African horse sickness virus
Hemorrhagic Disease Virus, Epizootic
Viral Core Proteins
Inclusion Bodies, Viral
Viral Nonstructural Proteins
African Horse Sickness
Molecular Sequence Data
Viral Structural Proteins
Antigenic profile of African horse sickness virus serotype 4 VP5 and identification of a neutralizing epitope shared with bluetongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus. (1/353)African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a fatal disease in horses. The virus capsid is composed of a double protein layer, the outermost of which is formed by two proteins: VP2 and VP5. VP2 is known to determine the serotype of the virus and to contain the neutralizing epitopes. The biological function of VP5, the other component of the capsid, is unknown. In this report, AHSV VP5, expressed in insect cells alone or together with VP2, was able to induce AHSV-specific neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, two VP5-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that were able to neutralize the virus in a plaque reduction assay were generated. To dissect the antigenic structure of AHSV VP5, the protein was cloned in Escherichia coli using the pET3 system. The immunoreactivity of both MAbs, and horse and rabbit polyclonal antisera, with 17 overlapping fragments from VP5 was analyzed. The most immunodominant region was found in the N-terminal 330 residues of VP5, defining two antigenic regions, I (residues 151-200) and II (residues 83-120). The epitopes were further defined by PEPSCAN analysis with 12mer peptides, which determined eight antigenic sites in the N-terminal half of the molecule. Neutralizing epitopes were defined at positions 85-92 (PDPLSPGE) for MAb 10AE12 and at 179-185 (EEDLRTR) for MAb 10AC6. Epitope 10AE12 is highly conserved between the different orbiviruses. MAb 10AE12 was able to recognize bluetongue virus VP5 and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus VP5 by several techniques. These data will be especially useful for vaccine development and diagnostic purposes. (+info)
The highly ordered double-stranded RNA genome of bluetongue virus revealed by crystallography. (2/353)The concentration of double-stranded RNA within the bluetongue virus core renders the genome segments liquid crystalline. Powder diffraction rings confirm this local ordering with a 30 A separation between strands. Determination of the structure of the bluetongue virus core serotype 10 and comparison with that of serotype 1 reveals most of the genomic double-stranded RNA, packaged as well-ordered layers surrounding putative transcription complexes at the apices of the particle. The outer layer of RNA is sufficiently well ordered by interaction with the capsid that a model can be built and extended to the less-ordered inner layers, providing a structural framework for understanding the mechanism of this complex transcriptional machine. We show that the genome segments maintain local order during transcription. (+info)
Expression and functional characterization of bluetongue virus VP2 protein: role in cell entry. (3/353)Segment 2 of bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 10, which encodes the outer capsid protein VP2, was tagged with the S-peptide fragment of RNase A and expressed by a recombinant baculovirus. The recombinant protein was subsequently purified to homogeneity by virtue of the S tag, and the oligomeric nature of the purified protein was determined. The data obtained indicated that the majority of the protein forms a dimer and, to a lesser extent, some trimer. The recombinant protein was used to determine various biological functions of VP2. The purified VP2 was shown to have virus hemagglutinin activity and was antigenically indistinguishable from the VP2 of the virion. Whether VP2 is responsible for BTV entry into permissive cells was subsequently assessed by cell surface attachment and internalization studies with an immunofluorescence assay system. The results demonstrated that VP2 alone is responsible for virus entry into mammalian cells. By competition assay, it appeared that both VP2 and the BTV virion attached to the same cell surface molecule(s). The purified VP2 also had a strong affinity for binding to glycophorin A, a sialoglycoprotein component of erythrocytes, indicating that VP2 may be responsible for BTV transmission by the Culicoides vector to vertebrate hosts during blood feeding. Further, by various enzymatic treatments of BTV-permissive L929 cells, preliminary data have been obtained which indicated that the BTV receptor molecule(s) is likely to be a glycoprotein and that either the protein moiety of the glycoprotein or a second protein molecule could also serve as a coreceptor for BTV infection. (+info)
Incursion of bluetongue virus into the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia. (4/353)Bluetongue virus was isolated from a sentinel herd in British Columbia. Virus isolation was by intravenous inoculation of embryonated chicken eggs and subculture in BHK-21 cells. The cytopathic agent was identified as bluetongue virus by electron microscopy and the immunoperoxidase test. The serotype was identified as serotype 11 by virus neutralization. (+info)
NTP binding and phosphohydrolase activity associated with purified bluetongue virus non-structural protein NS2. (5/353)The bluetongue virus ssRNA-binding protein, NS2, is a phosphoprotein that forms viral inclusion bodies in infected cells. Recombinant NS2 was expressed in the baculovirus expression system and purified to homogeneity from insect cells. Purified NS2 bound nucleosides. Further investigation revealed that the protein bound ATP and GTP and could hydrolyse both nucleosides to their corresponding NMPs, with a higher efficiency for the hydrolysis of ATP. The increased efficiency of hydrolysis of ATP correlated with a higher binding affinity of NS2 for ATP than GTP. Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) were able to function as the required divalent cation in the reactions. The phosphohydrolase activity was not sensitive to ouabain, an inhibitor of cellular ATPases, suggesting that this activity was not the result of a cellular contaminant. (+info)
Functional dissection of the major structural protein of bluetongue virus: identification of key residues within VP7 essential for capsid assembly. (6/353)A lattice of VP7 trimers forms the surface of the icosahedral bluetongue virus (BTV) core. To investigate the role of VP7 oligomerization in core assembly, a series of residues for substitution were predicted based on crystal structures of BTV type 10 VP7 molecule targeting the monomer-monomer contacts within the trimer. Seven site-specific substitution mutations of VP7 have been created using cDNA clones and were employed to produce seven recombinant baculoviruses. The effects of these mutations on VP7 solubility, ability to trimerize and formation of core-like particles (CLPs) in the presence of the scaffolding VP3 protein, were investigated. Of the seven VP7 mutants examined, three severely affected the stability of CLP, while two other mutants had lesser effect on CLP stability. Only one mutant had no apparent effect on the formation of the stable capsid. One mutant in which the conserved tyrosine at residue 271 (lower domain helix 6) was replaced by arginine formed insoluble aggregates, implying an effect in the folding of the molecule despite the prediction that such a change would be accommodated. All six soluble VP7 mutants were purified, and their ability to trimerize was examined. All mutants, including those that did not form stable CLPs, assembled into stable trimers, implying that single substitution may not be sufficient to perturb the complex monomer-monomer contacts, although subtle changes within the VP7 trimer could destabilize the core. The study highlights some of the key residues that are crucial for BTV core assembly and illustrates how the structure of VP7 in isolation underrepresents the dynamic nature of the assembly process at the biological level. (+info)
Malignant catarrhal fever: polymerase chain reaction survey for ovine herpesvirus 2 and other persistent herpesvirus and retrovirus infections of dairy cattle and bison. (7/353)Using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for sequences of ovine herpesvirus 2 (OHV2), this virus was shown to be significantly associated with sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF) in terminal cases of disease in 34 cattle and 53 bison. Ovine herpesvirus 2 was not detected in cattle (38) and bison (10) that succumbed to other diseases. Other persistent herpesviruses, retroviruses, and pestivirus, some of which have been previously isolated from cases of SA-MCF, were not associated with the disease. These included bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4), bovine lymphotrophic herpesvirus (BLHV), bovine syncytial virus (BSV, also known as bovine spumavirus), bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). A PCR survey for OHV2 in DNA from individual cow's peripheral blood lymphocytes in 4 dairies showed that the 1 dairy that was in close contact to sheep had a prevalence of OHV2 of 21.3%, whereas the 3 other dairies had no OHV2. Prevalence of the other herpesviruses and retroviruses in the dairy cows was variable, ranging from 2% to 51% for BHV4, 52% to 78.7% for BLHV, and 10% to 34% for BSV. Bovine lymphotrophic herpesvirus and BSV were also found in a few (1-4 of 21 tested) cases of terminal SA-MCF, but BIV and BVDV were not found in either the dairy cows sampled, or in the cases of SA-MCE No significant correlation was found between the presence of any 2 viruses (OHV2, BHV4, BLHV, BSV) in the dairy cows or terminal cases of SA-MCE (+info)
Multimers of the bluetongue virus nonstructural protein, NS2, possess nucleotidyl phosphatase activity: similarities between NS2 and rotavirus NSP2. (8/353)The nonstructural protein, NS2, of bluetongue virus is a nonspecific single- stranded RNA-binding protein that forms large homomultimers and accumulates in viral inclusion bodies of infected cells. NS2 shares these features with the nonstructural protein, NSP2, of rotavirus, which like BTV is a member of the family Reoviridae. Recently, NSP2 was shown to have an NTPase activity and an autokinase activity that catalyzed its phosphorylation in vitro. To examine NS2 for similar enzymatic activities, the protein was expressed in bacteria with a C-terminal His-tag and purified to homogeneity. Recombinant (r)NS2 possessed nonspecific RNA-binding activity and formed 8-10S homomultimers of the same approximate size as rNSP2 homomultimers. Notably, enzymatic assays performed with rNS2 showed that the protein hydrolyzed the alpha, beta, and gamma phosphodiester bonds of all four NTPs. Therefore, rNS2 possesses a nucleotidyl phosphatase activity instead of the NTPase activity of NSP2, which only hydrolyzes the gamma phosphodiester bonds of NTPs. NS2 did not exhibit any autokinase activity in vitro, unlike NSP2. However, both NS2 and NSP2 were phosphorylated in vitro by cellular kinases. Although the nature of the enzymatic activities differs significantly, the fact that both NS2 and NSP2 hydrolyze NTPs, undergo phosphorylation, bind RNA, and assemble into multimers consisting of 6 +/- 2 subunits suggests that they are functional homologs. (+info)
Bluetongue is a viral disease that affects livestock, particularly ruminants such as cattle, sheep, and goats. The disease is caused by the Bluetongue virus (BTV), which is transmitted to animals through the bite of an infected midge or other biting insect. Symptoms of bluetongue can vary depending on the species and age of the animal, but they typically include fever, loss of appetite, and difficulty swallowing. In severe cases, the disease can lead to lameness, difficulty breathing, and even death. Bluetongue is a notifiable disease in many countries, which means that outbreaks must be reported to the relevant authorities. Control measures for bluetongue include vaccination of susceptible animals, vector control (such as the use of insecticides to reduce the number of biting insects), and movement restrictions to prevent the spread of the virus.
Cattle diseases refer to any illness or condition that affects cattle, which are domesticated animals commonly raised for meat, milk, and other products. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and environmental conditions. In the medical field, cattle diseases are typically studied and treated by veterinarians who specialize in animal health. Some common cattle diseases include bovine respiratory disease (BRD), Johne's disease, foot-and-mouth disease, and mastitis. These diseases can have significant economic impacts on farmers and the cattle industry, as they can lead to decreased productivity, increased mortality rates, and the need for costly treatments. To prevent and control cattle diseases, veterinarians and farmers may use a variety of strategies, including vaccination, proper nutrition and hygiene, and the use of antibiotics and other medications when necessary. Additionally, monitoring and surveillance efforts are often implemented to detect and respond to outbreaks of new or emerging diseases.
Reoviridae infections refer to a group of viral infections caused by viruses belonging to the family Reoviridae. These viruses are non-enveloped, double-stranded RNA viruses that can infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and plants. Reoviridae infections can cause a variety of clinical manifestations, depending on the specific virus and the host infected. In humans, reovirus infections can cause mild to severe respiratory tract infections, such as the common cold, bronchitis, and pneumonia. Other clinical manifestations of reovirus infections in humans include diarrhea, encephalitis, meningitis, and myocarditis. Reovirus infections can also cause disease in animals, including cattle, sheep, pigs, and poultry. In animals, reovirus infections can cause respiratory tract infections, enteritis, and abortion. Diagnosis of reovirus infections is typically made through laboratory testing, such as viral culture, serology, and molecular testing. Treatment of reovirus infections is generally supportive, with management of symptoms and complications as needed. Prevention of reovirus infections involves measures such as vaccination, hygiene, and good sanitation practices. Vaccines are available for some animal species, but there are currently no vaccines for humans.
In the medical field, viral core proteins refer to the internal proteins that are essential for the replication and survival of a virus. These proteins are typically found within the viral capsid, which is the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome. The viral core proteins play a crucial role in the viral life cycle by facilitating the replication of the viral genome and the assembly of new virus particles. They may also be involved in protecting the viral genome from degradation or preventing the host immune system from recognizing and eliminating the virus. Examples of viral core proteins include the core protein of the hepatitis B virus, which is essential for the replication of the viral genome, and the core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which plays a role in the assembly of new virus particles. Understanding the structure and function of viral core proteins is important for the development of antiviral drugs and vaccines, as well as for understanding the pathogenesis of viral infections.
In the medical field, capsid proteins refer to the proteins that make up the outer shell of a virus. The capsid is the protective layer that surrounds the viral genome and is responsible for protecting the virus from the host's immune system and other environmental factors. There are two main types of capsid proteins: structural and non-structural. Structural capsid proteins are the proteins that make up the visible part of the virus, while non-structural capsid proteins are involved in the assembly and maturation of the virus. The specific function of capsid proteins can vary depending on the type of virus. For example, some capsid proteins are involved in attaching the virus to host cells, while others are involved in protecting the viral genome from degradation. Understanding the structure and function of capsid proteins is important for the development of antiviral drugs and vaccines, as well as for understanding the pathogenesis of viral infections.
In the medical field, "Sheep Diseases" refers to a group of illnesses and infections that affect sheep, which are domesticated ruminant mammals. These diseases can be caused by various agents, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Some common sheep diseases include: 1. Scrapie: a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by a prion protein. 2. Bluetongue: a viral disease that affects the mouth and tongue of sheep and other ruminants. 3. Foot-and-mouth disease: a highly contagious viral disease that affects the mouth, feet, and udder of sheep and other cloven-hoofed animals. 4. Pneumonia: a respiratory disease caused by bacteria or viruses that can be fatal in severe cases. 5. Eimeriosis: a parasitic disease caused by coccidia that affects the digestive system of sheep. 6. Johne's disease: a chronic bacterial infection that affects the digestive system of sheep and other ruminants. 7. Coccidiosis: a parasitic disease caused by coccidia that affects the digestive system of sheep. 8. Anthrax: a bacterial disease that can affect the skin, respiratory system, and digestive system of sheep. 9. Leptospirosis: a bacterial disease that can affect the kidneys and liver of sheep. 10. Brucellosis: a bacterial disease that can affect the reproductive system of sheep and other ruminants. Prevention and control of sheep diseases are essential to maintain the health and productivity of sheep populations. This can be achieved through vaccination, proper nutrition, hygiene, and management practices.
RNA, Viral refers to the genetic material of viruses that are composed of RNA instead of DNA. Viral RNA is typically single-stranded and can be either positive-sense or negative-sense. Positive-sense RNA viruses can be directly translated into proteins by the host cell's ribosomes, while negative-sense RNA viruses require a complementary positive-sense RNA intermediate before protein synthesis can occur. Viral RNA is often encapsidated within a viral capsid and can be further protected by an envelope made of lipids and proteins derived from the host cell. RNA viruses include a wide range of pathogens that can cause diseases in humans and other organisms, such as influenza, hepatitis C, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus responsible for COVID-19).
Antibodies, viral, are proteins produced by the immune system in response to a viral infection. They are also known as immunoglobulins or antibodies. Viral antibodies are specific to a particular virus and can help to neutralize and eliminate the virus from the body. They are typically detected in the blood or other bodily fluids using laboratory tests, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) or immunofluorescence assays. The presence of viral antibodies can be used as a diagnostic tool to confirm a viral infection or to determine the immune status of an individual.
RNA, Double-Stranded refers to a type of RNA molecule that consists of two complementary strands of nucleotides held together by hydrogen bonds. In contrast to single-stranded RNA, which has only one strand of nucleotides, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is more stable and can form more complex structures. Double-stranded RNA is commonly found in viruses, where it serves as the genetic material for the virus. It is also found in some cellular processes, such as the processing of messenger RNA (mRNA) and the regulation of gene expression. Double-stranded RNA can trigger an immune response in cells, which is why it is often targeted by antiviral drugs and vaccines. Additionally, some researchers are exploring the use of dsRNA as a tool for gene editing and gene therapy.
Viral nonstructural proteins (NSPs) are proteins that are not part of the viral capsid or envelope, but are instead synthesized by the virus after it has entered a host cell. These proteins play important roles in the replication and assembly of the virus, as well as in evading the host immune system. NSPs can be classified into several functional groups, including proteases, helicases, polymerases, and methyltransferases. For example, the NSP1 protein of the influenza virus is a protease that cleaves host cell proteins to create a favorable environment for viral replication. The NSP3 protein of the hepatitis C virus is a helicase that unwinds the viral RNA genome to allow for transcription and replication. NSPs can also be targeted by antiviral drugs, as they are often essential for viral replication. For example, the protease inhibitors used to treat HIV target the viral protease enzyme, which is an NSP. Similarly, the NS5B polymerase inhibitors used to treat hepatitis C target the viral polymerase enzyme, which is also an NSP. Overall, NSPs play important roles in the life cycle of viruses and are an important target for antiviral therapy.
African Horse Sickness (AHS) is a viral disease that primarily affects horses and other equids, but can also infect other animals such as zebras and donkeys. The virus is transmitted by midges, which acquire the virus by feeding on infected animals and then transmit it to other animals through their saliva. Symptoms of AHS can vary depending on the severity of the infection, but typically include high fever, loss of appetite, weakness, and difficulty breathing. In severe cases, the disease can lead to paralysis, coma, and death. AHS is considered one of the most serious diseases affecting horses, and is considered a notifiable disease in many countries. There is no cure for AHS, and prevention is the best way to control the disease. This includes measures such as vaccination, vector control, and quarantine of infected animals.
In the medical field, "Goat Diseases" refers to a wide range of illnesses and conditions that can affect goats. These diseases can be caused by various factors, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and environmental factors. Some common goat diseases include: 1. Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV): A viral disease that affects the central nervous system and joints of goats. 2. Q fever: A bacterial disease that can cause fever, pneumonia, and other respiratory symptoms in goats. 3. Johne's disease: A bacterial disease that affects the digestive system of goats and can cause diarrhea, weight loss, and other symptoms. 4. Coccidiosis: A parasitic disease that affects the digestive system of goats and can cause diarrhea, weight loss, and other symptoms. 5. Mycoplasma agalactiae: A bacterial disease that can cause mastitis (inflammation of the mammary glands) in goats. 6. Scrapie: A fatal neurodegenerative disease that affects the central nervous system of goats. 7. Bluetongue: A viral disease that affects the mouth and tongue of goats and can cause fever, swelling, and other symptoms. 8. Foot-and-mouth disease: A viral disease that affects the mouth and feet of goats and can cause fever, blisters, and other symptoms. 9. Anthrax: A bacterial disease that can cause fever, skin ulcers, and other symptoms in goats. 10. Rift Valley fever: A viral disease that can cause fever, muscle pain, and other symptoms in goats. These are just a few examples of the many goat diseases that can affect goats. It is important for goat owners to be aware of the common diseases in their area and to take steps to prevent and treat them.
In the medical field, "Vaccines, Marker" refers to a type of vaccine that uses a specific marker or antigen to stimulate an immune response in the body. A marker is a substance that is unique to a particular disease or condition, and it can be used to identify or track the presence of that disease or condition. In the context of vaccines, a marker is used to identify a specific antigen or protein that is associated with a particular disease or condition. When a vaccine containing a specific marker is administered to a person, the immune system recognizes the marker as foreign and mounts an immune response against it. This immune response can help to protect the person from developing the disease or condition that the marker is associated with. For example, the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine contains markers that are specific to certain strains of HPV. When the vaccine is administered, the immune system recognizes the HPV markers and mounts an immune response against them, which can help to protect the person from developing HPV-related diseases such as cervical cancer. Overall, vaccines that use markers are an important tool in preventing and controlling the spread of infectious diseases.
In the medical field, a virus disease is a condition caused by a virus, which is a tiny infectious agent that can only replicate inside living cells. Viruses can infect a wide range of organisms, including humans, animals, plants, and even bacteria. When a virus enters the body, it attaches to and invades host cells, taking over the cell's machinery to produce more copies of itself. This can cause damage to the host cells and trigger an immune response, which can lead to symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, and fatigue. Some common examples of virus diseases in humans include the common cold, influenza, herpes simplex virus (HSV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and hepatitis B and C. These diseases can range from mild to severe and can be treated with antiviral medications, vaccines, or supportive care.
Viral proteins are proteins that are synthesized by viruses during their replication cycle within a host cell. These proteins play a crucial role in the viral life cycle, including attachment to host cells, entry into the cell, replication of the viral genome, assembly of new viral particles, and release of the virus from the host cell. Viral proteins can be classified into several categories based on their function, including structural proteins, non-structural proteins, and regulatory proteins. Structural proteins are the building blocks of the viral particle, such as capsid proteins that form the viral coat. Non-structural proteins are proteins that are not part of the viral particle but are essential for viral replication, such as proteases that cleave viral polyproteins into individual proteins. Regulatory proteins are proteins that control the expression of viral genes or the activity of viral enzymes. Viral proteins are important targets for antiviral drugs and vaccines, as they are essential for viral replication and survival. Understanding the structure and function of viral proteins is crucial for the development of effective antiviral therapies and vaccines.
Viral structural proteins are proteins that make up the physical structure of a virus. They are essential for the virus to function properly and are involved in various stages of the viral life cycle, including attachment to host cells, entry into the cell, replication, and assembly of new virus particles. There are several types of viral structural proteins, including capsid proteins, envelope proteins, and matrix proteins. Capsid proteins form the protective shell around the viral genetic material, while envelope proteins are found on the surface of enveloped viruses and help the virus enter host cells. Matrix proteins are found in the interior of the viral particle and help to stabilize the structure of the virus. Viral structural proteins are important targets for antiviral drugs and vaccines, as they are essential for the virus to infect host cells and cause disease. Understanding the structure and function of viral structural proteins is crucial for the development of effective antiviral therapies and vaccines.
Receptors, Virus are proteins on the surface of host cells that recognize and bind to specific viral proteins, allowing the virus to enter and infect the cell. These receptors play a crucial role in the viral life cycle and are often targeted by antiviral drugs and vaccines. Examples of viral receptors include the ACE2 receptor for SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) and the CD4 receptor for HIV.
RNA probes are molecules that are used to detect and identify specific RNA sequences in cells or tissues. They are typically composed of a single-stranded RNA molecule that is labeled with a fluorescent or radioactive tag, allowing it to be easily detected and visualized. RNA probes are commonly used in molecular biology and medical research to study gene expression, identify specific RNA transcripts, and detect the presence of specific RNA molecules in cells or tissues. They can also be used in diagnostic tests to detect the presence of specific RNA sequences in clinical samples, such as blood, urine, or tissue biopsies. RNA probes are often used in conjunction with other molecular techniques, such as in situ hybridization, to visualize the localization of specific RNA molecules within cells or tissues. They are also used in conjunction with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify specific RNA sequences for further analysis.
Viral vaccines are a type of vaccine that use a weakened or inactivated form of a virus to stimulate the immune system to produce an immune response against the virus. This immune response can provide protection against future infections with the virus. There are several different types of viral vaccines, including live attenuated vaccines, inactivated vaccines, and subunit vaccines. Live attenuated vaccines use a weakened form of the virus that is still able to replicate, but is not strong enough to cause disease. Inactivated vaccines use a killed form of the virus that is no longer able to replicate. Subunit vaccines use only a small part of the virus, such as a protein or a piece of genetic material, to stimulate an immune response. Viral vaccines are used to prevent a wide range of viral diseases, including influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis A and B, and human papillomavirus (HPV). They are typically given by injection, but can also be given by mouth or nose in some cases. Viral vaccines are an important tool in preventing the spread of viral diseases and reducing the number of cases and deaths caused by these diseases. They are generally safe and effective, and are an important part of public health efforts to control the spread of viral diseases.
Viremia is a medical term that refers to the presence of viruses in the bloodstream. It is a normal part of the viral replication cycle, during which the virus multiplies inside host cells and then enters the bloodstream. In some cases, viremia can be asymptomatic, meaning that the person infected with the virus does not experience any symptoms. However, in other cases, viremia can cause a range of symptoms, depending on the type of virus and the severity of the infection. Viremia is typically measured by detecting the viral particles or genetic material of the virus in a blood sample using laboratory tests. The level of viremia can be used to monitor the progression of the infection and to determine the effectiveness of antiviral treatments.
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- The present work was aimed to know the serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) circulating in western region of Cuba. (edu.cu)
- Vaccination against all serotypes is necessary to protect susceptible animals and to prevent onward spread of the virus by insect vectors. (sciensano.be)
- In our previous studies, we generated replication-deficient (disabled infectious single-cycle [ DISC ]) virus strains for a number of serotypes and reported preliminary data on their protective efficacy in animals. (sciensano.be)
- Finally, were obtained virus isolates for an in-depth characterization of the circulating virus strains by molecular biology techniques such as next-generation sequencing, using high-tech equipment. (edu.cu)
- Our data support and validate the suitability of these virus strains as the next-generation vaccines for BTV. (sciensano.be)
- We targeted an essential gene to develop disabled virus strains as vaccine candidates. (sciensano.be)
- The results presented in this report further substantiate our previous evidence and support the suitability of these virus strains as the next-generation BTV vaccines. (sciensano.be)
- Beforehand, we reported the detection of two novel bluetongue virus (BTV) strains (SPvvvv/02 and SPvvvv/03), presumably representing new BTV genotypes, in a batch of sheeppox vaccine. (computablegenomix.com)
- Classical vaccines that afford protection against bluetongue virus, the etiological agent, are not free from secondary and undesirable effects. (sciensano.be)
- The tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is the arboviral etiological agent of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), considered to be one of the most important tick-borne viral diseases in Europe and Asia. (bvsalud.org)
- To estimate seroprevalence of bluetongue virus (BTV) and the geographic distribution of seropositive cattle herds in Illinois and western Indiana. (singerepidemiology.org)
- Whole-genome sequencing of the viruses on two of the farms showed that they were related to a virus identified in humans in the same region 2 years before (B.1.1.307 lineage). (bvsalud.org)
- Bluetongue (BT) is an insect-transmitted viral disease of ruminant species. (edu.cu)
- In Cuba, only we have knowledge about circulation of the virus by serological evidence and viral isolation but it has not been possible to carry out its molecular typing. (edu.cu)
- Dissemination barriers for western equine encephalomyelitis virus in Culex tarsalis infected after ingestion of low viral doses. (ajtmh.org)
- By artificially expressing Sindbis virus (SINV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) nsP2 in mosquito cells and transgenic mosquitoes, we demonstrated a reduction in both SINV and CHIKV viral replication rates in cells following viral infection as well as reduced infection prevalence, viral titers, and transmission potential in mosquitoes. (bvsalud.org)
- Bluetongue virus antibodies were distributed heterogeneously in this region. (singerepidemiology.org)
- The results showed that the use of the 5 g/kg diet EP continuously led to the highest DFI, DWG and antibody titres against sheep red blood cell (SRBC) and Newcastle virus when compared to other groups. (researchgate.net)
- Serious animal pathogens include bluetongue virus of sheep and African horse sickness virus. (medscape.com)
- albopictus cell lines, reporter-based strategies for assessing the ability of two types of small RNAs to inhibit a chikungunya virus (CHIKV) derived target. (bvsalud.org)
- Replication-Deficient Particles: New Insights into the Next Generation of Bluetongue Virus Vaccines. (sciensano.be)
- A surge in new approaches to produce highly attenuated, safer vaccines was evident after the development of the BTV reverse-genetics system that allows the introduction of targeted mutations in the virus genome. (sciensano.be)
- We explore the intricate structural interactions between viruses and host complexes during virus infection and immune response, which is crucial for exploiting them and uncovering new avenues for the development of therapeutics. (gla.ac.uk)
- Studying virus entry using a multidisciplinary toolkit encompassing basic virology, computational/mathematical analysis, structural biology, and advanced microscopy. (gla.ac.uk)
- albopictus are the main vectors of mosquito-borne viruses of medical and veterinary significance. (bvsalud.org)
- As an Honorary Consultant in Infectious Diseases, my research focuses on the epidemiology of influenza and other respiratory viruses in the UK and sub-Saharan Africa including COVID-19. (gla.ac.uk)
- In 1959, Sabin proposed the name reovirus to reflect the fact that viruses of this group had been isolated from the respiratory and enteric tracts and were orphan (reo) viruses without known associated disease. (medscape.com)
- These viruses also have been evaluated extensively in studies involving laboratory animals. (medscape.com)
- Sialokinin is unique within the insect world as having a vertebrate-like tachykinin sequence and is absent from Anopheles mosquitoes, which are incompetent for most arthropod-borne viruses, whose saliva was not proviral and did not induce similar vascular permeability. (bvsalud.org)
- Dual host infections: enhanced infectivity of eastern equine encephalitis virus to Aedes mosquitoes mediated by Brugia microfilariae. (ajtmh.org)
- Brugia malayi microfilariae enhance the infectivity of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus to Aedes mosquitoes. (ajtmh.org)
- Mechanism of transmission of viruses by mosquitoes. (ajtmh.org)
- Viruses transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes are an increasingly important global cause of disease. (bvsalud.org)
- My group apply the techniques of elecrton-cryomicroscopy and image analysis to the study of viruses, providing an exciting opportunity to visualise the process of virus infection at cellular scale and at macromoleculr resolution. (gla.ac.uk)
- The purpose of our study was to analyze how the small RNA content of exosomes is affected by infection with the influenza A virus (IAV). (bvsalud.org)
- Instead, the Aedes gene product sialokinin mediated the enhancement of virus infection through a rapid reduction in endothelial barrier integrity. (bvsalud.org)
- Therapeutic strategies targeting sialokinin have the potential to limit disease severity following infection with Aedes-mosquito-borne viruses. (bvsalud.org)
- Bluetongue virus ( BTV ) is endemic in many parts of the world, often causing severe hemorrhagic disease in livestock. (sciensano.be)
- Bluetongue (BT) is a debilitating and in many cases lethal disease that affects ruminants of economic importance. (sciensano.be)
- The persistence and continuing spread of BTV in Europe and elsewhere highlights the importance of sensitive and reliable diagnostic assay systems that can be used to rapidly identify infected animals, helping to combat spread of the virus and disease. (tees.ac.uk)
- Exosomes released from virus-infected cells may contain RNA and proteins facilitating infection spread. (bvsalud.org)
- Multiple viruses, including pathogenic viruses, bacteriophages, and even plant viruses, cause a phenomenon termed superinfection exclusion whereby a currently infected cell is resistant to secondary infection by the same or a closely related virus. (bvsalud.org)
- Infection of the vertebrate host with these viruses is enhanced by mosquito saliva, a complex mixture of salivary-gland-derived factors and microbiota. (bvsalud.org)
- The double-shelled particle is the complete infectious form of the virus. (medscape.com)
- Multiplication of bluetongue virus in Culicoides nubeculosus (Meigen) simultaneously infected with the virus and the microfilariae of Onchocerca cervicalis (Railliet & Henry). (ajtmh.org)
- The virions of Reoviridae family viruses measure 60-80 nm in diameter and possess 2 concentric capsid shells, each of which is icosahedral. (medscape.com)
- but pathogenesis studies with C. variipennis reconfirmed the unlikelyhood of transovarian transmission of bluetongue virus (39). (cdc.gov)
- Our work focusses on developing understanding of virus-host interactions by visualising them in a frozen-hydrated state at macromolecular resolution using cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET). (gla.ac.uk)
- The virus is transmitted between ticks, animals, and humans. (bvsalud.org)
- In cases of Oklahoma tick fever or Kemerovo or Lipovnik virus infections, a tick transmits the virus. (medscape.com)
- Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. (cdc.gov)
- In these cases, the virus enters the cell by endocytosis, the outer capsid is removed, and the core particle undergoes transcription. (medscape.com)