Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Enterochromaffin-like Cells: Neuroendocrine cells in the glands of the GASTRIC MUCOSA. They produce HISTAMINE and peptides such as CHROMOGRANINS. ECL cells respond to GASTRIN by releasing histamine which acts as a paracrine stimulator of the release of HYDROCHLORIC ACID from the GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Milk, HumanUnited StatesElectrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Rosaniline Dyes: Compounds that contain the triphenylmethane aniline structure found in rosaniline. Many of them have a characteristic magenta color and are used as COLORING AGENTS.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Collodion: A nitrocellulose solution in ether and alcohol. Collodion has a wide range of uses in industry including applications in the manufacture of photographic film, in fibers, in lacquers, and in engraving and lithography. In medicine it is used as a drug solvent and a wound sealant.Native Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis: Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under conditions in which the components, such as PROTEINS, being separated can remain in their naturally folded state.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Legislation, Veterinary: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of veterinary medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Razoxane: An antimitotic agent with immunosuppressive properties.Tooth, Nonvital: A tooth from which the dental pulp has been removed or is necrotic. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Allergy and Immunology: A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.Post and Core Technique: Use of a metal casting, usually with a post in the pulp or root canal, designed to support and retain an artificial crown.Exosomes: A type of extracellular vesicle, containing RNA and proteins, that is secreted into the extracellular space by EXOCYTOSIS when MULTIVESICULAR BODIES fuse with the PLASMA MEMBRANE.Cell-Derived Microparticles: Extracellular vesicles generated by the shedding of CELL MEMBRANE blebs.Secretory Vesicles: Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.Transport Vesicles: Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.Echinostomiasis: Infection by flukes of the genus Echinostoma.Verrucomicrobia: A phylum of gram-negative bacteria containing seven class-level groups from a wide variety of environments. Most members are chemoheterotrophs.Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Transillumination: Passage of light through body tissues or cavities for examination of internal structures.X-Ray Film: A film base coated with an emulsion designed for use with x-rays.Projection: A defense mechanism, operating unconsciously, whereby that which is emotionally unacceptable in the self is rejected and attributed (projected) to others.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Luminescence: Emission of LIGHT when ELECTRONS return to the electronic ground state from an excited state and lose the energy as PHOTONS. It is sometimes called cool light in contrast to INCANDESCENCE. LUMINESCENT MEASUREMENTS take advantage of this type of light emitted from LUMINESCENT AGENTS.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Fees, Medical: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for medical services.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Bed Occupancy: A measure of inpatient health facility use based upon the average number or proportion of beds occupied for a given period of time.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Micropore Filters: A membrane or barrier with micrometer sized pores used for separation purification processes.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Biochemistry: The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of living things.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.PolyvinylsLuminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)Luminol: 5-Amino-2,3-dihydro-1,4-phthalazinedione. Substance that emits light on oxidation. It is used in chemical determinations.Flow Injection Analysis: The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.Noise: Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.

Direct association of Bloom's syndrome gene product with the human mismatch repair protein MLH1. (1/66)

Bloom's syndrome (BS) is a rare genetic disorder characterised by genomic instability and cancer susceptibility. BLM, the gene mutated in BS, encodes a member of the RecQ family of DNA helicases. Here, we identify hMLH1, which is involved in mismatch repair (MMR) and recombination, as a protein that directly interacts with BLM both in vivo and in vitro, and that the two proteins co-localise to discrete nuclear foci. The interaction between BLM and hMLH1 appears to have been evolutionarily conserved, as Sgs1p, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologue of BLM, interacts with yeast Mlh1p. However, cell extracts derived from BS patients show no obvious defects in MMR compared to wild-type- and BLM-complemented BS cell extracts. We conclude that the hMLH1-BLM interaction is not essential for post-replicative MMR, but, more likely, is required for some aspect of genetic recombination.  (+info)

Mutational analysis of the regulatory function of the c-Abl Src homology 3 domain. (2/66)

The catalytic activity of the c-Abl tyrosine kinase is tightly regulated by its Src homology 3 (SH3) domain through a complex mechanism that may involve intramolecular binding to Pro242 in the linker region between the SH2 and catalytic domains as well as interactions with a trans-inhibitor. We analysed the effect of mutation or replacement of SH3 on c-Abl tyrosine kinase activity and transformation. Random mutagenesis of SH3 identified several novel point mutations that dysregulated c-Abl kinase activity in vivo, but the RT loop was insensitive to mutational activation. Activating SH3 mutations abolished binding of proline-rich SH3 ligands in vitro, while mutations at Ser140 in the connector between the SH3 and SH2 domains activated Abl kinase activity in vivo and in vitro but did not impair SH3 ligand-binding. Abl was regulated efficiently when its SH3 domain was replaced with a heterologous SH3 from c-Src that binds a different spectrum of proline-rich ligands, but not by substitution of a modular WW domain with similar ligand-binding specificity. These results suggest that the SH3 domain regulates Abl principally by binding to the atypical intramolecular ligand Pro242 rather than a canonical PxxP ligand. Coordination between the SH3 and SH2 domains mediated by the connector region may be required for regulation of Abl even in the absence of SH2 ligand binding.  (+info)

The small 11-kDa protein from B19 parvovirus binds growth factor receptor-binding protein 2 in vitro in a Src homology 3 domain/ligand-dependent manner. (3/66)

The small 11-kDa proteins of B19 parvovirus contain three proline-rich regions which conform to consensus Src homology 3 (SH3) ligand sequences present in signaling molecules within the cell. We have shown that the B19 11-kDa proteins specifically interact with the growth factor receptor-binding protein 2 (Grb2) in vitro. Mutation of prolines within one of the three SH3 ligand-like sequences decreases the binding of B19 11-kDa proteins to Grb2, suggesting that the proline-rich region is involved in the B19 11-kDa/Grb2 interaction. Therefore, the B19 11-kDa proteins may function to alter Grb2-mediated signaling by disrupting SH3 domain/ligand interactions. These results implicate the 11-kDa proteins in B19 pathogenesis through perturbation of normal cellular signaling pathways.  (+info)

In vivo gene transfer of endothelial nitric oxide synthase decreases portal pressure in anaesthetised carbon tetrachloride cirrhotic rats. (4/66)

BACKGROUND: Portal hypertension in cirrhosis results from enhanced intrahepatic resistance to an augmented inflow. The former is partly due to an imbalance between intrahepatic vasoconstriction and vasodilatation. Enhanced endothelin-1 and decreased activity of hepatic constitutive endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS 3) was reported in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) cirrhotic rat liver. AIMS: To study whether an increase in hepatic NOS 3 could be obtained in the CCl(4) cirrhotic rat liver by in vivo cDNA transfer and to investigate a possible effect on portal pressure. METHODS: Hepatic NOS 3 immunohistochemistry and western blotting were used to measure the amount of NOS 3 protein. Recombinant adenovirus, carrying cDNA encoding human NOS 3, was injected into the portal vein of CCl(4) cirrhotic rats. Cirrhotic controls received carrier buffer, naked adenovirus, or adenovirus carrying the lac Z gene. RESULTS: NOS 3 immunoreactivity and amount of protein (western blotting) were significantly decreased in CCl(4) cirrhotic livers. Following cDNA transfer, NOS 3 expression and the amount of protein were partially restored. Portal pressure was 11.4 (1.6) mm Hg in untreated cirrhotic (n=9) and 11.8 (0.6) in lac Z transfected (n=4) cirrhotic rats but was reduced to 7.8 (1.0) mm Hg (n=9) five days after NOS 3 cDNA transfer. No changes were observed in systemic haemodynamics, in liver tests or urinary nitrates, or in NOS 3 expression in lung or kidney, indicating a highly selective transfer. CONCLUSIONS: NOS 3 cDNA transfer to cirrhotic rat liver is feasible and the increase in hepatic NOS 3 leads to a marked decrease in portal hypertension without systemic effects. These data indicate a major haemodynamic role of intrahepatic NOS 3 in the pathogenesis of portal hypertension in CCl(4) cirrhosis.  (+info)

A chromatin-associated protein from pea seeds preferentially binds histones H3 and H4. (5/66)

Pisum sativum p16 is a protein present in the chromatin of ungerminated embryonic axes. The purification of p16 and the isolation of a cDNA clone of psp54, the gene encoding its precursor have been recently reported [Castillo, J., Rodrigo, M. I., Marquez, J. A., Zuniga, A and Franco, L. (2000) Eur. J. Biochem.267, 2156-2165]. In the present paper, we present data showing that p16 is a nuclear protein. First, after subcellular fractionation, p16 was clearly found in nuclei, although the protein is also present in other organelles. Immunocytochemical methods also confirm the above results. p16 seems to be firmly anchored to chromatin, as only extensive DNase I digestion of nuclei allows its release. Far Western and pull-down experiments demonstrate a strong in vitro interaction between p16 and histones, especially H3 and H4, suggesting that p16 is tethered to chromatin through histones. Because the psp54 gene is specifically expressed during the late development of seed, the role of p16 might be related to the changes that occur in chromatin during the processes of seed maturation and germination.  (+info)

Profiling the global tyrosine phosphorylation state. (6/66)

Protein tyrosine kinases and protein tyrosine phosphatases play a key role in cell signaling, and the recent success of specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors in cancer treatment strongly validates the clinical relevance of basic research on tyrosine phosphorylation. Functional profiling of the tyrosine phosphoproteome is likely to lead to the identification of novel targets for drug discovery and provide a basis for novel molecular diagnostic approaches. The ultimate aim of current mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomic approaches is the comprehensive characterization of the phosphoproteome. However, current methods are not yet sensitive enough for routine detection of a large percentage of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins, which are generally of low abundance. In this article, we discuss alternative methods that exploit Src homology 2 (SH2) domains for profiling the tyrosine phosphoproteome. SH2 domains are small protein modules that bind specifically to tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides; there are more than 100 SH2 domains in the human genome, and different SH2 domains bind to different classes of tyrosine-phosphorylated ligands. These domains play a critical role in the propagation of signals in the cell, mediating the relocalization and complex formation of proteins in response to changes in tyrosine phosphorylation. We have developed an SH2 profiling method based on far-Western blotting, in which a battery of SH2 domains is used to probe the global state of tyrosine phosphorylation. Application to the classification of human malignancies suggests that this approach has potential as a molecular diagnostic tool. We also describe ongoing efforts to modify and improve SH2 profiling, including the development of a multiplexed assay system that will allow high-throughput functional profiling of the tyrosine phosphoproteome.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of a novel calcineurin-binding protein in scallop testis. (7/66)

Calcineurin has been inferred to function in meiosis and spermiogenesis in testis. Here, we identified a calcineurin-binding protein in scallop testis by Far-Western blot analysis using purified calcineurin as a probe. The molecular mass of the binding protein estimated on the blot was 75 kDa. The isolated cDNA clone encoded a novel 474-residue protein, named CaNBP75. The region between T6 and A210 of CaNBP75 was responsible for the interaction with calcineurin. CaNBP75 was predominantly expressed in testis and ovary of scallop. Thus, CaNBP75 may modulate the physiological function of calcineurin in the testis and ovary of scallop, such as in spermiogenesis or meiosis.  (+info)

Eukaryotic translation-initiation factor eIF2beta binds to protein kinase CK2: effects on CK2alpha activity. (8/66)

eIF2 (eukaryotic translation-initiation factor 2) is a substrate and an interacting partner for CK2 (protein kinase CK2). Co-immuno-precipitation of CK2 with eIF2beta has now been observed in HeLa cells, overexpressing haemagglutinin-tagged human recombinant eIF2beta. A direct association between His6-tagged human recombinant forms of eIF2beta subunit and both the catalytic (CK2alpha) and the regulatory (CK2beta) subunits of CK2 has also been shown by using different techniques. Surface plasmon resonance analysis indicated a high affinity in the interaction between eIF2beta and CK2alpha, whereas the affinity for the association with CK2beta is much lower. Free CK2alpha is unable to phosphorylate eIF2beta, whereas up to 1.2 mol of phosphate/mol of eIF2beta was incorporated by the reconstituted CK2 holoenzyme. The N-terminal third part of eIF2beta is dispensable for binding to either CK2alpha or CK2beta, although it contains the phosphorylation sites for CK2. The remaining central/C-terminal part of eIF2beta is not phosphorylated by CK2, but is sufficient for binding to both CK2 subunits. The presence of eIF2beta inhibited CK2alpha activity on calmodulin and beta-casein, but it had a minor effect on that of the reconstituted CK2 holoenzyme. The truncated forms corresponding to the N-terminal or central/C-terminal regions of eIF2beta were much less inhibitory than the intact subunit. The results demonstrate that the ability to associate with CK2 subunits and to serve as a CK2 substrate are confined to different regions in eIF2beta and that it may act as an inhibitor on CK2alpha.  (+info)

A range of related immunoblotting methods have enabled the identification and semi-quantitative characterization of e.g., DNA (Southern blot), RNA (northern blot), proteins (Western blot), and protein-protein interactions (far-western blot); by coupling biomolecule separations and assays. However, there are a wide number of alternative splicing events, post-translational modifications, and co-translational modifications (e.g., phosphorylation, glycosylation, and protein cleavage) that give rise to proteoforms and protein complexes with distinct function and subsequent cell behavior that cannot be analyzed with conventional methods such as immunohistochemistry (IHC). Analytical variability (lack of isoform- or complex-specific antibody probes), biological variability (small cell subpopulations diluted in bulk analysis), and lack of multiplexing (measurement of multiple proteins from the same tissues) can all render proteoforms and protein complexes undetectable by current technologies. UC Berkeley
The eastern blot is a biochemical technique used to analyze protein post translational modifications (PTM) such as lipids, phosphomoieties and glycoconjugates. It is most often used to detect carbohydrate epitopes. Thus, eastern blotting can be considered an extension of the biochemical technique of western blotting. Multiple techniques have been described by the term eastern blotting, most use proteins blotted from SDS-PAGE gel on to a PVDF or nitrocellulose membrane. Transferred proteins are analyzed for post-translational modifications using probes that may detect lipids, carbohydrate, phosphorylation or any other protein modification. Eastern blotting should be used to refer to methods that detect their targets through specific interaction of the PTM and the probe, distinguishing them from a standard far-western blot. In principle, eastern blotting is similar to lectin blotting (i.e. detection of carbohydrate epitopes on proteins or lipids). Definition of the term eastern blotting is ...
HeLa Cells (ATCC) were plated at a density of 1.2 x 105 cells/100 μl per 96 well. The cells were transfected with PC3.1eGFP and pmKate2 plasmids (Evrogen) 24 hours after cell seeding. Three different pmKate2/PC3.1eGFP ratios were titrated (0.5 + 1.0, 0.5 + 0.5, 1.0 + 0.5 μg plasmid per 100 μl complex). In addition, four different amounts of X-tremeGENE HP and X-tremeGENE 9 Transfection Reagents, respectively, were tested for complex formation (1, 2, 3, or 4 μl reagent per 100 μl complex). Transfection efficiency was measured 48 hours post transfection using the Cellavista Analyzer and HOECHST 33342 staining.. ...
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A child from the Uighur community living in Turkey wears a mask in the colours of the flag what ethnic Uighurs call East Turkestan, with a painted hand with the colours of Chinas flag, during a protest in Istanbul, Tuesday, Nov. 6, 2018, against what they allege is oppression by the Chinese government to Muslim Uighurs in the far-western Xinjiang province. AP/ ...
We study βLAP and its derivative nor-β-Lapachone (NβL) complexes with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin to increase the solubility and bioavail...
Protein tyrosine phosphorylation controls many aspects of signaling in multicellular organisms. One of the major consequences of tyrosine phosphorylation is the creation of binding sites for proteins containing Src homology 2 (SH2) domains. To profile the global tyrosine phosphorylation state of the cell, we have developed proteomic binding assays encompassing nearly the full complement ofhuman SH2 domains. Here we provide a global view of SH2 domain binding to cellular proteins based on large-scale far-western analyses. We also use reverse-phase protein arrays to generate comprehensive, quantitative SH2 binding profiles for phosphopeptides, recombinant proteins, and entire proteomes. As an example, we profiled the adhesion-dependent SH2 binding interactions in fibroblasts and identified specific focal adhesion complex proteins whose tyrosine phosphorylation and binding to SH2 domains are modulated by adhesion. These results demonstrate that high-throughput comprehensive SH2 profiling provides valuable
From around 2800 BC, the LNE Bell Beaker culture emerged from the Iberian Peninsula to form one of the first pan-European archaeological complexes. This cultural phenomenon is recognised by a distinctive package of rich grave goods including the eponymous bell-shaped ceramic beakers. The genetic affinities between Central Europes Bell Beakers and present-day Iberian populations (Fig. 2) is striking and throws fresh light on long-disputed archaeological models3. We suggest these data indicate a considerable genetic influx from the West during the LNE. These far-Western genetic affinities of Mittelelbe-Saales Bell Beaker folk may also have intriguing linguistic implications, as the archaeologically-identified eastward movement of the Bell Beaker culture has recently been linked to the initial spread of the Celtic language family across Western Europe39. This hypothesis suggests that early members of the Celtic language family (for example, Tartessian)40 initially developed from Indo-European ...
From around 2800 BC, the LNE Bell Beaker culture emerged from the Iberian Peninsula to form one of the first pan-European archaeological complexes. This cultural phenomenon is recognised by a distinctive package of rich grave goods including the eponymous bell-shaped ceramic beakers. The genetic affinities between Central Europes Bell Beakers and present-day Iberian populations (Fig. 2) is striking and throws fresh light on long-disputed archaeological models3. We suggest these data indicate a considerable genetic influx from the West during the LNE. These far-Western genetic affinities of Mittelelbe-Saales Bell Beaker folk may also have intriguing linguistic implications, as the archaeologically-identified eastward movement of the Bell Beaker culture has recently been linked to the initial spread of the Celtic language family across Western Europe39. This hypothesis suggests that early members of the Celtic language family (for example, Tartessian)40 initially developed from Indo-European ...
Food-first Information and Action Network (FIAN) Nepal human rights organisation that aims to promote and advocate food as human rights in Nepal.. FIAN Nepal has published a notice regarding Media Fellowship.. The amount of fellowship is 5 and these are 1 for Kathmandu, 1 for Dhading, 2 for Mid-Western Development Region, 1 for Far-Western Development Region - for one year period.. The last date to apply is 13 Falgun 2069 (24 February 2013).. ...
BAJHANG - The eyes of Radha Devi Bohara sparkle as she reaches the government health post - a two-hour walk from her house in a remote village of Syandi village in far-western Nepal.. A housewife and a mother of two, Radha Devi is a busy bee when it comes to doing household chores. Her daily life revolves around cleaning the house, collecting cattle fodder, fetching water, cooking food and serving it to the family, doing the dishes and looking after her children.. But once a month, she doesnt forget to visit the health post where she receives a vital medical check-up for herself and her 16-month-old son under WFPs Mother and Child Health Care (MCHC) programme.. "It feels good to have our health check-up and at the same time receive a bag of Nutrimix Plus provided free of cost by WFP," said the 26-year-old mother, who walked all the way to the clinic carrying her son strapped to her chest in a black shawl.. Under the programme, WFP in partnership with the Ministry of Health has been providing ...
A series of [(R′‐C^N^C‐R′′)Pt(L)] complexes with doubly deprotonated cyclometalated R′‐C^N^C‐R′′ ligands (R′‐C^N^C‐R′′=2,6‐diphenylpyridine derivatives ...
Component Of The Histone Deacetylase Rpd3L Complex; Possibly Involved In Cell Fusion And Invasive Growth; Relocalizes To The Cytosol In Response To Hypoxia
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이 책에서 다루는 시계열 자료는 한국은행 경제통계시스템, 구글 파이낸스 사이트와 같은 공공 포털사이트에서 가져온 것으로 시간이 지나면서 자료를 추가할 수 있고, 예측 시 다양한 경우를 생각해볼 수 있다. 예를 들면 한번 적합한 모형을 계속 사용할지, 모형은 같지만 모수값만 다시 추정할지, 최근 자료까지 넣어서 모형을 다시 적합한 후 예측할 것인지 등등 여러 경우를 고민하고 원하는 분석결과를 도출해낼 수 있다. 이러한 문제는 기존의 시계열 분석 책에서는 언급하지 않은 사항이지만, 실제로 자료를 분석하고 연구를 진행할 때 매우 중요한 것이다. 어떤 분야의 시계열 자료는 예측값의 정확도보다 예측의 방향이 더 중요하다 ...
Kurien B, Scofield R (2006). "Western blotting". Methods. 38 (4): 283-293. doi:10.1016/j.ymeth.2005.11.007. PMID 16483794.. ... in Western blot analyses to identify proteins separated by electrophoresis,[73] and in immunohistochemistry or ... Western blot, immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis, and magnetic immunoassay. Antibodies raised against human chorionic ...
Western (protein) blotting and mRNA. [25]. In double-strand break repair[edit]. Double-strand break (DSB) repair by homologous ...
"Sample preparation for western blot , Abcam". www.abcam.com. Retrieved 2016-03-16.. ... western blot for protein, or for DNA extraction). Most lysis buffers contain buffering salts (e.g. Tris-HCl) and ionic salts (e ...
Western blotting is a process by which proteins separated in the acrylamide gel are electrophoretically transferred to a stable ... Western blot). After staining, different species biomolecules appear as distinct bands within the gel. It is common to run ...
Western blot (general technique-not a specific test). *Liver function tests. *Polymerase chain reaction (DNA). DNA profiling is ...
deren Reinigung und Nachweis über die Affinitätschromatografie, über Pulldown-Assays, per Western Blot, per Immunhistochemie, ... Antikörperbasierte Nachweise (z. B. per Western Blot, Immunhistochemie oder Immunfluoreszenz). Einige Tags besitzen neben der ...
Coomassie Blue staining can also be used as a loading control staining method in western blot analysis.[22] It is applied as an ... Welinder, Charlotte; Ekblad, Lars (2011). "Coomassie Staining as Loading Control in Western Blot Analysis". Journal of Proteome ...
Western blottingEdit. Main article: Western blot. In western blotting, proteins are first separated by size, in a thin gel ... Macromolecule blotting and probingEdit. The terms northern, western and eastern blotting are derived from what initially was a ... Southern blottingEdit. Main article: Southern blot. Named after its inventor, biologist Edwin Southern, the Southern blot is a ... Using western blotting techniques allows not only detection but also quantitative analysis. Analogous methods to western ...
Kurien B, Scofield R. Western blotting. Methods. 2006, 38 (4): 283-293. PMID 16483794. doi:10.1016/j.ymeth.2005.11.007.. ...
Using western blotting techniques allows not only detection but also quantitative analysis. Analogous methods to western ... In western blotting, proteins are first separated by size, in a thin gel sandwiched between two glass plates in a technique ... The terms northern, western and eastern blotting are derived from what initially was a molecular biology joke that played on ... Kurien, Biji T.; Scofield, R. Hal (1 April 2006). "Western blotting". Methods (San Diego, Calif.). 38 (4): 283-293. doi:10.1016 ...
Western Academic & Specialist Press Ltd, Bristol, pp 99 - 121.. *Rightmire, G. P.: Late Middle Pleistocene Homo in : Handbook ... http://books.google.sk/books?id=L2nCQlFMyRAC&pg=PA111&lpg=PA111&dq=%22Homo+presapiens%22&source=bl&ots=7ukyQHWUDF&sig= ...
Western blot normalization "AMIDO BLACK 10B". chemicalland21.com. Retrieved December 2, 2017. MSDS at Oxford University. ... such as the western blot. It is also used in criminal investigations to detect blood present with latent fingerprints. It ... 10B is an amino acid staining azo dye used in biochemical research to stain for total protein on transferred membrane blots, ...
When this custom ceased, the squadrons of soldiers and the boundary wall were blotted out together. The troop at Batavis, ... The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the ... Western aristocracies and Imperial court AD 364-425. Oxford University Press 1975. ISBN 0-19-814817-8. ... By convention, the Western Roman Empire is deemed to have ended on 4 September 476, when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustulus and ...
The sample is detected on a western blot. By using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA),[80] the activation profile of ...
"Western Blot Quantification with LI-COR Image Studio Lite". How to WESTERN-BLOT. Retrieved 7 March 2014. "Densitometry Tutorial ... "Quantification of Western Blots Using ImageJ". How to WESTERN-BLOT. Retrieved 7 March 2014. "Image Studio Lite Software". licor ... The primary function of Image Studio Lite is to quantitate relative abundance of proteins on a Western blot or DNA/RNA in an ... Image Studio™ Lite is free image processing software used for quantitation of Western blot images and images from related ...
Diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis: Western blot analysis. Proc Am Coll Vet Intern Med Forum 587-590, 1993. ... A review: Determining the sensitivity and specificity of western blot tests for diagnosis of Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis ...
Alternatively the proteins may react with ligands like lectins giving rise to the term affinity blotting. Western blotting SDS- ... 141-. ISBN 978-81-7993-379-4. United State Patent 4840714 Protein (Western) Blotting - Introduction to Antibodies Membrane ... Following electrophoresis, a standard tank or semi-dry blotting transfer system is set up. A stack is put together in the ... Because the proteins may retain or regain part of their structure during blotting they may react with specific antibodies ...
Just as for FastPP the Western blot could be replaced by staining for a polyhistidine-tag in the SDS-PAGE gel. Additionally, ... Optionally, for instance for proteins expressed at low levels, a Western blot is then run to determine at what temperature a ... The presence of the target protein in each soluble fraction is determined by Western blotting and used to construct a CESTA ... To reduce the workload, Western Blots could be replaced by SDS-PAGE gel polyhistidine-tag staining, provided that the protein ...
Furthermore, flow cytometry or western blotting would be used to test for decreased or absent amounts of WASp. Family history ...
... is used as an internal control in western blots to ascertain that equal amounts of protein have been loaded on each lane ... In the blot example shown on the left side, 75 µg of total protein was loaded in each well. The blot was reacted with anti-β- ... The hostilities of World War II meant Szent-Gyorgyi was unable to publish his lab's work in Western scientific journals. Actin ... actin antibody (for other details of the blot see the reference [204]) ...
"ELISA/Western blot tests for HIV". Medline Plus. Retrieved 2011-08-16. ...
For this reason, primary antibodies must be well-validated in a Western Blot or similar procedure. The technique is even more ...
"Swift Firemen Blot Out Sudden Fremantle Blaze". The West Australian. 70, (21,104). Western Australia. 12 March 1954. p. 4. ... Heritage Council of Western Australia. 21 December 2016. Retrieved 23 December 2016. "Walk Fremantle West End - Pioneer Park to ... XXIII, (6,576). Western Australia. 19 April 1907. p. 6. Retrieved 24 December 2016 - via National Library of Australia. " ... Western Australia. It was one of many commercial buildings constructed in Fremantle during the gold boom period in the late ...
Western blot, and quantitative HCV RNA tests.[5] A technique called polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can show that a person has ...
Retrieved on 31 Jan 2012 Western Blot Protocol. University of Idaho, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences. Retrieved on 31 ... Rockers are commonly used for staining and de-staining gels after electrophoresis, hybridization, washing, blotting, Cell ...
Helm, Robert Meredith (2001). "The Neoplatonic Tradition in the Art of El Greco". Neoplatonism and Western Aesthetics edited by ... "the colors crude and unmixed in great blots as a boastful display of his dexterity" and that "he believed in constant ... "neither Byzantine nor post-Byzantine but Western European. The works he produced in Italy belong to the history of the Italian ... Candia was a center for artistic activity where Eastern and Western cultures co-existed harmoniously, where around two hundred ...
... is a procedure to identify and quantify proteins. A mixture of protein is first submitted to an electrophoresis in ... Western blot is a procedure to identify and quantify proteins. A mixture of protein is first submitted to an electrophoresis in ...
... Nick Theodorakis nicholas_theodorakis at urmc.rochester.edu Fri Mar 23 18:15:24 EST 2001 *Previous message: ... I am doing western blotting now. The primary antibody ,I got is serum and I have no idea how many times I ,should dilute it ... Try titering it yourself on western strips of the same sample. Nick -- Nick Theodorakis nicholas_theodorakis at urmc. ... Previous message: western blotting *Next message: western blotting * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ subject ] [ ...
Western blot assay carried out using monospecific antibodies produced in the supernatant of a cell line obtained by fusing a ... Western blot assay carried out using monospecific antibodies produced in the supernatant of a cell line obtained by fusing a ...
Explanation of Western Blot- Brenner Explanation of the Lyme Disease Western Blot. by Carl Brenner. Inquiries about various ... and a Southern blot, which does the same for DNA sequences.. In a Western blot, the testing laboratory looks for antibodies ... A second criticism of the CDC Western blot criteria is that they fail to include the 31 and 34 kDa bands. This does indeed seem ... 2] Dressler F, Whalen JA, Reinhardt BN, Steere AC. Western blotting in the serodiagnosis of Lyme disease. J Infect Dis 1993;167 ...
The BlotCycler is capable of running multiple Western blots using two different protocols simultaneously, performing all the ... When blots are removed, the automatic cleaning protocol is employed for thorough cleaning. The system accommodates most ... It is equipped with trays that can be configured to process up to 24 blots with 6 different primary and secondary antibodies ... Users simply add their antibodies and fill the BlotCycler tank with buffer solution, add blot membranes to processing trays, ...
Western Blot Signal Enhancer. Greatly enhance the effectiveness of primary antibodies and intensify the final Western blot ... Thermo Scientific™ Clean-Blot IP Detection Reagents and Kit. Avoid interference from denatured IP antibody fragments in Western ... Thermo Scientific™ Restore™ Western Blot Stripping Buffer Safely and effectively remove primary and secondary antibodies from ... Thermo Scientific™ SuperSignal™ Western Blot Enhancer. Increase both signal intensity and sensitivity 3- to 10-fold with this ...
... Martin Offterdinger a8803349 at unet.univie.ac.at Thu Jul 31 03:36:41 EST 1997 *Previous ... 2. Stripping of westerns does in my experience only work if the expression of your protein of interest is quite high as you ... it will save you a lot of time to stop using this antibody for Westerns.In my experience it does not make any sense to try ... Previous message: ECL Western Blotting, need help *Next message: ECL Western Blotting, need help ...
... leelavati shetty via proteins%40net.bio.net (by shettylv At gmail.com). Fri Jan 5 21: ... Next message: [Protein-analysis] RE: western blotting help (leelavati shetty) * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ ... Next message: [Protein-analysis] RE: western blotting help (leelavati shetty) * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ ... Can anyone *guide me on a good protocol* for western blotting wet transfer method using NBT and BCIP. Also what condition shall ...
After wetting the PVDF with MeOH you need to transfer to ,blotting buffer, as MeOH is not conductive. The blotting sandwich ... Western trasfer and blotting troubleshooting. shifali chatrath via methods%40net.bio.net (by shifalich from rediffmail.com). ... on ice and i notice only after adding ,, on blot. , ,Well, it shouldnt, so you must have done something wrong. The precipitate ... I proceeded for blotting. , ,There is little point in proceeding with ab staining, if the transfer did ,not work. ...
Western blotting in the serodiagnosis of Lyme disease.. Dressler F1, Whalen JA, Reinhardt BN, Steere AC. ... There are currently no accepted criteria for positive Western blots in Lyme disease. In a retrospective analysis of 225 case ... Western blotting can be used to increase the specificity of serologic testing in Lyme disease. ... the IgM blot in early disease had a sensitivity of 32% and a specificity of 100%; the IgG blot after the first weeks of ...
... using electric current in a process termed as western blotting. Also called as protein blotting or immunoblotting, this ... The various methods of protein detection on western blot are available here.. ... If blocking solution is being prepared, filter the solution to avoid dark grainy background on the blot during development. The ... The transfer of macromolecules such as nucleic acids and proteins to solid-phase membranous support is termed as blotting. ...
... Nora Plesofsky nora at biosci.cbs.umn.edu Thu Jan 18 17:42:13 EST 2001 *Previous message ... I am planning to run a Blue Native gel, followed by electroblotting for Western analysis. I have read that the Coomassie blue ...
... Mike Whelan whelan at bbsrc.ac.uk Mon Jun 12 04:57:48 EST 1995 *Previous message: Western ... Previous message: Western blotting Pan Class I mAb *Next message: Western blotting Pan Class I mAb ...
An assay that detects specific proteins within a protein mixture. Samples are subjected to electrophoresis on a slab gel. A replica of the gel is then made on a membrane by electrophoretic transfer. Specific proteins are then detected on the membrane using antibody staining ...
Kowal E.J.K., Ter-Ovanesyan D., Regev A., Church G.M. (2017) Extracellular Vesicle Isolation and Analysis by Western Blotting. ... by western blotting.. Key words. Exosomes Extracellular vesicles Exosome isolation Extracellular vesicle isolation ... Ultracentrifugation Immunoblotting Western blot Tetraspanins CD63 CD81 CD9 Emma J.K. Kowal and Dmitry Ter-Ovanesyan contributed ...
Reinventing The Western Blot Instead of tweaking the traditional Western blot, ProteinSimples Simple Western has reinvented it ... Not Your PIs Western Blot More than three decades after its invention, the Western blot remains a crucial tool for ... The blotting, antibody incubations, loading, and wash steps account for 80 percent of the time it takes to do a Western blot, ... blotting." Nevertheless, the name stuck, and Western blotting has become one of the most widely used immunochemical techniques ...
Previous message: [western blotting] reproducible detection in western blotting *Next message: [western blotting] reproducible ... Previous message: [western blotting] reproducible detection in western blotting *Next message: [western blotting] reproducible ... western blotting] reproducible detection in western blotting. Pow Joshi via methods%40net.bio.net (by pow.joshi At gmail.com). ...
We also offer several stains designed for use in Western blot analysis. These stains include Amido Black, Ponceau S, Alcian ... Sigma offers a varietiy of buffers and reagents for Western blotting. blocking buffers, transfer buffers, and wash buffers are ... Western blotting reagents include methanol, glycine, dried milk and several others for each step in the western blotting ... Our catalog of stains include Amido Black, Ponceau S, Alcian Blue and many others readily available for your Western blotting ...
Western Blot Western Blot Speaker A laboratory test that detects antibodies for HIV in the blood. The immune system responds to ...
western blotting - for longer exposures (Dec/10/2007 ). hallo,. i´m looking for the best chemiluminescence substrate for ... western blotting experiments beyond ECL (longer detection period and stronger signal....).. there are some different on the ...
There are currently no accepted criteria for positive Western blots in Lyme disease. In a retrospective analysis of 225 case ... Western blotting in the serodiagnosis of Lyme disease J Infect Dis. 1993 Feb;167(2):392-400. doi: 10.1093/infdis/167.2.392. ... There are currently no accepted criteria for positive Western blots in Lyme disease. In a retrospective analysis of 225 case ... Western blotting can be used to increase the specificity of serologic testing in Lyme disease. ...
... Araluen Freeman araluen_f at nospam.geocities.com Tue Oct 2 11:41:58 EST 2001 *Previous message ... Hi Will! All I can offer is that our system with Western blotting on NC works consistently. I use 5% skim milk in TBST buffer ( ... I have been experiencing intense spotty backgrounds on my 2D western blot , probed with sera using NC membrane. A switch to ... I use a chemiluminescence detection system, and found at first an unspecific streak on my blot. This turned out to be me ...
As for stripping, we simply pour some Ponceau solution (the red stuff ,, used to stain the proteins on a western blot and ... Can you recommend a good stripping procedure for Western ,,, blots? I tried stripping in 0.2 M NaOH for 30 min at room ... a) Can you recommend a good normalization protein for use with ,,, semi-quantitative analysis of Western blots? (This also ... Normalization protein for Western blots?. Jose de las Heras via methods%40net.bio.net (by josenet from tiscali.co.uk). Mon Feb ...
The level of P-Erk was examined by Western blot analysis. and the average and S. However.3.2 Ratio (ICI +/-) 1. (B) Inhibition ... p , 0. (C) Quantitative analysis of Western blot data for the inhibition of the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 with ICI 182 780.2383 ... 50 -TTGTGGTTTTCCTGGTGTCA-30 and 50 -CCGAGCTCTGGGACTAATCA-30 . Western blotting The protein was electro-transferred onto ... for 1 h and then visualized with the ECL-plus Western Blotting Detection System (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech. Furthermore.nlm. ...
J. E. Gilda and A. V. Gomes, "Stain-free total protein staining is a superior loading control to β-actin for Western blots," ... A. Dittmer and J. Dittmer, "β-Actin is not a reliable loading control in Western blot analysis," Electrophoresis, vol. 27, no. ... K. McDonald, "Increase Western blot throughput with multiplex fluorescent detection: advice and tips on how to quickly generate ... M. Hammond, J. Kohn, K. Oh, P. Piatti, and N. Liu, "A Method for Greater Reliability in Western Blot Loading Controls-Stain- ...
  • But in a moment of inspiration, he realized that, just like the DNA and RNA blots that were all the rage at the time, he could make a replica of the gel-resolved proteins and use the replica for the immunoassay. (asbmb.org)