Formaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Western Australia: A state in western Australia. Its capital is Perth. It was first visited by the Dutch in 1616 but the English took possession in 1791 and permanent colonization began in 1829. It was a penal settlement 1850-1888, became part of the colonial government in 1886, and was granted self government in 1890. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1329)Microwaves: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.Aquabirnavirus: A genus of RNA viruses in the family BIRNAVIRIDAE infecting fish, mollusks, and crustaceans. It is transmitted both vertically and horizontally with no known vectors. The natural hosts are salmonids and the type species is INFECTIOUS PANCREATIC NECROSIS VIRUS.WashingtonAustralia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Equilibrative Nucleoside Transport Proteins: A class of sodium-independent nucleoside transporters that mediate the facilitative transport of NUCLEOSIDES.Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1: A subtype of equilibrative nucleoside transporter proteins that is sensitive to inhibition by 4-nitrobenzylthioinosine.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Bacteriophage IKe: A species of filamentous phage in the genus INOVIRUS, family INOVIRIDAE. They are specific for enterobacteria that contain an IncN plasmid.Equilibrative-Nucleoside Transporter 2: A subtype of equilibrative nucleoside transporter proteins that is insensitive to inhibition by 4-nitrobenzylthioinosine.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Collodion: A nitrocellulose solution in ether and alcohol. Collodion has a wide range of uses in industry including applications in the manufacture of photographic film, in fibers, in lacquers, and in engraving and lithography. In medicine it is used as a drug solvent and a wound sealant.Manuscripts, MedicalAmino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Dictionaries, ChemicalArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Library Technical Services: Acquisition, organization, and preparation of library materials for use, including selection, weeding, cataloging, classification, and preservation.RNA Polymerase I: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 126.96.36.199.Thiamin-Triphosphatase: An enzyme present in nerve tissue. It catalyzes reversibly the formation of thiamine diphosphate and orthophosphate from thiamine triphosphate. EC 188.8.131.52.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Formamides: A group of amides with the general formula of R-CONH2.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Pro-Opiomelanocortin: A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter: A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sodium-Bicarbonate Symporters: Proteins that cotransport sodium ions and bicarbonate ions across cellular membranes.Dentate Gyrus: GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A 55-kilodalton immunodominant antigen of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 has arisen via horizontal gene transfer. (1/18383)A 55-kDa outer membrane protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 is a significant target of the serum immunoglobulin G antibody response of periodontal disease patients and hence may play an important role in host-bacterium interactions in periodontal disease. The gene encoding the 55-kDa antigen (ragB, for receptor antigen B) was isolated on a 9.5-kb partial Sau3AI fragment of P. gingivalis W50 chromosomal DNA in pUC18 by immunoscreening with a monoclonal antibody to this antigen. The 1.6-kb open reading frame (ORF) encoding RagB was located via subcloning and nested-deletion analysis. Sequence analysis demonstrated the presence of an upstream 3.1-kb ORF (ragA) which is cotranscribed with ragB. A number of genetic characteristics suggest that the ragAB locus was acquired by a horizontal gene transfer event. These include a significantly reduced G+C content relative to that of the P. gingivalis chromosome (42 versus 48%) and the presence of mobility elements flanking this locus in P. gingivalis W50. Furthermore, Southern blotting and PCR analyses showed a restricted distribution of this locus in laboratory and clinical isolates of this bacterium. The association of ragAB+ P. gingivalis with clinical status was examined by PCR analysis of subgingival samples. ragAB+ was not detected in P. gingivalis-positive shallow pockets from periodontal disease patients but was present in 36% of the P. gingivalis-positive samples from deep pockets. These data suggest that the ragAB locus was acquired by certain P. gingivalis strains via horizontal gene transfer and that the acquisition of this locus may facilitate the survival of these strains at sites of periodontal destruction. (+info)
Tissue specific expression and chromosomal mapping of a human UDP-N-acetylglucosamine: alpha1,3-d-mannoside beta1, 4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. (2/18383)A human cDNA for UDP- N -acetylglucosamine:alpha1,3-d-mannoside beta1,4- N- acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GnT-IV) was isolated from a liver cDNA library using a probe based on a partial cDNA sequence of the bovine GnT-IV. The cDNA encoded a complete sequence of a type II membrane protein of 535 amino acids which is 96% identical to the bovine GnT-IV. Transient expression of the human cDNA in COS7 cells increased total cellular GnT-IV activity 25-fold, demonstrating that this cDNA encodes a functional human GnT-IV. Northern blot analysis of normal tissues indicated that at least five different sizes of mRNA (9.7, 7.6, 5.1, 3.8, and 2.4 kb) forGnT-IV are expressed in vivo. Furthermore, these mRNAs are expressed at different levels between tissues. Large amounts of mRNA were detected in tissues harboring T lineage cells. Also, the promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60 and the lymphoblastic leukemia cell line MOLT-4 revealed abundant mRNA. Lastly, the gene was mapped at the locus on human chromosome 2, band q12 by fluorescent in situ hybridization. (+info)
Mechanisms related to [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose uptake of human colon cancers transplanted in nude mice. (3/18383)[18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG), a glucose analogue, has been widely used for tumor imaging. To investigate the mechanisms related to [18F]FDG uptake by tumors, an experiment involving nude mice was performed. METHODS: Human colon cancer cell lines SNU-C2A, SNU-C4 and SNU-C5 were transplanted to nude mice. Using immunohistochemical staining and Western blot, the expression of glucose transporter (Glut) isoforms (Glut-1 through -5) in xenografted tumors was analyzed. For the analysis of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Northern blot were used and the enzyme activity of hexokinase in cancer tissues was measured by continuous spectrophotometric rate determination. RESULTS: [18F]FDG uptake in SNU-C4 and SNU-C5 cells was higher than in normal colon cells. Among these cells and xenografted tumors, SNU-C5 showed the highest level of [18F]FDG uptake, followed by SNU-C4 and SNU-C2A. An immunostaining experiment showed intense staining of Glut-1 in SNU-C5 tumors but somewhat faint staining in SNU-C4. SNU-C5 tumors also showed positive staining with Glut-3, although this was not the case with SNU-C2A and SNU-C4. Western blot analysis showed the expression of Glut-1 and Glut-3 in all tumors. Experiments involving Northern blot analysis and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed the overexpression of Glut-1 mRNA in all tumors, with the highest level in SNU-C5. The level of Glut-3 mRNA was also elevated in SNU-C5 tumors but not in SNU-C2A and SNU-C4. The enzyme activity of hexokinase did not vary among different tumors. CONCLUSION: Gluts, especially Glut-1, are responsible for [18F]FDG uptake in a nude mouse model of colon cancer rather than hexokinase activity. Increased numbers of glucose transporters at the plasma membrane of cancer cells is attributed to an increased level of transcripts of glucose transporter genes and may be a cause of increased [18F]FDG uptake, at least in colon cancer tumors. (+info)
Cloning of the peroxiredoxin gene family in rats and characterization of the fourth member. (4/18383)Peroxiredoxin (PRx) exhibits thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase activity and constitutes a family of proteins. Four members of genes from rat tissues were isolated by PCR using degenerated primers based on the sequences which encode a pair of highly conserved Cys-containing domains, and were then cloned to full-length cDNAs. These included two genes which have previously been isolated in rats, PRx I and PRx II, and two rat homologues of PRx III and PRx IV. We showed, for the first time, the simultaneous expression of all four genes in various rat tissues by Northern blotting. Since a discrepancy exists regarding cellular distribution, we further characterized PRx IV by expressing it in COS-1 cells. This clearly demonstrates that PRx IV is a secretory form and functions within the extracellular space. (+info)
Cloning of a bovine orphan transporter and its short splicing variant. (5/18383)We have isolated a cDNA (bv7-3) encoding a member of the Na+,Cl(-)-dependent transporter family and its short splicing variant (bv7-3s) by screening a bovine retina cDNA library. Sequence analysis revealed that bv7-3 encodes a protein of 729 amino acids and is a bovine homologue of the rat orphan transporter v7-3-2. bv7-3s contains 265 amino acids, sharing 252 N-terminal amino acids with bv7-3. Both mRNAs for bv7-3 and bv7-3s were detected in nervous system by Northern blot analysis. In immunofluorescence analysis in transfected HEK 293T cells, myc-tagged bv7-3 was mainly detected on the plasma membrane, whereas myc-tagged bv7-3s showed a pattern of intracellular membrane staining. (+info)
The latrophilin family: multiply spliced G protein-coupled receptors with differential tissue distribution. (6/18383)Latrophilin is a brain-specific Ca2+-independent receptor of alpha-latrotoxin, a potent presynaptic neurotoxin. We now report the finding of two novel latrophilin homologues. All three latrophilins are unusual G protein-coupled receptors. They exhibit strong similarities within their lectin, olfactomedin and transmembrane domains but possess variable C-termini. Latrophilins have up to seven sites of alternative splicing; some splice variants contain an altered third cytoplasmic loop or a truncated cytoplasmic tail. Only latrophilin-1 binds alpha-latrotoxin; it is abundant in brain and is present in endocrine cells. Latrophilin-3 is also brain-specific, whereas latrophilin-2 is ubiquitous. Together, latrophilins form a novel family of heterogeneous G protein-coupled receptors with distinct tissue distribution and functions. (+info)
Glutathione-independent prostaglandin D2 synthase in ram and stallion epididymal fluids: origin and regulation. (7/18383)Microsequencing after two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed a major protein, glutathione-independent prostaglandin D2 synthase (PGDS) in the anterior epididymal region fluid of the ram and stallion. In this epididymal region, PGDS was a polymorphic compound with a molecular mass around 30 kDa and a range of pI from 4 to 7. PGDS represented 15% and 8% of the total luminal proteins present in this region in the ram and stallion, respectively. The secretion of the protein as judged by in vitro biosynthesis, and the presence of its mRNA as studied by Northern blot analysis, were limited to the proximal caput epididymidis. Using a specific polyclonal antibody raised against a synthetic peptide, PGDS was found throughout the epididymis, decreasing in concentration toward the cauda region. PGDS was also detected in the testicular fluid and seminal plasma by Western blotting. Castration and efferent duct ligation in the ram led to a decrease in PGDS mRNA and secretion. PGDS mRNA was not detected in the stallion 1 mo after castration, and it was restored by testosterone supplementation. This study showed that PGDS is present in the environment of spermatozoa throughout the male genital tract. Its function in the maturation and/or protection of spermatozoa is unknown. (+info)
Down-regulation of oxytocin-induced cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin F synthase expression by interferon-tau in bovine endometrial cells. (8/18383)Oxytocin (OT) is responsible for the episodic release of luteolytic prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha from the uterus in ruminants. The attenuation of OT-stimulated uterine PGF2alpha secretion by interferon-tau (IFN-tau) is essential for prevention of luteolysis during pregnancy in cows. To better understand the mechanisms involved, the effect of recombinant bovine IFN-tau (rbIFN-tau) on OT-induced PG production and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and PGF synthase (PGFS) expression in cultured endometrial epithelial cells was investigated. Cells were obtained from cows at Days 1-3 of the estrous cycle and cultured to confluence in RPMI medium supplemented with 5% steroid-free fetal calf serum. The cells were then incubated in the presence or absence of either 100 ng/ml OT or OT+100 ng/ml rbIFN-tau for 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. OT significantly increased PGF2alpha and PGE2 secretion at all time points (p < 0.01), while rbIFN-tau inhibited the OT-induced PG production and reduced OT receptor binding in a time-dependent manner. OT increased the steady-state level of COX-2 mRNA, measured by Northern blot, which was maximal at 3 h (9-fold increase) and then decreased with time (p < 0.01). OT also caused an increase in COX-2 protein, which peaked at 12 h (11-fold increase), as measured by Western blot. Addition of rbIFN-tau suppressed the induction of COX-2 mRNA (89%, p < 0.01) and COX-2 protein (50%, p < 0.01) by OT. OT also increased PGFS mRNA, and this stimulation was attenuated by rbIFN-tau (p < 0.01). To ensure that the decrease in COX-2 was not solely due to down-regulation of the OT receptor, cells were stimulated with a phorbol ester (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate; PMA) in the presence and absence of rbIFN-tau. The results showed that rbIFN-tau also decreased PMA-stimulated PG production and COX-2 protein. It can be concluded that rbIFN-tau inhibition of OT-stimulated PG production is due to down-regulation of OT receptor, COX-2, and PGFS. (+info)
Reverse northern blot
... , much like the northern blot upon which it is based, is used to determine levels of gene expression in ... While northern blot or q-PCR are often used to confirm results, both techniques have drawbacks. Northern blot is limited by its ... In comparison to the Northern blot, the reverse northern blot is able to probe a large number of transcripts at once with less ... Gene expression Northern Blot Southern Blot Differential display DNA Microarray qPCR RNA Seq Primrose, Sandy B.; Twyman, ...
Patricia Thomas, developer of the RNA blot which then became known as the northern blot, actually didn't use the term. Named ... The terms northern, western and eastern blotting are derived from what initially was a molecular biology joke that played on ... CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) subscription required He, Shan L. (1 January 2013). "Northern blot". Methods in ... The eastern blotting technique is used to detect post-translational modification of proteins. Proteins blotted on to the PVDF ...
Nature Genetics 40(8), 1004 "Northern Blotting". www.lifetechnologies.com. Retrieved 2016-11-26. Wang, X., Seed, B. (2003). A ... researchers have used different techniques such as the Northern Blot technique and Real-Time PCR. From these studies, it was ...
Northern blot analysis detected 3 transcripts; a 1-kb transcript was predominant in heart, and a 3-kb transcript was ...
Using Northern Blot Analysis, Vitelli et al. (1996) found that RAB7a was expressed as 1.7- and 2.5-kb transcripts in all cell ...
Aggregatibacter iron-regulated sRNA
The transcription of sRNAs was confirmed by Northern blot. Fur binding was demonstrated to each sRNA promoter, and that ...
Hfq binding sRNA
12 of them were confirmed by Northern blot. DicF RNA DsrA RNA FnrS RNA GadY RNA GcvB RNA IsrJ RNA MicA RNA / SraD RNA MicC RNA ...
Northern blot analysis also indicated this RNA undergoes specific cleavage processing. The GlmZ sRNA has been shown to ... The expression of SraJ was experimentally confirmed by Northern blotting. This ncRNA is expressed in early logarithmic phase, ...
Nuclease protection assay
Northern blotting is a laboratory technique that produces similar information. It is slower and less quantitative, but also ...
Expression of 11 of them was confirmed by Northern blot. The sRNAs were shown to be only present in Streptomyces species. sRNA ...
The stability and abundance of the shorter 3' transcript is confirmed in both Northern blotting and deep sequencing analysis. ... The expression of SraH was experimentally confirmed by Northern blotting. Its expression is highly abundant in stationary ...
Teg49 small RNA
It was identified by RNA-seq and confirmed by Northern blot. It is modulated by sigB (sarA regulator) and cshA (an ATP- ...
Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction
Northern blot analysis is used to study the RNA's gene expression further. RT-PCR can also be very useful in the insertion of ... Streit S, Michalski CW, Erkan M, Kleeff J, Friess H (2009). "Northern blot analysis for detection and quantification of RNA in ... Compared to other RNA quantification methods, such as northern blot, qRT-PCR is considered to be the most powerful, sensitive, ... northern blot had been used extensively for RNA quantification despite its shortcomings: (a) time-consuming technique, (b) ...
The expression of novel ncRNA of interest was confirmed by northern blotting. In this large scale screen these ncRNAs were ...
From this study multiple mRNA transcripts were detected by northern blot analysis. This finding suggests that netrin receptors ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis sRNA
The sRNAs were characterised through RACE mapping and Northern blot experiments. Secondary structures of the sRNAs were ...
However, northern blot analysis of this 477bp sequence yielded no results. A subsequent tiling array analysis sequencing Hfq- ...
Small nucleolar RNA SNORD45
U45 was originally cloned from HeLa cells and expression verified by northern blotting. It is related to the snoRNA (MBII-401) ...
Small nucleolar RNA SNORD44
U44 was originally cloned from HeLa cells and expression verified by northern blotting. It is predicted to guide 2'O-ribose ...
Northern blot assay showed markedly elevated levels of Tα1 mRNA expression; T26 mRNA expression increased minimally with ... Northern blotting studies have shown that the gene expression is predominantly found in morphologically differentiated ... by way of Northern blot. Miller et al. further elaborated on the role of α-tubulins and the process of neuronal development and ...
Small nucleolar RNA SNORD47
This snoRNA was originally cloned from HeLa cells and expression verified by northern blotting. It is predicted to guide 2'O- ...
First, a northern blot can be used to isolate a set of RNA sequences. Second and third, they can be analyzed by standard Gene ...
Small nucleolar RNA SNORD48
This snoRNA was originally cloned from HeLa cells and experimentally verified by northern blotting. SNORD48 is predicted to ...
Northern blot experiments show that RsaOG is expressed in several S. aureus strains. Mapping of RsaOG ends indicates a size of ...
Type three secretion system
This can be assayed in several ways, notably northern blot and RT-PCR. The expression levels of the entire genome can be ...
Revolutions of 1848
In the years 1845 and 1846, a potato blight caused a subsistence crisis in Northern Europe, and encouraged the raiding of ... bl&ots=4Bczosb0gp&sig=R_4Amj24YQgcOY2DjwIbHi9Ln1A&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiE_vqWjenKAhVEZA8KHX9SBnMQ6AEIKDAC#v=onepage&q=luddites ...
A Northern Blot is a method by which RNA is identified. After being subject to electrophoresis (usually gel electrophoresis) and being transferred to a ...
Looking for online definition of Northern blot analysis in the Medical Dictionary? Northern blot analysis explanation free. What is Northern blot analysis? Meaning of Northern blot analysis medical term. What does Northern blot analysis mean?
Northern blot analysis of B. subtilis 168 mtnVWXYZ region. A total of 3 μg of RNA was used. A. Northern hybridization with mtnV gene specific probe. RNA corres
Custom Services: If you are interested in Northern blot constructed with any mouse RNA tissue of any strain or required blots to be specifically prepared to meet your application, our custom service scientists can make it for you. C For more information, contact technical support at [email protected] or at 858 546 0720.lick here for more information or contact our technical service representative at [email protected] or at 858 546 0720. ...
Northern assays require RNA (total- or poly(A)- selected) to be resolved on a agarose gel under denaturing conditions, transferred to a membrane and immobilized for subsequent hybridization. Various inconsistencies in the procedure, particularly the transfer set-up, can greatly effect the assays outcome. Here, we describe several technical points which can make any Northern analysis a success.
Molecular Cloning, also known as Maniatis, has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential.
www.MOLUNA.de Differential Display Methods and Protocols  - Part I. MethodologiesnGlobal Analysis of Gene Expression by Differential Display: A Mathematical ModelnShitao Yang and Peng LiangnAutomation of Fluorescent Differential Display With Digital ReadoutnJonathan D. Meade, Yong-jig Cho, Jeffrey S. Fisher, Jamie C. Walden, Zhen Guo, and Peng LiangnOrdered Differential DisplaynMikhail V. Matz and Ella A. MeleshkevitchnGeneCalling®: Transcript Profiling Coupled
Northern and Southern blot analysis. (A) Northern blot analysis of poly(A)+RNA isolated from the ears of Lewis, Brown Norway, Hooded Lister, Dark Agouti, and S
Chromatin measurements reveal contributions of synthesis and decay to steady‐state mRNA levels | Molecular Systems Biology
In our study, we tried to quantify the relative contribution of transcriptional and post‐transcriptional regulation to mRNA levels. We show that tri‐methylation of lysine 36 of histone H3, a chromatin modification that is set co‐transcriptionally, provides a quantitative measure of the process of RNA synthesis. We built a linear model that combines H3K36 tri‐methylation with other histone marks and Pol‐II occupancy to predict transcription and to relate it to mRNA levels. This reveals a high correlation between predicted transcription based on chromatin and actual mRNA abundance in both dividing pluripotent cells and terminally differentiated neurons, suggesting that transcription and mRNA levels are tightly linked at different cellular stages. These findings are consistent with two recent studies comparing direct measures of transcription with mRNA abundance (Rabani et al, 2011; Schwanhäusser et al, 2011). Furthermore, we investigated the predictive power of histone marks towards ...
J:60127 Pascolo S, Tsoukatou D, Mamalaki C, Identification of thymus specific and developmentally regulated genes by an improved version of the mRNA differential display technique. Dev Immunol. 1999;7(1):1-7 ...
Zyagen : Rat Tissue Panel Northern Blots - Antibodies Kits, Reagents & Biochemical Tissue Sections RNA Products cDNA Products Genomic DNA Products Tissue Lysates Products Premade Northern Blots Premade Western Blots Recombinant Proteins & Peptides Tissue Microarrays
In the present study, we cloned, sequenced, and generated specific antibodies for immunolocalization, and assayed functional activity of two closely related homologues of Kir4.2 that are expressed in rat hepatocytes. These results extend the recent cloning of a Kir4.2 from whole mouse liver (22). Although Kir4.2 mRNA was not detected on Northern blot analyses of embryonic mouse liver (27), this likely resulted from an inability to detect rare messages such as K+ channels in nonexcitable tissue and/or the tissue developmental stage. Nonconducting human and guinea pig transcripts have also been cloned (6, 25). The overall sequence identity at the amino acid level is 90%. The biophysical properties of Kir4.2 make it a suitable candidate for the functional data accumulated regarding K+ fluxes in the intact liver and isolated hepatocytes. Furthermore, whole cell currents of short-term cultured rat hepatocytes exhibit characteristics of moderately inwardly rectifying K+ channels (12) such as ...
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Development of a method for mRNA differential display in filamentous fungi: comparison of mRNA differential display reverse...
Development of a method for mRNA differential display in filamentous fungi: comparison of mRNA differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism in Leptosphaeria maculans
Definition of differential display in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is differential display? Meaning of differential display as a finance term. What does differential display mean in finance?
I am a novice when it comes to cloning and the like. Can someone suggest a website or a book or a link which provides some insight into how novel proteins/receptors are cloned and characeterized ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modulation of hnRNP A1 protein gene expression by epidermal growth factor in rat-1 cells. AU - Planck, Stephen. AU - Listerud, Mark D.. AU - Buckley, Sharon D.. PY - 1988/12/23. Y1 - 1988/12/23. N2 - The levels of mRNA encoding hnRNP core protein A1 have been compared in quiescent and proliferating Rat-1 embryonic fibroblasts. Northern blot hybridization analyses using probes made from an A1 cDNA clone, λHDP-182, isolated by Cobianchi et al. (J. Biol. Chem. 261:3536-2543 (1986)) indicated that three sizes of poly A+ RNAs, 1.6, 2.0, & 4.0 kb, have extensive sequence homology. The levels of all three A1 RNA species are responsive to the proliferation state of the cells. Stimulation of quiescent Rat-1 cells with serum or epidermal growth factor resulted in a 2- to 5-fold increase in the levels of each of these three RNAs that was evident after 2 hours and reached a peak after about 8 hours. Addition of the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, along with epidermal growth ...
A variation on differential display, restriction‐mediated differential display (RMDD) presents an alternative approach to the fragment display technologies
This book offers practical advice to researchers interested in using the technique of RT-PCR differential display to help them understand the function of individual genes in specific tissues or cells of an organism, either as part of normal development and aging, or in disease processes.
MTC Multiple Tissue cDNA Panels quickly determine the tissue distribution and relative abundance of specific transcripts.Available for Human, Mouse, and Rat
MTC Multiple Tissue cDNA Panels quickly determine the tissue distribution and relative abundance of specific transcripts.Available for Human, Mouse, and Rat
... u.jacobi at ncmls.kun.nl u.jacobi at ncmls.kun.nl Fri Mar 19 12:09:14 EST 2004 *Previous message: Results of a ... Hallo, I am having problems with Northern blots. After the transfer I have quite little RNA on my membrane and quite a lot ...http://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/2004-March/097981.html
Northern Blot / RNA Blot
These techniques being variations of Southern blot were named northern blot, western blot, and eastern blot. Northern blot is ... Edwin Southern is called the Southern blot. This technique was subsequently modified so as to detect other target molecules. ... Therefore it is also called the RNA blot. ... western blot, and eastern blot. Northern blot is used to detect ... Limitations of northern blot. A few limitations of the northern blot technique are discussed below:. *The standard northern ...https://www.news-medical.net/life-sciences/Northern-Blot-RNA-Blot.aspx
stripping Northern blots
... Anton Scott Goustin asg at cmb.biosci.wayne.edu Wed Dec 13 19:12:15 EST 1995 *Previous message: ... I am using Hybond-N+ for Northern blots and have used the Amersham ,,protocol for stripping them (ie pour on boiling 0.5% SDS ... Just leave it there for 2 min, then wash the blot as usual (1X SSC, 0.1% or whatever you use). Check to see that the signal is ... and allow to cool ,,to room temp.). This strips the blots but also seems to strip off the RNA ,,as well. Does anyone have any ...http://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/methods/1995-December/037554.html
Reverse northern blot - Wikipedia
Reverse Northern blot, much like the northern blot upon which it is based, is used to determine levels of gene expression in ... While northern blot or q-PCR are often used to confirm results, both techniques have drawbacks. Northern blot is limited by its ... In comparison to the Northern blot, the reverse northern blot is able to probe a large number of transcripts at once with less ... Gene expression Northern Blot Southern Blot Differential display DNA Microarray qPCR RNA Seq Primrose, Sandy B.; Twyman, ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reverse_northern_blot
Northern Blot (idea) by fhayashi - Everything2.com
A Northern Blot is a method by which RNA is identified. After being subject to electrophoresis (usually gel electrophoresis) ... Northern Blot (idea). See all of Northern Blot, no other writeups in this node. ... A Northern Blot is a method by which RNA is identified. After being subject to electrophoresis (usually gel electrophoresis) ... It is a play on words from Southern Blot, an essentially identical procedure used to detect DNA developed by the English ...https://everything2.com/user/fhayashi/writeups/Northern+Blot
Northern blotting - Vikipeedia, vaba entsüklopeedia
Northern blotting (inglise northern blot, northern blot technique) on meetod RNA osade identifitseerimiseks vastavates ... Pärit leheküljelt "https://et.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Northern_blotting&oldid=3567758" ...https://et.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northern_blotting
Southern and Northern Blotting | China-Mainland | Sigma-Aldrich
Northern Blotting Protocol. The protocol for Northern blotting is similar to that of Southern blotting. However, RNA sequences ... Southern and Northern blotting protocols involve the following major steps:. *Purification of DNA/RNA: Extract and purify the ... The other blotting techniques emerged from this method have been termed as Northern (for RNA), Western (for proteins), Eastern ... Place the blot in a film cassette lined with new saran wrap and carefully wrap the blot ensuring no air bubbles are trapped ...https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/china-mainland/zh/technical-documents/articles/biology/southern-and-northern-blotting.html
Northern blot: post #1
Im doing northern using AMBION kit using the biotin assay I have few problems: 1. How can I save my membrane wet if in the ... Im doing northern using AMBION kit using the biotin assay. I have few problems:. 1. How can I save my membrane wet if in the ... Northern blot - posted in Molecular Biology: Hello, ...http://www.protocol-online.org/forums/topic/13117-northern-blot/
Northern blot | Aspergillus & Aspergillosis Website
Northern blot. Profile and functional analysis of small RNAs derived from Aspergillus fumigatus infected with double-stranded ... Northern blotting was used to validate the presence of vsiRNAs. Briefly, 2 μg of sRNA from virus-free and virus-infected A. ...https://www.aspergillus.org.uk/content/northern-blot
Positive control for Northern Blot - Molecular Biology - BioForum
... my boss ask me to have a good positive control for my northern blot. I did a lot of lecture but I just saw negatif control. So ... Positive control for Northern Blot - posted in Molecular Biology: Hi everyone, ... do you have a idea of whats a good controlo for a northern? thanks ... my boss ask me to have a good positive control for my northern blot. I did a lot of lecture but I just saw negatif control.. So ...http://www.protocol-online.org/forums/topic/15951-positive-control-for-northern-blot/
Structural Biochemistry/DNA recombinant techniques/Northern Blot - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
The Northern blot, also known as the RNA blot, is one of the blotting techniques used to transfer DNA and RNA onto a carrier ... The name Northern Blot is merely a play on words. Southern, Northern, and Western blots are known respectively for their ... Northern Blot is a derivative of the Southern blot, which, like the Southern Blot, utilizes electrophoresis separation analysis ... The Northern blot is useful for the study of gene expression in two ways. First, the position of bands on the blot provides a ...https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Structural_Biochemistry/DNA_recombinant_techniques/Northern_Blot
Northern blot analysis | definition of Northern blot analysis by Medical dictionary
What is Northern blot analysis? Meaning of Northern blot analysis medical term. What does Northern blot analysis mean? ... Looking for online definition of Northern blot analysis in the Medical Dictionary? Northern blot analysis explanation free. ... Northern blot analysis. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Encyclopedia. North·ern blot a·nal·y·sis. a procedure ... North·ern blot a·nal·y·sis. (nōrdhĕrn blot ă-nali-sis) A procedure similar to the Southern blot analysis, used mostly to ...http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Northern+blot+analysis
northern blot analysis - Biology Forum | Biology-Online Dictionary, Blog & Forum
hi guys i am having a hair pulling moment here i cant determine what my northern blot results mean i hope someone can help... i ... hi guys! i am having a hair pulling moment here i cant determine what my northern blot results mean i hope someone can help... ... hi guys! i am having a hair pulling moment here i cant determine what my northern blot results mean i hope someone can help... ... northern blot analysis. Discussion of all aspects of biological molecules, biochemical processes and laboratory procedures in ...https://biology-online.org/biology-forum/viewtopic.php?f=1&t=16239
In-Situ Hybridization | Southern / Northern Blotting Equipment Products & Reviews on SelectScience
QuikHyb hybridization solution was developed for use in Southern, Northern, slot-blot and plaque-lift formats using randomly ... MiracleHyb hybridization solution was developed for use in Northern analysis when sensitive detection of low-abundance messages ...https://www.selectscience.net/microarray-analysis-
Northern blot analysis for detection and quantification of RNA in pancreatic cancer cells and tissues. - PubMed - NCBI
Northern blot analysis for detection and quantification of RNA in pancreatic cancer cells and tissues.. Streit S1, Michalski CW ... In this protocol, we describe how northern blot analysis is used to identify gene expression patterns at the RNA level in human ... Despite the development of newer methods, such as real-time PCR, nuclease protection assays and microarrays, northern blot ...https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19131955
Northern blot analysis of activated splenocytes. (A) C5 | Open-i
Northern blot analysis of activated splenocytes. (A) C57BL/6 splenocytes were cultured in medium alone (medium) or supplemented ... Figure 4: Northern blot analysis of activated splenocytes. (A) C57BL/6 splenocytes were cultured in medium alone (medium) or ... Figure 4: Northern blot analysis of activated splenocytes. (A) C57BL/6 splenocytes were cultured in medium alone (medium) or ... 4 B). The blots were probed for ITM2A, CD69, a T cell activation marker 33343536, and EF1α, a housekeeping gene. In both ...https://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2195576_JEM990349.f4&req=4
Northern blot analysis | Article about Northern blot analysis by The Free Dictionary
Find out information about Northern blot analysis. Backgammon a man exposed by being placed alone on a point and therefore able ... to be taken by the other player Explanation of Northern blot analysis ... blot. (redirected from Northern blot analysis). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal. blot. Backgammon a man ... Northern blot analysis , Article about Northern blot analysis by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary. ...https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Northern+blot+analysis
PCR RT-PCR Northern Blot Western blot ?? ??Ʈ~ ?? ??? ϴ
PCR RT-PCR Northern Blot Western blot ?? ??Ʈ~ ?? ??? ϴ ?? 40-50 M ?? ?? ???? ?? ?? . ???? DNA????ȿ ?? Ŭ ?? 尡 ?? ?? Ǿ ?? ????ȭ ...http://www.reportworld.co.kr/reports/415364
Enhanced Northern Blot Detection of Small RNA Species in Drosophila Melanogaster | Protocol (Translated to Chinese)
Kim, S. W., et al. A sensitive non-radioactive northern blot method to detect small RNAs. Nucleic Acids Res. 38, e98 (2010). ... Pall, G. S., Hamilton, A. J. Improved northern blot method for enhanced detection of small RNA. Nat Protoc. 3, 1077-1084 (2008 ... Varallyay, E., Burgyan, J., Havelda, Z. Detection of microRNAs by Northern blot analyses using LNA probes. Methods. 43, 140-145 ... Várallyay, E., Burgyán, J., Havelda, Z. MicroRNA detection by northern blotting using locked nucleic acid probes. Nat Protoc. 3 ...https://www.jove.com/video/51814/northernrna?language=Chinese
Enhanced Northern Blot Detection of Small RNA Species in Drosophila Melanogaster | Protocol (Translated to Portuguese)
... é visualizar e discutir os passos operatórios de um protocolo de Northern Blot em RNA extraído de... ... Os resultados são comparados entre o avançado Blot Norte (ENB) e Standard Northern Blot (SNB), realizado em mesmas condições: ... A análise de Northern blot é essencial quando a medição de tamanho de ARN é necessária. Mesmo que este ensaio pode não ter a ... Northern blot (NB, ou ensaio de mancha de gel de ARN) constitui um exemplo representativo: é largamente utilizado para o perfil ...https://www.jove.com/video/51814/aprimorada-do-norte-deteco-blot-de-pequeno-rna-de-espcies-em?language=Portuguese
Homing in on the Molecular Basis of Boron Essentiality Using Differential Display, Gene Arrays, and Northern Blots |...
Homing in on the Molecular Basis of Boron Essentiality Using Differential Display, Gene Arrays, and Northern Blots. ... and Northern Blots. In: Roussel A.M., Anderson R.A., Favier A.E. (eds) Trace Elements in Man and Animals 10. Springer, New York ...https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F0-306-47466-2_322
Sensitive and specific detection of microRNAs by northern blot analysis using LNA-modified oligonucleotide probes
RNA extraction and northern blot analysis. Total RNA was extracted from plant and mouse tissues by using the TRI Reagent (Sigma ... Northern blot analysis of three mouse and two A.thaliana microRNAs using LNA3-modified oligonucleotide probes. (A-D) Total RNAs ... We describe here a new method for highly efficient detection of miRNAs by northern blot analysis using locked nucleic acid (LNA ... We describe here a new method for highly efficient detection of microRNAs by northern blot analysis using LNA (locked nucleic ...http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC545470/?lang=en-ca
A) Northern blot analysis of MIP-3α expression in hum | Open-i
a) Clontech multiple tissue Northern blots (1 μg poly A+ mRNA/lane); (b) Invitrogen North ... A) Northern blot analysis of MIP-3α expression in human tissues. ( ... Figure 2: (A) Northern blot analysis of MIP-3α expression in human tissues. (a) Clontech multiple tissue Northern blots (1 μg ... Figure 2: (A) Northern blot analysis of MIP-3α expression in human tissues. (a) Clontech multiple tissue Northern blots (1 μg ...https://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2199050_JEM.970979f2Ab&req=4
Faculty Collaboration Database - Mesh term Blotting, Northern
Mesh term Blotting, Northern. Browse to parent terms:. Electrophoresis. Molecular Probe Techniques. Description. Detection of ... RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon ...https://fcd.mcw.edu/?module=search&func=showTerm&id=68015152
Human Adult Multiple Tissues Northern Blot (Brain, Stomach, Intestine, Colon, Liver, Lung, Kidney, Heart, Ovary, Skeletal...
Home -, Tissue Related -, Human Adult Normal -, Northern Blots with Total RNA Human Adult Multiple Tissues Northern Blot (Brain ... Northern blots are available for mouse, rat, human, dog, cat, hamster, Guinea pig, rabbit, bovine, equine, pig, sheep and ... Each blot contains up to 22 samples in addition to the RNA molecular size standard. Blots are shipped in a sealed bags at room ... Blots are prepared from high quality total RNA blotted onto positively charged nylon or nitrocellulose membranes.. Features. - ...https://www.biocat.com/products/HN-MT-1-ZY
HybridizationAgaroseMembranesElectrophoresisNuclease protection assaysMicroarraysNitrocelluloseProcedureTissuesCDNAAssaysFragmentsProbeDetection of RNAProbesGene expressionMRNA levelsSequencesShipped in a sealedMolecularProtocolsMoleculesProteinProtocolRelatively cheapLaneDegradationTranscriptionTechniqueMethodWesternMade
- Recent advancements in buffers and hybridization membranes have enabled high sensitivity blotting. (news-medical.net)
- Prepared reverse northern blot membranes are pre-hybridized in Denhardt's solution with SSC buffer and labeled cDNA probes are denatured at 100 °C and added to the pre-hybridization solution. (wikipedia.org)
- Northern Blot is a derivative of the Southern blot , which, like the Southern Blot, utilizes electrophoresis separation analysis and a hybridization probe for detection. (wikibooks.org)
- By modifying DNA oligonucleotides with LNAs using a design, in which every third nucleotide position was substituted by LNA, we could use the probes in northern blot analysis employing standard end-labelling techniques and hybridization conditions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Besides being highly efficient as northern probes, the same LNA-modified oligonucleotide probes would also be useful for miRNA in situ hybridization and miRNA expression profiling by LNA oligonucleotide microarrays. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES. (mcw.edu)
- Sigma's PerfectHyb Plus is a ready-to-use hybridization buffer for Northern and Southern blot protocols. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Suitable for use in hybridization buffers used in Northern blot, Southern blot, colony/plaque blots, and dot blots. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The same probe designed for the Southern blots (if Southern blot analysis is performed) will be used for the Northern blots hybridization. (avancebio.com)
- In order to prepare the reverse northern membrane, cDNA sequences for transcripts of interest are immobilized on nylon membranes, which can be accomplished by use of dot blots or bidirectional agarose gel blotting and UV fixation of the DNA to the membranes. (wikipedia.org)
- typically through transferring (blotting) RNA fragments from an agarose gel to a nitrocellulose filter followed by detection with a suitable probe. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The freshly isolated total RNA samples (20ug each) of tissues are fractionated though formaldehyde-denaturing agarose gel eletrophoresis, blotted onto a positively charged nylon membranes, and immobilized by UV light. (biocat.com)
- Blots are made of high quality total RNA samples which are subjected to rigorous quality control procedures before fractionation through large denatured agarose gels and blotting onto positively charged nylon membranes. (zyagen.com)
- In northern blot, the sample RNA is separated on the basis of size with the help of gel electrophoresis. (news-medical.net)
- Fragments of DNA and RNA molecules separated by gel electrophoresis are transferred to a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane in a process termed as Southern and Northern blotting, respectively. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- It is mRNA which is isolated and hybridized in northern blots.The formaldehyde was use in electrophoresis gel as a denaturant because the sodium hydroxide treatment used in the Southern blot procedure would degrade the RNA. (wikibooks.org)
- A routine Northern blotting procedure starts with total RNA extraction, which is followed by separation of RNAs by electrophoresis. (lifeasible.com)
- Saving labor by eliminating tedious and time-consuming laboratory procedures (harvesting and homogenization of tissues, RNA extraction, RNA quantification, gel electrophoresis, and blotting). (zyagen.com)
- The standard northern blot method has lower sensitivity when compared to that of RT-PCR and nuclease protection assays. (news-medical.net)
- RNA purification is a critical first step for preparing biological samples for a multitude of analytical techniques including real-time quantitative PCR, reverse transcription PCR, microarrays, Northern blot analysis , nuclease protection assays, RNA mapping, in vitro translation and DNA library construction. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Despite the development of newer methods, such as real-time PCR, nuclease protection assays and microarrays, northern blot analysis is still a standard technique used in the detection and quantification of mRNA levels because it allows a direct comparison of the mRNA abundance between samples on a single membrane. (nih.gov)
- Although DNA Microarrays and newer next-generation techniques have generally supplanted reverse northern blotting, it is still utilized today and provides a relatively cheap and easy means of defining expression of large sets of genes. (wikipedia.org)
- DNA microarrays operate by similar procedures to those used in the reverse northern blot, consisting of many DNA probes hybridized to a solid glass, plastic or silicon substrate which is probed with labeled RNA or cDNA. (wikipedia.org)
- Reverse Northern blot, much like the northern blot upon which it is based, is used to determine levels of gene expression in particular tissues. (wikipedia.org)
- Second, the Northern blot analysis of RNA samples from many different tissues enables researchers to determine which specific tissue a gene is expressed in along with the relative levels of its expression in all cells where transcription is occurring. (wikibooks.org)
- Northern blot analysis for detection and quantification of RNA in pancreatic cancer cells and tissues. (nih.gov)
- In this protocol, we describe how northern blot analysis is used to identify gene expression patterns at the RNA level in human cancer cells as well as in cancerous and normal tissues. (nih.gov)
- The expression of MIP-3α messenger RNA (mRNA) was analyzed in human multiple tissue Northern blots (Fig. 2 A). MIP-3α mRNA was highly expressed in lung and in inflammed tissues such as tonsil and appendix. (nih.gov)
- Streit S, Michalski CW, Erkan M, Kleeff J, & Friess H (2009) Northern blot analysis for detection and quantification of RNA in pancreatic cancer cells and tissues. (lifeasible.com)
- Ready-to-hybridize Northern blots of total RNA of tissues that are difficult to obtain because of size, high RNase content, and anatomical complexity which requires knowledge, experience, and technical skill to exactly dissect the area of interest freely of surrounding tissues. (zyagen.com)
- Every step of preparation of blots, from harvesting tissues and extraction of RNA to the blotting, is carefully monitored to ensure the superior quality and performance. (zyagen.com)
- Pig tissue Northern blots are made of high quality total RNA samples extracted from pig fresh tissues. (zyagen.com)
- The reverse northern blot is a method by which gene expression patterns may be analyzed by comparing isolated RNA molecules from a tester sample to samples in a control cDNA library. (wikipedia.org)
- Images of tissue total RNA used for construction of Northern blots and analysis with cDNA probes. (zyagen.com)
- It is a variant of the northern blot in which the nucleic acid immobilized on a membrane is a collection of isolated DNA fragments rather than RNA, and the probe is RNA extracted from a tissue and radioactively labelled. (wikipedia.org)
- The separated RNA fragments are then blotted onto a special filter paper so that each RNA molecule retains its position relative to all the other molecules. (wikibooks.org)
- The blot is then exposed to a labeled, single-stranded DNA probe. (news-medical.net)
- The bases in this probe will pair with their complementary RNA sequences in the blot producing a double-stranded DNA-RNA molecule. (news-medical.net)
- Incubate the blot with labeled probe. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- In comparison to the Northern blot, the reverse northern blot is able to probe a large number of transcripts at once with less specificity with regard to probes than is required for Northern blot. (wikipedia.org)
- Northern blot is limited by its ability to only probe with one mRNA at a time, while q-PCR requires transcripts to be long enough to generate primers for the sequence and probes can be costly. (wikipedia.org)
- A labelled probe specific for the RNA fragment in question is incubated with the blot. (wikibooks.org)
- The blot is washed to remove non-specifically bount probe and then a development step allows visualization of the probe that is bound. (wikibooks.org)
- The filter is then exposed to radioactive probes that hybridize to complementary sequences in the blot. (wikibooks.org)
- The blots in A and B were hybridized with probes for ITM2A, EF1α, and CD69 (shown for A only). (nih.gov)
- The sensitivity in detecting mature microRNAs by northern blots was increased by at least 10-fold compared to DNA probes, while simultaneously being highly specific, as demonstrated by the use of different single and double mismatched LNA probes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The blotting step refers to the transferring of separated RNAs to a nylon membrane, which is then exposed to specific probes for RNA detection. (lifeasible.com)
- The Northern blot is useful for the study of gene expression in two ways. (wikibooks.org)
- The Northern blot is a valuable method used by researchers in determining gene expression patterns. (wikibooks.org)
- The main difference between the two techniques is that the northern Blot is performed to study gene expression by analyzing RNA instead of DNA. (wikibooks.org)
- Northern blot analysis of total RNA from planktonic and biofilm-grown cells demonstrated that ALS gene expression is differentially regulated between the two growth forms, with additional genes expressed in biofilms (4,5). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Powerful and continually evolving methods, such as short-read sequencing (RNA-seq), microarray analysis, quantitative real-time RT-PCR, as well as traditional methods for differential gene expression studies using multiplex endpoint PCR and northern blot analysis are employed by scientists to analyze gene function, identify new therapeutic and diagnostic targets, and to map pathways involved in development and disease. (thefreedictionary.com)
- MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Theaflavin inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha-mediated interleukin-8 gene expression, as measured by luciferase assay and Northern blot analysis , at concentrations of 10 and 30 microg/mL. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Northern blot is a commonly used molecular biology approach for the evaluation of gene expression at transcriptional levels (1). (lifeasible.com)
- Northern blot is used to detect specific RNA sequences in a sample. (news-medical.net)
- Southern blotting was introduced by Edwin Southern in 1975 as a method to detect specific sequences of DNA in DNA samples. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- A reverse northern blot can be used to profile expression levels of particular sets of RNA sequences in a tissue or to determine presence of a particular RNA sequence in a sample. (wikipedia.org)
- Therefore, reverse northern has been used as one means of confirming hits from DD-PCR, or sequences with altered expression levels. (wikipedia.org)
- There also exists a similar, but different method of detecting protein s called a Western Blot . (everything2.com)
- The other blotting techniques emerged from this method have been termed as Northern (for RNA), Western (for proteins), Eastern (for post-translational protein modifications) and Southwestern (for DNA-protein interactions) blotting. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The first blotting technique developed by Dr. Edwin Southern is called the Southern blot. (news-medical.net)
- The northern blot technique is a classical way of analyzing the presence of a specific RNA sequence in a sample. (news-medical.net)
- Northern blotting (inglise northern blot , northern blot technique ) on meetod RNA osade identifitseerimiseks vastavates proovides, kus agaroosgeelis lahku viidud RNA lõigud viiakse üle nt nitrotselluloospaberile ja üleviimise tulemusel saab RNA lõike uurida nt radioaktiivselt markeeritud geeniproovi kaudu . (wikipedia.org)