus (EHDV) has been associated with bluetongue-like disease in cattle. Although US EHDV strains have not been experimentally proven to cause disease in cattle there is serologic evidence of infection in cattle. Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes an estimated $125,000,000 annual loss to the U.S. livestock industry and about $3,000,000,000 annual losses worldwide. Therefore rapid diagnosis and differentiation of BTV and EHDV is required. Our laboratory has developed a genetic test that detects all EHDV serotypes based on DNA sequence analysis. The EHDV detection assay does not cross-react with BTV serotypes; however, this assay is less sensitive than double amplification protocols. The sensitivity for all eight serotypes is sufficient for ...
Bluetongue disease is found in northern Europe - Farmers Weekly
Livestock producers are being urged to step up their vigilance and biosecurity, following a series of outbreaks of bluetongue disease in sheep and cattle in northern Europe.
Bluetongue disease in dogs associated with contaminated vaccine <...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bluetongue disease in dogs associated with contaminated vaccine . AU - Akita, G. Y.. AU - Ianconescu, M.. AU - Maclachlan, Nigel J. AU - Osburn, Bennie. AU - Greene, R. T.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0028345261&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0028345261&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 8197702. AN - SCOPUS:0028345261. VL - 134. SP - 283. EP - 284. JO - Veterinary Record. JF - Veterinary Record. SN - 0042-4900. IS - 11. ER - ...
GIP Receptor | Involvement of an Extracellular Protease in Algicidal Activity
Bluetongue virus (BTV) can be an arthropod-borne pathogen that triggers an often fatal, hemorrhagic disease in ruminants. for recognition of antibodies against the VP7 antigen. These data reveal that VSV replicon contaminants potentially stand for a secure and efficacious vaccine system with which to regulate long term outbreaks by BTV-8 or additional serotypes, specifically in previously non-endemic regions where discrimination between infected and vaccinated animals is vital. Introduction Bluetongue can be a hemorrhagic disease of ruminants thats due to bluetongue pathogen (BTV), an associate from the genus Orbivirus within the family midges. In cattle, goats, and wild ruminants, BTV contamination is typically asymptomatic despite prolonged viremia. These host species represent a potential reservoir for unnoticed dissemination of BTV in ruminant populations. In sheep, however, BTV contamination often results in an acute disease with associated high morbidity and mortality, depending on the ...
Bluetongue Skinks! 07/18 by Reptile Radio Australia | Pets Podcasts
In this episode we will be interviewing Joe Ball. Joe is the owner of Bluetonguelizard.com.au and is arguably the Australian authority in their captive management and care. Joe is working on numerous bluetongue skink projects at present, some of which are world firsts! We will also be finding out more about some of Joes other interesting and rare projects. This show is a must for all of you who own, or want to own bluetongue skinks! We will also cover the latest industry news and give some feedback about the Goldcoast Reptile Expo!
Learn more about bluetongue
NEWS IN BRIEF. // Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association;11/21/2009, Vol. 165 Issue 21, p610 The article offers news briefs related to veterinary medicine in Great Britain. Changes to the requirements for the post-import testing of animals susceptible to bluetongue virus have come into effect. A silent auction was held by the British Equine Veterinary Association Trust to help raise... ...
Bluetongue Disease News - The Dairy Site
UK - Take advantage and vaccinate your animals before turning them out to protect them from the threat of bluetongue. This is the message from the JAB campaign which aims to keep up the pressure on livestock farmers to vaccinate for the coming season ...
Publication : USDA ARS
Interpretive Summary: Bluetongue is a disease of sheep, cattle, deer, and antelope that is transmitted by a biting fly called a Culicoides midge. There are many different types of bluetongue virus (BTV), some of which have been in the U.S. for decades and some that have recently been introduced. The ability to cause disease in animals varies greatly between these virus types. To determine whether a specific virus type will cause disease in a specific animal species or breed of species, experimental infection studies are typically conducted. Unfortunately, injecting virus into the animal rarely results in the types of clinical disease we see in natural, insect bite-transmitted infections. This study examined whether adding midge salivary proteins to the virus injection method would affect the clinical disease outcome. Sheep that received virus mixed with salivary proteins had clinical disease similar to what is seen in nature. Technical Abstract: Bluetongue is an insect-transmitted disease of ...
Bluetongue Found in Canadian Beef Cattle
CANADA – Bluetongue disease has been confirmed in three beef cattle in Ontario, reports the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) reports after serology testing.
Bluetongue serotype 8 outbreak in Norway
In 2007 information about bluetongue was distributed to veterinarians, farmers, stakeholders and other people dealing with farm animals.. A surveillance program for vectors was established during the summer 2007, and a surveillance program for cattle started in 2008.. Two dairy herds infected with BTV 8 were detected in the southern part of Norway, in Vest-Agder county, in February 2009. A following comprehensive investigation of the outbreak was carried out before the vector season began late April 2009, and two more infected herds were detected. One of these herds, a beef herd, was situated close to one of the index herds, and the other one, a dairy herd, was located in the neighbouring county, Aust- Agder. Based on the low virus level in the infected animals the Institute of Animal Health in Pirbright estimated the most probable time for infection of the herds to be between August and October 2008.. On the basis of the results from the investigation, monitoring and surveillance, and the fact ...
Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health Outlines Strength of the C... ( First batch of bluetongue Bovilis BT...)
... First batch of bluetongue Bovilis BTV8 vaccine released to supply Nor... European countries ...BOXMEER Netherlands April 30 /-Intervet/Sche... Within the animal health sector there has been a recent emphasis on...,Intervet/Schering-Plough,Animal,Health,Outlines,Strength,of,the,Combination,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
Bluetongue - eXtension
Bluetongue is a viral disease of sheep and deer that is spread by the Culicoides species of gnat. However, there is some evidence that...
Bluetongue of sheep by M R. Gardiner
Gardiner, M R. (1968) Bluetongue of sheep, Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4: Vol. 9 : No. 2 , Article 5 ...
Bluetongue vaccine release date nears - Farmers Weekly
Bluetongue vaccine could begin arriving at wholesalers next week in readiness for distribution to veterinary surgeons and their clients, Farmers Weekly has learned.
Bluetongue disease in goats? Or What? | The Goat Spot Forum
Has anyone ever dealt with this with their goats? Im asking simply because one of my does (Misty), started out with excessive salivation about 4-6weeks...
Bluetongue disease a growing threat
The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecules storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters. ...
2.7 Å cryo-EM structure of rotavirus core protein VP3, a unique capping machine with a helicase activity | Science Advances
VP3 autoguanylylation activity was performed with purified VP3 by incubating increasing concentrations of VP3 with 1 μl of [α-32P] GTP in GTase buffer [20 mM tris-HCl (pH 7.4), 200 mM NaCl, 5 mM DTT, 2 mM MgCl2, and 5% glycerol] in a 20-μl reaction mixture at room temperature for 1 hour as previously described (9). The reaction mixture was resolved by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed by transfer onto a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane. The autoguanylylation was observed by autoradiography of the PVDF membrane. RV NSP2 was used as a negative control, and the vaccinia virus capping system (New England Biolabs Inc.) was used as a positive control. For showing direct transfer of GMP on transcript (GTase assay), we followed a previously established protocol with slight modification (52). For this purpose, first we synthesized RV gene 10 transcript using an in vitro transcription kit (Ambion T7 MEGAscript). GTase reaction mixture (20 μl) was prepared by adding 2 μl of IVT ...
Wired-Gov | Newsletter |Farmers should act now to avoid feeling blue this autumn | Official Press Release
Farmers should act now to avoid ‘feeling blue’ this autumn Bluetongue vaccines for sheep & cattle are now available a
UTVÄRDERING AV EN NY PROFYLAKTISK METOD FÖR ATT MINSKA LIDANDET HOS HÄSTAR MED SOMMAREKSEM
Sommareksem är en allvarlig kronisk hudinflammation som orsakas av en överkänslighet mot saliv från bitande insekter, framför allt Culicoides spp (svidknott). Sjukdomen är vanligt förekommande samt medicinskt svårbehandlad. Profylaktiska åtgärder är avgörande för att förebygga och lindra symptomen. Trots att sjukdomen påverkar hästens välbefinnande saknas det fortvarande studier kring hur stort lidande sjukdomen medför drabbade hästar. Dessutom finns det endast få studier som undersökt hur knottangrepp kan förhindras och därmed hur man kan förebygga sjukdomen. Det finns två mål med denna studie: 1) att dokumentera hur sommareksem påverkar hästens välfärd ur djurskyddssynpunkt och 2) att undersöka hur knottangrepp kan förhindras. Studien skall prova en ny metod för att förhindra knottangrepp och undersöka om det ökar hästarnas välbefinnande: ett insektsrepellerande halsband med repellerande doftämnen istället av kemiska insekticider.
... virus Bluetongue virus Changuinola virus Chenuda virus Chobar Gorge virus Corriparta virus Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus ... Changuinola virus Irituia virus Jamanxi virus Jari virus Gurupi virus Monte Dourado virus Ourem virus Purus virus Saraca virus ... virus Great Island virus Ieri virus Lebombo virus Orungo virus Palyam virus Peruvian horse sickness virus St Croix River virus ... virus Great Island virus Kemerovo virus Essaouira virus Kala iris virus Mill Door/79 virus Rabbit syncytium virus Tribeč virus ...
When naturally infected with Bluetongue virus, the C. variipennis contains the Bluetongue Virus in the thorax, and then is ... Found in North America, C. variipennis transmits Bluetongue virus, African horse sickness virus, akabane virus, and epizootic ... C. variipennis transmits the Bluetongue virus, found in North America from latitude 40° N to 35° S. However, the virus is ... The C. v. variipennis is found in the north east United States, but is not a vector for Bluetongue virus in this area because ...
Melhorn, Heinz (June 2007). "First occurrence of Culicoides obsoletus-transmitted Bluetongue virus epidemic in Central Europe ...
Includes: Bluetongue virus, African horse sickness virus, Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, among others. Known ... Included: Banna virus, Kadipiro virus, and Liao ning virus. "International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV)". talk. ... Included: Rice dwarf virus, Rice gall dwarf virus, and Wound tumor virus. Rotavirus A-E cause infantile gastroenteritis in ... Viruses, International Committee on Taxonomy of; King, Andrew MQ (8 November 2011). Virus Taxonomy: Ninth Report of the ...
... bluetongue virus, Schmallenberg virus, African horse sickness, bovine ephemeral fever (C. osystoma and C. nipponesis), Akabane ... In 2006, bluetongue virus was first recorded in Northern Europe. In 2007 and 2008, there were huge outbreaks, going as far as ... main vector of bluetongue virus and African Horse Sickness in Southern Europe Culicoides chiopterus - Culicoides dewulfi - ... including the main vectors of bluetongue virus disease) were monophyletic, whereas the subgenus Oecacta was paraphyletic. The ...
The site also conducts research on viruses including foot and mouth disease and bluetongue virus. On Saturday 4 August 2007 it ... Professor Brian Spratt's report found that more likely than not the strain of the virus understandably came from the Merial ... Independent Review of the safety of UK facilities handling foot and mouth disease virus Archived 27 September 2007 at the ...
John Burns Brooksby
His research also extended into African swine fever and blue tongue viruses. He prepared the UK for an epidemic of swine ... His studies included the survival of the virus in meat, concluding that the virus made use of the animal meat non-viable, a ... Brooksby, J.B. (1958). "The virus of foot-and-mouth disease". Advances in Virus Research. 5: 1-37. doi:10.1016/s0065-3527(08) ... Henderson, W.M; Brooksby, J.B. (December 1948). "The survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus in meat and offal". The Journal ...
"The membrane trafficking protein calpactin forms a complex with bluetongue virus protein NS3 and mediates virus release". ...
... is a species of Ceratopogonidae that transmits the bluetongue virus (BTV) and the African horse sickness virus. This particular ... Culicoides imicola is the main vector for BTV (bluetongue virus), with other Cullicoides species being secondary vectors. The ...
Epizootic hemorrhagic disease
Bluetongue virus is closely related to EHDV, and has similar clinical signs, but it is a different disease. Bluetongue is a ... Testing at animal health laboratories is necessary to distinguish between the viruses that cause bluetongue and EHD. The ... caused by an infection of a virus from the genus Orbivirus subsequently called Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV). It ... "Facts About Bluetongue And EHD." Grand View Outdoors, 18 Dec. 2014, www.grandviewoutdoors.com/big-game-hunting/facts-about- ...
... and such a vaccine has recently been successfully developed for bluetongue virus of sheep. Single-cycle viruses are also widely ... His research in the early 1970s was in the field of plant viruses, including tobacco rattle virus and tobacco necrosis virus, ... Minson's group called the resulting virus a "disabled infectious single cycle" (DISC) virus; similarly disabled viruses are ... "Generation of Replication-Defective Virus-Based Vaccines That Confer Full Protection in Sheep against Virulent Bluetongue Virus ...
Examples of these diseases are hemorrhagic disease (HD), epizootic hemorrhagic disease and bluetongue viruses, which are ...
The sheep ked is capable of transmitting bluetongue virus in sheep, though little evidence suggests they are bluetongue disease ... Luedke AJ, Jochim MM, Bowne JG (September 1965). "Preliminary bluetongue Transmission with the sheep ked Melophagus ovinus (L ...
... he discovered multiple viruses related to bluetongue, including bluetongue 20 virus, the first bluetongue-like virus from ... He also served on the WHO Expert Panel on Virus Diseases and the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, as well as ... which were the first viruses shown to be related to rabies. He characterised Thottapalayam virus, later shown to be the first ... particularly known for his work on arthropod-borne viruses and emerging infectious diseases. He discovered more novel viruses ...
Other diseases from which these animals suffer are foot-and-mouth disease, sindbis fever, yellow fever, bluetongue, bovine ... virus diarrhoea, brucellosis and anthrax. The waterbuck is more resistant to rinderpest than are other antelopes. They are ...
Climate change in Scotland
... livestock could face new diseases such as West Nile virus and outbreaks of bluetongue or parasites could increase. The Climate ...
These were Blue tongue virus, Bovine influenza, Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD), fowl plague, goat pneumonitis, mycobacteria, "N" ... virus, Newcastle disease, sheep pox, Teschers disease, and vesicular stomatitis. See, Wheelis, p. 226. Berhow, Mark A., Ed. ( ...
Parasitic flies of domestic animals
Mellor, P.S. (1995) The transmission and geographical spread of African horse sickness and bluetongue viruses Annals of ... Species such as Culicoides imicola and Culicoides variipennis transmit bluetongue virus between sheep and cattle (see diagram ... Culex mosquitoes transmit West Nile virus between birds and horses; they transmit Rift Valley fever virus to livestock species ... A typical pathway of transmission of organisms by blood-feeding flies is shown below as a virus transmitted by an adult fly ...
United States biological weapons program
Blue tongue virus, bovine influenza, bovine virus diarrhea (BVD), fowl plague, goat pneumonitis, mycobacteria, "N" virus, ... The virus was allegedly delivered to the operatives from an army base in the Panama Canal Zone by an unnamed U.S. intelligence ... That law defined a biological agent as: any micro-organism, virus, infectious substance, or biological product that may be ... doi:10.1007/1-4020-2098-8_3. ISBN 978-1-4020-2096-4. "CIA Link to Cuban Pig Virus Reported". San Francisco Chronicle. January ...
Viruses are important pathogens of livestock. Diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease and bluetongue are caused by viruses.[209 ... I: dsDNA viruses. II: ssDNA viruses. III: dsRNA viruses. IV: (+)ssRNA viruses. V: (−)ssRNA viruses. VI: ssRNA-RT viruses. VII: ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ... Quote: "Virus: virus (s.n. II), gen. sing. viri, nom. pl. vira, gen. pl. vīrorum (to be distinguished from virorum, of men)." ...
San Andres National Wildlife Refuge
... and almost all animals showed evidence of exposure to Bluetongue Virus as well as Malignant Catarrhal Fever. Pasteurella ... Exposure to Parainfluenza-3 virus was detected in 20% of 50 WSMR animals tested for this pathogen, while two-thirds had been ... susceptibility to the disease is higher in bighorn previously exposed to Parainfluenza-3 or Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus ...
Climate change adaptation
... but many parts of Europe were still badly affected by outbreaks of the Bluetongue virus in livestock in 2007. Unmitigated ...
... foot and mouth disease virus, prions, and blue tongue virus), and plant viruses (tobacco and cucumber viruses) in a specific, ... BERA has been used for the detection of human viruses (hepatitis B and C viruses and herpes viruses), veterinary disease agents ... Engineering of the membrane of fibroblast cells with virus-specific antibodies: a novel biosensor tool for virus detection. ... Fibroblast Cells with Virus-Specific Antibodies and Antigens. Sensors 9: 2176-86. Moschopoulou G.; Vitsa, K.; Bem, F.; ...
ATCvet code QI04
QI04AA01 Louping ill virus QI04AA02 Bluetongue virus QI04AB01 Clostridium QI04AB02 Pasteurella QI04AB03 Bacteroides QI04AB04 ... QI04AB06 Chlamydia QI04AB08 Erysipelothrix QI04AB09 Mycobacterium QI04AB10 Staphylococcus Empty group QI04AD01 Orf virus/ ...
... rabies and bluetongue virus. On 9 November 2007, DEFRA announced that Reynolds had opted to take early retirement at the age of ... Retrieved 5 January 2008.[permanent dead link](subscription required) "Sheep virus 'low risk to the UK'". BBC. 19 September ... PhD in the epidemiology of enteric viruses in calves, University of Reading ? dates - Research Officer at the Institute for ...
List of infectious sheep and goat diseases
Diseases caused prions include: scrapie Diseases caused by viruses include: Akabane virus infection bluetongue disease border ... Wesselsbron virus infection Diseases caused by bacteria include: anaplasmosis blackleg braxy brucellosis caseous lymphadenitis ... Rift Valley fever Schmallenberg virus infection ulcerative dermatosis variola caprina (goatpox) variola ovina (sheeppox) ... disease (hairy shaker disease) Cache Valley virus infection caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma ...
David Stuart (structural biologist)
... bluetongue virus and the membrane-containing phages PRD1 (the first structure of an enveloped virus) and PM2. He is also ... bluetongue virus and the membrane-containing phages PRD1 (the first structure of an enveloped virus) and PM2. His structure of ... Stuart has solved the atomic structures of complex biological molecules and viruses, including foot-and-mouth disease virus, ... focused mainly on virus-receptor interactions and virus assembly. In 1999 Stuart led the establishment of the Division of ...
... a low-cost vehicle intended for developing countries Bluetongue Virus, the virus that causes the Bluetongue disease BlogTV, a ...
... the potential for developing vaccines for Bluetongue virus and the African Horse sickness virus, RNA-RNA interactions and ... The virus that she has dedicated most of her career to is Bluetongue disease that affects sheep and cattle. She became ... After her post-doctoral work, she went to the University of Alabama at Birmingham to begin her own Blue Tongue Virus research ... Roy's current research includes gaining a clearer understanding around the blue tongue virus at a molecular level, ...
... including bluetongue, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, louping ill, tick-borne encephalitis, vesicular stomatitis virus and ... as well as the species or strains Araguari virus, Aransas Bay virus (ABV), Bourbon virus, Jos virus (JOSV) and Upolu virus ( ... 2008), "[Isolation of influenza virus A (Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus), Dhori virus (Orthomyxoviridae, Thogotovirus), ... Rift Valley fever virus, and Tahyna and Dhori viruses]", Voprosy virusologii (in Russian), 53: 34-35 "Bourbon virus", CDC ...
blue tongue lizard in suburban street in Canberra (4 inch storm water pipe in photo shows size) ... the H5N1 virus) via infected migratory birds. Some scientists are worried that persistent human expansion could indirectly lead ...
Viruses are important pathogens of livestock. Diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease and bluetongue are caused by viruses.[208 ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ... Quote: "Virus: virus (s.n. II), gen. sing. viri, nom. pl. vira, gen. pl. vīrorum (to be distinguished from virorum, of men)." ... ICTV Virus Taxonomy ICTV Virus Taxonomy Release History *^ "Taxonomy". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). ...
... epizootic hemorrhagic disease and bluetongue viruses, which are transmitted by biting midges. The hotter summers, longer ...
Bluetongue is caused by the pathogenic virus, Bluetongue virus (BTV), of the genus Orbivirus, of the Reoviridae family. Twenty- ... virus is closely related and crossreacts with Bluetongue virus on many blood tests. "Q&A: Bluetongue disease". BBC. 2008-09-17 ... It is caused by the Bluetongue virus (BTV). The virus is transmitted by the midge Culicoides imicola, Culicoides variipennis, ... Roy P (2008). "Functional mapping of bluetongue virus proteins and their interactions with host proteins during virus ...
... bluetongue, lumpy skin disease and avian and swine flu farm animals. Understanding of viruses comes from molecular biology. It ... diagnostics and surveillance viruses carried by animals, such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), African swine fever, ... On 14 June 2019 the largest stock of the rinderpest virus was destroyed at the Pirbright Institute. Dr John Burns Brooksby 1964 ... The Compton site currently carries out work on endemic (commonplace) animal diseases including some avian viruses and a small ...
Equine encephalosis virus
... related to African horse sickness virus (AHSV) and Bluetongue virus (BTV). First described in South Africa over a hundred years ... Equine encephalosis virus (EEV) is a species of virus the Orbivirus genus, and a member of the Reoviridae family, ... By analogy with Bluetongue virus, both these proteins may then be used to determine the serotype of EEV, of which seven have ... "Analysis and phylogenetic comparisons of full-length VP2 genes of the 24 bluetongue virus serotypes". Journal of General ...
Goatpox is a similar disease of goats, caused by a virus antigenically distinct from sheeppox virus. Sheeppox virus is ... Can include Contagious pustular dermatitis (scabby mouth) Bluetongue Mycotic dermatitis Sheep scab Mange Photosensitisation ... nucleotide identity with goatpox virus and lumpy skin disease virus, respectively. This virus has a linear, dsDNA genome and is ... The virus has a complex coat and capsid symmetry. The hosts for sheeppox virus are all breeds of wild and domesticated sheep. ...
Bluetongue disease is an insect-borne illness causing fever and inflammation of the mucous membranes. Ovine rinderpest (or ... Also of concern are the prion disease scrapie and the virus that causes foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), as both can devastate ...
ISBN 978-0-12-375158-4. Bluetongue virus (BTV), a member of Orbivirus genus within the Reoviridae family causes serious disease ... Louis encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, Israel turkey meningoencephalomyelitis virus, Sitiawan virus, Wesselsbron virus, ... Flaviviruses include the West Nile virus, dengue virus, Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus, Yellow Fever Virus, and several other ... The family includes pathogens such as rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and potato yellow dwarf virus that are of public ...
African horse sickness
... despite high virus titres in blood, and are thought to be the natural reservoir of the virus. AHS manifests itself in four ... AHS is related to bluetongue disease and is spread by the same midge (Culicoides species). "ICTV 9th Report ( ... AHS virus was first recorded south of the Sahara Desert in the mid-1600s, with the introduction of horses to southern Africa. ... It is caused by a virus of the genus Orbivirus belonging to the family Reoviridae. This disease can be caused by any of the ...
... might catch and develop various other diseases, like blackleg, bluetongue, foot rot too. In most states, as cattle ... "Identification of new cattle virus will help rule out mad cow disease". Retrieved 17 November 2013. "Cattle Diseases". Archived ...
List of MeSH codes (B04)
... african horse sickness virus MeSH B04.820.630.550.100 - bluetongue virus MeSH B04.820.630.550.400 - hemorrhagic disease virus, ... yellow fever virus MeSH B04.820.250.400 - gb virus a MeSH B04.820.250.405 - gb virus b MeSH B04.820.250.410 - GB virus C MeSH ... african horse sickness virus MeSH B04.909.777.714.550.100 - bluetongue virus MeSH B04.909.777.714.550.400 - hemorrhagic disease ... yellow fever virus MeSH B04.909.777.310.400 - gb virus a MeSH B04.909.777.310.405 - gb virus b MeSH B04.909.777.310.410 - GB ...
They are important pathogens of livestock and cause diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease and bluetongue. Jersey and Guernsey ... Animal viruses are viruses that infect animals. Viruses infect all cellular life and although viruses infect every animal, ... Chen, Y. P.; Siede, R. (2007). "Honey Bee Viruses". Advances in Virus Research Volume 70. Advances in Virus Research. 70. pp. ... this virus has become one of the most widely distributed and contagious insect viruses on the planet. The virus causes stunted ...
Social history of viruses
"Anatomy of bluetongue virus serotype 8 epizootic wave, France, 2007-2008". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 16 (12): 1861-1868. ... There are numerous causes, including viruses - particularly hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. ... yellow fever virus, dengue virus and Pappataci fever virus. More than 100 of such viruses are now known to cause human diseases ... Breitbart M, Rohwer F (2005). "Here a virus, there a virus, everywhere the same virus?". Trends in Microbiology. 13 (6): 278- ...
Double-stranded RNA viruses
Roy P (2008). "Structure and Function of Bluetongue Virus and its Proteins". Segmented Double-stranded RNA Viruses: Structure ... Viruses portal Animal virology List of viruses RNA virus Virology Virus classification "Double-stranded RNA virus replication ... Double-stranded RNA viruses (dsRNA viruses) are a polyphyletic group of viruses that have double-stranded genomes made of ... 2008). "The Yeast dsRNA Virus L-A Resembles Mammalian dsRNA Virus Cores". Segmented Double-stranded RNA Viruses: Structure and ...
... virus Bluetongue disease virus Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus Equine encephalosis virus Genus Seadornavirus Banna virus ... Louis encephalitis virus West Nile virus Spondweni virus group Spondweni virus Zika virus Yellow fever virus group Yellow fever ... virus Tick-borne viruses Mammalian tick-borne virus group Kyasanur forest disease virus Tick-borne encephalitis virus Family ... Dengue virus group Dengue virus Japanese encephalitis virus group Japanese encephalitis virus Murray Valley encephalitis virus ...
Frank Yamma Glenn B Swift Gleny Rae Virus and her Tamworth Playboys Go For 2&5 Adult Cooking Classes Go For 2&5 Children's ... Session Ballpoint Penguins Barking Frank Valentine Bellyfusion Ben Zabbia Blue Celts Blues Harmonica Workshop Bluetongue Bush ...
Transporter Classification Database
Family 1.A.93 The Bluetongue Virus Non-Structural Protein 3 Viroporin (NS3) Family 1.A.94 The Rotavirus Non-structural ... 1.A.58 The Type B Influenza Virus Matrix Protein 2 (BM2-C) Family 1.A.59 The Bursal Disease Virus Pore-Forming Peptide, Pep46 ( ... Family 1.G.16 The Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Fusion Peptide (HIV-FP) Family 1.G.17 The Bovine Leukemia Virus ... Family 1.A.98 Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1 P13 protein (HTLV1-P13) Family 1.A.99 The Infectious Bronchitis Virus Envelope Small ...
ArboCat Virus: Bluetongue (BLUV)
Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Bluetongue is an acute, subacute, and possible chronic virus disease of wild and domestic ruminants (3,10). Sheep often have ... variipennis reconfirmed the unlikelyhood of transovarian transmission of bluetongue virus (39). Amblyomma variegatum 3 Guinea ( ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ...
ArboCat Virus: Bluetongue (BLUV)
Section V - Antigenic Relationship and Lack of Relationship to Other Viruses. Bluetongue virus is the type species for the ... Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... The BLU subgroup consists of the 23 serotypes of bluetongue virus  . ... Two-way cross-relationships between Ibaraki virus and EHD virus, serotypes 1 and 2, demonstrated by agar gel precipitin and ...
Bluetongue virus licks northern Europe | New Scientist
Farmers are on alert after sheep in the Netherlands are struck by the virus, which is transmitted by midges and can kill 30% of ... Bluetongue virus licks northern Europe. Life 30 August 2006 In the coming weeks farmers in northern Europe will be counting ... They are keeping a close eye on their flocks after the appearance of the bluetongue virus in sheep in the Netherlands. ... The virus causes high fever and swelling of the tongue in ruminants, and can kill up to 30 per cent of infected sheep. "It ...
Frozen bull semen may have unleashed bluetongue virus on farm animals | New Scientist
The ongoing spread of bluetongue virus among European farm animals may have started when a cow was inseminated with infected ... Viruses accumulate minor mutations as they replicate, so if the bluetongue virus had somehow circulated undetected in wild or ... The virus is known to be present in the semen of infected males and can be passed to females during mating, so the team think a ... Bluetongue is a viral disease spread by biting midges. It can cause a variety of symptoms, from fevers to the bluish tongues ...
... this book serves as an invaluable resource for researchers and clinicians working with alphaviruses and related viruses. Topics ... Bluetongue Virus Bluetongue virus (BTV), a member of Orbivirus genus within the Reoviridae family causes serious disease in ... Recommended: Genes, Genetics and Transgenics for Virus Resistance in Plants Bluetongue Virus. Porcine Viruses: From ... Host-virus interactions during virus trafficking will be one of the future areas needing intense attention. Recent work has ...
Bluetongue virus, type 10 ATCC ® VR-1231AF™
Bluetongue virus type 10 immune ascitic fluid [V-519-701-562] Application: ... Bluetongue virus type 10 immune ascitic fluid [V-519-701-562] Biosafety Level 1 Biosafety classification is based on U.S. ... Bluetongue virus, type 10 (ATCC® VR-1231AF™) Classification: Reoviridae, Orbivirus / Strain: BT8 / Product Format: freeze-dried ... Mice were immunized with Bluetongue virus (strain 8, V-519-401-562, see ATCC VR-1231) in Freunds complete adjuvant. Sacoma 180 ...
The atomic structure of the bluetongue virus core. - PubMed - NCBI
In Silico Studies on Development of Novel Virostatic Agents against Bluetongue Virus
Bluetongue is an infectious noncontagious virus disease of ruminants caused by bluetongue virus of genus Orbivirus within the ... Bluetongue virus is a non enveloped virus composed of three shells. The inner shell is composed of 120 copies of VP3 (100 kDa ... S. M. Brookes, A. D. Hyatt, and B. T. Eaton, "Characterization of virus inclusion bodies in bluetongue virus-infected cells," ... P. Roy, "Functional mapping of bluetongue virus proteins and their interactions with host proteins during virus replication," ...
Reverse genetics for recent field strains of bluetongue virus
Dutch farm in the blues after an attack by the Bluetongue virus
... cattle and goats following the attack of the virulent bluetongue virus on a farm in Kerkrade. ... The Dutch Government has stopped exports of live sheep, cattle and goats following the attack of the virulent bluetongue virus ... Dutch farm in the blues after an attack by the Bluetongue virus. ... This virus can attack goats, cattle, sheep and even deer. The ... Agriculture officials are baffled by this development as the virus is commonly found only in the Mediterranean regions. The ...
Bluetongue virus particle - Stock Image - M050/1085 - Science Photo Library
Computer artwork of the core particle of the bluetongue virus (BTV), with proteins represented by coloured blobs. ... Bluetongue virus particle. Computer artwork of the core particle of the bluetongue virus (BTV), with proteins represented by ... BTV causes bluetongue disease, a disease of sheep and (more rarely) other ruminants such as cattle and deer. It is named for ... the swollen blue tongue it causes in affected animals. It is spread by midges. ...
The barriers to bluetongue virus infection, dissemination and transmission in the vector, Culicoides variipennis (Diptera:...
... virus titration and in vitro transmission tests. Adult female C. variipenniswere used... ... Transmission of bluetongue virus (BTV) by a vector species of Culicoides was studied using immunohistochemistry, ... Transmission of bluetongue virus (BTV) by a vector species of Culicoides was studied using immunohistochemistry, virus ... The barriers to bluetongue virus infection, dissemination and transmission in the vector, Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: ...
Bluetongue Virus Returns to Southern Italy
Bluetongue has returned to the countrys south western peninsula, identified in cattle on two small holdings. ... State veterinarians have identified Bluetongue in two cattle, leaving a total of eight susceptible to the virus, according to ... ITALY - Bluetongue has returned to the countrys south western peninsula, identified in cattle on two small holdings. ... Both farms lie in Calabria, a region previously hit by Bluetongue after the country was first confirmed in sheep in Viterbo, ...
Bluetongue virus warning as midge season approaches - Pendle Today
The British Veterinary Association has warned of the possibility of the Bluetongue virus taking hold in the UK, following ... Bluetongue virus warning as midge season approaches. Bluetongue is a notifiable disease and any suspicion of the disease must ... The British Veterinary Association has warned of the possibility of the Bluetongue virus taking hold in the UK, following ... livestock keepers and vets to all remain vigilant over the Bluetongue virus risk. ...
Bluetongue virus detected in two French cattle in Yorkshire - Farming UK News
Farmers have been urged to increase their vigilance for bluetongue virus after the disease was picked up in two cattle imported ... Bluetongue virus detected in two French cattle in Yorkshire. Bluetongue virus has been detected and dealt with in cattle in ... Farmers have been urged to increase their vigilance for bluetongue virus after the disease was picked up in two cattle imported ... Bluetongue does not affect people or food safety, but outbreaks of the virus can result in restrictions on livestock movement ...
Cloning of the bluetongue virus L3 gene. | Journal of Virology
Cloning of the bluetongue virus L3 gene.. M Purdy, J Petre, P Roy ... Cloning of the bluetongue virus L3 gene.. M Purdy, J Petre, P ... The genes of the bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 17 have been cloned into pBR322 by tailing both strands of the double-stranded ... 17 but not the equivalent RNA segment of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus of deer, an orbivirus related to BTV. ...
The Evolution of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 17 | The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Analyses of the genome RNA segments and viral induced polypeptides of U.S. prototype BTV-17 virus by comparison with the ... of BTV-11 serotype support the hypothesis that BTV-17 originated by genotypic and antigenic drift from a BTV-11 serotype virus. ... Abstract Four serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV-10, 11, 13 and 17) have been identified in the United States. ... The Evolution of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 17 * C. D. Rao, K. Sugiyama1, P. Roy ...
Structure based modification of Bluetongue virus helicase protein VP6 to produce a viable VP6-truncated BTV. - PubMed - NCBI
Bluetongue virus core protein VP6 is an ATP hydrolysis dependent RNA helicase. However, despite much study, the precise role of ... Structure based modification of Bluetongue virus helicase protein VP6 to produce a viable VP6-truncated BTV.. Matsuo E1, Leon E ... Structure based modification of Bluetongue virus helicase protein VP6 to produce a viable VP6-truncated BTV ... Structure based modification of Bluetongue virus helicase protein VP6 to produce a viable VP6-truncated BTV ...
Bluetongue virus in the Netherlands identified as serotype 8 by IAH
Scientists at the Institute for Animal Healths Pirbright Laboratory have shown that the bluetongue virus causing disease in ... Bluetongue prevention measures stepped up. Bluetongue disease confirmed in Belgium and Germany. Both endemic and new virus ... The results show that the Dutch isolate is NOT descended from vaccine forms of the bluetongue virus that have been used in many ... These tests focussed on detecting and sequencing the genes of the bluetongue virus (BTV). This was much faster than the older ...
New molecular structure reveals how bluetongue virus enters host cells - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com
Image: Cryo-electron microscopy density map of the bluetongue virus virion, shown as radially coloured surface representation, ... This includes its replication cycle from virus entry via genome replication to virus assembly and structure, cell-to-cell ... the virus unfurls a protein structure that penetrates the outer membrane of the cell and anchors the virus to the cell, causing ... Viruses establishing infection in host cells is a highly coordinated process. The molecular and chemical details are relatively ...
Ongoing Bluetongue Virus Outbreaks in Europe - The Dairy Site
Diagnostic tests can quickly and reliably identify the virus and help veterinarians contain the disease. ... Bluetongue Virus (BTV) continues to be a problem in Europe, with France reporting more than 90 outbreaks in the last few weeks ... EU - Bluetongue Virus (BTV) continues to be a problem in Europe, with France reporting more than 90 outbreaks in the last few ... Diagnostic tests can quickly and reliably identify the virus and help veterinarians contain the disease. ...
RGD tripeptide of bluetongue virus VP7 protein is responsible for core attachment to Culicoides cells
... is an arthropod-borne virus transmitted by Culicoides species to vertebrate hosts. The double-capsid virion is infectious for ... Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an arthropod-borne virus transmitted by Culicoides species to vertebrate hosts. The double-capsid ... RGD tripeptide of bluetongue virus VP7 protein is responsible for core attachment to Culicoides cells J Virol. 2001 Apr;75(8): ... Bluetongue virus / genetics * Bluetongue virus / immunology * Bluetongue virus / metabolism* * Bluetongue virus / ...
IN VITRO REPLICATION OF EPIZOOTIC HEMORRHAGIC DISEASE AND BLUETONGUE VIRUSES IN WHITE-TAILED DEER PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONONUCLEAR...
Antibodies to Bluetongue and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Viruses in a... MONITORING OF CULICOIDES SPP. AT A SITE ENZOOTIC FOR ... All of the North American EHD and BT viruses (EHD virus serotypes 1 and 2, and BT virus serotypes 2, 10, 11, 13, and 17) ... In white-tailed deer infected with either EHD virus serotype 2 or BT virus serotype 10, virus could be isolated consistendy ... IN VITRO REPLICATION OF EPIZOOTIC HEMORRHAGIC DISEASE AND BLUETONGUE VIRUSES IN WHITE-TAILED DEER PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONONUCLEAR ...
Viruses | Free Full-Text | Emergence of a Novel Reassortant Strain of Bluetongue Serotype 6 in Israel, 2017: Clinical...
... including Bluetongue virus (BTV). Recently, co-circulation of natural and vaccine BTV variants in Europe, and their ensuing ... was identified in young animals exhibiting classical clinical signs of Bluetongue (BT) at Israeli sheep and cattle farms. ... Reassortment contributes to the evolution of RNA viruses with segmented genomes, ... Reassortment contributes to the evolution of RNA viruses with segmented genomes, including Bluetongue virus (BTV). Recently, co ...
Requirements and comparative analysis of reverse genetics for bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV) -...
Background: Bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV) are distinct arthropod borne virus species in the ... Requirements and comparative analysis of reverse genetics for bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV). ... Optimization of reverse genetics enlarge the possibilities to rescue virus mutants and reassortants, and will greatly benefit ... although NS1 protein is essential for virus propagation. Improvement of reverse genetics for AHSV was clearly demonstrated by ...
US5188942A - Method for determining bluetongue virus antibodies in serum - Google Patents
This method utilizes either a biotinylated monoclonal antibody to Bluetongue virus and streptavadin-enzyme in conjunction with ... or an enzyme-conjugated monoclonal to detect antibodies specific for Bluetongue virus. ... for the determination of Bluetongue virus antibodies in serum is described. ... Bluetongue virus-specific monoclonal antibody group specific to 24 serotypes of Bluetongue virus antigen and a Bluetongue virus ...
Use of inactivated bluetongue virus serotype 8 vaccine against virulent challenge in sheep and cattle
Attenuated Live Bluetongue Virus 8 Vaccine Protects Sheep from Challenge with the European BTV-8. Dungu, Baptiste K.; Louw, Ian ... An attenuated live bluetongue virus (AL-BTV) serotype 8 vaccine of South African origin was evaluated for its ability to ... Twenty six bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes have been recognised worldwide, including nine from Europe and fifteen in the ... Twenty six bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes have been recognised worldwide, including nine from Europe and fifteen in the ...
Susceptibility of Culicoides variipennis sonorensis to Infection by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Detectable Bluetongue Virus in...
Bluetongue virus infection provides a very useful model with which to study arthropod-transmitted RNA virus infections of ... but as determined by virus isolation techniques, not bluetongue-10 virus, were incapable of infecting intrathoracically ... Cattle whose blood contain only PCR-detectable bluetongue viral nucleic acid, but no infectious virus, are unlikely to play a ... These insects also failed to transmit bluetongue-10 virus when fed on sheep. ...
Bluetongue Viruses Based on Modified-Live Vaccine Serotype 6 with Exchanged Outer Shell Proteins Confer Full Protection in...
Bluetongue Viruses Based on Modified-Live Vaccine Serotype 6 with Exchanged Outer Shell Proteins Confer Full Protection in ... Since 1998, Bluetongue virus (BTV)-serotypes 1, 2, 4, 9, and 16 have invaded European countries around the Mediterranean Basin ... Even more, challenge virus could not be detected, and seroconversion or boostering after challenge was negligible. These data ... These so-called serotyped vaccine viruses, as mono-serotype and multi-serotype vaccine, were compared for their protective ...
InfectionMidgesCattleSerotypes of bluetongueReoviridaeVectorsVaccineIsolationProteinGenomeHaemorrhagic diseaseIsolatesSouth AfricaEpidemiology of bluetongueEtiological agentOutbreakRuminants caused by bluetongue virusProteinsStrainMidgePolymerase chain reInactivated bluetongue virus serotypeReplicationOutbreaks of Bluetongue virusAntibodies to bluetongue virusDetectionStrainsSeroprevalenceInfectGenusDomestic and wild ruminantsReassortmentNotifiableOrbivirusesLivestock and livestock germplasmTransmission of bluetongueAssayVector-borneVaccinesCases of bluetonguePathogenesisDisease of ruminantsPathogenicCapsidWild ruminantsDiseasesClinicalSerogroupViral diseaseDifferent serotypesTransmitSerotype 17
- To try to work out the source of the infection, Palmarini and colleagues analysed the genetic sequences of 150 samples of the virus from both outbreaks. (newscientist.com)
- The outer capsid, which is composed of two major structural proteins (VP2 and VP5), is involved in cell attachment and virus penetration during the initial stages of infection. (highveld.com)
- Cattle and goats are major hosts of the virus, but in these species infection is usually asymptomatic despite high virus levels, allowing the disease to circulate in the absence of any symptoms. (hindawi.com)
- Intrathoracic (IT) injection of BTV into the haemocoel always resulted in a fully disseminated infection and transmission of virus in saliva. (springer.com)
- The most important barriers to BTV transmission in Culicoides vector species appeared to be a mesenteron infection barrier (MIB), which controls initial establishment of persistent infection, a mesenteron escape barrier (MEB) which can restrict virus to gut cells and a dissemination barrier (DB) which can prevent virus which enters the haemocoel from infecting secondary target organs. (springer.com)
- With this technology they demonstrated how the virus enters cells to initiate infection via a two-stage process, and how the different molecular components fit together. (healthcanal.com)
- Viruses establishing infection in host cells is a highly coordinated process. (healthcanal.com)
- When these proteins sense higher acidity caused by proximity to the target cell, the virus unfurls a protein structure that penetrates the outer membrane of the cell and anchors the virus to the cell, causing infection. (healthcanal.com)
- However, this replication appeared to be monocyte-dependent and was not enhanced by lymphocyte blastogenesis induced by the addition of concanavalin A. In white-tailed deer infected with either EHD virus serotype 2 or BT virus serotype 10, virus could be isolated consistendy from PBM cells only from postinfection day 4 through 8, although they remained viremic through post-infection day 21. (bioone.org)
- Bluetongue virus infection provides a very useful model with which to study arthropod-transmitted RNA virus infections of humans and other animals. (ajtmh.org)
- Bluetongue occurred for the first time ever in Germany, Belgium, France, Luxembourg and the Netherlands last summer, and established a major focus of infection on the coast of Belgium, close to the UK. (thedairysite.com)
- A cellular protein that interacts with invading viruses appears to help enable the infection process of the Zika virus, according to researchers who suggest this protein could be a key target in developing new therapies to prevent or treat Zika virus infection. (technologynetworks.com)
- Understanding their distribution, seasonal abundance, and infection rates is necessary to predict disease incidence and spread across coastal and inland areas, and to define their role in virus overwintering. (biomedcentral.com)
- Infection rates in prevailing midge species captured in 2013 during a BTV-1 outbreak were determined using RT-qPCR based virus detection in insect body pools, supplemented by specific body region analyses. (biomedcentral.com)
- In mammalian cells, BTV particles are released primarily by virus-induced cell lysis, while in insect cells they bud from the plasma membrane and establish a persistent infection. (gla.ac.uk)
- Bluetongue virus causes febrile disease in sheep and a fatal hemorrhagic infection in North American White-tailed deer. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, in cattle the disease is typically asymptomatic and no clinical overt disease is associated with bluetongue infection. (biomedcentral.com)
- The serological evidence of Bluetongue virus infection was observed in 58 out of 299 cows, accounting for a 19.4% prevalence rate among cattle in North Kordufan State. (biomedcentral.com)
- Application of preventive measures, such as spraying or dipping with insecticide protects cattle against Bluetongue infection. (biomedcentral.com)
- Bluetongue virus (BTV) infection causes a haemorrhagic disease in sheep, whereas BTV infection typically is asymptomatic in cattle. (elsevier.com)
- Ovine and bovine microvascular ECs infected at low multiplicity with partially purified BTV were equally susceptible to BTV-induced cell death, yet ovine microvascular ECs had a lower incidence of infection and produced significantly less virus than did bovine microvascular ECs. (elsevier.com)
- viremia in the host, uptake, infection and dissemination in the vector, and delivery of virus during blood-feeding leading to infection of the susceptible host. (biomedcentral.com)
- The midge feeding model has been developed to study infection, replication and disseminations of virus in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)
- Diagnosis of bluetongue virus infection by serology has not been satisfactory because there are many serotypes of the virus, and significant cross-reactivities with other orbiviruses have been reported. (zoologix.com)
- Jeggo, M. H., Wardley, R. C. and Brownlie, J. 1985, Importance of ovine cytotoxic T cells in protection against bluetongue virus infection , Progress in clinical and biological research , vol. 178, pp. 477-487. (edu.au)
- This impact on reproduction was due to the infection in pregnant cows (with a tropism of the virus in the genital tract) possibly followed by the infection of the fetus. (biomedcentral.com)
- Bluetongue viruses infect ruminants, but the clinical manifestations of infection vary considerably between hosts, ranging from completely asymptomatic to fatal. (gla.ac.uk)
- To investigate bluetongue virus serotype 8 infection Neutralizing antibodies to BTV-1 were not detected. (cdc.gov)
- In cattle, goats and wild ruminants infection is usually asymptomatic despite high virus levels in blood. (wikipedia.org)
- BTVPUR is a vaccine used in sheep and cattle to protect them against bluetongue disease, an infection caused by the bluetongue virus which is transmitted by midges. (vetxed.com)
- In order to overcome serological cross-reactions among orbivirus serogroups, which can hinder the accurate diagnosis of bluetongue virus (BTV) infection of livestock, a blocking ELISA (B-ELISA) incorporating a monoclonal antibody (20E9B7G2) with specificity for the BTV serogroup was developed. (ox.ac.uk)
- The introduction of bluetongue virus serotype 8 into northern Europe at the end of summer 2006 initiated one of the most widespread epizootics of bluetongue infection ever to occur. (cirad.fr)
- Transmitted by midges, the virus usually occurs in warm, wet areas, and has never been seen so far north. (newscientist.com)
- Bluetongue is a viral disease spread by biting midges . (newscientist.com)
- Insects called midges, which feed on the cattle, transmit the virus. (medindia.net)
- The virus, which is transmitted by midges, can infect all ruminants including cattle, sheep and goats, and can reduce milk yield, cause sickness, reduce reproductive performance or, in the most severe cases, causing death in adult animals. (pendletoday.co.uk)
- Dr Christopher Sanders studies Bluetongue virus and rears Cullicoides biting midges at The Pirbright Institute to see how they transmit the disease between sheep. (understandinganimalresearch.org.uk)
- Bluetongue virus is spread by biting midges. (thedairysite.com)
- Infected midges can be spread large distances by the wind, like aerial plankton, taking the virus with them' said Peter Mertens. (thedairysite.com)
- The virus is transmitted by Culicoide biting midges (Diptera: Ceratoponidae) and the occurrence of the disease depends on the presence and abundance of competent vectors. (up.ac.za)
- While Culicoides imicola represents the main bluetongue virus (BTV) vector, other European Culicoides biting midges, possibly implicated in virus transmission, have been detected here. (biomedcentral.com)
- Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an arbovirus transmitted to livestock by midges of the Culicoides family and is the etiological agent of a hemorrhagic disease in sheep and other ruminants. (gla.ac.uk)
- Bluetongue (BT) is an infectious disease, transmitted mainly by midges of the genus Culicoides , that affecs different species of ruminants. (sanidadanimal.info)
- Previously, we showed that genome segment 10 (S10) encoding NS3/NS3a protein is required for virus propagation in midges. (biomedcentral.com)
- Small changes in NS3/NS3a or in the outer shell protein VP2 strongly affect virus propagation in midges and thus vector competence. (biomedcentral.com)
- Therefore, spread of disease by competent Culicoides midges can strongly differ for very closely related viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
- uptake of virus by blood-feeding, replication in the insect vector, dissemination to salivary glands, virus release in saliva and delivery by blood-feeding to the susceptible host, and finally, viremia in the host for subsequent uptake by blood-feeding midges. (biomedcentral.com)
- Bluetongue (BT) is an insect-borne disease of ruminants which is spread by a limited number of species of biting Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). (biomedcentral.com)
- The virus is transmitted to ruminants via certain species of biting midges ( Culicoides spp. (zoologix.com)
- BTV is spread mainly by biting midges ( Culicoides ), but other biting insects may also transfer the virus. (pirbright.ac.uk)
- This virus is transmitted from infected to uninfected hosts by biting midges. (gla.ac.uk)
- Bluetongue is an insect-borne virus passed on by midges (Culicoides imicola) (Culicoides variipennis) and 48 other culicoides which are known vectors for the disease. (infographicplaza.com)
- Bluetongue has the most severe effect on sheep, with cattle showing little to no symptoms at first but acting as reservoirs for the local midges to pick up the disease and infect more vulnerable animals like sheep. (infographicplaza.com)
- Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes a disease among wild and domesticated ruminants which is not contagious, but which is transmitted by biting midges of the Culicoides species. (biomedcentral.com)
- Bluetongue (BT) is a major non-contagious disease of ruminants transmitted by biting midges of the Culicoides genus. (biomedcentral.com)
- Bluetongue virus (BTV), a member of Orbivirus genus within the Reoviridae family causes serious disease in livestock (sheep, goat, cattle). (highveld.com)
- Bluetongue disease affects mainly sheep and cattle and is economically an important disease in many parts of the world, both in developed and developing countries. (highveld.com)
- The Dutch Government has stopped exports of live sheep, cattle and goats following the attack of the virulent bluetongue virus on a farm in Kerkrade. (medindia.net)
- This virus can attack goats, cattle, sheep and even deer. (medindia.net)
- BTV causes bluetongue disease, a disease of sheep and (more rarely) other ruminants such as cattle and deer. (sciencephoto.com)
- ITALY - Bluetongue has returned to the country's south western peninsula, identified in cattle on two small holdings. (thebeefsite.com)
- State veterinarians have identified Bluetongue in two cattle, leaving a total of eight susceptible to the virus, according to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). (thebeefsite.com)
- The British Veterinary Association has warned of the possibility of the Bluetongue virus taking hold in the UK, following reports of BTV-8 in cattle in northern France. (pendletoday.co.uk)
- Farmers have been urged to increase their vigilance for bluetongue virus after the disease was picked up in two cattle imported from France in Yorkshire. (farminguk.com)
- The virus is transmitted by midge bites and affects cattle, goats, sheep and other camelids such as llamas. (farminguk.com)
- Importers have been told to be aware that all cattle and sheep arriving in the UK from countries where Bluetongue is known to be circulating will be restricted until post-import testing is carried out and the animals are confirmed as compliant. (farminguk.com)
- In August-October 2017, BTV serotype 6 (BTV-6) was identified in young animals exhibiting classical clinical signs of Bluetongue (BT) at Israeli sheep and cattle farms. (mdpi.com)
- The immunisation properties of an inactivated bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) vaccine were evaluated in sheep and cattle. (ebscohost.com)
- Cattle whose blood contain only PCR-detectable bluetongue viral nucleic acid, but no infectious virus, are unlikely to play a role in the epidemiology of bluetongue. (ajtmh.org)
- The virus has little, if any, effect on reproduction, but cattle may develop a prolonged viraemia. (scielo.org.za)
- Gel precipitation tests were used to determine the presence of antibodies to bluetongue virus (BTV) in 258 serum samples taken from Gaddi sheep and goats, cattle and buffaloes from different sources in Himachal Pradesh. (eurekamag.com)
- FARMING UK - The German National Reference Laboratory for Bluetongue has reported that bluetongue virus has re-emerged on a German cattle farm that was positive for the virus last year. (thedairysite.com)
- The German veterinary authorities had placed bluetongue-free cattle amongst some herds that had the disease last year. (thedairysite.com)
- The aim of the project was to investigate the potential generation of genetic reassortant viruses between field and vaccine serotypes of BTV within cattle. (up.ac.za)
- The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of bluetongue antibodies and to identify the potential risk factors associated with the presence of bluetongue antibodies among cattle in North Kordufan State, Sudan. (biomedcentral.com)
- The results of this study indicated that age and application of routine insecticides are influential risk factors for seroprevalence of Bluetongue in cattle. (biomedcentral.com)
- thus endothelial cells (ECs) cultured from the pulmonary artery and lung microvasculature of sheep and cattle were used to investigate the basis for the disparate expression of bluetongue disease in the two species. (elsevier.com)
- Results of these in vitro studies are consistent with the marked pulmonary oedema and microvascular thrombosis that characterize bluetongue disease of sheep but which rarely, if ever, occur in BTV-infected cattle. (elsevier.com)
- Breeding sites of bluetongue vector species have been found near farms (e.g. silage residues) and in neighboring meadows (e.g. cattle dung) but never inside sheds. (uliege.be)
- In animals, the emergence in northern Europe of the Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) in 2006 and of the Schmallenberg virus in 2011 illustrate this increasing risk in cattle, associated with the introduction of known pathogens in free areas or with the emergence of an unknown pathogen. (biomedcentral.com)
- There are 29 different types (serotypes) of bluetongue virus (BTV) which can infect domestic animals such as sheep, goats, and cattle, along with wild animals like buffaloes, deer, antelope and camels. (pirbright.ac.uk)
- Sheep are most affected but cattle are the main reservoir for the virus. (blogspot.com)
- 5 ]. The virus may cause a hemorrhagic disease with high morbidity rates, especially in sheep, while cattle mostly act as a reservoir. (biomedcentral.com)
- Bluetongue virus ( BTV ), a member in the family Reoviridae , is a re-emerging animal disease infecting cattle and sheep. (blogspot.com)
- In cattle, constant changing of position of the feet gives bluetongue the nickname The Dancing Disease. (wikipedia.org)
- When it is given to sheep and cattle, the animals' immune systems recognise the viruses as 'foreign' and make antibodies against them. (vetxed.com)
- The effectiveness of the vaccine was studied in laboratory studies using vaccines containing bluetongue serotype 1, bluetongue serotype 8, or both, in sheep and cattle of young age. (vetxed.com)
- The studies showed that the vaccine is safe for sheep and cattle and that it reduces the signs of the disease and prevents viraemia in animals from one month of age that are infected with bluetongue virus serotypes 1, 4 and 8. (vetxed.com)
- Twenty-one animals (16 cattle and 5 sheep) showing clinical signs suggestive of bluetongue were sampled by the Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain on August 18, 2006, at 11 farms in northeastern Belgium. (cdc.gov)
- Epidemiological observations on bluetongue in sheep and cattle in Japan. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- The UK's Chief Veterinary Officer has urged farmers to increase their vigilance for Bluetongue virus after the disease was picked up and dealt with in three consignments of cattle imported from France. (miragenews.com)
- Double-stranded RNA viruses include the rotaviruses, known globally as a common cause of gastroenteritis in young children, and bluetongue virus, an economically significant pathogen of cattle and sheep. (wikipedia.org)
Serotypes of bluetongue4
- Four serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV-10, 11, 13 and 17) have been identified in the United States. (ajtmh.org)
- 6. Wright, I.M. (2014) Serological and Genetic Characterisation of Putative New Serotypes of Bluetongue Virus and Epizootic Haemorrhagic Disease Virus Isolated from an Alpaca. (veterinaryworld.org)
- Bluetongue (BT) is a Culicoides-borne disease caused by several serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV). (nottingham.ac.uk)
- To determine the extent and nature of the antigenic variation of four U.S.A. serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV), the complete nucleotide sequence was determined for cDNA clones representing the L2 dsRNA of BTV serotype 13, the gene that codes for the outer capsid neutralization antigen (VP2). (microbiologyresearch.org)
- The Reoviridae family is one of the largest families of viruses and includes major human pathogens (e.g., rotavirus) as well as other vertebrate, plant and insect pathogens. (highveld.com)
- Bluetongue is an infectious noncontagious virus disease of ruminants caused by bluetongue virus of genus Orbivirus within the family Reoviridae. (hindawi.com)
- Background: Bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV) are distinct arthropod borne virus species in the genus Orbivirus (Reoviridae family), causing the notifiable diseases Bluetongue and African horse sickness of ruminants and equids, respectively. (wur.nl)
- Bluetongue virus (BTV), an Orbivirus that belongs to the family Reoviridae, is the causing agent of the disease. (up.ac.za)
- Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a pathogenic member of the Reoviridae family. (usu.edu)
- Non-enveloped viruses such as members of Picornaviridae and Reoviridae are assembled in the cytoplasm and are generally released by cell lysis. (lshtm.ac.uk)
- Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the prototype vector-borne orbivirus (family Reoviridae ). (biomedcentral.com)
- Bluetongue disease is caused by the bluetongue virus, an orbivirus of the Reoviridae family. (zoologix.com)
- Southern Indian isolate IND1994/01 of bluetongue virus serotype 2 (BTV-2), from the Orbivirus Reference Collection at the Pirbright Institute ( http://www.reoviridae.org/dsRNA_virus_proteins/ReoID/btv-2.htm#IND1994/01 ), was sequenced. (asm.org)
- Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the type species of the genus Orbivirus , family Reoviridae ( 1 , 2 ), that exists as at least 27 distinct serotypes ( 3 , 4 ). (asm.org)
- Bluetongue is part of the Orbivirus genus in the Reoviridae family and there have been 26 different serotypes of the bluetongue virus identified. (infographicplaza.com)
- Bluetongue (BT) is a disease of economic importance [ 1 ] caused by the bluetongue virus (BTV), a RNA-virus that belongs to the genus Orbivirus of the family Reoviridae . (biomedcentral.com)
- Bluetongue is caused by the pathogenic virus, Bluetongue virus (BTV), of the genus Orbivirus, of the Reoviridae family. (wikipedia.org)
- Bluetongue virus (BTV), an insect ( Culicoides sp ) transmitted double-layered non-enveloped virus, is the type species virus of the genus Orbivirus , in the family Reoviridae . (biomedcentral.com)
- The family Reoviridae is the largest and most diverse dsRNA virus family in terms of host range. (wikipedia.org)
- The orthoreoviruses (reoviruses) are the prototypic members of the virus Reoviridae family and representative of the turreted members, which comprise about half the genera. (wikipedia.org)
- The cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses (CPVs) form the genus Cypovirus of the family Reoviridae. (wikipedia.org)
- Culicoides) , the potential vectors of Bluetongue virus, in Sweden. (degruyter.com)
- Diurnal activity of potential bluetongue vectors in northern Europe. (degruyter.com)
- Bluetongue virus has the ability to reassort its genome segments in vertebrate hosts or vectors which have been infected with more than one strain at the same time. (up.ac.za)
- In Sardinia, bluetongue virus is transmitted by multiple Culicoides vectors, including C. imicola and the Newsteadi complex being the most important. (biomedcentral.com)
- Bluetongue virus (BTV) is transmitted by arthropod vectors and causes bluetongue disease with serious economic loss in many regions of the world. (usu.edu)
- Bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) are related orbiviruses, transmitted between their ruminant hosts primarily by certain haematophagous midge vectors (Culicoides spp. (surrey.ac.uk)
- The proportion of infected vectors which are able to transmit an arbovirus to a susceptible host has a significant impact on the epidemic potential of such a virus. (cirad.fr)
- Surveillance of Bluetongue virus should be extended to include other susceptible animals and to study the distribution of the insect vectors in the region to better predict and respond to BTV outbreak in the State of North Kordufan, Sudan. (biomedcentral.com)
- The results show that the Dutch isolate is NOT descended from vaccine forms of the bluetongue virus that have been used in many parts of southern Europe including Bulgaria, Italy, Corsica, Spain, and also in South Africa, in recent years. (stackyard.com)
- Bluetongue Viruses Based on Modified-Live Vaccine Serotype 6 with Exchanged Outer Shell Proteins Confer Full Protection in Sheep against Virulent BTV8. (ebscohost.com)
- Attenuated Live Bluetongue Virus 8 Vaccine Protects Sheep from Challenge with the European BTV-8. (ebscohost.com)
- An attenuated live bluetongue virus (AL-BTV) serotype 8 vaccine of South African origin was evaluated for its ability to protect sheep against challenge with a European BTV-8 isolated from an outbreak. (ebscohost.com)
- Full Genome Characterisation of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 6 from the Netherlands 2008 and Comparison to Other Field and Vaccine Strains. (ebscohost.com)
- In mid September 2008, clinical signs of bluetongue (particularly coronitis) were observed in cows on three different farms in eastern Netherlands (Luttenberg, Heeten, and Barchem), two of which had been vaccinated with an inactivated BTV-8 vaccine (during May-June 2008). (ebscohost.com)
- These so-called 'serotyped' vaccine viruses, as mono-serotype and multi-serotype vaccine, were compared for their protective capacity in sheep. (wur.nl)
- 16,17 Further attenuation of the vaccine strains was achieved through serial passage of the BTV in embryonated chicken eggs and tissue culture aided by plaque purification of the virus. (scielo.org.za)
- The main concern is that vaccine virus can be detected during the viraemic period in inoculated sheep. (up.ac.za)
- The possibility of reassortment between genome segments of vaccine and wild type strain viruses when simultaneously infected therefore exists. (up.ac.za)
- This might result in the emergence of new virus serotypes with different phenotypic characteristics i.e. reversion of the live attenuated vaccine strain to a virulent strain. (up.ac.za)
- The vaccine parental strains were obtained from Bottle two of the vaccine using the plaque forming unit assay and the isolated viruses were serotyped using a serum neutralization assay. (up.ac.za)
- Comparison of genome segments 2, 7 and 10 of bluetongue viruses serotype 2 for differentiation between field isolates and the vaccine strain. (semanticscholar.org)
- Design of primers and use of RT-PCR assays for typing European bluetongue virus isolates: differentiation of field and vaccine strains. (semanticscholar.org)
- The vaccine is used to prevent viraemia (the presence of viruses in the blood) and reduce the signs of the disease. (vetxed.com)
- The vaccine contains inactivated (killed) bluetongue virus. (vetxed.com)
- The variety (serotype) of the virus in the vaccine is selected depending on which serotypes are circulating and causing disease at the time of manufacture, so it may contain serotype 1, 4 or 8 or a combination of any two of these. (vetxed.com)
- For a vaccine containing only bluetongue virus serotype 4 in sheep, one injection is sufficient. (vetxed.com)
- Further laboratory studies were conducted in sheep and calves using a vaccine containing bluetongue serotype 4. (vetxed.com)
- However, the variability of the outer capsid of this virus represents one of the major challenges for the development of a vaccine capable of protecting animals against multiple serotypes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Isolation and evolutionary analysis of Australasian topotype of bluetongue virus serotype 4 from India. (ovid.com)
- Viraemia was detected between day 2 to day 39 and in one of the animals viraemia could be detected until 39 days post inoculation using virus isolation. (up.ac.za)
- The vector competence of various Culicoides species in Scotland for bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) was assessed by a pad-feeding technique, and a high-throughput virus extraction and isolation procedure. (cirad.fr)
- Although virus isolation is a definitive method to identify the virus, isolation is time consuming, labor intensive and not very sensitive. (zoologix.com)
- Virus isolation was conducted on August 18, 2006, by injection of blood from infected sheep into 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs, followed by passage on BHK-21 cells (ATCC-CCL10) as previously described ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
- The NS3 protein acts as a viroporin, which enhances permeability of the cytoplasmic membrane and thus facilitates virus release from mammalian or insect cells [ 13 , 23 - 25 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Structure based modification of Bluetongue virus helicase protein VP6 to produce a viable VP6-truncated BTV. (nih.gov)
- Bluetongue virus core protein VP6 is an ATP hydrolysis dependent RNA helicase. (nih.gov)
- The test involves the gene for protein VP2 of the virus. (stackyard.com)
- The team confirmed this mechanism by lowering the acidity around the virus, which caused the membrane-penetrating protein structure to detach and refold, showing its status in high and low pH environments. (healthcanal.com)
- Irrespective of capping of RNA transcripts, NS1 expression plasmid was not needed for recovery, although NS1 protein is essential for virus propagation. (wur.nl)
- Researchers have discovered the interaction between an Ebola virus protein and a protein in human cells that may be an important key to unlocking the pathway of replication of the killer disease in human hosts. (technologynetworks.com)
- The BTV VP2 major outer capsid protein, encoded by genomic segment 2 (Seg-2), is the most highly variable BTV protein and is the primary determinant of the virus serotype. (deepdyve.com)
- Heterologously expressed bluetongue virus VP4 protein was purified to near homogeneity. (usu.edu)
- These results indicate that temperature, strain of virus and protein composition of Culicoides saliva (particularly its protease content which is dependent upon vector species), can all play a significant role in the efficiency of VP2 cleavage, influencing virus infectivity. (surrey.ac.uk)
- In particular one amino acid mutation in outer shell protein VP2 overcomes differential virus replication in vitro and in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)
- The virus particle consists of 10 strands of double-stranded RNA surrounded by two protein shells. (zoologix.com)
- It is virus protein 2 (VP2), located at the surface of the virus, that both determines the serotype and activates immune responses. (pirbright.ac.uk)
- Antibodies against virus protein 7 were detected by and 2008 (17/21). (cdc.gov)
- However, the VP2 protein of BTV-13 was found to exhibit only 40% homology with the VP2 species of the other three viruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- The VP2 outer capsid protein Bluetongue Virus (BTV) is responsible for receptor binding, haemagglutination and eliciting host-specific immunity. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, the assembly of this outer capsid protein on the transcriptionally active viral core would block transcription of the virus. (biomedcentral.com)
- The major outer capsid protein, VP5, of five US bluetongue viruses, was found to be glycosylated. (elsevier.com)
- Yang, YY & Li, JKK 1993, ' Glycosylation of the major outer capsid protein of bluetongue viruses ', Virology , vol. 194, no. 1, pp. 350-354. (elsevier.com)
- Apart from RdRp, viruses in Duplornaviricota also share icosahedral capsids that contain 60 homo- or heterodimers of the capsid protein organized on a pseudo T=2 lattice. (wikipedia.org)
- The genomes of these viruses consist of 10 to 12 segments of dsRNA, each generally encoding one protein. (wikipedia.org)
- BTV, like the other members of the family is a complex non-enveloped virus with seven structural proteins and a RNA genome consisting of 10 double-stranded (ds) RNA segments of different sizes. (highveld.com)
- Analyses of the genome RNA segments and viral induced polypeptides of U.S. prototype BTV-17 virus by comparison with the corresponding macromolecules of earlier isolates of BTV-11 serotype support the hypothesis that BTV-17 originated by genotypic and antigenic drift from a BTV-11 serotype virus. (ajtmh.org)
- The PCR result was confirmed by sequencing most of genome segment 2 of the virus, on Saturday (26thAugust). (stackyard.com)
- This includes its replication cycle from virus entry via genome replication to virus assembly and structure, cell-to-cell transmission, and the engagement of the virus particle with the host cell. (healthcanal.com)
- Identification and Differentiation of the Twenty Six Bluetongue Virus Serotypes by RT-PCR Amplification of the Serotype-Specific Genome Segment 2. (ebscohost.com)
- The virus consists of a ten segmented double stranded (ds) RNA genome and currently 27 serotypes have been identified worldwide. (up.ac.za)
- Dalal A, Maan S, Bansal N, Kumar V, Kumar A, Maan NS, Kakker NK (2017) Molecular analysis of genome segment-3 of bluetongue virus serotype 12 isolates from Haryana, Veterinary World, 10(11): 1389-1393. (veterinaryworld.org)
- The present study was designed to characterize the genome segment 3 (Seg-3) of bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 12 isolates from different outbreaks of Bluetongue disease in Haryana, India. (veterinaryworld.org)
- Genetic exchange by a process of genome-segment 'reassortment' represents an important mechanism for evolutionary change in all viruses with segmented genomes, yet in many cases a detailed understanding of its frequency and biological consequences is lacking. (gla.ac.uk)
- The complete genome sequence of Bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 17 strain 17/BRA/2014/73, isolated from a sheep in Brazil in 2014, is reported here. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- Several distinct BTV26 genome segments cause this so-called 'differential virus replication' in vitro . (biomedcentral.com)
- BTV11 with S1[VP1] of BTV26 could be adapted to virus growth in KC cells, and contained mutations subdivided into 'corrections' of the chimeric genome constellation and mutations associated with adaptation to KC cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- It is a complex non-enveloped virus with a capsid and double stranded RNA genome consisting of 10 segments of different sizes. (pirbright.ac.uk)
- The virus has a genome consisting of ten double stranded (ds) RNA segments, located in a core particle made up of two major proteins (VP3 and VP7) and three minor proteins (VP1, VP4 and VP6). (biomedcentral.com)
- This complex is an end-point in virus disassembly and protects the viral dsRNA genome from intracellular surveillance mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
- Additionally, it has been hypothesised that the viral genome interacts with the minor structural proteins to form the transcriptase complex which is subsequently encapsulated by a single shell of VP3 to form the subcore of the assembling virus [ 18 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- This study conducted genetic and phylogenetic analyses of genome segments 2 and 6 (Seg-2 and Seg-6), which encode serotype-specific structural proteins of the outer capsid, of bluetongue virus (BTV) isolated in Japan from 1985 to 2008. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Genetic and phylogenetic analysis of the outer-coat proteins VP2 and VP5 of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV): comparison of genetic and serological data to characterise the EHDV serogroup. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a non-enveloped dsRNA virus that causes a haemorrhagic disease mainly in sheep. (biomedcentral.com)
- The presence of bluetongue virus (BTV) and Epizootic Haemorrhagic Disease virus (EHDV) in indigenous calves in western Kenya was investigated. (cgiar.org)
- Segment-2 sequence analysis and cross-neutralization studies on some Indian bluetongue viruses suggest isolates are VP2-variants of serotype 23. (ebscohost.com)
- Sequence analysis of segment 2 (seg-2) of three Indian bluetongue virus (BTV) isolates, Dehradun, Rahuri and Bangalore revealed 99% nucleotide identity amongst them and 96% with the reference BTV 23. (ebscohost.com)
- Sequence analysis of the S10 gene of six bluetongue virus isolates from India. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Recent outbreaks of bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes 2 and 8 in many European countries provided an opportunity to investigate the possibility of improving the safety of the modified live vaccines administered mainly in South Africa. (scielo.org.za)
- Total genomic dsRNA, extracted from purified core particles of bluetongue virus serotype 1 from South Africa (BTV1SA), was used as template to optimise a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of bluetongue virus RNA. (semanticscholar.org)
- Bluetongue virus (BTV) was described for the first time in South Africa in the early twentieth century. (sanidadanimal.info)
- Bluetongue first originated in South Africa and since 1999 there have been outbreaks of the disease in Europe. (infographicplaza.com)
Epidemiology of bluetongue2
- BTV, the etiological agent of Bluetongue disease of animals, is transmitted by Culicoides species. (highveld.com)
- Wu, Donglai 2015-06-27 00:00:00 Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the etiological agent of bluetongue (BT) disease, a noncontagious insect-transmitted disease of international importance. (deepdyve.com)
- Bull semen frozen for several years before being used to inseminate a cow may have sparked an ongoing bluetongue outbreak among farm animals in Europe, according to a genetic analysis of the virus strain. (newscientist.com)
- This animal was found at high altitude and far from a domestic outbreak, which suggests that the virus could spread into/through the Alps. (biomedcentral.com)
- An outbreak of bluetongue was reported and confirmed in the Netherlands on August 17, 2006 ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
Ruminants caused by bluetongue virus1
- Bluetongue is a disease of domestic and wild ruminants caused by bluetongue virus serotypes (BTV), which have caused serious outbreaks worldwide. (biomedcentral.com)
- and the role of host proteins in virus entry and virus release. (highveld.com)
- The two remaining non-structural proteins, NS1 and NS2, are produced at high levels in the cytoplasm and are believed to be involved in virus replication, assembly and morphogenesis. (highveld.com)
- Computer artwork of the core particle of the bluetongue virus (BTV), with proteins represented by coloured blobs. (sciencephoto.com)
- The researchers discovered that the virus has sensor proteins on its surface that detect changes in the acidity of its environment. (healthcanal.com)
- Delivering Cargo: Plant-Based Production of Bluetongue Virus Core-Like and Virus-Like Particles Containing Fluorescent Proteins. (jic.ac.uk)
- SubV induced humoral immune responses, including virus-neutralizing antibodies, against all three proteins, as well as a cellular immune response directed against NS1. (avhandlingar.se)
- Saliva proteins of vector Culicoides modify structure and infectivity of bluetongue virus particles. (surrey.ac.uk)
- In this study it is demonstrated that BTV VP2 associates with vimentin in both virus infected cells and in the absence of other viral proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
- By neutralization tests, Ibaraki virus was more closely related to EHD virus, serotype 2 (Alberta strain). (cdc.gov)
- Mice were immunized with Bluetongue virus (strain 8, V-519-401-562, see ATCC VR-1231) in Freund's complete adjuvant. (atcc.org)
- A bluetongue virus strain was isolated and characterized as serotype 8. (cdc.gov)
- Two new real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCRs (RT-qPCRs) that amplified 2 different segments of bluetongue virus detected this exotic strain. (cdc.gov)
- Although none of the orally infected insects from the "refractory" colony were able to transmit virus, 12% of those from the "competent" colony (containing ≥ 10 3.0 TCID 50 of virus/midge) did transmit BTV in their saliva. (springer.com)
- While EHD is only found in deer populations, the bites of the midge can transmit bluetongue to certain types of livestock. (outdoorhub.com)
- The Newsteadi complex and other midge species can play an important role in internal areas and are likely to be directly involved in virus overwintering. (biomedcentral.com)
- BTV11 with a small in-frame deletion in S10 infected blood-fed midge midguts but virus release from the midgut into the haemolymph was blocked. (biomedcentral.com)
- The virus is transmitted by the midge Culicoides imicola, Culicoides variipennis, and other culicoids. (wikipedia.org)
Polymerase chain re2
Inactivated bluetongue virus serotype1
- Bovilis BTV8 (inactivated bluetongue virus, serotype. (vetxed.com)
- These areas are important for BTV replication but they also indicate the pathways that may be used by related viruses, which include viruses that are pathogenic to man and animals, thus providing the basis for developing strategies for intervention or prevention. (highveld.com)
- The replication mechanism of bluetongue virus is still not clear. (usu.edu)
Outbreaks of Bluetongue virus1
- First discovered a century ago and originally thought to be confined to Africa, confirmed outbreaks of Bluetongue virus have been reported in Europe, North and Latin America, and in the Near and Far East (Ozawa, Y., 'Overview of the World Situation' in Bluetongue and Related Orbiviruses, Alan Liss, Inc., 1985, pages 13 to 20). (google.com)
Antibodies to bluetongue virus1
- Evaluation of a monoclonal antibody blocking ELISA for the detection of group-specific antibodies to bluetongue virus in experimental and field sera. (ox.ac.uk)
- More particularly, the invention relates to a modified competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for the detection in serum of the presence of Bluetongue viral specific antibody. (google.com)
- Detection, discrimination and quantitation of 22 bluetongue virus serotypes using real-time. (deepdyve.com)
- In the late 1960's Howell applied this test in order to antigenically group 22 strains of bluetongue virus into 12 serotypes. (scielo.org.za)
- Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes the primarily vector-borne bluetongue disease of ruminants, which poses a permanent threat to Europe since new serotypes and strains are frequently introduced. (avhandlingar.se)
- We demonstrate that VP2 present on purified virus particles from 3 different BTV strains can also be cleaved by treatment with saliva from adult Culicoides. (surrey.ac.uk)
- Reassortants of bluetongue virus Serotype 11 (BTV-11) were isolated from a yearling heifer experimentally infected with two electrophoretically different strains (UC-2 and UC-8) by subcutaneous inoculation. (elsevier.com)
- Commercially available vaccines are live-attenuated or inactivated virus strains: these are effective, but there is the risk of reversion to virulence or reassortment with circulating strains for live virus, and residual live virus for the inactivated vaccines. (biomedcentral.com)
- Virus strains were generated using reverse genetics and their growth was examined in vitro . (biomedcentral.com)
- Two virus neutralization tests were conducted on 2 virus strains isolated by the Belgian and the French reference laboratories at 2 Belgian farms 30 km apart. (cdc.gov)
- To describe the seroprevalence rate of bluetongue virus (BTV) in goat flocks in southeast of Iran. (bvsalud.org)
- Bluetongue virus can infect a wide host range, and because of this the different BTV serotypes and the role played by Culicoides spp. (scielo.org.za)
- The BTV can infect most ruminants, causing severe "bluetongue" disease (BT). (asm.org)
- The Bunyaviridae is a large family comprising hundreds of viruses able to infect a broad range of vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. (gla.ac.uk)
- Duplornaviricota contains most dsRNA viruses, including reoviruses, which infect a diverse range of eukaryotes, and cystoviruses, which are the only dsRNA viruses known to infect prokaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
- The epizootic of Bluetongue virus (BTV) throughout Europe in 2006 revealed insufficient knowledge regarding seasonal activities, endo/exophilic and endo/exophagic behaviour of the species of the Culicoides genus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). (degruyter.com)
Domestic and wild ruminants2
- Reassortment contributes to the evolution of RNA viruses with segmented genomes, including Bluetongue virus (BTV). (mdpi.com)
- We provide a comprehensive assessment of reassortment in bluetongue virus (BTV), a globally important insect-borne pathogen of livestock, during recent outbreaks in Europe. (gla.ac.uk)
- Based on this novel dataset we confirm that reassortment is a frequent process that plays an important and on-going role in evolution of the virus. (gla.ac.uk)
- Sites under positive selection were more likely to undergo amino acid changes in newly reassorted viruses, providing additional evidence for adaptive dynamics as a consequence of reassortment. (gla.ac.uk)
- Our work highlights the need for a better understanding of the mechanisms and epidemiological consequences of reassortment in BTV, as well as other segmented RNA viruses. (gla.ac.uk)
- Bluetongue virus, other orbiviruses and other reoviruses: their relationships and taxonomy. (microbiologyresearch.org)
Livestock and livestock germplasm1
- Bluetongue (BT), a disease that affects mainly sheep, causes economic losses owing to not only its deleterious effects on animals but also its associated impact on the restriction of movement of livestock and livestock germplasm. (scielo.org.za)
Transmission of bluetongue2
- but pathogenesis studies with C. variipennis reconfirmed the unlikelyhood of transovarian transmission of bluetongue virus (39). (cdc.gov)
- Transmission of bluetongue virus (BTV) by a vector species of Culicoides was studied using immunohistochemistry, virus titration and in vitro transmission tests. (springer.com)
- A rapid, competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) for the determination of Bluetongue virus antibodies in serum is described. (google.com)
- 1 Bluetongue viruses share a common group-specific antigen but are distinguishable on the basis of their serotype-specific antigen by using an in vitro virus serum neutralising assay (SNT). (scielo.org.za)
- This assay targets the RNA of a portion of the NS1 from the Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) virus and RNA of portions of the S10 and M5 genes from Bluetongue virus (BTV). (ndsu.edu)
- The first assay (RT-qPCR_S1), which amplified a 357-nt fragment in segment 1, detected virus in erythrocytes of the 21 seropositive animals (mean cycle threshold [Ct] value 29.0). (cdc.gov)
- The second assay (RT-qPCR_S5), which amplified a 94-nt fragment in segment 5, detected virus in the same 21 seropositive animals (mean Ct value 26.5). (cdc.gov)
- Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a vector-borne disease affecting ruminants, causing morbidity and mortality amongst commercial livestock herds. (lshtm.ac.uk)
- We develop a methodology to create R0 maps for vector-borne diseases, using bluetongue virus as a case study. (nerc.ac.uk)
- Altogether, this is a first step towards an integrative method to predict risk of establishment of diseases based on mathematical modelling combined with a geographic information system that may comprise climatic variables, landscape features, land use, and other relevant factors determining the risk of establishment for bluetongue as well as of other emerging vector-borne diseases. (nerc.ac.uk)
- Vector competence has been defined as the capacity of insects to transmit virus, and plays a key role in spread of vector-borne diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
- Bluetongue can also be spread by live attenuated vaccines against BTV or even by vaccines against other antigens contaminated with BTV [ 7 , 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
- This new understanding will enable researchers to develop new vaccines with broader protection against BTV and related viruses. (healthcanal.com)
- These include: modified live vaccines (MLV), inactivated whole (killed) virus preparations 11,12 and virus like particles (VLPs). (scielo.org.za)
- 6,14 These vaccines replicate in the host without causing significant adverse clinical effects, and provide protection against challenge with virulent virus of the same serotype. (scielo.org.za)
- The live-attenuated virus vaccines are not able to distinguish naturally infected animals from vaccinated animals (DIVA compliant). (biomedcentral.com)
- These include inactivated whole virus vaccines, live attenuated virus vaccines (modified live virus vaccines), recombinant vaccines and virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines. (biomedcentral.com)
Cases of bluetongue2
- citation needed] In August 2006, cases of bluetongue were found in the Netherlands, then Belgium, Germany, and Luxembourg. (wikipedia.org)
- Belgium reported its first cases of bluetongue 1 day later, and Germany and France reported outbreaks on August 21, 2006, and August 31, 2006, respectively ( 2 , 3 ). (cdc.gov)
- Our laboratory studies the biology and pathogenesis of livestock diseases induced by emerging arboviruses such as Bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV). (gla.ac.uk)
- SBV is a new emerging virus and we are at present characterising the biology and pathogenesis of this pathogen. (gla.ac.uk)
- The understanding of BTV pathogenesis and virus-vector interaction will be improved by global transcriptome profiling. (biomedcentral.com)
- The global transcriptome profiling will provide a deep understanding of BTV pathogenesis and virus-vector interactions. (biomedcentral.com)
Disease of ruminants1
- en] Bluetongue (BT) is an emerging vectorborne disease of ruminants that was reported in August 2006 in northern Europe. (uliege.be)
- This work also has promising implications for understanding similar human and animal pathogenic viruses, such as rotaviruses and the Rift Valley fever virus. (healthcanal.com)
- Thus assembly of the outer capsid on the core particle must be a tightly controlled process during virus maturation. (biomedcentral.com)
- A distinguishing feature of the dsRNA viruses, irrespective of their family association, is their ability to carry out transcription of the dsRNA segments, under appropriate conditions, within the capsid. (wikipedia.org)
- Currently, wild ruminants are apparently not a reservoir for these viruses in Switzerland. (biomedcentral.com)
- Optimization of reverse genetics enlarge the possibilities to rescue virus mutants and reassortants, and will greatly benefit the control of these important diseases of livestock and companion animals. (wur.nl)
- Approximately 30 percent of all infectious diseases that emerged between 1990 and 2000 were caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arbovirus). (gla.ac.uk)
- Bluetongue is one of the major infectious diseases of livestock. (gla.ac.uk)
- These data demonstrate that all sheep were protected from a challenge with BTV8/net07, since sheep of the control group showed viremia, seroconversion and clinical signs that are specific for Bluetongue. (wur.nl)
- Bluetongue virus diagnosis of clinical cases by a duplex reverse transcription-PCR: a comparison with conventional methods. (semanticscholar.org)
- From August 19, 2006, to September 14, 2006, the study farms were screened for animals with clinical signs of bluetongue. (cdc.gov)
- The bluetongue virus (BTV) serogroup consists of 24 serotypes. (cdc.gov)
- Bluetongue (BT) is an arthropod-borne viral disease, which primarily affects ruminants in tropical and temperate regions of the world. (ebscohost.com)
- Bluetongue is endemic in India, with evidence for 22 different serotypes ( 14 ). (asm.org)
- These insects also failed to transmit bluetongue-10 virus when fed on sheep. (ajtmh.org)
- Only parous females that have completed a gonotrophic cycle are able to transmit the virus via subsequent blood meals, over their remaining life span. (biomedcentral.com)
- A significant contribution to the northward spread of Bluetongue disease has been the ability of Culicoides obsoletus and C.pulicaris to acquire and transmit the pathogen, both of which are spread widely throughout Europe. (wikipedia.org)
- The genes of the bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 17 have been cloned into pBR322 by tailing both strands of the double-stranded RNA with polyadenylic acid, transcribing them with reverse transcriptase with an oligodeoxythymidylic acid primer, hybridizing the cDNA products, and completing them into duplex structures with the Klenow fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase. (asm.org)