A group of atoms or molecules attached to other molecules or cellular structures and used in studying the properties of these molecules and structures. Radioactive DNA or RNA sequences are used in MOLECULAR GENETICS to detect the presence of a complementary sequence by NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A nitrocellulose solution in ether and alcohol. Collodion has a wide range of uses in industry including applications in the manufacture of photographic film, in fibers, in lacquers, and in engraving and lithography. In medicine it is used as a drug solvent and a wound sealant.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The use of devices which use detector molecules to detect, investigate, or analyze other molecules, macromolecules, molecular aggregates, or organisms.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Sudden slips on a fault, and the resulting ground shaking and radiated seismic energy caused by the slips, or by volcanic or magmatic activity, or other sudden stress changes in the earth. Faults are fractures along which the blocks of EARTH crust on either side have moved relative to one another parallel to the fracture.
Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.
The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.
A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.
A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
Legally authorized corporations owned and managed by one or more professionals (medical, dental, legal) in which the income is ascribed primarily to the professional activities of the owners or stockholders.
A plant genus of the family Paeoniaceae, order Dilleniales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. These perennial herbs are up to 2 m (6') tall. Leaves are alternate and are divided into three lobes, each lobe being further divided into three smaller lobes. The large flowers are symmetrical, bisexual, have 5 sepals, 5 petals (sometimes 10), and many stamens.
A membrane or barrier with micrometer sized pores used for separation purification processes.
The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
3 beta,12 beta,14-Trihydroxy-5 beta-card-20(22)-enolide. A cardenolide which is the aglycon of digoxin. Can be obtained by hydrolysis of digoxin or from Digitalis orientalis L. and Digitalis lanata Ehrh.
Cetyltrimethylammonium compounds that have cationic detergent, antiseptic, and disinfectant activities. They are used in pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics as preservatives; on skin, mucous membranes, etc., as antiseptics or cleansers, and also as emulsifiers. These compounds are toxic when used orally due to neuromuscular blockade.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.
Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.
Devices which are very resistant to wear and may be used over a long period of time. They include items such as wheelchairs, hospital beds, artificial limbs, etc.
Equipment required for engaging in a sport (such as balls, bats, rackets, skis, skates, ropes, weights) and devices for the protection of athletes during their performance (such as masks, gloves, mouth pieces).
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.
Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.
A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.
Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A leukemia/lymphoma found predominately in children and adolescents and characterized by a high number of lymphoblasts and solid tumor lesions. Frequent sites involve LYMPH NODES, skin, and bones. It most commonly presents as leukemia.
A hydrolase enzyme that converts L-asparagine and water to L-aspartate and NH3. EC 3.5.1.1.
Facilities which provide care for pre-school and school-age children.
An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).

Isolation of human transcripts expressed in hamster cells from YACs by cDNA representational difference analysis. (1/10141)

Gene isolation methods used during positional cloning rely on physical contigs consisting of bacterial artificial chromosomes, P1, or cosmid clones. However, in most instances, the initial framework for physical mapping consists of contigs of yeast artificial chromosome (YACs), large vectors that are suboptimal substrates for gene isolation. Here we report a strategy to identify gene sequences contained within a YAC by using cDNA representational difference analysis (RDA) to directly isolate transcripts expressed from the YAC in mammalian cells. The RDA tester cDNAs were generated from a previously reported hamster cell line derived by stable transfer of a 590-kb YAC (911D5) that expressed NPC1, the human gene responsible for Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C). The driver cDNAs were generated from a control hamster cell line that did not contain the YAC that expressed NPC1. Among the gene fragments obtained by RDA, NPC1 was the most abundant product. In addition, two non-NPC1 fragments were isolated that were mapped to and expressed from 911D5. One of these RDA gene fragments (7-R) spans more than one exon and has 98% sequence identity with a human cDNA clone reported previously as an expressed sequence tag (EST), but not mapped to a chromosomal region. The other fragment (2-R) that had no significant sequence similarities with known mammalian genes or ESTs, was further localized to the region of overlap between YACs 911D5 and 844E3. The latter YAC is part of a contig across the NP-C candidate region, but does not contain NPC1. This two-part approach in which stable YAC transfer is followed by cDNA RDA should be a useful adjunct strategy to expedite the cloning of human genes when a YAC contig is available across a candidate interval.  (+info)

Human papillomavirus DNA in adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung. (2/10141)

AIM: To investigate the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung--which is relatively common in Okinawa but not in mainland Japan--and examine its histological features. METHODS: Of 207 cases where primary lung cancers were surgically removed between January 1995 and June 1997 in Okinawa, 23 were adenosquamous carcinoma. HPV was detected by non-isotopic in situ hybridisation (NISH) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with primers specific for E6 and E7 regions of the HPV genome. PCR products were analysed by Southern blotting. Immunohistochemical determination of high molecular weight cytokeratin (HMC) and involucrin was also carried out. RESULTS: 18 cases were positive for HPV DNA by PCR and NISH. HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 were found. Seven cases were dual positive for different types of HPV. Using NISH, HPV was also found in the squamous cell components and in neighbouring enlarged adenocarcinoma cells. The HMC and involucrin were demonstrated immunohistochemically in the same areas. CONCLUSIONS: HPV DNA was found in a high proportion (78.3%) of adenosquamous carcinomas in Okinawa, a region where HPV has previously been shown to be prevalent in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. The adenocarcinoma cells adjacent to the squamous cell carcinoma component were enlarged and positive for HPV, HMC, and involucrin. This is thought to indicate the transition from adenocarcinoma to squamous cell carcinoma.  (+info)

The role of alternative splicing of the adhesion molecule, CD44, in lymphoid malignancy. (3/10141)

AIM: To investigate the expression of CD44 isoforms containing variant exon 6 (v6) in a well characterised cohort of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), and to correlate this with phenotype and disease course. METHODS: Cryostat sections of OCT embedded diagnostic nodal material from NHL patients and cryopreserved mononuclear preparations from CLL patients were used as sources of RNA. After reverse transcription, PCR was carried out with amplimers positioned at either side of the variant exon insertion site to amplify all possible CD44 isoforms. Those isoforms containing v6 were identified after Southern blotting and hybridisation with a radiolabelled oligonucleotide. RESULTS: Of 32 NHL samples analysed, 16 did not express CD44 isoforms containing v6, six expressed an isoform containing exon v6 alone, and 10 expressed v6 long isoforms which contained exon v6 in addition to other variant exons. These data did not correlate with lymphoma classification, disease staging, or the presence or absence of extranodal disease. However, those patients expressing v6 long CD44 isoforms had a worse overall survival than those that did not. The plateau of the survival curves was 50% compared with 82%. No v6 long isoforms were detected in the 21 CLL samples investigated. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of v6 long CD44 isoforms is associated with aggressive disease in NHL, independent of grade, stage, or presence of extranodal disease.  (+info)

Structure of cag pathogenicity island in Japanese Helicobacter pylori isolates. (4/10141)

BACKGROUND: cag pathogenicity island (PAI) is reported to be a major virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori. AIM: To characterise cagA and the cag PAI in Japanese H pylori strains. METHODS: H pylori isolates from Japanese patients were evaluated for CagA by immunoblot, for cagA transcription by northern blot, and for cagA and 13 other cag PAI genes by Southern blot. cagA negative strains from Western countries were also studied. Induction of interleukin-8 secretion from gastric epithelial cells was also investigated. RESULTS: All Japanese strains retained cagA. Fifty nine of 63 (94%) strains had all the cag PAI genes. In the remaining four, cag PAI was partially deleted, lacking cagA transcripts and not producing CagA protein. Details of the PAI of these strains were checked; three lacked cagB to cagQ (cagI) and continuously cagS to cag13 (cagII), and the remaining one lacked cagB to cag8. Western cagA negative strains completely lacked cag PAI including cagA. Nucleotide sequence analysis in one strain in which the cag PAI was partially deleted showed that the partial deletion contained 25 kb of cag PAI and the cagA promoter. Interleukin-8 induction was lower with the cag PAI partial deletion strains than with the intact ones. All Japanese cag PAI deleted strains were derived from patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia, whereas 41 of 59 (70%) CagA-producing strains were from patients with peptic ulcers or gastric cancer (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Most Japanese H pylori strains had the intact cag PAI. However, some lacked most of the cag PAI in spite of the presence of cagA. Thus the presence of the cagA gene is not an invariable marker of cag PAI related virulence in Japanese strains.  (+info)

Comparison of Bombyx mori and Helicoverpa armigera cytoplasmic actin genes provides clues to the evolution of actin genes in insects. (5/10141)

The cytoplasmic actin genes BmA3 and BmA4 of Bombyx mori were found clustered in a single genomic clone in the same orientation. As a similar clustering of the two cytoplasmic actin genes Ha3a and Ha3b also occurs in another lepidopteran, Helicoverpa armigera, we analyzed the sequence of the pair of genes from each species. Due to the high conservation of cytoplasmic actins, the coding sequence of the four genes was easily aligned, allowing the detection of similarities in noncoding exon and intron sequences as well as in flanking sequences. All four genes exhibited a conserved intron inserted in codon 117, an original position not encountered in other species. It can thus be postulated that all of these genes derived from a common ancestral gene carrying this intron after a single event of insertion. The comparison of the four genes revealed that the genes of B. mori and H. armigera are related in two different ways: the coding sequence and the intron that interrupts it are more similar between paralogous genes within each species than between orthologous genes of the two species. In contrast, the other (noncoding) regions exhibited the greatest similarity between a gene of one species and a gene of the other species, defining two pairs of orthologous genes, BmA3 and HaA3a on one hand and BmA4 and HaA3b on the other. However, in each species, the very high similarities of the coding sequence and of the single intron that interrupts it strongly suggest that gene conversion events have homogenized this part of the sequence. As the divergence of the B. mori genes was higher than that of the H. armigera genes, we postulated that the gene conversion occurred earlier in the B. mori lineage. This leads us to hypothesize that gene conversion could also be responsible for the original transfer of the common intron to the second gene copy before the divergence of the B. mori and H. armigera lineages.  (+info)

Molecular cloning and characterization of three cDNAs encoding putative mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKKs) in Arabidopsis thaliana. (6/10141)

We isolated three Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA clones (ATMKK3, ATMKK4 and ATMKK5) encoding protein kinases with extensive homology to the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKKs) of various organisms in the catalytic domain. ATMKK3 shows high homology (85% identity) to NPK2, a tobacco MAPKK homologue. ATMKK4 and 5 are closely related to each other (84% identity). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the plant MAPKKs constitute at least three subgroups. The recombinant ATMKK3 and ATMKK4 were expressed as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase (GST) in Escherichia coli. Affinity purified GST-ATMKK3 and GST-ATMKK4 proteins contained phosphorylation activity, which shows that both the ATMKK3 and ATMKK4 genes encode functional protein kinases. Northern blot analysis revealed that the ATMKK3 gene expressed in all the organs. The levels of ATMKK4 and 5 mRNAs were relatively higher in steins and leaves than in flowers and roots. We determined the map positions of the ATMKK3, 4 and 5 genes on Arabidopsis chromosomes by RFLP mapping using P1 genomic clones.  (+info)

Cloning, expression, and enzymatic characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa topoisomerase IV. (7/10141)

The topoisomerase IV subunit A gene, parC homolog, has been cloned and sequenced from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, with cDNA encoding the N-terminal region of Escherichia coli parC used as a probe. The homolog and its upstream gene were presumed to be parC and parE through sequence homology with the parC and parE genes of other organisms. The deduced amino acid sequence of ParC and ParE showed 33 and 32% identity with that of the P. aeruginosa DNA gyrase subunits, GyrA and GyrB, respectively, and 69 and 75% identity with that of E. coli ParC and ParE, respectively. The putative ParC and ParE proteins were overexpressed and separately purified by use of a fusion system with a maltose-binding protein, and their enzymatic properties were examined. The reconstituted enzyme had ATP-dependent decatenation activity, which is the main catalytic activity of bacterial topoisomerase IV, and relaxing activities but had no supercoiling activity. So, the cloned genes were identified as P. aeruginosa topoisomerase IV genes. The inhibitory effects of quinolones on the activities of topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase were compared. The 50% inhibitory concentrations of quinolones for the decatenation activity of topoisomerase IV were from five to eight times higher than those for the supercoiling activities of P. aeruginosa DNA gyrase. These results confirmed that topoisomerase IV is less sensitive to fluoroquinolones than is DNA gyrase and may be a secondary target of new quinolones in wild-type P. aeruginosa.  (+info)

Reduced pyrazinamidase activity and the natural resistance of Mycobacterium kansasii to the antituberculosis drug pyrazinamide. (8/10141)

Pyrazinamide (PZA), an analog of nicotinamide, is a prodrug that requires conversion to the bactericidal compound pyrazinoic acid (POA) by the bacterial pyrazinamidase (PZase) activity of nicotinamidase to show activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mutations leading to a loss of PZase activity cause PZA resistance in M. tuberculosis. M. kansasii is naturally resistant to PZA and has reduced PZase activity along with an apparently detectable nicotinamidase activity. The role of the reduction in PZase activity in the natural PZA resistance of M. kansasii is unknown. The MICs of PZA and POA for M. kansasii were determined to be 500 and 125 micrograms/ml, respectively. Using [14C]PZA and [14C]nicotinamide, we found that M. kansasii had about 5-fold-less PZase activity and about 25-fold-less nicotinamidase activity than M. tuberculosis. The M. kansasii pncA gene was cloned on a 1.8-kb BamHI DNA fragment, using M. avium pncA probe. Sequence analysis showed that the M. kansasii pncA gene encoded a protein with homology to its counterparts from M. tuberculosis (69.9%), M. avium (65.6%), and Escherichia coli (28.5%). Transformation of naturally PZA-resistant M. bovis BCG with M. kansasii pncA conferred partial PZA susceptibility. Transformation of M. kansasii with M. avium pncA caused functional expression of PZase and high-level susceptibility to PZA, indicating that the natural PZA resistance in M. kansasii results from a reduced PZase activity. Like M. tuberculosis, M. kansasii accumulated POA in the cells at an acidic pH; however, due to its highly active POA efflux pump, the naturally PZA-resistant species M. smegmatis did not. These findings suggest the existence of a weak POA efflux mechanism in M. kansasii.  (+info)

Construction of the MsParA (Ms6939) knockout strain of M. smegmatis and Southern blot assays.(A) Schematic representation of the recombination strategy for the
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections ...
Gene replacement strategy and Southern blot analysis of progeny from heterozygous crosses. (a) The wild-type P-selectin allele, the replacement vector, and th
Southern blot definition is - a blot consisting of a nitrocellulose or nylon sheet containing spots of DNA for identification by a suitable molecular probe.
Restriction digest, also known as DNA fragmentation, is a method to cut DNA into smaller fragments of interest with restriction enzymes. In our experiment, we performed double digests which involves cutting the vector and insert DNA with two different restriction enzymes. XbaI and PstI restriction enzymes are used to cut the insert, in this case Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP). SpeI and PstI are used to cut the plasmid (ROO40 and R0010). GFP is designated as the insert because it is much larger (approximately 700 bp) than R0040 or R0010. If R0040 or R0010 were to be used as inserts, they would not show up clearly during the gel electrophoresis. It is important to use different restriction enzymes to ensure correct insert orientation during ligation with the vector. Things to take into account when performing a restriction digest: (1) Buffer compatibility: When performing a single digest, a buffer with a low salt concentration should be used first followed by a buffer with a higher salt ...
Yng Chen writes: , In Southern hybridization experiments how important is hybridization , temperature? What are the effects of rasing or lowering the hybridization , temperature? One generally hybridizes 15-20 C below the Tm to get favorable kinetics. So the exact temp. is not critical with respect to enforcing stringency. The only exception is if youre trying to do something at very low stringency, then you may need to lower the hybridization temp. below standard conditions. , How does one determine the proper washing conditions (assuming 100% , match in base paring). [for oligo probes] , If you get a weak signal and you know that you have a lot of DNA , on the membrane and that you have good specific activity on your , probe, how do you know if this is because your washing conditions , are too strigent or that the signal is non-specific. You start with a calculation, and then confirm by doing a temperature series against a cloned control target. If youre trying to discriminate a one base ...
Generation of ACE2-deficient mice. BAC145d21 containing a portion of the murine Ace2 gene was identified by Southern hybridization using a 1.8-kb EcoRI fragment of the human ACE2 cDNA. A 5.2-kb fragment of BAC145d21 that included the exon containing sequences encoding the active site of the ACE2 enzyme (+1069 to +1299) was subcloned into the yeast shuttle vector YCpLac22 (pMD44). A 3.4-kb fragment containing the NEO/URA3 cassette from pRAY-1 and flanked by Ace2 genomic sequence was generated by PCR and cotransformed with pMD44 into yeast strain YPH501 for homologous recombination. The final linearized targeting construct, shown in Figure 1A, was electroporated into MPI1-12D ES cells that had been derived from 129/SvEvfBRTac mice. G418-resistant ES cells were screened for homologous recombinants by Southern blot hybridization with genomic probes that were outside of the targeting construct (Figure 1, A and B). Targeted ES clones were then injected into C57BL/6H blastocysts to generate chimeras. ...
Dear Netters: I am screening A. thaliana genomic library with a heterologous probe. By screening about 160000 plaques(!), I have got 9 independent clones. These clones are purified to homogeneity by 3-5 time screening. All washes were to high stringency. To double check that these (or at least one of them) are corresponding to the right gene and not other related genes (i.e. other members of a gene family), I do the following test primarily. That is, I made a southern blot of A. thaliana genomic DNA digested by 3 different restriction enzymes. Then, I hybridize the original probe (which was used for screening) and the probe made from the whole insert (9-17 Kb) of the isolated clones. I expected that the banding pattern of the S. blots of the isolated clones to be similar (or include) that of the S. blot probed with the screening probe. This did not happened for any of the isolated clones. Any advice or comment regarding this problem is greatly appreciated. Thanks. Ali My E-Mail Address is: ...
P{y[+t7.7]=3wHy} associated with end of Df; Hobo element may be mobilized if crossed to H strain, B.G. Cytological breakpoints estimated from molecular breakpoints, K.C ...
Important Information about Clavam 625 - an Antibiotic medicine. Why it is prescribed, dosage and possible side-effects of Clavam 625
Hello SIR, Thanks for your reply. Today is 20th day and still my urologist kept me on half dose of clavam 625 and levoflox 250 twise a day for another 5 days.. ...
Southern blotting is an experimental procedure where DNA, from a genomic or other source, is digested with a restriction enzyme and then separated by size using gel electrophoresis. The fragments are transferred from the gel onto a membrane (blotted) which is then incubated with a labelled single-stranded DNA probe. Such a procedure allows one to locate a particular sequence of DNA within a complex mixture of DNA. From a gene targeting perspective, Southern blotting can be used to detect whether a targeting event has successfully taken place. Designing a good Southern blot probe for a particular gene or locus involves finding a stretch of DNA sequence at that locus, generally 500-1000bp long, that has the desirable qualities of being unique to that locus, with little or no repetitive DNA content. Molecular biologists tend to design their probes manually, by excising portions of genome sequence from online genome browsers (such as such as Ensembl) and then pasting them into a genome-search ...
Rat Genomic DNA High molecular weight, high purity DNA for any application - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
Revision as of 14:33, 2 October 2019 by Webref (talk , contribs) (Created page with A procedure in which DNA restriction fragments are transferred from an agarose gel to a nitrocellulose filter, where the denatured DNA is then hybridized to a radioactive prob...) ...
(KudoZ) Russian to English translation of блоттинг-гибридизация: blot hybridization [Biology (-tech,-chem,micro-) (Medical)].
Genetic information processingMobile and extrachromosomal element functionsPlasmid functionsentry exclusion protein TrbK (TIGR04361; HMM-score: 9.9) ...
DIG southern blot - posted in Molecular Biology: Please can someone give me some suggestions as to why my DIG SB is not working. Only the DIG-labeled ladder and positive control work. I have tried different DNA concentrations, less stringent hyb/washes. I know this protocol should work as it works for people in another country working on the same plant. I used the same probe and followed their protocol. the only difference is the TNA extraction (I use CTAB Doyle and Doyle), and NBT instead...
Southern blot analysis indicated the presence of a single bar gene flanked its regulatory genetic elements. further analysis indicated the the 3 nos terminator was truncated during the transformation process. Additionally a second copy of the 35S promoter or part of it was inserted into the host genome ...
As for TnGBS element, ISLre2 is inserted 15 bp upstream the -35 box of typical sigmaA promoters. An extrachromosomal circular form of the IS have been amplified by PCR ...
Hi, everyone;. I have done a series of PCR and found that there is slight difference between control and treated group according to bands stained with EB in 2% agarose gel. I was told that such a result is much less sensitive than that of southern. So I blotted such gel to membrane for further southern analysis. Here is the question, if I can use the same PCR product to construct my probe? Yes or No? and How ...
7 matches. ($12.04 - $92.81) Find great deals on the latest styles of Pup treads treat dispenser. Compare prices & save money on Dog Supplies.
The aim of this study was to demonstrate that good characterization of S. cerevisiae clinical isolates can be achieved by using a molecular method such as Southern blot hybridization analysis. Even though the development of a molecular typing method useful for the characterization of a yeast infection is a desirable goal for many mycologists, the number of studies in which the epidemiology of S. cerevisiae infections has been investigated is very limited (9, 17, 34). A universally accepted typing method for this organism has been not defined. This could be due in part to the low prevalence of diseases caused byS. cerevisiae, particularly of vaginal infections. However, in our investigation, these infections have been of considerable interest. As described above, of 513 women who visited our Microbiological Service in the study period, 5.8% had S. cerevisiae in their vaginal swabs. This was in agreement with the data reported by Agatensi et al. (1), by which the incidence of vaginal infections ...
The deletion mutation was introduced into the ABI 2.1 embryonic stem (ES) cell line (Soriano et al., 1991) and transmitted to the germline as described previously (Bullard et al., 1996). Chimeric mice were bred with C57BL/6J mice, and the mice used in these studies were maintained on a mixed 129/SvEv and C57BL/6J background. The mutation is being back-crossed on the C57BL/6J background for future work.. Southern, Northern, and Western analyses. Southern blot hybridization was performed according to standard methods (Sambrook et al., 1989) using a hybridization solution of 0.125m NaPO4, pH 7.0, 0.25 mNaCl, 1 mm EDTA, 10% polyethylene glycol (PEG-8000), 7% SDS, and 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) at 65°C overnight followed by washing to a final stringency of 0.2× SSC/0.1% SDS at 65°C and autoradiography at −80°C.. Total RNA was isolated from brain after homogenization in Ultraspec II (Tel Test, Houston, TX). Total RNA was resolved on a 1.2% agarose gel in 10 mm NaPO4 buffer, pH 6.8, after ...
Genetic information processingMobile and extrachromosomal element functionsProphage functionsputative phage terminase, small subunit, P27 family (TIGR01558; HMM-score: 13.7) ...
OBJECTIVES--To determine the prevalence of urethral HPV infection, as indicated by the presence of HPV DNA in semen, in males with and without penile warts. DESIGN--Prevalence study of HPV types 6/11 and 16 DNA using PCR and Southern blot hybridisation analysis of semen. SETTING--Department of Genitourinary Medicine, Blundell Street Clinic, Leeds General Infirmary and the Assisted Conception Unit (ACU) Kings College, London. SUBJECTS--Patients attending the Genitourinary Clinic for treatment of sexually transmitted diseases including penile warts and males attending Kings ACU for investigations of infertility. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--HPV DNA detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or Southern blot hybridisation in semen. RESULTS--HPV DNA was detected by PCR in 23 of 27 (85%) specimens from patients attending the GUM clinic for treatment of genital warts and in one of two specimens from patients attending the clinic for other conditions. By Southern blot, nine (33%) of the 29 specimens ...
We present data demonstrating the gene expression of substance P and its receptor in human peripheral blood-isolated monocytes and macrophages. Using the RT-PCR assay, preprotachykinin-A (substance P) mRNA is detected in human peripheral blood-isolated monocytes and macrophages. Among the alpha, beta, and gamma transcripts of the substance P gene, only the beta and gamma transcripts are detectable in these cells. By Southern blot assay these RT-PCR-amplified transcripts are recognized using a specific substance P probe. Sequence analysis of the RT-PCR products from both monocytes and macrophages also confirmed the structure of these transcripts, which are identical to those found in human neuronal cells. At the protein level, both human monocytes and macrophages produced endogenous substance P as determined by an enzyme immunoassay. Capsaicin, a vanillyl fatty acid amide (ingredient of hot pepper), released substance P from both human monocytes and macrophages. In addition, using nested RT-PCR ...
Transgene vector and generation of transgenic mice.We obtained the Crx genomic clone from a 129SVJ mouse library (Stratagene, La Jolla, CA) by using a mouse Crx cDNA probe. We ligated and subcloned a 10 kb XhoI (partial digestion)-EcoRI fragment and a PCR-amplified 2 kbEcoRI-SmaI fragment containing exon 1 into a pβ-gal-Basic vector (Clontech, Palo Alto, CA) to make the Pcrx12k-lacZ construct (see Fig. 1A). Sequencing verified the 2 kb EcoRI-SmaI fragment. The Pcrx2k-lacZ vector contains the 2 kbEcoRI-exon 1 fragment and a 10 kbSmaI-EcoRI fragment that contains the first intron.. We extracted the Pcrx2k-lacZ and the Pcrx12k-lacZ from the recombinant plasmids by aNotI and SalI digestion. We fractionated theNotI-SalI fragments by electrophoresis on a 0.8% agarose gel and purified them by electroelution in dialysis tubes. We microinjected the DNA fragment into pronuclei of B6SJL/F2 C57BL/6 × SJL F2 hybrids. Then Southern blot hybridization of a HindIII-ClaI 954 bp fragment of the β-galactosidase ...
This was a hybrid restriction site created during the cloning process (Cap-trapper) for the library creation. Neither of these restriction sites will work to digest the insert from the vector. According to the IMAGE consortium the SalI-XhoI (gtcgag) is located at position 742 of the polylinker sequence (http: //mgc. nci. nih. gov/Vectors/vec_pbluescriptr). Customers can use BamHI (5) and EcoRI (3) to digest out the insert. Other options for sub-cloning are either to use different restriction enzymes lying outside BamHI and EcoRI or to design insert-specific primers based on the insert sequence. You can also find a reference for the cap trapper method here: Carninci et. al. , DNA RESEARCH 4, 61-66 (1997), High Efficiency Selection of Full-length cDNA by Improved Biotinylated Cap Trapper ...
Nucleic acids from ATCC Genuine Cultures can save you the time and expense of isolating DNA yourself. ATCC offers genomic DNA from well-characterized and authenticated fungal and yeast strains.
Nucleic acids from ATCC Genuine Cultures can save you the time and expense of isolating DNA yourself. ATCC offers genomic DNA from well-characterized and authenticated fungal and yeast strains.
Developmentally programmed deoxyribonucleic acid(DNA) rearrangements are structural reorganisations of the genome that occur reproducibly during the development of a variety of organisms
12404385] The Biosynthesis of Vancomycin-Type Glycopeptide Antibiotics-The Order of the Cyclization Steps This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB 323) and by a grant of the EU (MEGATOP, QLK3-1999-00650). R. D. S. gratefully acknowledges the support of a Feodor-Lynen Fellowship granted by the Alexander-von-Humboldt Stiftung. We thank Corina Bihlmaier and Volker Pfeifer for help with transformation and Southern hybridization, J. A. Moss (La Jolla (USA)) for critical comments on the manuscript and Prof. Dr. M. E. Maier and Prof. Dr. H.-P. Fiedler (Tubingen) for generous support. (Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. , 2001 ...
Size: 201.55 Kb.; Быстрые, не зависимые от транскрипции эффекты прогестерона, называемые внегеномными, были
Southern blotting[edit]. Main article: Southern blot. Named after its inventor, biologist Edwin Southern, the Southern blot is ... Western blotting[edit]. Main article: Western blot. In western blotting, proteins are first separated by size, in a thin gel ... Eastern blotting[edit]. Main article: Eastern blot. The eastern blotting technique is used to detect post-translational ... Macromolecule blotting and probing[edit]. The terms northern, western and eastern blotting are derived from what initially was ...
"Southern Blotting , MyBioSource Learning Center". Retrieved 2019-11-11. "Professor Paul Berg , Biographical summary". ... Restriction enzymes were used to linearize DNA for separation by electrophoresis and Southern blotting allowed for the ...
Autoradiograph of Southern blot membrane. Quantitative[edit]. In liquid scintillation counting, a small aliquot, filter or swab ... Autoradiography: A tissue section affixed to a microscope slide or a membrane such as a Northern blot or a hybridized slot blot ...
Southern blottingEdit. Main article: Southern blot. Named after its inventor, biologist Edwin Southern, the Southern blot is a ... Western blottingEdit. Main article: Western blot. In western blotting, proteins are first separated by size, in a thin gel ... Eastern blottingEdit. Main article: Eastern blot. The eastern blotting technique is used to detect post-translational ... Brown, T. (1 May 2001). Southern blotting. Current Protocols in Immunology. Chapter 10. pp. Unit 10.6A. doi:10.1002/0471142735. ...
"Southern blot". White, Abraham (1959). "Principles of biochemistry". Principles of Biochemistry. 2nd: 1149 - via CAB Direct. ... Macromolecule blotting is a process performed after gel electrophoresis. An alkaline solution is prepared in a container. A ... and macromolecule blotting to manipulate DNA. Polymerase chain reaction is done by placing a mixture of the desired DNA, DNA ...
These large regions were termed "ultra-long" telomeres in the literature when they were identified using southern blotting and ... In slot blot (or dot blot), total genomic DNA is attached to a membrane and labeled with a telomere-probe that produces a ... Southern blot). Specialized protocols have demonstrated the ability to isolate high molecular weight Class III telomeric DNA ... Slot blot, however, is conducted without DNA fragmentation or separation, rather whole genomic DNA is used to quantify the ...
This process is termed Southern blotting. For fluorescent dyes, after electrophoresis the gel is illuminated with an ...
Southern blot to detect big deletions or duplications. *Polymerase chain reaction and specific mutation testing ...
Bulked DNA samples can be analysed using Southern blotting. Use of restriction enzymes or PCR amplification on the DNA is ...
... this procedure is called a Southern blot. The DNA fragments within the blot are permanently fixed to the filter, and the DNA ... The Southern blot technique requires large amounts of non-degraded sample DNA. Also, Alec Jeffrey's original multilocus RFLP ... The blot is then exposed to an X-ray film. Fragments of DNA that have bound to the probe molecules appear as fluorescent bands ... Early assays such as the HLA-DQ alpha reverse dot blot strips grew to be very popular owing to their ease of use, and the speed ...
Diagnosing Pearson syndrome utilizes leukocyte DNA with the Southern Blot analysis. This type of mitochondrial DNA deletion are ...
This technique is extensively used in Southern blot analysis of DNA samples. In this case a phosphorus-32-containing DNA probe ...
Detection of viral DNA is performed by PCR or by Southern blot. Caution is needed in interpreting results from PCR since it is ...
John Philip Sousa, American composer - sousaphone Edwin Southern, British biologist - Southern blot. Paul-Henri Spaak, Belgian ... Cecil Rhodes, British explorer and industrialist - Northern Rhodesia (Now Zambia), Southern Rhodesia (Now Zimbabwe), Rhodes ...
"Southern blot".. *^ a b c d e Schopf, J. William (2002-10-21). Life's Origin. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520- ... Macromolecule blotting is a process performed after gel electrophoresis. An alkaline solution is prepared in a container. A ...
Southern blotting is an early technique basic on detection of fragments of DNA separated by size through gel electrophoresis ... Southern blotting is still useful in the diagnosis of disorders caused by trinucleotide repeats. ... Some examples of molecular diagnostic tests include DNA sequencing and Southern blotting.. College (4 yrs) → Graduate school ( ...
Millennial-Scale Dynamics of Southern Amazonian Rain Forests. Science 290: 2291-2294 ... bl&ots=sIxHN3fc3U&sig=uji_f4hIzqhUQERvaC9Ccu_X5iA&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=cerrado%20population&f=false ... This ecoregion has a very strong dry season during the southern winter (approx. April-September).[5] ...
One method is the Terminal Restriction Fragment (TRF) southern blot. A Real-Time PCR assay for telomere length involves ...
conducted southern blot hybridization on Neanderthal aDNA (extracted from fossil remain W-NW and Krapina). The results showed ... Studying haplogroups has led some scientists to conclude that a southern migration into the Americas from one small population ... Genetic analysis has supported archaeological hypotheses of a large-scale migrations of Bantu speakers into Southern Africa ...
It involves dicing the DNA with restriction enzymes and sorting the resulting restriction fragments by size using southern blot ... which is commonly used to visualize the EcoRI fragment during southern blot. The name "p13E-11" reflects that it is a subclone ... which is more precise and less labor intensive than southern blot.Molecular combing is also available for assessing D4Z4 array ... "Molecular combing compared to Southern blot for measuring D4Z4 contractions in FSHD". Neuromuscular Disorders. 25 (12): 945-51 ...
An image of this Southern blot can be seen in this article. Bacteriophages are very easily spread. At lower exposures, ... Biochemical tests such as Southern blots can also be used to detect the speA that the phage produces from the speA gene. This ...
"Southern Railway - Budget Highlights-2012-13". Railway budget 2012, Taken from Southern Railways Website. Archived from the ... "Toilets a blot on MRTS", Downtown, The Hindu, Chennai, 26 October 2013. "Chain snatched at MRTS station", The Hindu, Chennai, 1 ... "Southern Railway - Budget Highlights-2012-13". Railway budget 2012, Taken from Southern Railways Website. Archived from the ... "Special trains on MRTS in view of ICC World Cup Cricket Match". Southern Railway Website. Southern Railways. Retrieved 18 ...
He wrote that envoys from Sutrium, Nepete (Romans colonies) and Falerii in southern Etruria arrived in Rome with news that the ... Livy wrote that "the Aequian name was almost blotted out." Still, in 304 BC, the Sabellian peoples of modern northern Abruzzo, ... In 303 BC the Sabine town of Trefula Suffrenas (Ciciliano) and the Volscian town of Arpinium (Arpino) in southern Latium were ... In 307 BC the consul Lucius Volumnius Flamma Violens was assigned a campaign against the Salentini of southern Apulia, where he ...
The transformed plants were regenerated and analyzed for the presence of the gene through Southern blotting. The plants' ...
Gwin was backed by a powerful Southern coalition of pro-slavery Democrats called the Chivs, who had a monopoly on federal ... Wilson said of his bill that it would "blot out slavery forever from the nation's capital". The measure met bitter opposition ... When Congress opened the session which began in December 1865, Johnson's policy included a demand for admission of Southern ... On January 1, 1863, Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation freed all slaves held in bondage in the Southern states or territories ...
Southern blots are used to measure CGG repeats because CG-rich regions limit polymerase movement in PCR. These repetitive ...
A pall of smoke, heat, soot and dust rose and blotted out the sky. The raid on the night of the 8th-9th October 1943 was not ... The 78 hectare Maschsee on the southern edge of the city centre was partly covered with wooden boards and artificial islands to ... The centre of Hanover, including the old medieval town, and the southern district were laid waste. During this night 1,139 ...
Its use is not limited to molecular cloning; it is also used in restriction site mapping, genotyping, Southern blotting, ...
ELISA screening and Western blot confirming); or 3) single-tier IgG (old infection) Western blot.[227] Previously, the CDC only ... Fivaz BH, Petney TN (September 1989). "Lyme disease--a new disease in southern Africa?". Journal of the South African ... Tests for antibodies in the blood by ELISA and Western blot is the most widely used method for Lyme diagnosis. A two-tiered ... A regionally restricted condition that may be related to Borrelia infection is southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI), ...
... the khat plant has over the years found its way to Southern Africa as well as tropical areas, where it grows on rocky outcrops ... "Drugs and dance as Israelis blot out intifada". The Guardian.. *^ Bentur, Y.; Bloom-Krasik, A.; Raikhlin-Eisenkraft, B. (2008 ...
Southern desenvolve a técnica do Southern blot de localización de secuencias específicas de ADN (1976),[30] comeza a ... Southern, E. M. (1975). "Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis". Journal of ...
Southern Africa. Further information: Bantu peoples in South Africa. In South Africa, the period of colonization resulted in ... Soheil Baharian; Maxime Barakatt; Christopher R. Gignoux; Suyash Shringarpure; Jacob Errington; William J. Blot; Carlos D. ... They worked in southern Iraq's salt marshes and sugarcane fields. Though slavery - which in Iraq included Arabs as well as ... In addition, an estimated ten to thirty thousand fugitive slaves reached freedom in Canada from the Southern United States ...
Other blotting methods (i.e., western blot,[2] northern blot, eastern blot, southwestern blot) that employ similar principles, ... A Southern blot is a method used in molecular biology for detection of a specific DNA sequence in DNA samples. Southern ... Southern blotting transfer may be used for homology-based cloning on the basis of amino acid sequence of the protein product of ... Southern blots performed with restriction enzyme-digested genomic DNA may be used to determine the number of sequences (e.g., ...
Vietnam to southern Yunnan Province in China, and on the islands of Sumatra and Borneo in Indonesia. They now occur very ... bl&ots=PWZxeOlNd3&sig=dBxYegZDpKLcBUGQ1DNDBQUwsaE&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CB4Q6AEwAGoVChMI2ZLT9fWHxgIV0j2MCh07Mw50#v=onepage&q=sun% ...
Southern Classics. Univ of South Carolina Press. pp. 255-256. ISBN 978-1-57003-494-7. . Retrieved 21 June 2013.. ... "the darkest blot upon South Carolina's history." It said that the McKinley administration was also to blame for "thrusting ... venal negro henchmen into Southern offices of trust."[9]. Investigation and trialEdit. .mw-parser-output .quotebox{background- ...
A rapid dot-blot ELISA test is also available for quick, effective, and economical on-site diagnosis of A. cantonensis.[52] ... experience in a medical center in southern Taiwan". Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection = Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran Za ...
Southern blot. *Northern blot. *DNA Sequencing. DenaturantsEdit. Protein DenaturantsEdit. AcidsEdit. Acidic protein denaturants ...
The koala is found in coastal areas of the mainland's eastern and southern regions, inhabiting Queensland, New South Wales, ... And he has been almost blotted out already from some areas."[156] ... while some southern populations (including Kangaroo Island) are ...
western blot?[3], physical examination?, ELISA?, Գոտկային պունկցիա և Բիոպսիա. Բժշկական մասնագիտություն. վարակաբանություն, ... and in ticks infesting roe deer in southern Germany»։ Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases 4 (4): 320-8։ June 2013։ PMID 23571115։ doi ... AC S. Western blotting in the serodiagnosis of Lyme disease. // J. Infect. Dis. - OUP, 1993. - Vol. 167, Iss. 2. - P. 392-400 ...
... as if right and wrong had been blotted out of the statute book of the Universe."[192] Dennis Clark, an Irish-American historian ... of the white population in the southern cities. The states ignored all their racial, religious, and political differences to ... and southern England had all already been affected.[59] ...
At times, the southern border of Kalinga extended further up to the Krishna river. In the north, it sometimes extended beyond ... https://books.google.com/books?id=pBxpTwfTx4QC&pg=PA196&lpg=PA196&dq=mahavamsa+kalinga&source=bl&ots=Y2BvxAztS5&sig= ...
The Wimbledon to Sutton line was constructed by the Southern Railway and was opened in 1930.[44] In conjunction with the C& ... One day the ice will descend and blot out all traces of man's works. The earth will grow cold. Nature will return to her ...
... southern blotting, and other DNA sequencing analysis methods.[19] DNA microarrays and chips use the binding of complementary ...
Western Blot Analysis: tester som bekrefter resultatene fra ELISA-testene.. *Chem-20: kjemiske tester utført på blodserumet. ... Southern Medical Journal. 86 (12): 1405-7. PMID 8272922. doi:10.1097/00007611-199312000-00019.. ...
... types of fragments from differing organisms are visualized and their lengths compared to each other by Southern blotting or by ...
Body, Geoffrey (1984). Railways of the Southern Region. Patrick Stephens Ltd.. *. Bradley, D.L. (1963). The Locomotives of the ... The great blots on the South Eastern are its unpunctuality, its fares, its third class carriages, and the way in which local ... White, H.P. (1961). A regional history of the railways of southern England: Vol. II. London: Phoenix House.. ... Marshall, C.F. Dendy (1963). History of the Southern Railway: v.1. Ian Allan Ltd.. ...
"The Cyclopaedia of Indian And Of Eastern And Southern Asia: Commercial, Industrial, and Scientific, 3rd Edition. I. London: ... https://books.google.com/books?id=8kXwskQHBLoC&pg=PA113&lpg=PA113&dq=madagascar+1899+pressure&source=bl&ots=qEKb-I571S&sig= ... A cyclone had formed near the Laccadive Islands on May 24, 555 kilometres (345 mi) west of southern India. The SS Mergui ... This system formed as a tropical depression in the southern Bay on December 5, strengthening into a tropical storm as it turned ...
When this custom ceased, the squadrons of soldiers and the boundary wall were blotted out together. The troop at Batavis, ... During his four-year reign Majorian reconquered most of Hispania and southern Gaul, meanwhile reducing the Visigoths, ... Even in southern Gaul and Hispania large barbarian groups remained, with thousands of warriors, in their own non-Roman military ... to request that the Visigoths return southern Gaul to Roman control. This would have allowed the Empire land access to Hispania ...
Empire of Brazil: Imperial Order of the Southern Cross, Grand Cross, 19 September 1884 ... such as Prince Vladimir Nikolayevich Orlov never tired of telling the Tsar that the very existence of the Duma was a blot on ...
Germans and sympathetic Tunisians were parachuted into Southern Tunisia to conduct sabotage - but were arrested almost ...
The southern façade faces the grand style slope Slottsbacken;[clarification needed] the eastern façade borders Skeppsbron, a ... Blot-Sweyn - reigned c. 1080). ... in the Jämtland and Villa Mirage in Sainte-Maxime in southern ...
Southern India theoryEdit. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to ... bl&ots=6AahYJkR4i&sig=b1yTFKp4DQrxN8Gfxm8ddd_BALg&hl=de&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjTrpiq2qveAhVlCcAKHe4hAw0Q6AEwA3oECAYQAQ#v=onepage&q= ... This theory is based on equally vague archaeological evidence in southern India and the claim that there is no independent ... The oldest archaeological evidence of Indianized civilization in Southeast Asia comes from central Burma, central and southern ...
Northern blot. *Southern blot. *Restriction enzyme. *Polymerase chain reaction. *Two-hybrid screening ...
The second diagram shows how this fragment size variation would look on a Southern blot, and how each allele (two per ... separated by length through a process known as agarose gel electrophoresis and transferred to a membrane via the Southern blot ... blotting, hybridization, washing, and autoradiography can take up to a month to complete. A limited version of the RFLP method ... a process that can often be done by a simple dot blot. ...
GRECE was founded in the southern French city of Nice in January 1968,[4] shortly before the May 1968 events in France.[5] It ... In 1974, a group called The Club was established by several GRECE members-notably Jean-Yves Le Gallou, Yvan Blot, and Henry de ...
Southern blotting* A chromatographic technique for isolating and identifying specific fragments of DNA, such as the fragments ... Western Blot , Western blotting (protein blotting) An immunoassay for determining very small amounts of a particular protein in ... The genetic material that acts as the… Southern Cross , south·ern / ˈsə[voicedth]ərn/ • adj. 1. situated in the south or ... Southern blotting A technique for transferring single-stranded (denatured) DNA fragments from a gel used for electrophoresis to ...
An assay that detects specific DNA molecules using a DNA or RNA probe with sequence similarity. Samples are subjected to electrophoresis on a slab gel. A replica of the gel is then made on a membrane by capillary transfer following denaturation. Specific DNA sequences are then detected on the membrane with a radioactively- or chemically-labeled probe. See the Figure from Alberts, et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell ...
Southern blot definition, a procedure for identifying and measuring the amount of a specific DNA sequence or gene in a mixed ... Origin of Southern blot. after Edwin M. Southern, originator of the technique ...
... a blot consisting of a nitrocellulose or nylon sheet containing spots of DNA for identification by a suitable molecular probe. ... Southern Baptist southern black haw southern blight Southern blot southern blue gum Southern bright southern buckthorn ... Share Southern blot Post the Definition of Southern blot to Facebook Share the Definition of Southern blot on Twitter ... Rhyming Dictionary: Words that rhyme with Southern blot. Comments on Southern blot What made you want to look up Southern blot ...
Northern Blotting Protocol. The protocol for Northern blotting is similar to that of Southern blotting. However, RNA sequences ... Southern blotting was introduced by Edwin Southern in 1975 as a method to detect specific sequences of DNA in DNA samples. The ... Southern and Northern blotting protocols involve the following major steps:. *Purification of DNA/RNA: Extract and purify the ... Place the blot in a film cassette lined with new saran wrap and carefully wrap the blot ensuring no air bubbles are trapped ...
Southern blot analysis reveals information about DNA identity, size, and abundance. It is a classic technique that involves ... Southern blot analysis reveals information about DNA identity, size, and abundance. It is a classic technique that involves ... Obtaining complete fragmentation of your DNA at the intended restriction enzyme sites is a critical step in Southern blot ... Obtaining complete fragmentation of your DNA at the intended restriction enzyme sites is a critical step in Southern blot ...
Other blotting methods (i.e., western blot,[2] northern blot, eastern blot, southwestern blot) that employ similar principles, ... A Southern blot is a method used in molecular biology for detection of a specific DNA sequence in DNA samples. Southern ... Southern blotting transfer may be used for homology-based cloning on the basis of amino acid sequence of the protein product of ... Southern blots performed with restriction enzyme-digested genomic DNA may be used to determine the number of sequences (e.g., ...
Southern blot synonyms, Southern blot pronunciation, Southern blot translation, English dictionary definition of Southern blot ... Related to Southern blot: Northern blot. South′ern blot′. n. a test for the presence of a specific DNA segment in a sample by ... Southern blot - definition of Southern blot by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Southern+blot ... Southern blot analysis was performed to determine whether pFJ1, pFJ4, and pFJ6 integrated into the J7-F chromosome.. ...
Struggling array-makers eagerly await the October 31 jury trial for Oxford Gene Technologys patent infringement suit against Affymetrix. Oxford is seeking $300 million in damages, an injunction, and/or royalties. Regarding its Delaware court date, Affy will say only that the patent in question is just one of many covering arrays.
Other blotting methods (i.e., western blot, northern blot, eastern blot, southwestern blot) that employ similar principles, but ... Restriction fragment Genetic fingerprint Northern blot Western blot Eastern blot Southwestern blot Northwestern blot Southern, ... A Southern blot is a method used in molecular biology for detection of a specific DNA sequence in DNA samples. Southern ... Southern blotting transfer may be used for homology-based cloning on the basis of amino acid sequence of the protein product of ...
... hrichter at ulys.unil.ch hrichter at ulys.unil.ch Thu Oct 20 18:42:11 EST 1994 * ... Hi out there, Are there some methods that would allow to have southern and northern on the same blot? I would like to quantify ...
Southern Blotting: The Procedure. The protocols given are for Genomic Southern Blotting, one of the most sensitive Southern ... Southern Blots will need to be exposed between intensifying screens for up to 96 hours to achieve maximum sensitivity. ... Incomplete digests are the primary cause of Southern Blot failure. It is particularly important to ensure that DNA has fully ... Wrap stripped blot in plastic wrap and place on film overnight to convirm probe removal. Note: If blot is allowed to dry with ...
And a western blot is the same but with protein (and Antibodies instead of a DNA probe). As a side note, Southern is the name ... DNA collected from a cell thought to contain the gene, then underwent the Southern blotting procedure. One of the fragments of ... Southern blotting. Discussion of all aspects of cellular structure, physiology and communication. ... I have heared of southern blotting for school but whats northern. eg how is it done, what is required? ...
Suitable for use in hybridization buffers used in Northern blot, Southern blot, colony/plaque blots, and dot blots. ... Intro to Southern & Northern Blotting , Northern & Southern Blot Protocols The transfer of macromolecules such as nucleic acids ... Buffer / Buffer Salts, Buffers for Hybridization, Core Bioreagents, Life Science Reagents for Northern and Southern Blotting, ... Sigmas PerfectHyb Plus is a ready-to-use hybridization buffer for Northern and Southern blot protocols. Use of PerfectHyb Plus ...
Southern Blot problems - Help needed to fix southern problem!! (Oct/05/2006 ). Hi,. I have completed many many southern blots ... I blot using skimmed milk and dextran sulphate with 2 x SSPE and 1% SDS. I tried removing the dextran, it slightly improved but ...
Northern and Southern blotting allows identification and quantification of RNA and DNA. The primary advantage of both methods ... Streamline Detection With Consistent, Easy-to-Read Northern and Southern Blot Transfers Northern and Southern blotting are ... Southern blotting is a molecular biology technique used for the detection of a specific DNA sequence in large, complex samples ... The Southern blot method may also be used to determine the molecular weight of restriction fragments and to measure relative ...
Southern blotting is designed to locate a particular sequence of DNA within a complex mixture. For example, Southern Blotting ... Southern who developed this procedure at Edinburgh University in the 1970s. To oversimplify, DNA molecules are transferred from ... Southern Blotting Southern blotting was named after Edward M. ... Southern Blotting. Southern blotting was named after Edward M. ... Southern blotting is designed to locate a particular sequence of DNA within a complex mixture. For example, Southern Blotting ...
DIG southern blot - posted in Molecular Biology: Please can someone give me some suggestions as to why my DIG SB is not working ... DIG southern blot. Started by cbrossin, Jun 03 2011 08:29 AM ... Then do a dot blot of serial dilutions of your DNA (no gel, no ... Then do a dot blot of serial dilutions of your DNA (no gel, no blotting) and hybridize with your probe to establish that the ... blotting) and hybridize with your probe to establish that the probe and DNA hybridize and can be detected. This also ...
De novo telomere HO endonuclease S. cerevisiae Southern blot Telomerase This is a preview of subscription content, log in to ... Bonetti D., Longhese M.P. (2018) Analysis of De Novo Telomere Addition by Southern Blot. In: Muzi-Falconi M., Brown G. (eds) ...
These Capillary Blotting systems offer a contained unit for southern and northern blotting. These units incorporate optimized ... Typical applications include clone screening with DNA / RNA probes in Southern / Northern blots ... Read more... ... Scie-Plass dot and slot blot microfiltration manifolds provide an easy and reproducible means to hybr... Read more... ...
The DNA blot or Southern blot is a molecular biology method to probe the genome for the location of a DNA sequence. Genomic DNA ... DNA blot (Southern). From OpenWetWare. Revision as of 06:12, 16 April 2009 by Jakob Suckale. (talk , contribs) (lab-specific ... After size separation DNA pieces are blotted onto a membrane and then hybridised with a labelled nucleic acid probe. The ... Retrieved from "https://openwetware.org/mediawiki/index.php?title=DNA_blot_(Southern)&oldid=302398" ...
The detection was done due to a new developed non-radioactive Southern blotting with a Digoxigenin marked template. We could ... Das in der vorliegenden Arbeit vorgestellte Verfahren der nicht-radioaktiven Southern Blot Hybridisierung unter Verwendung ...
The Southern blot is used to detect the presence of a particular piece of DNA in ... 6. Block with excess DNA. 7. Wash off ... Southern Blot - Southern Blot By: Jacqueline Jai Southern Blot Southern Blot-a piece nitrocellulose paper containing spots of ... Southern Blotting DNA Fingerprinting - Southern Blotting DNA Fingerprinting Southern Blot A Southern Blot identifies specific ... Southern, Northern and Western blotting - Southern, Northern and Western blotting * SOUTHERN BLOTTING The Random Hexamer ...
QuikHyb hybridization solution was developed for use in Southern, Northern, slot-blot and plaque-lift formats using randomly ...
This video shows us in plain English what the process and applications of the Southern Blotting technique are. If you were ever ... Southern Blotting made easy This video shows us in plain English what the process and applications of the Southern Blotting ... Lec 3 - A Southern World View: The Old So .... 51:00 , 3043 views ...
Southern blotting combines transfer of electrophoresis-separated DNA fragments to filter membrane and subsequent fragment ... Global Southern Blotting Market OverviewA Southern blot is a method in molecular biology for detection of specific DNA sequence ... Global Southern Blotting Market Overview. A Southern blot is a method in molecular biology for detection of specific DNA ... Global Southern Blotting Market Research Report. Section 1: Global Southern Blotting Industry Overview. Section 2: Global ...
Parity among the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA method, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, and Southern blot hybridization ... Parity among the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA method, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, and Southern blot hybridization ... Parity among the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA method, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, and Southern blot hybridization ... Parity among the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA method, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, and Southern blot hybridization ...
Detection of Nucleic Acids by Southern and Northern Blotting. Southern blotting was originally introduced by Edwin Southern in ... After extraction, Southern and Northern blot protocols begin to differ. Southern blotting requires an additional step because ... Table 1. Comparisons between Northern, Southern and Western Blots. Figure 1. Visual Reading for Rapid Results using WESTERNVIEW ... Shortly after southern blotting was developed, the premise of this analytical technique was applied to the measurement of the ...
A) A representative blot for the amplification of the VκI family is shown ... Southern blot analysis and quantitation of PCR amplified Vκ recombination products. ( ... Figure 1: Southern blot analysis and quantitation of PCR amplified Vκ recombination products. (A) A representative blot for the ... Figure 1: Southern blot analysis and quantitation of PCR amplified Vκ recombination products. (A) A representative blot for the ...
Southern blot analysis of transgenic pigs. a, Tail genomic DNA of group I and II F0 generation animals digested with Bgl I. b, ... Figure 3: Southern blot analysis of transgenic pigs. a, Tail genomic DNA of group I and II F0 generation animals digested with ... Figure 3: Southern blot analysis of transgenic pigs. a, Tail genomic DNA of group I and II F0 generation animals digested with ... The numbers in bold indicate positive detection on the blot. Mentions: For this study, Duroc, Yorkshire, and Landrace female ...
  • Southern blotting A technique for transferring single-stranded (denatured) DNA fragments from a gel used for electrophoresis to a nitrocellulose filter. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Fragments of DNA and RNA molecules separated by gel electrophoresis are transferred to a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane in a process termed as Southern and Northern blotting, respectively. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • From reliable restriction enzymes to the fast, convenient Invitrogen E-Gel agarose gel electrophoresis system and Invitrogen BrightStar-Plus membranes, our products not only help meet your Southern blotting analysis needs, they also speed up the process. (thermofisher.com)
  • Southern blotting combines transfer of electrophoresis -separated DNA fragments to a filter membrane and subsequent fragment detection by probe hybridization . (wikipedia.org)
  • Transferred by either electrophoresis or capillary blotting. (powershow.com)
  • Parity among the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA method, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, and Southern blot hybridization with the moderately repetitive DNA probe Ca3 for fingerprinting Candida albicans. (asm.org)
  • Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE), and Southern blot hybridization with moderately repetitive DNA probes have emerged as effective fingerprinting methods for the infectious fungus Candida albicans. (asm.org)
  • Both blotting methods share a similar workflow 1) Sample preparation of purified high quality DNA or RNA from a sample, 2) Gel electrophoresis to separate nucleic acid fragments by size, 3) transfer ("blotting") to a solid-support that immobilizes isolated target nucleic acid, 4) preparation & hybridization of nucleic acid probe, and lastly 5) the detection of the nucleic acid probe. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • Southern blotting is the process of transferring and immobilizing DNA onto a membrane after restriction enzyme digestion and electrophoresis. (asmscience.org)
  • These images represent a small selection of lab techniques such as Western and Southern blotting, and gel electrophoresis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The technique of Southern blotting was developed by Sir Edwin Southern in 1973, and uses gel electrophoresis for the detection of a specific DNA sequence in a sample of DNA. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Blotting by gel electrophoresis enables the transfer of membranes and involves hybridisation to a probe. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Unlike Western blotting, it does not use electrophoresis to separate proteins. (ox.ac.uk)
  • DNA blot taken from an electrophoresis gel. (metaglossary.com)
  • A Southern blot is a method in molecular biology of enhancing the result of an agarose gel electrophoresis by marking specific DNA sequences. (metaglossary.com)
  • The method is named after its inventor, the British biologist Edwin Southern.Southern, E.M. (1975): "Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis", J Mol Biol. (metaglossary.com)
  • Although the amplification product was not evident in agarose gel electrophoresis initially, Southern blotting confirmed the increase in quantity of the desired DNA segments. (news-medical.net)
  • DNA fragments are separated by electrophoresis on an agarose gel, transferred (blotted) onto a nitrocellulose or nylon membrane, and hybridized with complementary (labeled) nucleic acid probes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A procedure in which proteins separated by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels are transferred (blotted) onto nitrocellulose or nylon membranes and identified by specific complexing with antibodies that are either pre- or post-tagged with a labeled secondary protein. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Southern Blotting is an elegant technique that can be used to identify the locations of genes and other DNA sequences on restriction fragments separated by gel electrophoresis . (sciencesamhita.com)
  • The Southern blotting method is a classic technique that separates DNA fragments according to their size through electrophoresis. (laboratoryinfo.com)
  • Basically, Southern blotting separates DNA fragments by gel electrophoresis. (laboratoryinfo.com)
  • For fast, reproducible transfer, the Invitrogen iBlot 7-Min Blot offers complete transfer of DNA to the nylon membrane in seven minutes. (thermofisher.com)
  • Southern blot membrane after hybridization and rinsing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gel is blotted onto a nylon membrane, transferring and immobilizing the RNA onto the membrane. (pall.com)
  • This results in the hybridization of the probe to the RNA on the membrane blot that corresponds to the sequence of interest. (pall.com)
  • The denatured DNA fragments are transferred onto a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane via blotting. (pall.com)
  • Fragments greater than 15 kb are hard to transfer to the blotting membrane. (asu.edu)
  • Fast sample-to-membrane hybridisation guaranteed for immediate screening Available in alphanumeric 24, 48 and 96 sample throughputs, Scie-Plas's dot and slot blot microfiltration manifolds provide an easy and reproducible means to hybr. (selectscience.net)
  • After size separation DNA pieces are blotted onto a membrane and then hybridised with a labelled nucleic acid probe. (openwetware.org)
  • Blotting refers to the transfer of macromolecules (nucleic acids, proteins) from a gel onto the solid surface of an immobilized membrane for the detection of the transferred molecules. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • A complementary fragment of DNA is used to detect specific DNA sequences immobilized onto a membrane from a Southern blot. (asmscience.org)
  • 8. Blot membrane dry and place in glass cylinder preheated to 65 o C. Add FBI hybridization buffer (1.5X SSPE, 10% PEG, 7% SDS) containing 10 μ g /ml denatured Herring Sperm DNA. (mssm.edu)
  • The blot is then probed with a DNA fragment that lies outside of the homologous regions contained within the targeting vector … Le Southern Blot Schéma de la technique : 1-clivage enzymatique de restriction : 2- électrophorèse sur gel d'agarose : 3- dénaturation dans le gel des fragments de restriction: 4- transfert sur support solide (membrane de nylon ou nitrocellulose) par capillarité (buvardage) 5- fixation de l'ADN sur la membrane par cuisson (mb. (hag-berg.se)
  • There are also a number of dot blots, which is a method of applying proteins directly onto a membrane. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The electrophoretically separated fragments are then blotted to a nitrocellulose membrane, retaining their electrophoretic position, and hybridized with radiolabeled single- stranded DNA fragments with sequences complementary to those being sought. (metaglossary.com)
  • The transfer of size-separated DNA fragments to a synthetic membrane for further studies, initially described by E.N. Southern. (metaglossary.com)
  • A laboratory technique, such as a Southern blot analysis, that involves electrophoretically separating proteins or nucleic acids and transferring them to a membrane. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The DNA's separated strands are transferred to a positively charged nylon membrane through the process of blotting. (laboratoryinfo.com)
  • A blotting technique in molecular biology is defined as transfer of electrophoresed samples of DNA, RNA and proteins onto a suitable carrier such as nylon or nitrocellulose membrane and poly vinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane and subsequent fragment detection by probe hybridization. (pharmanewswire.com)
  • It is a variant of the northern blot in which the nucleic acid immobilized on a membrane is a collection of isolated DNA fragments rather than RNA, and the probe is RNA extracted from a tissue and radioactively labelled. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to prepare the reverse northern membrane, cDNA sequences for transcripts of interest are immobilized on nylon membranes, which can be accomplished by use of dot blots or bidirectional agarose gel blotting and UV fixation of the DNA to the membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, radiolabeled probes may be detected using X-ray film or a phosphorimaging instrument, and enzymatically labeled probes are typicallly detected by incubating with a chemiluminescent substrate and exposing the blot to X-ray film. (thermofisher.com)
  • To compare the efficiency of hybridization methods for the detection of HPV genome, 22 cases of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix were analyzed by Southern blot analysis and in situ hybridization carried out with 35S- and biotin-labeled probes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Results showed that in situ hybridization performed with isotopic probes is as sensitive as Southern blot analysis and is more sensitive than that performed with biotin-labeled probe. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A total of 41 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains from patients of Vietnamese origin were analyzed by Southern blot hybridization with two different probes, IS6110 (Otal, I., et al. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A novel software pipeline for designing and optimizing Southern blot probes in silico for use against genomic DNA targets is described. (genes2cognition.org)
  • To address our own needs to regularly design Southern blot probes, automating this process, reducing the time needed to do this manually. (genes2cognition.org)
  • To optimize the resultant probes by employing a brute-force search approach to significantly improve the chances of finding the (near) best probe for the loci of interest, the aim being to reduce both the time and expense in the laboratory that results from failed Southern blot assays, and subsequent rounds of probe redesign. (genes2cognition.org)
  • The majority of the probes we tested in Southern blotting performed well confirming our in silico prediction methodology and the general usefulness of the software for automated genomic Southern blot probe design. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Given user-supplied chromosomal coordinates, and a desirable size range for the southern blot probe, we used a tiling approach to generate many possible probes in the specified design window. (genes2cognition.org)
  • We calibrated the method using a set of 8 manually-designed mouse genomic probes (download here) that we have previously successfully employed for Southern blotting. (genes2cognition.org)
  • For example, by using cloned X chromosome-specific probes and Southern blot, Wolf & Migeon (1982) studied methylation along 28 kb of human X chromosome DNA. (hag-berg.se)
  • And they utilize different types of "probes" to do so - antibodies for western blots, and little pieces of sequence-complementing DNA for the others. (thebumblingbiochemist.com)
  • Learn how to maximize your Northern blot sensitivity and to make stripable probes for Northern blotting. (proz.com)
  • Prepared reverse northern blot membranes are pre-hybridized in Denhardt's solution with SSC buffer and labeled cDNA probes are denatured at 100 °C and added to the pre-hybridization solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • In comparison to the Northern blot, the reverse northern blot is able to probe a large number of transcripts at once with less specificity with regard to probes than is required for Northern blot. (wikipedia.org)
  • Northern blot is limited by its ability to only probe with one mRNA at a time, while q-PCR requires transcripts to be long enough to generate primers for the sequence and probes can be costly. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA microarrays operate by similar procedures to those used in the reverse northern blot, consisting of many DNA probes hybridized to a solid glass, plastic or silicon substrate which is probed with labeled RNA or cDNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Southern blotting A chromatographic technique for isolating and identifying specific fragments of DNA, such as the fragments formed as a result of DNA cleavage by restriction enzymes . (encyclopedia.com)
  • A similar technique for detecting RNA fragments is called Northern blotting , by analogy. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A gel containing the denatured DNA fragments is placed between blotting paper and a cellulose nitrate filter is saturated with a buffer. (encyclopedia.com)
  • During hybridization, the labeled probe is incubated with the DNA fragments that are immobilized on the blot under conditions that promote hybridization of complementary sequences. (thermofisher.com)
  • If some of the DNA fragments are larger than 15 kb , then prior to blotting, the gel may be treated with an acid, such as dilute HCl . (wikipedia.org)
  • To corroborate the position of inserts in the restriction fragments, Southern blot hybridization was fulfilled using pMC505 as probe (data not shown). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Southern blot method may also be used to determine the molecular weight of restriction fragments and to measure relative amounts of DNA in different samples. (pall.com)
  • One of the challenges faced while identifying RNA or DNA fragments in samples through Northern and Southern blot analysis, is the relative abundance of RNA and DNA in the sample. (pall.com)
  • Southern blotting requires an additional step because of the need to take purified DNA and partially digest it into smaller, different sized, double-stranded fragments with restriction enzymes (endonucleases) that cut the DNA at specific spots. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • In 1975, Edward Southern published details of a new method for detecting DNA fragments based upon their specific sequence [corrected]. (mysciencework.com)
  • Le Southern blot est une technique mise au point par Edward M. Southern en 1975 pour rechercher des fragments de DNA sur une électrophorèse en les hybridant avec une sonde complémentaire. (hag-berg.se)
  • synonyms: Southern analysis, Southern blot analysis, Southern blotting, Southern blotting analysis) Molecular genetic testing technique used to detect differences in the lengths of DNA fragments following restriction enzyme digestion (commonly known as RFLPs: restriction fragment length polymorphisms). (metaglossary.com)
  • typically through transferring (blotting) RNA fragments from an agarose gel to a nitrocellulose filter followed by detection with a suitable probe. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Blotting techniques are a widely used method for the specific identification of desired nucleic acid (DNA and RNA fragments) and proteins from the numerous molecules. (biodifferences.com)
  • Southern blotting was introduced by Edwin Southern in 1975 as a method to detect specific sequences of DNA in DNA samples. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The method is named after the British biologist Edwin Southern , who first published it in 1975. (wikipedia.org)
  • The technique was developed by E.M. Southern in 1975. (powershow.com)
  • Southern blotting was originally introduced by Edwin Southern in 1975. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • This technique is named after the Edwin Southern (1975) who developed it. (sciencesamhita.com)
  • Southern blotting is the first detection technique which is used to identify the specific DNA sequences in the provided tissue or blood sample and is named after the scientist who developed it, 'Ed Southern in the year 1975. (biodifferences.com)
  • Edward M. Southern in 1975. (biodifferences.com)
  • Since its development nearly 40 years ago by E. M. Southern, the Southern blot remains a standard molecular biology technique for determining the arrangement of DNA sequences within a vector or genome ( Southern, 1975 ). (ucpress.edu)
  • A Southern blot is a method used in molecular biology for detection of a specific DNA sequence in DNA samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • Southern blot hybridization was performed using DIG High Prime DNA Labeling and Detection Kit 2 (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, CA, USA). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • DNA Extraction, PCR Detection, and Southern Blot Analysis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Northern blot transfers are used for the detection of specific RNA sequences among a mixture of diverse RNA. (pall.com)
  • Southern blotting is a molecular biology technique used for the detection of a specific DNA sequence in large, complex samples of DNA. (pall.com)
  • The detection was done due to a new developed non-radioactive Southern blotting with a Digoxigenin marked template. (hu-berlin.de)
  • However, RNA detection by Northern blot requires different considerations and a pretreatment step because the end-user is using RNA which is naturally unstable. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • a, Tail genomic DNA of group I and II F0 generation animals digested with Bgl I. b, and c, Ear genomic DNA from group I offspring (F1) digested with Bgl I. The numbers in bold indicate positive detection on the blot. (nih.gov)
  • Comparison of Southern blot analysis with isotopic and nonisotopic in situ hybridization for the detection of human papillomavirus sequences in invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Mutation detection by Southern blotting. (mysciencework.com)
  • Description: Abfrontier WESTSAVE UpTM (Western Blotting Substrate) is enhanced luminol-based chemiluminescent substrate for the non-radioactive detection of Horseradish Peroxidase(HRP) labeled antibodies. (beopenlab.org)
  • Western blotting is a sensitive assay used in the detection of proteins in the given sample, and Stark's group developed it. (biodifferences.com)
  • Usually, the detection of gene amplification is carried out by Southern blot or dot blot hybridization procedures, which require microgram quantities of high quality DNA and several days to obtain the results. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Incubate the blot with labeled probe. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A probe that hybridizes only to a single DNA segment that has not been cut by the restriction enzyme will produce a single band on a Southern blot, whereas multiple bands will likely be observed when the probe hybridizes to several highly similar sequences (e.g., those that may be the result of sequence duplication). (wikipedia.org)
  • And a western blot is the same but with protein (and Antibodies instead of a DNA probe). (biology-online.org)
  • Then do a dot blot of serial dilutions of your DNA (no gel, no blotting) and hybridize with your probe to establish that the probe and DNA hybridize and can be detected. (protocol-online.org)
  • The DNA blot or Southern blot is a molecular biology method to probe the genome for the location of a DNA sequence. (openwetware.org)
  • By computing similarity coefficients between 29 isolates from three cities within the continental United States, strong concordance of the results is demonstrated for RAPD analysis, MLEE, and Southern blot hybridization with the moderately repetitive probe Ca3, and weaker concordance of the results is demonstrated for these three fingerprinting methods and Southern blot hybridization with the moderately repetitive probe CARE2. (asm.org)
  • A procedure using Southern blot analysis to test the ability of a nucleic acid probe from one species to hybridize with the DNA fragment of another species. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • P signifies the hybridization probe for Southern blots. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although Southern and Northern blots illustrate important principles about nucleic acid chemistry and hybridization, they are very difficult to describe in lecture: it is an elaborate process to separate nucleic acid molecules by size, move the nucleic acid from gel to blot, radioactively label a probe, hybridize the probe to a target sequence on the blot, and detect the hybridized probe by exposure of the blot to x-ray film. (ucpress.edu)
  • The transfer of macromolecules such as nucleic acids and proteins to solid-phase membranous support is known as blotting. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • DNA collected from a cell thought to contain the gene, then underwent the Southern blotting procedure. (biology-online.org)
  • RNA, collected from the same source, is subjected to the Northern Blotting procedure. (biology-online.org)
  • Southern blotting was named after Edward M. Southern who developed this procedure at Edinburgh University in the 1970s. (asu.edu)
  • The Southern blot procedure as shown in the image above. (laboratoryinfo.com)
  • One possible procedure for Southern blotting can be found here. (nationaldiagnostics.com)
  • Different blots are used to identify the presence of one specific target molecule (DNA, RNA or protein) in a complex mixture of related molecules. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • DNA and RNA molecules need to undergo biochemistry analysis and they are separated using the blotting method. (laboratoryinfo.com)
  • Blotting is done by enabling the mixture of molecule pass through a gel that separates the molecules based on their molecular size. (laboratoryinfo.com)
  • The reverse northern blot is a method by which gene expression patterns may be analyzed by comparing isolated RNA molecules from a tester sample to samples in a control cDNA library. (wikipedia.org)
  • Southern blots performed with restriction enzyme-digested genomic DNA may be used to determine the number of sequences (e.g., gene copies) in a genome . (wikipedia.org)
  • RNase A (10[micro]g/well) was added to the lysed cells and genomic DNA was isolated from each cell line using the PI-1200 DNA isolator (Kurabo, Osaka, Japan) for Southern blot analysis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The protocols given are for Genomic Southern Blotting, one of the most sensitive Southern techniques. (nationaldiagnostics.com)
  • The equality of genomic DNA used in each sample was confirmed by amplification of the same genomic DNA samples with primers for the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, shown under each lane of the blot, taken at 25, 28, and 31 cycles. (nih.gov)
  • Long, relatively intact pieces of DNA are required for restriction enzyme digestion for Southern blot analysis of human genomic DNA. (asmscience.org)
  • Definition Polycomb regulation DNA methylation Restriction enzymes/southern blot Bisulfite sequencing Genomic imprinting ICR/CTCFPrader-Willi syndrome/Angelman syndrome Genomics Orthologous vs paralogous genes Expression arrays Protein arrays. (coursehero.com)
  • Operationally, this test is identical to Southern blotting except for the target (RNA) and the specific reagents used. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Below, we review some considerations between Southern, Northern and Western blots used to detect DNA, RNA or protein, respectively. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • very large amounts of DNA are required in order to receive a signal on blotting, and is only to detect methylated CpG's that are recognized by the enzymes. (epigeneticstation.com)
  • Western blotting is similar but is used to detect and separate proteins, thereby allowing for the identification of specific antibodies (while Northern blotting detects RNA). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Used to detect the presence of specific genes among different species or strains of a single species (referred to as Zoo Blotting ). (sciencesamhita.com)
  • It is a blotting method used to detect a particular sequence of DNA in a DNA sample. (laboratoryinfo.com)
  • Southern blotting is a molecular biology technique used to detect specific DNA sequence in DNA samples. (pharmanewswire.com)
  • Membranes have a high binding affinity (209µg/cm2) and are ideal for Western blot confirmatory tests. (pall.com)
  • To determine the stable integration of the OsCTZFP8 gene, Southern blot analyses were performed with transgenic lines. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The RFLPs could then be used within affected families to trace the X chromosome carrying the mutant gene using the Southern blot technology. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For example, Southern Blotting could be used to locate a particular gene within an entire genome. (asu.edu)
  • Shortly after southern blotting was developed, the premise of this analytical technique was applied to the measurement of the size and amount of RNA transcripts from a gene of interest which is known as Northern Blotting. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • Southern and Northern blots and reverse-transcription PCR analyses indicate that the same rhodopsin gene is expressed in the retina and the brain but not in the pineal organ of ayu. (bioone.org)
  • SBA for BCL detects changes that occur in a gene's germline structure during Ig gene rearrangement, which delete or create restriction endonuclease sites and lead to changes in the bands on the Southern blot. (alpfmedical.info)
  • Specifically, blotting is used for identifying biomolecules like DNA, mRNA, and protein during gene expression. (laboratoryinfo.com)
  • There is numerous application of the Southern Blotting like it is used in gene analysis, genetic disease, infectious agent, mutation, RFLP, identification of any specific gene, and also in victim identification, DNA fingerprinting, criminal and rapist identification, paternity testing. (biodifferences.com)
  • Gene-targeted fibroblast cell clones were screened by junction PCR amplification and Southern blot analysis. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • MYCN amplification was identified by this differential PCR in all 10 samples carrying more than 10 copies (already known to have MYCN gene amplification by Southern blot analysis). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Reverse Northern blot, much like the northern blot upon which it is based, is used to determine levels of gene expression in particular tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reverse northern blotting was used in a 2013 study in Gene in which the author identified a number of genes responsible for early cold-resistance response in the cold-hardy citrus fruit Poncirus trifoliata. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other blotting techniques emerged from this method have been termed as Northern (for RNA), Western (for proteins), Eastern (for post-translational protein modifications) and Southwestern (for DNA-protein interactions) blotting. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • [1] Other blotting methods (i.e., western blot , [2] northern blot , eastern blot , southwestern blot ) that employ similar principles, but using RNA or protein, have later been named in reference to Edwin Southern's name. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "Southwestern blotting" is a word‐wit: it combines the names of two widely used molecular biology techniques, Southern blotting and Western blotting (or immunoblotting). (hag-berg.se)
  • PMID 1195397 This caused other blot methods to be named similarly as plays on Southern's name (for example, Western blot, Northern blot, Southwestern blot). (metaglossary.com)
  • The final step in the blot is to radioactively "tag" the complementary DNA (Southern blot, after Dr E. Southern), RNA (Northern blot), protein (Western blot), DNA-protein hybridisation (Southwestern blot), and RNA-protein hybridisation (Northwestern blot). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Southern blot analysis of transgenic pigs. (nih.gov)
  • See also Western blotting . (encyclopedia.com)
  • National Diagnostics announces the release of a new, ultra-high sensitivity reagent for HRP mediated Western Blotting. (nationaldiagnostics.com)
  • As a side note, Southern is the name of the scientist who invented the technique of the DNA/DNA blotting, but Northern and western were named like this just for the joke. (biology-online.org)
  • What are the differences between Northern Southern and Western Blotting? (enzolifesciences.com)
  • An indication of the importance of his work is that the technique was eponymously named after him and that subsequent methods based loosely on similar principles were named using a play on his surname (western and northern blot). (mysciencework.com)
  • Transplastomic lines were screened and characterized by Southern/Northern/Western blot analysis for the confirmation of transgene integration and respective expression level. (wiley.com)
  • The Northern, Southern, or Western blot analyses. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • See also Northern blot test , Southern blot test , Western blot test . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To analyze DNA damage response, MEFs were treated with 1 μmol/L doxorubicin (Sigma), and cell lysates were collected for Western blotting. (aacrjournals.org)
  • But no one gave me a guide for blotting directions - you might have heard of the western blot (I covered it last week). (thebumblingbiochemist.com)
  • For western blots, you're looking for specific proteins, Southern blots look for specific DNA, and northern blots look for specific RNA. (thebumblingbiochemist.com)
  • In last week's Bri*fing, we looked at the western blot. (thebumblingbiochemist.com)
  • The western blot is a way to test for the presence of specific proteins and it's named after the Southern blot which tests for specific pieces of DNA - and the "Southern" name comes from the name of the scientist who invented the technique, Edwin Southern. (thebumblingbiochemist.com)
  • The western blot isn't the only technique to hop onto the direction name train - there's a 3rd main type of blot called the northern blot and, as someone who studies small RNAs, I come across it in papers a lot. (thebumblingbiochemist.com)
  • There are other subtypes such as Northern blotting, Western blotting, South-Western blotting, and Eastern blotting . (laboratoryinfo.com)
  • Therefore, these types of blotting like Southern, Northern and Western are the subtypes of blotting and rely on the target molecule that is being separated. (biodifferences.com)
  • Besides Southern and Northern blot hybridization, there is also Western, as well as dot blot hybridization. (proz.com)
  • 20X SSC ( 93017 ) may be used in place of SSPE in similar blotting protocols. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This set of protocols will give superior results in any standard Southern application. (nationaldiagnostics.com)
  • Sigma's PerfectHyb Plus is a ready-to-use hybridization buffer for Northern and Southern blot protocols. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • After extraction, Southern and Northern blot protocols begin to differ. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • Students could benefit from demonstrations or a chance to perform a blot themselves, but either approach would be time-consuming (at least 2 days), technically difficult, and expensive, even though protocols have been highly standardized in more recent years ( Sambrook & Russell, 2001 ). (ucpress.edu)
  • Differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains by use of a nonradioactive Southern blot hybridization method. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This study evaluated a new non-radioactive Southern blotting hybridization method for prenatal diagnosis of this disease. (proz.com)
  • Because ULTRAhyb buffer maximizes blot sensitivity, for many targets hybridization can typically be performed in just 2 hours. (thermofisher.com)
  • If we're talking eukaryotic cells, then the answer might simply be that the RNA in the Northern blot was mRNA and had introns excised, therefore making it different in sequence than the DNA from whence it was transcribed. (biology-online.org)
  • Southern blotting is named after Sir E. M. Southern, a British biologist who developed this technique. (hag-berg.se)
  • The method is named after its inventor, the British biologist Edwin Southern. (hag-berg.se)
  • SB) describes the technique first developed by the Scottish molecular biologist Edward M. Southern which now bears his name. (metaglossary.com)
  • Set up capillary stack as for Northern Blotting (see protocol ) using 10X SSC buffer . (nationaldiagnostics.com)
  • This protocol describes a basic method to perform the Southern blot. (hag-berg.se)
  • Different blotting techniques are used to identify unique proteins and nucleic acid sequences. (hag-berg.se)
  • A reverse northern blot can be used to profile expression levels of particular sets of RNA sequences in a tissue or to determine presence of a particular RNA sequence in a sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • endobj endobj stream Fill the glass dish with 20X SSC blotting buffer. (hag-berg.se)
  • It then presents a labeled drawing of a blotting apparatus, showing, from bottom to top, a buffer reservoir, filter paper that acts as a wick, the agarose gel, nucleic acid binding filter, and a dry set of paper towels to draw the moisture upwards. (ucpress.edu)
  • This video shows us in plain English what the process and applications of the Southern Blotting technique are. (dnatube.com)
  • The northern blot is a technique used to test for pieces of RNA that contain a specific sequence, utilizing the 1:1 base-pairing specificity of nucleotides (DNA & RNA letters). (thebumblingbiochemist.com)
  • A blot analysis technique for analyzing a small portion of RNA. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This is the first nucleic acid blotting technique. (biodifferences.com)
  • Factors contributing to the growth of Europe southern blotting market includes, increasing usage of southern blotting technique in the field of genetics, and growing demand for advancements and innovation in drug discovery and development. (pharmanewswire.com)
  • The Report entitled Global Southern Blotting Instrument Market 2017 analyses the important factors of the Southern Blotting Instrument market based on present industry situations, market demands, business strategies utilized by Southern Blotting Instrument market players and their growth synopsis. (newzy.net)
  • But did you know there's also a Southern blot (which came first), a northern blot, and eastern blot, and some more copy-cats? (thebumblingbiochemist.com)
  • In addition, increasing use southern blotting procedures in medical diagnostics, application in forensic science, are the key factors responsible for driving global southern blotting market. (pharmanewswire.com)
  • The researchers compared the characteristics of seven GFP-modified strains to an unmodified "parent" isolate, and they confirmed the presence of the protein by using a molecular test method called " Southern blot analysis" and by direct observation with a confocal laser scanning microscope. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This method utilized methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes to digest DNA, cleaving at specific sites, which have been altered by DNA methylation, followed by Southern blot analysis of the DNA products. (epigeneticstation.com)
  • Southern blotting is the best method for screening ES cells for homologous recombinants and later for genotyping mice carrying the mutated genes. (hag-berg.se)
  • The first and second step of southern blot method. (laboratoryinfo.com)
  • These are transferred, or `blotted', onto a nitrocellulose filter where they are immobilized in their relative positions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The first step in Southern blotting involves complete digestion of the DNA to be analysed with a restriction enzyme. (pall.com)
  • Southern blotting is designed to locate a particular sequence of DNA within a complex mixture. (asu.edu)
  • A visualization of the Southern/Northern blotting process for use in the classroom. (ucpress.edu)
  • To date, molecular diagnoses for FSHD are generated using outdated Southern Blot techniques, which are imprecise, labor intensive and involve radioactive labeling methods which are being phased out of laboratory use. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Initially, the Southern Blotting Instrument manufacturing analysis of the major industry players based on their company profiles, annual revenue, sales margin, growth aspects are also covered in this report, which will help other Southern Blotting Instrument market players in driving business insights. (newzy.net)
  • Southern blot analysis reveals information about DNA identity, size, and abundance. (thermofisher.com)
  • Southern analysis suggested this was due to loss of the genes for the death receptors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These tumors were investigated for expression of EBV latent genes with Southern blots, EBV latent antigens, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), Akt, p70 S6 kinase, and vascular endothelial growth factor using immunohistochemistry, as well as methylation status of cancer-related genes using methylation-specific PCR. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although DNA Microarrays and newer next-generation techniques have generally supplanted reverse northern blotting, it is still utilized today and provides a relatively cheap and easy means of defining expression of large sets of genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The key details related to Southern Blotting Instrument industry like the product definition, cost, variety of applications, demand and supply statistics are covered in this report. (newzy.net)
  • We offer a wide selection of high-quality restriction enzymes so that you can restriction digest your DNA to help provide clear, unambiguous Southern blot data. (thermofisher.com)
  • Northern and Southern blotting are standard molecular biology techniques for identification and quantification of RNA and DNA respectively. (pall.com)
  • All blotting techniques share a similar workflow. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • Designed expressly for gel and blotting techniques. (labwrench.com)
  • We have applied techniques such as Southern blot analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to resolve the phenotype/genotype discrepancy in a patient with ambiguous genitalia in whom the peripheral blood karyotype was 45,X. Gonadectomy at age 7 months showed the gonadal tissue to be prepubertal testis on the left side and a streak gonad on the right. (elsevier.com)
  • While northern blot or q-PCR are often used to confirm results, both techniques have drawbacks. (wikipedia.org)
  • After extraction for Northern blotting, already single-stranded RNA needs to be pretreated with formaldehyde or a denaturing solution with glyoxal to prevent the formation of base-paired secondary structures. (enzolifesciences.com)
  • 0000070941 00000 n Southern blotting methods can enable the investigation of DNA modifications in a sequence context-dependent manner. (hag-berg.se)
  • You may use a vacuum blot apparatus instead of capillary action. (asu.edu)
  • Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary , Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/Southern%20blot. (merriam-webster.com)
  • The blot is usually done on a sheet of nitrocellulose paper or nylon. (powershow.com)
  • Duck hepatitis B virus DNA in liver, spleen, and pancreas: analysis by in situ and Southern blot hybridization. (nih.gov)
  • Tissues from a 10-week-old Pekin duck, experimentally infected at 1 day of age with duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), were examined for the presence of replicative levels of DHBV DNA by in situ and Southern blot hybridization. (nih.gov)