A group of atoms or molecules attached to other molecules or cellular structures and used in studying the properties of these molecules and structures. Radioactive DNA or RNA sequences are used in MOLECULAR GENETICS to detect the presence of a complementary sequence by NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A nitrocellulose solution in ether and alcohol. Collodion has a wide range of uses in industry including applications in the manufacture of photographic film, in fibers, in lacquers, and in engraving and lithography. In medicine it is used as a drug solvent and a wound sealant.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The use of devices which use detector molecules to detect, investigate, or analyze other molecules, macromolecules, molecular aggregates, or organisms.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Sudden slips on a fault, and the resulting ground shaking and radiated seismic energy caused by the slips, or by volcanic or magmatic activity, or other sudden stress changes in the earth. Faults are fractures along which the blocks of EARTH crust on either side have moved relative to one another parallel to the fracture.
Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.
The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.
A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.
A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
3 beta,12 beta,14-Trihydroxy-5 beta-card-20(22)-enolide. A cardenolide which is the aglycon of digoxin. Can be obtained by hydrolysis of digoxin or from Digitalis orientalis L. and Digitalis lanata Ehrh.
Cetyltrimethylammonium compounds that have cationic detergent, antiseptic, and disinfectant activities. They are used in pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics as preservatives; on skin, mucous membranes, etc., as antiseptics or cleansers, and also as emulsifiers. These compounds are toxic when used orally due to neuromuscular blockade.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.
Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A leukemia/lymphoma found predominately in children and adolescents and characterized by a high number of lymphoblasts and solid tumor lesions. Frequent sites involve LYMPH NODES, skin, and bones. It most commonly presents as leukemia.
A hydrolase enzyme that converts L-asparagine and water to L-aspartate and NH3. EC 3.5.1.1.
Facilities which provide care for pre-school and school-age children.
An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
Auditory and visual instructional materials.
A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The educational process of instructing.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A sudden, temporary sensation of heat predominantly experienced by some women during MENOPAUSE. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Directory signs or listings of designated areas within or without a facility.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.

Isolation of human transcripts expressed in hamster cells from YACs by cDNA representational difference analysis. (1/10141)

Gene isolation methods used during positional cloning rely on physical contigs consisting of bacterial artificial chromosomes, P1, or cosmid clones. However, in most instances, the initial framework for physical mapping consists of contigs of yeast artificial chromosome (YACs), large vectors that are suboptimal substrates for gene isolation. Here we report a strategy to identify gene sequences contained within a YAC by using cDNA representational difference analysis (RDA) to directly isolate transcripts expressed from the YAC in mammalian cells. The RDA tester cDNAs were generated from a previously reported hamster cell line derived by stable transfer of a 590-kb YAC (911D5) that expressed NPC1, the human gene responsible for Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C). The driver cDNAs were generated from a control hamster cell line that did not contain the YAC that expressed NPC1. Among the gene fragments obtained by RDA, NPC1 was the most abundant product. In addition, two non-NPC1 fragments were isolated that were mapped to and expressed from 911D5. One of these RDA gene fragments (7-R) spans more than one exon and has 98% sequence identity with a human cDNA clone reported previously as an expressed sequence tag (EST), but not mapped to a chromosomal region. The other fragment (2-R) that had no significant sequence similarities with known mammalian genes or ESTs, was further localized to the region of overlap between YACs 911D5 and 844E3. The latter YAC is part of a contig across the NP-C candidate region, but does not contain NPC1. This two-part approach in which stable YAC transfer is followed by cDNA RDA should be a useful adjunct strategy to expedite the cloning of human genes when a YAC contig is available across a candidate interval.  (+info)

Human papillomavirus DNA in adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung. (2/10141)

AIM: To investigate the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung--which is relatively common in Okinawa but not in mainland Japan--and examine its histological features. METHODS: Of 207 cases where primary lung cancers were surgically removed between January 1995 and June 1997 in Okinawa, 23 were adenosquamous carcinoma. HPV was detected by non-isotopic in situ hybridisation (NISH) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with primers specific for E6 and E7 regions of the HPV genome. PCR products were analysed by Southern blotting. Immunohistochemical determination of high molecular weight cytokeratin (HMC) and involucrin was also carried out. RESULTS: 18 cases were positive for HPV DNA by PCR and NISH. HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 were found. Seven cases were dual positive for different types of HPV. Using NISH, HPV was also found in the squamous cell components and in neighbouring enlarged adenocarcinoma cells. The HMC and involucrin were demonstrated immunohistochemically in the same areas. CONCLUSIONS: HPV DNA was found in a high proportion (78.3%) of adenosquamous carcinomas in Okinawa, a region where HPV has previously been shown to be prevalent in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. The adenocarcinoma cells adjacent to the squamous cell carcinoma component were enlarged and positive for HPV, HMC, and involucrin. This is thought to indicate the transition from adenocarcinoma to squamous cell carcinoma.  (+info)

The role of alternative splicing of the adhesion molecule, CD44, in lymphoid malignancy. (3/10141)

AIM: To investigate the expression of CD44 isoforms containing variant exon 6 (v6) in a well characterised cohort of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), and to correlate this with phenotype and disease course. METHODS: Cryostat sections of OCT embedded diagnostic nodal material from NHL patients and cryopreserved mononuclear preparations from CLL patients were used as sources of RNA. After reverse transcription, PCR was carried out with amplimers positioned at either side of the variant exon insertion site to amplify all possible CD44 isoforms. Those isoforms containing v6 were identified after Southern blotting and hybridisation with a radiolabelled oligonucleotide. RESULTS: Of 32 NHL samples analysed, 16 did not express CD44 isoforms containing v6, six expressed an isoform containing exon v6 alone, and 10 expressed v6 long isoforms which contained exon v6 in addition to other variant exons. These data did not correlate with lymphoma classification, disease staging, or the presence or absence of extranodal disease. However, those patients expressing v6 long CD44 isoforms had a worse overall survival than those that did not. The plateau of the survival curves was 50% compared with 82%. No v6 long isoforms were detected in the 21 CLL samples investigated. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of v6 long CD44 isoforms is associated with aggressive disease in NHL, independent of grade, stage, or presence of extranodal disease.  (+info)

Structure of cag pathogenicity island in Japanese Helicobacter pylori isolates. (4/10141)

BACKGROUND: cag pathogenicity island (PAI) is reported to be a major virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori. AIM: To characterise cagA and the cag PAI in Japanese H pylori strains. METHODS: H pylori isolates from Japanese patients were evaluated for CagA by immunoblot, for cagA transcription by northern blot, and for cagA and 13 other cag PAI genes by Southern blot. cagA negative strains from Western countries were also studied. Induction of interleukin-8 secretion from gastric epithelial cells was also investigated. RESULTS: All Japanese strains retained cagA. Fifty nine of 63 (94%) strains had all the cag PAI genes. In the remaining four, cag PAI was partially deleted, lacking cagA transcripts and not producing CagA protein. Details of the PAI of these strains were checked; three lacked cagB to cagQ (cagI) and continuously cagS to cag13 (cagII), and the remaining one lacked cagB to cag8. Western cagA negative strains completely lacked cag PAI including cagA. Nucleotide sequence analysis in one strain in which the cag PAI was partially deleted showed that the partial deletion contained 25 kb of cag PAI and the cagA promoter. Interleukin-8 induction was lower with the cag PAI partial deletion strains than with the intact ones. All Japanese cag PAI deleted strains were derived from patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia, whereas 41 of 59 (70%) CagA-producing strains were from patients with peptic ulcers or gastric cancer (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Most Japanese H pylori strains had the intact cag PAI. However, some lacked most of the cag PAI in spite of the presence of cagA. Thus the presence of the cagA gene is not an invariable marker of cag PAI related virulence in Japanese strains.  (+info)

Comparison of Bombyx mori and Helicoverpa armigera cytoplasmic actin genes provides clues to the evolution of actin genes in insects. (5/10141)

The cytoplasmic actin genes BmA3 and BmA4 of Bombyx mori were found clustered in a single genomic clone in the same orientation. As a similar clustering of the two cytoplasmic actin genes Ha3a and Ha3b also occurs in another lepidopteran, Helicoverpa armigera, we analyzed the sequence of the pair of genes from each species. Due to the high conservation of cytoplasmic actins, the coding sequence of the four genes was easily aligned, allowing the detection of similarities in noncoding exon and intron sequences as well as in flanking sequences. All four genes exhibited a conserved intron inserted in codon 117, an original position not encountered in other species. It can thus be postulated that all of these genes derived from a common ancestral gene carrying this intron after a single event of insertion. The comparison of the four genes revealed that the genes of B. mori and H. armigera are related in two different ways: the coding sequence and the intron that interrupts it are more similar between paralogous genes within each species than between orthologous genes of the two species. In contrast, the other (noncoding) regions exhibited the greatest similarity between a gene of one species and a gene of the other species, defining two pairs of orthologous genes, BmA3 and HaA3a on one hand and BmA4 and HaA3b on the other. However, in each species, the very high similarities of the coding sequence and of the single intron that interrupts it strongly suggest that gene conversion events have homogenized this part of the sequence. As the divergence of the B. mori genes was higher than that of the H. armigera genes, we postulated that the gene conversion occurred earlier in the B. mori lineage. This leads us to hypothesize that gene conversion could also be responsible for the original transfer of the common intron to the second gene copy before the divergence of the B. mori and H. armigera lineages.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and characterization of three cDNAs encoding putative mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKKs) in Arabidopsis thaliana. (6/10141)

We isolated three Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA clones (ATMKK3, ATMKK4 and ATMKK5) encoding protein kinases with extensive homology to the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKKs) of various organisms in the catalytic domain. ATMKK3 shows high homology (85% identity) to NPK2, a tobacco MAPKK homologue. ATMKK4 and 5 are closely related to each other (84% identity). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the plant MAPKKs constitute at least three subgroups. The recombinant ATMKK3 and ATMKK4 were expressed as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase (GST) in Escherichia coli. Affinity purified GST-ATMKK3 and GST-ATMKK4 proteins contained phosphorylation activity, which shows that both the ATMKK3 and ATMKK4 genes encode functional protein kinases. Northern blot analysis revealed that the ATMKK3 gene expressed in all the organs. The levels of ATMKK4 and 5 mRNAs were relatively higher in steins and leaves than in flowers and roots. We determined the map positions of the ATMKK3, 4 and 5 genes on Arabidopsis chromosomes by RFLP mapping using P1 genomic clones.  (+info)

Cloning, expression, and enzymatic characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa topoisomerase IV. (7/10141)

The topoisomerase IV subunit A gene, parC homolog, has been cloned and sequenced from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, with cDNA encoding the N-terminal region of Escherichia coli parC used as a probe. The homolog and its upstream gene were presumed to be parC and parE through sequence homology with the parC and parE genes of other organisms. The deduced amino acid sequence of ParC and ParE showed 33 and 32% identity with that of the P. aeruginosa DNA gyrase subunits, GyrA and GyrB, respectively, and 69 and 75% identity with that of E. coli ParC and ParE, respectively. The putative ParC and ParE proteins were overexpressed and separately purified by use of a fusion system with a maltose-binding protein, and their enzymatic properties were examined. The reconstituted enzyme had ATP-dependent decatenation activity, which is the main catalytic activity of bacterial topoisomerase IV, and relaxing activities but had no supercoiling activity. So, the cloned genes were identified as P. aeruginosa topoisomerase IV genes. The inhibitory effects of quinolones on the activities of topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase were compared. The 50% inhibitory concentrations of quinolones for the decatenation activity of topoisomerase IV were from five to eight times higher than those for the supercoiling activities of P. aeruginosa DNA gyrase. These results confirmed that topoisomerase IV is less sensitive to fluoroquinolones than is DNA gyrase and may be a secondary target of new quinolones in wild-type P. aeruginosa.  (+info)

Reduced pyrazinamidase activity and the natural resistance of Mycobacterium kansasii to the antituberculosis drug pyrazinamide. (8/10141)

Pyrazinamide (PZA), an analog of nicotinamide, is a prodrug that requires conversion to the bactericidal compound pyrazinoic acid (POA) by the bacterial pyrazinamidase (PZase) activity of nicotinamidase to show activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mutations leading to a loss of PZase activity cause PZA resistance in M. tuberculosis. M. kansasii is naturally resistant to PZA and has reduced PZase activity along with an apparently detectable nicotinamidase activity. The role of the reduction in PZase activity in the natural PZA resistance of M. kansasii is unknown. The MICs of PZA and POA for M. kansasii were determined to be 500 and 125 micrograms/ml, respectively. Using [14C]PZA and [14C]nicotinamide, we found that M. kansasii had about 5-fold-less PZase activity and about 25-fold-less nicotinamidase activity than M. tuberculosis. The M. kansasii pncA gene was cloned on a 1.8-kb BamHI DNA fragment, using M. avium pncA probe. Sequence analysis showed that the M. kansasii pncA gene encoded a protein with homology to its counterparts from M. tuberculosis (69.9%), M. avium (65.6%), and Escherichia coli (28.5%). Transformation of naturally PZA-resistant M. bovis BCG with M. kansasii pncA conferred partial PZA susceptibility. Transformation of M. kansasii with M. avium pncA caused functional expression of PZase and high-level susceptibility to PZA, indicating that the natural PZA resistance in M. kansasii results from a reduced PZase activity. Like M. tuberculosis, M. kansasii accumulated POA in the cells at an acidic pH; however, due to its highly active POA efflux pump, the naturally PZA-resistant species M. smegmatis did not. These findings suggest the existence of a weak POA efflux mechanism in M. kansasii.  (+info)

Construction of the MsParA (Ms6939) knockout strain of M. smegmatis and Southern blot assays.(A) Schematic representation of the recombination strategy for the
Gene replacement strategy and Southern blot analysis of progeny from heterozygous crosses. (a) The wild-type P-selectin allele, the replacement vector, and th
Southern blot definition is - a blot consisting of a nitrocellulose or nylon sheet containing spots of DNA for identification by a suitable molecular probe.
Restriction digest, also known as DNA fragmentation, is a method to cut DNA into smaller fragments of interest with restriction enzymes. In our experiment, we performed double digests which involves cutting the vector and insert DNA with two different restriction enzymes. XbaI and PstI restriction enzymes are used to cut the insert, in this case Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). SpeI and PstI are used to cut the plasmid (ROO40 and R0010). GFP is designated as the insert because it is much larger (approximately 700 bp) than R0040 or R0010. If R0040 or R0010 were to be used as inserts, they would not show up clearly during the gel electrophoresis. It is important to use different restriction enzymes to ensure correct insert orientation during ligation with the vector. Things to take into account when performing a restriction digest: (1) Buffer compatibility: When performing a single digest, a buffer with a low salt concentration should be used first followed by a buffer with a higher salt ...
Yng Chen writes: , In Southern hybridization experiments how important is hybridization , temperature? What are the effects of rasing or lowering the hybridization , temperature? One generally hybridizes 15-20 C below the Tm to get favorable kinetics. So the exact temp. is not critical with respect to enforcing stringency. The only exception is if youre trying to do something at very low stringency, then you may need to lower the hybridization temp. below standard conditions. , How does one determine the proper washing conditions (assuming 100% , match in base paring). [for oligo probes] , If you get a weak signal and you know that you have a lot of DNA , on the membrane and that you have good specific activity on your , probe, how do you know if this is because your washing conditions , are too strigent or that the signal is non-specific. You start with a calculation, and then confirm by doing a temperature series against a cloned control target. If youre trying to discriminate a one base ...
Generation of ACE2-deficient mice. BAC145d21 containing a portion of the murine Ace2 gene was identified by Southern hybridization using a 1.8-kb EcoRI fragment of the human ACE2 cDNA. A 5.2-kb fragment of BAC145d21 that included the exon containing sequences encoding the active site of the ACE2 enzyme (+1069 to +1299) was subcloned into the yeast shuttle vector YCpLac22 (pMD44). A 3.4-kb fragment containing the NEO/URA3 cassette from pRAY-1 and flanked by Ace2 genomic sequence was generated by PCR and cotransformed with pMD44 into yeast strain YPH501 for homologous recombination. The final linearized targeting construct, shown in Figure 1A, was electroporated into MPI1-12D ES cells that had been derived from 129/SvEvfBRTac mice. G418-resistant ES cells were screened for homologous recombinants by Southern blot hybridization with genomic probes that were outside of the targeting construct (Figure 1, A and B). Targeted ES clones were then injected into C57BL/6H blastocysts to generate chimeras. ...
Dear Netters: I am screening A. thaliana genomic library with a heterologous probe. By screening about 160000 plaques(!), I have got 9 independent clones. These clones are purified to homogeneity by 3-5 time screening. All washes were to high stringency. To double check that these (or at least one of them) are corresponding to the right gene and not other related genes (i.e. other members of a gene family), I do the following test primarily. That is, I made a southern blot of A. thaliana genomic DNA digested by 3 different restriction enzymes. Then, I hybridize the original probe (which was used for screening) and the probe made from the whole insert (9-17 Kb) of the isolated clones. I expected that the banding pattern of the S. blots of the isolated clones to be similar (or include) that of the S. blot probed with the screening probe. This did not happened for any of the isolated clones. Any advice or comment regarding this problem is greatly appreciated. Thanks. Ali My E-Mail Address is: ...
P{y[+t7.7]=3wHy} associated with end of Df; Hobo element may be mobilized if crossed to H strain, B.G. Cytological breakpoints estimated from molecular breakpoints, K.C ...
Important Information about Clavam 625 - an Antibiotic medicine. Why it is prescribed, dosage and possible side-effects of Clavam 625
Hello SIR, Thanks for your reply. Today is 20th day and still my urologist kept me on half dose of clavam 625 and levoflox 250 twise a day for another 5 days.. ...
Southern blotting is an experimental procedure where DNA, from a genomic or other source, is digested with a restriction enzyme and then separated by size using gel electrophoresis. The fragments are transferred from the gel onto a membrane (blotted) which is then incubated with a labelled single-stranded DNA probe. Such a procedure allows one to locate a particular sequence of DNA within a complex mixture of DNA. From a gene targeting perspective, Southern blotting can be used to detect whether a targeting event has successfully taken place. Designing a good Southern blot probe for a particular gene or locus involves finding a stretch of DNA sequence at that locus, generally 500-1000bp long, that has the desirable qualities of being unique to that locus, with little or no repetitive DNA content. Molecular biologists tend to design their probes manually, by excising portions of genome sequence from online genome browsers (such as such as Ensembl) and then pasting them into a genome-search ...
Revision as of 14:33, 2 October 2019 by Webref (talk , contribs) (Created page with A procedure in which DNA restriction fragments are transferred from an agarose gel to a nitrocellulose filter, where the denatured DNA is then hybridized to a radioactive prob...) ...
(KudoZ) Russian to English translation of блоттинг-гибридизация: blot hybridization [Biology (-tech,-chem,micro-) (Medical)].
Genetic information processingMobile and extrachromosomal element functionsPlasmid functionsentry exclusion protein TrbK (TIGR04361; HMM-score: 9.9) ...
DIG southern blot - posted in Molecular Biology: Please can someone give me some suggestions as to why my DIG SB is not working. Only the DIG-labeled ladder and positive control work. I have tried different DNA concentrations, less stringent hyb/washes. I know this protocol should work as it works for people in another country working on the same plant. I used the same probe and followed their protocol. the only difference is the TNA extraction (I use CTAB Doyle and Doyle), and NBT instead...
Southern blot analysis indicated the presence of a single bar gene flanked its regulatory genetic elements. further analysis indicated the the 3 nos terminator was truncated during the transformation process. Additionally a second copy of the 35S promoter or part of it was inserted into the host genome ...
As for TnGBS element, ISLre2 is inserted 15 bp upstream the -35 box of typical sigmaA promoters. An extrachromosomal circular form of the IS have been amplified by PCR ...
Hi, everyone;. I have done a series of PCR and found that there is slight difference between control and treated group according to bands stained with EB in 2% agarose gel. I was told that such a result is much less sensitive than that of southern. So I blotted such gel to membrane for further southern analysis. Here is the question, if I can use the same PCR product to construct my probe? Yes or No? and How ...
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The aim of this study was to demonstrate that good characterization of S. cerevisiae clinical isolates can be achieved by using a molecular method such as Southern blot hybridization analysis. Even though the development of a molecular typing method useful for the characterization of a yeast infection is a desirable goal for many mycologists, the number of studies in which the epidemiology of S. cerevisiae infections has been investigated is very limited (9, 17, 34). A universally accepted typing method for this organism has been not defined. This could be due in part to the low prevalence of diseases caused byS. cerevisiae, particularly of vaginal infections. However, in our investigation, these infections have been of considerable interest. As described above, of 513 women who visited our Microbiological Service in the study period, 5.8% had S. cerevisiae in their vaginal swabs. This was in agreement with the data reported by Agatensi et al. (1), by which the incidence of vaginal infections ...
The deletion mutation was introduced into the ABI 2.1 embryonic stem (ES) cell line (Soriano et al., 1991) and transmitted to the germline as described previously (Bullard et al., 1996). Chimeric mice were bred with C57BL/6J mice, and the mice used in these studies were maintained on a mixed 129/SvEv and C57BL/6J background. The mutation is being back-crossed on the C57BL/6J background for future work.. Southern, Northern, and Western analyses. Southern blot hybridization was performed according to standard methods (Sambrook et al., 1989) using a hybridization solution of 0.125m NaPO4, pH 7.0, 0.25 mNaCl, 1 mm EDTA, 10% polyethylene glycol (PEG-8000), 7% SDS, and 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) at 65°C overnight followed by washing to a final stringency of 0.2× SSC/0.1% SDS at 65°C and autoradiography at −80°C.. Total RNA was isolated from brain after homogenization in Ultraspec II (Tel Test, Houston, TX). Total RNA was resolved on a 1.2% agarose gel in 10 mm NaPO4 buffer, pH 6.8, after ...
Genetic information processingMobile and extrachromosomal element functionsProphage functionsputative phage terminase, small subunit, P27 family (TIGR01558; HMM-score: 13.7) ...
OBJECTIVES--To determine the prevalence of urethral HPV infection, as indicated by the presence of HPV DNA in semen, in males with and without penile warts. DESIGN--Prevalence study of HPV types 6/11 and 16 DNA using PCR and Southern blot hybridisation analysis of semen. SETTING--Department of Genitourinary Medicine, Blundell Street Clinic, Leeds General Infirmary and the Assisted Conception Unit (ACU) Kings College, London. SUBJECTS--Patients attending the Genitourinary Clinic for treatment of sexually transmitted diseases including penile warts and males attending Kings ACU for investigations of infertility. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--HPV DNA detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or Southern blot hybridisation in semen. RESULTS--HPV DNA was detected by PCR in 23 of 27 (85%) specimens from patients attending the GUM clinic for treatment of genital warts and in one of two specimens from patients attending the clinic for other conditions. By Southern blot, nine (33%) of the 29 specimens ...
We present data demonstrating the gene expression of substance P and its receptor in human peripheral blood-isolated monocytes and macrophages. Using the RT-PCR assay, preprotachykinin-A (substance P) mRNA is detected in human peripheral blood-isolated monocytes and macrophages. Among the alpha, beta, and gamma transcripts of the substance P gene, only the beta and gamma transcripts are detectable in these cells. By Southern blot assay these RT-PCR-amplified transcripts are recognized using a specific substance P probe. Sequence analysis of the RT-PCR products from both monocytes and macrophages also confirmed the structure of these transcripts, which are identical to those found in human neuronal cells. At the protein level, both human monocytes and macrophages produced endogenous substance P as determined by an enzyme immunoassay. Capsaicin, a vanillyl fatty acid amide (ingredient of hot pepper), released substance P from both human monocytes and macrophages. In addition, using nested RT-PCR ...
Transgene vector and generation of transgenic mice.We obtained the Crx genomic clone from a 129SVJ mouse library (Stratagene, La Jolla, CA) by using a mouse Crx cDNA probe. We ligated and subcloned a 10 kb XhoI (partial digestion)-EcoRI fragment and a PCR-amplified 2 kbEcoRI-SmaI fragment containing exon 1 into a pβ-gal-Basic vector (Clontech, Palo Alto, CA) to make the Pcrx12k-lacZ construct (see Fig. 1A). Sequencing verified the 2 kb EcoRI-SmaI fragment. The Pcrx2k-lacZ vector contains the 2 kbEcoRI-exon 1 fragment and a 10 kbSmaI-EcoRI fragment that contains the first intron.. We extracted the Pcrx2k-lacZ and the Pcrx12k-lacZ from the recombinant plasmids by aNotI and SalI digestion. We fractionated theNotI-SalI fragments by electrophoresis on a 0.8% agarose gel and purified them by electroelution in dialysis tubes. We microinjected the DNA fragment into pronuclei of B6SJL/F2 C57BL/6 × SJL F2 hybrids. Then Southern blot hybridization of a HindIII-ClaI 954 bp fragment of the β-galactosidase ...
This was a hybrid restriction site created during the cloning process (Cap-trapper) for the library creation. Neither of these restriction sites will work to digest the insert from the vector. According to the IMAGE consortium the SalI-XhoI (gtcgag) is located at position 742 of the polylinker sequence (http: //mgc. nci. nih. gov/Vectors/vec_pbluescriptr). Customers can use BamHI (5) and EcoRI (3) to digest out the insert. Other options for sub-cloning are either to use different restriction enzymes lying outside BamHI and EcoRI or to design insert-specific primers based on the insert sequence. You can also find a reference for the cap trapper method here: Carninci et. al. , DNA RESEARCH 4, 61-66 (1997), High Efficiency Selection of Full-length cDNA by Improved Biotinylated Cap Trapper ...
Nucleic acids from ATCC Genuine Cultures can save you the time and expense of isolating DNA yourself. ATCC offers genomic DNA from well-characterized and authenticated fungal and yeast strains.
Nucleic acids from ATCC Genuine Cultures can save you the time and expense of isolating DNA yourself. ATCC offers genomic DNA from well-characterized and authenticated fungal and yeast strains.
Developmentally programmed deoxyribonucleic acid(DNA) rearrangements are structural reorganisations of the genome that occur reproducibly during the development of a variety of organisms
12404385] The Biosynthesis of Vancomycin-Type Glycopeptide Antibiotics-The Order of the Cyclization Steps This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB 323) and by a grant of the EU (MEGATOP, QLK3-1999-00650). R. D. S. gratefully acknowledges the support of a Feodor-Lynen Fellowship granted by the Alexander-von-Humboldt Stiftung. We thank Corina Bihlmaier and Volker Pfeifer for help with transformation and Southern hybridization, J. A. Moss (La Jolla (USA)) for critical comments on the manuscript and Prof. Dr. M. E. Maier and Prof. Dr. H.-P. Fiedler (Tubingen) for generous support. (Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. , 2001 ...
Size: 201.55 Kb.; Быстрые, не зависимые от транскрипции эффекты прогестерона, называемые внегеномными, были
Named after its inventor, biologist Edwin Southern, the Southern blot is a method for probing for the presence of a specific ... Southern blotting is less commonly used in laboratory science due to the capacity of other techniques, such as PCR, to detect ... Brown, T. (1 May 2001). "Southern blotting". Current Protocols in Immunology. Chapter 10: Unit 10.6A. doi:10.1002/0471142735. ... The eastern blotting technique is used to detect post-translational modification of proteins. Proteins blotted on to the PVDF ...
These large regions were termed "ultra-long" telomeres in the literature when they were identified using southern blotting and ... In slot blot (or dot blot), total genomic DNA is attached to a membrane and labeled with a telomere-probe that produces a ... Southern blot). Specialized protocols have demonstrated the ability to isolate high molecular weight Class III telomeric DNA ... Slot blot, however, is conducted without DNA fragmentation or separation, rather whole genomic DNA is used to quantify the ...
This process is termed Southern blotting. For fluorescent dyes, after electrophoresis the gel is illuminated with an ...
Southern blottingEdit. Main article: Southern blot. Named after its inventor, biologist Edwin Southern, the Southern blot is a ... Western blottingEdit. Main article: Western blot. In western blotting, proteins are first separated by size, in a thin gel ... Eastern blottingEdit. Main article: Eastern blot. The eastern blotting technique is used to detect post-translational ... Brown, T. (1 May 2001). Southern blotting. Current Protocols in Immunology. Chapter 10. pp. Unit 10.6A. doi:10.1002/0471142735. ...
Bulked DNA samples can be analysed using Southern blotting. Use of restriction enzymes or PCR amplification on the DNA is ...
Historically, the method uses Southern blotting to find digested fragments. Tiling arrays have allowed researchers to apply the ...
Diagnosing Pearson Syndrome utilizes leukocyte DNA with the Southern Blot analysis. This type of mitochondrial DNA deletion are ...
Detection of viral DNA is performed by PCR or by Southern blot. Caution is needed in interpreting results from PCR since it is ...
Southern blot to detect big deletions or duplications. *Polymerase chain reaction and specific mutation testing ...
Southern blotting is an early technique basic on detection of fragments of DNA separated by size through gel electrophoresis ... Southern blotting is still useful in the diagnosis of disorders caused by trinucleotide repeats. Short tandem repeats are ...
Southern blot analysis to detect IS2404 and IS2606 shows inconclusive RFLP patterns between different strains. Due to the high ... limiting the value of the Southern blot method to type M. ulcerans isolates. Jackson et al. have used pTBN12, a well-defined ...
An image of this southern blot can be seen in this article. Bacteriophages are very robust biological agents, are very hard to ... Biochemical tests such as southern blots can also be used to detect the speA that the phage produces from the speA gene. This ...
The transformed plants were regenerated and analyzed for the presence of the gene through Southern blotting. The plants' ...
"Southern Railway - Budget Highlights-2012-13". Railway budget 2012, Taken from Southern Railways Website. Archived from the ... "Toilets a blot on MRTS", Downtown, The Hindu, Chennai, 26 October 2013. "Chain snatched at MRTS station", The Hindu, Chennai, 1 ... "Special trains on MRTS in view of ICC World Cup Cricket Match". Southern Railway Website. Southern Railways. Retrieved 18 ... March 2016 Southern Railway General Manager states that MRTS final phase will take at least 18 more months from the date of ...
He wrote that envoys from Sutrium, Nepete (Romans colonies) and Falerii in southern Etruria arrived in Rome with news that the ... Livy wrote that "the Aequian name was almost blotted out." Still, in 304 BC, the Sabellian peoples of modern northern Abruzzo, ... In 303 BC the Sabine town of Trefula Suffrenas (Ciciliano) and the Volscian town of Arpinium (Arpino) in southern Latium were ... In 307 BC the consul Lucius Volumnius Flamma Violens was assigned a campaign against the Salentini of southern Apulia, where he ...
Southern blotting, northern blotting, western blotting and Eastern blotting are molecular techniques for detecting the presence ... "blotting" techniques. Microarrays permit the exploration of thousands of sequences at one time. This technique is used in ... of microbial DNA sequences (Southern), RNA sequences (northern), protein molecules (western) or protein modifications (Eastern ...
Its use is not limited to molecular cloning; it is also used in restriction site mapping, genotyping, southern blotting, ...
conducted southern blot hybridization on Neanderthal aDNA (extracted from fossil remain W-NW and Krapina). The results showed ... Studying haplogroups has led some scientists to conclude that a southern migration into the Americas from one small population ... Genetic analysis has supported archaeological hypotheses of a large-scale migrations of Bantu speakers into Southern Africa ...
"Southern blot".. *^ a b c d e Schopf, J. William (2002-10-21). Life's Origin. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520- ... Macromolecule blotting is a process performed after gel electrophoresis. An alkaline solution is prepared in a container. A ...
Millennial-Scale Dynamics of Southern Amazonian Rain Forests. Science 290: 2291-2294 ... bl&ots=sIxHN3fc3U&sig=uji_f4hIzqhUQERvaC9Ccu_X5iA&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=cerrado%20population&f=false ... This ecoregion has a very strong dry season during the southern winter (approx. April-September).[5] ...
Mutations in chromosome 4 are able to be visualized when RFLP is used in conjunction with Southern blot analysis. Human ...
Towards inland, the flat agricultural plain gives way to a more hilly landscape blotted by lakes. In this area, the population ... It borders the regions of Southwest Finland, Pirkanmaa, Southern Ostrobothnia and Ostrobothnia. The capital city of the region ... The exact borders of Satakunta towards Southwest Finland, Ostrobothnia and Southern Tavastia are rather well-defined. However, ... forests dominate the landscape and population density is much lower than in southern Satakunta. ...
Gwin was backed by a powerful Southern coalition of pro-slavery Democrats called the Chivs, who had a monopoly on federal ... Wilson said of his bill that it would "blot out slavery forever from the nation's capital". The measure met bitter opposition ... When Congress opened the session which began in December 1865, Johnson's policy included a demand for admission of Southern ... On January 1, 1863, Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation freed all slaves held in bondage in the Southern states or territories ...
Evidence from Southern blot test reveals that 85 percent of the clotted material is maternal blood. Breus mole is reported to ...
Using Southern blotting and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on the genome, the researchers found no evidence of DNA ...
Colonies that underwent random transposition events were identified by BamHI digestion and Southern blotting using an internal ...
DNA microarrays evolved from Southern blotting which allows for detection of a specific DNA sequence in a sample of DNA. Due to ...
"Edwin Southern, DNA blotting, and microarray technology: A case study of the shifting role of patents in academic molecular ...
... the khat plant has over the years found its way to Southern Africa as well as tropical areas, where it grows on rocky outcrops ... "Drugs and dance as Israelis blot out intifada". The Guardian.. *^ Bentur, Y.; Bloom-Krasik, A.; Raikhlin-Eisenkraft, B. (2008 ...
Southern desenvolve a técnica do Southern blot de localización de secuencias específicas de ADN (1976),[30] comeza a ... Southern, E. M. (1975). "Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis". Journal of ...
Southern Africa. Further information: Bantu peoples in South Africa. In South Africa, the period of colonization resulted in ... Soheil Baharian; Maxime Barakatt; Christopher R. Gignoux; Suyash Shringarpure; Jacob Errington; William J. Blot; Carlos D. ... They worked in southern Iraq's salt marshes and sugarcane fields. Though slavery - which in Iraq included Arabs as well as ... In addition, an estimated ten to thirty thousand fugitive slaves reached freedom in Canada from the Southern United States ...
Other blotting methods (i.e., western blot,[2] northern blot, eastern blot, southwestern blot) that employ similar principles, ... A Southern blot is a method used in molecular biology for detection of a specific DNA sequence in DNA samples. Southern ... Southern blotting transfer may be used for homology-based cloning on the basis of amino acid sequence of the protein product of ... Southern blots performed with restriction enzyme-digested genomic DNA may be used to determine the number of sequences (e.g., ...
Vietnam to southern Yunnan Province in China, and on the islands of Sumatra and Borneo in Indonesia. They now occur very ... bl&ots=PWZxeOlNd3&sig=dBxYegZDpKLcBUGQ1DNDBQUwsaE&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CB4Q6AEwAGoVChMI2ZLT9fWHxgIV0j2MCh07Mw50#v=onepage&q=sun% ...
Southern Classics. Univ of South Carolina Press. pp. 255-256. ISBN 978-1-57003-494-7. . Retrieved 21 June 2013.. ... "the darkest blot upon South Carolina's history." It said that the McKinley administration was also to blame for "thrusting ... venal negro henchmen into Southern offices of trust."[9]. Investigation and trialEdit. .mw-parser-output .quotebox{background- ...
A rapid dot-blot ELISA test is also available for quick, effective, and economical on-site diagnosis of A. cantonensis.[52] ... experience in a medical center in southern Taiwan". Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection = Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran Za ...
Southern blot. *Northern blot. *DNA Sequencing. DenaturantsEdit. Protein DenaturantsEdit. AcidsEdit. Acidic protein denaturants ...
The koala is found in coastal areas of the mainland's eastern and southern regions, inhabiting Queensland, New South Wales, ... And he has been almost blotted out already from some areas."[156] ... while some southern populations (including Kangaroo Island) are ...
... as if right and wrong had been blotted out of the statute book of the Universe."[192] Dennis Clark, an Irish-American historian ... of the white population in the southern cities. The states ignored all their racial, religious, and political differences to ... and southern England had all already been affected.[59] ...
At times, the southern border of Kalinga extended further up to the Krishna river. In the north, it sometimes extended beyond ... https://books.google.com/books?id=pBxpTwfTx4QC&pg=PA196&lpg=PA196&dq=mahavamsa+kalinga&source=bl&ots=Y2BvxAztS5&sig= ...
... types of fragments from differing organisms are visualized and their lengths compared to each other by Southern blotting or by ...
Body, Geoffrey (1984). Railways of the Southern Region. Patrick Stephens Ltd.. *. Bradley, D.L. (1963). The Locomotives of the ... The great blots on the South Eastern are its unpunctuality, its fares, its third class carriages, and the way in which local ... White, H.P. (1961). A regional history of the railways of southern England: Vol. II. London: Phoenix House.. ... Marshall, C.F. Dendy (1963). History of the Southern Railway: v.1. Ian Allan Ltd.. ...
"The Cyclopaedia of Indian And Of Eastern And Southern Asia: Commercial, Industrial, and Scientific, 3rd Edition. I. London: ... https://books.google.com/books?id=8kXwskQHBLoC&pg=PA113&lpg=PA113&dq=madagascar+1899+pressure&source=bl&ots=qEKb-I571S&sig= ... A cyclone had formed near the Laccadive Islands on May 24, 555 kilometres (345 mi) west of southern India. The SS Mergui ... This system formed as a tropical depression in the southern Bay on December 5, strengthening into a tropical storm as it turned ...
When this custom ceased, the squadrons of soldiers and the boundary wall were blotted out together. The troop at Batavis, ... During his four-year reign Majorian reconquered most of Hispania and southern Gaul, meanwhile reducing the Visigoths, ... Even in southern Gaul and Hispania large barbarian groups remained, with thousands of warriors, in their own non-Roman military ... to request that the Visigoths return southern Gaul to Roman control. This would have allowed the Empire land access to Hispania ...
Empire of Brazil: Imperial Order of the Southern Cross, Grand Cross, 19 September 1884 ... such as Prince Vladimir Nikolayevich Orlov never tired of telling the Tsar that the very existence of the Duma was a blot on ...
Germans and sympathetic Tunisians were parachuted into Southern Tunisia to conduct sabotage - but were arrested almost ...
The southern façade faces the grand style slope Slottsbacken;[clarification needed] the eastern façade borders Skeppsbron, a ... Blot-Sweyn - reigned c. 1080). ... in the Jämtland and Villa Mirage in Sainte-Maxime in southern ...
Southern India theoryEdit. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to ... bl&ots=6AahYJkR4i&sig=b1yTFKp4DQrxN8Gfxm8ddd_BALg&hl=de&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjTrpiq2qveAhVlCcAKHe4hAw0Q6AEwA3oECAYQAQ#v=onepage&q= ... This theory is based on equally vague archaeological evidence in southern India and the claim that there is no independent ... The oldest archaeological evidence of Indianized civilization in Southeast Asia comes from central Burma, central and southern ...
The second diagram shows how this fragment size variation would look on a Southern blot, and how each allele (two per ... separated by length through a process known as agarose gel electrophoresis and transferred to a membrane via the Southern blot ... blotting, hybridization, washing, and autoradiography can take up to a month to complete. A limited version of the RFLP method ... a process that can often be done by a simple dot blot. ...
GRECE was founded in the southern French city of Nice in January 1968,[4] shortly before the May 1968 events in France.[5] It ... In 1974, a group called The Club was established by several GRECE members-notably Jean-Yves Le Gallou, Yvan Blot, and Henry de ...
The river rises below Mount Ernest on the southern slopes of the Scenic Rim, part of the Great Dividing Range and forms in the ... Found at https://books.google.com.au/books?id=e4vSBwAAQBAJ&pg=PA23&lpg=PA23&dq=logan+river+cholera&source=bl&ots=38m89EJDvA&sig ... Healthy Waterways, "EcosystemHealth: Monitoring Program: Southern Catchments - Sub-regional Summary[permanent dead link]. ... The 184-kilometre (114 mi)-long river is one of the dominant waterways in South East Queensland that drains the southern ranges ...
Southern blotting. *Western blot. Viited[muuda , muuda lähteteksti]. *↑ 1996. Meditsiinisõnastik. Tallinn, Medicina ... Northern blotting (inglise northern blot, northern blot technique) on meetod RNA osade identifitseerimiseks vastavates ... Pärit leheküljelt "https://et.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Northern_blotting&oldid=3567758" ...
Southern blot. *X-ray scattering techniques. *Xeno nucleic acid. References. *^ "deoxyribonucleic acid". Merriam-Webster ...
Senadhi, V (2011 Jul). "A paradigm shift in the outpatient approach to liver function tests.". Southern medical journal 104 (7 ... Western blot, and quantitative HCV RNA tests.[5] A technique called polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can show that a person has ...
... where he had built a long dry-stone wall separating the southern tip of the island. ... Blot-Sweyn. *Inge the Elder. *Philip Halstensson / Inge the Younger. *Ragnvald Knaphövde ...
Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa[164] Final decision lies with each individual country.[164] ... These include northern hybridisation, quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, immunofluorescence, ELISA and phenotypic analysis.[67] ... Further testing using PCR, Southern hybridization, and DNA sequencing is conducted to confirm that an organism contains the new ...
A zoo blot or garden blot is a type of Southern blot that demonstrates the similarity between specific, usually protein-coding ... A zoo blot compares animal species while a garden blot compares plant species. The purpose of the zoo blot is to detect the ... Southern blot Fluorescent in situ hybridization Khan, Firdos Alam (20 September 2011). Biotechnology Fundamentals. CRC Press. p ... As a result, zoo blotting is used to detect similar or exact relationships between the DNA in question and other organisms. It ...
Southern blot Western blot Northern blot Southwestern blot Eastern blot Gel electrophoresis SDS-PAGE Chromatography ... Edwin Southern first created the Southern blot, an analytical technique used to detect DNA. The technique involves using gel ... These techniques include the Western blot (protein detection), the Northern blot (RNA detection), the Southwestern blot (DNA- ... With a Southern Blot, the separated DNA fragments are then transferred to a filter membrane for detection. Detection occurs as ...
Southern blots. by . Museum quality art prints with a selection of frame and size options, canvases, postcards and mugs. SSPL ... Molecular geneticist washing Southern blots, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, May 2000. Scientists can pick out a ...
Unencumbered by any notions of modesty, he appeared to see his role as pivotal to the future of the entire southern African ... Misjudging Bob: a blot on Frasers record 19th February 2018 Showbiz, Arts & Culture ...
enzymatic reactions, PCR, Southern blotting. Storage temperature. 18−25 °C. Shelf life (from production). 24 Months. ...
Perfect for Northern and Southern blotting applications. *Rugged, flexible, and easy to handle: no cracking or tearing ...
Southern Blot of mitochondrial DNA. Direct sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (MitoSEQ) for the following phenotypes:. • MELAS: ... PCR detection of expanded alleles; long-range PCR and Southern blot for the identification of expanded alleles in Steiner ...
Southern Legal Resource Center. .widget.widget_media_image { overflow: hidden; }.widget.widget_media_image img { height: auto; ... Coronavirus Omnibill Blots Out the Sky . . . . . . And most of the 2 trillion doesnt even combat the virus. Forbes (hardly a ...
Southern blot analysis revealed that, in both patients, there wer … ... Southern blot analysis revealed that, in both patients, there were two species of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA): normal one and ...
Volcano erupts in southern Caribbean, sparking evacuation frenzy. ROSE HALL, St Vincent and the Grenadines (Reuters) -La ... Ash and smoke plunged the neighboring area into near total darkness, blotting out the bright morning sun, said a Reuters ...
Volcano erupts in southern Caribbean, sparking evacuation frenzy. ROSE HALL, St Vincent and the Grenadines (Reuters) -La ... Ash and smoke plunged the neighboring area into near total darkness, blotting out the bright morning sun, said a Reuters ... Noted archeologist Zahi Hawass said an Egyptian mission discovered the mortuary city in the southern province of Luxor. It ...
That has happened with the Southern, Northern and Western Blot (tests for the presence of a certain piece of DNA, RNA or ... Image of the southern Milky Way, by A. Fujii. Out beyond the planets and stars, outside of the Milky Way… ...
As if to prove the point, a southern Baptist has decided that Frozen is the most Christian Disney picture in an age. Its a bit ... In other words, like the Pastor, any potential gay recruit would be making of the ink blot what he or she desperately wanted to ... If you wanted proof that, for any special interest group, film acts as a sort of socio-political Rorschach ink blot then look ...
Mutation analysis including direct sequencing of the VHL gene and Southern blotting did not show any mutation and VHL was ...
The greatest blot on the British escutcheon was the day we left Southern Ireland, allowing it to relapse into barbarism under ...
Laboratory geneticists should find the sections on molecular cytogenetics (FISH, CGH), molecular genetics (Southern blotting, ...
Then he applied the same benevolent activity to prisons in other countries, in the far East, and in southern Europe, and ... but the hygienic reforms he began were developed more and more until this fearful blot upon modern civilization was removed. ...
The FlexiRoll can also be used in Western, Southern, or Northern blotting applications as an alternative to the more expensive ... washing nucleic acid blots, or performing hybridization protocols. Ideal for use on a benchtop or in a CO₂ incubator. The unit ...
Southern blotting Remove constraint Subject: Southern blotting Start Over ... Oryza sativa; cultivars; DNA; cytosine; adenine; methylation; restriction mapping; Southern blotting; nucleases; shoots; embryo ...
... one of the most common forms of progressive muscular dystrophies and is often conventionally diagnosed by Southern blot ... one of the most common forms of progressive muscular dystrophies and is often conventionally diagnosed by Southern blot ...
Ah! whence yon glare That fires the arch of heaven? that dark red smoke Blotting the silver moon? The stars are quenched In ... The orb of day In southern climes oer oceans waveless field Sinks sweetly smiling; not the faintest breath Steals oer the ... Blotting the constellations; and the cries Of millions butchered in sweet confidence And unsuspecting peace, even when the ... Which Nature soon with recreating hand Will blot in mercy from the book of earth. How bold the flight of passions wandering ...
Southern Blot, Protein Sequencing), End user (Academia, Diagnolab, Pharmaceutical... Source: EmailWire.com ...
I am southern so, I think it has three syllables). Speaking of southern, the origin of the word Dixie is NOT the Mason Dixon ... then I have to go see my therapist who gives me Rorschach test which has ten ink blots.. Canada has ten provinces as does (of ... Speaking of Dixie, I-10 runs along the southern end of the country from Florida through New Orleans and on to California, and ...
European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere ... Området kan ses med det blotte øje som en lille, tåget klat, og i en kikkert eller blot et mellemstort amatørteleskop er det et ... Southern. Observatory En skinnende brilliant i Orions Sværd. Stjernekortet viser, hvor Oriontågen (Messier 42) befinder sig, i ...
The other has the under part of the "rgr" of underground and upper part of "leph" in telephone blotted out.. OPS28 $25.00. ... Says Southern California Telephone Company American Telephone & Telegraph Co. See picture for condition.. OPS30 $150.00. ...
Southern blotting. *RAPD, RFLP. *PCR, qPCR. *NGS. *Genome editing. 20 Plant Genomic Maxi Columns,. 40 Collection Tubes,. 20 ...
Southern blot, genotyping and etc. ...
southern blotting. *northern blotting. *polymerase chain reaction. *DNA replication. Answer: 3. Q17-Problems in obtaining large ...
Southern blots, Western blots, in situs.. Variable speed: 7.5 to 30 rpm. Fixed 7 degrees tilt angle. Load up to 0.5kg. ...
Southern = Southern blotting. *SSCA = Single-Strand DNA Conformation polymorphism Analysis (SSCP). *SSCAf = fluorescent SSCA ( ...
Southern = Southern blotting. *SSCA = Single-Strand DNA Conformation polymorphism Analysis (SSCP). *SSCAf = fluorescent SSCA ( ...
Academic Dissertations--South Carolina;Academic Dissertations--South Carolina;Blotting, Southern;Immunoglobulin Class Switching ...
  • Fragments of DNA and RNA molecules separated by gel electrophoresis are transferred to a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane in a process termed as Southern and Northern blotting, respectively. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • For fast, reproducible transfer, the Invitrogen iBlot 7-Min Blot offers complete transfer of DNA to the nylon membrane in seven minutes. (thermofisher.com)
  • Southern blotting combines transfer of electrophoresis -separated DNA fragments to a filter membrane and subsequent fragment detection by probe hybridization . (wikipedia.org)
  • Southern blot membrane after hybridization and rinsing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fragments greater than 15 kb are hard to transfer to the blotting membrane. (asu.edu)
  • After size separation DNA pieces are blotted onto a membrane and then hybridised with a labelled nucleic acid probe. (openwetware.org)
  • Blotting refers to the transfer of macromolecules (nucleic acids, proteins) from a gel onto the solid surface of an immobilized membrane for the detection of the transferred molecules. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • Southern blotting is the process of transferring and immobilizing DNA onto a membrane after restriction enzyme digestion and electrophoresis. (asmscience.org)
  • A complementary fragment of DNA is used to detect specific DNA sequences immobilized onto a membrane from a Southern blot. (asmscience.org)
  • 8. Blot membrane dry and place in glass cylinder preheated to 65 o C. Add FBI hybridization buffer (1.5X SSPE, 10% PEG, 7% SDS) containing 10 μ g /ml denatured Herring Sperm DNA. (mssm.edu)
  • There are also a number of dot blots, which is a method of applying proteins directly onto a membrane. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The electrophoretically separated fragments are then blotted to a nitrocellulose membrane, retaining their electrophoretic position, and hybridized with radiolabeled single- stranded DNA fragments with sequences complementary to those being sought. (metaglossary.com)
  • The transfer of size-separated DNA fragments to a synthetic membrane for further studies, initially described by E.N. Southern. (metaglossary.com)
  • DNA fragments are separated by electrophoresis on an agarose gel, transferred (blotted) onto a nitrocellulose or nylon membrane, and hybridized with complementary (labeled) nucleic acid probes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A laboratory technique, such as a Southern blot analysis, that involves electrophoretically separating proteins or nucleic acids and transferring them to a membrane. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A blotting technique in molecular biology is defined as transfer of electrophoresed samples of DNA, RNA and proteins onto a suitable carrier such as nylon or nitrocellulose membrane and poly vinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane and subsequent fragment detection by probe hybridization. (pharmanewswire.com)
  • The term 'northern blot' actually refers specifically to the capillary transfer of RNA from the electrophoresis gel to the blotting membrane. (yahoo.com)
  • A related technique, the Western blot, is used to detect a protein of interest that involves transferring proteins that are separated by gel electrophoresis onto a nitrocellulose membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Northern blot is a similar analytical technique that, instead of detecting a protein of interest, is used to study gene expression by detection of RNA (or isolated mRNA) on a similar membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Northwestern blot combines the two techniques, and specifically involves the identification of labeled RNA that interact with proteins that are immobilized on a similar nitrocellulose membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • With a Southern Blot, the separated DNA fragments are then transferred to a filter membrane for detection. (wikipedia.org)
  • To compare the efficiency of hybridization methods for the detection of HPV genome, 22 cases of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix were analyzed by Southern blot analysis and in situ hybridization carried out with 35S- and biotin-labeled probes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Southern blotting A chromatographic technique for isolating and identifying specific fragments of DNA, such as the fragments formed as a result of DNA cleavage by restriction enzymes . (encyclopedia.com)
  • A similar technique for detecting RNA fragments is called Northern blotting , by analogy. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Southern blotting A technique for transferring single-stranded (denatured) DNA fragments from a gel used for electrophoresis to a nitrocellulose filter. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A gel containing the denatured DNA fragments is placed between blotting paper and a cellulose nitrate filter is saturated with a buffer. (encyclopedia.com)
  • During hybridization, the labeled probe is incubated with the DNA fragments that are immobilized on the blot under conditions that promote hybridization of complementary sequences. (thermofisher.com)
  • If some of the DNA fragments are larger than 15 kb , then prior to blotting, the gel may be treated with an acid, such as dilute HCl . (wikipedia.org)
  • To corroborate the position of inserts in the restriction fragments, Southern blot hybridization was fulfilled using pMC505 as probe (data not shown). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Both blotting methods share a similar workflow 1) Sample preparation of purified high quality DNA or RNA from a sample, 2) Gel electrophoresis to separate nucleic acid fragments by size, 3) transfer ("blotting") to a solid-support that immobilizes isolated target nucleic acid, 4) preparation & hybridization of nucleic acid probe, and lastly 5) the detection of the nucleic acid probe. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • Southern blotting requires an additional step because of the need to take purified DNA and partially digest it into smaller, different sized, double-stranded fragments with restriction enzymes (endonucleases) that cut the DNA at specific spots. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • In 1975, Edward Southern published details of a new method for detecting DNA fragments based upon their specific sequence [corrected]. (mysciencework.com)
  • synonyms: Southern analysis, Southern blot analysis, Southern blotting, Southern blotting analysis) Molecular genetic testing technique used to detect differences in the lengths of DNA fragments following restriction enzyme digestion (commonly known as RFLPs: restriction fragment length polymorphisms). (metaglossary.com)
  • The method is named after its inventor, the British biologist Edwin Southern.Southern, E.M. (1975): "Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis", J Mol Biol. (metaglossary.com)
  • typically through transferring (blotting) RNA fragments from an agarose gel to a nitrocellulose filter followed by detection with a suitable probe. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Southern Blotting is an elegant technique that can be used to identify the locations of genes and other DNA sequences on restriction fragments separated by gel electrophoresis . (sciencesamhita.com)
  • For example, radiolabeled probes may be detected using X-ray film or a phosphorimaging instrument, and enzymatically labeled probes are typicallly detected by incubating with a chemiluminescent substrate and exposing the blot to X-ray film. (thermofisher.com)
  • QuikHyb hybridization solution was developed for use in Southern, Northern, slot-blot and plaque-lift formats using randomly labeled radioactive and nonradioactive nucleic acid probes. (selectscience.net)
  • Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), and Southern blot hybridization with moderately repetitive DNA probes have emerged as effective fingerprinting methods for the infectious fungus Candida albicans. (asm.org)
  • Results showed that in situ hybridization performed with isotopic probes is as sensitive as Southern blot analysis and is more sensitive than that performed with biotin-labeled probe. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A total of 41 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from patients of Vietnamese origin were analyzed by Southern blot hybridization with two different probes, IS6110 (Otal, I., et al. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A novel software pipeline for designing and optimizing Southern blot probes in silico for use against genomic DNA targets is described. (genes2cognition.org)
  • To address our own needs to regularly design Southern blot probes, automating this process, reducing the time needed to do this manually. (genes2cognition.org)
  • To optimize the resultant probes by employing a brute-force search approach to significantly improve the chances of finding the (near) best probe for the loci of interest, the aim being to reduce both the time and expense in the laboratory that results from failed Southern blot assays, and subsequent rounds of probe redesign. (genes2cognition.org)
  • The majority of the probes we tested in Southern blotting performed well confirming our in silico prediction methodology and the general usefulness of the software for automated genomic Southern blot probe design. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Given user-supplied chromosomal coordinates, and a desirable size range for the southern blot probe, we used a tiling approach to generate many possible probes in the specified design window. (genes2cognition.org)
  • We calibrated the method using a set of 8 manually-designed mouse genomic probes (download here) that we have previously successfully employed for Southern blotting. (genes2cognition.org)
  • And they utilize different types of "probes" to do so - antibodies for western blots, and little pieces of sequence-complementing DNA for the others. (thebumblingbiochemist.com)
  • Learn how to maximize your Northern blot sensitivity and to make stripable probes for Northern blotting. (proz.com)
  • A Southern blot is a method used in molecular biology for detection of a specific DNA sequence in DNA samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • Southern blot hybridization was performed using DIG High Prime DNA Labeling and Detection Kit 2 (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, CA, USA). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • DNA Extraction, PCR Detection, and Southern Blot Analysis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The detection was done due to a new developed non-radioactive Southern blotting with a Digoxigenin marked template. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Quickly grab quantitative images of your blots or gels right on your bench with the Omega Lum C. With its broad dynamic range and sensitive detection, you can't get better data from your experiments anywhere else. (selectscience.net)
  • However, RNA detection by Northern blot requires different considerations and a pretreatment step because the end-user is using RNA which is naturally unstable. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • a, Tail genomic DNA of group I and II F0 generation animals digested with Bgl I. b, and c, Ear genomic DNA from group I offspring (F1) digested with Bgl I. The numbers in bold indicate positive detection on the blot. (nih.gov)
  • Comparison of Southern blot analysis with isotopic and nonisotopic in situ hybridization for the detection of human papillomavirus sequences in invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mutation detection by Southern blotting. (mysciencework.com)
  • The technique of Southern blotting was developed by Sir Edwin Southern in 1973, and uses gel electrophoresis for the detection of a specific DNA sequence in a sample of DNA. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Northern and Southern Blotting are techniques used in molecular biology, for the detection of RNA and DNA respectively. (glentham.com)
  • Usually, the detection of gene amplification is carried out by Southern blot or dot blot hybridization procedures, which require microgram quantities of high quality DNA and several days to obtain the results. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These techniques include the Western blot (protein detection), the Northern blot (RNA detection), the Southwestern blot (DNA-protein interaction detection), the Eastern blot (post translational modification detection) and the Northwestern blot (RNA-protein interaction detection). (wikipedia.org)
  • Advantages of Northwestern blotting include the expedited detection of specific proteins that bind RNA, as well as the assessment of the approximate molecular weights of those proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Northwestern blot allows for detection of identified proteins in a way that is inexpensive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Southern blotting was introduced by Edwin Southern in 1975 as a method to detect specific sequences of DNA in DNA samples. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The method is named after the British biologist Edwin Southern , who first published it in 1975. (wikipedia.org)
  • The technique was developed by E.M. Southern in 1975. (powershow.com)
  • Southern blotting was originally introduced by Edwin Southern in 1975. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • This technique is named after the Edwin Southern (1975) who developed it. (sciencesamhita.com)
  • Since its development nearly 40 years ago by E. M. Southern, the Southern blot remains a standard molecular biology technique for determining the arrangement of DNA sequences within a vector or genome ( Southern, 1975 ). (ucpress.edu)
  • Incubate the blot with labeled probe. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A probe that hybridizes only to a single DNA segment that has not been cut by the restriction enzyme will produce a single band on a Southern blot, whereas multiple bands will likely be observed when the probe hybridizes to several highly similar sequences (e.g., those that may be the result of sequence duplication). (wikipedia.org)
  • And a western blot is the same but with protein (and Antibodies instead of a DNA probe). (biology-online.org)
  • Then do a dot blot of serial dilutions of your DNA (no gel, no blotting) and hybridize with your probe to establish that the probe and DNA hybridize and can be detected. (protocol-online.org)
  • The DNA blot or Southern blot is a molecular biology method to probe the genome for the location of a DNA sequence. (openwetware.org)
  • Parity among the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA method, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, and Southern blot hybridization with the moderately repetitive DNA probe Ca3 for fingerprinting Candida albicans. (asm.org)
  • By computing similarity coefficients between 29 isolates from three cities within the continental United States, strong concordance of the results is demonstrated for RAPD analysis, MLEE, and Southern blot hybridization with the moderately repetitive probe Ca3, and weaker concordance of the results is demonstrated for these three fingerprinting methods and Southern blot hybridization with the moderately repetitive probe CARE2. (asm.org)
  • Blotting by gel electrophoresis enables the transfer of membranes and involves hybridisation to a probe. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A procedure using Southern blot analysis to test the ability of a nucleic acid probe from one species to hybridize with the DNA fragment of another species. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • P signifies the hybridization probe for Southern blots. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although Southern and Northern blots illustrate important principles about nucleic acid chemistry and hybridization, they are very difficult to describe in lecture: it is an elaborate process to separate nucleic acid molecules by size, move the nucleic acid from gel to blot, radioactively label a probe, hybridize the probe to a target sequence on the blot, and detect the hybridized probe by exposure of the blot to x-ray film. (ucpress.edu)
  • The transfer of macromolecules such as nucleic acids and proteins to solid-phase membranous support is known as blotting. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The other blotting techniques emerged from this method have been termed as Northern (for RNA), Western (for proteins), Eastern (for post-translational protein modifications) and Southwestern (for DNA-protein interactions) blotting. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Western blotting is similar but is used to detect and separate proteins, thereby allowing for the identification of specific antibodies (while Northern blotting detects RNA). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Unlike Western blotting, it does not use electrophoresis to separate proteins. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A procedure in which proteins separated by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels are transferred (blotted) onto nitrocellulose or nylon membranes and identified by specific complexing with antibodies that are either pre- or post-tagged with a labeled secondary protein. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For western blots, you're looking for specific proteins, Southern blots look for specific DNA, and northern blots look for specific RNA. (thebumblingbiochemist.com)
  • The western blot is a way to test for the presence of specific proteins and it's named after the Southern blot which tests for specific pieces of DNA - and the "Southern" name comes from the name of the scientist who invented the technique, Edwin Southern. (thebumblingbiochemist.com)
  • In a Western blot, the testing laboratory looks for antibodies directed against a wide range of Bb proteins. (google.com)
  • This is done by first disrupting Bb cells with an electrical current and then "blotting" the separated proteins onto a paper or nylon sheet. (google.com)
  • The Northwestern blot, also known as the Northwestern assay, is a hybrid analytical technique of the Western blot and the Northern blot, and is used in molecular biology to detect interactions between RNA and proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Running a Northwestern blot involves separating the RNA binding proteins by gel electrophoresis, which will separate the RNA binding proteins based upon their size and charge. (wikipedia.org)
  • During this time, the competitor RNA binds to the RNA binding proteins in the samples that are on the blot. (wikipedia.org)
  • SB) describes the technique first developed by the Scottish molecular biologist Edward M. Southern which now bears his name. (metaglossary.com)
  • Northern blotting takes its name from its similarity to the first blotting technique, the Southern blot, named for biologist Edwin Southern. (yahoo.com)
  • Southern blots performed with restriction enzyme-digested genomic DNA may be used to determine the number of sequences (e.g., gene copies) in a genome . (wikipedia.org)
  • The protocols given are for Genomic Southern Blotting, one of the most sensitive Southern techniques. (nationaldiagnostics.com)
  • The equality of genomic DNA used in each sample was confirmed by amplification of the same genomic DNA samples with primers for the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, shown under each lane of the blot, taken at 25, 28, and 31 cycles. (nih.gov)
  • Definition Polycomb regulation DNA methylation Restriction enzymes/southern blot Bisulfite sequencing Genomic imprinting ICR/CTCFPrader-Willi syndrome/Angelman syndrome Genomics Orthologous vs paralogous genes Expression arrays Protein arrays. (coursehero.com)
  • Set up capillary stack as for Northern Blotting (see protocol ) using 10X SSC buffer . (nationaldiagnostics.com)
  • You may use a vacuum blot apparatus instead of capillary action. (asu.edu)
  • Transferred by either electrophoresis or capillary blotting. (powershow.com)
  • Southern blot agarose gel under ultraviolet illumination. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Southern blot is a method in molecular biology of enhancing the result of an agarose gel electrophoresis by marking specific DNA sequences. (metaglossary.com)
  • It then presents a labeled drawing of a blotting apparatus, showing, from bottom to top, a buffer reservoir, filter paper that acts as a wick, the agarose gel, nucleic acid binding filter, and a dry set of paper towels to draw the moisture upwards. (ucpress.edu)
  • [1] Other blotting methods (i.e., western blot , [2] northern blot , eastern blot , southwestern blot ) that employ similar principles, but using RNA or protein, have later been named in reference to Edwin Southern's name. (wikipedia.org)
  • PMID 1195397 This caused other blot methods to be named similarly as plays on Southern's name (for example, Western blot, Northern blot, Southwestern blot). (metaglossary.com)
  • The final step in the blot is to radioactively "tag" the complementary DNA (Southern blot, after Dr E. Southern), RNA (Northern blot), protein (Western blot), DNA-protein hybridisation (Southwestern blot), and RNA-protein hybridisation (Northwestern blot). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • and a Southern blot, which does the same for DNA sequences. (google.com)
  • A zoo blot or garden blot is a type of Southern blot that demonstrates the similarity between specific, usually protein-coding, DNA sequences of different species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Below, we review some considerations between Southern, Northern and Western blots used to detect DNA, RNA or protein, respectively. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • very large amounts of DNA are required in order to receive a signal on blotting, and is only to detect methylated CpG's that are recognized by the enzymes. (epigeneticstation.com)
  • Used to detect the presence of specific genes among different species or strains of a single species (referred to as Zoo Blotting ). (sciencesamhita.com)
  • Southern blotting is a molecular biology technique used to detect specific DNA sequence in DNA samples. (pharmanewswire.com)
  • The purpose of the zoo blot is to detect the conservation of the gene(s) of interest throughout the evolution of different species. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a result, zoo blotting is used to detect similar or exact relationships between the DNA in question and other organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Edwin Southern first created the Southern blot, an analytical technique used to detect DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequently, other similar blotting techniques were created with similar nomenclature to detect different molecules or interactions between molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • To determine the stable integration of the OsCTZFP8 gene, Southern blot analyses were performed with transgenic lines. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Operationally, this test is identical to Southern blotting except for the target (RNA) and the specific reagents used. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 20X SSC ( 93017 ) may be used in place of SSPE in similar blotting protocols. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This set of protocols will give superior results in any standard Southern application. (nationaldiagnostics.com)
  • Sigma's PerfectHyb Plus is a ready-to-use hybridization buffer for Northern and Southern blot protocols. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • After extraction, Southern and Northern blot protocols begin to differ. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • Students could benefit from demonstrations or a chance to perform a blot themselves, but either approach would be time-consuming (at least 2 days), technically difficult, and expensive, even though protocols have been highly standardized in more recent years ( Sambrook & Russell, 2001 ). (ucpress.edu)
  • Differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains by use of a nonradioactive Southern blot hybridization method. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This study evaluated a new non-radioactive Southern blotting hybridization method for prenatal diagnosis of this disease. (proz.com)
  • See also Western blotting . (encyclopedia.com)
  • National Diagnostics announces the release of a new, ultra-high sensitivity reagent for HRP mediated Western Blotting. (nationaldiagnostics.com)
  • As a side note, Southern is the name of the scientist who invented the technique of the DNA/DNA blotting, but Northern and western were named like this just for the joke. (biology-online.org)
  • What are the differences between Northern Southern and Western Blotting? (enzolifesciences.com)
  • An indication of the importance of his work is that the technique was eponymously named after him and that subsequent methods based loosely on similar principles were named using a play on his surname (western and northern blot). (mysciencework.com)
  • Membranes have a high binding affinity (209µg/cm2) and are ideal for Western blot confirmatory tests. (pall.com)
  • These images represent a small selection of lab techniques such as Western and Southern blotting, and gel electrophoresis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The Northern, Southern, or Western blot analyses. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • See also Northern blot test , Southern blot test , Western blot test . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To analyze DNA damage response, MEFs were treated with 1 μmol/L doxorubicin (Sigma), and cell lysates were collected for Western blotting. (aacrjournals.org)
  • But no one gave me a guide for blotting directions - you might have heard of the western blot (I covered it last week). (thebumblingbiochemist.com)
  • In last week's Bri*fing, we looked at the western blot. (thebumblingbiochemist.com)
  • The western blot isn't the only technique to hop onto the direction name train - there's a 3rd main type of blot called the northern blot and, as someone who studies small RNAs, I come across it in papers a lot. (thebumblingbiochemist.com)
  • Besides Southern and Northern blot hybridization, there is also Western, as well as dot blot hybridization. (proz.com)
  • Inquiries about various issues relating to Western blot (WB) testing are frequently posted to the Lyme disease discussion groups on the Internet. (google.com)
  • The following article is offered as a primer in the techniques and interpretation of Western blotting, and should help most patients navigate their way through some of the medical and scientific terminology associated with the assay. (google.com)
  • First of all, it should be noted that the Western blot is usually performed as a follow-up to an ELISA test, which is the most commonly employed initial test for Lyme disease. (google.com)
  • for example, the usual testing regime for HIV is also an initial ELISA followed by a confirmatory Western blot. (google.com)
  • Both the ELISA and the Western blot are "indirect" tests -- that is, they measure the immune system's response to an infectious agent rather than looking for components of the agent itself. (google.com)
  • DNA collected from a cell thought to contain the gene, then underwent the Southern blotting procedure. (biology-online.org)
  • RNA, collected from the same source, is subjected to the Northern Blotting procedure. (biology-online.org)
  • Southern blotting was named after Edward M. Southern who developed this procedure at Edinburgh University in the 1970s. (asu.edu)
  • The RFLPs could then be used within affected families to trace the X chromosome carrying the mutant gene using the Southern blot technology. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For example, Southern Blotting could be used to locate a particular gene within an entire genome. (asu.edu)
  • Shortly after southern blotting was developed, the premise of this analytical technique was applied to the measurement of the size and amount of RNA transcripts from a gene of interest which is known as Northern Blotting. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • Southern and Northern blots and reverse-transcription PCR analyses indicate that the same rhodopsin gene is expressed in the retina and the brain but not in the pineal organ of ayu. (bioone.org)
  • SBA for BCL detects changes that occur in a gene's germline structure during Ig gene rearrangement, which delete or create restriction endonuclease sites and lead to changes in the bands on the Southern blot. (alpfmedical.info)
  • The Report entitled Global Southern Blotting Instrument Market 2017 analyses the important factors of the Southern Blotting Instrument market based on present industry situations, market demands, business strategies utilized by Southern Blotting Instrument market players and their growth synopsis. (newzy.net)
  • But did you know there's also a Southern blot (which came first), a northern blot, and eastern blot, and some more copy-cats? (thebumblingbiochemist.com)
  • This video shows us in plain English what the process and applications of the Southern Blotting technique are. (dnatube.com)
  • The northern blot is a technique used to test for pieces of RNA that contain a specific sequence, utilizing the 1:1 base-pairing specificity of nucleotides (DNA & RNA letters). (thebumblingbiochemist.com)
  • Factors contributing to the growth of Europe southern blotting market includes, increasing usage of southern blotting technique in the field of genetics, and growing demand for advancements and innovation in drug discovery and development. (pharmanewswire.com)
  • The northern blot technique was developed in 1977 by James Alwine, David Kemp, and George Stark at Stanford University. (yahoo.com)
  • Because ULTRAhyb buffer maximizes blot sensitivity, for many targets hybridization can typically be performed in just 2 hours. (thermofisher.com)
  • These are transferred, or `blotted', onto a nitrocellulose filter where they are immobilized in their relative positions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Different blots are used to identify the presence of one specific target molecule (DNA, RNA or protein) in a complex mixture of related molecules. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • After developing the blot using xray or autoradiography, the results can be analyzed and interpreted to determine the approximate size and concentration of the RNA binding protein(s) of interest to further study the protein(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • The location and concentration of the RNA binding protein on the blot can affect the results, and bands can sometimes appear after development. (wikipedia.org)
  • If we're talking eukaryotic cells, then the answer might simply be that the RNA in the Northern blot was mRNA and had introns excised, therefore making it different in sequence than the DNA from whence it was transcribed. (biology-online.org)
  • Make sure the gels boxes are very clean (any mineral oil will ruin the blot, and we have boxes set aside strictly for Southerns). (ebioworld.com)
  • After extraction for Northern blotting, already single-stranded RNA needs to be pretreated with formaldehyde or a denaturing solution with glyoxal to prevent the formation of base-paired secondary structures. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary , Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/Southern%20blot. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Tissues from a 10-week-old Pekin duck, experimentally infected at 1 day of age with duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), were examined for the presence of replicative levels of DHBV DNA by in situ and Southern blot hybridization. (nih.gov)
  • citation needed] Southern blot Fluorescent in situ hybridization Khan, Firdos Alam (20 September 2011). (wikipedia.org)
  • Southern blotting is designed to locate a particular sequence of DNA within a complex mixture. (asu.edu)
  • Moreover, growing use of Southern blotting in forensic science is expected to fuel the global Southern blotting market over the forecast period. (pharmiweb.com)
  • In addition, increasing use southern blotting procedures in medical diagnostics, application in forensic science, are the key factors responsible for driving global southern blotting market. (pharmanewswire.com)
  • Figure Global Production Market Share of Southern Blotting Instrument by Types and by Applications in 2017. (newzy.net)
  • Finally, the report Worldwide Southern Blotting Instrument Market 2017 represents Southern Blotting Instrument industry enlargement game plan, the Southern Blotting Instrument industry data source, appendix, research findings and the conclusion. (newzy.net)
  • PharmaNewsWire.Com , January 13, 2018 ) Europe Southern Blotting Market size was around USD XX billion in 2017. (pharmanewswire.com)
  • In this report, the Southern Blotting Instrument market worth about X billion USD in 2016 and it is expected to reach XX billion USD in 2022 with an average growth rate of X%. North America is the largest production and consumption region in the world, while China is fastest growing region. (newzy.net)
  • A) A representative blot for the amplification of the VκI family is shown. (nih.gov)
  • These tumors were investigated for expression of EBV latent genes with Southern blots, EBV latent antigens, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), Akt, p70 S6 kinase, and vascular endothelial growth factor using immunohistochemistry, as well as methylation status of cancer-related genes using methylation-specific PCR. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The blot is usually done on a sheet of nitrocellulose paper or nylon. (powershow.com)
  • We offer a wide selection of high-quality restriction enzymes so that you can restriction digest your DNA to help provide clear, unambiguous Southern blot data. (thermofisher.com)