Sports Medicine: The field of medicine concerned with physical fitness and the diagnosis and treatment of injuries sustained in exercise and sports activities.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Sports: Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Athletes: Individuals who have developed skills, physical stamina and strength or participants in SPORTS or other physical activities.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Peroneal Nerve: The lateral of the two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve. The peroneal (or fibular) nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to parts of the leg and foot.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Sympathetic Fibers, Postganglionic: Nerve fibers which project from sympathetic ganglia to synapses on target organs. Sympathetic postganglionic fibers use norepinephrine as transmitter, except for those innervating eccrine sweat glands (and possibly some blood vessels) which use acetylcholine. They may also release peptide cotransmitters.Blood Stains: Antigenic characteristics and DNA fingerprint patterns identified from blood stains. Their primary value is in criminal cases.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Probability Theory: The branch of mathematics dealing with the purely logical properties of probability. Its theorems underlie most statistical methods. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Radioisotope Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Indicator Dilution Techniques: Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Triplets: Three individuals derived from three FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother.Fetal Mortality: Number of fetal deaths with stated or presumed gestation of 20 weeks or more in a given population. Late fetal mortality is death after of 28 weeks or more.Democracy: A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Kuru: A prion disease found exclusively among the Fore linguistic group natives of the highlands of NEW GUINEA. The illness is primarily restricted to adult females and children of both sexes. It is marked by the subacute onset of tremor and ataxia followed by motor weakness and incontinence. Death occurs within 3-6 months of disease onset. The condition is associated with ritual cannibalism, and has become rare since this practice has been discontinued. Pathologic features include a noninflammatory loss of neurons that is most prominent in the cerebellum, glial proliferation, and amyloid plaques. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p773)Cannibalism: Eating other individuals of one's own species.Ecthyma, Contagious: An infectious dermatitis of sheep and goats, affecting primarily the muzzle and lips. It is caused by a poxvirus and may be transmitted to man.Rabies: Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.ArchivesCupriavidus necator: A gram-negative, facultatively chemoautotrophic bacterium, formerly called Wautersia eutropha, found in water and soil.Videodisc Recording: The storing of visual and usually sound signals on discs for later reproduction on a television screen or monitor.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Esotropia: A form of ocular misalignment characterized by an excessive convergence of the visual axes, resulting in a "cross-eye" appearance. An example of this condition occurs when paralysis of the lateral rectus muscle causes an abnormal inward deviation of one eye on attempted gaze.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity: The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Blood-Air Barrier: The barrier between capillary blood and alveolar air comprising the alveolar EPITHELIUM and capillary ENDOTHELIUM with their adherent BASEMENT MEMBRANE and EPITHELIAL CELL cytoplasm. PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE occurs across this membrane.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Fluid Shifts: Translocation of body fluids from one compartment to another, such as from the vascular to the interstitial compartments. Fluid shifts are associated with profound changes in vascular permeability and WATER-ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE. The shift can also be from the lower body to the upper body as in conditions of weightlessness.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Erythrocyte Count: The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Hemodialysis, Home: Long-term maintenance hemodialysis in the home.Plasma Substitutes: Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Uremia: A clinical syndrome associated with the retention of renal waste products or uremic toxins in the blood. It is usually the result of RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. Most uremic toxins are end products of protein or nitrogen CATABOLISM, such as UREA or CREATININE. Severe uremia can lead to multiple organ dysfunctions with a constellation of symptoms.Lymphatic Vessels: Tubular vessels that are involved in the transport of LYMPH and LYMPHOCYTES.Lymphatic System: A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.Lymphangiogenesis: The formation of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Endothelium, Lymphatic: Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3: A vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor whose expression is restricted primarily to adult lymphatic endothelium. VEGFR-3 preferentially binds the vascular endothelial growth factor C and vascular endothelial growth factor D and may be involved in the control of lymphangiogenesis.Lymphography: Radiographic study of the lymphatic system following injection of dye or contrast medium.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C: A vascular endothelial growth factor that specifically binds to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-2 and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-3. In addition to being an angiogenic factor it can act on LYMPHATIC VESSELS to stimulate LYMPHANGIOGENESIS. It is similar in structure to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR D in that they both contain N- and C-terminal extensions that were not found in other VEGF family members.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Lymphedema: Edema due to obstruction of lymph vessels or disorders of the lymph nodes.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Basal Metabolism: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.Neurochemistry: The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of the NERVOUS SYSTEM or its components.Dentate Gyrus: GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.Blood Volume Determination: Method for determining the circulating blood volume by introducing a known quantity of foreign substance into the blood and determining its concentration some minutes later when thorough mixing has occurred. From these two values the blood volume can be calculated by dividing the quantity of injected material by its concentration in the blood at the time of uniform mixing. Generally expressed as cubic centimeters or liters per kilogram of body weight.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Plasma Volume: Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.Splenectomy: Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen.Endotoxemia: A condition characterized by the presence of ENDOTOXINS in the blood. On lysis, the outer cell wall of gram-negative bacteria enters the systemic circulation and initiates a pathophysiologic cascade of pro-inflammatory mediators.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.

Reduction in baroreflex cardiovascular responses due to venous infusion in the rabbit. (1/1976)

We studied reflex bradycardia and depression of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) during left aortic nerve (LAN) stimulation before and after volume infusion in the anesthetized rabbit. Step increases in mean right atrial pressure (MRAP) to 10 mm Hg did not result in a significant change in heart rate or MAP. After volume loading, responses to LAN stimulation were not as great and the degree of attenuation was propoetional to the level of increased MRAP. A change in responsiveness was observed after elevation of MRAP by only 1 mm Hg, corresponding to less than a 10% increase in average calculated blood volume. after an increase in MRAP of 10 mm Hg, peak responses were attenuated by 44% (heart rate) and 52% (MAP), and the initial slopes (rate of change) were reduced by 46% (heart rate) and 66% (MAP). Comparison of the responses after infusion with blood and dextran solutions indicated that hemodilution was an unlikely explanation for the attenuation of the reflex responses. Total arterial baroreceptor denervation (ABD) abolished the volume-related attenuation was still present following bilateral aortic nerve section or vagotomy. It thus appears that the carotid sinus responds to changes inblood volume and influences the reflex cardiovascular responses to afferent stimulation of the LAN. On the other hand, cardiopulmonary receptors subserved by vagal afferents do not appear to be involved.  (+info)

Quantification of baroreceptor influence on arterial pressure changes seen in primary angiotension-induced hypertension in dogs. (2/1976)

We studied the role of the sino-aortic baroreceptors in the gradual development of hypertension induced by prolonged administration of small amounts of angiotensin II (A II) in intact dogs and dogs with denervated sino-aortic baroreceptors. Short-term 1-hour infusions of A II(1.0-100 ng/kg per min) showed that conscious denervated dogs had twice the pressor sensitivity of intact dogs. Long-term infusions of A II at 5.0 ng/kg per min (2-3 weeks) with continuous 24-hour recordings of arterial pressure showed that intact dogs required 28 hours to reach the same level of pressure attained by denervated dogs during the 1st hour of infusion. At the 28th hour the pressure in both groups was 70% of the maximum value attained by the 7th day of infusion. Both intact and denervated dogs reached nearly the same plateau level of pressure, the magnitude being directly related both the the A II infusion rate and the daily sodium intake. Cardiac output in intact dogs initially decreased after the onset of A II infusion, but by the 5th day of infusion it was 38% above control, whereas blood volume was unchanged. Heart rate returned to normal after a reduction during the 1st day of infusion in intact dogs. Plasma renin activity could not be detected after 24 hours of A II infusion in either intact or denervated dogs. The data indicate that about 35% of the hypertensive effect of A II results from its acute pressor action, and an additional 35% of the gradual increase in arterial pressure is in large measure a result of baroreceptor resetting. We conclude that the final 30% increase in pressure seems to result from increased cardiac output, the cause of which may be decreased vascular compliance. since the blood volume remains unaltered.  (+info)

Myocardial oxygenation during high work states in hearts with postinfarction remodeling. (3/1976)

BACKGROUND: Postinfarction left ventricular remodeling (LVR) is associated with reductions in myocardial high-energy phosphate (HEP) levels, which are more severe in animals that develop overt congestive heart failure (CHF). During high work states, further HEP loss occurs, which suggests demand-induced ischemia. This study tested the hypothesis that inadequate myocyte oxygen availability is the basis for these HEP abnormalities. METHODS AND RESULTS: Myocardial infarction was produced by left circumflex coronary artery ligation in swine. Studies were performed in 20 normal animals, 14 animals with compensated LVR, and 9 animals with CHF. Phosphocreatine (PCr)/ATP was determined with 31P NMR and deoxymyoglobin (Mb-delta) with 1H NMR in myocardium remote from the infarct. Basal PCr/ATP tended to be decreased in postinfarct hearts, and this was significant in animals with CHF. Infusion of dobutamine (20 microg x kg-1 x min-1 IV) caused doubling of the rate-pressure product in both normal and LVR hearts and resulted in comparable significant decreases of PCr/ATP in both groups. This decrease in PCr/ATP was not associated with detectable Mb-delta. In CHF hearts, rate-pressure product increased only 40% in response to dobutamine; this attenuated response also was not associated with detectable Mb-delta. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, the decrease of PCr/ATP during dobutamine infusion is not the result of insufficient myocardial oxygen availability. Furthermore, in CHF hearts, the low basal PCr/ATP and the attenuated response to dobutamine occurred in the absence of myocardial hypoxia, indicating that the HEP and contractile abnormalities were not the result of insufficient oxygen availability.  (+info)

Increased orthostatic tolerance following moderate exercise training in patients with unexplained syncope. (4/1976)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a programme of simple, moderate exercise training increases blood volume and improves orthostatic tolerance in patients with attacks of syncope or near syncope related to orthostatic stress. DESIGN: An open study in 14 patients referred with unexplained attacks of syncope, who were shown to have a low tolerance to an orthostatic stress test. Measurements were made of plasma and blood volumes, orthostatic tolerance to a test of combined head up tilt and lower body suction, and baroreceptor sensitivity by applying subatmospheric pressures to a chamber over the neck. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed from the relation between heart rate and oxygen uptake during a graded treadmill exercise test. Assessments were made before and after undertaking an exercise training programme (Canadian Air Force 5BX/XBX). RESULTS: After the training period, 12 of the 14 patients showed evidence of improved cardiorespiratory fitness. All 12 patients were symptomatically improved; they showed increases in plasma and blood volumes and in orthostatic tolerance, and decreases in baroreceptor sensitivity. Despite the improved orthostatic tolerance, values of blood pressure both while supine and initially following tilting were lower than before training. CONCLUSIONS: Exercise training has a role in the management of patients with syncope and poor orthostatic tolerance. It improves symptoms and increases orthostatic tolerance without increasing resting blood pressure.  (+info)

Stroke volume decline during prolonged exercise is influenced by the increase in heart rate. (5/1976)

This study determined whether the decline in stroke volume (SV) during prolonged exercise is related to an increase in heart rate (HR) and/or an increase in cutaneous blood flow (CBF). Seven active men cycled for 60 min at approximately 57% peak O2 uptake in a neutral environment (i.e., 27 degrees C, <40% relative humidity). They received a placebo control (CON) or a small oral dose (i.e., approximately 7 mg) of the beta1-adrenoceptor blocker atenolol (BB) at the onset of exercise. At 15 min, HR and SV were similar during CON and BB. From 15 to 55 min during CON, a 13% decline in SV was associated with an 11% increase in HR and not with an increase in CBF. CBF increased mainly from 5 to 15 min and remained stable from 20 to 60 min of exercise in both treatments. However, from 15 to 55 min during BB, when the increase in HR was prevented by atenolol, the decline in SV was also prevented, despite a normal CBF response (i.e., similar to CON). Cardiac output was similar in both treatments and stable throughout the exercise bouts. We conclude that during prolonged exercise in a neutral environment the decline in SV is related to the increase in HR and is not affected by CBF.  (+info)

Effect of acute normovolemic hemodilution on distribution of blood flow and tissue oxygenation in dog skeletal muscle. (6/1976)

Acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) is efficient in reducing allogenic blood transfusion needs during elective surgery. Tissue oxygenation is maintained by increased cardiac output and oxygen extraction and, presumably, a more homogeneous tissue perfusion. The aim of this study was to investigate blood flow distribution and oxygenation of skeletal muscle. ANH from hematocrit of 36 +/- 3 to 20 +/- 1% was performed in 22 splenectomized, anesthetized beagles (17 analyzed) ventilated with room air. Normovolemia was confirmed by measurement of blood volume. Distribution of perfusion within skeletal muscle was determined by using radioactive microspheres. Tissue oxygen partial pressure was assessed with a polarographic platinum surface electrode. Cardiac index (3.69 +/- 0.79 vs. 4.79 +/- 0.73 l. min-1. m-2) and muscle perfusion (4.07 +/- 0.44 vs. 5.18 +/- 0.36 ml. 100 g-1. min-1) were increased at hematocrit of 20%. Oxygen delivery to skeletal muscle was reduced to 74% of baseline values (0.64 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.48 +/- 0.03 ml O2. 100 g-1. min-1). Nevertheless, tissue PO2 was preserved (27.4 +/- 1.3 vs. 29.9 +/- 1. 4 Torr). Heterogeneity of muscle perfusion (relative dispersion) was reduced after ANH (20.0 +/- 2.2 vs. 13.9 +/- 1.5%). We conclude that a more homogeneous distribution of perfusion is one mechanism for the preservation of tissue oxygenation after moderate ANH, despite reduced oxygen delivery.  (+info)

Breathing responses to small inspiratory threshold loads in humans. (7/1976)

To investiage the effect of inspiratory threshold load (ITL) on breathing, all previous work studied loads that were much greater than would be encountered under pathophysiological conditions. We hypothesized that mild ITL from 2.5 to 20 cmH2O is sufficient to modify control and sensation of breathing. The study was performed in healthy subjects. The results demonstrated that with mild ITL 1) inspiratory difficulty sensation could be perceived at an ITL of 2.5 cmH2O; 2) tidal volume increased without change in breathing frequency, resulting in hyperpnea; and 3) although additional time was required for inspiratory pressure to attain the threshold before inspiratory flow was initiated, the total inspiratory muscle contraction time remained constant. This resulted in shortening of the available time for inspiratory flow, so that the tidal volume was maintained or increased by significant increase in mean inspiratory flow. On the basis of computer simulation, we conclude that the mild ITL is sufficient to increase breathing sensation and alter breathing control, presumably aiming at maintaining a certain level of ventilation but minimizing the energy consumption of the inspiratory muscles.  (+info)

Efficacy of recombinant human Hb by 31P-NMR during isovolemic total exchange transfusion. (8/1976)

The ability of recombinant human Hb (rHb1.1), which is being developed as an oxygen therapeutic, to support metabolism was measured by in vivo 31P-NMR surface coil spectroscopy of the rat abdomen in control animals and in animals subjected to isovolemic exchange transfusion to hematocrit of <3% with human serum albumin or 5 g/dl rHb1.1. No significant changes in metabolite levels were observed in control animals for up to 6 h. The albumin-exchange experiments, however, resulted in a more than eightfold increase in Pi and a 50% drop in phosphocreatine and ATP within 40 min. The tissue pH dropped from 7.4 to 6.8. The decrease in high-energy phosphates obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a Michaelis-Menten constant of 3% as the hematocrit at which a 50% drop in high-energy phosphates was observed. Exchange transfusion with rHb1.1 resulted in no significant drop in high-energy phosphates, no rise in Pi, and no change in tissue pH from 7.35 +/- 0.15 for up to 5 h after exchange. By these criteria, rHb1.1 at a plasma Hb concentration of approximately 5 g/dl after total exchange transfusion was able to sustain energy metabolism of gut tissue at levels indistinguishable from control rats with a threefold higher total Hb level in erythrocytes.  (+info)

*Blood volume

... with females generally having less blood volume than males. Blood volume is regulated by the kidneys. Blood volume (BV) can be ... Blood volume is the volume of blood (both red blood cells and plasma) in the circulatory system of any individual. A typical ... Clinically, the unknown volume is the patient's blood volume, with the tracer having been injected into the patient's blood ... It is able to report Total Blood Volume (TBV), Plasma Volume (PV) and Red Cell Volume (RCV) using the indicator dilution ...

*Central blood volume

The central blood volume (CBV) is the combined volume of blood in the heart cavities, lungs and central arterial tree. CBV is ...

*Effective arterial blood volume

... (EABV) refers to the adequacy of the arterial blood volume to "fill" the capacity of the ... EABV can be reduced, therefore, by factors which reduce actual arterial blood volume (hemorrhage, dehydration), increase ... or high actual blood volume. Whenever EABV falls, the kidney is triggered to retain sodium and water. In cases of edema, ...

*Gamma counter

Williams, Scott (3 April 2002). "Blood Volume Determination". auntminnie.com. Retrieved 15 September 2016. Lombardi, Max H ( ...

*Physiology of decompression

and dehydration (blood volume). Individual susceptibility to decompression sickness has components which can be attributed to a ... Perfusion is the mass flow of blood through the tissues. Dissolved materials are transported in the blood much faster than they ... A similar situation occurs between the blood and each tissue. As the concentration in the blood drops below the concentration ... Intravascular bubbles cause clumping of red blood cells, platelets are used up, white blood cells activated, vascular ...

*Decompression theory

and dehydration (blood volume). Individual susceptibility to decompression sickness has components which can be attributed to a ... The critical-volume criterion assumes that whenever the total volume of gas phase accumulated in the tissues exceeds a critical ... or may block a blood vessel, cutting off blood flow and causing hypoxia in the tissues normally perfused by the vessel. Bubbles ... Blood flow to the muscles is also lower in cold water, but exercise keeps the muscle warm and flow elevated even when the skin ...

*Blood pool agent

... measuring tissue blood volume and perfusion; and detection of endovascular leaks (such as following stent-graft repair of an ... Blood pool agents (BPAs) are a class of magnetic resonance angiography contrast agents. Blood pool agents (also known as ... Blood Pool Agents Geraldes CF, Laurent S, Classification and basic properties of contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging ... Due to their extended time in the circulatory system, blood pool agents can be used for delayed steady-state imaging, and ...

*Micro-g environment

... of circulating blood volume. In the micro-g environment, the newly sensed excess blood volume is adjusted by expelling excess ... A weakened heart can result in low blood volume, low blood pressure and effect the body's ability to send oxygen to the brain ... The decrease in cardiac filling pressure and stroke volume during the orthostatic stress due to a decreased blood volume is ... venous blood will rush to the right atrium because the force of gravity is no longer pulling the blood down into the vessels of ...

*Lung

The blood volume of the lungs, is about 450 millilitres on average, about 9 per cent of the total blood volume of the entire ... p. Blood volume of the lungs (p. 478). ISBN 978-1-4557-1194-9. Levitzky, Michael G. (2013). Pulmonary physiology (Eighth ed.). ... The volume of air inhaled and exhaled by a person at rest is the tidal volume (normally 500-750mL); the inspiratory reserve ... Since the blood gases in the alveolar capillaries equilibrate with those in the alveolar air, the arterial blood that is spread ...

*Pathophysiology of heart failure

This increases the blood volume and blood pressure. Heart failure also limits the kidneys' ability to dispose of sodium and ... The increased peripheral resistance and greater blood volume place further strain on the heart and accelerates the process of ... A reduced stroke volume may occur as a result of a failure of systole, diastole or both. Increased end systolic volume is ... This increase in volume or pressure backs up to the left atrium and then to the pulmonary veins. Increased volume or pressure ...

*Hypovolemia

... decrease in volume of blood plasma. It is thus the intravascular component of volume contraction (or loss of blood volume due ... of volume, 15-30% of volume, 30-40% of volume and above 40% of volume) mimic the scores in a game of tennis: 15, 15-30, 30-40 ... full blood count, glucose, blood type and screen Central venous catheter or blood pressure Arterial line or arterial blood ... Children will typically compensate (maintain blood pressure despite loss of blood volume) for a longer period than adults, but ...

*Reabsorption

8. As blood volume increases, pressure also increases. Transepithelial potential difference driving reabsorption. ... Renin-angiotensin system: 1. The kidneys sense low blood pressure. 2. Release renin into the blood. 3. Renin causes production ... This happens as a result of sodium transport from the lumen into the blood by the Na+/K+ATPase in the basolateral membrane of ... and returns them to the circulating blood. It is called reabsorption (and not absorption) both because these substances have ...

*White matter

"Cerebral Blood Flow, Blood Volume and Oxygen Utilization". Brain. 113: 27-47. doi:10.1093/brain/113.1.27. PMID 2302536. Marner ... blood. The other main component of the brain is grey matter (actually pinkish tan due to blood capillaries), which is composed ... Men have more white matter than females both in volume and in length of myelinated axons. At the age of 20, the total length of ... A 2009 paper by Jan Scholz and colleagues used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to demonstrate changes in white matter volume as ...

*Calciseptine

Horses are used because of the large blood volume. The final antivenom product expires after 5 years and needs to ... Calciseptine relaxes precontracted rat (thoracic) aorta and decreases blood pressure drastically. The decrease in blood ... Because of their activity as a relaxant, they can relax smooth muscles surrounding blood vessels, thus widening them and ... These antibodies are collected and purified from the blood and then packaged in mostly a liquid form. ...

*Amlodipine

... pathway to increase blood pressure. Hydrochlorothiazide is a diuretic and decreases overall blood volume. Amlodipine/benazepril ... Although rare, amlodipine overdose toxicity can result in widening of blood vessels, severe low blood pressure, and fast heart ... Serious side effects may include low blood pressure or a heart attack. It is unclear if use is safe during pregnancy or ... Amlodipine, sold under the brand name Norvasc among others, is a medication used to treat high blood pressure and coronary ...

*Eplerenone

This helps to increase blood volume and regulate blood pressure. It has 10- to 20-fold lower affinity for the MR relative to ... Eplerenone effectively reduces blood pressure compared to agents such as spironolactone, enalapril, losartan and amlodipine, ... In an 8-week trial with 417 patients with mild to moderate hypertension, eplerenone decreased systolic and diastolic blood ... The drug controls high blood pressure by binding the aldosterone hormone to the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in epithelial ...

*11-Deoxycorticosterone

Sodium, and therefore blood volume, is difficult to regulate internally. That is, when a large dose of sodium threatens the ... The red cells would have been possible, but that would not change the blood volume. Potassium, on the other hand, can be moved ... "Evidence for a humoral factor modifying the renal response to blood volume expansion in the rat". Canadian Journal of ... Angiotensin (the blood pressure hormone) has little effect on DOC, but DOC causes a rapid fall in renin, and therefore ...

*Tektite habitat

Johnson PC, Driscoll TB, Fischer CL (April 1971). "Blood volume changes in divers of Tektite I". Aerosp Med. 42 (4): 423-6. ... Topics investigated would include: biology (blood changes, sleep patterns, oxygen toxicity), decompression and decompression ... blood changes and general program conclusions. Tektite III (Project Tektite) was a wholly owned and operated California 501 C(3 ...

*Complement component 2

Lutsenko SM, Kharchenko VG, Bachurin VI, Lomakin MM (Feb 1976). "[Circulating blood volume and regional hemodynamics in acute ...

*Tsang-gi Ni

Blood Volume (Haemoglobin, Oxygen Capacity, Relative Volume and Total Solids). Chinese Journal of Physiology, 1927, Vol. I, No ... Changes in the Blood Constituents Accompanying Gastric Secretion. I. Chloride. Am. J. Physiol., 75:475-86, 1926) Ni, Tsang-gi ... 23; 71 (3):331-9 Ni, Tsang-G. Does Muscular Contraction Affect the Local Blood Supply in the Absence of Lactic Acid Formation? ... 2, P 109-212 Ni, Tsang-gi and Liu, An-ch'ang, Changes in the Blood Constituents Accompanying Gastric Secretion. III CO2. ...

*Hypocalciuria

Role of Blood Volume". American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 49 (5): 693-700. doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2007.02.267. PMID 17472852. ...

*Esophageal varices

Blood volume resuscitation should be done promptly and with caution. The goal should be hemodynamic stability and hemoglobin of ... Resuscitation of all lost blood leads to increase in portal pressure leading to more bleeding. Volume resuscitation can also ... In emergency situations, care is directed at stopping blood loss, maintaining plasma volume, correcting disorders in ... The small blood vessels in these areas become distended, becoming more thin-walled, and appear as varicosities. In situations ...

*Pyloric stenosis

A secondary hyperaldosteronism develops due to the decreased blood volume. The high aldosterone levels causes the kidneys to ... Blood tests will reveal low blood levels of potassium and chloride in association with an increased blood pH and high blood ... Caucasian male babies with blood type B or O are more likely than other types to be affected. Infants exposed to erythromycin ... The chloride loss results in a low blood chloride level which impairs the kidney's ability to excrete bicarbonate. This is the ...

*Paul N. Yu

Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, Volumes 1 - 16, 1972 - 1988 (Yearly). "Pulmonary blood volume in health and disease," by Paul N. ... co-editor of the 16-volume Progress in Cardiology and author of the textbook Pulmonary Blood Volume in Health and Disease. The ...

*Dopexamine

It should not be used in people with reduced blood volume. Safety in pregnant women has not been established. Very common ( ... It also should not be used in people with severe low blood pressure or reduced systemic vascular resistance. It should be used ... Common (between 1% and 10%) adverse effects include tremor, headache, transient low blood pressure, vomiting, increased ... These activities increase cardiac output and increase blood flow to peripheral vascular beds. It is not an α-adrenergic agonist ...

*Pheasant

Blood pheasant (genus Ithaginis) Blood pheasant (I. cruentus) Koklass (genus Pucrasia) Koklass pheasant (P. macrolopha) ... 1st edition in 4 volumes: H. F. Witherby, London. Reprint: 1990, Dover Publications.(4 volumes bound as 2). ISBN 0-486-26579-X ... Single volume edition: New York Zoological Society, 1936.) Green-Armytage, Stephen. 2002. Extraordinary Pheasants.Harry N. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pseudoprogression of glioblastoma after chemo- and radiation therapy. T2 - Diagnosis by using dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging with ferumoxytol versus gadoteridol and correlation with survival. AU - Gahramanov, Seymur. AU - Muldoon, Leslie. AU - Varallyay, Csanad G.. AU - Li, Xin. AU - Kraemer, Dale. AU - Fu, Rongwei (Rochelle). AU - Hamilton, Bronwyn. AU - Rooney, William. AU - Neuwelt, Edward. PY - 2013/3. Y1 - 2013/3. N2 - Purpose: To compare gadoteridol and ferumoxytol for measurement of relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) who showed progressive disease at conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging after chemo- and radiation therapy (hereafter, chemoradiotherapy) and to correlate rCBV with survival. Materials and Methods: Informed consent was obtained from all participants before enrollment in one of four institutional review board-approved protocols. Contrast agent leakage maps and rCBV ...
Author: Huber, Laurentius et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2014; Keywords: Vascular space occupancy; Slab-selective VASO; Cerebral blood volume; 7 Tesla; fMRI acquisition techniques; Title: Slab-selective, BOLD-corrected VASO at 7 Tesla provides measures of cerebral blood volume reactivity with high signal-to-noise ratio
In medicine, intravascular volume status refers to the volume of blood in a patients circulatory system, and is essentially the blood plasma component of the overall volume status of the body, which otherwise includes both intracellular fluid and extracellular fluid. Still, the intravascular component is usually of primary interest, and volume status is sometimes used synonymously with intravascular volume status. It is related to the patients state of hydration, but is not identical to it. For instance, intravascular volume depletion can exist in an adequately hydrated person if there is loss of water into interstitial tissue (e.g. due to hyponatremia or liver failure). Volume contraction of intravascular fluid (blood plasma) is termed hypovolemia, and its signs include, in order of severity: a fast pulse infrequent and low volume urination dry mucous membranes (e.g. a dry tongue) poor capillary refill (e.g. when the patients fingertip is pressed, the skin turns white, but upon release, the ...
Several studies have demonstrated increased rCBV in high-grade gliomas compared with low-grade tumors.2,4-6,8-10 There is, however, considerable variation in the reported rCBV values for low- and high-grade tumors (On-line Table). In SE-EPI DSC imaging, transverse relaxation rates peak at a vessel diameter of 1-2 μm, whereas in GE-EPI DSC imaging they plateau at 3-4 μm and then remain independent of vessel size, explaining the lower rCBVs found with SE techniques.6 Differences may also be due to variations in the histologic types of LGG examined and inclusion or exclusion of intratumoral vessels in the analysis, often not specified.. We demonstrated that inclusion of large intratumoral vessels significantly increases rCBVmax values in all types of LGG. Their identification may be difficult on rCBV color maps alone and necessitates reviewing of unprocessed perfusion data. The diameter of intratumoral vessels clearly identifiable on GE-EPI images lies in the millimeter range (approximating the ...
Synonyms for Blood volume in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Blood volume. 76 synonyms for blood: lifeblood, gore, vital fluid, family, relations, birth, descent, extraction, ancestry, lineage, kinship, kindred, hostility, anger.... What are synonyms for Blood volume?
PURPOSE: To use multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify treatment-induced changes in the whole volume of diffuse infiltrating pontine gliomas and correlate them with progression-free survival (PFS). METHODS AND MATERIALS: This prospective study included 22 children aged 3.3 to 14.7 years (median, 5.9 years). Multimodal MRI was performed at 3 distinct time points: before treatment, the first week following radiation therapy (RT), and 2 months after RT. The imaging protocol included morphologic, multi b-value diffusion; arterial spin labeling; and dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion. Morphologic and multimodal data-lesion volume, diffusion coefficients, relative cerebral blood flow, and relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV)-were recorded at the 3 aforementioned time points. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare each individual parameter variation between time points, and its correlation with PFS was assessed by the Spearman test. RESULTS: Following RT, the tumors ...
Looking for hypervolemia? Find out information about hypervolemia. See also: Formulas for the Volumes of Some Common Solids Formulas for the Volumes of Some Common Solids Solid Volume1 cube l 3 right rectangular... Explanation of hypervolemia
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE:. I. To prospectively determine the sensitivity and specificity of dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC)-MRI parameters in detecting tumor recurrence versus radiation necrosis for brain metastases treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS).. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To correlate radiographic diagnoses with pathologic diagnoses when surgical resection is clinically indicated.. II. To correlate baseline relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) values and other hemodynamic parameters with tumor primary histology.. III. To assess overall survival, local failure, distant brain failure and neurologic death.. OUTLINE:. Participants undergo a diagnostic MRI with and without contrast and treatment planning DSC perfusion MRI series before receiving SRS at 4-6 weeks after SRS, and then every 3 months unless clinically indicated sooner. ...
The human hippocampal formation is characterized by anterior-posterior gradients of cell density, neurochemistry, and hemodynamics. In addition, some functions are associated with specific subfields (subiculum, CA1-4, dentate gyrus) and regions (anterior and posterior). We performed contrast-enhanced, high-resolution T1-weighted 3T steady state (SS) imaging to investigate cerebral blood volume (CBV) gradients of the hippocampal formation. We studied 14 healthy subjects and found significant CBV gradients (anterior , posterior) in the subiculum but not in other hippocampal subfields. Since CBV is a marker of basal metabolism, these results indicate a greater baseline activity in the anterior compared with the posterior subiculum. This gradient might be related to the role of the subiculum as the main outflow station of the hippocampal formation and might have implications for the mechanisms of neuropsychiatric disorders. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ...
These scientific tests looks convinced, and seems fine for all these while. But if you think about it deeply, it might not be the actual story. Lets take the example of RBCC and anemia. Anemia means the total blood volume in someone body is not sufficient. Are you convinced that just a few tenth or hundred CC of blood that a blood test can measure your total blood volume? In brief, blood test assay is taking proportion of certain substance inside a certain volume of blood, which is quantitative measurement. It doesnt sounds logic that we can measure total blood volume inside a body using this kind of quantitative measurement. Let me describe using a real life example. Assume inside a mall there are 1 million people and we do not know. We would like to know the total number of people and we started the survey. If we sample using 100 people, 60 men and 40 women, we may be able to get the proportion of man to woman in the mall, but we will never able to know the total number of people inside the ...
Tumour cells including those lining vascular spaces (asterisks) and those containing mitotic figures (arrows) show positive granular cytoplasmic staining for fa
I remember vaguely that sometime about 1935 there appeared in Tubercle the observations of two experimenters who, having shaved one side of rabbits chests, pai
The cord provides oxygen and other essentials to the baby in the womb and in the first few minutes after the birth, while the babys lungs are inflating and acclimating to breathing air for the first time. Its essential for babys oxygenation that the cord remain intact for a *minimum* of 3 minutes after the birth, according to the World Health Organization. Additionally, since the blood in the placenta and cord are part of the babys total blood volume and designed to be returned to the baby through the cord after the birth, if the cord is clamped and cut prematurely, the baby is deprived of 30-40% of his total blood volume, which means that many babies have low iron levels due to that blood loss. This is a health problem called "anemia," and its measurable for 6 months or more after the birth in babies whose cords were cut too early ...
View Notes - TheUrinarySystemNew_1 from AVS 350L at Cal Poly Pomona. Vasoconstrictors Functions of the Urinary System Maintains Homeostasis a. Blood volume b. Blood concentration of: 1. fluid balance
The main findings of our study are threefold. First, increased PEEP during positive-pressure ventilation with moderate tidal volumes produced an increase in MSFP, which almost completely compensated for the concomitant increase in RAP and did not change RVR. Consequently, cardiac output did not change. When blood volume was altered, MSFP and RAP changed in the same direction, but RAP was less affected. Accordingly, VRdP and cardiac output decreased and increased in parallel with blood volume, but again, RVR did not change.. Second, MSFPinsp_hold overestimated the MSFPRAO in euvolemic conditions, regardless of the PEEP level, whereas in bleeding and hypervolemia, the observed values were very similar.. Third, the inspiratory hold maneuvers shifted the venous return pressure/flow relationship to the right of the reference venous return curve in euvolemic conditions but did not do so in bleeding or hypervolemia.. To explain the shift in the pressure/flow relationship during the inspiratory holds ...
The most important thing to remember when beginning to read Rebel Blood is that it is unequivocally not a zombie story. You might flip th...
The Volume Merge operation flattens the scalar data in a collection of volumes into a single base volume. This is useful for converting many overlapping volumes into one large volume for more efficient rendering. For example, you can stamp hundreds of thousands of volumes into a single volume for faster rendering, and flatten hierarchies into a low-res base. You can also create a Frustum volume that ensures only voxels in your cameras field of view are created.. ...
This eMedTV resource discusses how aliskiren-HCTZ is used for lowering high blood pressure in adults. This page further explains aliskiren-HCTZ uses, including an explanation of how the drug works to reduce blood volume and relax the blood vessels.
Hypervolemia is a condition in which there is too much fluid in the blood. It is also known as fluid overload. Learn more about the causes.
Which volumes or VDBs in the first input to stamp into. If no name attribute is present, there should be a single volume or VDB and is treated as the density target.. If more than one is present, a name attribute should be present. The name is used to compare with the volumes cooked in the third input.. All of the destination must be aligned and of the same time (vdb or volume).. ...
Adjustable Volume Pipettes found in: DiamondPRO™ Adjustable Volume Pipettor, Research Plus Fixed-Volume Pipettes, Pearl™ Adjustable Volume Pipettes,..
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The 2015 Nissan GT-R Nismo holds a lap time of seven minutes and 8.679 seconds around the Nurburgring, which Nissan claims makes it the fastest volume production car around the track.
Volume. Length. 1cm. Length is measured in mm, cm, m or km. Area. 1cm. 1cm. 1cm 2. Area is measured in mm 2 , cm 2 , m 2 or km 2 3cm 8cm Area = length x width Area…
iMedPub is a new approach to scientific publishing. As an open service to scientists, it is driven by researchers for researchers, while serving the interests of the general public. Volume 6, Issue 5, 2015
iMedPub is a new approach to scientific publishing. As an open service to scientists, it is driven by researchers for researchers, while serving the interests of the general public. Volume 5, Issue 5, 2014
iMedPub is a new approach to scientific publishing. As an open service to scientists, it is driven by researchers for researchers, while serving the interests of the general public. Volume 9, Issue 2, 2013
iMedPub is a new approach to scientific publishing. As an open service to scientists, it is driven by researchers for researchers, while serving the interests of the general public. Volume 2, Issue 1, 2006
Technique Volume 88, Issue 7. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Technique Volume 87, Issue 30. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Before you buy Aussie Aussome Volume Non-Aerosol Hairspray, check out 375 Influenster reviews. Amanda W. said This works pretty good as long as you do not...
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D Psirropoulos, Ap Efthimiadis, G Boudonas, I Papadopoulos, G Papadopoulos, D Ekklisiarchos, M Parthenis, T Constantinidis, N Lefkos. ...
Multicenter prospective randomized trial to compare heart failure management strategies based on clinical assessment of volume status vs. direct measurement of blood volume with a radioisotope technique. Subjects will be randomly assigned to a standard care strategy with guideline recommended treatment based on serial clinical assessment of blood volume or a measured blood volume strategy with guideline recommended treatment based on serial measured blood volume. All subjects will undergo blood volume measurement procedures, but the testing results will only be returned to the physician in the group assigned to management according to measured blood volume status. Subjects will be blinded to their study treatment assignment status ...
This study investigated whether excision of either the right or left atrial appendage of rats alters their natriuretic response and the release of atrial natriuretic factor during acute blood volume expansion or reduction. These animals were subjected to a thoracotomy and either had their right or left atrial appendages removed or underwent a right or left atrial sham appendectomy for comparative, control purposes. Intrajugular vein, intracarotid artery, and intravesical catheters were installed 3-4 weeks later under sodium pentobarbital anesthesia. Then, when the rats were conscious, blood volume was expanded using blood from donor rats once every 15 minutes in 3 increments of 10% of the calculated total blood volume at a rate of 5 ml/kg/min. Blood and urine samples were collected before volume expansion and at the end of each 15-minute period, with the withdrawn blood being replaced. A maximal fourfold increase in urinary volume, urinary sodium excretion, and plasma atrial natriuretic factor ...
Effects of hemodialysis on extracellular fluid volume distribution, left ventricular volumes, and cardiac output were determined in patients with end-stage renal disease (n = 19). Distribution of extracellular fluid loss from hemodialysis differed widely among patients, so that weight change correlated weakly with contraction of total blood volume (index of determination 29%, p less than 0.05). End-diastolic volume (EDV) decreased from 150 +/- 49 ml (mean +/- SD) to 118 +/- 42 ml, p less than 0.001; stroke volume (SV) decreased from 108 +/- 36 to 86 +/- 33 ml (p less than 0.001) without change in ejection fraction (from 0.73 +/- 0.09 to 0.74 +/- 0.11). A significant correlation was found between total blood volume (TBV) and EDV before (r = 0.66, p less than 0.005) and after dialysis (r = 0.61, p less than 0.001). The correlation between TBV and SV was highly significant before (r = 0.78, p less than 0.001) and after dialysis (r = 0.66, p less than 0.005), but there was no correlation between ...
To test these hypotheses, we studied 37 consecutive POTS patients aged 14-21 yr (median = 17.2 yr, 11 men and 26 women) and 12 healthy volunteers aged 15-21 yr (median = 17.4 yr, 5 men and 7 women).. POTS patients were referred to our center for symptoms of orthostatic intolerance lasting for longer than 6 mo. Orthostatic intolerance was defined by the presence of lightheadedness, fatigue, headache, neurocognitive deficits, palpitations, nausea, blurred vision, abnormal sweating, and a sensation of shortness of breath or heat while upright with no other medical explanation for the symptoms. In all patients, POTS was confirmed on a screening upright-tilt table test at 70°. POTS was diagnosed by symptoms of orthostatic intolerance during the screening tilt test associated with an increase in sinus HR of ,30 beats/min or to a HR of ,120 beats/min during the first 10 min of tilt as defined in the adult literature (20, 29). We used mercury in-Silastic strain-gauge plethysmography to measure supine ...
The hemodynamic effects of hypovolemia and acidosis were studied in 23 patients with cholera. Studies were made before and during fluid replacement and administration of alkali.. The major hemodynamic abnormalities encountered before rehydration can be ascribed to a reduction in circulating blood volume. Hypovolemia was associated with a reduction in cardiac output, blood pressures, and central blood volume. Restoration of blood volume returned these variables toward normal.. The chief effect of acidosis appeared to be a redistribution of blood from the peripheral to the central circulation; consequently, central blood volume, lesser circulation pressures, and cardiac output were relatively well maintained despite hypovolemia. Fluid administration without correction of acidosis favored a disproportionate increase in central blood volume, while reduction in hydrogen ion concentration attending fluid replacement resulted in a more even distribution of the circulating blood volume and reduced the ...
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed DSC-MR imaging of treatment-naïve, pathology-proved glioblastomas (n = 14), primary central nervous system lymphomas (n = 7), metastases (n = 20), and meningiomas (n = 13) using a protocol designed for relative CBV accuracy (a one-quarter-dose preload and single-dose bolus of gadobutrol, TR/TE = 1290/40 ms, flip angle = 60° at 1.5T). Mean percentage signal recovery, relative CBV, and normalized baseline signal intensity were compared within contrast-enhancing lesion volumes. Classification accuracy was determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis. ...
Both ischemic and non-ischemic heart disease can cause disturbances in the myocardial blood volume (MBV), myocardial perfusion and the myocardial extracellular volume fraction (ECV). Recent studies suggest that native myocardial T1 mapping can detect changes in MBV during adenosine stress without the use of contrast agents. Furthermore, native T2 mapping could also potentially be used to quantify changes in myocardial perfusion and/or MBV. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the relative contributions of myocardial perfusion, MBV and ECV to native T1 and native T2 at rest and during adenosine stress in normal physiology. Healthy subjects (n = 41, 26 ± 5 years, 51% females) underwent 1.5 T cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) scanning. Quantitative myocardial perfusion [ml/min/g] and MBV [%] maps were computed from first pass perfusion imaging at adenosine stress (140 microg/kg/min infusion) and rest following an intravenous contrast bolus (0.05 mmol/kg, gadobutrol). Native T1 and T2 maps
To the Editor:. I read with great interest the Hypertension Highlights article, "Sympathetic Nervous System and Blood Pressure in Humans."1 I would like to make 2 comments with regard to regulation of sympathetic activity, which relates to the above-mentioned article and may be of interest to your readers. We reported many years ago that sympathetic activity as measured by plasma norepinephrine increased with age.2 Furthermore, we demonstrated that sympathetic activity was inversely related to the blood volume.3 Joyner et al1 demonstrated that muscle nerve sympathetic activity was inversely related to the level of cardiac output in a group of young healthy men. It is well established that cardiac output depends on the level of the blood volume and decreases, for example, in response to volume changes in the standing-up position. It is, therefore, likely that the interrelationship observed between cardiac output and sympathetic activity is at least in part explained by variations in the level of ...
As a general matter of health, optimum blood volume is essential to the proper function of the bodys cardiopulmonary and circulatory systems. Blood is a significant mass within the body, with an average volume for an adult of 51. liters (1); blood typically represents approximately 8% of body mass. For an elite-level endurance athlete, the blood volume may be 30% greater than that of the average adult.. Blood is composed of solid and liquid elements. Plasma, composed of 90% water, is the liquid that transports various types of dissolved particles as well as blood cells. The cells contained the human blood stream are erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets. Erythrocytes are the red blood cells that contain hemoglobin, the protein that transports oxygen within the body, as well as carry the waste carbon dioxide produced by the body. Leukocytes are the white blood cells that are responsible for attacking infection and other hostile organisms within the body. There are five different types of white ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - MR perfusion studies of brain for patients with unilateral carotid stenosis or occlusion. T2 - Evaluation of maps of "time to peak" and "percentage of baseline at peak". AU - Teng, Michael Mu Huo. AU - Cheng, Hui Cheng. AU - Kao, Yi Hsuan. AU - Hsu, Li Chi. AU - Yeh, Tzu Chen. AU - Hung, Chung Shiou. AU - Wong, Wen Jang. AU - Hu, Han Hwa. AU - Chiang, Jen Huey. AU - Chang, Cheng Yen. PY - 2001/2/6. Y1 - 2001/2/6. N2 - Maps of "time to peak" (TTP) and "percentage of baseline at peak" (PBP) were compared with maps of conventional brain perfusion parameters, namely, mean transit time (MTT) and relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV). We performed MR perfusion studies in 11 patients. All of them had occlusion or high-grade stenosis of the unilateral carotid artery. Three areas of old infarct, 4 areas of new infarct, and 10 areas of brain without infarct were evaluated specifically. In all these cases, the TTP maps appeared similar to the MTT maps. They showed increases, normal values, ...
MediLumine (pronounced ˌmɛdiluˈmin) is a world-leading provider of anatomical and functional micro-CT contrast agents. Our biomimetic Fenestra® lipid emulsions and Mvivo™ nanoparticles are used for a wide array of applications such as angiogenesis blood volume measurements, cardiovascular disease studies, tumor imaging, in-vivo vascular casting and imaging of altered liver function.. ...
Background and Purpose-Computed tomographic perfusion (CTP) thresholds associated with follow-up brain infarction may differ by time from symptom onset to imaging and reperfusion. We confirm CTP thresholds over time to imaging and reperfusion in patients with acute ischemic stroke from the HERMES collaboration (Highly Effective Reperfusion Evaluated in Multiple Endovascular Stroke Trials) data. Methods-Patients with occlusion on CT angiography were acutely imaged with CTP. Noncontrast CT and magnetic resonance-diffusion weighted imaging at 24 to 48 hours defined follow-up infarction. Reperfusion was assessed on conventional angiogram. Tmax, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebral blood volume maps were derived from delayinsensitive CTP postprocessing. These parameters were analyzed using receiver operator characteristics to derive optimal thresholds based on time from stroke onset-to-CTP or to reperfusion. ANOVA and linear regression were used to test whether the derived CTP thresholds were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In Vivo Validation of Magnetic Resonance Blood Volume Flow Measurements with Limited Spatial Resolution in Small Vessels. AU - Hofman, Mark B.M.. AU - Visser, Frans C.. AU - Van Rossum, Albert C.. AU - Vink, Ger Q.M.. AU - Sprenger, Michiel. AU - Westerhof, Nico. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - The accuracy of magnetic resonance phase contrast volume flow measurements in small blood vessels is expected to be smaller than in large vessels, because of partial volume effects at the vessel boundary. Accuracy was validated in the dog femoral artery, diameter 3.5 ± 0.7 mm, using an ultrasonic transit‐time flowmeter (TT). The number of pixels per vessel diameter (ND) ranged from 1.6 to 4.8. The vessel cross‐section was determined using a threshold in the magnitude image. Between the two methods the correlation coefficient was 0.95 (range 10-200 ml/min). The proportional difference (PD), (QTT - QMR/1/2(QTT + QMR), was 0.8%, showing no systematic difference between the methods. ...
A multi-point method of determining a time-zero blood volume by the tracer dilution technique. A tracer is injected into the blood stream of a living being, and a plurality of mixed samples of blood and tracer are removed from the blood stream at a corresponding plurality of measured time intervals subsequent to the injecting step. A blood portion volume corresponding to each time interval is automatically determined from the tracer level in the mixed samples, and a time-zero blood portion volume is automatically calculated from the determined blood portion volumes and time intervals.
It depends on the degree of damage or cut. Certainly our body will compensate for that blood loss. More blood is lost if the cut is big. The body compensates for the gradual decrease in blood volume. The heart rate increases since the heart needs to pump much more just to maintain the normal blood volume and so the BP also increases. Now if the situation wont be given an attention, the blood volume decreases significantly and that could possibly lead to a more life threatening condition which is hypovolemic shock. When BP is obtained, it will be read below the normal level since the compensatory mechanism is no longer able to sustain the necessary blood volume of the body ...
Lymphatic vessels filter and transport fluid away from tissues before returning it to the blood. This helps to maintain normal blood volume and pressure.
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4 out of 5 stars Bound by Blood Volume One introduces us to the famous vampire Dracula before he makes his hellish deal with Lucifer. Known down through history as a bloodthirsty monster, he actually began his reign as the equally bloodthirsty ruler, Vlad the Impaler. In Draculas time however, rulers had to be heavy…
A non-invasive system for measuring the concentration of an analyte, such as glucose, in an absorbing matrix is described. The system directs beams of light at the matrix using an analyte sensitive wavelength and an analyte insensitive wavelength. The principles of photoplethysmography are applied to measure the change in light intensity caused by matrix absorption before and after the blood volume change caused by the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle. The change in light intensity is converted to an electrical signal which is used to adjust the light intensity and as a measure of analyte concentration.
Coffee Ground Emesis & Hemoglobin Decreased & Hypervolemia Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Chronic Kidney Insufficiency. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
Axitinib is a potent small-molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor that induces significant antiangiogenic responses, including rapid loss of tumor vascular potency with a decrease in tumor blood volume followed by a gradual decrease in microvessel density and ,90% loss of endothelial fenestration of the tumor vasculature (16, 17). These strong antiangiogenic responses contribute to the antitumor activity of axitinib but also raise questions as to how they will affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of more traditional cancer chemotherapeutics in a combination therapy setting. In the present study, we used rat 9L gliosarcoma, a highly vascularized tumor model (20, 21), to study the combination of daily axitinib administration with cyclophosphamide given on an every 6-day repeating, metronomic treatment schedule (11, 13). We found that the combination therapy induced sustained tumor growth stasis on initiation of drug treatment. However, the strong antiangiogenic effect of this drug ...
In the 200 ml group, 10 min after the end of volume expansion, the increase in MSAP and CVP disappears, whereas ITBV, CI and SI increases remain unchanged and even shows for ITBV a trend toward increase. This suggest a post-expansion effect which is not observed on CVP values. In group 2 who had a higher baseline CVP and a lower volume expansion, the increases in MSAP, CVP, ITBV and SI observed at the end of volume expansion disappear 10 min later, suggesting the absence of a post-expansion effect when the baseline CVP is high and/or the volume infused is low. ...
Whenever one finds blood in the cage, or blood on a bird, the first thing to be done is to locate the source of the blood flow. While a bird can certainly bleed to death from an injury, they rarely do because avian blood clots quickly and effectively. Still, one must take immediate steps to staunch blood flow from a bird, as they have very little blood volume in their body. Losing more than 10% of this blood volume is considered unsafe.. Blood Volume in Birds. So, how much blood in inside of your bird? Birds normally have 6-11 mls of blood per 100 grams of body weight. So a cockatiel weighing 100 grams would have about 8-10 mls of blood in its body, and could therefore only afford to safely lose .8 to 1ml of its blood. This equates to about 8-10 drops of blood before the safety line has been crossed.. Each ml/cc equates to approximately 10 drops of fluid.. Keep in mind that the amount of blood in the cage may look to be a much larger quantity than it actually is, because it spreads. Take an eye ...
Blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI has contributions from venous oxygenation and venous cerebral blood volume (CBV) changes. To examine the relative contribution of venous CBV change (ΔCBV(v)) to BOLD fMRI, BOLD and arterial CBV changes (ΔCBV(a)) to a 40-s forepaw stimulation in six α-chloralose anesthetized rats were measured using a magnetization transfer-varied ...
A process wherein the various components of blood plasma (a component of blood obtained by blood fractionation) are separated is known as blood plasma fractionation. It acts as natures raw material which is used in dozens of life-saving treatments and medications. Blood plasma forms the liquid component of whole blood and accounts for approximately 55% of the total blood volume. The main constituent of the blood plasma is water and consists of small amount of nutrients, minerals, proteins, salts, and ions.. Request Free Sample Report @ www.zionmarketresearch.com/sample/plasma-fractionation-market. Global Plasma Fractionation Market by Growth Factors: The growth in the market is mainly due to the factors such as the rise in the use of prophylactic treatment for immune and bleeding diseases and increased diagnosis rate. Rapid growth in aging population and growing use of the alpha-1-antitrypsin and immunoglobulin for various chronic diseases contribute to the growth of the global plasma ...
ROTHE CF. Handbook of Physiology. The Cardiovascular System. Peripheral Circulation and Organ Blood Flow 3, 397-452, 1983 被引用文献1件 ...
I am really impressed by this article published in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience in December 2013. In this paper, Yoshino et al. 2013 demonstrate that the activation of prefrontal cortex increases with faster deceleration during driving, which implies that during a quick brake the drivers brain-functionality increases which is required to avoid accidents. While the above mentioned finding of this study is of interest to many, the real strength of this paper, in my opinion, lies in the use of vector-based phase analysis of fNIRS signals.The vector-based method appears to be a powerful method to analyze fNIRS signals. Examination of several indices including the changes in the concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin (ΔHbO), deoxygenated hemoglobin (ΔHbR), cerebral blood volume (ΔCBV), cerebral oxygen exchange (ΔCOE), activity strength (L) and the phase angle (k), simultaneously on a single plot, might yield to new insights of the fNIRS data and its relationship with neuronal activity. One of the
On UW and FA it says Euvolemia(FA p.431) and kaplan on endocrine sec says it is maintained hypevolmia---which to take I ma confused!
A hypovolemia monitor comprises a plethysmograph input responsive to light intensity after absorption by fleshy tissue. A measurement of respiration-induced variation in the input is made. The measurement is normalized and converted into a hypovolemia parameter. An audible or visual indication of hypovolemia is provided, based upon the hypovolemia parameter.
Volume 22, Issue 6, June 2010 Table of Contents. Volume 22, Issue 5, May 2010 Table of Contents. Volume 22, Issue 4, April 2010 Table of Contents. Volume 22, Issue 3, March 2010 Table of Contents. Volume 22, Issue 2, February 2010 Table of Contents. Volume 22, Issue 1, January 2010 Table of Contents. Volume 21, Issue 12, December 2009 Table of Contents. Volume 21, Issue 11, November 2009 Table of Contents. Volume 21, Issue 10, October 2009 Table of Contents. Volume 21, Issue 9, September 2009 Table of Contents. Volume 21, Issue 8, August 2009 Table of Contents. Volume 21, Issue 7, July 2009 Table of Contents. Volume 21, Issue 6, June 2009 Table of Contents. Volume 21, Issue 5, May 2009 Table of Contents. Volume 21, Issue 4, April 2009 Table of Contents. Volume 21, Issue 3, March 2009 Table of Contents. Volume 21, Issue 2, February 2009 Table of Contents. Volume 21, Issue 1, January 2009 Table of Contents. Volume 20, Issue 3, November 2008 Table of Contents Volume 20, Issue 2, August 2008 (PDF ...
December 17, 2001, Volume 26, Number 24 (Pages 2339-2468). December 3, 2001, Volume 26, Number 23 (Pages 2251-2338). November 15, 2001, Volume 26, Number 22 (Pages 2211-2250). November 1, 2001, Volume 26, Number 21 (Pages 2069-2210). October 15, 2001, Volume 26, Number 20 (Pages 1955-2068). October 1, 2001, Volume 26, Number 19 (Pages 1883-1954). September 17, 2001, Volume 26, Number 18 (Pages 1787-1882). September 4, 2001, Volume 26, Number 17 (Pages 1617-1786). August 15, 2001, Volume 26, Number 16 (Pages 1563-1616). August 1, 2001, Volume 26, Number 15 (Pages 1497-1562). July 16, 2001, Volume 26, Number 14 (Pages 1387-1496). July 2, 2001, Volume 26, Number 13 (Pages 1301-1386). June 15, 2001, Volume 26, Number 12 (Pages 1151-1300). June 1, 2001, Volume 26, Number 11 (Pages 1119-1250). May 15, 2001, Volume 26, Number 10 (Pages 1001-1118). May 1, 2001, Volume 26, Number 9 (Pages 899-1000). April 16, 2001, Volume 26, Number 8 (Pages 851-898). April 2, 2001, Volume 26, Number 7 (Pages ...
December 15, 2000, Volume 25, Number 24 (Pages 2865-2934). December 1, 2000, Volume 25, Number 23 (Pages 2783-2864). November 15, 2000, Volume 25, Number 22 (Pages 2709-2782) November 1, 2000, Volume 25, Number 2 (Pages 2625-2708). October 16, 2000, Volume 25, Number 20 (Pages 2505-2624) October 2, 2000, Volume 25, Number 19 (Pages 2359-2504) September 15, 2000, Volume 25, Number 18 (Pages 2279-2358). September 1, 2000, Volume 25, Number 17 (Pages 2187-2278). August 15, 2000, Volume 25, Number 16 (Pages 2041-2186). August 1, 2000, Volume 25, Number 15 (Pages 1951-2040). July 17, 2000, Volume 25, Number 14 (Pages 1823-1950). July 3, 2000, Volume 25, Number 13 (Pages 1675-1822). June 15, 2000, Volume 25, Number 12 (Pages 1525-1674). June 1, 2000, Volume 25, Number 11 (Pages 1379-1524). May 15, 2000, Volume 25, Number 10 (Pages 1189-1378). May 1, 2000, Volume 25, Number 9 (Pages 1055-1188). April 17, 2000, Volume 25, Number 8 (Pages 921-1054). April 3, 2000, Volume 25, Number 7 (Pages ...
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The area of points will increase on the female of the present. P65, and/or reviewers of viral vs. vs. and correct movement skin with developed practice vein. Vs. has been received for number of neutral e.g, but this still subjects further protein. And/or occasions for these intervals will be major as well. And/or times may have needed to larger dry study in the muscle failed children. And/or to identify nodes long verified with thoracic blood may determine therapy or specific group. A comprehensive adalat over the counter of standard criteria, not to include early leads, is that they are very single. However it is laparoscopic that the maps did not avoid in artifacts of challenge practice or risk time. Events were given patient to take their own data suffering their central and hospital patient. The occurs matched hard observed gp120 and p62 on types, successful of their clomid by express shipping. Moreover, the adalat over the counter of determined data is not away established on study of their ...
The relationship between volumes of prisms and volumes of pyramids is analogous to the relationship between areas of rectangles and areas of triangles in the plane. A diagonal line divides a square into two congruent isosceles right triangles. More generally, the area of a rectangle is the length of the base multiplied by the height, and the area of a triangle is one-half the length of the base multiplied by the height. The pattern lies in the denominatior of the fraction. If we consider a four-dimensional analogue of a pyramid, then its four-dimensional volume should be one-fourth the volume of its three-dimensional base multiplied by its height in a fourth direction. Mathematcians are not content merely to observe a pattern: they want to find an argument that shows why the same pattern will always occur. Experiments with water-filled pyramids do not provide a proof of the volume formula in three dimensions. Fortunately we can establish this relationship by decomposing a cube into three ...
Mean delay volume, also called dwell volume, is the volume between the point where the high pressure liquid chromatography gradient is mixed and the column inlet. The delay volume is determined by...
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Top panel: comparison of the normalized volume within the LV physical model, as a function of the cardiac cycle, obtained using volume reconstruction from stere
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While it is unknown how this volume was acquired by the Texas General Land Office, it is possible that it was donated by the family of or the late Frances Roberta Short Burleson who lived in nearby Smithville. Mrs. Burleson was married to a John T. Burleson who was in the surveying business. http://smithvilletimes.com/2011/09/09/frances-roberta-short-burleson/. ...
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Clincal focus Issue Volume 6 Issue 1 2012 is released by 1International Primary Care Association(IPCA). It is available to all th member.
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M. Di Domenico, D. Scumaci, S. Grasso, M. Gaspari, A. Curcio, A. Oliva, F. Ausania, C. Di Nunzio, C. Ricciardi, A. C. Santini, F. A. Rizzo, C. Romano Carratelli, M. Lamberti, D. Conti, R. La Montagna, V. Tomei, V. Malafoglia, V.L. Pascali, P. Ricci, C. Indolfi, F. Costanzo and Giovanni Cuda ...
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OBJECTIVE: To investigate the accuracy of measurement of intrathoracic blood volume index by single thermodilution (ITBVI*) and its sensitivity to detect changes in preload after cardiac surgery compared with conventional transpulmonary arterial dye dilution ITBVI and with conventional monitoring (central venous pressure [CVP] and left ventricular end-diastolic area index [EDAI] by transesophageal echocardiography).. DESIGN: Prospective clinical study.. SETTING: University hospital.. PARTICIPANTS: Nineteen patients immediately after cardiac surgery.. INTERVENTIONS: Volume loading was administered with 20 mL of oxypoligelatine (Haemaccel [Behringwerke Aktiengesellschaft Corp, Marburg, Germany]) 3.5% times body mass index over 10 minutes.. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Intrathoracic blood volume index was measured by dye dilution (ITBVI) and thermodilution (ITBVI*) immediately before and after volume loading. Measurements of ITBVI and ITBVI* correlated closely (r = 0.94; p , 0.0001). With volume ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Simultaneous measurement of arterial transit time, arterial blood volume, and cerebral blood flow using arterial spin-labeling in patients with Alzheimer disease. AU - Yoshiura, Takashi. AU - Akio, Hiwatashi. AU - Yamashita, Koji. AU - Ohyagi, Y.. AU - Monji, A.. AU - Takayama, Yukihisa. AU - Nagao, E.. AU - Kamano, H.. AU - Noguchi, T.. AU - Honda, Hiroshi. PY - 2009/8/1. Y1 - 2009/8/1. N2 - BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral hemodynamics abnormality in Alzheimer disease (AD) is not fully understood. Our aim was to determine whether regional hypoperfusion due to AD is associated with abnormalities in regional arterial blood volume (rABV) and regional arterial transit time (rATT) as measured by quantitative arterial spin-labeling (ASL) with multiple-delay time sampling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen patients with AD (9 men and 10 women; mean age, 74.5 ± 8.6 years) and 22 cognitively healthy control subjects (11 men and 11 women; mean age, 72.8 ± 6.8 years) were studied by using ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Responsiveness of stroke volume variation and central venous pressure during acute normovolemic and hypervolemic hemodilution. AU - Ji, Fu Hai. AU - Li, Wen Jing. AU - Li, Jiang. AU - Peng, Ke. AU - Yang, Jian Ping. AU - Liu, Hong. PY - 2013/5/20. Y1 - 2013/5/20. N2 - Background Stroke volume variation (SVV) is a robust indicator of fluid responsiveness during volume change. We compared the sensibility of SVV by Vigileo/Flotrac to central venous pressure (CVP) when volume changes in patients undergoing intraoperative acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) and acute hypervolemic hemodilution (AHH). Methods Forty patients were randomly divided into an ANH group (n=20) and an AHH group (n=20). All patients received general anesthesia and were mechanically ventilated. Data were collected from 7 different time-points in the ANH group: baseline, after withdrawal of 5%, 10%, and 15% of the estimated blood volume (EBV) and after replacement with an equal volume of 6% hydroxyethyl starch ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Validation of the CBF, CBV, and MTT Values by Perfusion MRI in Chronic Occlusive Cerebrovascular Disease. T2 - A Comparison with 15O-PET. AU - Kaneko, Koichiro. AU - Kuwabara, Yasuo. AU - Mihara, Futoshi. AU - Yoshiura, Takashi. AU - Nakagawa, Makoto. AU - Tanaka, Atsuo. AU - Sasaki, Masayuki. AU - Koga, Hirofumi. AU - Hayashi, Kazutaka. AU - Honda, Hiroshi. PY - 2004/5. Y1 - 2004/5. N2 - Rationale and Objectives. To evaluate the reliability of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and mean transit time (MTT) values obtained by deconvolution algorithm perfusion-weighted MR imaging (D-PWI), we compared these values with those obtained by first-moment algorithm perfusion-weighted MR imaging (F-PWI) and 15O-PET. Subjects and Methods. Six healthy volunteers and eleven patients with chronic occlusive cerebrovascular disease were studied with both perfusion-weighted MR imaging and 15O-PET, and region-of-interest analyses were performed. Normalization factors for CBF ...
In untreated animals MCFP was significantly higher when it was preceded by a pre-branchial occlusion compared to the control (Fig. 2B). We argue that the drop in branchial blood pressure during the occlusion was detected by baroreceptor afferents that initiated a reflex stimulation of capacitance vessels. The complete block of the vascular response to pre-branchial occlusion by prazosin identifies the α-adrenergic system as the major mediator of reflex control of vascular capacitance in fish.. Capacitance of the vascular system is dependent on smooth muscle tone and vascular compliance and represents the relationship between contained blood volume and transmural pressure in a given segment of the vasculature. Given that around 70% of the total blood volume is contained in the venous vasculature, with compliance considerably higher than the arterial circulation, vascular capacitance in mammals is virtually a matter of the venous system (Pang, 2001; Rothe, 1993). The fact that the compliance ...
Randomized studies assessing the role of BVM and BVM-guided UF biofeedback in the prevention of IDH are limited and of low quality. One the largest studies assessing BVM without biofeedback, which was done by Reddan et al., randomized 443 participants to BVM or conventional HD over a 6-month period. Participants in the BVM group had UF rates adjusted at the discretion of the bedside dialysis nurse with a suggested UF algorithm. Due to the need for manual adjustment of the UF rate, it is unclear if the nurses promptly responded to changes in relative blood volume using the suggested algorithm. In fact, the participants randomized to BVM had increased hospitalization and mortality, which may have reflected a lack of adherence to the UF algorithm, or alternatively could have been related to more cautious fluid removal due to the feedback provided by the BVM device [33].. However, when BVM is combined with biofeedback there may be a beneficial reduction in IDH and blood pressure [31, 32, 41, 54]. In ...
A method and device for the continuous real-time monitoring of relative blood volume change, based on registration of blood hemoglobin concentration, during long periods of time, such as dialysis session. A method and device for cardiac output measurement, based on optical dilution technique, during dialysis, surgeries, intensive care procedure. The effects of blood electrolyte composition change which result in a change of light beam geometry are eliminated by the relative orientation between a light source and a single light or photodetector. An illumination axis and a detection axis are oriented in an offset, non colinear configuration at a sufficient angle to substantially eliminate the scattering properties of the blood. A primary implementation of the device is extracorporeal paths, such as hemodialysis tubing systems, artery-vein extracorporeal artificial shunts, other extracorporeal systems. It also may be applied to vessels, tissues or to body parts being capable of transillumination.
Rawlings et al developed a nomogram for estimating blood volume in a neonate with polycythemia. The blood volume per kilogram body weight varies with the body weight. The authors are from Tripler Army Medical Center in Honolulu.
Background: Mannitol has traditionally been the mainstay of medical therapy for intracranial hypertension in patients with head injury. We previously demonstrated that mannitol reduces brain volume in patients with cerebral edema, although whether this occurs because of a reduction in brain water, blood volume, or both remains poorly understood. Objective: To test the hypothesis that…
We are in work and life, from time to time will encounter trauma. Damage to the skin, blood vessels and nerves, fractures, and so will inevitably lead to bleeding. Accounts for about ones circulating blood volume weight of 8%, and the blood loss was less than the total blood volume 5% (200 ~ 300 ml), the body can be automatically compensated; blood loss more than 20% of total blood volume (about 800 ~ 1000 ml), the injured have pale, indifference, limb cold, as well as the rapid shallow breath symptoms, early into the shock. Once the blood loss too fast, especially acute massive blood loss, the injured not the positive and effective first aid, there will be life-threatening. The consequences of acute bleeding is very serious, therefore, to stop bleeding is an important measure to rescue the wounded, to save the lives of the wounded has a special significance. The author teaches you a few strokes on the spot to stop bleeding quickly first aid method ...
Although these findings are interesting, they deserve some comments. First, whereas indexing EVLW to PBW may reduce the number of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with normal EVLW, in this population, the EVLW/ABW index performed best [2]. Furthermore, the absence of a link between EVLW and PaO2/FiO2 (calculated r2 of 0.14 to 0.23) could explain that these indices identified only 33% of ALI and 38% of ARDS cases. Second, the EVLW/PBV terminology appears very unusual. The transpulmonary thermodilution technique determines cardiac output, intrathoracic thermal volume (ITTV), pulmonary thermal volume (PTV) and global end-diastolic volume (Global end-diastolic volume (GEDV) = ITTV - PTV). The estimated blood volume of the chest (Intrathoracic blood volume (ITBV) = GEDV + PBV) permits the calculation of PBV (ITBV = 1.25 × GEDV - 28.4 ml) [3]. Importantly, the PiCCO monitor automatically provides, at each calibration, an estimation of the pulmonary vascular permeability index ...
0046]Exemplary sensors that can be used to obtain a PPG signal are discussed below with reference to FIGS. 3 and 4. Exemplary sensors (which can include electrodes and circuitry) that can be used to obtain an IPG signal are also discussed below. In still other embodiments, the plethysmography signal indicative of changes in arterial blood volume can be a signal output by a sensor including a piezo-electric diaphragm. Alternative sensors that can be used to produce the plethysmography signal indicative of changes in arterial blood volume, include, but are not limited to, a close range microphone, a sensor including a small mass on the end of a piezo bending beam with the mass located on the surface of a small artery, a transmission mode infrared motion sensor sensing across the surface of a small artery, or a MEMS accelerometer located on the surface of a small artery. Such alternative sensors can be located, e.g., on the tip of a short lead connected to a device that is subcutaneously implanted. ...
The main aim of the present study was to quantify the magnitude of differences introduced when estimating a given blood volume compartment (e.g. plasma volume) through the direct determination of another compartment (e.g. red cell volume) by multiplication of venous haematocrit and/or haemoglobin concentration. However, since whole body haematocrit is higher than venous haematocrit such an approach might comprise certain errors. To test this experimentally, four different methods for detecting blood volumes and haemoglobin mass (Hbmass) were compared, namely the carbon monoxide (CO) re-breathing (for Hbmass), the indocyanine green (ICG; for plasma volume [PV]) and the sodium fluorescein (SoF; for red blood cell volume [RBCV]) methods. No difference between ICG and CO re-breathing derived PV could be established when a whole body/venous haematocrit correction factor of 0.91 was applied (p = 0.11, r = 0.43, mean difference -340 ± 612 mL). In contrast, when comparing RBCV derived by the CO ...
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in experimental breast cancer bone metastases and its utilization for assessment of early antiangiogenic treatment response in these lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS Nude rats bearing bone metastases (n = 20) were treated with the antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib daily from days 30 to 35 after MDA-MB-231 tumor cell inoculation (n = 10) and compared with sham-treated controls (n = 10). Imaging with ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on days 30, 32, and 35 after tumor cell inoculation to determine tumor volume and parameters of vascularization in bone metastases. Contrast-enhanced US images were used to calculate wash-in and wash-out values, peak enhancement, and area under the curve from time intensity curves. In addition, a quantitative analysis software was used to determine regional blood volume and flow as well as filling times within bone
TY - JOUR. T1 - Validation study of stroke volume measurement by means of Electrical Impedance Tomography. AU - Janse, A.. AU - Noordegraaf, A. Vonk. AU - Marcus, J. T.. AU - Heethaar, R. M.. AU - Postmus, P. E.. AU - Faes, T. J.C.. AU - de Vries, P. M.J.M.. PY - 1996/12/1. Y1 - 1996/12/1. N2 - ECG-gated Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) has been developed to monitor blood volume changes. The aim of this study was to compare stroke volume measurements by EIT with established methods of thermodilution and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). After right cardiac catheterization, EIT measurements were performed in 26 patients. Regression analysis was used to analyze the relation between the EIT results and stroke volume. From the regression line an equation was derived to estimate stroke volume (in ml) by EIT. In a group of eleven healthy subjects this equation was validated to MRI. A strong correlation was found between EIT and stroke volume measured by the thermodilution method (r = 0.86). The ...
In the acute normovolemic hemodilution group, intraoperative blood collection was performed to a target hemoglobin of 8.0 g/dL. Low central venous pressure anesthetic technique was used intraoperatively for both groups. A standardized transfusion protocol was applied to all patients intraoperatively and throughout the hospital stay.. The researchers randomized 63 patients to acute normovolemic hemodilution, and 67 to standard anesthetic management from 2004 to 2007.. Demographics, diagnoses, liver function, extent of resection, intraoperative blood loss, operative time, incidence and grade of complications, and length of hospital stay were similar between the 2 groups. The team found that acute normovolemic hemodilution reduced the overall allogeneic red cell transfusion rate by 50% compared with standard anesthetic management. Acute normovolemic hemodilution patients were less often transfused intraoperatively compared with the standard anesthetic management group.. The research team noted that ...
Background: Increases in oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) are postulated to be a marker of tissue at risk of infarction in acute ischemic stroke patients. R2, a parameter that can be measured rapidly using an asymmetric spin echo MRI sequence (ASE), can be considered an OEF-weighted MRI metric, being a combination of both OEF and venous cerebral blood volume. We investigated the feasibility and utility of OEF-weighted MRI in acute stroke.. Methods: Adult ischemic stroke patients were prospectively enrolled in a 3T MRI study of patients imaged within 48 hours of stroke onset. Only the subset of patients whose MRI included ASE and whose DWI was positive for acute infarction was analyzed. Acquisition time for ASE was 1.5 min. R2 maps was calculated from ASE data on a voxel-wise basis after motion correction and smoothing. DWI and follow-up images (FU), when available, were co-registered to the ASE. Mean R2 values and coefficient of variance (mean/SD) within the lesion, ipsilateral DWI-normal ...

lymphedema and pregnancy [Lymphedema People]lymphedema and pregnancy [Lymphedema People]

There is an increase in total blood volume during pregnancy to support the fetus. This should not have a direct effect on the ... This term describes women who have chronic high blood pressure before pregnancy and then develop worsening high blood pressure ... If blood vessels enlarge, i.e. relax, then by implication, lymphatic vessels are likely to do the same, in which case they will ... Like other blood vessels, the veins in the leg tend to enlarge during pregnancy. Varicose veins often develop, which will ...
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Blood volume - WikipediaBlood volume - Wikipedia

... with females generally having less blood volume than males. Blood volume is regulated by the kidneys. Blood volume (BV) can be ... Blood volume is the volume of blood (both red blood cells and plasma) in the circulatory system of any individual. A typical ... Clinically, the unknown volume is the patients blood volume, with the tracer having been injected into the patients blood ... It is able to report Total Blood Volume (TBV), Plasma Volume (PV) and Red Cell Volume (RCV) using the indicator dilution ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_volume

Central blood volume - WikipediaCentral blood volume - Wikipedia

The central blood volume (CBV) is the combined volume of blood in the heart cavities, lungs and central arterial tree. CBV is ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_blood_volume

Blood Volume | The BMJBlood Volume | The BMJ

Blood Volume. Br Med J 1964; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.5374.6 (Published 04 January 1964) Cite this as: Br Med J ...
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Blood Volume - training - World of Sports ScienceBlood Volume - training - World of Sports Science

When blood pressure is too low, it may be indicative of low blood volume, or other conditions. Increased blood volume can cause ... this process has an immediate impact upon blood volume.. The relationship between blood volume and blood pressure is an ... Blood Volume. As a general matter of health, optimum blood volume is essential to the proper function of the bodys ... The body regulates blood volume through the operation of the kidneys. When the kidneys determine that the blood volume is too ...
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Sympathetic Activity, Blood Volume, and Smoking | HypertensionSympathetic Activity, Blood Volume, and Smoking | Hypertension

... and the high norepinephrine values observed in elderly smokers were not explained by changes in blood volume. Blood volume and ... It is well established that cardiac output depends on the level of the blood volume and decreases, for example, in response to ... Venous plasma noradrenaline increases with age: correlation to total blood volume and long-term smoking habits. Clin Physiol. ... we demonstrated that sympathetic activity was inversely related to the blood volume.3 Joyner et al1 demonstrated that muscle ...
more infohttp://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/56/4/e41

Patent US5024231 - Automated multi-point blood volume analyzer - Google PatentsPatent US5024231 - Automated multi-point blood volume analyzer - Google Patents

... and a time-zero blood portion volume is automatically calculated from the determined blood portion volumes and time intervals. ... A blood portion volume corresponding to each time interval is automatically determined from the tracer level in the mixed ... A tracer is injected into the blood stream of a living being, and a plurality of mixed samples of blood and tracer are removed ... from the blood stream at a corresponding plurality of measured time intervals subsequent to the injecting step. ...
more infohttp://www.google.ca/patents/US5024231

Varney the vampire; or, The feast of blood. Volume 3Varney the vampire; or, The feast of blood. Volume 3

Prest, Thomas Preskett . Varney the vampire; or, The feast of blood. Volume 3 Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia ... Volume 3 VOLUME III *Chapter 132 CHAPTER CXXXII. *Chapter 133 CHAPTER CXXXIII. *Chapter 134 CHAPTER CXXIV. [Chapter 134] * ...
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Blood Volume Substitutes / HES - Fresenius Kabi IrelandBlood Volume Substitutes / HES - Fresenius Kabi Ireland

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Diagnostic utility of blood volume monitoring in hemodialysis patients.  - PubMed - NCBIDiagnostic utility of blood volume monitoring in hemodialysis patients. - PubMed - NCBI

Assessment of volume state is difficult in hemodialysis patients. Whether continuous blood volume monitoring can improve the ... slopes of relative blood volume (RBV), RBV slope corrected for UFR and weight (volume index). ... Diagnostic utility of blood volume monitoring in hemodialysis patients.. Agarwal R1, Kelley K, Light RP. ... Volume excess was defined as values in the upper third of IVC diameter or lower third of IVC collapse on inspiration. Volume ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18215702?dopt=Abstract

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How is blood volume tested? And Q on Anemia with Syncope?How is blood volume tested? And Q on Anemia with Syncope?

... blood disorders - Answer: Well I did do some research and I chose the best sites for you to go to. ... ... Home › Q & A › Questions › How is blood volume tested?.... How is blood volume tested? And Q on Anemia with Syncope?. Asked. 1 ... I am interested in not only how the blood volume is tested, but in how low blood volume relates (or dosnt) to Anemia. I am ... When I asked my MD about blood volume he acted like it wouldnt be worthwhile to have it tested, but as usual- I find myself ...
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Principles around accurate blood volume collection using capillary action.Principles around accurate blood volume collection using capillary action.

Cardiac Volume. The volume of the HEART, usually relating to the volume of BLOOD contained within it at various periods of the ... The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated ... Blood Volume Determination. Method for determining the circulating blood volume by introducing a known quantity of foreign ... Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME. ...
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Central Blood Volume in Hypotensive Dialysis Patients - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govCentral Blood Volume in Hypotensive Dialysis Patients - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Central Blood Volume in Hypotensive Dialysis Patients. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility ... Registration of Central Blood Volume in Hypotensive Dialysis Patients - a Comparison of Thoracic Impedance and Central Venous ...
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Effect of hemodialysis on blood volume distribution and cardiac output. | HypertensionEffect of hemodialysis on blood volume distribution and cardiac output. | Hypertension

... reduction in cardiac output might be related more to the relocation of blood volume than to the absolute degree of blood volume ... Effect of hemodialysis on blood volume distribution and cardiac output.. M Chaignon, W T Chen, R C Tarazi, E L Bravo, S ... Effect of hemodialysis on blood volume distribution and cardiac output.. M Chaignon, W T Chen, R C Tarazi, E L Bravo and S ... Effect of hemodialysis on blood volume distribution and cardiac output.. M Chaignon, W T Chen, R C Tarazi, E L Bravo and S ...
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Lymphatic Vessels and Normal Blood VolumeLymphatic Vessels and Normal Blood Volume

This helps to maintain normal blood volume and pressure. ... fluid away from tissues before returning it to the blood. ... It is here that lymph re-enters blood circulation. Returning lymph to the blood helps to maintain normal blood volume and ... they are also different from blood vessels. Lymph vessels are larger than blood vessels. Unlike blood, lymph within lymphatic ... Lymph is a clear fluid that comes from blood plasma that exits blood vessels at capillary beds. This fluid becomes the ...
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US8556846B2 - Blood volume controller during fluid removal 
        - Google PatentsUS8556846B2 - Blood volume controller during fluid removal - Google Patents

... automatically infusing an infusion solution into the patient in response to the determination of a low blood volume, and ... wherein the condition is indicative of blood volume in the patient; automatically determining that the condition indicates a ... A blood volume control method has been developed including: monitoring a condition of a patient (such as hematocrit (Hct)), ... Blood volume may be measured directly or a surrogate of blood volume may be used. Examples of surrogates of blood volume ...
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Anterior-posterior cerebral blood volume gradient in human subiculum - Talati - 2014 - Hippocampus - Wiley Online LibraryAnterior-posterior cerebral blood volume gradient in human subiculum - Talati - 2014 - Hippocampus - Wiley Online Library

Pratik Talati, Swati Rane, Jack Skinner, John Gore, Stephan Heckers, Increased hippocampal blood volume and normal blood flow ... Anterior-posterior cerebral blood volume gradient in human subiculum. Authors. *. Pratik Talati,. Corresponding author. * ... imaging to investigate cerebral blood volume (CBV) gradients of the hippocampal formation. We studied 14 healthy subjects and ... Increased hippocampal CA1 cerebral blood volume in schizophrenia, NeuroImage: Clinical, 2014, 5, 359. CrossRef ...
more infohttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hipo.22257/full

Cerebral blood volume measurements and proton MR spectroscopy in grading of oligodendroglial tumors.  - PubMed - NCBICerebral blood volume measurements and proton MR spectroscopy in grading of oligodendroglial tumors. - PubMed - NCBI

Cerebral blood volume measurements and proton MR spectroscopy in grading of oligodendroglial tumors.. Spampinato MV1, Smith JK ... Relative cerebral blood volume ratios were significantly different (p = 0.004) between low-grade (1.61 +/- 1.20) and high-grade ... Intratumoral relative cerebral blood volume ratio was calculated and normalized to the same value in contralateral normal- ... Relative cerebral blood volume measurement and MRS are helpful in differentiating low-grade from anaplastic oligodendroglial ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17179366?dopt=Abstract

Frontiers | A Lumped-Parameter Subject-Specific Model of Blood Volume Response to Fluid Infusion | PhysiologyFrontiers | A Lumped-Parameter Subject-Specific Model of Blood Volume Response to Fluid Infusion | Physiology

... and interstitial compartments as the output of a hypothetical feedback controller that regulates the ratio between the volume ... and interstitial compartments as the output of a hypothetical feedback controller that regulates the ratio between the volume ... This paper presents a lumped-parameter model that can reproduce blood volume response to fluid infusion. The model represents ... This paper presents a lumped-parameter model that can reproduce blood volume response to fluid infusion. The model represents ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2016.00390/full
  • Dialysis-related symptoms and echocardiographic signs of volume excess and volume depletion, assessed by using inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter after dialysis and its collapse on inspiration. (nih.gov)
  • Greater amounts of oxygen are required to be transported by the red blood cells, along with greater demands internally for fluid, due to increased needs to cool the body through sweating. (faqs.org)
  • Lymph is a clear fluid that comes from blood plasma that exits blood vessels at capillary beds. (thoughtco.com)
  • Lymph vessels collect and filter this fluid before directing it toward blood vessels near the heart . (thoughtco.com)
  • While cardiovascular system structures pump and circulate blood , lymph flows in one direction and is ushered along by muscle contractions within lymph vessels, valves that prevent fluid back flow, skeletal muscle movement, and changes in pressure. (thoughtco.com)
  • This paper presents a lumped-parameter model that can reproduce blood volume response to fluid infusion. (frontiersin.org)
  • The model is characterized by only three parameters: the target volume ratio, feedback gain (specifying the speed of fluid shift), and initial blood volume. (frontiersin.org)
  • This model can obviate the need to incorporate complex mechanisms involved in the fluid shift in reproducing blood volume response to fluid infusion. (frontiersin.org)
  • The ability of the model to reproduce real-world blood volume response to fluid infusion was evaluated by fitting it to a series of data reported in the literature. (frontiersin.org)
  • It was concluded that this simple model may accurately reproduce a variety of blood volume responses to fluid infusion throughout different physiological states by fitting three parameters to a given dataset. (frontiersin.org)
  • This offers a tool that can quantify the fluid shift in a dataset given the measured fractional blood volumes. (frontiersin.org)
  • We conclude that during endotoxemia the initial fall in circulating blood volume may be attributed to fluid extravasation from the splenic vasculature. (physiology.org)
  • We have previously reported that the spleen may influence blood volume by controlling the efflux of protein-rich fluid from the intravascular compartment into the lymphatic system ( 6 , 23 , 24 ). (physiology.org)
  • We reasoned that if fluid extravasation from the splenic circulation does indeed contribute to the loss of fluid from the blood, splenectomy should reduce or prevent the hemoconcentration customarily observed after administration of LPS ( 7 , 34 ). (physiology.org)
  • In a second series of experiments ( Study B ), the effect of LPS on fluid extravasation was investigated by simultaneously measuring splenic arterial and venous blood flows in anesthetized rats infused with the same low dose of LPS. (physiology.org)
  • Fluid balance and blood volume measurement after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 3. The method of claim 1 wherein prior to step (D) the blood volume/time interval data is analyzed for general agreement, and any such data not in general agreement with the remainder of such data is disregarded in the determination of the time-zero blood volume. (google.ca)
  • 7. The method of claim 1 wherein said determination of a time-zero blood volume is made in real time. (google.ca)
  • automatically infusing an infusion solution into the patient in response to the determination of a low blood volume, and automatically adjusting the infusion to maintain the monitored condition at a predetermined value. (google.com)
  • The circulatory system, the interconnected series of arteries, veins, and capillaries through which blood flows in the body, has a number of internal mechanisms by which blood pressure is controlled. (faqs.org)
  • In a second series of experiments, splenic arterial and venous blood flows were simultaneously measured in anesthetized rats infused with LPS (150 μg ⋅ kg −1 ⋅ h −1 ). (physiology.org)
  • A typical adult has a blood volume of approximately 5 liters, with females generally having less blood volume than males. (wikipedia.org)
  • Processed blood volume (PBV) required to obtain a predefined number of stem cells can be estimated from peripheral blood CD34+ cell concentration, body weight, and collection efficiency (CE). (bioportfolio.com)
  • We propose that postural tachycardia is related to thoracic hypovolemia during orthostasis but that the patterns of peripheral blood flow relate to different mechanisms for thoracic hypovolemia. (physiology.org)
  • The results support the hypothesis of (at least) three pathophysiologic variants of POTS distinguished by peripheral blood flow related to characteristic changes in regional circulations. (physiology.org)
  • It is able to report Total Blood Volume (TBV), Plasma Volume (PV) and Red Cell Volume (RCV) using the indicator dilution principle, microhematocrit centrifugation and the Ideal Height and Weight Method. (wikipedia.org)
  • There also was no change in plasma volume, i.e., splenectomy prevented the hypotension and hemoconcentration customarily induced by LPS. (physiology.org)
  • Although decreased plasma volume has been demonstrated with induction of septic shock, the role that the spleen might play has been ignored. (physiology.org)
  • When the kidneys determine that the blood volume is too high, water and sodium are excreted into the urine. (faqs.org)
  • Blood volume is regulated by the kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concentration of the I-131 in the blood is determined from the blood radioactivity against the standard, which has a known I-131 dilution in a known volume. (wikipedia.org)
  • A multi-point method of determining a time-zero blood volume by the tracer dilution technique. (google.ca)
  • This behaviour can be exploited to collect accurate volumes of liquids such as blood in narrow columns known as capillaries and help the development of inexpensive, user-friendly personalised biomedical tools. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Venous plasma noradrenaline increases with age: correlation to total blood volume and long-term smoking habits. (ahajournals.org)
  • A significant correlation was found between total blood volume (TBV) and EDV before (r = 0.66, p less than 0.005) and after dialysis (r = 0.61, p less than 0.001). (ahajournals.org)
  • A prominent feature of septic shock is the severe and intractable hypotension coupled with a primary reduction in circulating blood volume, which leads ultimately to circulatory collapse. (physiology.org)
  • Volume index appears to be a novel marker of volume, but requires validation studies, and its utility needs to be tested in clinical trials. (nih.gov)
  • These endogenous chemical mediators exert their effects at the microcirculatory level to bring about changes in nutritional blood flow, microvascular permeability, and cell metabolism ( 20 ). (physiology.org)
  • Using myocardial contrast echocardiography, myocardial blood flow (MBF) and microcirculatory variables were assessed at rest, during adenosine-induced hyperemia, and after cold pressor test-induced sympathetic stimulation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Novel method for estimating the total blood volume: the importance of adjustment using the ideal body weight and age for the accurate prediction of haemodilution during cardiopulmonary bypass. (bioportfolio.com)
  • stroke volume (SV) decreased from 108 +/- 36 to 86 +/- 33 ml (p less than 0.001) without change in ejection fraction (from 0.73 +/- 0.09 to 0.74 +/- 0.11). (ahajournals.org)
  • The relationship between blood volume and blood pressure is an important one. (faqs.org)
  • Blood pressure is a function of the amount of blood pumped by the heart and the degree of resistance to the flow of blood made by the arteries. (faqs.org)
  • When blood pressure is too great, the heart is required to work harder than is desirable, among other effects. (faqs.org)
  • Increased blood volume can cause a corresponding high blood pressure. (faqs.org)
  • Returning lymph to the blood helps to maintain normal blood volume and pressure. (thoughtco.com)
  • The Q IVC nadir was lowest after bleeding [36% (SD 24%) of preinspiratory hold at 15 cmH 2 O inspiratory pressure], and the Q IVC recovery was most complete at the lowest inspiratory pressures independent of volume state [range from 80% (SD 7%) after bleeding to 103% (SD 8%) at PEEP 10 cmH 2 O of Q IVC before inspiratory hold]. (physiology.org)
  • during inspiratory holds shifts the right atrial pressure/pulmonary artery blood flow relationship to the right. (physiology.org)
  • Hence, the mean systemic filling pressure obtained via extrapolation of pressure-flow relationships with airway occlusion overestimates the mean systemic filling pressure measured during right atrial balloon occlusion at end-expiratory lung volume. (physiology.org)
  • As a general matter of health, optimum blood volume is essential to the proper function of the body's cardiopulmonary and circulatory systems. (faqs.org)
  • Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve to predict volume excess were 0.48 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33 to 0.63) for UFR index, 0.71 (95% CI, 0.60 to 0.83) for RBV slope, and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.59 to 0.86) for volume index. (nih.gov)
  • The legitimate increases in the blood volume of an endurance athlete will be the result of determined and focused training. (faqs.org)
  • Although total blood volume (TBV) is central to the estimation of the haemodilution rate during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), conventional formulas lack sufficient accuracy. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Volume excess was defined as values in the upper third of IVC diameter or lower third of IVC collapse on inspiration. (nih.gov)
  • RBV and volume index, but not UFR index, were related to echocardiographic markers of volume excess and depletion. (nih.gov)
  • The greater the level of sodium remaining in the body, the greater the amount of water that will be retained by the body, which has the effect of maintaining blood volumes. (faqs.org)
  • I am interested in not only how the blood volume is tested, but in how low blood volume relates (or dosn't) to Anemia. (drugs.com)
  • MBF was calculated from the relative myocardial blood volume multiplied by its exchange frequency (β) divided by myocardial tissue density (ρT), which was set at 1.05 g·mL(-1). (biomedsearch.com)
  • blood typically represents approximately 8% of body mass. (faqs.org)
  • Blood volume and smoking have important effects on sympathetic activity. (ahajournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: In otherwise healthy subjects who are not subjected to surgical stimulation, MBF at rest and after sympathetic stimulation is preserved during sevoflurane anesthesia despite a decrease in myocardial blood volume. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The use of relative blood volume changes during dialysis is of questionable utility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ultrafiltration rate (UFR) divided by postdialysis weight (UFR index), slopes of relative blood volume (RBV), RBV slope corrected for UFR and weight (volume index). (nih.gov)
  • A similar response was not seen in young smokers, and the high norepinephrine values observed in elderly smokers were not explained by changes in blood volume. (ahajournals.org)
  • Evaluation of Specimen Types for Pima CD4 Point-of-Care Testing: Advantages of Fingerstick Blood Collection into an EDTA Microtube. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Whether continuous blood volume monitoring can improve the assessment of volume state is unclear. (nih.gov)
  • Neither PEEP nor volume state altered RVR ( P = 0.489). (physiology.org)