Ticks: Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)Tick Infestations: Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Ixodes: The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.Ixodidae: A family of hardbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include DERMACENTOR and IXODES among others.Trypanosoma brucei brucei: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).Arachnid Vectors: Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Fungemia: The presence of fungi circulating in the blood. Opportunistic fungal sepsis is seen most often in immunosuppressed patients with severe neutropenia or in postoperative patients with intravenous catheters and usually follows prolonged antibiotic therapy.Tick Control: Chemical, biological, or medical measures designed to prevent the spread of ticks or the concomitant infestations which result in tick-borne diseases. It includes the veterinary as well as the public health aspects of tick and mite control.Nymph: The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.Dermacentor: A widely distributed genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, including a number that infest humans and other mammals. Several are vectors of diseases such as TULAREMIA; ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; COLORADO TICK FEVER; and ANAPLASMOSIS.Rhipicephalus: A genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, widespread in Africa. Members of the genus include many important vectors of animal and human pathogens.Catheter-Related Infections: Infections resulting from the use of catheters. Proper aseptic technique, site of catheter placement, material composition, and virulence of the organism are all factors that can influence possible infection.Tick-Borne Diseases: Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.Catheterization, Central Venous: Placement of an intravenous CATHETER in the subclavian, jugular, or other central vein.Tick Paralysis: Paralysis caused by a neurotropic toxin secreted by the salivary glands of ticks.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Candidemia: A form of invasive candidiasis where species of CANDIDA are present in the blood.Rickettsia: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria often surrounded by a protein microcapsular layer and slime layer. The natural cycle of its organisms generally involves a vertebrate and an invertebrate host. Species of the genus are the etiological agents of human diseases, such as typhus.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Lyme Disease: An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.Rhipicephalus sanguineus: A species of tick (TICKS) in the family IXODIDAE, distributed throughout the world but abundant in southern Europe. It will feed on a wide variety of MAMMALS, but DOGS are its preferred host. It transmits a large number of diseases including BABESIOSIS; THEILERIASIS; EHRLICHIOSIS; and MEDITERRANEAN SPOTTED FEVER.Ornithodoros: A genus of softbacked TICKS, in the family ARGASIDAE, serving as the vector of BORRELIA, causing RELAPSING FEVER, and of the AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS.Candidiasis: Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)Variant Surface Glycoproteins, Trypanosoma: Glycoproteins attached to the surface coat of the trypanosome. Many of these glycoproteins show amino acid sequence diversity expressed as antigenic variations. This continuous development of antigenically distinct variants in the course of infection ensures that some trypanosomes always survive the development of immune response to propagate the infection.Borrelia: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, helical bacteria, various species of which produce RELAPSING FEVER in humans and other animals.Anaplasma phagocytophilum: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ANAPLASMA, family ANAPLASMATACEAE, formerly called Ehrlichia phagocytophila or Ehrlichia equi. This organism is tick-borne (IXODES) and causes disease in horses and sheep. In humans, it causes human granulocytic EHRLICHIOSIS.Tick Bites: The effects, both local and systemic, caused by the bites of TICKS.Trypanosomiasis, African: A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.Borrelia burgdorferi: A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.Candida: A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)Borrelia burgdorferi Group: Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.Catheters, Indwelling: Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.Argasidae: A family of softbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include ARGAS and ORNITHODOROS among others.Encephalitis, Tick-Borne: Encephalitis caused by neurotropic viruses that are transmitted via the bite of TICKS. In Europe, the diseases are caused by ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, TICK-BORNE, which give rise to Russian spring-summer encephalitis, central European encephalitis, louping ill encephalitis, and related disorders. Powassan encephalitis occurs in North America and Russia and is caused by the Powassan virus. ASEPTIC MENINGITIS and rarely encephalitis may complicate COLORADO TICK FEVER which is endemic to mountainous regions of the western United States. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp14-5)Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.Bites and StingsAcaricides: A pesticide or chemical agent that kills mites and ticks. This is a large class that includes carbamates, formamides, organochlorines, organophosphates, etc, that act as antibiotics or growth regulators.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Ehrlichiosis: A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Trypanosomiasis: Infection with protozoa of the genus TRYPANOSOMA.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Rickettsia Infections: Infections by the genus RICKETTSIA.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne: A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Colorado tick fever virus: A species of COLTIVIRUS transmitted by the tick DERMACENTOR andersonii and causing fever, chills, aching head and limbs, and often vomiting. It occurs in the northwestern United States, except the Pacific Coast.Ehrlichia: Small, often pleomorphic, coccoid to ellipsoidal organisms occurring intracytoplasmically in circulating LYMPHOCYTES. They are the etiologic agents of tick-borne diseases of humans; DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; and HORSES.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Aconitic AcidBabesia: A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.Ectoparasitic Infestations: Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.Arthropod Proteins: Proteins synthesized by organisms belonging to the phylum ARTHROPODA. Included in this heading are proteins from the subdivisions ARACHNIDA; CRUSTACEA; and HORSESHOE CRABS. Note that a separate heading for INSECT PROTEINS is listed under this heading.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Colorado Tick Fever: A febrile illness characterized by chills, aches, vomiting, leukopenia, and sometimes encephalitis. It is caused by the COLORADO TICK FEVER VIRUS, a reovirus transmitted by the tick Dermacentor andersoni.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Microbiological Techniques: Techniques used in microbiology.Candida glabrata: A species of MITOSPORIC FUNGI commonly found on the body surface. It causes opportunistic infections especially in immunocompromised patients.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Anaplasma: A genus of gram-negative bacteria whose organisms are obligate parasites of vertebrates. Species are transmitted by arthropod vectors with the host range limited to ruminants. Anaplasma marginale is the most pathogenic species and is the causative agent of severe bovine anaplasmosis.Blood-Borne Pathogens: Infectious organisms in the BLOOD, of which the predominant medical interest is their contamination of blood-soiled linens, towels, gowns, BANDAGES, other items from individuals in risk categories, NEEDLES and other sharp objects, MEDICAL WASTE and DENTAL WASTE, all of which health workers are exposed to. This concept is differentiated from the clinical conditions of BACTEREMIA; VIREMIA; and FUNGEMIA where the organism is present in the blood of a patient as the result of a natural infectious process.Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Borrelia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus BORRELIA.Tick Toxicoses: Toxicoses caused by toxic substances secreted by the salivary glands of ticks; include tick paralysis (neurotropic toxin), sweating sickness (dermotropic toxin), and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus toxicosis (leukotropic toxin).Trypanocidal Agents: Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Anaplasmataceae: A family of bacteria which inhabit RED BLOOD CELLS and cause several animal diseases.Argas: A genus of softbacked TICKS in the family ARGASIDAE. Most infect birds or bats but a few parasitize terrestrial mammals.Drug Resistance, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.Trypanosoma: A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.RNA, Protozoan: Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Salivary Proteins and Peptides: Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.Anaplasmosis: A disease of cattle caused by parasitization of the red blood cells by bacteria of the genus ANAPLASMA.Babesiosis: A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.Tsetse Flies: Bloodsucking flies of the genus Glossina, found primarily in equatorial Africa. Several species are intermediate hosts of trypanosomes.Trypanosoma congolense: A species of Trypanosome hemoflagellates that is carried by tsetse flies and causes severe anemia in cattle. These parasites are also found in horses, sheep, goats, and camels.Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Babesia microti: A species of protozoa infecting humans via the intermediate tick vector IXODES scapularis. The other hosts are the mouse PEROMYSCUS leucopus and meadow vole MICROTUS pennsylvanicus, which are fed on by the tick. Other primates can be experimentally infected with Babesia microti.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Trypanosoma lewisi: A trypanosome found in the blood of adult rats and transmitted by the rat flea. It is generally non-pathogenic in adult rats but can cause lethal infection in suckling rats.Peromyscus: A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.Central Venous Catheters: Catheters that are inserted into a large central vein such as a SUBCLAVIAN VEIN or FEMORAL VEIN.Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: An acute febrile illness caused by RICKETTSIA RICKETTSII. It is transmitted to humans by bites of infected ticks and occurs only in North and South America. Characteristics include a sudden onset with headache and chills and fever lasting about two to three weeks. A cutaneous rash commonly appears on the extremities and trunk about the fourth day of illness.Vancomycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Fluconazole: Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.Mycological Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Klebsiella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.Trypanosoma brucei gambiense: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes Gambian or West African sleeping sickness in humans. The vector host is usually the tsetse fly (Glossina).Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.Ehrlichia chaffeensis: A species of gram-negative bacteria that is the causative agent of human EHRLICHIOSIS. This organism was first discovered at Fort Chaffee, Arkansas, when blood samples from suspected human ehrlichiosis patients were studied.Relapsing Fever: An acute infection characterized by recurrent episodes of PYREXIA alternating with asymptomatic intervals of apparent recovery. This condition is caused by SPIROCHETES of the genus BORRELIA. It is transmitted by the BITES of either the body louse (PEDICULUS humanus corporis), for which humans are the reservoir, or by soft ticks of the genus ORNITHODOROS, for which rodents and other animals are the principal reservoirs.Vascular Access Devices: Devices to be inserted into veins or arteries for the purpose of carrying fluids into or from a peripheral or central vascular location. They may include component parts such as catheters, ports, reservoirs, and valves. They may be left in place temporarily for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Drug Contamination: The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Genes, Protozoan: The functional hereditary units of protozoa.Serratia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SERRATIA.Anaplasma marginale: A species of gram-negative bacteria and causative agent of severe bovine ANAPLASMOSIS. It is the most pathogenic of the ANAPLASMA species.Spirochaetales: An order of slender, flexuous, helically coiled bacteria, with one or more complete turns in the helix.Community-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.PolandEnterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.DNA, Kinetoplast: DNA of kinetoplasts which are specialized MITOCHONDRIA of trypanosomes and related parasitic protozoa within the order KINETOPLASTIDA. Kinetoplast DNA consists of a complex network of numerous catenated rings of two classes; the first being a large number of small DNA duplex rings, called minicircles, approximately 2000 base pairs in length, and the second being several dozen much larger rings, called maxicircles, approximately 37 kb in length.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Trypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Intensive Care Units, Neonatal: Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.Rickettsia rickettsii: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the etiologic agent of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER. Its cells are slightly smaller and more uniform in size than those of RICKETTSIA PROWAZEKII.Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Diacylglycerol-Lyase: A type C phospholipase specific for GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS. It plays a role in the breaking of GPI MEMBRANE ANCHORS.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Diminazene: An effective trypanocidal agent.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Anaplasmataceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ANAPLASMATACEAE.Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean: A severe, often fatal disease in humans caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER VIRUS, CRIMEAN-CONGO).Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.MycosesCattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Catheterization, Peripheral: Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo: A species of NAIROVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. It is primarily transmitted by ticks and causes a severe, often fatal disease in humans.Trityl CompoundsFungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Trypanosoma vivax: An active blood parasite that is present in practically all domestic animals in Africa, the West Indies, and parts of Central and South America. In Africa, the insect vector is the tsetse fly. In other countries, infection is by mechanical means indicating that the parasites have been introduced to these countries and have been able to maintain themselves in spite of the lack of a suitable intermediate host. It is a cause of nagana, the severity of which depends on the species affected.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Chlorhexidine: A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.Intensive Care Units, Pediatric: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill infants and children. Neonates are excluded since INTENSIVE CARE UNITS, NEONATAL is available.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Mycology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
  • The type species of the genus Coltivirus, Colorado tick fever virus (CTFV) infects haemopoietic cells, particularly erythrocytes, which explains how the virus is transmitted by ticks and also accounts for the incidence of transmission by blood transfusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • People who suspect they have been bitten by a tick or are starting to show signs of CTF should contact their physicians immediately. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult ticks tend to climb to the tops of grasses or low shrubs, attaching themselves to a host wandering by. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Rocky Mountain wood tick is usually found attached to a host, but when it is without a host, it hides in cracks and crevices, as well as soil. (wikipedia.org)
  • She found that if the tick had fed off another mammal first, the tick's blood was infected with a sugar called alpha gal. (abc.net.au)
  • When you remove the body, the head regurgitates everything which was in the tick's body into your bloodstream. (itv.com)
  • Ticks are attracted to their hosts by detecting carbon dioxide and heat through special organs located on the first pair of the tick's legs (Haller's organs). (afraidtoask.com)
  • The molecular adaptations required by pathogenic spirochetes for efficient transmission by obligate, blood-feeding ticks are largely unknown. (cdc.gov)
  • This information, along with an increased understanding of the molecular mechanisms used by tick-borne spirochetes to adapt for transmission by their tick vectors, may lead to unique disease prevention strategies. (cdc.gov)
  • These researchers observed that spirochetes were commonly present in the midgut of infected ticks and occasionally seen in the hindgut and rectal ampule. (cdc.gov)
  • Intensity of fluorescence appeared highest in cultured spirochetes, followed by spirochetes present in unfed ticks. (asm.org)
  • Here we created and analyzed a B. burgdorferi mutant lacking outer-surface protein C (OspC), an abundant Osp that spirochetes normally synthesize in the tick vector during the blood meal and down-regulate after transmission to the mammal. (pnas.org)
  • In this model, OspA is proposed to be an adhesin that tethers the spirochetes to the midgut epithelium ( 5 , 6 ), whereas OspC is thought to be important for movement of the spirochete within the tick ( 7 , 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Upon tick feeding, spirochetes migrate from the ticks to the vertebrate hosts and infect the skin at the biting site, often resulting in an inflammatory skin lesion, called erythema migrans ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • If untreated, spirochetes disseminate via bloodstream to organs, causing disease manifestations including arthritis, carditis, and neuroborreliosis ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Ticks are just the vector," says Dr. David Crandell, who is on the medical staff at the Dean Center of Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital in Boston. (sentinelandenterprise.com)
  • It follows that vlsE recombination does not occur in the tick vector. (asm.org)
  • Scientists think climate change may be to blame because it's now the fastest-growing vector-borne infectious disease in the U.S. Increased temperatures are believed to accelerate tick reproduction, causing a population explosion in the tiny arachnids. (gbmc.org)
  • In this study, we investigated the role of OspC in B. burgdorferi in both the tick vector and the mammalian host. (pnas.org)
  • Ticks are the disease vector, meaning they are the way that the disease gets passed along to other hosts. (asu.edu)
  • Most flea and tick products, including brands commonly sold by veterinarians, fall under the jurisdiction of the EPA and are reviewed and approved against exactly the same EPA standards as products sold in retail outlets. (hartz.com)
  • Although ticks are commonly thought of as insects, they are actually arachnids like scorpions and spiders. (backwoodshome.com)
  • These ticks are capable of transmitting diseased blood from one host group (commonly a diseased white-footed mouse), into the human bloodstream when it seeks a second blood meal. (cowleys.com)
  • If you find a tick on your child, write the information down and keep it for several months. (medlineplus.gov)
  • I like the Tick Key and I keep one in a few rooms of my house so it's close at hand when I find a tick on my dog. (dogsnaturallymagazine.com)
  • If you find a tick attached to your skin, there's no need to panic. (ohio.gov)
  • In addition, she stated that the two-day course of doxycycline, often prescribed for people who find a tick embedded on their body, has little or no prophylactic value. (mvtimes.com)
  • If you should find a tick attached to your pet, it must be removed carefully and safely. (mercola.com)
  • If I find a tick crawling on me, am I at risk for disease? (cornell.edu)
  • The odds of detecting B. henselae DNA in nymphal ticks was ∼14-fold higher than in adult ticks. (asm.org)
  • Questing nymphal and adult I. ricinus ticks were collected (i) at the edge of a forest in Eberdingen near Stuttgart (Germany), (ii) in an alder marsh outside the village Klasdorf located south of Berlin (Germany), (iii) near the town of Lembach in the northern Vosges region of France, and (iv) on pastured meadows on Madeira Island (Portugal) in 2004 by passing a flannel flag over the vegetation. (asm.org)
  • When the nymphal tick finds a warmblooded animal, its skin temperature is greater than that of the environment, and signals the pathogen: "Wake up. (mvtimes.com)
  • One of the most important considerations dog owners face is what type of flea, tick and heartworm preventative to use. (lovetoknow.com)
  • Revolution for Dogs kills adult fleas, prevents flea eggs from hatching for one month and is indicated for the prevention and control of flea infestations, for the prevention of heartworm disease, for treatment and control of ear mite infestations, for treatment and control of sarcoptic mange and for control of tick infestations. (valleyvet.com)
  • Heartworm is a potentially deadly parasite that is transmitted only by mosquitos, which pick up larval heartworms, called microfilaria, circulating in the bloodstream of infected animals. (akc.org)
  • Concentrations of selamectin, the active ingredient, in the tissue and bloodstream prevent heartworm disease. (1800petmeds.com)
  • And the high fever that comes with this kind of tick-borne disease is a dead give away. (redorbit.com)
  • Some tests include complement fixation to Colorado tick virus, immunofluorescence for Colorado tick fever, and some other common laboratory findings suggestive of CTF, including leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, and mildly elevated liver enzyme levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first action is make sure the tick is fully removed from the skin, then acetaminophen and analgesics can be used to help relieve the fever and pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The feared pest, fever ticks have officials with the Texas Animal Health Commission on alert. (kbtx.com)
  • The discovery of infestations outside the so-called "buffer-zone" demanded immediate action by the TAHC, and officials set up temporary fever tick quarantines to contain the ticks. (kbtx.com)
  • Wiske says the increase in fever tick numbers is due in part to wildlife and stray cattle crossing over from Mexico. (kbtx.com)
  • The usual high rainfall that we had this spring going into the summer, it's been very good conditions for the replication of the cattle fever tick," Wiske. (kbtx.com)
  • There are two types of relapsing fever: tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) and louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF). (medscape.com)
  • Louse-borne relapsing fever is more severe than the tick-borne variety. (medscape.com)
  • Relapsing fever can be tick- or louse-borne. (medscape.com)
  • also known as canine rickettsiosis, canine hemorrhagic fever, canine typhus, tracker dog disease, and tropical canine pancytopenia is a tick-borne disease of dogs usually caused by the organism Ehrlichia canis. (wikipedia.org)
  • To Prevent Hemorrhagic Fever: The disease-causing Tick Virus Needs To Be Outsmarted, finds a new study. (medindia.net)
  • You should take them immediately if they are reluctant to move, have swollen joints, fever, fatigue, or loss of appetite as these could be signs of a tick-borne disease. (womansday.com)
  • In our part of North Carolina, ticks carry Rocky Mountain spotted fever, which causes fever, headache, joint ache and muscle ache. (wect.com)
  • Finally, if you're going outside during the summer, it's a good idea to use a high-quality insect repellent to keep ticks away from you. (redorbit.com)
  • Follow our guidelines to keep ticks away this summer. (outsideonline.com)
  • The label will usually list 'ticks' as one of the insects that the product repels. (ca.gov)
  • The disease was first outlined in 1977 by epidemiologists at Yale University, following an investigation of an outbreak of arthritis among a dozen or so children in Lyme, Conn. The condition is transmitted by ticks, tiny insects some only the size of a pencil point. (wickedlocal.com)
  • This story is a must see if you want the latest tips on how best to remove a tick. (abc.net.au)
  • or ever has to remove a tick. (abc.net.au)
  • Dr Jonica Newby meets Dr Sheryl van Nunen, the clinician who discovered the link, and this story is a must-see if you want the latest tips on how best to remove a tick. (abc.net.au)
  • Giguere said even with bug spray he would get bit, once having to remove a tick from his eyelid. (adirondackdailyenterprise.com)
  • Often, the tick is found only after thoroughly searching a person's hair. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ticks are small, insect-like creatures most often found in naturally vegetated areas. (ca.gov)
  • The Rocky Mountain wood tick is usually found attached to a host, but when it is without a host, it hides in cracks and crevices, as well as soil. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is found in the liver, bone marrow, and the spleen as it is carried by white blood cells, which multiply and reenter the bloodstream. (hubpages.com)
  • Williams and his colleagues have found that Japanese barberry also creates the humid conditions that let ticks thrive. (outsideonline.com)
  • No tick was found to be coinfected with B. henselae and B. burgdorferi sensu lato. (asm.org)
  • Paralysis ticks are not found west of the Great Dividing Range, so pets in Canberra are safe, unless they visit the coast for the weekend. (theconversation.com)
  • But if the lameness can't be attributed to obvious injury and persists for more than a few days, and your horse acts grumpy or touchy when you groom him, you might want to ask your veterinarian about the tick-borne disease---especially if it's found in your region. (equisearch.com)
  • In 1996, Jamie Refenes found a tick on her head. (mountainx.com)
  • Rocky mountain wood ticks are found in the western United States and western Canada at 4,000-10,000 feet above sea level. (cdc.gov)
  • This includes the black-legged tick (found in the northeast, mid-Atlantic, and north-central states) as well as the western-legged tick (present on the west coast). (terminix.com)
  • For example, one mother found a tick on her young son after only a few short hours of playing outside. (holtorfmed.com)
  • Researchers recently found Powassan virus infected ticks in Bridgeport and Branford, Connecticut [1, 5- (healthmap.org)
  • Last week, a few days after you went hiking in upstate New York, you found a tick attached there. (asu.edu)
  • For instance ticks are mostly found near water and in meadows or near tracks. (pictures-of-cats.org)
  • Where can ticks be found? (cowleys.com)
  • The contents of each tick from both groups were cultured and 10 B. burgdorferi clones from the spirochetal isolate of each tick were obtained. (asm.org)
  • We demonstrate that B. burgdorferi strictly requires OspC to infect mice but not to localize or migrate appropriately in the tick. (pnas.org)
  • A switch in the major outer-surface proteins (Osp) of B. burgdorferi from OspA to OspC accompanies this change in location within the tick ( 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Aspects of the midgut environment that change during tick feeding, such as temperature, pH, and nutrients, influence the expression of many B. burgdorferi genes, including ospC ( 3 , 9 - 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Although the functional bases for these global changes in B. burgdorferi gene expression are not understood, they are generally considered to constitute an adaptive response that facilitates transition between two distinct niches: the tick and the mammal. (pnas.org)
  • For example, they may have gone on a camping trip, live in a tick-infested area, or have dogs or other animals that can pick up ticks. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Many pets will unknowingly pick up ticks when wandering outside. (terminix.com)