Encyclopedias as Topic
Molecular Sequence Data
An episomally replicating vector binds to the nuclear matrix protein SAF-A in vivo. (1/28)pEPI-1, a vector in which a chromosomal scaffold/matrix-attached region (S/MAR) is linked to the simian virus 40 origin of replication, is propagated episomally in CHO cells in the absence of the virally encoded large T-antigen and is stably maintained in the absence of selection pressure. It has been suggested that mitotic stability is provided by a specific interaction of this vector with components of the nuclear matrix. We studied the interactions of pEPI-1 by crosslinking with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II, after which it is found to copurify with the nuclear matrix. In a south-western analysis, the vector shows exclusive binding to hnRNP-U/SAF-A, a multifunctional scaffold/matrix specific factor. Immunoprecipitation of the crosslinked DNA-protein complex demonstrates that pEPI-1 is bound to this protein in vivo. These data provide the first experimental evidence for the binding of an artificial episome to a nuclear matrix protein in vivo and the basis for understanding the mitotic stability of this novel vector class. (+info)
Identification of different isoforms of eEF1A in the nuclear fraction of human T-lymphoblastic cancer cell line specifically binding to aptameric cytotoxic GT oligomers. (2/28)GT oligomers, showing a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect on a variety of human cancer cell lines, but not on normal human lymphocytes, recognize and form complexes with nuclear proteins. By working with human T-lymphoblastic CCRF-CEM cells and by using MS and SouthWestern blotting, we identified eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha (eEF1A) as the main nuclear protein that specifically recognizes these oligonucleotides. Western blotting and supershift assays confirmed the nature of this protein and its involvement in forming a cytotoxicity-related complex (CRC). On the contrary, normal human lymphocytes did not show nuclear proteins able to produce CRC in a SouthWestern blot. Comparative bidimensional PAGE and Western-blotting analysis for eEF1A revealed the presence of a specific cluster of spots, focusing at more basic pH, in nuclear extracts of cancer cells but absent in those of normal lymphocytes. Moreover, a bidimensional PAGE SouthWestern blot demonstrated that cytotoxic GT oligomers selectively recognized the more basic eEF1A isoform expressed only in cancer cells. These results suggest the involvement of eEF1A, associated with the nuclear-enriched fraction, in the growth and maintenance of tumour cells, possibly modulated by post-translational processing of the polypeptide chain. (+info)
MFP1 is a thylakoid-associated, nucleoid-binding protein with a coiled-coil structure. (3/28)Plastid DNA, like bacterial and mitochondrial DNA, is organized into protein-DNA complexes called nucleoids. Plastid nucleoids are believed to be associated with the inner envelope in developing plastids and the thylakoid membranes in mature chloroplasts, but the mechanism for this re-localization is unknown. Here, we present the further characterization of the coiled-coil DNA-binding protein MFP1 as a protein associated with nucleoids and with the thylakoid membranes in mature chloroplasts. MFP1 is located in plastids in both suspension culture cells and leaves and is attached to the thylakoid membranes with its C-terminal DNA-binding domain oriented towards the stroma. It has a major DNA-binding activity in mature Arabidopsis chloroplasts and binds to all tested chloroplast DNA fragments without detectable sequence specificity. Its expression is tightly correlated with the accumulation of thylakoid membranes. Importantly, it is associated in vivo with nucleoids, suggesting a function for MFP1 at the interface between chloroplast nucleoids and the developing thylakoid membrane system. (+info)
An interaction between a MYC protein and an EREBP protein is involved in transcriptional regulation of the rice Wx gene. (4/28)We previously demonstrated that a 31-bp nucleotide sequence located upstream of the rice Wx gene played an important role in its expression. We further showed that this cis-acting regulator interacts with nuclear proteins extracted from developing rice endosperm. We used the 31-bp sequence as bait in a yeast one-hybrid system to isolate several cDNA clones from a rice cDNA expression library. One of these cDNAs encodes a MYC protein, designated OsBP-5, which is 335 amino acids long and contains a putative basic helix-loop-helix-ZIP DNA-binding domain. This domain exhibits 50% amino acid sequence identity with the R/B proteins that regulate the expression of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in plants. The results of electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) and Southwestern gel blots indicate that this protein binds specifically to the CAACGTG motif within the 31-bp sequence. However, by itself, the OsBP-5 protein is unable to trans-activate a lacZ reporter gene controlled by the 31-bp sequence when tested in a yeast expression system. Interestingly, OsBP-5 can trans-activate this reporter gene when another protein, OsEBP-89, a member of the EREBP family of transcription factors, is present. Furthermore, in vitro pull-down experiments show that a protein isolated from developing rice endosperm interacts with the OsBP-5 protein, and Western blots confirm that the interacting protein is OsEBP-89. The formation of a supershift band in EMSAs also indicates that two proteins interact with each other. Interference of OsBP-5 gene expression by double-stranded RNA reduces the amylose content in mature seed of transgenic rice plants but has no visible effect on their phenotype. These results suggest that the OsBP-5 and OsEBP-89 proteins act synergistically, perhaps as a heterodimer, to regulate the transcription of the rice Wx gene. (+info)
Identification of GAPDH as a protein target of the saframycin antiproliferative agents. (5/28)Saframycin A (SafA) is a member of a class of natural products with potent antiproliferative effects in leukemia- and tumor-derived cells. This activity is frequently conjectured to derive from the ability of saframycins to covalently modify duplex DNA. We used a DNA-linked affinity purification technique to identify GAPDH as a protein target of DNA-small molecule adducts of several members of the saframycin class. Nuclear translocation of GAPDH occurs upon treatment of cancer cells with saframycins, and depletion of cellular GAPDH levels by small interfering RNA transfection confers drug resistance. Roeder and coworkers have recently suggested that GAPDH is a key transcriptional coactivator necessary for entry into S phase. Our data suggest that GAPDH is also capable of forming a ternary complex with saframycin-related compounds and DNA that induces a toxic response in cells. These studies implicate a previously unknown molecular mechanism of antiproliferative activity and, given that one member of the saframycin class has shown efficacy in cancer treatment, suggest that GAPDH may be a potential target for chemotherapeutic intervention. (+info)
Borrelia turcica sp. nov., isolated from the hard tick Hyalomma aegyptium in Turkey. (6/28)Previously, a novel, fast-growing spirochaete was isolated from the hard tick Hyalomma aegyptium, which infests tortoises (Testudo graeca), by using Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly (BSK) II medium; the tick samples were taken from the Istanbul area in northwestern Turkey [Guner et al. (2003). Microbiology 149, 2539-2544]. Here is presented a detailed characterization of the spirochaete. Electron microscopy revealed that strain IST7T is morphologically similar to other spirochaetes of the genus Borrelia and possesses 15 to 16 flagellae that emerge from both polar regions. PFGE analysis revealed the genome to comprise a linear chromosome of approximately 1 Mb; two large linear plasmids of approximately 145 and 140 kb, and several small plasmids ranging from 50 to 20 kb in size were also found. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of this Borrelia isolate exhibited 99.4 to 99.8 % identity with other strains isolated from H. aegyptium and less than 99 % similarity with those of other Borrelia species. A phylogenetic tree, generated from 16S rRNA gene sequences, demonstrated that the spirochaete isolates from H. aegyptium clustered together and branched off from both Lyme-disease-related and relapsing-fever-associated Borrelia species. A single copy of the rrs gene was detected in the genome of strain IST7T by Southern hybridization. DNA-DNA hybridization results showed that strain IST7T was distinct from Lyme-disease-related Borrelia, Borrelia burgdorferi and the relapsing-fever-associated species Borrelia hermsii. The G+C content of strain IST7T is 30.0 mol%. From these genetic features, a novel Borrelia species, Borrelia turcica sp. nov., is proposed; the type strain is IST7T (= JCM 11958T = DSM 16138T). (+info)
Interaction of an approximately 40 kDa protein from regenerating rat liver with the -148 to -124 region of c-jun complexed with RLjunRP coincides with enhanced c-jun expression in proliferating rat liver. (7/28)The c-jun belongs to the family of proto-oncogenes and encodes for the protein Jun, a component of transcription factor AP-1 involved in regulation of the expression of genes indispensable for cell proliferation and differentiation. While the role of c-jun in the regulation of such genes has been well examined, the regulation of c-jun in proliferating cells is not fully understood. We have earlier reported that the -148 to -124 region of c-jun is involved in the positive regulation of c-jun transcription, and interacts with a positive regulatory factor (rat liver jun regulatory protein; RLjunRP) present in rat liver. In this investigation, we report that this region is differentially recognized in proliferating liver as evidenced by the formation of a complex, different from that observed with normal liver extract. The new complex appears as early as 2 h after partial hepatectomy and its appearance coincides with the rise in c-jun mRNA levels after partial hepatectomy. In regenerating rat liver nuclear extract, an additional protein of approximately 40 kDa (rRLjunRP) interacts with a pre-existing dimer of RLjunRP complexed with the -148 to -124 region of c-jun to form a slow-migrating complex. rRLjunRP appears to pre-exist in the cytosol and translocate to the nucleus as indicated by the continued presence of the retarded complex in nuclear extract prepared from partially hepatectomized rats treated with cycloheximide. UV crosslinking studies, South-Western blot analysis, SDS/PAGE of affinity-purified factor(s), and 2D-PAGE analysis clearly demonstrate that the additional factor induced in response to growth stimulus is an approximately 40 kDa, that binds with the dimer of RLjunRP and enhances the c-jun transcription. (+info)
A role for UV-light-induced c-Fos: Stimulation of nucleotide excision repair and protection against sustained JNK activation and apoptosis. (8/28)UV light (UV-C) is a potent inducer of the c-fos gene. Cells lacking c-Fos are hypersensitive to the cytotoxic effect of UV-C indicating a protective role of c-fos induction. Here we show that cells deficient in c-Fos (fos-/-) are unable to remove cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) from DNA and undergo apoptosis at high frequency via the Fas pathway. We also show that in c-Fos-deficient cells the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) by UV-C differs from the wild-type (wt, fos+/+). In wt cells JNK activation is transient, returning to control level 5-8 h after treatment, whereas in c-Fos-deficient cells JNK activation was long-lasting and did not return to control level. Inhibition of early JNK activation by the JNK inhibitor SP600125 attenuated CPD repair and increased UV-C induced apoptosis whereas inhibition of late JNK activation attenuated the apoptotic response of c-Fos-deficient cells. Late and sustained activation of JNK resulted in upregulation of fas (CD95, apo-1) ligand and induction of caspase 8-dependent apoptosis. The data indicate that the immediate-early induction of the JNK/c-fos pathway stimulates the repair of UV-C induced DNA lesions that protects against apoptosis. If this does not occur, cells do not recover from transcription blockage leading, as shown for c-Fos-deficient cells, to a reduced expression of MKP1, sustained JNK activation and fasL overexpression that finally results in activation of the death receptor pathway. The data support the hypothesis that non-repaired DNA damage is the cause for the late and sustained activation of the MAP kinase pathway in response to genotoxins. (+info)
An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.
I'm not aware of a medical term called "blotting, Southwestern." The term "blotting" in the context of laboratory science refers to a technique used to transfer or visualize molecules from one surface to another, typically using a liquid or gel. "Southwestern" is a geographical term that can refer to a region in the southwestern United States. It's possible that you may be referring to a specific medical or scientific technique that combines blotting and Southwestern, but I was unable to find any relevant information on this topic.
If you meant something different or need more information about laboratory techniques for transferring or visualizing molecules, please let me know!
An oligonucleotide probe is a short, single-stranded DNA or RNA molecule that contains a specific sequence of nucleotides designed to hybridize with a complementary sequence in a target nucleic acid (DNA or RNA). These probes are typically 15-50 nucleotides long and are used in various molecular biology techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, microarray analysis, and blotting methods.
Oligonucleotide probes can be labeled with various reporter molecules, like fluorescent dyes or radioactive isotopes, to enable the detection of hybridized targets. The high specificity of oligonucleotide probes allows for the precise identification and quantification of target nucleic acids in complex biological samples, making them valuable tools in diagnostic, research, and forensic applications.
DNA-binding proteins are a type of protein that have the ability to bind to DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the genetic material of organisms. These proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as regulation of gene expression, DNA replication, repair and recombination.
The binding of DNA-binding proteins to specific DNA sequences is mediated by non-covalent interactions, including electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals forces. The specificity of binding is determined by the recognition of particular nucleotide sequences or structural features of the DNA molecule.
DNA-binding proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, such as transcription factors, histones, and restriction enzymes. Transcription factors are a major class of DNA-binding proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences in the promoter region of genes and recruiting other proteins to modulate transcription. Histones are DNA-binding proteins that package DNA into nucleosomes, the basic unit of chromatin structure. Restriction enzymes are DNA-binding proteins that recognize and cleave specific DNA sequences, and are widely used in molecular biology research and biotechnology applications.
Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.
A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.
Collodion is a clear, colorless, viscous solution that is used in medicine and photography. Medically, collodion is often used as a temporary protective dressing for wounds, burns, or skin abrasions. When applied to the skin, it dries to form a flexible, waterproof film that helps to prevent infection and promote healing. Collodion is typically made from a mixture of nitrocellulose, alcohol, and ether.
In photography, collodion was historically used as a medium for wet plate photography, which was popular in the mid-19th century. The photographer would coat a glass plate with a thin layer of collodion, then sensitize it with silver salts before exposing and developing the image while the collodion was still wet. This process required the photographer to carry a portable darkroom and develop the plates immediately after exposure. Despite its challenges, the wet plate collodion process was able to produce highly detailed images, making it a popular technique for portrait photography during its time.
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- Blot spills immediately with a white cloth. (therugdecor.com)
- Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes. (wakehealth.edu)
- Southwestern rugs are a popular kind of rug that is popular in the United States. (wasabisys.com)
- Southwestern Rugs can add color and style to any space within your home. (wasabisys.com)
- Rugs from the Southwestern region are an excellent option if you're looking to add style and comfort to your home. (wasabisys.com)
- Southwestern Rugs are a popular style of rug across the United States. (digitaloceanspaces.com)
- Southwestern rugs are a great way to bring design and color to any space in your home. (digitaloceanspaces.com)
- It is possible to add an ambiance of color and southwestern design to any space by adding southwest rugs. (digitaloceanspaces.com)
- Rugs made from the southwestern regions of the United States are typically made out of wool. (digitaloceanspaces.com)
- Southwestern rugs is a great way to add a splash of color to your space or add some southwest flair. (b-cdn.net)
- Southwestern rug is among the most sought-after types of rugs found in America. (oraclecloud.com)
- Southwestern Rugs can be utilized to add a bit of design and color to any space at home. (oraclecloud.com)
- Southwestern rugs are one of the most sought-after types of rugs found in the United States. (b-cdn.net)
- Southwestern rugs that will add a bit of style and color to any room in your home. (b-cdn.net)
- The southwestern blot, is a lab technique that involves identifying as well as characterizing DNA-binding proteins by their ability to bind to specific oligonucleotide probes. (wikipedia.org)
- Similar to other types of blotting, proteins are separated by SDS-PAGE and are subsequently transferred to nitrocellulose membranes. (wikipedia.org)
- Southwestern blot mapping" is a time-efficient way of identifying DNA-binding proteins and specific sites on the genomic DNA that they interact with. (wikipedia.org)
- Identification of Sequence-Specific DNA-Binding Proteins by Southwestern Blotting Simon Labbe, Jean-Francois Harrisson, and Carl Seguin 13. (nhbs.com)
- He realized that using nitrocellulose paper, instead of chemically modified paper, facilitated the blotting of proteins better. (thedjournal.com)
- When did you last change your foam inserts in the blotting apparatus, the blotting sponge pads? (advansta.com)
- I love using fluorescent antibodies instead of the old-fashioned (well, I think they are) HRP-conjugated ones for Western Blots. (advansta.com)
- The name originates from a combination of ideas underlying Southern blotting and Western blotting techniques of which they detect DNA and protein respectively. (wikipedia.org)
- Hi: I am planning an experiment using the Southwestern blot technique for detection of protein-DNA interaction. (bio.net)
- Epidermis protein extracts were generated from human mammary surgery specimens and subjected to western blot using HRP-conjugated rabbit anti-mouse IgG as the secondary at a 1:80000 dilution in TBSt/5% milk. (anobase.org)
- Anti-Mouse IgG (whole molecule)-Peroxidase antibody has been used in western blotting , immunohistochemistry and protein pin array assay. (anobase.org)
- In addition, by South-western blotting analysis of nuclear extracts using the 95-bp probe or MRE oligonucleotide probe, we detected a Zn-dependent DNA-binding protein with a molecular mass of 116 kDa, which is likely to be ZRF. (go.jp)
- The S-protein was detected by Western blot and its biologic activity was analyzed by binding to Vero cells. (elsevierpure.com)
- Purified soluble S-protein was readily detected by Western blot with anti-Myc antibody and showed the ability to bind to surface of Vero cells, demonstrating that the soluble S-protein could remain the biologic activity in the native molecule. (elsevierpure.com)
- With subtle earth tones highlighted by desert-inspired colors in an abstract geometric pattern, the Questa Sunrise Rug - 8 Ft. Round is the perfect addition to your southwestern dining room. (lonestarwesterndecor.com)
- Western blot and strip immunoblot assays are the most commonly used serologic assays, but others include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect immunofluorescence, and compliment fixation, among others. (medscape.com)
- The quick blot Start with a quick experiment that doesn't require the highest level of sensitivity. (advansta.com)
Accent of color2
- Images from residents across southwestern Ontario posted to social media show the sun all but blotted out by the intense smoke in the area. (ctvnews.ca)
- There are several sizes to choose from so that you can find the best Southwestern rug for your area. (digitaloceanspaces.com)
- Blot the cleaned area dry with a towel. (boutiquerugs.com)
- As the area under partial eclipse passes over the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, regions seeing at least the partial eclipse will be much of South America and the southwestern tip of Africa, according to the Observer's Handbook. (skynews.ca)
- Today, the naming convention persists, with scientists referring to the eastern blot, southwestern blot and the far-eastern blot, for example, as homages to the work done in the 1970s. (thedjournal.com)
- They can bring the color and southwestern look to any room with rug that is southwestern. (wasabisys.com)
- They are available in a range of sizes, which means you'll find the ideal one for Southwestern rug which can be used to add a bit of color and style to any room of your home. (oraclecloud.com)
- Southwestern rug is a fantastic way to bring the color and elegance to any room of your home. (b-cdn.net)
- There are a variety of sizes available to make it possible to find the perfect Southwestern rug for your space. (wasabisys.com)
Style and comfort2
- In addition, quantitative experiments (PCR and Western blot) proved that the expression of MRPL13 was significantly different between LUAD and control samples. (bvsalud.org)
- Despite that rejection, Burnette's western blotting technique quickly became popular, thanks to the distribution of pre-prints to friends, who replicated the process repeatedly. (thedjournal.com)
- Burnette had been aware of the Southern blot and sought to honor it, and the location of his work, by naming his technique the western blot. (thedjournal.com)
- Fifth, the fragments are radioactively labeled and given appropriate time for binding to previously prepared blots. (wikipedia.org)
- The 53rd Annual Medical Student Research Forum at UT Southwestern Medical Center (Monday, January 26, 2015, 2-5 p.m. (tdl.org)
- The globally inspired Bedouin collection features an assortment of Southwestern styles that are designed for the contemporary home. (stagandmanor.com)
- a dilution of 1:500 was used for South-western blotting in the same study. (anobase.org)
- Harry Towbin and his colleagues at the Friedrich Miescher Institute in Switzerland had created a similar technique that derived inspiration from the northern blot. (thedjournal.com)