A reovirus infection, chiefly of sheep, characterized by a swollen blue tongue, catarrhal inflammation of upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and often by inflammation of sensitive laminae of the feet and coronet.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
A family of biting midges, in the order DIPTERA. It includes the genus Culicoides which transmits filarial parasites pathogenic to man and other primates.
A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A genus of REOVIRIDAE infecting a wide range of arthropods and vertebrates including humans. It comprises at least 21 serological subgroups. Transmission is by vectors such as midges, mosquitoes, sandflies, and ticks.
Infections produced by reoviruses, general or unspecified.
A species of ORBIVIRUS that causes disease in horses, mules, and donkeys. Via its principal vector CULICOIDES, it can also infect dogs, elephants, camels, cattle, sheep, goats, and, in special circumstances, humans.
A suborder of the order ARTIODACTYLA whose members have the distinguishing feature of a four-chambered stomach, including the capacious RUMEN. Horns or antlers are usually present, at least in males.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
A species of ORBIVIRUS causing a fatal disease in deer. It is transmitted by flies of the genus Culicoides.
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.
The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.
The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
An insect-borne reovirus infection of horses, mules and donkeys in Africa and the Middle East; characterized by pulmonary edema, cardiac involvement, and edema of the head and neck.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A sultanate on the southeast coast of the Arabian peninsula. Its capital is Masqat. Before the 16th century it was ruled by independent emirs but was captured and controlled by the Portuguese 1508-1648. In 1741 it was recovered by a descendent of Yemen's imam. After its decline in the 19th century, it became virtually a political and economic dependency within the British Government of India, retaining close ties with Great Britain by treaty from 1939 to 1970 when it achieved autonomy. The name was recorded by Pliny in the 1st century A.D. as Omana, said to be derived from the founder of the state, Oman ben Ibrahim al-Khalil. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p890; Oman Embassy, Washington; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)
Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A congenital condition where the greater portions of the cerebral hemispheres and CORPUS STRIATUM are replaced by CSF and glial tissue. The meninges and the skull are well formed, which is consistent with earlier normal embryogenesis of the telencephalon. Bilateral occlusions of the internal carotid arteries in utero is a potential mechanism. Clinical features include intact brainstem reflexes without evidence of higher cortical activity. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p307)
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Vaccines used in conjunction with diagnostic tests to differentiate vaccinated animals from carrier animals. Marker vaccines can be either a subunit or a gene-deleted vaccine.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Any of various ruminant mammals of the order Bovidae. They include numerous species in Africa and the American pronghorn.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The term applied to a group of relatively uncommon inflammatory, maculopapular, scaly eruptions of unknown etiology and resistant to conventional treatment. Eruptions are both psoriatic and lichenoid in appearance, but the diseases are distinct from psoriasis, lichen planus, or other recognized dermatoses. Proposed nomenclature divides parapsoriasis into two distinct subgroups, PITYRIASIS LICHENOIDES and parapsoriasis en plaques (small- and large-plaque parapsoriasis).
Hoofed mammals with four legs, a big-lipped snout, and a humped back belonging to the family Camelidae.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Sweet food products combining cane or beet sugars with other carbohydrates and chocolate, milk, eggs, and various flavorings. In the United States, candy refers to both sugar- and cocoa-based confections and is differentiated from sweetened baked goods; elsewhere the terms sugar confectionary, chocolate confectionary, and flour confectionary (meaning goods such as cakes and pastries) are used.
The reciprocal interaction of physicians and nurses.
A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.
Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.
The susceptibility of the DENTAL ENAMEL to dissolution.
Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.
A genus of chiefly Eurasian and African land snails including the principal edible snails as well as several pests of cultivated plants.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
The design or construction of objects greatly reduced in scale.
Data processing largely performed by automatic means.
The theory that the radiation and absorption of energy take place in definite quantities called quanta (E) which vary in size and are defined by the equation E=hv in which h is Planck's constant and v is the frequency of the radiation.
Solutions used to store organs and minimize tissue damage, particularly while awaiting implantation.

Incursion of bluetongue virus into the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia. (1/204)

Bluetongue virus was isolated from a sentinel herd in British Columbia. Virus isolation was by intravenous inoculation of embryonated chicken eggs and subculture in BHK-21 cells. The cytopathic agent was identified as bluetongue virus by electron microscopy and the immunoperoxidase test. The serotype was identified as serotype 11 by virus neutralization.  (+info)

Malignant catarrhal fever: polymerase chain reaction survey for ovine herpesvirus 2 and other persistent herpesvirus and retrovirus infections of dairy cattle and bison. (2/204)

Using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for sequences of ovine herpesvirus 2 (OHV2), this virus was shown to be significantly associated with sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF) in terminal cases of disease in 34 cattle and 53 bison. Ovine herpesvirus 2 was not detected in cattle (38) and bison (10) that succumbed to other diseases. Other persistent herpesviruses, retroviruses, and pestivirus, some of which have been previously isolated from cases of SA-MCF, were not associated with the disease. These included bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4), bovine lymphotrophic herpesvirus (BLHV), bovine syncytial virus (BSV, also known as bovine spumavirus), bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). A PCR survey for OHV2 in DNA from individual cow's peripheral blood lymphocytes in 4 dairies showed that the 1 dairy that was in close contact to sheep had a prevalence of OHV2 of 21.3%, whereas the 3 other dairies had no OHV2. Prevalence of the other herpesviruses and retroviruses in the dairy cows was variable, ranging from 2% to 51% for BHV4, 52% to 78.7% for BLHV, and 10% to 34% for BSV. Bovine lymphotrophic herpesvirus and BSV were also found in a few (1-4 of 21 tested) cases of terminal SA-MCF, but BIV and BVDV were not found in either the dairy cows sampled, or in the cases of SA-MCE No significant correlation was found between the presence of any 2 viruses (OHV2, BHV4, BLHV, BSV) in the dairy cows or terminal cases of SA-MCE  (+info)

Maximal predicted duration of viremia in bluetongue virus-infected cattle. (3/204)

Central to the development of rational trade policies pertaining to bluetongue virus (BTV) infection is determination of the risk posed by ruminants previously exposed to the virus. Precise determination of the maximal duration of infectious viremia is essential to the development of an appropriate quarantine period prior to movement of animals from BTV-endemic to BTV-free regions. The objective of this study was to predict the duration of detectable viremia in BTV-infected cattle using a probabilistic modeling analysis of existing data. Data on the duration of detectable viremia in cattle were obtained from previously published studies. Data sets were created from a large field study of naturally infected cattle in Australia and from experimental infections of cattle with Australian and US serotypes of BTV. Probability distributions were fitted to the pooled empirical data, and the 3 probability distributions that provided the best fit to the data were the gamma, Weibull, and lognormal probability distributions. These asymmetric probability distributions are often well suited for decay processes, such as the time to termination of detectable viremia. The analyses indicated a > 99% probability of detectable BTV viremia ceasing after < or = 9 weeks of infection in adult cattle and after a slightly longer interval in BTV-infected, colostrum-deprived newborn calves.  (+info)

Occurrence of genetic drift and founder effect during quasispecies evolution of the VP2 and NS3/NS3A genes of bluetongue virus upon passage between sheep, cattle, and Culicoides sonorensis. (4/204)

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the cause of an insect-transmitted virus infection of ruminants that occurs throughout much of the world. Individual gene segments differ between field strains of BTV; thus, we hypothesized that key viral genes undergo genetic drift during alternating passage of BTV in its ruminant and insect hosts. To test this hypothesis, variation in the consensus sequence and quasispecies heterogeneity of the VP2 and NS3/NS3A genes of a plaque-purified strain of BTV serotype 10 was determined during alternating infection of vector Culicoides sonorensis and a sheep and calf. Consensus sequences were determined after reverse transcriptase-nested PCR amplification of viral RNA directly from ruminant blood and homogenized insects, and quasispecies heterogeneity was determined by the sequencing of clones derived from directly amplified viral RNA. Comparison of these sequences to those of the original BTV inoculum used to initiate the cycle of BTV infection demonstrated, for the first time, that individual BTV gene segments evolve independently of one another by genetic drift in a host-specific fashion, generating quasispecies populations in both ruminant and insect hosts. Furthermore, a unique viral variant was randomly ingested by C. sonorensis insects that fed on a sheep with low-titer viremia, thereby fixing a novel genotype by founder effect. Thus, we conclude that genetic drift and founder effect contribute to diversification of individual gene segments of field strains of BTV.  (+info)

Studies on the epidemiology of bluetongue virus in China. (5/204)

Sentinel herds of large ruminants were established at five centres in Yunnan Province, Peoples Republic of China, between 1995 and 1997. The application of a sensitive antigen capture ELISA to facilitate virus isolation procedures led to the isolation of 108 strains of bluetongue (BLU) virus. Serotypes isolated included types 1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 11, 12, 15, 16, 21 and 23. Virus transmission occurred over a period of 1-3 months at each of the four positive sites, giving an overall BLU virus transmission period for the province of 5 months, from early June to early November. The greatest level of transmission took place in July and August. The duration of viraemia in individual animals varied from 1 to 7 weeks, with a mean calculated for each serotype between 6 and 20 days. The study represents the first detailed investigation of the epidemiology of BLU in China utilizing sentinel herds.  (+info)

The role of endothelial cell-derived inflammatory and vasoactive mediators in the pathogenesis of bluetongue. (6/204)

Bluetongue is an insect-transmitted disease of sheep and wild ruminants that is caused by bluetongue virus (BTV). Cattle are asymptomatic reservoir hosts of BTV. Infection of lung microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) is central to the pathogenesis of BTV infection of both sheep and cattle, but it is uncertain as to why sheep are highly susceptible to BTV-induced microvascular injury, whereas cattle are not. Thus, to better characterize the pathogenesis of bluetongue, the transcription of genes encoding a variety of vasoactive and inflammatory mediators was quantitated in primary ovine lung microvascular ECs (OLmVECs) exposed to BTV and/or inflammatory mediators. BTV infection of OLmVECs increased the transcription of genes encoding interleukin- (IL) 1 and IL-8, but less so IL-6, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. In contrast, we previously have shown that transcription of genes encoding all of these same mediators is markedly increased in BTV-infected bovine lung microvascular ECs and that BTV-infected bovine ECs produce substantially greater quantities of prostacyclin than do sheep ECs. Thus, sheep and cattle were experimentally infected with BTV to further investigate the role of EC-derived vasoactive mediators in the pathogenesis of bluetongue. The ratio of thromboxane to prostacyclin increased during BTV infection of both sheep and cattle, but was significantly greater in sheep (P = 0.001). Increases in the ratio of thromboxane to prostacyclin, indicative of enhanced coagulation, coincided with the occurrence of clinical manifestations of bluetongue in BTV-infected sheep. The data suggest that inherent species-specific differences in the production and activities of EC-derived mediators contribute to the sensitivity of sheep to BTV-induced microvascular injury.  (+info)

A possible overwintering mechanism for bluetongue virus in the absence of the insect vector. (7/204)

Bluetongue virus (BTV) and several other Orbivirus species are transmitted between mammalian hosts via bites from adults of certain species of Culicoides midges. However, BTV can survive for 9-12 months (typically during the winter), in the absence of adult vectors, with no detectable cases of viraemia, disease or seroconversion in the host. The survival of the virus from one 'vector season' to the next is called 'overwintering' but the mechanism involved is not fully understood. It is demonstrated that BTV can persistently infect ovine gammadelta T-cells in vitro, a process that may also occur during infection and viraemia in mammalian hosts, thus providing a mechanism for virus persistence. Interaction of persistently BTV-infected gammadelta T-cells with antibody to the gammadelta T-cell-specific surface molecule WC-1 resulted in conversion to a lytic infection and increased virus release. Skin fibroblasts induce a similar conversion, indicating that they express a counter ligand for WC-1. Feeding of Culicoides midges induces skin inflammation, which is accompanied by recruitment of large numbers of activated gammadelta T-cells. The interaction of persistently infected gammadelta T-cells with skin fibroblasts would result in increased virus production at 'biting sites', favouring transmission to the insect vector. This suggested mechanism might also involve up-regulation of the WC-1 ligand at inflamed sites. It has been shown previously that cleavage of virus surface proteins by protease enzymes (which may also be associated with inflammation) generates infectious subvirus particles that have enhanced infectivity (100 times) for the insect vector.  (+info)

Competitive ELISA for serodiagnosis of bluetongue: evaluation of group-specific monoclonal antibodies and expressed VP7 antigen. (8/204)

The performance of 2 competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (C-ELISA) was compared with the reference C-ELISA I for the detection of antibodies to bluetongue virus (BTV). One of the assays (C-ELISA II) used a group-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb) to BTV, obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (8A3B-6) and tissue culture (TC)-derived BTV antigen (Ag), and the other assay (C-ELISA III) used BTV core protein VP7 (expressed in yeast) and the reference MAb (Pirbright Laboratory, 3-17-A3). Test sera were obtained by sequential blood samples from 22 calves, each inoculated with a different serotype (T) of BTV (South African [SA] T-1-T-16 and T-18-T-20 and USA T-11, T-13, and T-17). Sera were also obtained from 4 calves and 4 sheep inoculated with USA BTV T-10 and from several groups of calves exposed to single or multiple doses of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) T-1-T-4 grown in TC (BHK-21) or suckling mouse brain (SMB). A total of 618 bovine and ovine field sera collected from BT-free and BT-endemic areas were also tested. The C-ELISA III was more sensitive than the C-ELISA II in the detection of anti-BTV antibody in sera from cattle and sheep early after infection with BTV. Seroconversion was demonstrated by the 3 C-ELISAs in all animals inoculated with BTV by 20 days postinfection (DPI), except in calves that received SA T-3 or USA T-13, which became positive at 40 DPI.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  (+info)

Livestock producers are being urged to step up their vigilance and biosecurity, following a series of outbreaks of bluetongue disease in sheep and cattle in northern Europe.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bluetongue disease in dogs associated with contaminated vaccine [1]. AU - Akita, G. Y.. AU - Ianconescu, M.. AU - Maclachlan, Nigel J. AU - Osburn, Bennie. AU - Greene, R. T.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0028345261&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0028345261&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 8197702. AN - SCOPUS:0028345261. VL - 134. SP - 283. EP - 284. JO - Veterinary Record. JF - Veterinary Record. SN - 0042-4900. IS - 11. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of the spatial and temporal distribution of and risk factors for Bluetongue serotype 1 epidemics in sheep Extremadura (Spain), 2007-2011. AU - Pascual-Linaza, Ana V.. AU - Martinez Lopez, Beatriz. AU - Pfeiffer, Dirk U.. AU - Moreno, José Carlos. AU - Sanz, Cristina. AU - Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel. PY - 2014/10/1. Y1 - 2014/10/1. N2 - Extremadura has been one of the regions in Spain most severely affected by Bluetongue (BT) epidemics. The first incursion of BTV, which was successfully eradicated one year later, occurred in 2004, involving the BTV-serotype 4. However, a second incursion occurred in September 2007, this time involving serotype 1. Since then, the implementation of intensive vaccination programs have significantly reduced BTV-1 occurrence, but the disease has not been completely eradicated yet.This study aimed to provide, for the first time, a complete description of the spatial and temporal patterns of BTV-1 occurrence in sheep in Extremadura from ...
UK - Take advantage and vaccinate your animals before turning them out to protect them from the threat of bluetongue. This is the message from the JAB campaign which aims to keep up the pressure on livestock farmers to vaccinate for the coming season ...
In this episode we will be interviewing Joe Ball. Joe is the owner of Bluetonguelizard.com.au and is arguably the Australian authority in their captive management and care. Joe is working on numerous bluetongue skink projects at present, some of which are world firsts! We will also be finding out more about some of Joes other interesting and rare projects. This show is a must for all of you who own, or want to own bluetongue skinks! We will also cover the latest industry news and give some feedback about the Goldcoast Reptile Expo!
CANADA – Bluetongue disease has been confirmed in three beef cattle in Ontario, reports the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) reports after serology testing.
Bluetongue is a viral disease of sheep and deer that is spread by the Culicoides species of gnat. However, there is some evidence that...
In 2007 information about bluetongue was distributed to veterinarians, farmers, stakeholders and other people dealing with farm animals.. A surveillance program for vectors was established during the summer 2007, and a surveillance program for cattle started in 2008.. Two dairy herds infected with BTV 8 were detected in the southern part of Norway, in Vest-Agder county, in February 2009. A following comprehensive investigation of the outbreak was carried out before the vector season began late April 2009, and two more infected herds were detected. One of these herds, a beef herd, was situated close to one of the index herds, and the other one, a dairy herd, was located in the neighbouring county, Aust- Agder. Based on the low virus level in the infected animals the Institute of Animal Health in Pirbright estimated the most probable time for infection of the herds to be between August and October 2008.. On the basis of the results from the investigation, monitoring and surveillance, and the fact ...
... First batch of bluetongue Bovilis BTV8 vaccine released to supply Nor... European countries ...BOXMEER Netherlands April 30 /-Intervet/Sche... Within the animal health sector there has been a recent emphasis on...,Intervet/Schering-Plough,Animal,Health,Outlines,Strength,of,the,Combination,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
ITALY – Southern and central Italian livestock farms have been hit hard by a wave of over 1300 Bluetongue cases this month resulting in 459 sheep deaths.
ITALY – Southern and central Italian livestock farms have been hit hard by a wave of over 1300 Bluetongue cases this month resulting in 459 sheep deaths.
Gardiner, M R. (1968) Bluetongue of sheep, Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4: Vol. 9 : No. 2 , Article 5 ...
Bluetongue vaccine could begin arriving at wholesalers next week in readiness for distribution to veterinary surgeons and their clients, Farmers Weekly has learned.
The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecules storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters. ...
Farmers should act now to avoid ‘feeling blue’ this autumn Bluetongue vaccines for sheep & cattle are now available a
Read this full essay on Impact of Digital Marketing on Food Service Industry. Statement of the Problem In the contemporary world, every type of business is...
Looking for online definition of bluetongue disease in the Medical Dictionary? bluetongue disease explanation free. What is bluetongue disease? Meaning of bluetongue disease medical term. What does bluetongue disease mean?
Jeggo, M. H., Wardley, R. C. and Brownlie, J. 1985, Importance of ovine cytotoxic T cells in protection against bluetongue virus infection, Progress in clinical and biological research, vol. 178, pp. 477-487. ...
The capability of the recently emerged European strain of bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) to cross the ruminant placenta has been established in experimental and field studies in both sheep and cattle. Seroprevalence rates in goats in North-Western Europe were high during the recent outbreak of BTV-8; however the capability of the virus to infect goats through the transplacental route has not been established.. In the present study, four Saanen goats were inoculated with the European strain of BTV-8 at 62 days of gestation; this resulted in mild clinical signs, however gross lesions observed post mortem were more severe. Viral RNA was detected by real-time RT-PCR in blood and tissue samples from three fetuses harvested from two goats at 43 days post infection. Conventional RT-PCR and genome sequencing targeting viral segment 2 confirmed infection of brain tissue with BTV-8 in two of these fetuses. In total, five of six fetuses demonstrated lesions that may have been associated with ...
Bluetongue virus (BTV) is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges and was previously confined to tropical and sub-tropical regions but is now endemic in several Southern European countries, including Cyprus, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Italy and France (Corsica). Epidemiological studies and phylogenetic analyses (primarily by members of the PALE-Blu consortium) have identified new introductions or discoveries of the virus in Europe each year since 1998, involving eleven distinct BTV serotypes (BTV-1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 11, 14, 16, 25, and 27).. Bluetongue disease (BT) represents an important threat to livestock health and food production in Europe and neighbouring countries. The continuing arrival of new exotic strains from neighbouring regions, suggests that incursions by BTV (and possibly by related orbiviruses and other arboviruses) are likely to continue in Europe for the foreseeable future.. BTV Outbreaks: The first outbreak of bluetongue (BT) ever recorded in Northern Europe (caused by BTV8) ...
Summary The complete sequence of the RNA segment that codes for a major outer capsid protein (VP5) of bluetongue virus serotype 10 has been determined from overlapping cDNA clones inserted into pBR322. The segment 5 RNA of the virus (M5 RNA) is deduced to be 1638 base pairs long (1.05 × 106 daltons) and has an open reading frame in one strand capable of coding for a protein with a calculated size of 59163 daltons (526 amino acids) and a net charge of -4.5 at neutral pH.
Maan, S, Maan, NS, Ross-Smith, N, Batten, CA, Shaw, AE, Anthony, SJ, Samuel, AR, Darpel, KE, Veronesi, E, Oura, CAL et al, Singh, KP, Nomikou, K, Potgieter, AC, Attoui, H, van Rooij, E, van Rijn, P, De Clercq, K, Vandenbussche, F, Zientara, S, Breard, E, Sailleau, C, Beer, M, Hoffman, B, Mellor, PS and Mertens, PPC. (2008) Sequence analysis of bluetongue virus serotype 8 from the Netherlands 2006 and comparison to other European strains ...
Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the type species of the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae (1, 2), that exists as at least 27 distinct serotypes (3, 4). The BTV can infect most ruminants, causing severe bluetongue disease (BT). The BTV particle is icosahedral and nonenveloped and is composed of a three-layered protein capsid surrounding 10 double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome segments ranging in size from 3,944 to 822 bp. The genome segments, identified as segments 1 to 10 (Seg-1 to Seg-10) in order of decreasing size (2), encode 7 structural proteins (VP1 to VP7) and 5 nonstructural proteins (NS1, NS2, NS3/3a, NS4, and NS5) (5-9).. BTV strains from different continents have evolved separately, acquiring multiple point mutations, developing characteristic regional variants/topotypes of each genome segment. Full-genome sequence data are available for BTV-2 from Taiwan (10), belonging to the major eastern (e) topotype; a reassortant-strain of BTV-2 carrying a western (w) Seg-5 (11); and five BTV-2(w) ...
Since 1998, Bluetongue virus (BTV)-serotypes 1, 2, 4, 9, and 16 have invaded European countries around the Mediterranean Basin. In 2006, a huge BT outbreak started after incursion of BTV serotype 8 (BTV8) in North-Western Europe. IN 2008, BTV6 and BTV11 were reported in the Netherlands and Germany, and in Belgium, respectively. In addition, Toggenburg orbivirus (TOV) was detected in 2008 in Swiss goats, which was recognized as a new serotype of BTV (BTV25). The (re-)emergency of BTV serotypes needs a rapid response to supply effective vaccines. Reverse genetics has been developed for BTV1 and more recently also for BTV6. This latter strain, BTV6/net08, is closely related to live-attenuated vaccine for serotype 6 as determined by full genome sequencing. Here, we used this strain as backbone and exchanged segment 2 and 6, respectively Seg-2 (VP2) and Seg-6 (VP5), for those of BTV serotype 1 and 8 using reverse genetics. These so-called serotyped vaccine viruses, as mono-serotype and ...
Understanding where and how fast an infectious disease will spread during an epidemic is critical for its control. However, the task is a challenging one as numerous factors may interact and drive the spread of a disease, specifically when vector-borne diseases are involved. We advocate the use of simultaneous autoregressive models to identify environmental features that significantly impact the velocity of disease spread. We illustrate this approach by exploring several environmental factors influencing the velocity of bluetongue (BT) spread in France during the 2007-2008 epizootic wave to determine which ones were the most important drivers. We used velocities of BT spread estimated in 4,495 municipalities and tested sixteen covariates defining five thematic groups of related variables: elevation, meteorological-related variables, landscape-related variables, host availability, and vaccination. We found that ecological factors associated with vector abundance and activity (elevation and ...
Bluetongue virus (BTV) VP6 is often resolved into two closely migrating bands by SDS-PAGE (VP6 and VP6a). RNA segment 9 of BTV-serotype 1 South Africa (encoding VP6) has been cloned as cDNA, and the complete sequence has been determined. Expression of this clone both in vitro and in tissue culture produced the same polypeptide doublet as seen previously in extracts from BTV-infected cells. Modification of the cDNA, including the removal of the first initiation codon, demonstrated that the two forms of VP6 are derived from initiation of protein synthesis at two distinct sites and not by post-translational modification.
Bluetongue virus, type 10 ATCC ® VR-1231AF™ Designation: Bluetongue virus type 10 immune ascitic fluid [V-519-701-562] Application:
Reassortment contributes to the evolution of RNA viruses with segmented genomes, including Bluetongue virus (BTV). Recently, co-circulation of natural and vaccine BTV variants in Europe, and their ensuing reassortment, were proposed to promote appearance of novel European BTV strains, with potential implications for pathogenicity, spread and vaccination policies. Similarly, the geographical features of the Mediterranean basin, which spans over portions of three continents, may facilitate the appearance of clinically relevant reassortants via co-circulation of BTV strains of African, Asian and European origins. In August–October 2017, BTV serotype 6 (BTV-6) was identified in young animals exhibiting classical clinical signs of Bluetongue (BT) at Israeli sheep and cattle farms. Sequencing and pairwise analysis of this Israeli BTV-6 isolate revealed the closest sequence homology of its serotype-defining Segment 2 was with that of South African reference BTV-6 strain 5011 (93.88% identity). In
The spread of bluetongue virus (BTV) is most successfully controlled by vaccination of susceptible ruminant populations. Currently two different types of BTV vaccines are used for this purpose; inactivated, mostly monovalent vaccine formulations and modified live virus vaccines (MLVs). Clinical signs and viraemia in Dorset Poll sheep vaccinated with BTV-4 and BTV-16 MLVs or inoculated with homogenates of midges (C. sonorensis and C. nubeculosus) previously infected with BTV-4 MLV are presented. All sheep vaccinated with the two MLVs mounted an infectious viraemia lasting for a minimum of 9 up to 23 days post vaccination and developed a range of clinical signs associated with BTV infection. Peak viraemia titres recorded in individual sheep ranged from 3.5 to 6.83 log(10)TCID(50)/ml indicating a high potential for infection of vector insects and onward transmission. The implications of these results are discussed with reference to the current outbreaks of BTV occurring in northern Europe and in ...
Genetic exchange by a process of genome-segment reassortment represents an important mechanism for evolutionary change in all viruses with segmented genomes, yet in many cases a detailed understanding of its frequency and biological consequences is lacking. We provide a comprehensive assessment of reassortment in bluetongue virus (BTV), a globally important insect-borne pathogen of livestock, during recent outbreaks in Europe. Full-genome sequences were generated and analysed for over 150 isolates belonging to the different BTV serotypes that have emerged in the region over the last 5 decades. Based on this novel dataset we confirm that reassortment is a frequent process that plays an important and on-going role in evolution of the virus. We found evidence for reassortment in all ten segments without a significant bias towards any particular segment. However, we observed biases in the relative frequency at which particular segments were associated with each other during reassortment. This ...
Bluetongue disease is a viral infection that has killed approximately 2 million cattle in Europe over the past two decades. A new study has revealed the atomic structure of the Bluetongue virus, including the means by which it infects healthy host cells. Scientists hope to use this information to aid in the creation of vaccines and drug treatments for bluetongue disease.. A team led by Hong Zhou, a professor of microbiology, immunology and molecular genetics and faculty director of the Electron Imaging Center for Nanomachines at UCLAs California Nanosystems Institute, collaborated on the research with a team led by Polly Roy, professor of virology at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. The research was published in the journal Nature Structural and Molecular Biology.. Using cryo-electron microscopy, the researchers discovered the Bluetongue viruss two-step process for infecting healthy cells. The virus has sensor proteins on its surface that detect changes in the acidity of its ...
The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) has confirmed a positive case of Bluetongue virus in Ontario as part of routine surveillance testing.. Bluetongue is not contagious, but is spread by biting midges and can infect cattle, bison, deer, goats and sheep. There is no human health or food safety risk and the virus cannot survive outside the biting midge or animal host. The virus also cannot be spread through contact with animal carcasses or other animal products (meat, fibre).. Cattle and goats show very few clinical signs of infection. Cattle may exhibit a mild to moderate fever, and swelling of the coronary band above the hoof, so they walk stiffly and are reluctant to get up. Other symptoms include: nasal discharge, swelling of the head and neck, runny eyes, swelling and sores in the mouth, and drooling. Goats tend to exhibit mild to moderate fever, runny eyes and drooling. The disease can only be confirmed by a lab test and there is no treatment.. The strain detected in Ontario is native ...
Following the first ever case of bluetongue in Denmark during late 2007, further outbreaks were observed in Denmark during 2008, despite vaccination against bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 8 (BTV-8) in the southern part of the country. In total, 15 separate outbreaks of infection were identified, mostly as a result of clinical suspicions but also because of surveillance of bulk milk samples. These outbreaks led to extensions of the original vaccination zone planned for 2008. Blood samples from clinical suspects were analysed using ELISA and real-time RT-PCR assays for the presence of anti-BTV antibodies and viral RNA, respectively. A newly infected calf from the primary outbreak in 2008 was studied for a period of three months, during which time it seroconverted to BTV, but the presence of viral RNA in its blood was maintained throughout this time. Each outbreak was caused by BTV-8, as determined by a serotype-specific real-time RT-PCR assay. Furthermore, the nucleotide sequence of a portion of ...
Bluetongue (BT) is a disease in ruminants caused by an Orbivirus that is transmitted by midges. There are at least 24 serotypes of Bluetongue virus (BTV). Wageningen Bioveterinary Research conducts research on this disease.
Compare Australia to your country…if you live in Europe. THs is an accurate map of Australia overlaid over the majority of Europe. This map alone, shows you why there is no risk of Bluetongue Virus reaching the southern states of Australia, and why the zones and Australias NAMP research and continual mapping systems gives your country assurances they need. There has been 1 naturally occurred case of BTV tested in Australia, and that was in 1979. That was in a cattle, at a place called Dumpty Doo, which is approx. near the red oval dot, in the ocean at the top of Norway on the left. I am situated in Melbourne which is approx. in the Mediterranean near Crete. And in between is a huge desert. Lets see how big Australia is - Australia- · 7, 692, 030 square km · (China: 9,597,000 sq km) · Lowest, flattest, geographically uniform continent · very old Land use: 6% arable, 58% pasture, 14% forest, 22% other (mostly desert) · Blue Tongue- Australia 1 Bluetongue is an insect-borne, viral disease ...
The British Veterinary Association has warned of the possibility of the Bluetongue virus taking hold in the UK, following reports of BTV-8 in cattle in northern France.
Evolution and Phylogenetic Analysis of Full-Length VP3 Genes of Eastern Mediterranean Bluetongue Virus Isolates. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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Simply ask us ! One of the most interesting features of EVAgs catalogue is its flexibility, please do not hesitate to contact us by using our contact form. We can add to the catalogue tailor-made products on demand, as well as access to plateforms, or services. With the large panel of virology laboratories in our consortium, there are good chances that we would have what you are looking for. If you are interested in acquiring cell-lines, please visit this page: access-cell-lines.. If you are interested in acquiring insect vectors, please visit this page: access-insect-vectors.. ...
Simply ask us ! One of the most interesting features of EVAgs catalogue is its flexibility, please do not hesitate to contact us by using our contact form. We can add to the catalogue tailor-made products on demand, as well as access to plateforms, or services. With the large panel of virology laboratories in our consortium, there are good chances that we would have what you are looking for. If you are interested in acquiring cell-lines, please visit this page: access-cell-lines.. If you are interested in acquiring insect vectors, please visit this page: access-insect-vectors.. ...
Bluetongue is a viral disease of ruminants which is transmitted by Culicoides midges. Since the late 1990s a series of bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes have invaded Mediterranean Europe. In 2006 other BTV serotypes also invaded temperate Europe. This twofold invasion pattern has resulted in large economic loses mainly for sheep farmers. In Mediterranean Europe bluetongue is
Bluetongue is a non-contagious, viral disease affecting domestic and wild ruminants (primarily sheep and including cattle and goats), that is transmitted by insects, particularly biting midges.. The severity of disease varies among different species with symptoms being most severe in sheep resulting in death, weight loss and disruption in wool growth. In highly susceptible sheep, morbidity can be as high as 100%. Mortality averages from 2-30% but can be as high as 70%. Cattle often have a higher infection rate than sheep and demonstration and severity of clinical signs varies depending on the strain of virus.. Where is the disease found?. Blue Tongue has a significant global distribution in regions where the insect vector (ie, biting midges species Culicoides) is present, including Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe and North America. The virus is maintained in areas where the climate will allow biting midges to survive over winter. The geographical distribution of the insect vector species ...
FRANCE - French authorities, veterinarians and farmers have mobilised to manage a recent outbreak of bluetongue virus (BTV), thanks to support from Thermo Fisher Scientific.
Kramps, J.A, et al., Validation of a commercial ELISA for the detection of bluetongue virus (BTV)-specific antibodies in individual milk samples of Dutch dairy cows, Vet. Microbiol. (2008), doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2008.01.004 ...
Testing for foot and mouth disease (FMD) has led to the first confirmed case of the bluetongue virus on a farm near Ipswich. The virus, found in a highland cow on the site, does not harm humans but can be fatal to sheep, and affect the milk yields in cows. It is transferred by midges and other biting insects; Defra has said that the case will not be classified as an outbreak until the virus is found in an insect on the site. The cow, named Debbie, was removed and culled yesterday, and scientists are urging caution from farmers and livestock owners: It remains vitally important that farmers maintain vigilance for this disease and report any suspect cases, particularly as clinical signs may be similar to foot and mouth disease, said Chief Veterinary Officer Debbie Reynolds. Indeed this diagnosis comes as another case of FMD was found on a farm within the control zone in Surrey, and cattle were duly culled there at the weekend, bringing the total number of farms the disease has been found on to ...
TURKEY – Turkish veterinary authorities have vaccinated 30,000 sheep in a bid to put the brakes on the ever spreading Bluetongue virus.
A viral disease is killing deer along the Platte River and possibly over a much wider area, according to the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission. There have been reports of dead deer in and near the river in eastern Nebraska.
4.4Posebna opozorila za vsako ciljno živalsko vrsto. Občasno lahko prisotnost maternalnih protiteles pri ovcah minimalne priporočene starosti vpliva na zaščito, ki jo zagotavlja cepivo.. Na voljo ni nobenih informacij o uporabi cepiva pri seropozitivnem govedu niti pri govedu z maternalnimi protitelesi.. Ob uporabi cepiva pri drugih domačih in divjih vrstah prežvekovalcev, ki jih ogroža okužba, je potrebna previdnost; pred množičnim cepljenjem je priporočljivo testno cepljenje manjšega števila živali. Učinkovitost pri drugih vrstah se lahko razlikuje od dokazane učinkovitosti pri ovcah in govedu.. 4.5Posebni previdnostni ukrepi. Posebni previdnostni ukrepi za uporabo pri živalih. Cepite le zdrave živali.. Posebni previdnostni ukrepi, ki jih mora izvajati oseba, ki živalim daje zdravilo. Ni smiselno.. 4.6Neželeni učinki (pogostost in resnost). Povprečno povišanje telesne temperature, ki varira med 0,5 in 1,0 ° C, je pogosta reakcija pri ovcah in govedu. Povišana telesna ...
10.OCHRANNÁ LEHOTA. 0 dní.. 11.OSOBITNÉ BEZPEČNOSTNÉ OPATRENIA NA UCHOVÁVANIE. Uchovávať mimo dohľadu a dosahu detí. Uchovávať a prepravovať v chlade (2 °C - 8 °C). Nezmrazovať.. Chrániť pred svetlom.. Čas použiteľnosti po prvom otvorení obalu: 10 hodín.. Nepoužívať tento veterinárny liek po dátume exspirácie uvedenom na štítku/ škatuli.. 12.OSOBITNÉ UPOZORNENIA. Osobitné bezpečnostné opatrenia pre každý cieľový druh:. Príležitostne môže prítomnosť materských protilátok u oviec v minimálnom odporúčanom veku narúšať ochranu navodenú vakcínou.. Nie sú dostupné žiadne informácie o použití vakcíny u séropozitívneho hovädzieho dobytka vrátane hovädzieho dobytka, ktorý má materské protilátky.. Pri použití v prípade iných domácich a voľne žijúcich prežúvavcov, u ktorých sa predpokladá riziko infekcie, by sa vakcína mala používať obozretne a odporúča sa vyskúšať vakcínu na malom počte zvierat pred hromadným ...
Modumo, Jacob and Venter, Estelle H. Determination of the minimum protective dose for bluetongue virus serotype 2 and 8 vaccines in sheep. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc., 2012, vol.83, no.1, p.24-30. ISSN 1019- ...
Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a vector-borne disease affecting ruminants, causing morbidity and mortality amongst commercial livestock herds. Historically, BTV was not endemic in Europe, however in the past two decades various BTV serotypes have periodically invaded Southern and Eastern Europe. In 2006 the first epizootic of BTV was observed above latitude 50N anywhere in the world, centred near Maastricht.
Urban areas encroachment on wildlife and farms means wild and domestic species are getting closer in proximity all the time. Ontario deer, sheep and cattle are now at risk for an infectious virus, from a specific species of midge thats found a new home in Eastern Canada. Researchers believe climate change has altered the midges windborne movement from the southern U.S. into Ontario, and warmer winters increase their chance to survive. So, now the midge (specifically the specie C. sonorensis) has been found biting and transmitting sometimes fatal diseases such as epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) and bluetongue to livestock.... Read More ...
Linlin Gu is the author of these articles in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Assays for the Identification of Novel Antivirals against Bluetongue Virus, Utilizing the Antigen Capsid-Incorporation Strategy for the Development of Adenovirus Serotype 5-Vectored Vaccine Approaches
"Blue Tongue". Stockholm Film Festival. Archived from the original on 24 March 2017. Retrieved 29 December 2018. "The Snowtown ... His film debut was the Australian short film Blue Tongue (2004). His feature film debut was Snowtown (2011), for which he won ...
Bluetongue disease is a non-contagious vector-borne disease caused by bluetongue virus, which affects species of ruminants ( ... This change enabled the bluetongue virus to jump vector, thus causing the northward spread of bluetongue disease into Europe. ... "Bluetongue" (PDF). CFSPH. Retrieved 14 April 2020. Purse BV, Mellor PS, Rogers DJ, Samuel AR, Mertens PP, Baylis M (February ... The natural vector of the bluetongue virus is the African midge C. imicola, which is normally limited to Africa and subtropical ...
Blue Tongue Entertainment. De Blob. Scene: Closing credits, 2 minutes in, Voices of Chroma City. Krome Studios (October 6, 2009 ...
Blue Tongue Sherbet. Sour Sherbet. Strawberry Sherbet. Cola Wizz Fizz. Hoppy Pops, lollipops with sherbet mixed inside them, ...
Blue Tongue Stadium Website. Archived from the original on 4 March 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2013. "Nagano 1998 Paralympics - ...
"Central Coast Sporting Hall of Fame". Blue Tongue Stadium Website. Archived from the original on 4 March 2013. Retrieved 16 May ...
She has also researched the DNA of the several Culicoides species of midges that transmit bluetongue, a disease of livestock. ... "BBC - Scotland Outdoors Articles - Bluetongue". www.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2019-12-15. "Jennifer Mordue - Scotland Group". www. ...
Bluetongue virus is closely related to EHDV, and has similar clinical signs, but it is a different disease. Bluetongue is a ... "Facts About Bluetongue And EHD." Grand View Outdoors, 18 Dec. 2014, www.grandviewoutdoors.com/big-game-hunting/facts-about- ... Testing at animal health laboratories is necessary to distinguish between the viruses that cause bluetongue and EHD. The ... Diseases such as blackleg, blacktongue, bluetongue, mycotic stomatitis or hemorrhagic septicemia were thought to have been the ...
Atherton raspberry (Rubus probus; Rosaceae) Black apple (Planchonella australis; Sapotaceae) Blue tongue (Melastoma affine; ...
Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an Orbivirus that causes bluetongue disease in sheep, cattle, goats, and wild ungulates. BTV has been ... NS1 is the most abundant protein in bluetongue virus infected cells. It forms tubules that may be involved in translocation of ... AHSV was discovered to be a virus in 1900 and bluetongue disease followed shortly thereafter in 1905. Outbreaks have occurred ... ISBN 978-1-904455-22-6. Roy P (2008). "Structure and Function of Bluetongue Virus and its Proteins". Segmented Double-stranded ...
The Centralian blue-tongue is of a very robust build, short body and slender tail, and is among the largest 1% of species in ... Analyses of stomach contents have shown that the blue-tongue feeds on a combination of seeds, insects, livestock dung and some ... The Centralian blue-tongued skink or Centralian blue-tongue (Tiliqua multifasciata) is a species of skink, occurring ... Shea, Glenn M (2006). "Diet of two species of bluetongue skink, Tiliqua multifasciata and Tiliqua occipitalis (Squamata: ...
Blue Tongue Entertainment (October 24, 2006). Nicktoons: Battle for Volcano Island (PlayStation 2). THQ. Level/area: Fort ... Blue Tongue Entertainment (October 24, 2006). Nicktoons: Battle for Volcano Island (PlayStation 2). THQ. Level/area: Summit ... Blue Tongue Entertainment (October 23, 2007). Nicktoons: Attack of the Toybots (PlayStation 2). THQ. Level/area: EvilToyCo ... Factory, Zone 3 (Part 2). Blue Tongue Entertainment (October 23, 2007). Nicktoons: Attack of the Toybots (PlayStation 2). THQ. ...
The common name "blue tongue" refers to the edible purplish-black pulp within the fruit capsules which stains the mouth blue. ... "Blue Tongue - Native Lassiandra - Melastoma affine". Fruit and Nut Trees - Fruit Bearing Plants. Archived from the original on ... Melastoma affine, also known by the common names blue tongue or native lassiandra, is a shrub of the family Melastomataceae. ...
Blue Tongue Entertainment (October 26, 2005). Nicktoons Unite!. THQ. Level/area: 8. Incinerator Studios (October 20, 2008). ...
"Blue-Tongue Aussies reach the Oscars". theage.com.au. Associated Press. February 22, 2011. Retrieved February 28, 2011. Top ... Susser is the only American member of the Australian filmmaking collective Blue-Tongue Films. His short film I Love Sarah Jane ...
"Blue Tongues relocate". Australian Ice Hockey League. 8 June 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2012. "Blue Tongues & Ice reschedule ... The Gold Coast Blue Tongues' final seven home games were relocated from Bundall, Gold Coast to Acacia Ridge, Brisbane after the ... "Blue Tongues release new schedule". Australian Ice Hockey League. 20 June 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2012. Tonks, Craig. "Stars ... On 3 June, Gold Coast Blue Tongues' home game against the Melbourne Ice at Bundall Iceland was called off after a shortened ...
"Wanderers Take Top Spot In Bluetongue Raid". Western Sydney Wanderers. 3 March 2013. Archived from the original on 23 January ...
Charley's Forest, NSW: Blue-Tongue Books, 2020. Jack Zipes. The Brothers Grimm: From Enchanted Forests to the Modern World, New ... Royall Tyler, French Folktales, Pantheon, 1989 (105 tales). Royall Tyler, Henri Pourrat and Le Trésor des Contes, Blue-Tongue ...
"Bluetongue Central Coast Stadium - getting to bluetongue". Central Coast Stadium. Archived from the original on 26 August 2013 ...
She is the only female member of the Australian film-making collective Blue-Tongue Films. In 2010, for her acting, Foulkes was ... Foulkes is the only female member of the Australian film-making collective Blue-Tongue Films. In 2005, Foulkes had a two- ... Foulkes is the only female member of the Australian film-making collective Blue-Tongue Films. In 2013, Foulkes was nominated ... Mirrah Foulkes at IMDb Blue Tongue Films. ...
The PS2 version was developed by Blue Tongue. The PS2 game acts as a simple platformer over four levels and two bonus stages, ...
A Reading of The Tale of Genji, Blue-Tongue Books, 2016. To Hallow Genji: A Tribute to Noh, Blue-Tongue Books, 2017. Iwashimizu ... Before Heike and After: Hogen, Heiji, Jokyuki, Blue-Tongue Books, 2016. From the Bamboo-View Pavilion: Takemuki-ga-ki, Blue- ... Henri Pourrat and Le Trésor des Contes, Blue-Tongue Books, 2020. "Royall Tyler". Penguin USA. Retrieved 12 August 2012. "Lost ... Hachiman in War and Cult, Blue-Tongue Books, 2017. ... From Baishōron to Nantaiheiki, Blue-Tongue Books, 2016. ...
Mark Serrels (August 10, 2011). "THQ Closes Blue Tongue And THQ Brisbane To Focus On 'High-Quality Owned IP'". Kotaku Australia ... Some of these studios, such as Relic Entertainment, Vigil Games, Blue Tongue Entertainment, Juice Games, Kaos Studios and ... Fahey, Rob (November 17, 2004). "THQ expands Australian presence with Blue Tongue buyout". GamesIndustry.biz. Archived from the ... would shift its development focus away from licensed kids and movie-based titles by closing down THQ Studio Australia and Blue Tongue ...
The mallee spinifex of the park is the main habitat for the western blue-tongue and southern spinifex slender blue-tongue ... "Mallee slender blue-tongue lizard - endangered species listing". Office of Environment & Heritage. Government of New South ...
Bluetongue virus (BTV) which causes disease in livestock (sheep, goat, cattle) has been in the forefront of molecular studies ... Roy P (2008). "Structure and Function of Bluetongue Virus and its Proteins". Segmented Double-stranded RNA Viruses: Structure ... and bluetongue virus, an economically significant pathogen of cattle and sheep. The family Reoviridae is the largest and most ...
". "Queensland Roar sink Central Coast Mariners at Bluetongue Stadium". Van Dijk hat-trick and Roar get their final "Reds add ...
The Telegraph, Bluetongue spreads from cattle to sheep, published 14 October 2007. Retrieved 19 June 2010. Sir David King: ... There was also an outbreak of bluetongue in 2007. The most serious disease to affect British agriculture was BSE, a cattle ...
Sia - Blue Tongue Version". 18 December 2011 - via YouTube. "David Guetta - Titanium ft. Sia (Official Video)". 20 December ...
Of these, the earliest is "Blue Tongue" (formerly Kenny's Cabin), built in 1950. "Blue Tongue" has rock-faced sandstone ... Blue Tongue. The materials to build Kenny's Cabin were donated by the building materials supplier George Hudson and Sons. ...
THE NEW SHORT FILM FROM BLUE TONGUE FILMS & NASH EDGERTON". Retrieved 18 May 2013. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) " ...
Bluetongue Premium Lager (4.9% alc/vol) Bluetongue Pale Ale (5.2% alc/vol) Bluetongue Premium Light (2.7% alc/vol) Bluetongue ... On 23 January 2014, it was announced that Bluetongue would be phased out and discontinued as a brand. Bluetongue Brewery was ... Green, Penelope; Gordon, Jason (23 January 2014). "Jobs to go as Bluetongue Brewery closes". Newcastle Herald. Bluetongue ... Original Pilsener (4.5% alc/vol) Bluetongue Black Ale (4.7% alc/vol Bluetongue Vintage Ale 2005 (6.6% alc/vol) Bluetongue ...
The slender bluetongue (Cyclodomorphus venustus) is a species of lizard in the family Scincidae. The species is endemic to the ...
Bluetongue is caused by the pathogenic virus, Bluetongue virus (BTV), of the genus Orbivirus, of the Reoviridae family. Twenty- ... "Q&A: Bluetongue disease". BBC. 2008-09-17. Retrieved 2010-01-01. Roy P (2008). "Molecular Dissection of Bluetongue Virus". ... "Bluetongue disease detected in UK". BBC News Online. 2007-09-22. Retrieved 2007-09-22. Gray, Richard (2007-10-14). "Bluetongue ... "Bluetongue (blue tongue) outbreak in the UK - FWis special report", Farmers Weekly, 24 September 2007. Offers practical advice ...
Bluetongue is an acute, subacute, and possible chronic virus disease of wild and domestic ruminants (3,10). Sheep often have ... variipennis reconfirmed the unlikelyhood of transovarian transmission of bluetongue virus (39). ...
Bluetongue virus is the type species for the Orbivirus genus [21] . The orbiviruses are distinguished from the reoviruses by ... Antigenic relationships have been demonstrated between the bluetongue serogroup and the EHD, Eubenangee and Palyam serogroups [ ... The BLU subgroup consists of the 23 serotypes of bluetongue virus [34] . ... The agar gel immunodiffusion test has been the most widely used group specific test for bluetongue virus antibody and has ...
Bluetongue virus licks northern Europe. Life 30 August 2006 In the coming weeks farmers in northern Europe will be counting ... They are keeping a close eye on their flocks after the appearance of the bluetongue virus in sheep in the Netherlands. ...
The Blue Tongues, along with the Central Coast Rhinos, were part of the AIHLs expansion for the 2005 season. The name Blue ... The Bartercard Gold Coast Blue Tongues, formerly known as the Brisbane Blue Tongues was a former semi-professional ice hockey ... "Bartercard Gold Coast Blue Tongues. Retrieved 3 September 2010.. *^ Gardini, Adam (4 February 2008). "Lizard Insider". Lizard ... All the games were filmed by Blue Tongues supporter Mike Crowhurst from Cunning Crow Productions and commentated by Blue ...
There are at least 24 serotypes of Bluetongue virus (BTV). Wageningen Bioveterinary Research conducts research on this disease. ... Bluetongue (BT) is a disease in ruminants caused by an Orbivirus that is transmitted by midges. ... Bluetongue. Bluetongue (BT) is a disease in ruminants caused by an Orbivirus that is transmitted by midges. There are at least ... Spread of Bluetongue. In Europe, the spread of Bluetongue virus was formerly associated to the presence of Culicoides imicola. ...
Bluetongue is a vector-borne viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants such as sheep, goats, cattle and deer. It is ... EFSA assesses risks linked to transmission of bluetongue during animal transit. July 2008 - EFSA delivers advice on bluetongue ... Bluetongue monitoring and surveillance. November 2008 - Experts assess the risk of transmission of the virus when animals are ... Bluetongue: EFSA reviews control measures. June 2011 - A scientific opinion estimates the prevalence of the disease under ...
Kids only get a blue tongue from eating blue candy, and luckily it only lasts a short while. These Australian lizards have blue ...
www.completecritter.com/blue-tongue-skink.html. Gut loading for blue tongue skinks should focus on calcium, as they can get ... Feeding and diet ... Blue-tongues eat a wide variety of both plants and animals. Blue-tongues are not very agile and the ... www.kellyvillepets.com.au/pages/blue-tongue-lizards. In captivity, blue-tongues should be fed a variety of both live foods and ... www.thatpetplace.com/articles/blue-tongue-skink-article. Diet. Young blue tongues will eat crickets and other insects. On ...
Further reports about: , BTV , Bluetongue , Nucleotide , Vaccine , Virology , bluetongue virus , global warming ... reports the identification of a bluetongue virus strain that caused the northern European Bluetongue outbreak in 2006. ... Bluetongue (BT) disease or catarrhal fever is a non-contagious, insect borne viral disease of ruminants, mainly sheep. It is ... Towards Understanding Bluetongue Outbreaks. 14.08.2008. A recent article published in Virology (www.elsevier.com/locate/yviro ...
... bluetongue disease is spreading rapidly in Europe and new strains of bluetongue virus have been detected in Australia. "While ... Sheep infected with bluetongue develop a high fever and swelling and/or lesions around the face and feet. Lesions can also ... "Bluetongue has turned up in parts of Europe where it was previously unknown," Dr Daniels says. "This emergence seems to be ... However, bluetongue is spreading in Australia, moving south of the Kimberley into the Pilbara. In recent years, three new South ...
Backx, A., Heutink, C.G., van Rooij, E.M.A., and van Rijn, P.A. (2007). Clinical signs by Bluetongue virus serotype 8 in sheep ... Bluetongue virus non-structural protein NS3/NS3a is not essential for virus replication. PLoS ONE 9(1): e85788. doi:10.1371/ ... Santman-Berends, I.M.G.A., Hage, J.J., van Rijn, P.A., Stegeman, J.A., van Schaik, G. Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) ... Bluetongue virus without NS3/NS3a expression is not virulent and protects against virulent BTV challenge. J. Gen. Virol. 95: ...
Pixdaus.com is an environmental photo-bookmarking and sharing service. All the pictures are uploaded by users and the copyrights belong to the rightholders. You can request a removal using the Copyright flag link below each image if you find an image that shouldnt belong here ...
This show is a must for all of you who own, or want to own bluetongue skinks! We will also cover the latest industry news and ... Joe is working on numerous bluetongue skink projects at present, some of which are world firsts! We will also be finding out ... This show is a must for all of you who own, or want to own bluetongue skinks! ... Joe is working on numerous bluetongue skink projects at present, some of which are world firsts! ...
Should Bluetongue arrive there is an agreed strategy to contain the disease, however if it becomes widespread then we will have ... Testing for foot and mouth disease (FMD) has led to the first confirmed case of the bluetongue virus on a farm near Ipswich. ... Peter Kendall from the National Farmers Union said he wasnt unduly concerned yet bluetongue: Im optimistic that this can be ...
The ongoing spread of bluetongue virus among European farm animals may have started when a cow was inseminated with infected ... Bluetongue is a viral disease spread by biting midges. It can cause a variety of symptoms, from fevers to the bluish tongues ... Bull semen frozen for several years before being used to inseminate a cow may have sparked an ongoing bluetongue outbreak among ... Viruses accumulate minor mutations as they replicate, so if the bluetongue virus had somehow circulated undetected in wild or ...
... (BTV), a member of Orbivirus genus within the Reoviridae family causes serious disease in ... Bluetongue disease affects mainly sheep and cattle and is economically an important disease in many parts of the world, both in ... Bluetongue disease emerged in Europe only recently but is becoming one of the major threats to livestock industry world-wide. ... BTV, the etiological agent of Bluetongue disease of animals, is transmitted by Culicoides species. In sheep BTV causes an acute ...
Bluetongue vaccine could begin arriving at wholesalers next week in readiness for distribution to veterinary surgeons and their ... Bluetongue vaccine could begin arriving at wholesalers next week in readiness for distribution to veterinary surgeons and their ... Vets in Belgium and the Netherlands have reported that large numbers of the bluetongue carrying midge, cullicoides, have become ...
Bluetongue virus type 10 immune ascitic fluid [V-519-701-562] Application: ... Bluetongue virus type 10 immune ascitic fluid [V-519-701-562] Biosafety Level 1 Biosafety classification is based on U.S. ... Bluetongue virus, type 10 (ATCC® VR-1231AF™) Classification: Reoviridae, Orbivirus / Strain: BT8 / Product Format: freeze-dried ... Mice were immunized with Bluetongue virus (strain 8, V-519-401-562, see ATCC VR-1231) in Freunds complete adjuvant. Sacoma 180 ...
The atomic structure of the bluetongue virus core.. Grimes JM1, Burroughs JN, Gouet P, Diprose JM, Malby R, Ziéntara S, Mertens ... The structure of the core particle of bluetongue virus has been determined by X-ray crystallography at a resolution approaching ...
"Bluetongue emerged in northern Europe in response to climate change, and has already affected tens of thousands of farms at a ... Bluetongue is believed to have entered the UK in southeast England, an area with relatively low farm density, meaning that ... Bluetongue risk under future climates by Anne E. Jones, Joanne Turner, Cyril Caminade, Andrew E. Heath, Maya Wardeh, Georgette ... Limiting the spread of bluetongue in northern Europe. Efficient detection and control measures to limit the spread of vector- ...
Four fun facts about blue-tongue lizards. Read more about the science behind the video here: Why blue tongue? A potential ...
Authorities in Spain have detected bluetongue in cattle in 47 farms in the southern region of Andalusia, a regional government ... New Cases Has Widened Netherlands Bluetongue Security Zone. Dutch authorities have extended a security zone to cover two ... Bluetongue affects affects ruminants -- animals such as cows and sheep which chew the cud -- but not humans. It is transmitted ... Authorities in Spain have detected bluetongue in cattle in 47 farms in the southern region of Andalusia, a regional government ...
... March 2018. What is Bluetongue?. Bluetongue is a viral disease of ruminants spread by biting insects called midges ... Bluetongue Virus, Agriculture Victoria. Bluetongue, Department of Primary Industries New South Wales. National Arbovirus ... Bluetongue virus (BTV) exists in well-defined zones in northern Australia.. ► There is no active BTV infection in Victoria.. ► ... The current Bluetongue Zone Map can be seen at the Animal Health Australia website, and is subject to change without notice.. ...
A bluetongue virus strain was isolated and characterized as serotype 8. Two new real-time reverse transcription-quantitative ... PCRs (RT-qPCRs) that amplified 2 different segments of bluetongue virus detected this exotic strain. These 2 RT-qPCRs detected ... Bluetongue is a noncontagious disease caused by an orbivirus of the family Reoviridae. The bluetongue virus (BTV) serogroup ... Bluetongue has emerged recently in Belgium. A bluetongue virus strain was isolated and characterized as serotype 8. Two new ...
Changes to the requirements for the post-import testing of animals susceptible to bluetongue virus have come into effect. A ... The article offers information on a series of meetings about bluetongue organised by the periodical "Farmers Weekly," the ...
... following a series of outbreaks of bluetongue disease in sheep and cattle in northern Europe. ... Bluetongue is a non-contagious viral disease of ruminants, transmitted by certain species of midges which feed on the blood of ... "Bluetongue is normally considered to be a disease which mainly affects sheep, but unusually we have received reports of cattle ... Livestock producers are being urged to step up their vigilance and biosecurity, following a series of outbreaks of bluetongue ...
Farmers in Northern Ireland urged to remain vigilant for signs of Bluetongue. Stock image. ... "If you choose to bring animals into Northern Ireland from a disease free zone via a Bluetongue infected zone you must ensure ... In the unlikely event of this having to take place the animals must have been vaccinated against Bluetongue prior to import to ... Dr Huey said Northern Ireland is more at risk from Bluetongue due to farmers importing animals than from windborne spread of ...
  • 2014. VP2-serotyped live-attenuated bluetongue virus without NS3/NS3a expression provides serotype-specific protection and enables DIVA . (wur.nl)
  • 2014. Expected utility of voluntary vaccination in the middle of an emergent Bluetongue virus serotype 8 epidemic: a decision analysis parameterized for Dutch circumstances . (wur.nl)
  • A bluetongue virus strain was isolated and characterized as serotype 8. (cdc.gov)
  • WALES, UK - Livestock Board Chairman, Ed Rees, reminded farmers of the continued threat of bluetongue (serotype 8 - BTV8) to cattle and sheep at yesterdays NFU Cymru's Livestock Board meeting. (thebeefsite.com)
  • Bluetongue in lynx indicates that the list of known susceptible species must be widened, at least for serotype 8. (cdc.gov)
  • GENERAL - Fort Dodge Animal Health has provided its Zulvac® 1 vaccine against Serotype 1 Bluetongue (BTV-1) in cattle and sheep to vets in Jersey under the terms of a Special Export Licence from the French Government. (thedairysite.com)
  • When the outbreak of bluetongue, serotype 8 (BT 8), started in the Netherlands in 2006, the Norwegian authorities and the Norwegian Veterinary Institute carefully followed the development of the disease. (vetinst.no)
  • And with 149 confirmed premises affected by BTV-8 (Bluetongue virus - serotype 8) in England and Wales to date, since the first case of BTV-8 was confirmed there in September 2007, it is more likely that the south-east of Ireland could fall victim to wind vectors. (munster-express.ie)
  • The genes of the bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 17 have been cloned into pBR322 by tailing both strands of the double-stranded RNA with polyadenylic acid, transcribing them with reverse transcriptase with an oligodeoxythymidylic acid primer, hybridizing the cDNA products, and completing them into duplex structures with the Klenow fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase. (asm.org)
  • Scientists at the Institute for Animal Health's Pirbright Laboratory have shown that the bluetongue virus causing disease in the Netherlands is serotype 8. (stackyard.com)
  • After confirming that the disease in the Netherlands was bluetongue, the IAH Pirbright scientists worked day and night over the past week to identify the serotype of the virus. (stackyard.com)
  • In August-October 2017, BTV serotype 6 (BTV-6) was identified in young animals exhibiting classical clinical signs of Bluetongue (BT) at Israeli sheep and cattle farms. (mdpi.com)
  • THE risk of an incursion of serotype 8 of the bluetongue virus (BTV-8) to the UK may increase in the coming months after the virus was detected in a herd in the Nord département of France. (bmj.com)
  • Following the first ever case of bluetongue in Denmark during late 2007, further outbreaks were observed in Denmark during 2008, despite vaccination against bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 8 (BTV-8) in the southern part of the country. (bmj.com)
  • The immunisation properties of an inactivated bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) vaccine were evaluated in sheep and cattle. (ebscohost.com)
  • Segment-2 sequence analysis and cross-neutralization studies on some Indian bluetongue viruses suggest isolates are VP2-variants of serotype 23. (ebscohost.com)
  • The article reports on the decision of the Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health (SCoFCAH) to reclassify Great Britain as a lower risk zone (LRZ) for serotype 8 of the bluetongue virus (BTV-8), effective June 12, 2010. (ebscohost.com)
  • Bluetongue Viruses Based on Modified-Live Vaccine Serotype 6 with Exchanged Outer Shell Proteins Confer Full Protection in Sheep against Virulent BTV8. (ebscohost.com)
  • An attenuated live bluetongue virus (AL-BTV) serotype 8 vaccine of South African origin was evaluated for its ability to protect sheep against challenge with a European BTV-8 isolated from an outbreak. (ebscohost.com)
  • Identification and Differentiation of the Twenty Six Bluetongue Virus Serotypes by RT-PCR Amplification of the Serotype-Specific Genome Segment 2. (ebscohost.com)
  • Full Genome Characterisation of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 6 from the Netherlands 2008 and Comparison to Other Field and Vaccine Strains. (ebscohost.com)
  • Isolation and evolutionary analysis of Australasian topotype of bluetongue virus serotype 4 from India. (ovid.com)
  • 1 Bluetongue viruses share a common group-specific antigen but are distinguishable on the basis of their serotype-specific antigen by using an in vitro virus serum neutralising assay (SNT). (scielo.org.za)
  • Bluetongue serotype 8 and 4 (BTV-8 and BTV-4) is currently circulating in France. (charollaissheep.com)
  • The surveillance systems for Bluetongue Virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) implemented in Switzerland and Belgium were used as examples. (uzh.ch)
  • Dalal A, Maan S, Bansal N, Kumar V, Kumar A, Maan NS, Kakker NK (2017) Molecular analysis of genome segment-3 of bluetongue virus serotype 12 isolates from Haryana, Veterinary World, 10(11): 1389-1393. (veterinaryworld.org)
  • The present study was designed to characterize the genome segment 3 (Seg-3) of bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 12 isolates from different outbreaks of Bluetongue disease in Haryana, India. (veterinaryworld.org)
  • In September 2008 Sweden got its first verified animal infected with bluetongue virus, serotype 8 (BTV-8). (slu.se)
  • In cattle, constant changing of position of the feet gives bluetongue the nickname The Dancing Disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bluetongue is a vector-borne viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants such as sheep, goats, cattle and deer. (europa.eu)
  • Bluetongue infections are common in sheep, cattle and other ruminants in tropical and subtropical areas around the world but recently began to spread to previously unaffected regions. (innovations-report.com)
  • Some of the insects that spread bluetongue feed more readily on cattle than sheep," Dr Daniels says. (innovations-report.com)
  • Bluetongue virus (BTV), a member of Orbivirus genus within the Reoviridae family causes serious disease in livestock (sheep, goat, cattle). (highveld.com)
  • Bluetongue disease affects mainly sheep and cattle and is economically an important disease in many parts of the world, both in developed and developing countries. (highveld.com)
  • Authorities in Spain have detected bluetongue in cattle in 47 farms in the southern region of Andalusia, a regional government official said Friday. (medindia.net)
  • Twenty-one animals (16 cattle and 5 sheep) showing clinical signs suggestive of bluetongue were sampled by the Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain on August 18, 2006, at 11 farms in northeastern Belgium. (cdc.gov)
  • Livestock producers are being urged to step up their vigilance and biosecurity, following a series of outbreaks of bluetongue disease in sheep and cattle in northern Europe. (fwi.co.uk)
  • Bluetongue is normally considered to be a disease which mainly affects sheep, but unusually we have received reports of cattle displaying signs of illness," said Dr Reynolds. (fwi.co.uk)
  • Bluetongue is a non-contagious virus that causes symptoms such as drooling, and swelling of the neck, head and tongue in sheep, cattle, goats, deer and other ruminants. (phys.org)
  • The control of bluetongue (BT) disease, which mainly affects sheep and cattle, is of growing importance in Europe due to the influence of climate change. (swansea.ac.uk)
  • UK - Store cattle breeders selling at North of England auction markets can widen the range of competition for their stock, and hopefully earn more money, if they inject them, pre-sale, against bluetongue virus eight (BTV8). (thebeefsite.com)
  • UK - Cattle farmers shouldn't assume bluetongue is only a threat to the sheep sector. (thebeefsite.com)
  • UK - National Farmers Union Scotland has welcomed confirmation that Scottish farmers are shunning imports of cattle and sheep from Europe in a bid to keep Scotland free of the devastating disease, bluetongue. (thebeefsite.com)
  • Bluetongue virus (BTV) infection involves domestic and wild ruminants such as sheep, goats, cattle, buffaloes, deer, most species of African antelope and various other Artiodactyla as vertebrate hosts. (scribd.com)
  • The Dutch Government has stopped exports of live sheep, cattle and goats following the attack of the virulent bluetongue virus on a farm in Kerkrade. (medindia.net)
  • BTV causes bluetongue disease, a disease of sheep and (more rarely) other ruminants such as cattle and deer. (sciencephoto.com)
  • A number of cattle in a consignment from an assembly centre in France have tested positive for Bluetongue virus BTV-8 in the UK, the government has announced. (farminguk.com)
  • The UK's Chief Veterinary Officer has urged farmers to remain vigilant for signs of bluetongue virus after the disease was successfully picked up in a number of cattle imported from France through the post-import testing regime. (farminguk.com)
  • Cattle with a high risk of being infected with the BTV-8 strain of bluetongue or which had not been vaccinated before being exported will be humanely culled, the government has said. (farminguk.com)
  • Under EU rules anywhere within 150km of a confirmed case of bluetongue disease is subject to movement restrictions, with no cattle, sheep or goats allowed to move to an unrestricted area. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In 2014, Bluetongue disease was the most serious epizootic problem in Bulgaria, spreading in 2,322 settlements in all regions of the country, and about 37,000 sheep and 300 cattle died, Likov said. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The British Veterinary Association has warned of the possibility of the Bluetongue virus taking hold in the UK, following reports of BTV-8 in cattle in northern France. (pendletoday.co.uk)
  • Farmers have been urged to increase their vigilance for bluetongue virus after the disease was picked up in two cattle imported from France in Yorkshire. (farminguk.com)
  • Importers have been told to be aware that all cattle and sheep arriving in the UK from countries where Bluetongue is known to be circulating will be restricted until post-import testing is carried out and the animals are confirmed as compliant. (farminguk.com)
  • Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health has now released the first batch of bluetongue vaccine for sheep and cattle, Bovilis BTV8, fulfilling firm orders received from a number of countries within Europe. (bio-medicine.org)
  • As the midges prefer to bite cattle, they are the main carriers of Bluetongue. (farminglife.com)
  • EU - Bluetongue, the viral disease that has ravaged northern Europe's cattle and sheep this year, looks set to persist well into 2008 when the only realistic weapon left to fight it will be a vaccine, farming sources say. (thecattlesite.com)
  • The non-contagious bluetongue virus affects all ruminants (cattle, goats, deer and sheep) although symptoms are generally more severe in sheep. (scientistsolutions.com)
  • Cattle whose blood contain only PCR-detectable bluetongue viral nucleic acid, but no infectious virus, are unlikely to play a role in the epidemiology of bluetongue. (ajtmh.org)
  • Gel precipitation tests were used to determine the presence of antibodies to bluetongue virus (BTV) in 258 serum samples taken from Gaddi sheep and goats, cattle and buffaloes from different sources in Himachal Pradesh. (eurekamag.com)
  • Bluetongue virus can infect all ruminants (e.g. sheep, cattle, goats and deer) and camelids (e.g. llama and alpaca). (charollaissheep.com)
  • Bluetongue has been successfully picked up in a number of cattle imported from France through the UK's robust post-import testing regime. (charollaissheep.com)
  • Bluetongue virus can also infect cattle and goats but often there are no clinical signs of illness. (extension.org)
  • Many countries will not import cattle infected with the Bluetongue virus or its antibodies, which results in economic damage to the beef industry. (extension.org)
  • There is a Bluetongue vaccination for sheep but not cattle. (extension.org)
  • Bluetongue (BT) disease or catarrhal fever is a non-contagious, insect borne viral disease of ruminants, mainly sheep. (innovations-report.com)
  • Bluetongue is a viral disease spread by biting midges . (newscientist.com)
  • Bluetongue is a viral disease of ruminants spread by biting insects called midges or sandflies. (vff.org.au)
  • Bluetongue is a non-contagious viral disease of ruminants, transmitted by certain species of midges which feed on the blood of infected animals. (fwi.co.uk)
  • Bluetongue (BT) is a viral disease which is transmitted from an infected animal to another animal through the bite of a midge. (anses.fr)
  • The emergence in Europe in 2006 of serotypes 8 and 1 of Bluetongue (BT), a viral disease which includes many different serotypes, raised the problem of identifying them and determing control measures. (anses.fr)
  • Bluetongue (BT) is a viral disease transmitted from one infected animal to another by the bite of a midge of the genus Culicoides (arbovirosis). (anses.fr)
  • Bluetongue (BT) is also an insect-transmitted viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants with the ability to rapidly spread across national borders and reach epidemic proportions, thus requiring regional cooperation in prevention, control and eradication of the disease. (fao.org)
  • Bluetongue virus is a notifiable, midge-borne viral disease which affects all ruminants particularly sheep. (farminglife.com)
  • This invention relates to a rapid diagnostic test for the presence of Bluetongue viral specific antibody in serum. (google.com)
  • More particularly, the invention relates to a modified competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for the detection in serum of the presence of Bluetongue viral specific antibody. (google.com)
  • Bluetongue (BT) is an arthropod-borne viral disease, which primarily affects ruminants in tropical and temperate regions of the world. (ebscohost.com)
  • Bluetongue (BT) is a non-contagious viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants. (up.ac.za)
  • Bluetongue is a viral disease of sheep and deer that is spread by the Culicoides species of gnat. (extension.org)
  • Bluetongue is an acute, subacute, and possible chronic virus disease of wild and domestic ruminants (3,10). (cdc.gov)
  • Bluetongue (BT) is a disease in ruminants caused by an Orbivirus that is transmitted by midges. (wur.nl)
  • 2016. Experimental infection of small ruminants with bluetongue virus expressing ToggenburgOrbivirus proteins . (wur.nl)
  • Bluetongue affects affects ruminants -- animals such as cows and sheep which chew the cud -- but not humans. (medindia.net)
  • Bluetongue disease (BT), discovered north of the Alps in Europe in August 2006 (1-5), causes massive losses of farm ruminants, particularly sheep. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The decision also includes a temporary banning importation of all live birds from Portugal due to West Nile fever as well as all species of ruminants from France and Canada banned due to the emergence of bluetongue disease , Deputy Director of PAAF Hanadi Bastaki said in statement. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Netherlands suspended exports of live ruminants late on August 17th after a sheep farm in the south of the country was infected by so-called bluetongue virus, the Dutch agriculture ministry announced. (vetcontact.com)
  • One prominent example is bluetongue, a devastating disease of ruminants that emerged in Northern Europe since the summer of 2006. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Bluetongue does not cause disease in humans or animals other than ruminants. (farminglife.com)
  • Bluetongue (BT) is a non-contagious, insect-transmitted disease that infects certain domestic and wild ruminants that is caused by the bluetongue virus (BTV). (scielo.org.za)
  • Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes the primarily vector-borne bluetongue disease of ruminants, which poses a permanent threat to Europe since new serotypes and strains are frequently introduced. (avhandlingar.se)
  • Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a vector-borne disease affecting ruminants, causing morbidity and mortality amongst commercial livestock herds. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • Bluetongue is a vectorborne, infectious disease that affects ruminants. (slu.se)
  • But the situation has changed and nowadays bluetongue is a reality for ruminants in northern Europe too. (slu.se)
  • Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an arbovirus transmitted to livestock by midges of the Culicoides family and is the etiological agent of a hemorrhagic disease in sheep and other ruminants. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Although no single mechanism is responsible for the survival of the bluetongue virus over winter, experts conclude that infected midges are the likeliest explanation. (europa.eu)
  • Peter Kendall from the National Farmers' Union said he wasn't unduly concerned yet bluetongue: 'I'm optimistic that this can be quite an isolated localised case, and going into winter these midges aren't as active as they would be if this had happened two or three months ago,' he said. (countrylife.co.uk)
  • Bluetongue is believed to have entered the UK in southeast England, an area with relatively low farm density, meaning that opportunities for infected midges to spread between farms were fewer than they might have been elsewhere. (cabi.org)
  • Bluetongue virus (BTV) is spread by some species of biting midges, Culicoides spp. (vff.org.au)
  • The midges that spread bluetongue, a devastating livestock disease, across Europe in 2006 weren t passengers on the wind but actively transported the disease, Oxford University scientists have found. (phys.org)
  • It is caused by the bluetongue virus-a reovirus, genus Orbivirus-which has 20+ serotypes transmitted by haematophagous insect vectors-e.g., midges, sandflies (Culicoides spp). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • it is caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), has 24 known serotypes, and is transmitted by several species of Culicoides biting midges. (cdc.gov)
  • Bluetongue virus is transmitted by midges and affects cows, goats, sheep and other camelids such as llamas. (farminguk.com)
  • It is caused by the Bluetongue virus and is transmitted by biting midges but is not transferred to humans. (munster-express.ie)
  • Bluetongue virus is spread via certain species of biting midges, which are known as the vector. (farminglife.com)
  • Whilst vector control methods are an important part of a Bluetongue Virus control strategy, and will certainly be useful at a farm level, alone they are unlikely to be successful at controlling disease over a large area, because of the behaviour and movements of the midges. (farminglife.com)
  • African horse sickness, a disease transmitted by the same midges that also carry bluetongue, may follow soon. (scientistsolutions.com)
  • Dr Christopher Sanders studies Bluetongue virus and rears Cullicoides biting midges at The Pirbright Institute to see how they transmit the disease between sheep. (understandinganimalresearch.org.uk)
  • Bluetongue disease is caused by a virus transmitted by biting midges, which are most active between May and October. (charollaissheep.com)
  • While Culicoides imicola represents the main bluetongue virus (BTV) vector, other European Culicoides biting midges, possibly implicated in virus transmission, have been detected here. (biomedcentral.com)
  • citation needed] In August 2006, cases of bluetongue were found in the Netherlands, then Belgium, Germany, and Luxembourg. (wikipedia.org)
  • Belgium reported its first cases of bluetongue 1 day later, and Germany and France reported outbreaks on August 21, 2006, and August 31, 2006, respectively ( 2 , 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • A total of 32 animals came from the same assembly centre in France, in an area where multiple cases of bluetongue have been confirmed since September this year. (farminguk.com)
  • FRANCE - With more than 32,000 cases of bluetongue in France last year and the arrival of BTV1, French farmers and vets are well versed in bluetongue vaccination. (thedairysite.com)
  • The 10 imported animals in Great Britain were imported from the same assembly centre in France in an area where multiple cases of Bluetongue have been confirmed as recently as September this year. (farminglife.com)
  • Mice were immunized with Bluetongue virus (strain 8, V-519-401-562, see ATCC VR-1231) in Freund's complete adjuvant. (atcc.org)
  • Bluetongue is caused by the pathogenic virus, Bluetongue virus (BTV), of the genus Orbivirus, of the Reoviridae family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bluetongue is a noncontagious disease caused by an orbivirus of the family Reoviridae . (cdc.gov)
  • Bluetongue virus (BTV), an Orbivirus that belongs to the family Reoviridae, is the causing agent of the disease. (up.ac.za)
  • Vets in Belgium and the Netherlands have reported that large numbers of the bluetongue carrying midge, cullicoides, have become active in the past few days. (fwi.co.uk)
  • The distribution of the Bluetongue zone varies year-to-year due to climatic conditions and the distribution of specific midge vectors that require wet warm conditions. (vff.org.au)
  • While EHD is only found in deer populations, the bites of the midge can transmit bluetongue to certain types of livestock. (outdoorhub.com)
  • A significant contribution to the northward spread of Bluetongue disease has been the ability of Culicoides obsoletus and C.pulicaris to acquire and transmit the pathogen, both of which are spread widely throughout Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Europe, the spread of Bluetongue virus was formerly associated to the presence of Culicoides imicola . (wur.nl)
  • BTV, the etiological agent of Bluetongue disease of animals, is transmitted by Culicoides species. (highveld.com)
  • Transmission of bluetongue virus (BTV) by a vector species of Culicoides was studied using immunohistochemistry, virus titration and in vitro transmission tests. (springer.com)
  • Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an arthropod-borne virus transmitted by Culicoides species to vertebrate hosts. (nih.gov)
  • The epizootic of Bluetongue virus (BTV) throughout Europe in 2006 revealed insufficient knowledge regarding seasonal activities, endo/exophilic and endo/exophagic behaviour of the species of the Culicoides genus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). (degruyter.com)
  • Culicoides) , the potential vectors of Bluetongue virus, in Sweden. (degruyter.com)
  • Indoor activity of Culicoides associated with livestock in the Bluetongue virus (BTV) affected region of northern France during autumn 2006. (degruyter.com)
  • Bluetongue virus can infect a wide host range, and because of this the different BTV serotypes and the role played by Culicoides spp. (scielo.org.za)
  • Orbiviruses are the cause of important and apparently emerging arboviral diseases of livestock, including bluetongue virus (BTV), African horse sickness virus (AHSV), equine encephalosis virus (EEV), and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) that are all transmitted by haematophagous Culicoides insects. (up.ac.za)
  • The spread of Bluetongue can be prevented by controlling the Culicoides gnat through pesticides and elimination of standing water. (extension.org)
  • In Sardinia, bluetongue virus is transmitted by multiple Culicoides vectors, including C. imicola and the Newsteadi complex being the most important. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bluetongue was first described in South Africa and BTV-8 was first found in the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Western Germany and in parts of North Eastern France in Summer/Autumn 2006. (munster-express.ie)
  • The results show that the Dutch isolate is NOT descended from vaccine forms of the bluetongue virus that have been used in many parts of southern Europe including Bulgaria, Italy, Corsica, Spain, and also in South Africa, in recent years. (stackyard.com)
  • Bluetongue was first discovered in South Africa but has spread to many countries. (scientistsolutions.com)
  • Recent outbreaks of bluetongue virus (BTV) serotypes 2 and 8 in many European countries provided an opportunity to investigate the possibility of improving the safety of the modified live vaccines administered mainly in South Africa. (scielo.org.za)
  • March 2017 -Experts review control measures for bluetongue and options for safe trade of animals from infected to free areas. (europa.eu)
  • As a result of this surveillance, the temporary Bluetongue zone was lifted in early December 2017. (vff.org.au)
  • In 2007, the first case of bluetongue in the Czech Republic was detected in one bull near Cheb at the Czech-German border. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr Christianne Glossop said, "Parts of Wales are now within 150km of a confirmed case of bluetongue disease in England, so in accordance with the UK bluetongue control strategy and EU legislation, these parts are now in a restricted zone. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Anti-BTV antibodies were detected in lung tissue fluid from animal 2 (ID Screen Bluetongue Competition assay, ID VET, Monpellier, France) ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Although speculative, the suspicion of bluetongue in this animal is based on the presence of anti-BTV-8 antibodies, vasculitis, and pneumonia, which have been found in dogs accidentally infected with BTV ( 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • A rapid, competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) for the determination of Bluetongue virus antibodies in serum is described. (google.com)
  • This method utilizes either a biotinylated monoclonal antibody to Bluetongue virus and streptavadin-enzyme in conjunction with synthetic substrate, or an enzyme-conjugated monoclonal to detect antibodies specific for Bluetongue virus. (google.com)
  • First discovered a century ago and originally thought to be confined to Africa, confirmed outbreaks of Bluetongue virus have been reported in Europe, North and Latin America, and in the Near and Far East (Ozawa, Y., 'Overview of the World Situation' in Bluetongue and Related Orbiviruses, Alan Liss, Inc., 1985, pages 13 to 20). (google.com)
  • A separate paper published in Nature Climate Change explores the risk of bluetongue transmission under future climates. (cabi.org)
  • The UK remains officially bluetongue-free and exports are not affected. (farminguk.com)
  • Following the interception of these consignments, the UK remains officially bluetongue-free, the risk of the disease remains low and exports are not affected. (farminguk.com)
  • This report raises questions about the current knowledge of the epidemiology of bluetongue. (cdc.gov)
  • According to a senior epidemiologist at CSIRO Livestock Industries Australian Animal Health Laboratory in Geelong, Dr Peter Daniels, bluetongue disease is spreading rapidly in Europe and new strains of bluetongue virus have been detected in Australia. (innovations-report.com)
  • The insects that spread the virus do not occur in the same areas as the major sheep populations and strains of bluetongue virus are non-virulent (non disease-causing). (innovations-report.com)
  • Dr Daniels says scientists want to understand whether the spread of virulent bluetongue viruses in Australia is only a matter of time, or whether the Top End of the Northern Territory is a separate ecosystem for bluetongue viruses, with different characteristics that would operate to contain the spread of more virulent strains. (innovations-report.com)
  • The strains can cause moderate disease in sheep but the major sheep production regions of Australia don't overlap the Bluetongue zone. (vff.org.au)
  • Wind spread is how new strains of the virus enter Australia from Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, and how the virus spreads in Australia in the Bluetongue zone. (vff.org.au)
  • Farmers should not be complacent to the risks of the Bluetongue virus, both BTV-4 and BTV-8 strains, when considering the import of livestock from Continental Europe, especially France. (independent.ie)
  • The whole of France is now a Restricted Zone for both the BTV-4 and BYV-8 strains of the Bluetongue virus. (independent.ie)
  • In the late 1960's Howell applied this test in order to antigenically group 22 strains of bluetongue virus into 12 serotypes. (scielo.org.za)
  • Bluetongue can also be spread by live attenuated vaccines against BTV or even by vaccines against other antigens contaminated with BTV [ 7 , 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • UK - Vet practices which were forced to sell bluetongue vaccines at a loss following Defra's decision to cut the price of vaccine have lost thousands of pounds as a result. (thebeefsite.com)
  • EU - The European Commission today announced its intention to propose in early 2009 additional funding of approximately €100 million in order to co-finance the administration of vaccines to control Bluetongue disease in 2009. (thecattlesite.com)
  • If the virulence of the viruses is discovered to be linked to the species of insect by which it is spread, surveillance programs could be fine-tuned and the risk of severe bluetongue disease in Australia more accurately assessed. (innovations-report.com)
  • Viruses accumulate minor mutations as they replicate, so if the bluetongue virus had somehow circulated undetected in wild or farm animals in Europe between 2010 and 2015, it should have acquired lots of mutations. (newscientist.com)
  • Reassortment contributes to the evolution of RNA viruses with segmented genomes, including Bluetongue virus (BTV). (mdpi.com)
  • Wu, Donglai 2015-06-27 00:00:00 Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the etiological agent of bluetongue (BT) disease, a noncontagious insect-transmitted disease of international importance. (deepdyve.com)
  • UK - NFU Scotland is urging all Scottish livestock producers to maintain their vigilance against bringing the devastating livestock disease, bluetongue into the country. (thebeefsite.com)
  • Bluetongue (BT), a disease that affects mainly sheep, causes economic losses owing to not only its deleterious effects on animals but also its associated impact on the restriction of movement of livestock and livestock germplasm. (scielo.org.za)
  • The article offers information on a series of meetings about bluetongue organised by the periodical "Farmers Weekly," the National Beef Association and the Livestock Auctioneers Association to be held from November 7 to 14, 2007 in England. (ebscohost.com)
  • The Department of Agriculture, Environment and Rural Affairs (DAERA) is reminding farmers that imported animals subsequently found to be infected with Bluetongue will be slaughtered and no compensation will be paid. (independent.ie)
  • Dr Huey said Northern Ireland is more at risk from Bluetongue due to farmers importing animals than from windborne spread of the disease from mainland Europe. (independent.ie)
  • It is vitally important to the industry in Northern Ireland that farmers consider the potentially adverse consequences of importing animals from or transiting through Bluetongue affected countries or zones. (independent.ie)
  • SCOTLAND, UK - Farmers are being encouraged to make the most of Scottish Government-funded bluetongue vaccine stocks before their expiration date on 6 November. (thebeefsite.com)
  • UK - Farmers are once again being urged to vaccinate their livestock against the threat of bluetongue. (thebeefsite.com)
  • WALES, UK - Bluetongue vaccine doses worth an estimated £3m may have to be written off in Wales if farmers fail to jab their animals this spring. (thebeefsite.com)
  • UK - NFU Scotland has welcomed the Scottish Government's decision to extend the compulsory Bluetongue vaccination deadline for some of Scotland's most remote livestock farmers. (thebeefsite.com)
  • Ulster Farmers' Union (UFU) President Graham Furey recently outlined the UFU's firm stance on the need to keep Northern Ireland Bluetongue free. (thedairysite.com)
  • In 2007 information about bluetongue was distributed to veterinarians, farmers, stakeholders and other people dealing with farm animals. (vetinst.no)
  • THE owner of a farm hit by bluetongue disease said last night he feared the virus was more widespread than farmers realised as a third case was confirmed in Suffolk. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • FARMERS were last night told a cold front could soon block the advance of bluetongue disease towards Wales. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) have published an assessment highlighting a currently low risk of Bluetongue (BTV) incursion, leading to the BVA and the Goat Veterinary Society joining with Defra, the National Farmers' Union (NFU) and other organisations in urging farmers, livestock keepers and vets to all remain vigilant over the Bluetongue virus risk. (pendletoday.co.uk)
  • British Veterinary Association Junior Vice President John Fishwick said: "This is an important reminder to vets, farmers and anyone working with livestock, particularly those in the south east of England, to remain vigilant for any signs of Bluetongue in their animals. (pendletoday.co.uk)
  • The message we'd like farmers to hear is to closely monitor their stock for Bluetongue symptoms, which could include eye and nasal discharge, drooling, swelling around the head or mouth, lethargy and lameness. (pendletoday.co.uk)
  • Last month, a number of organisations across the livestock sector encouraged farmers to think carefully about importing animals from areas that are known to be infected with Bluetongue virus. (farminguk.com)
  • Following the reports on Bluetongue Virus 8 (BTV-8) which was recently detected in two herds in north west England and south west Scotland, vets and farmers in Northern Ireland are urged to remain vigilant. (farminglife.com)
  • Therefore farmers are urged not to import animals or germplasm from bluetongue affected countries. (farminglife.com)
  • Experts often compare bluetongue disease to the similar epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD), as both share the same symptoms, affect the same species, and are not considered contagious. (outdoorhub.com)
  • 6. Wright, I.M. (2014) Serological and Genetic Characterisation of Putative New Serotypes of Bluetongue Virus and Epizootic Haemorrhagic Disease Virus Isolated from an Alpaca. (veterinaryworld.org)
  • There are at least 24 serotypes of Bluetongue virus (BTV). (wur.nl)
  • Four serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV-10, 11, 13 and 17) have been identified in the United States. (ajtmh.org)
  • SGP ) released the first batch of Bovilis BTV8 vaccine against bluetongue to supply in Northern Europe. (bio-medicine.org)
  • EU - The European Commission's decision to allow pre-emptive vaccination against bluetongue in countries where the disease has still to be confirmed mirrors ideas put forward in an EU-wide website petition, organised by the National Beef Association's. (thecattlesite.com)
  • Bluetongue virus infection provides a very useful model with which to study arthropod-transmitted RNA virus infections of humans and other animals. (ajtmh.org)
  • Bluetongue emerged in northern Europe in response to climate change, and has already affected tens of thousands of farms at a huge financial cost and caused the deaths of millions of animals. (cabi.org)
  • From August 19, 2006, to September 14, 2006, the study farms were screened for animals with clinical signs of bluetongue. (cdc.gov)
  • Both had been fed ruminant fetuses and stillborns from surrounding farms in an area where many bluetongue cases had been confirmed ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Whilst Bluetongue does not pose a threat to human health or food safety, it can have a severe impact on affected farms. (farminglife.com)
  • In mid September 2008, clinical signs of bluetongue (particularly coronitis) were observed in cows on three different farms in eastern Netherlands (Luttenberg, Heeten, and Barchem), two of which had been vaccinated with an inactivated BTV-8 vaccine (during May-June 2008). (ebscohost.com)
  • UK - With weather forecasters predicting a hot summer, livestock producers are being urged to vaccinate against the threat of bluetongue. (thebeefsite.com)
  • UK - Take advantage and vaccinate your animals before turning them out to protect them from the threat of bluetongue. (thebeefsite.com)
  • Chief Veterinary Officer for the UK, Nigel Gibbens said Bluetongue does not pose a threat to human health or food safety, but can cause "severe disease" in some cases. (farminguk.com)
  • The UK government has worked closely with a number of groups to raise awareness of the threat of bluetongue through the Joint campaign Against Bluetongue (JAB). (farminguk.com)
  • Bluetongue is not a public health threat. (extension.org)
  • The means to control the insects that spread Bluetongue, such as insecticides, repellents and other ways of protecting animals from insect bites. (europa.eu)
  • A recent article published in Virology (www.elsevier.com/locate/yviro), reports the identification of a bluetongue virus strain that caused the northern European Bluetongue outbreak in 2006. (innovations-report.com)
  • The agriculture industry has already been rocked by foot-and-mouth and yesterday government officials confirmed that cases of the virulent bluetongue disease have spread. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the vector seasons 2009 and 2010 comprehensive monitoring and surveillance programmes for bluetongue were carried out in 10 counties in the southern part of Norway, in the restricted zone and in the free zone. (vetinst.no)
  • Since 2001, ANSES has actively participated in the surveillance and control of bluetongue disease (BT). (anses.fr)
  • 8 October 2007, Rome - The recent arrival of the bluetongue virus in the United Kingdom indicates again that animal diseases are advancing globally and countries will have to invest more in surveillance and control measures, FAO said today. (scientistsolutions.com)
  • Bluetongue does not affect humans so there are no public health implications. (wur.nl)
  • Bluetongue does not affect humans, but it can cause considerable damage to livestock populations. (europa.eu)
  • A purely animal disease, bluetongue does not affect humans and has no impact on food quality. (anses.fr)
  • but pathogenesis studies with C. variipennis reconfirmed the unlikelyhood of transovarian transmission of bluetongue virus (39). (cdc.gov)
  • While the 2006 heatwave across Europe is thought to have played a significant role in boosting bluetongue transmission, by the time it reached the UK the following year summer temperatures were actually below average. (cabi.org)
  • Bluetongue (BT) is a disease that causes substantial economic losses owing to not only its effect on certain species of animals, particularly sheep, but also its associated impact on industries as a result of international regulations restricting the movement of susceptible livestock and their live germplasm. (scielo.org.za)