Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
'Medical manuscripts' are written documents that present original research, review articles, case studies, or theoretical discussions in the field of medicine, prepared following specific guidelines and structures for scientific communication, intended for publication in peer-reviewed medical journals.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.

Isolation of human transcripts expressed in hamster cells from YACs by cDNA representational difference analysis. (1/10141)

Gene isolation methods used during positional cloning rely on physical contigs consisting of bacterial artificial chromosomes, P1, or cosmid clones. However, in most instances, the initial framework for physical mapping consists of contigs of yeast artificial chromosome (YACs), large vectors that are suboptimal substrates for gene isolation. Here we report a strategy to identify gene sequences contained within a YAC by using cDNA representational difference analysis (RDA) to directly isolate transcripts expressed from the YAC in mammalian cells. The RDA tester cDNAs were generated from a previously reported hamster cell line derived by stable transfer of a 590-kb YAC (911D5) that expressed NPC1, the human gene responsible for Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C). The driver cDNAs were generated from a control hamster cell line that did not contain the YAC that expressed NPC1. Among the gene fragments obtained by RDA, NPC1 was the most abundant product. In addition, two non-NPC1 fragments were isolated that were mapped to and expressed from 911D5. One of these RDA gene fragments (7-R) spans more than one exon and has 98% sequence identity with a human cDNA clone reported previously as an expressed sequence tag (EST), but not mapped to a chromosomal region. The other fragment (2-R) that had no significant sequence similarities with known mammalian genes or ESTs, was further localized to the region of overlap between YACs 911D5 and 844E3. The latter YAC is part of a contig across the NP-C candidate region, but does not contain NPC1. This two-part approach in which stable YAC transfer is followed by cDNA RDA should be a useful adjunct strategy to expedite the cloning of human genes when a YAC contig is available across a candidate interval.  (+info)

Human papillomavirus DNA in adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung. (2/10141)

AIM: To investigate the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung--which is relatively common in Okinawa but not in mainland Japan--and examine its histological features. METHODS: Of 207 cases where primary lung cancers were surgically removed between January 1995 and June 1997 in Okinawa, 23 were adenosquamous carcinoma. HPV was detected by non-isotopic in situ hybridisation (NISH) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with primers specific for E6 and E7 regions of the HPV genome. PCR products were analysed by Southern blotting. Immunohistochemical determination of high molecular weight cytokeratin (HMC) and involucrin was also carried out. RESULTS: 18 cases were positive for HPV DNA by PCR and NISH. HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 were found. Seven cases were dual positive for different types of HPV. Using NISH, HPV was also found in the squamous cell components and in neighbouring enlarged adenocarcinoma cells. The HMC and involucrin were demonstrated immunohistochemically in the same areas. CONCLUSIONS: HPV DNA was found in a high proportion (78.3%) of adenosquamous carcinomas in Okinawa, a region where HPV has previously been shown to be prevalent in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. The adenocarcinoma cells adjacent to the squamous cell carcinoma component were enlarged and positive for HPV, HMC, and involucrin. This is thought to indicate the transition from adenocarcinoma to squamous cell carcinoma.  (+info)

The role of alternative splicing of the adhesion molecule, CD44, in lymphoid malignancy. (3/10141)

AIM: To investigate the expression of CD44 isoforms containing variant exon 6 (v6) in a well characterised cohort of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), and to correlate this with phenotype and disease course. METHODS: Cryostat sections of OCT embedded diagnostic nodal material from NHL patients and cryopreserved mononuclear preparations from CLL patients were used as sources of RNA. After reverse transcription, PCR was carried out with amplimers positioned at either side of the variant exon insertion site to amplify all possible CD44 isoforms. Those isoforms containing v6 were identified after Southern blotting and hybridisation with a radiolabelled oligonucleotide. RESULTS: Of 32 NHL samples analysed, 16 did not express CD44 isoforms containing v6, six expressed an isoform containing exon v6 alone, and 10 expressed v6 long isoforms which contained exon v6 in addition to other variant exons. These data did not correlate with lymphoma classification, disease staging, or the presence or absence of extranodal disease. However, those patients expressing v6 long CD44 isoforms had a worse overall survival than those that did not. The plateau of the survival curves was 50% compared with 82%. No v6 long isoforms were detected in the 21 CLL samples investigated. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of v6 long CD44 isoforms is associated with aggressive disease in NHL, independent of grade, stage, or presence of extranodal disease.  (+info)

Structure of cag pathogenicity island in Japanese Helicobacter pylori isolates. (4/10141)

BACKGROUND: cag pathogenicity island (PAI) is reported to be a major virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori. AIM: To characterise cagA and the cag PAI in Japanese H pylori strains. METHODS: H pylori isolates from Japanese patients were evaluated for CagA by immunoblot, for cagA transcription by northern blot, and for cagA and 13 other cag PAI genes by Southern blot. cagA negative strains from Western countries were also studied. Induction of interleukin-8 secretion from gastric epithelial cells was also investigated. RESULTS: All Japanese strains retained cagA. Fifty nine of 63 (94%) strains had all the cag PAI genes. In the remaining four, cag PAI was partially deleted, lacking cagA transcripts and not producing CagA protein. Details of the PAI of these strains were checked; three lacked cagB to cagQ (cagI) and continuously cagS to cag13 (cagII), and the remaining one lacked cagB to cag8. Western cagA negative strains completely lacked cag PAI including cagA. Nucleotide sequence analysis in one strain in which the cag PAI was partially deleted showed that the partial deletion contained 25 kb of cag PAI and the cagA promoter. Interleukin-8 induction was lower with the cag PAI partial deletion strains than with the intact ones. All Japanese cag PAI deleted strains were derived from patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia, whereas 41 of 59 (70%) CagA-producing strains were from patients with peptic ulcers or gastric cancer (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Most Japanese H pylori strains had the intact cag PAI. However, some lacked most of the cag PAI in spite of the presence of cagA. Thus the presence of the cagA gene is not an invariable marker of cag PAI related virulence in Japanese strains.  (+info)

Comparison of Bombyx mori and Helicoverpa armigera cytoplasmic actin genes provides clues to the evolution of actin genes in insects. (5/10141)

The cytoplasmic actin genes BmA3 and BmA4 of Bombyx mori were found clustered in a single genomic clone in the same orientation. As a similar clustering of the two cytoplasmic actin genes Ha3a and Ha3b also occurs in another lepidopteran, Helicoverpa armigera, we analyzed the sequence of the pair of genes from each species. Due to the high conservation of cytoplasmic actins, the coding sequence of the four genes was easily aligned, allowing the detection of similarities in noncoding exon and intron sequences as well as in flanking sequences. All four genes exhibited a conserved intron inserted in codon 117, an original position not encountered in other species. It can thus be postulated that all of these genes derived from a common ancestral gene carrying this intron after a single event of insertion. The comparison of the four genes revealed that the genes of B. mori and H. armigera are related in two different ways: the coding sequence and the intron that interrupts it are more similar between paralogous genes within each species than between orthologous genes of the two species. In contrast, the other (noncoding) regions exhibited the greatest similarity between a gene of one species and a gene of the other species, defining two pairs of orthologous genes, BmA3 and HaA3a on one hand and BmA4 and HaA3b on the other. However, in each species, the very high similarities of the coding sequence and of the single intron that interrupts it strongly suggest that gene conversion events have homogenized this part of the sequence. As the divergence of the B. mori genes was higher than that of the H. armigera genes, we postulated that the gene conversion occurred earlier in the B. mori lineage. This leads us to hypothesize that gene conversion could also be responsible for the original transfer of the common intron to the second gene copy before the divergence of the B. mori and H. armigera lineages.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and characterization of three cDNAs encoding putative mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKKs) in Arabidopsis thaliana. (6/10141)

We isolated three Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA clones (ATMKK3, ATMKK4 and ATMKK5) encoding protein kinases with extensive homology to the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKKs) of various organisms in the catalytic domain. ATMKK3 shows high homology (85% identity) to NPK2, a tobacco MAPKK homologue. ATMKK4 and 5 are closely related to each other (84% identity). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the plant MAPKKs constitute at least three subgroups. The recombinant ATMKK3 and ATMKK4 were expressed as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase (GST) in Escherichia coli. Affinity purified GST-ATMKK3 and GST-ATMKK4 proteins contained phosphorylation activity, which shows that both the ATMKK3 and ATMKK4 genes encode functional protein kinases. Northern blot analysis revealed that the ATMKK3 gene expressed in all the organs. The levels of ATMKK4 and 5 mRNAs were relatively higher in steins and leaves than in flowers and roots. We determined the map positions of the ATMKK3, 4 and 5 genes on Arabidopsis chromosomes by RFLP mapping using P1 genomic clones.  (+info)

Cloning, expression, and enzymatic characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa topoisomerase IV. (7/10141)

The topoisomerase IV subunit A gene, parC homolog, has been cloned and sequenced from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, with cDNA encoding the N-terminal region of Escherichia coli parC used as a probe. The homolog and its upstream gene were presumed to be parC and parE through sequence homology with the parC and parE genes of other organisms. The deduced amino acid sequence of ParC and ParE showed 33 and 32% identity with that of the P. aeruginosa DNA gyrase subunits, GyrA and GyrB, respectively, and 69 and 75% identity with that of E. coli ParC and ParE, respectively. The putative ParC and ParE proteins were overexpressed and separately purified by use of a fusion system with a maltose-binding protein, and their enzymatic properties were examined. The reconstituted enzyme had ATP-dependent decatenation activity, which is the main catalytic activity of bacterial topoisomerase IV, and relaxing activities but had no supercoiling activity. So, the cloned genes were identified as P. aeruginosa topoisomerase IV genes. The inhibitory effects of quinolones on the activities of topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase were compared. The 50% inhibitory concentrations of quinolones for the decatenation activity of topoisomerase IV were from five to eight times higher than those for the supercoiling activities of P. aeruginosa DNA gyrase. These results confirmed that topoisomerase IV is less sensitive to fluoroquinolones than is DNA gyrase and may be a secondary target of new quinolones in wild-type P. aeruginosa.  (+info)

Reduced pyrazinamidase activity and the natural resistance of Mycobacterium kansasii to the antituberculosis drug pyrazinamide. (8/10141)

Pyrazinamide (PZA), an analog of nicotinamide, is a prodrug that requires conversion to the bactericidal compound pyrazinoic acid (POA) by the bacterial pyrazinamidase (PZase) activity of nicotinamidase to show activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mutations leading to a loss of PZase activity cause PZA resistance in M. tuberculosis. M. kansasii is naturally resistant to PZA and has reduced PZase activity along with an apparently detectable nicotinamidase activity. The role of the reduction in PZase activity in the natural PZA resistance of M. kansasii is unknown. The MICs of PZA and POA for M. kansasii were determined to be 500 and 125 micrograms/ml, respectively. Using [14C]PZA and [14C]nicotinamide, we found that M. kansasii had about 5-fold-less PZase activity and about 25-fold-less nicotinamidase activity than M. tuberculosis. The M. kansasii pncA gene was cloned on a 1.8-kb BamHI DNA fragment, using M. avium pncA probe. Sequence analysis showed that the M. kansasii pncA gene encoded a protein with homology to its counterparts from M. tuberculosis (69.9%), M. avium (65.6%), and Escherichia coli (28.5%). Transformation of naturally PZA-resistant M. bovis BCG with M. kansasii pncA conferred partial PZA susceptibility. Transformation of M. kansasii with M. avium pncA caused functional expression of PZase and high-level susceptibility to PZA, indicating that the natural PZA resistance in M. kansasii results from a reduced PZase activity. Like M. tuberculosis, M. kansasii accumulated POA in the cells at an acidic pH; however, due to its highly active POA efflux pump, the naturally PZA-resistant species M. smegmatis did not. These findings suggest the existence of a weak POA efflux mechanism in M. kansasii.  (+info)

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Medical manuscripts are written documents that describe original research, analysis, or experiences in the field of medicine. These can take various forms such as:

1. Research papers: These report on original studies and include an abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion, and conclusion sections. They may also include tables, figures, and appendices.

2. Review articles: These provide a comprehensive overview of a specific topic in medicine, summarizing recent developments and findings from multiple sources.

3. Case reports: These describe unusual or interesting medical cases, often serving as educational tools for other healthcare professionals.

4. Clinical trials: These are detailed descriptions of clinical research studies involving human subjects, following a standardized format that includes information on the study's design, methods, results, and conclusions.

5. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses: These involve a rigorous evaluation of all available evidence on a specific research question, using systematic methods to identify, select, and critically appraise relevant studies.

6. Letters to the editor: These are brief communications that may comment on previously published articles or raise new issues for discussion in the medical community.

Medical manuscripts must adhere to strict ethical guidelines and should be written in a clear, concise, and well-organized manner, following the standards set by reputable medical journals. They undergo rigorous peer review before publication to ensure their quality, accuracy, and relevance to the field of medicine.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Filtration in the medical context refers to a process used in various medical treatments and procedures, where a substance is passed through a filter with the purpose of removing impurities or unwanted components. The filter can be made up of different materials such as paper, cloth, or synthetic membranes, and it works by trapping particles or molecules based on their size, shape, or charge.

For example, filtration is commonly used in kidney dialysis to remove waste products and excess fluids from the blood. In this case, the patient's blood is pumped through a special filter called a dialyzer, which separates waste products and excess fluids from the blood based on size differences between these substances and the blood cells. The clean blood is then returned to the patient's body.

Filtration is also used in other medical applications such as water purification, air filtration, and tissue engineering. In each case, the goal is to remove unwanted components or impurities from a substance, making it safer or more effective for use in medical treatments and procedures.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

Other blotting methods (i.e., western blot, northern blot, eastern blot, southwestern blot) that employ similar principles, but ... The names for other blotting methods may follow this convention, by analogy. Southern invented Southern blot after combining ... acids Restriction fragment Genetic fingerprint Northern blot Western blot Eastern blot Southwestern blot Northwestern blot " ... "Southern Blot". Southern, Edwin Mellor (5 November 1975). "Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel ...
Gene expression Northern blot RNA Seq Southern blot Primrose, Sandy B.; Twyman, Richard (2009-04-01). Principles of Genome ... Reverse Northern blot, much like the northern blot upon which it is based, is used to determine levels of gene expression in ... While northern blot or q-PCR are often used to confirm results, both techniques have drawbacks. Northern blot is limited by its ... In comparison to the Northern blot, the reverse northern blot is able to probe a large number of transcripts at once with less ...
A zoo blot or garden blot is a type of Southern blot that demonstrates the similarity between specific, usually protein-coding ... A zoo blot compares animal species while a garden blot compares plant species. The purpose of the zoo blot is to detect the ... Southern blot Fluorescent in situ hybridization Khan, Firdos Alam (20 September 2011). Biotechnology Fundamentals. CRC Press. p ... As a result, zoo blotting is used to detect similar or exact relationships between the DNA in question and other organisms. It ...
Southern blot Western blot Northern blot Southwestern blot Eastern blot Gel electrophoresis SDS-PAGE Chromatography ... Edwin Southern first created the Southern blot, an analytical technique used to detect DNA. The technique involves using gel ... Blot of Protein-RNA Interaction from Young Rice Panicles RNA Isolation and Northern Blot Analysis Protein Blotting Southern, ... These techniques include the western blot (protein detection), the northern blot (RNA detection), the southwestern blot (DNA- ...
Southern blot Northern blot Western blot Southwestern blot "Test Blots, Slot Blots & Dot Blots - Immunodetection , Bio-Rad". ... Performing a dot blot is similar in idea to performing a western blot, with the advantage of faster speed and lower cost. Dot ... A dot blot (or slot blot) is a technique in molecular biology used to detect proteins. It represents a simplification of the ... A general dot blot protocol involves spotting 1-2 microliters of a samples onto a nitrocellulose or PVDF membrane and letting ...
Northern blotting takes its name from its similarity to the first blotting technique, the Southern blot, named for biologist ... Western blot Eastern blot Northwestern blot Far-eastern blot Far-western blot Differential display Gilbert, S. F. (2000) ... The northern blot, or RNA blot, is a technique used in molecular biology research to study gene expression by detection of RNA ... Edwin Southern. The major difference is that RNA, rather than DNA, is analyzed in the northern blot. A general blotting ...
Southern blot for DNA northern blot for RNA reverse northern blot for RNA western blot for proteins far-western blot for ... making the Far-Western blot a specific case of the Western blot. A southwestern blot is based on Southern blot and is used to ... The reverse northern blot differs from both northern and Southern blot in that DNA is first immobilized on a blotting matrix ... A dot blot is a special case of any of the above blots where the analyte is added directly to the blotting matrix (and appears ...
"Southern Blotting , MyBioSource Learning Center". Retrieved 2019-11-11. "Professor Paul Berg , Biographical summary". ... Restriction enzymes were used to linearize DNA for separation by electrophoresis and Southern blotting allowed for the ...
Named after its inventor, biologist Edwin Southern, the Southern blot is a method for probing for the presence of a specific ... Southern blotting is less commonly used in laboratory science due to the capacity of other techniques, such as PCR, to detect ... A western blot is a technique by which specific proteins can be detected from a mixture of proteins. Western blots can be used ... Brown T (May 2001). "Southern blotting". Current Protocols in Immunology. Chapter 10: Unit 10.6A. doi:10.1002/0471142735. ...
The name originates from a combination of ideas underlying Southern blotting and Western blotting techniques of which they ... Thereafter southwestern blotting begins to vary with regards to procedure as since the first blotting's, many more have been ... Southwestern+Blot at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Bowen, B; Steinberg, J; Laemmli, U K ... "Southwestern blot mapping" is a time-efficient way of identifying DNA-binding proteins and specific sites on the genomic DNA ...
A recent highlight article has interviewed Ed Southern, originator of the Southern blot, regarding a rechristening of eastern ... Western blot Northwestern blot Far-eastern blot Blot Freeze, HH (1993). "Preparation and analysis of glycoconjugates". Current ... Since this is essentially a western blot, the charge reversal was used to dub this method an eastern blot. (2005) Eastern blot ... The eastern blot is mentioned in an immunology textbook which compares the common blotting methods (Southern, northern and ...
The name western blot is a play on the Southern blot, a technique for DNA detection named after its inventor, English biologist ... Biology portal Technology portal Chemistry portal Eastern blot Far-eastern blot Far-western blot Fast parallel proteolysis ... diffusion blotting, single-cell resolution western blotting, and automated microfluidic western blotting. Researchers use ... Edwin Southern. Similarly, detection of RNA is termed as northern blot. The term "western blot" was given by W. Neal Burnette ...
These large regions were termed "ultra-long" telomeres in the literature when they were identified using southern blotting and ... In slot blot (or dot blot), total genomic DNA is attached to a membrane and labeled with a telomere-probe that produces a ... Southern blot). Specialized protocols have demonstrated the ability to isolate high molecular weight Class III telomeric DNA ... Slot blot, however, is conducted without DNA fragmentation or separation, rather whole genomic DNA is used to quantify the ...
This process is termed Southern blotting. For fluorescent dyes, after electrophoresis the gel is illuminated with an ...
northern blotting A blotting method in molecular biology used to detect RNA in a sample. Compare Southern blotting, western ... Southern blotting A molecular biology method used for detecting a specific sequence in DNA samples. The technique combines ... blotting, and eastern blotting. nRNA See nuclear RNA. nuclear cage nuclear envelope A sub-cellular barrier consisting of two ... Top A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z See also References External links Warburg effect western blotting ...
Bulked DNA samples can be analysed using Southern blotting. Use of restriction enzymes or PCR amplification on the DNA is ...
Historically, the method uses Southern blotting to find digested fragments. Tiling arrays have allowed researchers to apply the ...
Kirkhouse Trust Edina Trust "Glossary:Southern blot". Nature.com. Harding, A. (2005). "Sir Edwin Southern: Scientist as problem ... The northern blot, western blot and eastern blot, related procedures for the analysis of RNA, protein and post-translational ... The Southern blot is used for DNA analysis and was routinely used for genetic fingerprinting and paternity testing prior to the ... Southern has devised valuable methods for DNA analysis. His 'blot' technique, for the identification of specific sequences ...
Wu W, Zhang HH, Welsh MJ, Kaufman PG (2011). "Characterization of DNA or Genes by Southern Blot Hybridization". Gene ...
Following the enzyme digestion, a Southern Blot is performed. Southern Blots are a size-based separation method that are ...
He wrote that envoys from Sutrium, Nepete (Romans colonies) and Falerii in southern Etruria arrived in Rome with news that the ... Livy wrote that "the Aequian name was almost blotted out." Still, in 304 BC, the Sabellian peoples of modern northern Abruzzo, ... In 303 BC the Sabine town of Trefula Suffrenas (Ciciliano) and the Volscian town of Arpinium (Arpino) in southern Latium were ... In 307 BC the consul Lucius Volumnius Flamma Violens was assigned a campaign against the Salentini of southern Apulia, where he ...
One method is the Terminal Restriction Fragment (TRF) southern blot. A Real-Time PCR assay for telomere length involves ...
Southern blotting is still useful in the diagnosis of disorders caused by trinucleotide repeats. Each cell of the body contains ... Southern blotting is an early technique basic on detection of fragments of DNA separated by size through gel electrophoresis ...
Diagnosing Pearson syndrome utilizes leukocyte DNA with the Southern Blot analysis. This type of mitochondrial DNA deletion are ...
This technique is extensively used in Southern blot analysis of DNA samples. In this case, a phosphorus-32-containing DNA probe ...
It involves dicing the DNA with restriction enzymes and sorting the resulting restriction fragments by size using southern blot ... which is commonly used to visualize the EcoRI fragment during southern blot. The name "p13E-11" reflects that it is a subclone ... which is more precise and less labor-intensive than southern blot.Molecular combing is also available for assessing D4Z4 array ... "Molecular combing compared to Southern blot for measuring D4Z4 contractions in FSHD". Neuromuscular Disorders. 25 (12): 945-51 ...
"Southern Railway - Budget Highlights-2012-13". Railway budget 2012, Taken from Southern Railways Website. Archived from the ... "Toilets a blot on MRTS", Downtown, The Hindu, Chennai, 26 October 2013. "Chain snatched at MRTS station", The Hindu, Chennai, 1 ... "Southern Railway - Budget Highlights-2012-13". Railway budget 2012, Taken from Southern Railways Website. Archived from the ... "Special trains on MRTS in view of ICC World Cup Cricket Match". Southern Railway Website. Southern Railways. Retrieved 18 ...
Detection of viral DNA is performed by PCR or by Southern blot. Caution is needed in interpreting results from PCR since it is ...
An image of this Southern blot can be seen in this article. Bacteriophages are very easily spread. At lower exposures, ... Biochemical tests such as Southern blots can also be used to detect the speA that the phage produces from the speA gene. This ...
John Philip Sousa, American composer - sousaphone Edwin Southern, British biologist - Southern blot. Paul-Henri Spaak, Belgian ... Cecil Rhodes, British explorer and industrialist - Northern Rhodesia (Now Zambia), Southern Rhodesia (Now Zimbabwe), Rhodes ...
Other blotting methods (i.e., western blot, northern blot, eastern blot, southwestern blot) that employ similar principles, but ... The names for other blotting methods may follow this convention, by analogy. Southern invented Southern blot after combining ... acids Restriction fragment Genetic fingerprint Northern blot Western blot Eastern blot Southwestern blot Northwestern blot " ... "Southern Blot". Southern, Edwin Mellor (5 November 1975). "Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel ...
Learn Southern Blotting with free step-by-step video explanations and practice problems by experienced tutors. ... in this video, were going to talk about the Southern blotting technique. And so Southern blotting again is a specific ... were going to begin our lesson on a technique thats called Southern blotting. But before we talk about the actual Southern ... Southern blotting in our next video. But for now, this here concludes our introduction to radioactive probes, and well be able ...
Detection of N-myc Amplification in Neuroblastomas Using Southern Blotting on Fine Needle Aspirates Subject Area: Pathology and ... Detection of N-myc Amplification in Neuroblastomas Using Southern Blotting on Fine Needle Aspirates. Acta Cytologica 1 April ... a retrospective study from a tertiary institution in southern Hunan Province, China ...
... A Southern Blot is a method routinely used in molecular biology for detection of a ... We have experience generating Southern Blots that meet strict quality standards for GLP regulatory submissions. ...
Analysis of PCR Products - Southern Blotting. Mullis continued to test his idea, initially without thermal cycling but later ... Although the amplification product was not evident in agarose gel electrophoresis initially, Southern blotting confirmed the ...
is specialized in offering Southern blot services to clients in drug development and basic genomic research fields. ... We offer Southern blot analysis to support gene discovery and confirmation, gene mapping, evolution and development studies, ... As part of our GLP/GMP Cell Bank Characterization services, Southern blot analysis is used evaluate the number of integration ... provides all necessary expertise for Southern or Northern blot projects from nucleotide extraction to probe design. ...
Genomic Southern blot and genomic PCR. The probe specific to the ayu rhodopsin cDNA sequences was used for genomic Southern ... Genomic Southern blot analysis of the ayu rhodopsin gene. The ayu genomic DNA digested with DraI (lane1), EcoT14I (lane2), NcoI ... Genomic Southern blot analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from the liver of an individual ayu as described previously (Okubo et ... In the genomic Southern blot analysis, we suggested that the ayu rhodopsin is coded by a single copy gene. Taken together, we ...
EXP-402: Application of the Southern Blot Procedure quantity. Add to cart. SKU: EXP-402 Categories: Experiments, Microbiology ... Here your students use the Southern blotting procedure to identify the major control region for transcription and replication ... developed a powerful technique for DNA analysis which has become known as Southern blotting. ... In 1975, Edward M. Southern at the University of Edinburgh, ...
... of conserved region-specific intergenic sequences and have verified our assembly by genic and intergenic Southern blotting. We ...
The DNA.DNA dot-blot and Southern blot hybridization results show that there is a close relationship between HPV-16 and the ... From the results of Southern blot hybridization, it appeared that HPV-16 DNA had been integrated into the genome of the host ...
Southern blots also used DNA (10 μg) from either ES cells or tail digested with BamHI. DNA was transferred to GeneScreen Plus ( ... Polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analysis. Platinum High-Fidelity Taq (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) was used for ... The recombinant genome was confirmed by Southern blot analysis (Figure 1C). Clone 165 was chosen for microinjection into C57BL/ ... Western blot analysis confirms AND-34 expression in lens epithelial cells and to a lesser extent in lens fiber cells when ...
... the Southern blotting technique is used. This technique is similar to the Western blot, except that Southern blotting is used ... The technique of southern blotting is often used to uncover the DNA sequence of a sample. The technique is named after Edwin ... You can also use Southern Hybridization. By using an oligonucleotide that is complementary to the gene you are looking for, and ... Southern. DNA Manipulation Techniques[edit , edit source]. When it comes to exploring genes and genomes, it depends on the ...
B) 5′ Southern blot; the targeted allele generates a 7.0 kbp BamHI fragment in contrast to the 9.6 kbp wild-type fragment. (C) ... B and C) Southern blot analysis of embryonic stem (ES) cell clones. (+/+) Lanes are wild-type ES cell clones and (+/−) lanes ... p66Shc targeting was confirmed in embryonic stem (ES) cells by Southern blot analysis (Fig. 4B and C). Generation of p66Shc ... Western Blotting Analysis. To prepare total protein extracts for western blotting analysis of p66Shc, highly aggressively ...
The event can be seen along a narrow path that crosses southern Argentina, southern Chile, Panama, and the Caribbean. It occurs ... www.astronomy.com/observing/an-asteroid-will-briefly-blot-out-the-skys-brightest-star-tonight/ An asteroid will briefly blot ... An asteroid will briefly blot out the skys brightest star tonight. Sirius, the Dog Star, is usually the brightest star in the ... an-asteroid-will-briefly-blot-out-the-skys-brightest-star-tonight https:// ...
Southern blot analysis. Request a detailed protocol Viral DNA from purified viral cores was digested with EcoRV (New England ... consistent with Southern blot analysis (Figure 1B). Over the course of the next five passages, K3L copy number steadily ... were probed with a K3L-specific probe by Southern blot analysis. Number of K3L copies (left) and size in kbp (right) are shown ... Blots were probed with PCR-amplified K3L using the DIG High-Prime DNA Labeling and Detection Starter Kit II (Roche, Basel, ...
Southern Blotting. *Liver Cancer. *Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. *Tumor Suppressor Proteins. *CpG Islands ... In vitro luciferase assays, co-immunoprecipitation as well as western blotting experiments were performed to further study the ...
Southern blots. *sequencing reactions. *cloning. Features and Benefits. *Starting material: Up to 200 μl of fresh or aged blood ...
Evidence for novel FMR1 methylation patterns undetected in Southern blot analyses. May 3, 2011. ... Evidence for novel FMR1 methylation patterns undetected in Southern blot analyses ...
Southern Blot. Southern blot analysis is a laboratory method used to study DNA. Specifically, purified DNA from a biological ... Northern Blot. Northern blot is a laboratory analysis method used to study RNA. Specifically, purified RNA fragments from a ... blot. The method is named for its creator, British molecular biologist Edwin Southern. MORE ... containing complementary sequences with the DNA probe sequence to be visualized within the Southern ...
Western blotting analysis. *Purification of a recombinant protein by means of affinity chromatography ... Southern hybridisation. Head of Laboratory: Prof. Dr. Bettina Weiss. Assistant:. B.Sc. Tobias Maucher ...
Features of Southern blot analysis are as follows:. * Provides a more accurate estimation of the number of CGG triplet repeats ... Southern blot and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are the 2 methods of genetic analysis that are currently available. ... Southern blot analysis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and immunocytochemical testing are used for diagnosing maternal, ...
There are; however, a few studies conducted where a high number of transgenic events have been analyzed by Southern blot, both ... Results showed that copy numbers estimated by qRT-PCR were higher than those estimated by Southern blot analysis, although the ... Table 1. Transformation efficiency and copy numbers determined by Southern blot analysis for biolistic and Agrobacterium- ... To correctly establish the number of transgene insertions in the plant genome, experiments of Southern blot hybridization are ...
Southern blotting. Total DNA was extracted and digested by the restriction enzymes Hinf I and Rsa I. Southern blotting was ... For Southern blotting, samples were collected from the skeletal muscle of AL and CR mice, or from CR mimetics mice injected by ... For each group of blots, only one stripe of gel with GAPDH bands was shown as reference, but blotting of each target protein ... For each group of blots, only one stripe of gel with GAPDH bands was shown as reference, but blotting of each target protein ...
PCR, Southern blotting and Hybridization assay The TEM and SHV type β-lactamase genes were amplified using the intragenic ... Southern, E.M. (1975). Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by agarose gel electrophoresis. J. Mol. ...
Figure 10: Southern blot of vector DNA isolated from HEK-293 cells infected with rAAV containing genomes of sizes 4,675 ... Figure 9: Southern blot of CsCl gradient fractions of a scAAV preparation.. ... Graphical representation of the suggested portion of the transgene plasmid to be used as the template of the probe for dot-blot ...
C, Southern blot analysis of ES cell clones. Digestion with KpnI, followed by Southern blotting with the 5′ probe, yielded a ... 1C). Digestion with KpnI, followed by Southern blotting with the 5′ probe, yielded a 4.8 kb endogenous band and a 3.8 kb ... Northern blot analysis. Northern blot analysis of total mouse brain RNA was performed as described previously using a ... and 300 clones were screened by Southern blot using external 5′ and 3′ probes. A single clone was identified as correctly ...
5 steps of southern blotting?. Definition. 1) R.E. cuts DNA. 2) electrophoresis. 3) depurination, denaturation. 4) transfer to ...
This technique came to be known as Southern blotting. In a tongue-in-cheek fashion, those who used a similar method for ... In the 1970s, E.M. Southern developed a method for locating a particular sequence of DNA within a complex mixture. ... locating a sequence of RNA named it Northern blotting. ... This technique came to be known as Southern blotting. In a ... The procedure for and theory behind Northern blotting is almost identical to that of Southern blotting, except you are working ...
First, we performed Southern blot and long-range PCR analysis, but we did not observe the presence of multiple mtDNA deletions ... Figure 1. mtDNA studies in the patient (Pt) and controls (Cts). (A) Southern blot analysis of mtDNA from muscle samples. Arrows ... Figure 1. mtDNA studies in the patient (Pt) and controls (Cts). (A) Southern blot analysis of mtDNA from muscle samples. Arrows ... Southern blot and long-range polymerase chain reaction (LR-PCR) analysis on the muscle revealed multiple mtDNA deletions. To ...
  • The Southern blotting combines the transfer of electrophoresis-separated DNA fragments to a filter membrane in a process called blotting, and the subsequent fragment detection by probe hybridization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA.DNA dot-blot and Southern blot hybridization results show that there is a close relationship between HPV-16 and the uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma in China. (nih.gov)
  • From the results of Southern blot hybridization, it appeared that HPV-16 DNA had been integrated into the genome of the host cell in cervical cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Histopathology, in situ hybridization, and western blotting were performed on murine tissues. (molvis.org)
  • Western blot analysis and in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of AND-34 RNA and protein in lens epithelial cells, particularly at the lens equator. (molvis.org)
  • Component of hybridization solutions for Northern and Southern blotting. (nationaldiagnostics.com)
  • It is especially designed for use in Southern and Northern Blotting, and in situ hybridization procedures. (nationaldiagnostics.com)
  • Currently transgene copy number is estimated by either Southern blot hybridization analyses or quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) experiments. (usda.gov)
  • Southern hybridization is a convincing and reliable method, but it also is expensive, time-consuming and often requires a large amount of genomic DNA and radioactively labeled probes. (usda.gov)
  • Two patients were treated for acute skin lesions (con- tested by Southern blot (SB) hybridization with probes sistent with erythema migrans), malaise, and arthralgia. (cdc.gov)
  • We will use a variety of molecular biology techniques, such as PCR (Telomere-PCR), DNA preparation, agarose gel electrophoresis, Southern blot hybridization, Sanger sequencing and microscopy. (lu.se)
  • Southern and Northern blots and reverse-transcription PCR analyses indicate that the same rhodopsin gene is expressed in the retina and the brain but not in the pineal organ of ayu. (bioone.org)
  • Although the amplification product was not evident in agarose gel electrophoresis initially, Southern blotting confirmed the increase in quantity of the desired DNA segments. (news-medical.net)
  • Commonly, nucleic acids or proteins are electrophoretically separated on agarose or acrylamide gels and then transferred (blotted) from the gel onto the NC. (cdc.gov)
  • The tag allows any DNA fragments containing complementary sequences with the DNA probe sequence to be visualized within the Southern blot. (wikipedia.org)
  • Avance Biosciences™, Inc. provides all necessary expertise for Southern or Northern blot projects from nucleotide extraction to probe design. (avancebio.com)
  • Figure 5: Graphical representation of the suggested portion of the transgene plasmid to be used as the template of the probe for dot-blot analysis. (nature.com)
  • The method is named after the British biologist Edwin Southern, who first published it in 1975. (wikipedia.org)
  • Southern blot was invented in 1973 but it was not published until 1975. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1975, Edward M. Southern at the University of Edinburgh, developed a powerful technique for DNA analysis which has become known as Southern blotting. (modernbio.com)
  • As part of our GLP/GMP Cell Bank Characterization services, Southern blot analysis is used evaluate the number of integration site and the expression construct structural integrity. (avancebio.com)
  • We offer Southern blot analysis to support gene discovery and confirmation, gene mapping, evolution and development studies, diagnostics, and forensics tests. (avancebio.com)
  • Southern blot analysis of total cell DNA of the transformants shows that the wild type psaC gene has been replaced by the interrupted psaC gene through homologous recombination. (unige.ch)
  • Use 2-10ug DNA for a Southern blot analysis or 100ng of DNA for a PCR reaction. (kumc.edu)
  • The event can be seen along a narrow path that crosses southern Argentina, southern Chile, Panama, and the Caribbean. (astronomy.com)
  • The third innovation is blotting-through methods which was developed by Frederick Sanger, when he transferred RNA molecules to DEAE paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • Avance Biosciences™' CGMP/GLP compliant genomic and microbial assays make use of the advanced technologies including real-time PCR, ddPCR, Sanger sequencing, next-gen sequencing, Southern blot, and more. (avancebio.com)
  • Other blotting methods (i.e., western blot, northern blot, eastern blot, southwestern blot) that employ similar principles, but using RNA or protein, have later been named for compass directions as a sort of pun from Southern's name. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such terms as 'Southern' (transfer of DNA), 'Northern' (transfer of RNA), and 'Western' (transfer of protein) blots have been coined. (cdc.gov)
  • Western blotting is an important technique used in cell and molecular biology. (delos.info)
  • Western Blot (WB) immunoglobulin G results from cutaneous cases. (cdc.gov)
  • Figure 10: Southern blot of vector DNA isolated from HEK-293 cells infected with rAAV containing genomes of sizes 4,675 nucleotides (nt), 5,302 nt and 6,019 nt in the presence of transfected adenovirus helper (XX680) and AAV2 helper (pHelper). (nature.com)
  • Here your students use the Southern blotting procedure to identify the major control region for transcription and replication in the lambda phage genome. (modernbio.com)
  • The procedure for and theory behind Northern blotting is almost identical to that of Southern blotting, except you are working with RNA instead of DNA. (asu.edu)
  • Southern invented Southern blot after combining three innovations, the first one is the restriction endonucleases which were developed at Johns Hopkins University by Tom Kelly and Hamilton Smith, those restriction endonucleases are used to cut the DNA at a specific sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • But before we talk about the actual Southern blotting technique, it's actually first helpful to talk about radioactive probes. (pearson.com)
  • citation needed] Blotting: A sheet of nitrocellulose (or, alternatively, nylon) membrane is placed on top of (or below, depending on the direction of the transfer) the gel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Southern blot is a method used for detection and quantification of a specific DNA sequence in DNA samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kenneth and Noreen Murray introduced this technique as Southern. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although it was published later the technique was disseminated when Southern introduced the Southern blot technique to a scientist at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory called Michael Mathews by drawing this technique on a paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • in this video, we're going to begin our lesson on a technique that's called Southern blotting. (pearson.com)
  • And in our next lesson video, we'll talk more about the Southern blotting technique. (pearson.com)
  • A southern blotting technique is used to detect a specific ______ sequence from a blood or tissue sample. (pearson.com)
  • This technique came to be known as Southern blotting. (asu.edu)
  • Results were independently confirmed using both a Southern blot and slot blot protocol. (cdc.gov)
  • As the label is eponymous, Southern is capitalized, as is conventional of proper nouns. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1970s, E.M. Southern developed a method for locating a particular sequence of DNA within a complex mixture. (asu.edu)
  • In a tongue-in-cheek fashion, those who used a similar method for locating a sequence of RNA named it Northern blotting. (asu.edu)
  • Figure 4: Dot blot of five rAAV preparations. (nature.com)
  • Figure 9: Southern blot of CsCl gradient fractions of a scAAV preparation. (nature.com)
  • The names for other blotting methods may follow this convention, by analogy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of Southern blotting include DNA finger printing, paternity testing and criminal/victim identification. (investorplace.com)
  • Traditionally, medical experts utilize Southern blotting to assess these repeat expansions. (investorplace.com)