Bluetongue virus: The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.Bluetongue: A reovirus infection, chiefly of sheep, characterized by a swollen blue tongue, catarrhal inflammation of upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and often by inflammation of sensitive laminae of the feet and coronet.Ceratopogonidae: A family of biting midges, in the order DIPTERA. It includes the genus Culicoides which transmits filarial parasites pathogenic to man and other primates.Reoviridae: A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Orbivirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE infecting a wide range of arthropods and vertebrates including humans. It comprises at least 21 serological subgroups. Transmission is by vectors such as midges, mosquitoes, sandflies, and ticks.African horse sickness virus: A species of ORBIVIRUS that causes disease in horses, mules, and donkeys. Via its principal vector CULICOIDES, it can also infect dogs, elephants, camels, cattle, sheep, goats, and, in special circumstances, humans.Hemorrhagic Disease Virus, Epizootic: A species of ORBIVIRUS causing a fatal disease in deer. It is transmitted by flies of the genus Culicoides.Reoviridae Infections: Infections produced by reoviruses, general or unspecified.Reverse Genetics: The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.Ruminants: A suborder of the order ARTIODACTYLA whose members have the distinguishing feature of a four-chambered stomach, including the capacious RUMEN. Horns or antlers are usually present, at least in males.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Sheep Diseases: Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.RNA, Double-Stranded: RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.African Horse Sickness: An insect-borne reovirus infection of horses, mules and donkeys in Africa and the Middle East; characterized by pulmonary edema, cardiac involvement, and edema of the head and neck.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Goat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Viruses, Unclassified: Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Vaccines, Marker: Vaccines used in conjunction with diagnostic tests to differentiate vaccinated animals from carrier animals. Marker vaccines can be either a subunit or a gene-deleted vaccine.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Arboviruses: Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Insect Viruses: Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.Spodoptera: A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Aborted Fetus: A mammalian fetus expelled by INDUCED ABORTION or SPONTANEOUS ABORTION.Ornithodoros: A genus of softbacked TICKS, in the family ARGASIDAE, serving as the vector of BORRELIA, causing RELAPSING FEVER, and of the AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS.RNA Probes: RNA, usually prepared by transcription from cloned DNA, which complements a specific mRNA or DNA and is generally used for studies of virus genes, distribution of specific RNA in tissues and cells, integration of viral DNA into genomes, transcription, etc. Whereas DNA PROBES are preferred for use at a more macroscopic level for detection of the presence of DNA/RNA from specific species or subspecies, RNA probes are preferred for genetic studies. Conventional labels for the RNA probe include radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. RNA probes may be further divided by category into plus-sense RNA probes, minus-sense RNA probes, and antisense RNA probes.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.

Antigenic profile of African horse sickness virus serotype 4 VP5 and identification of a neutralizing epitope shared with bluetongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus. (1/353)

African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a fatal disease in horses. The virus capsid is composed of a double protein layer, the outermost of which is formed by two proteins: VP2 and VP5. VP2 is known to determine the serotype of the virus and to contain the neutralizing epitopes. The biological function of VP5, the other component of the capsid, is unknown. In this report, AHSV VP5, expressed in insect cells alone or together with VP2, was able to induce AHSV-specific neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, two VP5-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that were able to neutralize the virus in a plaque reduction assay were generated. To dissect the antigenic structure of AHSV VP5, the protein was cloned in Escherichia coli using the pET3 system. The immunoreactivity of both MAbs, and horse and rabbit polyclonal antisera, with 17 overlapping fragments from VP5 was analyzed. The most immunodominant region was found in the N-terminal 330 residues of VP5, defining two antigenic regions, I (residues 151-200) and II (residues 83-120). The epitopes were further defined by PEPSCAN analysis with 12mer peptides, which determined eight antigenic sites in the N-terminal half of the molecule. Neutralizing epitopes were defined at positions 85-92 (PDPLSPGE) for MAb 10AE12 and at 179-185 (EEDLRTR) for MAb 10AC6. Epitope 10AE12 is highly conserved between the different orbiviruses. MAb 10AE12 was able to recognize bluetongue virus VP5 and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus VP5 by several techniques. These data will be especially useful for vaccine development and diagnostic purposes.  (+info)

The highly ordered double-stranded RNA genome of bluetongue virus revealed by crystallography. (2/353)

The concentration of double-stranded RNA within the bluetongue virus core renders the genome segments liquid crystalline. Powder diffraction rings confirm this local ordering with a 30 A separation between strands. Determination of the structure of the bluetongue virus core serotype 10 and comparison with that of serotype 1 reveals most of the genomic double-stranded RNA, packaged as well-ordered layers surrounding putative transcription complexes at the apices of the particle. The outer layer of RNA is sufficiently well ordered by interaction with the capsid that a model can be built and extended to the less-ordered inner layers, providing a structural framework for understanding the mechanism of this complex transcriptional machine. We show that the genome segments maintain local order during transcription.  (+info)

Expression and functional characterization of bluetongue virus VP2 protein: role in cell entry. (3/353)

Segment 2 of bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 10, which encodes the outer capsid protein VP2, was tagged with the S-peptide fragment of RNase A and expressed by a recombinant baculovirus. The recombinant protein was subsequently purified to homogeneity by virtue of the S tag, and the oligomeric nature of the purified protein was determined. The data obtained indicated that the majority of the protein forms a dimer and, to a lesser extent, some trimer. The recombinant protein was used to determine various biological functions of VP2. The purified VP2 was shown to have virus hemagglutinin activity and was antigenically indistinguishable from the VP2 of the virion. Whether VP2 is responsible for BTV entry into permissive cells was subsequently assessed by cell surface attachment and internalization studies with an immunofluorescence assay system. The results demonstrated that VP2 alone is responsible for virus entry into mammalian cells. By competition assay, it appeared that both VP2 and the BTV virion attached to the same cell surface molecule(s). The purified VP2 also had a strong affinity for binding to glycophorin A, a sialoglycoprotein component of erythrocytes, indicating that VP2 may be responsible for BTV transmission by the Culicoides vector to vertebrate hosts during blood feeding. Further, by various enzymatic treatments of BTV-permissive L929 cells, preliminary data have been obtained which indicated that the BTV receptor molecule(s) is likely to be a glycoprotein and that either the protein moiety of the glycoprotein or a second protein molecule could also serve as a coreceptor for BTV infection.  (+info)

Incursion of bluetongue virus into the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia. (4/353)

Bluetongue virus was isolated from a sentinel herd in British Columbia. Virus isolation was by intravenous inoculation of embryonated chicken eggs and subculture in BHK-21 cells. The cytopathic agent was identified as bluetongue virus by electron microscopy and the immunoperoxidase test. The serotype was identified as serotype 11 by virus neutralization.  (+info)

NTP binding and phosphohydrolase activity associated with purified bluetongue virus non-structural protein NS2. (5/353)

The bluetongue virus ssRNA-binding protein, NS2, is a phosphoprotein that forms viral inclusion bodies in infected cells. Recombinant NS2 was expressed in the baculovirus expression system and purified to homogeneity from insect cells. Purified NS2 bound nucleosides. Further investigation revealed that the protein bound ATP and GTP and could hydrolyse both nucleosides to their corresponding NMPs, with a higher efficiency for the hydrolysis of ATP. The increased efficiency of hydrolysis of ATP correlated with a higher binding affinity of NS2 for ATP than GTP. Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) were able to function as the required divalent cation in the reactions. The phosphohydrolase activity was not sensitive to ouabain, an inhibitor of cellular ATPases, suggesting that this activity was not the result of a cellular contaminant.  (+info)

Functional dissection of the major structural protein of bluetongue virus: identification of key residues within VP7 essential for capsid assembly. (6/353)

A lattice of VP7 trimers forms the surface of the icosahedral bluetongue virus (BTV) core. To investigate the role of VP7 oligomerization in core assembly, a series of residues for substitution were predicted based on crystal structures of BTV type 10 VP7 molecule targeting the monomer-monomer contacts within the trimer. Seven site-specific substitution mutations of VP7 have been created using cDNA clones and were employed to produce seven recombinant baculoviruses. The effects of these mutations on VP7 solubility, ability to trimerize and formation of core-like particles (CLPs) in the presence of the scaffolding VP3 protein, were investigated. Of the seven VP7 mutants examined, three severely affected the stability of CLP, while two other mutants had lesser effect on CLP stability. Only one mutant had no apparent effect on the formation of the stable capsid. One mutant in which the conserved tyrosine at residue 271 (lower domain helix 6) was replaced by arginine formed insoluble aggregates, implying an effect in the folding of the molecule despite the prediction that such a change would be accommodated. All six soluble VP7 mutants were purified, and their ability to trimerize was examined. All mutants, including those that did not form stable CLPs, assembled into stable trimers, implying that single substitution may not be sufficient to perturb the complex monomer-monomer contacts, although subtle changes within the VP7 trimer could destabilize the core. The study highlights some of the key residues that are crucial for BTV core assembly and illustrates how the structure of VP7 in isolation underrepresents the dynamic nature of the assembly process at the biological level.  (+info)

Malignant catarrhal fever: polymerase chain reaction survey for ovine herpesvirus 2 and other persistent herpesvirus and retrovirus infections of dairy cattle and bison. (7/353)

Using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for sequences of ovine herpesvirus 2 (OHV2), this virus was shown to be significantly associated with sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF) in terminal cases of disease in 34 cattle and 53 bison. Ovine herpesvirus 2 was not detected in cattle (38) and bison (10) that succumbed to other diseases. Other persistent herpesviruses, retroviruses, and pestivirus, some of which have been previously isolated from cases of SA-MCF, were not associated with the disease. These included bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4), bovine lymphotrophic herpesvirus (BLHV), bovine syncytial virus (BSV, also known as bovine spumavirus), bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). A PCR survey for OHV2 in DNA from individual cow's peripheral blood lymphocytes in 4 dairies showed that the 1 dairy that was in close contact to sheep had a prevalence of OHV2 of 21.3%, whereas the 3 other dairies had no OHV2. Prevalence of the other herpesviruses and retroviruses in the dairy cows was variable, ranging from 2% to 51% for BHV4, 52% to 78.7% for BLHV, and 10% to 34% for BSV. Bovine lymphotrophic herpesvirus and BSV were also found in a few (1-4 of 21 tested) cases of terminal SA-MCF, but BIV and BVDV were not found in either the dairy cows sampled, or in the cases of SA-MCE No significant correlation was found between the presence of any 2 viruses (OHV2, BHV4, BLHV, BSV) in the dairy cows or terminal cases of SA-MCE  (+info)

Multimers of the bluetongue virus nonstructural protein, NS2, possess nucleotidyl phosphatase activity: similarities between NS2 and rotavirus NSP2. (8/353)

The nonstructural protein, NS2, of bluetongue virus is a nonspecific single- stranded RNA-binding protein that forms large homomultimers and accumulates in viral inclusion bodies of infected cells. NS2 shares these features with the nonstructural protein, NSP2, of rotavirus, which like BTV is a member of the family Reoviridae. Recently, NSP2 was shown to have an NTPase activity and an autokinase activity that catalyzed its phosphorylation in vitro. To examine NS2 for similar enzymatic activities, the protein was expressed in bacteria with a C-terminal His-tag and purified to homogeneity. Recombinant (r)NS2 possessed nonspecific RNA-binding activity and formed 8-10S homomultimers of the same approximate size as rNSP2 homomultimers. Notably, enzymatic assays performed with rNS2 showed that the protein hydrolyzed the alpha, beta, and gamma phosphodiester bonds of all four NTPs. Therefore, rNS2 possesses a nucleotidyl phosphatase activity instead of the NTPase activity of NSP2, which only hydrolyzes the gamma phosphodiester bonds of NTPs. NS2 did not exhibit any autokinase activity in vitro, unlike NSP2. However, both NS2 and NSP2 were phosphorylated in vitro by cellular kinases. Although the nature of the enzymatic activities differs significantly, the fact that both NS2 and NSP2 hydrolyze NTPs, undergo phosphorylation, bind RNA, and assemble into multimers consisting of 6 +/- 2 subunits suggests that they are functional homologs.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic reassortment of bluetongue virus Serotype 11 strains in the bovine. AU - Oberst, R. D.. AU - Stott, Jeffrey L. AU - Blanchard, Myra. AU - Osburn, Bennie. PY - 1987. Y1 - 1987. N2 - Reassortants of bluetongue virus Serotype 11 (BTV-11) were isolated from a yearling heifer experimentally infected with two electrophoretically different strains (UC-2 and UC-8) by subcutaneous inoculation. Viruses were recovered by direct titration of sonicated blood samples onto Vero cell monolayers, which were overlaid with agarose and later plaque purified. The parental electropherotype of UC-8 was identified as the predominant virus strain during the infection; UC-2 was not isolated. UC-2 inffectivity was shown by reassortants which contained genome segments that were identical in migration pattern to the parental UC-2 electropherotype. The observations demonstrate that segmental reassortment can occur during mixed infections in the bovine, between strains of the same BTV serotype.. AB - ...
Jeggo, M. H., Wardley, R. C. and Brownlie, J. 1985, Importance of ovine cytotoxic T cells in protection against bluetongue virus infection, Progress in clinical and biological research, vol. 178, pp. 477-487. ...
Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the type species of the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae (1, 2), that exists as at least 27 distinct serotypes (3, 4). The BTV can infect most ruminants, causing severe "bluetongue" disease (BT). The BTV particle is icosahedral and nonenveloped and is composed of a three-layered protein capsid surrounding 10 double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome segments ranging in size from 3,944 to 822 bp. The genome segments, identified as segments 1 to 10 (Seg-1 to Seg-10) in order of decreasing size (2), encode 7 structural proteins (VP1 to VP7) and 5 nonstructural proteins (NS1, NS2, NS3/3a, NS4, and NS5) (5-9).. BTV strains from different continents have evolved separately, acquiring multiple point mutations, developing characteristic regional variants/"topotypes" of each genome segment. Full-genome sequence data are available for BTV-2 from Taiwan (10), belonging to the major eastern (e) topotype; a reassortant-strain of BTV-2 carrying a western (w) Seg-5 (11); and five BTV-2(w) ...
Bluetongue virus, type 10 ATCC ® VR-1231AF™ Designation: Bluetongue virus type 10 immune ascitic fluid [V-519-701-562] Application:
Hall, S.J.; van Dijk, A.A.; Huismans, H., 1989: Complete nucleotide sequence of gene segment 8 encoding non-structural protein NS2 of SA bluetongue virus serotype 10
Since 1998, Bluetongue virus (BTV)-serotypes 1, 2, 4, 9, and 16 have invaded European countries around the Mediterranean Basin. In 2006, a huge BT outbreak started after incursion of BTV serotype 8 (BTV8) in North-Western Europe. IN 2008, BTV6 and BTV11 were reported in the Netherlands and Germany, and in Belgium, respectively. In addition, Toggenburg orbivirus (TOV) was detected in 2008 in Swiss goats, which was recognized as a new serotype of BTV (BTV25). The (re-)emergency of BTV serotypes needs a rapid response to supply effective vaccines. Reverse genetics has been developed for BTV1 and more recently also for BTV6. This latter strain, BTV6/net08, is closely related to live-attenuated vaccine for serotype 6 as determined by full genome sequencing. Here, we used this strain as backbone and exchanged segment 2 and 6, respectively Seg-2 (VP2) and Seg-6 (VP5), for those of BTV serotype 1 and 8 using reverse genetics. These so-called serotyped vaccine viruses, as mono-serotype and ...
The spread of bluetongue virus (BTV) is most successfully controlled by vaccination of susceptible ruminant populations. Currently two different types of BTV vaccines are used for this purpose; inactivated, mostly monovalent vaccine formulations and modified live virus vaccines (MLVs). Clinical signs and viraemia in Dorset Poll sheep vaccinated with BTV-4 and BTV-16 MLVs or inoculated with homogenates of midges (C. sonorensis and C. nubeculosus) previously infected with BTV-4 MLV are presented. All sheep vaccinated with the two MLVs mounted an infectious viraemia lasting for a minimum of 9 up to 23 days post vaccination and developed a range of clinical signs associated with BTV infection. Peak viraemia titres recorded in individual sheep ranged from 3.5 to 6.83 log(10)TCID(50)/ml indicating a high potential for infection of vector insects and onward transmission. The implications of these results are discussed with reference to the current outbreaks of BTV occurring in northern Europe and in ...
Bluetongue virus (BTV) is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges and was previously confined to tropical and sub-tropical regions but is now endemic in several Southern European countries, including Cyprus, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Italy and France (Corsica). Epidemiological studies and phylogenetic analyses (primarily by members of the PALE-Blu consortium) have identified new introductions or discoveries of the virus in Europe each year since 1998, involving eleven distinct BTV serotypes (BTV-1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 11, 14, 16, 25, and 27).. Bluetongue disease (BT) represents an important threat to livestock health and food production in Europe and neighbouring countries. The continuing arrival of new exotic strains from neighbouring regions, suggests that incursions by BTV (and possibly by related orbiviruses and other arboviruses) are likely to continue in Europe for the foreseeable future.. BTV Outbreaks: The first outbreak of bluetongue (BT) ever recorded in Northern Europe (caused by BTV8) ...
The presence of Bluetongue virus (BTV) in Northern Australia poses an ongoing threat for animal health and although clinical disease has not been detected in livestock, it limits export of livestock from the infected areas. BTV presence is governed by variable environmental conditions, which influence vector and host habitats. The National Arbovirus Monitoring Program (NAMP) was established to determine the extent of virus activity and control the risk of infection spread. Groups of young cattle, previously unexposed to infection, are regularly tested to detect evidence of transmission. This approach is labour and cost intensive and difficult to operate in the remote areas of Northern Australia. The resulting data are therefore characterised by spatial and temporal gaps. The aim of this research is to assess the use of remotely sensed environmental and climatic data as a means of predicting the distribution of BTV seroprevalence throughout Northern Australia to complement conventional ...
The British Veterinary Association has warned of the possibility of the Bluetongue virus taking hold in the UK, following reports of BTV-8 in cattle in northern France.
EU - Bluetongue Virus (BTV) continues to be a problem in Europe, with France reporting more than 90 outbreaks in the last few weeks, according to Sandrine Moine, PhD, R&D Manager at Thermo Fisher Scientific. Diagnostic tests can quickly and reliably identify the virus and help veterinarians contain the disease.
Evolution and Phylogenetic Analysis of Full-Length VP3 Genes of Eastern Mediterranean Bluetongue Virus Isolates. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Bluetongue is a viral disease of ruminants which is transmitted by Culicoides midges. Since the late 1990s a series of bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes have invaded Mediterranean Europe. In 2006 other BTV serotypes also invaded temperate Europe. This twofold invasion pattern has resulted in large economic loses mainly for sheep farmers. In Mediterranean Europe bluetongue is
Bluetongue disease is a viral infection that has killed approximately 2 million cattle in Europe over the past two decades. A new study has revealed the atomic structure of the Bluetongue virus, including the means by which it infects healthy host cells. Scientists hope to use this information to aid in the creation of vaccines and drug treatments for bluetongue disease.. A team led by Hong Zhou, a professor of microbiology, immunology and molecular genetics and faculty director of the Electron Imaging Center for Nanomachines at UCLAs California Nanosystems Institute, collaborated on the research with a team led by Polly Roy, professor of virology at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. The research was published in the journal Nature Structural and Molecular Biology.. Using cryo-electron microscopy, the researchers discovered the Bluetongue viruss two-step process for infecting healthy cells. The virus has sensor proteins on its surface that detect changes in the acidity of its ...
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Simply ask us ! One of the most interesting features of EVAgs catalogue is its flexibility, please do not hesitate to contact us by using our contact form. We can add to the catalogue tailor-made products on demand, as well as access to plateforms, or services. With the large panel of virology laboratories in our consortium, there are good chances that we would have what you are looking for. If you are interested in acquiring cell-lines, please visit this page: access-cell-lines.. If you are interested in acquiring insect vectors, please visit this page: access-insect-vectors.. ...
Simply ask us ! One of the most interesting features of EVAgs catalogue is its flexibility, please do not hesitate to contact us by using our contact form. We can add to the catalogue tailor-made products on demand, as well as access to plateforms, or services. With the large panel of virology laboratories in our consortium, there are good chances that we would have what you are looking for. If you are interested in acquiring cell-lines, please visit this page: access-cell-lines.. If you are interested in acquiring insect vectors, please visit this page: access-insect-vectors.. ...
... (HD) is an infectious viral disease transmitted by tiny biting flies (often referred to as midges, gnats, or no-see-ums) in the genus Culicoides. HD is caused by two closely related viruses in the genus Obrbivirus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) and bluetongue virus. There are 2 subtypes of EHD virus and 5 subtypes of bluetongue in North America. Because disease features produced by these viruses are indistinguishable, a general term, hemorrhagic disease, often is used when the specific virus is unknown. Although EHD and bluetongue virus are infectious to a wide range of wild ruminants, susceptibility varies among species. Clinical disease has been reported in white-tailed deer, mule deer, bighorn sheep, elk, and pronghorn. Antibodies or virus have been detected in bison and mountain goats; however, these infections were not associated with disease. Although large die-offs of HD have not been reported in Arizona, antibodies for the disease have been documented in mule ...
Following the first ever case of bluetongue in Denmark during late 2007, further outbreaks were observed in Denmark during 2008, despite vaccination against bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 8 (BTV-8) in the southern part of the country. In total, 15 separate outbreaks of infection were identified, mostly as a result of clinical suspicions but also because of surveillance of bulk milk samples. These outbreaks led to extensions of the original vaccination zone planned for 2008. Blood samples from clinical suspects were analysed using ELISA and real-time RT-PCR assays for the presence of anti-BTV antibodies and viral RNA, respectively. A newly infected calf from the primary outbreak in 2008 was studied for a period of three months, during which time it seroconverted to BTV, but the presence of viral RNA in its blood was maintained throughout this time. Each outbreak was caused by BTV-8, as determined by a serotype-specific real-time RT-PCR assay. Furthermore, the nucleotide sequence of a portion of ...
The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) has confirmed a positive case of Bluetongue virus in Ontario as part of routine surveillance testing.. Bluetongue is not contagious, but is spread by biting midges and can infect cattle, bison, deer, goats and sheep. There is no human health or food safety risk and the virus cannot survive outside the biting midge or animal host. The virus also cannot be spread through contact with animal carcasses or other animal products (meat, fibre).. Cattle and goats show very few clinical signs of infection. Cattle may exhibit a mild to moderate fever, and swelling of the coronary band above the hoof, so they walk stiffly and are reluctant to get up. Other symptoms include: nasal discharge, swelling of the head and neck, runny eyes, swelling and sores in the mouth, and drooling. Goats tend to exhibit mild to moderate fever, runny eyes and drooling. The disease can only be confirmed by a lab test and there is no treatment.. The strain detected in Ontario is native ...
Compare Australia to your country…if you live in Europe. THs is an accurate map of Australia overlaid over the majority of Europe. This map alone, shows you why there is no risk of Bluetongue Virus reaching the southern states of Australia, and why the zones and Australias NAMP research and continual mapping systems gives your country assurances they need. There has been 1 naturally occurred case of BTV tested in Australia, and that was in 1979. That was in a cattle, at a place called Dumpty Doo, which is approx. near the red oval dot, in the ocean at the top of Norway on the left. I am situated in Melbourne which is approx. in the Mediterranean near Crete. And in between is a huge desert. Lets see how big Australia is - Australia- · 7, 692, 030 square km · (China: 9,597,000 sq km) · Lowest, flattest, geographically uniform continent · very old Land use: 6% arable, 58% pasture, 14% forest, 22% other (mostly desert) · Blue Tongue- Australia 1 Bluetongue is an insect-borne, viral disease ...
ITALY – Bluetongue has returned to the country’s south western peninsula, identified in cattle on two small holdings.
FRANCE - French authorities, veterinarians and farmers have mobilised to manage a recent outbreak of bluetongue virus (BTV), thanks to support from Thermo Fisher Scientific.
Kramps, J.A, et al., Validation of a commercial ELISA for the detection of bluetongue virus (BTV)-specific antibodies in individual milk samples of Dutch dairy cows, Vet. Microbiol. (2008), doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2008.01.004 ...
4.4Posebna opozorila za vsako ciljno živalsko vrsto. Občasno lahko prisotnost maternalnih protiteles pri ovcah minimalne priporočene starosti vpliva na zaščito, ki jo zagotavlja cepivo.. Na voljo ni nobenih informacij o uporabi cepiva pri seropozitivnem govedu niti pri govedu z maternalnimi protitelesi.. Ob uporabi cepiva pri drugih domačih in divjih vrstah prežvekovalcev, ki jih ogroža okužba, je potrebna previdnost; pred množičnim cepljenjem je priporočljivo testno cepljenje manjšega števila živali. Učinkovitost pri drugih vrstah se lahko razlikuje od dokazane učinkovitosti pri ovcah in govedu.. 4.5Posebni previdnostni ukrepi. Posebni previdnostni ukrepi za uporabo pri živalih. Cepite le zdrave živali.. Posebni previdnostni ukrepi, ki jih mora izvajati oseba, ki živalim daje zdravilo. Ni smiselno.. 4.6Neželeni učinki (pogostost in resnost). Povprečno povišanje telesne temperature, ki varira med 0,5 in 1,0 ° C, je pogosta reakcija pri ovcah in govedu. Povišana telesna ...
10.OCHRANNÁ LEHOTA. 0 dní.. 11.OSOBITNÉ BEZPEČNOSTNÉ OPATRENIA NA UCHOVÁVANIE. Uchovávať mimo dohľadu a dosahu detí. Uchovávať a prepravovať v chlade (2 °C - 8 °C). Nezmrazovať.. Chrániť pred svetlom.. Čas použiteľnosti po prvom otvorení obalu: 10 hodín.. Nepoužívať tento veterinárny liek po dátume exspirácie uvedenom na štítku/ škatuli.. 12.OSOBITNÉ UPOZORNENIA. Osobitné bezpečnostné opatrenia pre každý cieľový druh:. Príležitostne môže prítomnosť materských protilátok u oviec v minimálnom odporúčanom veku narúšať ochranu navodenú vakcínou.. Nie sú dostupné žiadne informácie o použití vakcíny u séropozitívneho hovädzieho dobytka vrátane hovädzieho dobytka, ktorý má materské protilátky.. Pri použití v prípade iných domácich a voľne žijúcich prežúvavcov, u ktorých sa predpokladá riziko infekcie, by sa vakcína mala používať obozretne a odporúča sa vyskúšať vakcínu na malom počte zvierat pred hromadným ...
Testing for foot and mouth disease (FMD) has led to the first confirmed case of the bluetongue virus on a farm near Ipswich. The virus, found in a highland cow on the site, does not harm humans but can be fatal to sheep, and affect the milk yields in cows. It is transferred by midges and other biting insects; Defra has said that the case will not be classified as an outbreak until the virus is found in an insect on the site. The cow, named Debbie, was removed and culled yesterday, and scientists are urging caution from farmers and livestock owners: It remains vitally important that farmers maintain vigilance for this disease and report any suspect cases, particularly as clinical signs may be similar to foot and mouth disease, said Chief Veterinary Officer Debbie Reynolds. Indeed this diagnosis comes as another case of FMD was found on a farm within the control zone in Surrey, and cattle were duly culled there at the weekend, bringing the total number of farms the disease has been found on to ...
TURKEY – Turkish veterinary authorities have vaccinated 30,000 sheep in a bid to put the brakes on the ever spreading Bluetongue virus.
Aliquots of wash fluids were taken from wells 1, 2 and 10 in each wash plate, as well as from the media in which the embryos were held before (virus bath) and after washing (holding medium). All the specimens were processed separately on BHK-21 cells.. Embryos were added to 200 µL Eagles minimum essential medium (EMEM) (BioWhittaker, Cambrex) in Eppendorf tubes (AEC-Amersham, Johannesburg), homogenised for 30 s and centrifuged for 5 min at 9300 rcf using an Eppendorf 5415 R centrifuge. Supernatants were aliquoted in 96-well plates in triplicate in 25-µL volumes per well. A 100-µL volume of BHK-21 cells in EMEM was added and the plates were incubated for 6 days at 37 ºC in an incubator containing 5% CO2 before reading. The cells were monitored for the cytopathic effects of BTV. Negative cell cultures were blind-passaged after 7 days for two additional passages.. Experiment 2. The objective of this experiment was to recover embryos from viraemic donors at the peak of viraemia. The same ewes ...
Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a vector-borne disease affecting ruminants, causing morbidity and mortality amongst commercial livestock herds. Historically, BTV was not endemic in Europe, however in the past two decades various BTV serotypes have periodically invaded Southern and Eastern Europe. In 2006 the first epizootic of BTV was observed above latitude 50N anywhere in the world, centred near Maastricht.
Modumo, Jacob and Venter, Estelle H. Determination of the minimum protective dose for bluetongue virus serotype 2 and 8 vaccines in sheep. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc., 2012, vol.83, no.1, p.24-30. ISSN 1019- ...
Hi! I'm getting this ''fail'' in the auto analysis, what does it means? The rest i think is good (incluind the vibs). Pixhawk 2.1 with V3.5.3 - T-Motor 4012-13 (4x) / payload: sony a5100 / 12k 6s. AWG: 3593gr | Usi…
46 Bluetongue Dating divergence times for bluetongue virus and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus serotypes The nucleotide sequences of Seg-2 from BTV and EHDV provide a basis for the calculation of molecular evolutionary rates (MER) using Bayesian methodologies (Drummond and Rambaut, 2007). Upper and lower limits for the evolutionary rate of Seg-2 were estimated at 10À4 and 10À5 changes/site/year. These values were used to calculate the time at which different BTV serotypes diverged from a common ancestor (using the formula: divergence time = [geneticdistance/2*1/MER]). Nomikou), India (personal communication: Dr. S. , 2004), Taiwan and Indonesia. Equine encephalosis virus Equine encephalosis virus is associated with disease of horses in southern Africa. The virus was first identified in 1967 from horses that died from an unknown peracute illness. Serological investigations revealed that widespread EEV infections of horses had occurred during the summer of 1967 but that Bluetongue virus, ...
Citation: Wilson, W.C., O Hearn, E.S. 2006. Preliminary development of a real-time PCR for all serotypes of Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus. American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians. Interpretive Summary: Epizootic hemorrhagic diseases virus (EHDV) has been associated with bluetongue-like disease in cattle. Although US EHDV strains have not been experimentally proven to cause disease in cattle there is serologic evidence of infection in cattle. Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes an estimated $125,000,000 annual loss to the U.S. livestock industry and about $3,000,000,000 annual losses worldwide. Therefore rapid diagnosis and differentiation of BTV and EHDV is required. Our laboratory has developed a genetic test that detects all EHDV serotypes based on DNA sequence analysis. The EHDV detection assay does not cross-react with BTV serotypes; however, this assay is less sensitive than double amplification protocols. The sensitivity for all eight serotypes is sufficient for ...
Livestock producers are being urged to step up their vigilance and biosecurity, following a series of outbreaks of bluetongue disease in sheep and cattle in northern Europe.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of the spatial and temporal distribution of and risk factors for Bluetongue serotype 1 epidemics in sheep Extremadura (Spain), 2007-2011. AU - Pascual-Linaza, Ana V.. AU - Martinez Lopez, Beatriz. AU - Pfeiffer, Dirk U.. AU - Moreno, José Carlos. AU - Sanz, Cristina. AU - Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel. PY - 2014/10/1. Y1 - 2014/10/1. N2 - Extremadura has been one of the regions in Spain most severely affected by Bluetongue (BT) epidemics. The first incursion of BTV, which was successfully eradicated one year later, occurred in 2004, involving the BTV-serotype 4. However, a second incursion occurred in September 2007, this time involving serotype 1. Since then, the implementation of intensive vaccination programs have significantly reduced BTV-1 occurrence, but the disease has not been completely eradicated yet.This study aimed to provide, for the first time, a complete description of the spatial and temporal patterns of BTV-1 occurrence in sheep in Extremadura from ...
Bluetongue virus (BTV) can be an arthropod-borne pathogen that triggers an often fatal, hemorrhagic disease in ruminants. for recognition of antibodies against the VP7 antigen. These data reveal that VSV replicon contaminants potentially stand for a secure and efficacious vaccine system with which to regulate long term outbreaks by BTV-8 or additional serotypes, specifically in previously non-endemic regions where discrimination between infected and vaccinated animals is vital. Introduction Bluetongue can be a hemorrhagic disease of ruminants thats due to bluetongue pathogen (BTV), an associate from the genus Orbivirus within the family midges. In cattle, goats, and wild ruminants, BTV contamination is typically asymptomatic despite prolonged viremia. These host species represent a potential reservoir for unnoticed dissemination of BTV in ruminant populations. In sheep, however, BTV contamination often results in an acute disease with associated high morbidity and mortality, depending on the ...
In this episode we will be interviewing Joe Ball. Joe is the owner of Bluetonguelizard.com.au and is arguably the Australian authority in their captive management and care. Joe is working on numerous bluetongue skink projects at present, some of which are world firsts! We will also be finding out more about some of Joes other interesting and rare projects. This show is a must for all of you who own, or want to own bluetongue skinks! We will also cover the latest industry news and give some feedback about the Goldcoast Reptile Expo!
NEWS IN BRIEF. // Veterinary Record: Journal of the British Veterinary Association;11/21/2009, Vol. 165 Issue 21, p610 The article offers news briefs related to veterinary medicine in Great Britain. Changes to the requirements for the post-import testing of animals susceptible to bluetongue virus have come into effect. A silent auction was held by the British Equine Veterinary Association Trust to help raise... ...
CANADA – Bluetongue disease has been confirmed in three beef cattle in Ontario, reports the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) reports after serology testing.
In 2007 information about bluetongue was distributed to veterinarians, farmers, stakeholders and other people dealing with farm animals.. A surveillance program for vectors was established during the summer 2007, and a surveillance program for cattle started in 2008.. Two dairy herds infected with BTV 8 were detected in the southern part of Norway, in Vest-Agder county, in February 2009. A following comprehensive investigation of the outbreak was carried out before the vector season began late April 2009, and two more infected herds were detected. One of these herds, a beef herd, was situated close to one of the index herds, and the other one, a dairy herd, was located in the neighbouring county, Aust- Agder. Based on the low virus level in the infected animals the Institute of Animal Health in Pirbright estimated the most probable time for infection of the herds to be between August and October 2008.. On the basis of the results from the investigation, monitoring and surveillance, and the fact ...
... First batch of bluetongue Bovilis BTV8 vaccine released to supply Nor... European countries ...BOXMEER Netherlands April 30 /-Intervet/Sche... Within the animal health sector there has been a recent emphasis on...,Intervet/Schering-Plough,Animal,Health,Outlines,Strength,of,the,Combination,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
Bluetongue is a viral disease of sheep and deer that is spread by the Culicoides species of gnat. However, there is some evidence that...
ITALY – Southern and central Italian livestock farms have been hit hard by a wave of over 1300 Bluetongue cases this month resulting in 459 sheep deaths.
Gardiner, M R. (1968) "Bluetongue of sheep," Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4: Vol. 9 : No. 2 , Article 5 ...
Bluetongue vaccine could begin arriving at wholesalers next week in readiness for distribution to veterinary surgeons and their clients, Farmers Weekly has learned.
Citation: Bennett, K.E., Hopper, J.E., Stuart, M.A., West, M.S., Drolet, B.S. 2008. Effects of Viral Infection on Blood Feeding Behavior and Fecundity in Culicoides Sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Interpretive Summary: Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is the primary vector of bluetongue virus (BTV) in North America and has been shown to be a competent vector of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). To determine whether infection with VSV or BTV affects blood feeding, midges were injected with VSV, BTV, or virus-free cell lysate and held 2, 3, or 4 days post inoculation (DPI) for VSV or 2, 4, or 7 DPI for BTV before being offered a non-infectious blood meal. Viral growth curves were determined for each virus. Measurements of fecundity, egg viability and days from hatching to the emergence of pupae were taken for individual females. The effect of viral infection in C. sonorensis on virus transmission and epidemiology is ...
The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecules storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters. ...
Looking for online definition of bluetongue disease in the Medical Dictionary? bluetongue disease explanation free. What is bluetongue disease? Meaning of bluetongue disease medical term. What does bluetongue disease mean?
Bluetongue disease is a non-contagious, insect-borne, viral disease of ruminants, mainly sheep and less frequently cattle, goats, buffalo, deer, dromedaries, and antelope. It is caused by the Bluetongue virus (BTV). The virus is transmitted by the midge Culicoides imicola, Culicoides variipennis, and other culicoids. In sheep, BTV causes an acute disease with high morbidity and mortality. BTV also infects goats, cattle and other domestic animals as well as wild ruminants (for example, blesbuck, white-tailed deer, elk, and pronghorn antelope). Major signs are high fever, excessive salivation, swelling of the face and tongue and cyanosis of the tongue. Swelling of the lips and tongue gives the tongue its typical blue appearance, though this sign is confined to a minority of the animals. Nasal signs may be prominent, with nasal discharge and stertorous respiration. Some animals also develop foot lesions, beginning with coronitis, with consequent lameness. In sheep, this can lead to knee-walking. In ...
Clinical signs include changes to the mucus membranes around the mouth, nose and coronary band of the foot. Generally the signs are more severe in sheep, than cattle. Symptoms notifiable are large numbers of sheep with lameness, high rectal temperatures, salivation, and lacrimation, ocular and nasal discharge. Incubation period of the virus is 4-12 days, followed by a fever (42 degrees C) and appear stiff or reluctant to move. Adopt arched back stance, neck extended, head lowered. Swelling on the face and ears, along with pulmonary oedema, sometimes causing breathing difficulties. Erosions may appear on lips, turning to ulcers. Profuse salivation and serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge. Reddening of the coronary band, and around the muzzle and mouth. Tongue may be swollen ...
Jeggo, M H. and Wardley, R C., "Generation of cross-reactive cytotoxic t lymphocytes following immunization of mice with various bluetongue virus types." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 3115 ...
... is a non-contagious, viral disease affecting domestic and wild ruminants (primarily sheep and including cattle and goats), that is transmitted by insects, particularly biting midges.. The severity of disease varies among different species with symptoms being most severe in sheep resulting in death, weight loss and disruption in wool growth. In highly susceptible sheep, morbidity can be as high as 100%. Mortality averages from 2-30% but can be as high as 70%. Cattle often have a higher infection rate than sheep and demonstration and severity of clinical signs varies depending on the strain of virus.. Where is the disease found?. Blue Tongue has a significant global distribution in regions where the insect vector (ie, biting midges species Culicoides) is present, including Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe and North America. The virus is maintained in areas where the climate will allow biting midges to survive over winter. The geographical distribution of the insect vector species ...
A viral disease is killing deer along the Platte River and possibly over a much wider area, according to the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission. There have been reports of dead deer in and near the river in eastern Nebraska.
Looking for online definition of orbiviruses in the Medical Dictionary? orbiviruses explanation free. What is orbiviruses? Meaning of orbiviruses medical term. What does orbiviruses mean?
This enabled the expression of a foreign gene in addition to the virus polyhedrin. , 1988). Each foreign sequence was placed under the control of the native or duplicated polyhedrin gene promoter. Similar expression vectors were derived by using a combination of the polyhedrin and p10 gene promoters (Weyer and Possee, 1991). A copy of the p10 gene promoter was inserted upstream of the polyhedrin gene promoter. The influenza virus haernagglutinin o r neuraminidase gene was placed under the control of each promoter and co-synthesis achieved in recombinant virus-infected cells. The influenza virus haernagglutinin o r neuraminidase gene was placed under the control of each promoter and co-synthesis achieved in recombinant virus-infected cells. Baculovirus expression vectors are not limited to the production of two foreign proteins in insect cells. , 1990). Five bluetongue virus structural proteins have been co-expressed within the same cell by coinfection of two dual recombinants and one single ...
There are several key results of this study. First, we add H. noctuae and H. syrnii to the list of Culicoides spp.-transmitted haemoproteids, supporting their belonging to the subgenus Parahaemoproteus [5, 12, 13]. Both these parasites completed sporogony in Culicoides biting midges, with sporozoites reported in salivary glands (Fig. 2g, i, j), indicating that these flies likely are natural vectors, as has been reported for Parahaemoproteus species [2, 5, 16]. Several other Parahaemoproteus parasites have been shown experimentally to complete sporogony in Culicoides spp. These are H. danilewskii [47, 48], H. dolniki [5], H. handai [1], H. mansoni [27], H. nettionis [49], and H. velans [50]. However, molecular characterisation of these avian haemoproteids has not been developed and cyt b sequence information is absent, thus they cannot be included in the phylogenetic analysis (Fig. 4).. Second, the phylogenetic analysis placed cyt b lineages both of H. noctuae and H. syrnii in the clade A (Fig. ...
Definitions of reverse genetics, +ve, -ve, sense and doubled stranded (DS) RNA viruses / Anne Bridgen -- Coronavirus reverse genetics / Paul Britton -- Hepatitis C and use of reverse genetics in drug design / Natalia Frias Staheli -- Norovirus reverse genetics / Ian Goodfellow -- Rhabdovirus reverse genetics / Klaus Conzelmann -- Modification of measles virus and application to pathogenesis studies / Paul Duprex -- Bunyavirus reverse genetics and application to interaction with host cells / Richard Elliott -- Influenza A virus vaccines / Wendy Barclay -- Bluetongue virus reverse genetics / Mark Boyce -- Reovirus reverse genetics / Rob Hoeben -- Reverse genetics and quasispecies / Marco Vignuzzi -- Summary and perspectives / Anne Bridgen ...
Urban areas encroachment on wildlife and farms means wild and domestic species are getting closer in proximity all the time. Ontario deer, sheep and cattle are now at risk for an infectious virus, from a specific species of midge thats found a new home in Eastern Canada. Researchers believe climate change has altered the midges windborne movement from the southern U.S. into Ontario, and warmer winters increase their chance to survive. So, now the midge (specifically the specie C. sonorensis) has been found biting and transmitting sometimes fatal diseases such as epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) and bluetongue to livestock.... Read More ...
Linlin Gu is the author of these articles in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Assays for the Identification of Novel Antivirals against Bluetongue Virus, Utilizing the Antigen Capsid-Incorporation Strategy for the Development of Adenovirus Serotype 5-Vectored Vaccine Approaches
The genus Orbivirus is a member of the Reoviridae family, in the subfamily Sedoreovirinae. Unlike the other reoviruses, orbiviruses are arboviruses. This genus currently contains 22 species (including the type species Bluetongue virus) and at least 130 different serotypes. Orbiviruses can infect and replicate within a wide range of arthropod and vertebrate hosts. Orbiviruses are named after their characteristic doughnut shaped capsomers (Orbi in Latin means ring). Many orbiviruses are transmitted by ticks or haematophagus insect vectors (Culicoides, mosquitoes and sand flies) and have a wide host range that includes cattle, goats and sheep, wild ruminants, equids, camelids, marsupials, sloths, bats, birds, large canine and feline carnivores and humans. The three economically most important orbiviruses are bluetongue virus, African horse sickness virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus all of which are transmitted by Culicoides species. The virons are non-enveloped particles that are ...
AbstractThe aim of the study was to estimate and compare the distribution of Culicoides biting midges species at farms with different main hosts - cattle and horse. Culicoides spp. are known vectors of arboviruses including African horse sickness virus (AHSV), bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV). The latter two have been already reported in Polish ruminants recently, while AHSV remains absent, however the risk of its emergence has been increasing in the recent years. In order to establish the activity of potential AHSV vector at vicinity of horses, an OVI midge trap has been placed at the horse stables in the southeastern Poland. Another trap has been placed 7 km away at the cattle farm. The collections were carried over the midge activity season from April until November 2016. The midge abundances at both sites were comparable with the total numbers of insects trapped of 43,153 and 34,829 at the cattle and horse farm, respectively. Midges belonging to C. obsoletus/scoticus complex were
Poster (2015, September 01). Objective: Following reintroduction and conservation programs of the Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) and the scimitar horned oryx (SHO, Oryx dammah) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), import of animals from ... [more ▼]. Objective: Following reintroduction and conservation programs of the Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) and the scimitar horned oryx (SHO, Oryx dammah) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), import of animals from wild game ranches in the United States of America (USA) is not uncommon. Bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) are orbiviruses that are the causative agents of bluetongue disease (BT) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD), respectively. BTV and EHDV are endemic in the UAE and the USA. Sheep and some wild ruminant species are usually severely affected by BT whereas EHD mostly affects wild animals and sometimes cattle. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of these orbiviruses in Arabian and SHO ...
The purpose of this project was to define monoclonal antibodies against viral proteins from Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (EHDV) to be used in quality control of vaccines produced by an industrial partner, and development of tools to identify EHDV. EHDV is an Orbivirus, which also includes Bluetongue Virus and African Horse Sickness, which are all transmitted through arthropod vectors. EHDV causes significant morbidity and mortality in white-tailed deer, but has recently been found to infect cattle. EHDV recently caused significant outbreaks affecting both the farmed and wild cervid industry, however few reagents and tools exist to protect against this disease or define the virus in vitro. To develop new, efficient reagents that can be used to identify EHDV, we identified and tested monoclonal antibodies against two different viral capsid proteins, VP2 and VP5. To do this, predictive algorithms were used to generate immunogenic peptides specific for each protein. Three groups of mice were used,
The outer-coat proteins, VP2 and VP5, of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) are important for host cell binding during the initiation of infection. They are also known to determine virus serotype. This study presents a complete genetic and phylogenetic analysis of these proteins (and the genes that code for them) to allow comparison of the selective pressures acting on each and the correlation of genetic sequence data with serotype. Accession numbers, gene and protein sizes, ORF positions, G+C contents, terminal hexanucleotides, start and stop codons and phylogenetic relationships are all presented. The results show that VP2 is highly variable, is under great pressure to adapt and can be correlated with serotype. While also variable, VP5 appears to be under less adaptive pressure than VP2 but still shows some correlation with serotype. Seven serotypes of EHDV have been defined in this study, although the results do show that some serotypes are extremely closely related--and highlight ...
This note documents a predation event on a juvenile Blotched Bluetongue Lizard (Tiliqua nigrolutea) by a Highlands Copperhead (Austrelaps ramsayi) in the Blue Mountains, Australia. The diet of elapid snakes in the genus Austrelaps consists mainly of frogs and small skinks. Adults of the larger Tiliqua species may be too large for Austrelaps species to consume, and juveniles of these larger Tiliqua are possibly approaching the larger end of consumable prey items for Austrelaps ...
Spike-forming protein that mediates virion attachment to the host epithelial cell receptors and plays a major role in cell penetration, determination of host range restriction and virulence. Rotavirus entry into the host cell probably involves multiple sequential contacts between the outer capsid proteins VP4 and VP7, and the cell receptors. According to the considered strain, VP4 seems to essentially target sialic acid and/or the integrin heterodimer ITGA2/ITGB1 (By similarity).
The Blues Preachers - Brother John on guitar, banjo and vocals, and Captain Bluetongue on harmonica, mountain dulcimer and vocals - will take you to another
African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is an insect-vectored emerging pathogen of equine species. AHSV (nine serotypes) is a member of the genus Orbivirus, with a morphology and coding strategy similar to that of the type member, bluetongue virus. However, these viruses are distinct at the genetic level, in the proteins they encode and in their pathobiology. AHSV infection of horses is highly virulent with a mortality rate of up to 90 %. AHSV is transmitted by Culicoides, a common European insect, and has the potential to emerge in Europe from endemic countries of Africa. As a result, a safe and effective vaccine is sought urgently. As part of a programme to generate a designed highly attenuated vaccine, we report here the recovery of AHSV from a complete set of RNA transcripts synthesized in vitro from cDNA clones. We have demonstrated the generation of mutant and reassortant AHSV genomes, their recovery, stable passage, and characterization. Our findings provide a new approach to investigate AHSV
Epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) is an arthropod-transmitted viral disease of certain wild ungulates, notably North American white-tailed deer and, more rarely, cattle. The disease in white-tailed deer results from vascular injury analogous to that caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), to which EHD virus (EHDV) is closely related. There are seven serotypes of EHDV recognised, and Ibaraki virus, which is the cause of sporadic disease outbreaks in cattle in Asia, is included in EHDV serotype 2. The global distribution and epidemiology of BTV and EHDV infections are also similar, as both viruses occur throughout temperate and tropical regions of the world where they are transmitted by biting Culicoides midges and infect a wide variety of domestic and wild ungulates. However, the global distribution and epidemiology of EHDV infection are less well characterised than they are for BTV. Whereas most natural and experimental EHDV infections (other than Ibaraki virus infection) of livestock are ...
Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) is a hemorrhagic disease caused by a virus. EHD is similar to bluetongue, another viral disease that can affect deer. It spreads from deer to deer by the bite of a small insect known as a midge. The disease quickly kills the deer through hemorrhaging within the body. A high fever may result, causing the deer to seek water to cool off. Dead deer usually are found in or near water. Deer may show bleeding from body openings, although they usually are in good body condition because of the quickness of the disease. EHD is not a threat to humans ...
A direct response by taking a swat at biting insects that pummeled Wyoming sheep with the bluetongue disease and the sheep ked is one of many reasons Y-TEX Corp. of Cody is the recipient of the Research Partner of the Year award.. The company, established in 1967, manufactures identification ear tags, insecticide ear tags, and other animal health products such as dusts and pour-ons that target livestock insects. The company created its first impregnated ear tag for control of the Gulf Coast ear tick on cattle in southern states, and it now manufactures insecticide cattle ear tags for various pests. These tags are marketed in the U.S. and exported from Cody to 12 countries.. "Since then, Y-TEX has become a national leader in developing insecticide ear tags and other specialty insecticide formulations for the livestock industry," says Jack Lloyd, professor emeritus in the College of Agricultures Department of Renewable Resources. "They have been particularly instrumental in developing products to ...
Contents, Vet Ital, 2017, Articles ahead of print, IV International Conference on Bluetongue and related orbiviruses. November 5-7, 2014 - Rome, Italy, ISSN 0505-401X, Electronic format ISSN 1828-1427
Washington : Vaccination against a single strain of Zika virus is sufficient to protect against its genetically diverse strains, a new study has claimed. Zika v
The yield loss estimates in the calculator assume that spraying results in a 100% kill and that there is no midge damage prior to chemical application. It also
By WBIR. An outbreak of Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease has killed hundreds of deer across East Tennessee. State wildlife leaders say the outbreak is the worst in a decade, but cold weather should end the outbreak.. A virus transmitted by tiny flies is killing hundreds of deer across East Tennessee.. With archery season for deer underway and firearm season just weeks away, some sportsmen are concerned that the outbreak of Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease has damaged white-tailed deer population to the point it will take years to restore in some areas. The disease is spread by biting midges and other tiny biting insects.. Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency information and education officer Mime Barnes says the disease is common, but the number of deer the virus has killed this year is the greatest since 2007.. "The disease has always been around and it kind up pops up here and there and theres no predictor of when its going to be an outbreak or how big the outbreak will be," Barnes said.. Barnes ...
Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are currently the most important biological vectors of livestock arboviruses in Europe. Outbreaks of bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV) continue to have a significant economic impact through clinical disease and the imposition of animal trade movement restrictions. At least three Culicoides-borne viruses recently identified in Europe possess an unknown origin, hence future outbreaks involving described or undescribed strains or species of Culicoides-borne viruses have a high potential of occurring in the future. These viruses could include further incursions of known arboviruses (including additional species of Culicoides-borne arboviruses such as African horse sickness or Epizootic Haemorhagic Disease Virus) or as yet undescribed species with an unknown pathogenicity to livestock or humans. In this project we will dissect Culicoides vector-arbovirus relationships across multiple ecosystems and species and in unprecedented ...
At least 19 mosquito species in the genera Anopheles, Culex, Aedes and Armigeres have been documented as hosts of C. anophelis (Table 1). These data indicate that C. anophelis has a broad host range. Furthermore, the infestation is commonly seen in the mosquito specimens in field collections [1-3]. In a recent report the midges were found on 8 of 11 (72.7%) An. stephensi collected in cattle sheds in India [4]. In another report from India, the prevalence of C. anophelis was 6.7% (87/1297) in five midge collections from April to August in 2004 [5]. Interestingly, in the same report, some of C. anophelis were caught directly on cattle and buffaloes, which indicates that C. anophelis can feed on animals other than mosquitoes [5]. Certain mosquitoes and Culicoides midges are vectors for arboviruses that cause human and/or animal diseases, such as mosquito-borne Dengue virus, West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and midge-borne bluetongue virus, Oropouche virus and Schmallenberg virus ...
Cases of epizootic hemorrhagic disease, or EHD, were reported this summer in South Dakota cattle herds and in white-tailed deer. EHD is viral disease spread by flies. Russ Daly, South Dakota State University Extension veterinarian, answers some frequently asked questions about the disease and its origins:
The Wildlife Management division of the Forest Preserve District of Cook County, together with the Illinois Department of Natural Resources, has identified an outbreak of Epizootic hemorrhagic disease......
25 26 26 A 15-month-old Limousin heifer presents with anorexia and is obtunded. 7°F). There is marked photophobia, blepharospasm, and corneal opacity. There are slight mucopurulent ocular and nasal discharges. The muzzle is markedly hyperaemic with sloughing of the overlying epithelium which bleeds readily on contact (26). There is increased saliva tion. There is a marked generalized peri pheral lymphadenopathy. The heifer is hyperaesthesic to tactile stimuli, especially around the head. There are no skin lesions. Iv. Control of bluetongue is very difficult because of the large number of potential hosts and virus serotypes. While control is aimed at keeping susceptible animals away from the vector this is not always practical. Control of the Culicoides vector can be attempted with pour-on insecticides, but this is expensive and does not achieve total freedom from the midge. Killed vaccines are used extensively worldwide and were successfully used in the UK in 2008. Most modified live vaccines ...
We recently described an assay that measures fusion from without induced in tissue culture cells by rotavirus, a nonenveloped, triple-protein-layered member of the Reoviridae family (M. M. Falconer, J. M. Gilbert, A. M. Roper, H. B. Greenberg, and J. S. Gavora, J. Virol. 69:5582-5591, 1995). The conditions required for syncytium formation are similar to those for viral penetration of the plasma membrane during the course of viral infection of host cells, as the presence of the outer-layer proteins VP4 and VP7 and the cleavage of VP4 are required. Here we present evidence that virus-like particles (VLPs) produced in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf-9 cells from recombinant baculoviruses expressing the four structural proteins of rotavirus can induce cell-cell fusion to the same extent as native rotavirus. This VLP-mediated fusion activity was dependent on trypsinization of VP4, and the strain-specific phenotype of individual VP4 molecules was retained in the syncytium assay similar to what has been seen ...
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is launching a new initiative on infectious diseases after a series of recent outbreaks in the EU, such as the Bluetongue (in Northern Europe in 2006), Schmallenberg (in 2011) and Q fever (in the Netherlands, 2007-2010), explains Franck Berthe ...
Wildlife biologists from the Indiana DNR Division of Fish & Wildlife have been investigating reports of sick or dead deer to determine if the cause is epizootic hemorrhagic disease.
v.10, n.3, 7 Case Report Bluetongue in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Northeastern Mexico Julio Martínez-Burnes, Hugo Barrios-García, Jorge Alva-Pérez, Rafael Ramírez-Romero, Luis Jorge García-Márquez, Alfonso López-Mayagoitia Abstract Bluetongue (BT) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer (EHD)... Read more » ...
In the western United States, blood-sucking members of the fly family lay their eggs in the soft mud near water troughs that quench thirsty livestock. These tiny but hardy insects are biting midges known as Culicoides (ku-li-COY-deez) sonorensis. Adult midges are only about as long as a nickel is thick.. But size can be deceptive. C. sonorensis are known to be disease carriers, or vectors, that transmit bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic viruses among livestock and wildlife. They are also suspected vectors of other viruses, such as vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), which infects cattle, horses, and swine.. VSV causes significant economic losses to the livestock industry from sickness, quarantines, and export limitations. Scientists believe that VSV spreads between quarantined herds by insects, but the main insect vector of VSV in the U.S. western plains is still unknown.. Microbiologist Barbara Drolet, with the ARS Arthropod-Borne Animal Diseases Research Laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming, has ...
Shot on location and broadcast on national TV, BTV takes INVESTORS directly to companies! Now 18 years strong and Canadas longest running business show, BTV-Business Television, a weekly investor program, features emerging companies and top analysts across the US and Canada. With Host, Taylor Thoen, BTV goes on location, interviewing key executives and showcasing their business to give investors insight and help them grow their portfolio. BTV is broadcast internationally to millions on TV via BNN, US Biz Network and Air Canada and top financial sites including: Bloomberg, Yahoo Finance, TMX Money, BNN.ca, Reuters, Globe Investor, OTC Markets, The National Post, MarketWatch, Stockhouse.com, etc. For upcoming episodes and how to have your company featured contact [email protected] ...
Shot on location and broadcast on national TV, BTV takes INVESTORS directly to companies! Now 18 years strong and Canadas longest running business show, BTV-Business Television, a weekly investor program, features emerging companies and top analysts across the US and Canada. With Host, Taylor Thoen, BTV goes on location, interviewing key executives and showcasing their business to give investors insight and help them grow their portfolio. BTV is broadcast internationally to millions on TV via BNN, US Biz Network and Air Canada and top financial sites including: Bloomberg, Yahoo Finance, TMX Money, BNN.ca, Reuters, Globe Investor, OTC Markets, The National Post, MarketWatch, Stockhouse.com, etc. For upcoming episodes and how to have your company featured contact [email protected] ...
Creative Biostructure produces Dengue Virus Serotype 3 VLP (E, M, preM Proteins) using advanced human and insect cells recombinant expression systems.
The UC-7101/UC-7110/UC-7112 mini Arm-based communication platforms are ideal for embedded applications. The computers come with 1 or 2 RS-232/422/485 serial ports and single or dual 10/100 Mbps Ethernet LAN ports to provide users with a versatile communication platform.. The UC-7101/UC-7110/UC-7112 platforms use the Arm9 CPU. The architecture and modern semiconductor technology used in the Arm9 CPU are designed to provide the CPU with a powerful computing engine and many useful communication functions, but without generating too much heat. The built-in 8 or 16 MB NOR Flash ROM and 16 or 32 MB SDRAM provide plenty of storage, and the SD slot (UC-7101 and UC-7112 only) provides users with flexible storage expansion to run applications that generate a lot of data.. The dual or single LAN ports built into the Arm9 make the UC-7101/7110/UC-7112 computers ideal communication platforms for data acquisition and protocol conversion applications, and the 1 or 2 RS-232/422/485 serial ports allow you to ...
Whitetail Sales & Supplies is your #1 source for all of your Deer Farming and Breeder Needs. We offer Fawn Care products from Milk Replacer to Bottles and Nipples, Probiotics, Vaccines, Fencing, Handling Equipment, Deer Chutes, Grain Mixers, Feed Supplements and everything you need for EHD prevention from the Culicoides biting Midge, ticks and Flies. We are your one stop shop for ULV Foggers and Misting Equipment, chemicals, pesticides and PBO.
Whitetail Sales & Supplies is your #1 source for all of your Deer Farming and Breeder Needs. We offer Fawn Care products from Milk Replacer to Bottles and Nipples, Probiotics, Vaccines, Fencing, Handling Equipment, Deer Chutes, Grain Mixers, Feed Supplements and everything you need for EHD prevention from the Culicoides biting Midge, ticks and Flies. We are your one stop shop for ULV Foggers and Misting Equipment, chemicals, pesticides and PBO.
Does your newborn is suffering from vitamin K deficiencies? Well, fret not! Here we have some information on Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn. Check out!
Rollo is a very itchy horse and, very nearly, suffers from sweet itch (an allergic dermatitic reaction caused by a protein in the saliva of the biting Culicoides midge). Sweet itch can be a devastating condition resulting in sometimes such extreme pruritus that skin damage can result - the horse scratches its skin to try and rid itself of the persistent itching (often centered around the mane and tail areas) to the point of seriously exfoliating the skin at worst, and at best really messing with their mane and tail often losing a lot of hair in the process! So horse owners are very keen to try and wage war against said Culicoides midges, not only to save the horse agro, but also because the horse looks a mess if Culicoides wins! Also, they are bloody annoying to me too as they seem to like me! Bastards.. So I have had to be really careful as a result of Rollo displaying early signs of sweet itch - he goes out in a fly rug (or perhaps that should be called an "anti-fly rug") during the day ...
Biology Assignment Help, Horse diseases-african horse sickness, African horse sickness African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly fatal insect born viral disease of equidae caused by an Orbivirus (family Reoviridae) and characterized by severe pyrexia, respiratory distress and high mortality (up to 95%). with e
Antheraea mylitta cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (AmCPV), a cypovirus of Reoviridae family, infects Indian non-mulberry silkworm, Antheraea mylitta, and contains 11 segmented double stranded RNA (S1-S11) in its genome. Some of its genome segments (S2 and S6-S11) have been previously characterized but genome segments encoding viral capsid have not been characterized. In this study genome segments 1 (S1) and 3 (S3) of AmCPV were converted to cDNA, cloned and sequenced. S1 consisted of 3852 nucleotides, with one long ORF of 3735 nucleotides and could encode a protein of 1245 amino acids with molecular mass of ~141 kDa. Similarly, S3 consisted of 3784 nucleotides having a long ORF of 3630 nucleotides and could encode a protein of 1210 amino acids with molecular mass of ~137 kDa. BLAST analysis showed 20-22% homology of S1 and S3 sequence with spike and capsid proteins, respectively, of other closely related cypoviruses like Bombyx mori CPV (BmCPV), Lymantria dispar CPV (LdCPV), and Dendrolimus punctatus CPV
African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly infectious and deadly disease spread by biting insects that affects horses, mules, and donkeys but rarely zebras.
A cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of African Horse sickness virus (AHSV) antibodies and identify potential risk factors in equine population at selected areas of central high land of Ethiopia from November 2011 to April 2012. A total of 546 sera (506 horses, 18 mules and 22 donkeys) were collected randomly. Competitive Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (c-ELISA) configuration was employed to determine the presence of AHSV antibodies. The apparent prevalence of AHSV was found to be 46 % in horses,61.1 % in mules and 36.4 % in donkeys. The overall apparent seroprevalence of AHSV in three species equine was found to be 46.2 %. Statistical significant (p 0.05) among age groups and sexes for seroprevalence of AHSV. In this study, all age groups as well as male and female populations were equally affected by African horse sickness disease. Questionnaire survey also indicated the presence of African horse sickness disease in the study areas. Therefore, control ...
[106 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global African Horse Sickness Vaccines Market Research Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the global African Horse Sickness Vaccines market...
When naturally infected with Bluetongue virus, the C. variipennis contains the Bluetongue Virus in the thorax, and then is ... Found in North America, C. variipennis transmits Bluetongue virus, African horse sickness virus, akabane virus, and epizootic ... C. variipennis transmits the Bluetongue virus, found in North America from latitude 40° N to 35° S. However, the virus is ... The C. v. variipennis is found in the north east United States, but is not a vector for Bluetongue virus in this area because ...
Melhorn, Heinz (June 2007). "First occurrence of Culicoides obsoletus-transmitted Bluetongue virus epidemic in Central Europe ...
Includes: Bluetongue virus, African horse sickness virus, Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, among others. Known ... Included: Rice dwarf virus, Rice gall dwarf virus and Wound tumor virus. Rotavirus A-E cause infantile gastroenteritis in ... Sedoreovirinae (sedo = smooth) is a subfamily of the Reoviridae family of viruses. Viruses in this subfamily are distinguished ... Included: Banna virus, Kadipiro virus and Liao ning virus. http://ictvonline.org/virusTaxonomy.asp[full citation needed] https ...
... bluetongue virus, Schmallenberg virus, African horse sickness, bovine ephemeral fever (C. osystoma and C. nipponesis), Akabane ... in 2006, bluetongue virus was first recorded in Northern Europe. In 2007 and 2008, there were huge outbreaks, going as far as ... main vector of bluetongue virus and African Horse Sickness in Southern Europe Culicoides chiopterus - Culicoides dewulfi - ... including the main vectors of bluetongue virus disease) were monophyletic, whereas the subgenus Oecacta was paraphyletic. The ...
The site also conducts research on viruses including foot and mouth disease and bluetongue virus. On Saturday 4 August 2007 it ... Professor Brian Spratt's report found that more likely than not the strain of the virus understandably came from the Merial ... Independent Review of the safety of UK facilities handling foot and mouth disease virus Professor Brian Spratt, August 2007 ...
His research also extended into African swine fever and blue tongue viruses. He prepared the UK for an epidemic of swine ... His studies included the survival of the virus in meat, concluding that the virus made use of the animal meat non-viable, a ... The Anti-bodies in Foot-and-Mouth Disease (1949) Studies of the Complement-Fixation Reaction in Virus Systems (1953) Plus many ...
"The membrane trafficking protein calpactin forms a complex with bluetongue virus protein NS3 and mediates virus release". ...
... is a biting midge which transmits the bluetongue virus and the African horse sickness virus. This particular ...
... virus Bluetongue virus Changuinola virus Chenuda virus Chobar Gorge virus Corriparta virus Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus ... Changuinola virus Irituia virus Jamanxi virus Jari virus Gurupi virus Monte Dourado virus Ourem virus Purus virus Saraca virus ... virus Great Island virus Ieri virus Lebombo virus Orungo virus Palyam virus Peruvian horse sickness virus St Croix River virus ... virus Great Island virus Kemerovo virus Essaouira virus Kala iris virus Mill Door/79 virus Rabbit syncytium virus Tribeč virus ...
Bluetongue virus is closely related to EHD, and has similar clinical signs, but it is a different disease. Bluetongue is a ... Testing at animal health laboratories is necessary to distinguish between the viruses that cause bluetongue and EHD. The ... caused by an infection of a virus from the genus Orbivirus. It is an infectious, and sometimes fatal, virus that is ... "Facts About Bluetongue And EHD." Grand View Outdoors, 18 Dec. 2014, www.grandviewoutdoors.com/big-game-hunting/facts-about- ...
... and such a vaccine has recently been successfully developed for bluetongue virus of sheep. Single-cycle viruses are also widely ... His research in the early 1970s was in the field of plant viruses, including tobacco rattle virus and tobacco necrosis virus, ... Minson's group called the resulting virus a "disabled infectious single cycle" (DISC) virus; similarly disabled viruses are ... "Generation of Replication-Defective Virus-Based Vaccines That Confer Full Protection in Sheep against Virulent Bluetongue Virus ...
The complete DNA sequence of the Epstein-Barr virus was completed in 1984. Bluetongue virus (BTV) has been in the forefront of ... ISBN 978-1-904455-03-5. Roy P (2008). "Molecular Dissection of Bluetongue Virus". Animal Viruses: Molecular Biology. Caister ... Some viruses are used as vectors for gene therapy. Virus vectors have been developed that mediate stable genetic modification ... Other viruses such as Papillomavirus, Coronavirus, Caliciviruses, Paramyxoviruses and Influenza virus have also been ...
The sheep ked is capable of transmitting bluetongue virus in sheep, though little evidence suggests they are bluetongue disease ... A. J. Luedke; M. M. Jochim & J. G. Bowne (1965). "Preliminary Bluetongue Transmissions with the Sheep Ked Melophagus Ovinus (L ...
... he discovered multiple viruses related to bluetongue, including bluetongue 20 virus, the first bluetongue-like virus from ... He also served on the WHO Expert Panel on Virus Diseases and the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, as well as ... which were the first viruses shown to be related to rabies. He characterised Thottapalayam virus, later shown to be the first ... particularly known for his work on arthropod-borne viruses and emerging infectious diseases. He discovered more novel viruses ...
The virus that she has dedicated most of her career to is Bluetongue disease that affects sheep and cattle. She became ... After her post-doctoral work, she went to the University of Alabama at Birmingham to begin her own Blue Tongue Virus research ... interested in this virus after attending a symposium and was intrigued by the fact that not much was known about the virus that ... RNA Virology Viral Genetics Protein Function & Capsid Assembly Replication of Segmented Genome & Packaging Virus Trafficking in ...
Other diseases from which these animals suffer are foot-and-mouth disease, sindbis fever, yellow fever, bluetongue, bovine ... virus diarrhoea, brucellosis and anthrax. The waterbuck is more resistant to rinderpest than are other antelopes. They are ...
... livestock could face new diseases such as West Nile virus and outbreaks of bluetongue or parasites could increase. Past ...
Viruses are important pathogens of livestock. Diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease and bluetongue are caused by viruses.[209 ... I: dsDNA viruses. II: ssDNA viruses. III: dsRNA viruses. IV: (+)ssRNA viruses. V: (−)ssRNA viruses. VI: ssRNA-RT viruses. VII: ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ... Quote: "Virus: virus (s.n. II), gen. sing. viri, nom. pl. vira, gen. pl. vīrorum (to be distinguished from virorum, of men)." ...
These were Blue tongue virus, Bovine influenza, Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD), fowl plague, goat pneumonitis, mycobacteria, "N" ... virus, Newcastle disease, sheep pox, Teschers disease, and vesicular stomatitis. See, Wheelis, p. 226. Berhow, Mark A., Ed. ( ...
Mellor, P.S. (1995) The transmission and geographical spread of African horse sickness and bluetongue viruses Annals of ... Species such as Culicoides imicola and Culicoides variipennis transmit bluetongue virus between sheep and cattle (see diagram ... Culex mosquitoes transmit West Nile virus between birds and horses; they transmit Rift Valley fever virus to livestock species ... A typical pathway of transmission of organisms by blood feeding flies is shown below as a virus transmitted by an adult fly ...
Bluetongue is caused by the pathogenic virus, Bluetongue virus (BTV), of the genus Orbivirus, of the Reoviridae family. Twenty- ... virus is closely related and crossreacts with Bluetongue virus on many blood tests. "Q&A: Bluetongue disease". BBC. 2008-09-17 ... It is caused by the Bluetongue virus (BTV). The virus is transmitted by the midge Culicoides imicola, Culicoides variipennis, ... Roy P (2008). "Functional mapping of bluetongue virus proteins and their interactions with host proteins during virus ...
... but a closely related fly transmits a virus that causes blue tongue disease of sheep. Even though they do not transmit any ...
... bluetongue virus and the membrane-containing phages PRD1 (the first structure of an enveloped virus) and PM2. He is also ... bluetongue virus and the membrane-containing phages PRD1 (the first structure of an enveloped virus) and PM2. His structure of ... Stuart has solved the atomic structures of complex biological molecules and viruses, including foot-and-mouth disease virus, ... focused mainly on virus-receptor interactions and virus assembly. In 1999 Stuart led the establishment of the Division of ...
... but many parts of Europe were still badly affected by outbreaks of the Bluetongue virus in livestock in 2007. In a literature ...
... foot and mouth disease virus, prions, and blue tongue virus), and plant viruses (tobacco and cucumber viruses) in a specific, ... BERA has been used for the detection of human viruses (hepatitis B and C viruses and herpes viruses), veterinary disease agents ... Engineering of the membrane of fibroblast cells with virus-specific antibodies: a novel biosensor tool for virus detection. ... Fibroblast Cells with Virus-Specific Antibodies and Antigens. Sensors 9: 2176-2186. Moschopoulou G, ; Vitsa, K.; Bem, F.; ...
QI04AA01 Louping ill virus QI04AA02 Bluetongue virus QI04AB01 Clostridium QI04AB02 Pasteurella QI04AB03 Bacteroides QI04AB04 ... pasteurella QI04AB06 Chlamydia QI04AB08 Erysipelothrix QI04AB09 Mycobacterium Empty group QI04AD01 Orf virus/contagious ...
blue tongue lizard in suburban street in Canberra (4 inch storm water pipe in photo shows size) ... the H5N1 virus) via infected migratory birds. Some scientists are worried that persistent human expansion could indirectly lead ...
... rabies and bluetongue virus. On 9 November 2007, DEFRA announced that Reynolds had opted to take early retirement at the age of ... subscription required) "Sheep virus 'low risk to the UK'". BBC. 19 September 2006. Retrieved 11 August 2007. "Farm infected ... PhD in the epidemiology of enteric viruses in calves, University of Reading ? dates - Research Officer at the Institute for ...
Bluetongue virus type 10 immune ascitic fluid [V-519-701-562] Application: ... Bluetongue virus type 10 immune ascitic fluid [V-519-701-562] Biosafety Level 1 Biosafety classification is based on U.S. ... Bluetongue virus, type 10 (ATCC® VR-1231AF™) Classification: Reoviridae, Orbivirus / Strain: BT8 / Product Format: freeze-dried ... Mice were immunized with Bluetongue virus (strain 8, V-519-401-562, see ATCC VR-1231) in Freunds complete adjuvant. Sacoma 180 ...
Bluetongue Viruses Based on Modified-Live Vaccine Serotype 6 with Exchanged Outer Shell Proteins Confer Full Protection in ... Since 1998, Bluetongue virus (BTV)-serotypes 1, 2, 4, 9, and 16 have invaded European countries around the Mediterranean Basin ... Even more, challenge virus could not be detected, and seroconversion or boostering after challenge was negligible. These data ... These so-called serotyped vaccine viruses, as mono-serotype and multi-serotype vaccine, were compared for their protective ...
Complete nucleotide sequence of gene segment 8 encoding non-structural protein NS2 of SA bluetongue virus serotype 10 ... Virus Research 3(2): 181-190, 1985. Nucleotide sequence of the VP4 core protein gene (M4 RNA) of US bluetongue virus serotype ... Virus Research 35(3): 247-261, 1995. The complete sequence of genome segment 8 of bluetongue virus, serotype 1, which encodes ... Virus Genes 6(4): 387-392, 1992. Complete sequence of genome segment 10, encoding the NS3 protein, of bluetongue virus, ...
Genetic reassortment of bluetongue virus Serotype 11 strains in the bovine. R. D. Oberst, Jeffrey L Stott, Myra Blanchard, ... Genetic reassortment of bluetongue virus Serotype 11 strains in the bovine. / Oberst, R. D.; Stott, Jeffrey L; Blanchard, Myra ... Oberst RD, Stott JL, Blanchard M, Osburn B. Genetic reassortment of bluetongue virus Serotype 11 strains in the bovine. ... Genetic reassortment of bluetongue virus Serotype 11 strains in the bovine. In: Veterinary Microbiology. 1987 ; Vol. 15, No. 1- ...
Importance of ovine cytotoxic T cells in protection against bluetongue virus infection. Jeggo, M. H., Wardley, R. C. and ... Importance of ovine cytotoxic T cells in protection against bluetongue virus infection ... Importance of ovine cytotoxic T cells in protection against bluetongue virus infection, Progress in clinical and biological ...
Viruses. Genome Sequence of Bluetongue Virus Type 2 from India: Evidence for Reassortment between Outer Capsid Protein Genes. ... Bluetongue virus, other orbiviruses and other reoviruses: their relationships and taxonomy, p 23-46. In Mellor PS, Baylis M, ... Determinants of bluetongue virus virulence in murine models of disease. J Virol 85:11479-11489. doi:10.1128/JVI.05226-11. ... Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the type species of the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae (1, 2), that exists as at least 27 ...
... bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV). The latter two have been already reported in Polish ruminants recently, ... are known vectors of arboviruses including African horse sickness virus (AHSV), ... are known vectors of arboviruses including African horse sickness virus (AHSV), bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus ... First detection of bluetongue virus serotype 14 in Poland. Archives of Virology, 161, 1969-1972. CrossrefWeb of SciencePubMed ...
Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes an estimated $125,000,000 annual loss to the U.S. livestock industry and about $3,000,000,000 ... Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes an estimated $125,000,000 annual loss to the U.S. livestock industry and about $3,000,000,000 ... Interpretive Summary: Epizootic hemorrhagic diseases virus (EHDV) has been associated with bluetongue-like disease in cattle. ... Technical Abstract: Epizootic hemorrhagic diseases virus (EHDV) has been associated with bluetongue-like disease in cattle. ...
... viruses. At least one arbovirus was detected in 51.3%, and exposure to more than one arbovirus was identified in 17.6% of the ... Louis encephalitis, (3.7%), West Nile (6.0%), Maguari (19.4%), La Crosse (30.3%), and bluetongue (7.8%) ... First report of bluetongue virus serotype 1 isolated from a white-tailed deer in the United States. J Vet Diagn Invest 18: 398- ... Louis encephalitis, (3.7%), West Nile (6.0%), Maguari (19.4%), La Crosse (30.3%), and bluetongue (7.8%) viruses. At least one ...
EHDV is an Orbivirus, which also includes Bluetongue Virus and African Horse Sickness, which are all transmitted through ... In addition, a commercial VP5 antibody directed against African Horse Sickness virus also recognized recombinant protein, and ... however few reagents and tools exist to protect against this disease or define the virus in vitro. To develop new, efficient ... recombinant VP2 protein and native VP2 proteins of the virus was confirmed. ...
Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Bluetongue is an acute, subacute, and possible chronic virus disease of wild and domestic ruminants (3,10). Sheep often have ... variipennis reconfirmed the unlikelyhood of transovarian transmission of bluetongue virus (39). Amblyomma variegatum 3 Guinea ( ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ...
Section V - Antigenic Relationship and Lack of Relationship to Other Viruses. Bluetongue virus is the type species for the ... Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... The BLU subgroup consists of the 23 serotypes of bluetongue virus [34] . ... Two-way cross-relationships between Ibaraki virus and EHD virus, serotypes 1 and 2, demonstrated by agar gel precipitin and ...
... this book serves as an invaluable resource for researchers and clinicians working with alphaviruses and related viruses. Topics ... Bluetongue Virus Bluetongue virus (BTV), a member of Orbivirus genus within the Reoviridae family causes serious disease in ... Recommended: Genes, Genetics and Transgenics for Virus Resistance in Plants Bluetongue Virus. Porcine Viruses: From ... Host-virus interactions during virus trafficking will be one of the future areas needing intense attention. Recent work has ...
The atomic structure of the bluetongue virus core.. Grimes JM1, Burroughs JN, Gouet P, Diprose JM, Malby R, Ziéntara S, Mertens ... The structure of the core particle of bluetongue virus has been determined by X-ray crystallography at a resolution approaching ...
... Author(s). Gennip, H.G.P. van; Water, S.G.P. van de; Veldman, D. ...
... cattle and goats following the attack of the virulent bluetongue virus on a farm in Kerkrade. ... The Dutch Government has stopped exports of live sheep, cattle and goats following the attack of the virulent bluetongue virus ... Dutch farm in the blues after an attack by the Bluetongue virus. ... This virus can attack goats, cattle, sheep and even deer. The ... Agriculture officials are baffled by this development as the virus is commonly found only in the Mediterranean regions. The ...
Computer artwork of the core particle of the bluetongue virus (BTV), with proteins represented by coloured blobs. ... Bluetongue virus particle. Computer artwork of the core particle of the bluetongue virus (BTV), with proteins represented by ... BTV causes bluetongue disease, a disease of sheep and (more rarely) other ruminants such as cattle and deer. It is named for ... the swollen blue tongue it causes in affected animals. It is spread by midges. ...
... virus titration and in vitro transmission tests. Adult female C. variipenniswere used... ... Transmission of bluetongue virus (BTV) by a vector species of Culicoides was studied using immunohistochemistry, ... Transmission of bluetongue virus (BTV) by a vector species of Culicoides was studied using immunohistochemistry, virus ... The barriers to bluetongue virus infection, dissemination and transmission in the vector, Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: ...
Bluetongue has returned to the countrys south western peninsula, identified in cattle on two small holdings. ... State veterinarians have identified Bluetongue in two cattle, leaving a total of eight susceptible to the virus, according to ... ITALY - Bluetongue has returned to the countrys south western peninsula, identified in cattle on two small holdings. ... Both farms lie in Calabria, a region previously hit by Bluetongue after the country was first confirmed in sheep in Viterbo, ...
The British Veterinary Association has warned of the possibility of the Bluetongue virus taking hold in the UK, following ... Bluetongue virus warning as midge season approaches. Bluetongue is a notifiable disease and any suspicion of the disease must ... The British Veterinary Association has warned of the possibility of the Bluetongue virus taking hold in the UK, following ... livestock keepers and vets to all remain vigilant over the Bluetongue virus risk. ...
Farmers have been urged to increase their vigilance for bluetongue virus after the disease was picked up in two cattle imported ... Bluetongue virus detected in two French cattle in Yorkshire. Bluetongue virus has been detected and dealt with in cattle in ... Farmers have been urged to increase their vigilance for bluetongue virus after the disease was picked up in two cattle imported ... Bluetongue does not affect people or food safety, but outbreaks of the virus can result in restrictions on livestock movement ...
Cloning of the bluetongue virus L3 gene.. M Purdy, J Petre, P Roy ... Cloning of the bluetongue virus L3 gene.. M Purdy, J Petre, P ... The genes of the bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 17 have been cloned into pBR322 by tailing both strands of the double-stranded ... 17 but not the equivalent RNA segment of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus of deer, an orbivirus related to BTV. ...
Analyses of the genome RNA segments and viral induced polypeptides of U.S. prototype BTV-17 virus by comparison with the ... of BTV-11 serotype support the hypothesis that BTV-17 originated by genotypic and antigenic drift from a BTV-11 serotype virus. ... Abstract Four serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV-10, 11, 13 and 17) have been identified in the United States. ... The Evolution of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 17 * C. D. Rao, K. Sugiyama1, P. Roy ...
Bluetongue virus core protein VP6 is an ATP hydrolysis dependent RNA helicase. However, despite much study, the precise role of ... Structure based modification of Bluetongue virus helicase protein VP6 to produce a viable VP6-truncated BTV.. Matsuo E1, Leon E ... Structure based modification of Bluetongue virus helicase protein VP6 to produce a viable VP6-truncated BTV ... Structure based modification of Bluetongue virus helicase protein VP6 to produce a viable VP6-truncated BTV ...
Scientists at the Institute for Animal Healths Pirbright Laboratory have shown that the bluetongue virus causing disease in ... Bluetongue prevention measures stepped up. Bluetongue disease confirmed in Belgium and Germany. Both endemic and new virus ... The results show that the Dutch isolate is NOT descended from vaccine forms of the bluetongue virus that have been used in many ... These tests focussed on detecting and sequencing the genes of the bluetongue virus (BTV). This was much faster than the older ...
  • Reassortants of bluetongue virus Serotype 11 (BTV-11) were isolated from a yearling heifer experimentally infected with two electrophoretically different strains (UC-2 and UC-8) by subcutaneous inoculation. (elsevier.com)
  • These data demonstrate that all sheep were protected from a challenge with BTV8/net07, since sheep of the control group showed viremia, seroconversion and clinical signs that are specific for Bluetongue. (wur.nl)
  • Following generation of ascites, utility in recognition of both our partners' recombinant VP2 protein and native VP2 proteins of the virus was confirmed. (sdstate.edu)
  • EHDV recently caused significant outbreaks affecting both the farmed and wild cervid industry, however few reagents and tools exist to protect against this disease or define the virus in vitro. (sdstate.edu)
  • Mice were immunized with Bluetongue virus (strain 8, V-519-401-562, see ATCC VR-1231) in Freund's complete adjuvant. (atcc.org)
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