Blood Viscosity: The internal resistance of the BLOOD to shear forces. The in vitro measure of whole blood viscosity is of limited clinical utility because it bears little relationship to the actual viscosity within the circulation, but an increase in the viscosity of circulating blood can contribute to morbidity in patients suffering from disorders such as SICKLE CELL ANEMIA and POLYCYTHEMIA.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Erythrocyte Aggregation: The formation of clumps of RED BLOOD CELLS under low or non-flow conditions, resulting from the attraction forces between the red blood cells. The cells adhere to each other in rouleaux aggregates. Slight mechanical force, such as occurs in the circulation, is enough to disperse these aggregates. Stronger or weaker than normal aggregation may result from a variety of effects in the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE or in BLOOD PLASMA. The degree of aggregation is affected by ERYTHROCYTE DEFORMABILITY, erythrocyte membrane sialylation, masking of negative surface charge by plasma proteins, etc. BLOOD VISCOSITY and the ERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE are affected by the amount of erythrocyte aggregation and are parameters used to measure the aggregation.Hemorheology: The deformation and flow behavior of BLOOD and its elements i.e., PLASMA; ERYTHROCYTES; WHITE BLOOD CELLS; and BLOOD PLATELETS.Hemodilution: Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.Rheology: The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.Erythrocyte Deformability: Ability of ERYTHROCYTES to change shape as they pass through narrow spaces, such as the microvasculature.Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood: Repetitive withdrawal of small amounts of blood and replacement with donor blood until a large proportion of the blood volume has been exchanged. Used in treatment of fetal erythroblastosis, hepatic coma, sickle cell anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septicemia, burns, thrombotic thrombopenic purpura, and fulminant malaria.Isoxsuprine: A beta-adrenergic agonist that causes direct relaxation of uterine and vascular smooth muscle. Its vasodilating actions are greater on the arteries supplying skeletal muscle than on those supplying skin. It is used in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease and in premature labor.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Polycythemia: An increase in the total red cell mass of the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Capillary Resistance: The vascular resistance to the flow of BLOOD through the CAPILLARIES portions of the peripheral vascular bed.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Plasma Substitutes: Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.Shear Strength: The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Erythrocyte Count: The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Erythrocyte Transfusion: The transfer of erythrocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Erythrocytes, Abnormal: Oxygen-carrying RED BLOOD CELLS in mammalian blood that are abnormal in structure or function.Blood Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the BLOOD.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Erythrocyte Indices: ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Anemia, Sickle Cell: A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.Hemostasis: The process which spontaneously arrests the flow of BLOOD from vessels carrying blood under pressure. It is accomplished by contraction of the vessels, adhesion and aggregation of formed blood elements (eg. ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION), and the process of BLOOD COAGULATION.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Paraparesis, Tropical Spastic: A subacute paralytic myeloneuropathy occurring endemically in tropical areas such as the Caribbean, Colombia, India, and Africa, as well as in the southwestern region of Japan; associated with infection by HUMAN T-CELL LEUKEMIA VIRUS I. Clinical manifestations include a slowly progressive spastic weakness of the legs, increased reflexes, Babinski signs, incontinence, and loss of vibratory and position sensation. On pathologic examination inflammatory, demyelination, and necrotic lesions may be found in the spinal cord. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1239)Paraparesis, Spastic: Mild or moderate loss of motor function accompanied by spasticity in the lower extremities. This condition is a manifestation of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES that cause injury to the motor cortex or descending motor pathways.Human T-lymphotropic virus 1: A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).HTLV-I InfectionsGait Ataxia: Impairment of the ability to coordinate the movements required for normal ambulation (WALKING) which may result from impairments of motor function or sensory feedback. This condition may be associated with BRAIN DISEASES (including CEREBELLAR DISEASES and BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES); SPINAL CORD DISEASES; or PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES.Manihot: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that is perennial with conspicuous, almost palmate leaves like those of RICINUS but more deeply parted into five to nine lobes. It is a source of a starch after removal of the cyanogenic glucosides. The common name of Arrowroot is also used with Maranta (MARANTACEAE). The common name of yuca is also used for YUCCA.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Cellular Phone: Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia: A lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by pleomorphic B-LYMPHOCYTES including PLASMA CELLS, with increased levels of monoclonal serum IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. There is lymphoplasmacytic cells infiltration into bone marrow and often other tissues, also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. Clinical features include ANEMIA; HEMORRHAGES; and hyperviscosity.Point-of-Care Systems: Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Platelet Adhesiveness: The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Extracorporeal Circulation: Diversion of blood flow through a circuit located outside the body but continuous with the bodily circulation.Indians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.South DakotaNorth DakotaOklahomaArizona

Extracorporeal rheopheresis in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke: A randomized pilot study. (1/580)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Extracorporeal rheopheresis is a safe method to optimize hemorheology. Our aim was to determine whether treatment with extracorporeal rheopheresis in patients with acute ischemic hemispheric stroke improves cerebral perfusion as assessed with serial 99mTc-ethyl-cysteinate-dimer single-photon emission CT (99mTc-ECD SPECT). We also investigated how clinical outcome is associated with treatment and imaging results. METHODS: Thirty-three patients (mean age, 64+/-10 years) with acute ischemic hemispheric stroke were included in a prospective, randomized, parallel group pilot study. First treatment with or without extracorporeal rheopheresis took place within 12 hours after the onset of symptoms and was repeated 3 times at intervals of 24 hours. Hemorheological parameters were measured before and after each session. Each patient underwent 99mTc-ECD SPECT immediately before treatment, 6 to 8 hours after treatment, and after 5 days. A semiquantitative SPECT graded scale was used to measure depth and extent of activity deficits and thus to quantify the perfusion deficit. RESULTS: Seventeen patients were actively treated with extracorporeal rheopheresis, and 16 patients did not receive extracorporeal rheopheresis. After 3 months, no differences were found in the functional or neurological outcome. Despite a rapid, sustained decrease of plasma viscosity and erythrocyte aggregation in the rheopheresis group, there was no significant difference in the SPECT graded scale after therapy between the 2 groups. Patients with early reperfusion (decrease in the SPECT graded scale >25% 6 to 8 hours after therapy compared with the baseline examination) experienced a better functional outcome (Modified Rankin Scale) after 3 months compared with patients without reperfusion (P=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Since quantitative flow mapping and clinical follow-up did not reveal any differences between patients who were treated with extracorporeal rheopheresis and controls, it appears very unlikely that extracorporeal rheopheresis enhances reperfusion after acute cerebral ischemia.  (+info)

Circulatory changes induced by isovolumic increase in red cell mass in fetal lambs. (2/580)

AIM: To verify whether extra uterine changes in total peripheral vascular resistance and cardiac output, caused by raised haematocrit, occur in fetal life and if they can be documented using conventional ultrasound techniques. METHODS: An exchange transfusion with packed red cells was performed on five fetal lambs at 140 days of gestation (weight 3.44, SD 0.48 kg); three others were used as controls. The haematocrit was raised from 44 +/- 3 to 64 (SD2)%. RESULTS: Body temperature, blood gas, and pH remained within normal limits. Blood viscosity increased from 5.3 (0.3) to 9.6 (1.6) cps. Combined cardiac output fell to 30% of its initial value. The pulsatility index (PI) remained unchanged in the umbilical artery (0.66, SD 0.1) and descending aorta (1.3, SD 0.3). A significant positive correlation was found between haematocrit and PI only in the carotid artery (r = 0.67, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: In the fetus, as in adults, an increase in blood viscosity is associated with a fall in cardiac output. However, the low resistance and the relative inertia of the placental vascular bed blunt the velocimetric changes that could be induced in the lower body vascular system by an increase in resistance. Such changes were observed only in the carotid artery. These results could be of interest in the Doppler monitoring of human fetuses at risk of an abnormal increase in their haematocrit.  (+info)

Hemodilution, cerebral O2 delivery, and cerebral blood flow: a study using hyperbaric oxygenation. (3/580)

Hemodilution reduces blood viscosity and O2 content (CaO2) and increases cerebral blood flow (CBF). Viscosity and CaO2 may contribute to increasing CBF after hemodilution. However, because hematocrit is the major contributor to blood viscosity and CaO2, it has been difficult to assess their relative importance. By varying blood viscosity without changing CaO2, prior investigation in hemodiluted animals has suggested that both factors play roughly equal roles. To further investigate the relationship of hemodilution, blood viscosity, CaO2, and CBF, we took the opposite approach in hemodiluted animals, i.e., we varied CaO2 without changing blood viscosity. Hyperbaric O2 was used to restore CaO2 to normal after hemodilution. Pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized rats underwent isovolumic hemodilution with 6% hetastarch, and forebrain CBF was measured with [3H]nicotine. One group of animals did not undergo hemodilution and served as controls (Con). In the three experimental groups, hematocrit was reduced from 44% to 17-19%. Con and hemodiluted (HDil) groups were ventilated with 40% O2 at 101 kPa (1 atmosphere absolute), which resulted in CaO2 values of 19.7 +/- 1.3 and 8.1 +/- 0.7 (SD) ml O2/dl, respectively. A second group of hemodiluted animals (HBar) was ventilated with 100% O2 at 506 kPa (5 atmospheres absolute) in a hyperbaric chamber, which restored CaO2 to an estimated 18.5 +/- 0.5 ml O2/dl by increasing dissolved O2. A fourth group of hemodiluted animals (HCon) served as hyperbaric controls and were ventilated with 10% O2 at 506 kPa, resulting in CaO2 of 9.1 +/- 0.6 ml O2/dl. CBF was 79 +/- 19 ml. 100 g-1. min-1 in the Con group and significantly increased to 123 +/- 9 ml. 100 g-1. min-1 in the HDil group. When CaO2 was restored to baseline with dissolved O2 in the HBar group, CBF decreased to 104 +/- 20 ml. 100 g-1. min-1. When normoxia was maintained during hyperbaric exposure in the HCon group, CBF was 125 +/- 18 ml. 100 g-1. min-1, a value indistinguishable from that in normobaric HDil animals. Our data demonstrate that the reduction in CaO2 after hemodilution is responsible for 40-60% of the increase in CBF.  (+info)

Relationship between smoking and cardiovascular risk factors in the development of peripheral arterial disease and coronary artery disease: Edinburgh Artery Study. (4/580)

AIMS: The aim was to determine whether the effect of smoking on the development of peripheral or coronary artery disease might be mediated by other cardiovascular risk factors, including dietary antioxidant vitamin intake, serum low and high density lipoproteins, blood pressure, plasma fibrinogen, blood viscosity and markers of endothelial disturbance and fibrin turnover. METHODS AND RESULTS: 1592 men and women aged 55-74 years were selected at random from 11 general practices in Edinburgh, Scotland and followed-up for 5 years. The incidences of peripheral arterial disease and coronary artery disease were 5.1% and 11.1%, respectively. Both conditions were more common in moderate and heavy smokers than in never smokers: cigarette smoking was a stronger risk factor for peripheral arterial disease than for coronary artery disease. Smoking was associated with reduced dietary antioxidant vitamin intake, serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure and with increased alcohol intake, serum triglycerides, blood viscosity, plasma fibrinogen, and markers of endothelial disturbance (tissue plasminogen activator and von Willebrand factor antigens). Simultaneous adjustment for these risk factors reduced the relative risk of peripheral arterial disease only slightly, from 3.94 (95% CI 2.04, 7.62) to 2.72 (95% CI 1.13, 6.53) in heavy smokers and from 1.87 (95% CI 0.91, 3.85) to 1.70 (95% CI 0.72, 3.99) in moderate smokers. Similar adjustment also had little effect on the risk of coronary artery disease associated with smoking. CONCLUSION: The combined effect of smoking on the cardiovascular risk factors studied may explain part of its influence on peripheral and coronary arterial disease, but the majority of the effect appears to be due to other mechanisms.  (+info)

Decreased anion gap associated with monoclonal and pseudomonoclonal gammopathy. (5/580)

Nine patients with monoclonal and one with pseudomonoclonal gammopathy were found to have a decreased anion gap. Eight of the patients had multiple myeloma, one has plasma cell leukemia and one had chronic active hepatitis. In all of the the decreased anion gap was associated with an increased concentration of IgG greater than 5 g/dl.  (+info)

Repetitive hemodilution in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary hypertension: effects on pulmonary hemodynamics, gas exchange, and exercise capacity. (6/580)

BACKGROUND: In cor pulmonale associated with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), disturbances of pulmonary microcirculation may contribute significantly to hypoxemia, pulmonary hypertension, and exercise intolerance. OBJECTIVE: It was tested whether reduction of blood viscosity induced by repetitive hemodilution might improve pulmonary hemodynamics and oxygen uptake. METHODS: Seven patients with stable COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 s 33 +/- 3 % of predicted, means +/- SE) and pulmonary hypertension were phlebotomized 5-6 times over a period of 3 months with substitution of 6% hydroxyethyl starch (molecular weight 40, 000). This resulted in a stepwise reduction of the hematocrit from 53.3 +/- 2.6 to 45.8 +/- 3.1% and a reduction of whole blood viscosity from 9.8 +/- 0.6 to 8.8 +/- 0.7 mPa x s at a shear rate of 2.0 s-1. Before and after the treatment period, patients underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing and right heart catheterization. RESULTS: Mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAm) decreased from 30 +/- 3 to 22 +/- 2 mm Hg and arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) increased from 63.2 +/- 2.2 to 71.8 +/- 3.7 mm Hg at rest. During peak exercise, PAm decreased from 59 +/- 7 to 53 +/- 7 mm Hg and PaO2 increased from 54.0 +/- 5.7 to 63.2 +/- 2.4 mm Hg after hemodilution. Peak oxygen consumption rose from 573 +/- 84 to 750 +/- 59 ml x min-1, corresponding to an increase in cardiac index from 4.25 +/- 0.5 to 5.88 +/- 0.76 liters x min-1 x m-2. Pulmonary vascular resistance fell from 345 +/- 53 to 194 +/- 32 dyn x s x cm-5. The patients' peak exercise capacity increased from 9.2 +/- 2. 0 before to 13.5 +/- 3.2 kJ at the end of the study (p < 0.05 for all differences, paired t test). CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that a prolonged improvement of pulmonary microcirculation by reducing blood viscosity may improve pulmonary gas exchange, central hemodynamics, and exercise tolerance in patients with severe COPD and pulmonary hypertension.  (+info)

Hemorheology and walking of peripheral arterial occlusive diseases patients during treatment with Ginkgo biloba extract. (7/580)

AIM: To study the effects of Ginkgo biloba extract 761 (GbE) from the points of view of hemorheology for patients of peripheral arterial occlusive diseases (PAOD). METHODS: The treatment with GbE (240 mg.d-1, po) and the pain-free walking distance (PFWD) were carried out for 24 PAOD patients (12 nondiabetic, ND and 12 diabetic, D) over 48 wk. The parameters erythrocyte stiffness (ES) and relaxation time (RT), the blood plasma viscosity (eta), the plasma fibrinogen concentration (Cf) and the blood sedimentation rate (BSR), the PFWD, and maximal walking distance (MWD) were determined at 6 wk before treatment (-6), at the beginning of the treatment (0), and after 6, 11, 16, and 48 wk of treatment. RESULTS: At wk -6, ES and RT of both the ND- and D-group were not significantly different from a healthy control group. At wk 0, stiffness and RT were significantly higher than healthy control, and the mean PFWD was only 111 m. The eta value was significantly elevated and Cf and BSR were enhanced. Throughout 11 wk of treatment ES, RT, eta, and Cf decreased gradually and PFWD improved. Between 16 and 48 wk, ES, and RT were no longer significantly different from the controls, whereas eta and Cf decreased gradually but remained higher than normal, BSR decreased, and the PFWD improved by a factor of 3.8 times (D) and 3.3 times (ND). CONCLUSION: GbE gives therapeutic effects in PAOD patients.  (+info)

Altered flow properties of blood and increased plasma fibrinogen in cyclosporin-treated renal allograft recipients. (8/580)

BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in blood rheology may be factors contributing to cardiovascular complications and the progression of renal failure in kidney allograft recipients. The haemorheological variables haematocrit, fibrinogen, whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, erythrocyte aggregation tendency and fluidity were measured in 27 cyclosporin A (CyA)-treated patients who had received a renal graft at least 6 months previously. Their creatinine clearance was in the range of 12-92 ml/min/1.73 m2 (mean 55+/-19). The values were compared with those obtained from a control group comprising 20 healthy subjects matched according to age, sex and smoking habits. RESULTS: The haematocrit, plasma fibrinogen, whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, erythrocyte aggregation tendency, body mass index (BMI), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and serum triglycerides were increased in the transplanted patients, and the serum high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and erythrocyte fluidity decreased. The haemorheological variables were used as dependent variables in a stepwise regression analysis with age, MAP, BMI, urinary albumin excretion rate, blood CyA concentration, creatinine clearance, and serum triglycerides, cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol as independent variables. Plasma fibrinogen was positively correlated with BMI and blood CyA. The whole blood viscosity was positively correlated with blood CyA and negatively with serum HDL-cholesterol. Only serum triglycerides remained correlated with erythrocyte aggregation tendency. CONCLUSIONS: All variables with a known impact on blood viscosity were altered in the present group of renal transplant recipients. Inappropriate regulation of erythrocyte formation, overweight, the use of CyA, high triglycerides and low HDL-cholesterol levels may be factors contributing to this. The importance of impaired flow properties of blood for the development of cardiovascular diseases and transplant glomerulosclerosis needs to be examined.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Fatal cerebral hemorrhage in a patient with CD19-positive Igm-producing aggressive plasma cell myeloma, hyperviscosity syndrome and cryoglobulinemia. AU - Alatoom, Adnan. AU - Elsabrouty, Rania. AU - Willis, Jason. AU - Boils, Christie. AU - Sarode, Ravindra. AU - Hashim, Ibrahim. AU - Wang, Huan You. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - IgM plasma cell myeloma (PCM) is a rare entity, and CD19 positivity is found in only 1-4% of PCM. Here we report a unique case of IgM PCM, in which the plasma cells are positive for CD19. Clinically, the patient presented with hyperviscosity syndrome, mimicking the clinical manifestation of Waldenstroms macroglobulinemia. In addition, the IgM para-protein from the patient behaved like cryoglobulins, which interfered with some of the laboratory measurements and resulted in erroneous platelet count, mean platelet volume, and serum IgM level. Despite chemotherapy, the PCM persisted and progressed to plasma cell leukemia, and the patient died of a left ...
China Medical Laser Machine for Reducing High Blood Viscosity, Find details about China Medical Laser, Medical Laser Machine from Medical Laser Machine for Reducing High Blood Viscosity - Hubei YJT Technology Co., Ltd.
Two patients had Sjögrens syndrome and chronic polysynovitis that had caused neither deformity nor bony erosions. Both patients had increased serum viscosity, and one patient had the hyperviscosity syndrome. Increased serum viscosity correlated with the presence of intermediate complexes that seem to be formed by interactions between IgG antigen and IgG rheumatoid factor. Neither the occurrence of the hyperviscosity syndrome in Sjögrens syndrome nor the association of hyperviscosity with circulating serum IgG-IgG rheumatoid factor complexes has been previously reported. ...
Hyperviscosity syndrome (HVS) refers to the clinical sequelae of increased blood viscosity. Increased serum viscosity usually results from increased circulating serum immunoglobulins and can be seen in such diseases as Waldenström macroglobulinemia and multiple myeloma.
50% of patients had 1 α-gene deleted (−α3.7 deletion). In agreement with previous studies,1,9 they exhibited lower mean cell volume, higher hematocrit and hemoglobin, increased RBC deformability, decreased RBC aggregates strength (P,0.05 for all parameters) and similar blood viscosity compared to patients without α-thalassemia (data not shown). The magnitude of the hematological/hemorheological responses under HU treatment was similar in the two groups, except for hemoglobin (+16 vs. +8%, P,0.05), hematocrit (+23 vs. +11%, P,0.05), the hematocrit/blood viscosity ratio (+34 vs. +8%, P,0.05) and RBC deformability (at 30 Pa: +65 vs. +26%, P,0.05), which increased more in patients without α-thalassemia than in patients with it. The effect of HU on the decrease of the number of VOC/STA events was similar in the two subgroups.. In agreement with previous studies, HU significantly decreased the rates of hospitalization for VOC and ACS in SCA patients who frequently exhibited these ...
Synonyms for viscous resistance in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for viscous resistance. 46 synonyms for resistance: opposition, hostility, aversion, refusal to accept, lack of enthusiasm for, reluctance to accept, fighting, fight, battle, struggle. What are synonyms for viscous resistance?
There is still considerable controversy regarding the influence of blood viscosity upon CBF. We have measured CBF with microspheres in 23 cats. Autoregulation was disturbed in the left caudate nucleus by microsurgical occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery. Induced hypertension or hypotension was used and i.v. mannitol (1 g/kg) administered. In all cats blood viscosity decreased an average of 16% at 15 minutes and, in 16 cats, increased 10% at 75 minutes post-mannitol. CBF in the right caudate was 79 +/- 6 ml/100g/min, in the left 38 +/- 6 (p less than 0.001). Only minor changes of CBF occurred in areas with presumed normal autoregulation, including the right caudate, in conjunction with pressure or viscosity changes. In the left caudate CBF decreased 21% with hypotension and 18% with higher viscosity, more than on the right (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.2, respectively). CBF increased in the left caudate 56% with hypertension and 47% with lower viscosity, again much more than on the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Determination of the blood viscosity and yield stress with a pressure- scanning capillary hemorheometer using constitutive models. AU - Lee, Byung Kwon. AU - Xue, Shubin. AU - Nam, Jeonghun. AU - Lim, Hyunjung. AU - Shin, Sehyun. PY - 2011/3/1. Y1 - 2011/3/1. N2 - We investigated the applicability of two non-Newtonian constitutive models (Casson and Herschel-Bulkley models) in the determination of the blood viscosity and yield stress using a pressure-scanning microfluidic hemorheometer. The present results were compared with the measurements through a precision rheometer (ARES2). For a Newtonian fluid (standard oil), the two constitutive models showed excellent agreement with a reference value and the measurement of ARES2. For human blood as a non-Newtonian fluid, both the Casson and Herschel-Bulkley models exhibited similar viscosity results over a range of shear rates and showed excellent agreement with the ARES2 results. The Herschel-Bulkley model yielded a slightly higher ...
Abstract. Rheologic properties of blood were studied in 8 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and in 10 healthy subjects. Whole-blood viscosity was measured at four different shear rates, by means of a computer-controlled rotational viscometer. The patients had significantly higher blood viscosity at all shear rates, both at their natural hematocrits and after an in vitro adjustment of sample hematocrits to 45%. Erythrocyte filterability (5 μm pore size) was significantly lower, fibrinogen concentration significantly higher, and HDLcholesterol concentration significantly lower in the patient group. No significant differences were found regarding hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, haemoglobin concentration, leukocyte count and filterability (8 μm pore size), plasma viscosity, and total cholesterol concentration.. The measured hemorheologic abnormalities may contribute to the previously reported reduction of coronary blood flow reserve in DCM patients and to myocardial microcirculatory ...
We tested the effects of submaximal exercise on blood viscosity (ηb), nitric oxide production (NO) and hemodynamics. Relationships between the exercise-induced changes that occurred in these parameters were investigated. Nine subjects performed exercise for 15 min at 105% of the first ventilatory threshold. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cardiac output (Qc) were measured, allowing the determination of systemic vascular resistance (SVR). Blood was sampled at rest and at the end of exercise. The ηb was determined at high shear rate and was used to calculate systemic vascular hindrance (VH). NO production was estimated by measuring plasma concentrations of NO stable end products (NOx). Qc, MAP, ηb and NOx, increased with exercise, whereas SVR and VH decreased. The changes between rest and exercise were calculated and tested for correlations. We observed: 1) a positive correlation between the increase in ηb and the increase in NOx; 2) a negative correlation between the increase in NOx and the decrease
Authors: Vayá, Amparo , Murado, Julián , Santaolaria, Marisa , Simó, María , Micó, Luisa , Calvo, Javier , Todolí, José , Ricart, Jose M. Article Type: Research Article Abstract: Atherothrombotic events are significant factors of mortality and morbidity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The extent that rheological factors may be involved in these events in these patients has not been established. We measured the following rheological parameters in 86 patients with SLE, of whom 16 had suffered venous and/or arterial thrombotic events, and in 86 healthy controls: fibrinogen (Fbg), plasma viscosity (PV), blood viscosity at 230 s−1 both at native haematocrit (BVn 230 s−1 ) and corrected to 45% (BVc 230 s−1 ), erythrocyte aggregation at stasis (AE0 ) and at 3 s−1 (AE1 ), …aggregation time (Ta), aggregation index at 10 s (AI10 ), disaggregation threshold (γD), and erythrocyte deformability (ED). In addition glucose, total cholesterol (T-Chol), triglycerides (TG), ...
PubMed journal article Blood viscosity and erythrocyte filterability: their evaluation in diabetes mellitu were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
A patient with Sjögrens syndrome who developed hyperviscosity is described. A polyclonal increase in all immunoglobulins was present, and ultracentrifuge studies showed the presence of intermediate complexes. Very high titers of rheumatoid factors were present. The detailed course of treatment for a 1-year period is presented and correlated with clinical and laboratory variables, such as serum viscosity, protein electrophoresis, levels of gamma globulin, rheumatoid factors, and ultracentrifuge patterns. The remarkable recovery of this patient after a 3-year period is documented. ...
This article discusses the fundamentals for measuring the viscosity of whole blood, serum, and plasma and its application to the diagnosis of hyperviscosity syndrome. We describe some of the terminology in the field, including relevant definitions, t
PubMed journal article Increased blood viscosity in diabetic proliferative retinopath were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
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Multiple Myeloma + Altered Mental Status=Hyperviscosity Syndrome. Although the differential diagnosis of altered mental status is quite extensive, a patient with multiple myeloma and altered mental status should prompt consideration of one important, albeit not too common, condition.....hyperviscosity syndrome.. Some important pearls:. ...
Hyperviscosity Syndrome Presenting as Exercise Induced Pulmonary Hypertension in a Heart Transplant Patient We report an unusual case of exertional dyspnea and exe..
Warnings and Precautions. Severe hypersensitivity reactions may occur with IGIV products, including ASCENIV. In case of hypersensitivity, discontinue ASCENIV infusion immediately and institute appropriate treatment. Patients with known antibodies to IgA may have a greater risk of developing potentially severe hypersensitivity and anaphylactic reactions.. Thrombosis may occur following treatment with immunoglobulin products and in the absence of known risk factors. Consider baseline assessment of blood viscosity in patients at risk for hyperviscosity and ensure adequate hydration before administration. For patients at risk of thrombosis, administer ASCENIV at the minimum dose and infusion rate practicable. Monitor for signs and symptoms of thrombosis and assess blood viscosity in patients at risk for hyperviscosity.. Acute renal dysfunction/failure, osmotic nephrosis, and death may occur upon use of human IGIV products. Ensure that patients are not volume depleted before administering ASCENIV. ...
Plasma viscosity estimation is a reflection of changes in plasma proteins within the blood. The values from normal subjects are within a narrowly defined range and change when protein fractions are altered. The major influence on plasma viscosity is exerted by fibrinogen and immunoglobulins. The Viscometer determines viscosity by measuring the resistance of the plasma flow through a capillary under a constant vacuum ...
BACKGROUND: Hypertension in pregnancy is one of the causes of maternal morbidity and mortality is high in addition to cases of bleeding and infection. In Indonesia hypertension in pregnancy is the cause of 30-40% of perinatal deaths. Hemokonsentrasi state is related to blood viscosity and hematocrit is an important determinant of the blood viscosity. Blood viscosity and peripheral vascular resistance affect the blood flow resistance, which has increased in primary hypertension. Careful observation of the several indicators prediction of preeclampsia, such as hematocrit levels can prevent from unwanted circumstances. METHODS: This research is to design interventions penelitiaan pre test - post to determine the relationship between hematocrit levels in preeclampsia before and after childbirth. All data collected old and new patients were evaluated. Pre and post test data is performed using the t test (t-test) and the test data to find the relationship of hematocrit levels with the degree of ...
This paper describes a procedure, based on Tikhonov regularization, for obtaining the shear rate function or equivalently the viscosity function of blood from Couette viscometry data. For data sets that include points where the sample in the annulus is partially sheared the yield stress of blood will also be obtained. For data sets that do not contain partially sheared points, provided the shear stress is sufficiently low, a different method of estimating the yield stress is proposed. Both the shear rate function and yield stress obtained in this investigation are independent of any rheological model of blood. This procedure is applied to a large set of Couette viscometer data taken from the literature. Results in the form of shear rate and viscosity functions and yield stress are presented for a wide range of hematocrits and are compared against those reported by the originators of the data and against independently measured shear properties of blood.. ...
Cardiovascular risk factors in men, such as cigarette smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension, also increase risk in women, but the relative susceptibility to risk factors between the sexes is not established. Our aim was to investigate a wide range of possible etiologic factors in a single population study and identify those that were more strongly related to peripheral atherosclerosis in men or women. We studied personal factors (age and social class), lifestyle factors (smoking, exercise, alcohol intake, and dietary nutrients), and intermediary factors (obesity, diabetes, serum lipids, coagulation, and rheological factors). In the Edinburgh Artery Study in 1988 we measured cardiovascular risk factors in a random population sample of 1592 men and women aged 55 to 74 years. The ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI), which is inversely related to the degree of peripheral atherosclerosis, was assessed in each subject. Lifetime cigarette smoking was correlated with a lower ABPI equally in men and
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The study was carried out to evaluate deformable and aggregative erythrocyte properties in humans under normal and pathological states and in rats exposed to various stressors. A strong correlation between the erythrocyte rheological determinants, i.e. deformability index and aggregation rate, was found under pathological and stress-induced states. The physiological significance of this phenomenon is to maintain the native structure of blood flow.
I understand the other factors affecting BP are blood volume, blood viscosity, resistance, and elasticity of fibres, and those affecting flow are size of blood vessel lumen, blood viscosity, and total blood vessel length ...
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Tropical myeloneuropathies were described initially in tropical countries and are classified into 2 clinical syndromes that can have overlapping features-tropical ataxic neuropathy (TAN) and tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP). TAN and TSP are 2 separate diseases that are grouped together because they both occur predominantly in tropical count...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Erythrocyte velocity and fluorescein transit time in the cerebral microcirculation of macroglobulinemic mice: differential effect of a hyperviscosity syndrome on the passage of erythrocytes and plasma. by William I . Rosenblum
Question - What are the causes for thick blood? . Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Hyperviscosity syndrome, Ask a Hematologist
The Edinburgh Artery Study recruited 1,592 people (809 men and 783 women) ages 55-74 years in 1988 from a general northern European white population sample. Full details of recruitment, data collection at baseline in 1988-1989, methods of follow-up, and definitions of outcomes have been previously described (19,20). The study population was selected to provide a population-based sample by random identification of eligible individuals in 5-year age bands from 11 general practices across the city of Edinburgh that provide primary care for populations of varying socioeconomic status. The response rate was 65%. Respondents were found to be representative of the wider population, as comparisons with a random sample of 20% of nonrespondents did not detect substantial bias (19). Baseline data were collected during participants attendance at a research clinic using a combination of questionnaire and examination data. Complete mortality follow-up was achieved by flagging for deaths at the National ...
Looking for capillary viscometer? Find out information about capillary viscometer. A long, narrow tube that is used to measure the laminar flow of fluids Explanation of capillary viscometer
This video demostration explains how to use the BV1 Single Sample Viscometer and explains the key features that make it perfect for remote sample analysis. The capilliary viscometer can analyze plasma samples stored in EDTA without removing the cap, even if the sample has been previously used for other analyses. The viscometer utilizes only 50-80 µl of plasma per analyses, allowing repeat testing for pediatric and adult samples.
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Ms Helen Gardner.. When red blood cells (RBCs) move through narrow capillaries in the microcirculation, they deform as they flow. In pathophysiological processes such as sickle cell disease and malaria, RBC motion and flow are severely restricted. To understand this threshold of occlusion, we used a combination of experiments and theory to study the motion of a single swollen RBC through a narrow glass capillary of varying inner diameter. By tracking the movement of the squeezed cell as it is driven by a controlled pressure drop, we measured the RBC velocity as a function of the pressure gradient as well as the local capillary diameter, and found that the effective blood viscosity in this regime increases with both decreasing RBC velocity and tube radius by following a power-law that depends upon the length of the confined cell. Our observations are consistent with a simple elasto-hydrodynamic model and highlight the role of lateral ...
Diagnosis Code R70 information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, diagnostic related groups, ICD-9 conversion and references to the diseases index.
Hemodynamic shear forces are intimately linked with cardiac development, during which trabeculae form a network of branching outgrowths from the myocardium. Mutations that alter Notch signaling also result in trabeculation defects. Here, we assessed whether shear stress modulates trabeculation to influence contractile function. Specifically, we acquired 4D (3D + time) images with light sheets by selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM) for rapid scanning and deep axial penetration during zebrafish morphogenesis. Reduction of blood viscosity via ...
The exact mechanisms responsible for the increased restenosis rate after conventional balloon angioplasty in diabetic patients are unknown. It has been suggested that the prothrombotic milieu present in diabetic coronary vessels, including increased blood viscosity, increased fibrinogen and factor VIII levels, a decrease in the biological activity of antithrombin III, and enhanced platelet aggregation, could play a role in this phenomenon.27 28 29 Previous studies demonstrating that thrombus is both more frequently associated with coronary lesions in diabetic patients30 and is a predictor of late vessel occlusion after angioplasty,15 as well as a study by Rensing et al4 showing that diabetes was a risk factor for late vessel occlusion, are consistent with this hypothesis. Our results demonstrating a fourfold increase in the occlusion rate at follow-up in diabetic patients lend further support to this hypothesis. The analysis of restenosis rates performed after exclusion of the patients with ...
Reduce the serum cholesterol, triglyceride and blood viscosity. It is highly effective for high cholesterol, diabetes, arteriosclerosis and coronary heart disease,preventing the apoplectic seizure and other cardio-cerebral problems ...
1) The light quantum entering into the capillary vessels of the nasal mucosa could reduce the blood viscosity; accelerate the blood the circulation within the nasal tissues. Enhance local blood oxygen saturation, accelerate the absorption and metabolism of nasal tissue to inflammatory substances, eliminate and reduce the nasal obstruction caused by nasal swelling ...
Survival Technology - The need for a healthy diet is emphasized by the four blood viscosity samples in this pack. The samples show the exaggerated differences seen when analyzing blood serum for lipid and glucose concentrations.
Our study is the first to suggest that SCT could worsen the vascular dysfunction among patients with T2DM. In addition, we found elevated blood viscosity and oxidative stress in patients with T2DM-SCT, which, in association with the vascular dysfunction, could increase the risk for vascular disorders in this population.. The principal aim of this study was to test whether the presence of SCT could worsen the vascular dysfunction and the biological abnormalities observed in patients with T2DM. Despite the fact that individuals with T2DM were older than subjects with T2DM-SCT, their vascular function was less altered. PWV, FMD, and corrected FMD were blunted in subjects with T2DM-SCT compared with the three other groups, demonstrating increased arterial stiffness and a loss of vascular reactivity in these subjects, which, in other diseases, have been shown to increase the risks for cardiovascular morbidity and/or mortality (27,28). In agreement with this assumption, a higher number of participants ...
This study describes how to establish a capillary viscometer (microviscometer) that uses an inline microflowmeter that can accurately measure whole blood e
Designed specifically to keep your costs to a minimum. Send your viscometers to us for cleaning and full UKAS re-calibration. Cleaning and full recalibration in accordance with ASTM D445/ D446 Issue of a UKAS ISO 17025 certificate of calibration Repa
Amalgamation of the space for gas flow around the bobbin to equate to a simple pathway reveals that at the bottom of the flowmeter the resulting dimensions lead to laminar flow but at the top of the tube produce turbulent flow. The physical characteristics of the gas that determine the resulting flow are therefore viscosity at the bottom and density at the top of the tube. The main implication of this is that calibration of rotameters is gas-specific and for accuracy its use must be restricted to that gas. Calibration is usually done to read the flow rate from the top of a bobbin but the centre of a ball.. The range of gas flow measurements can be increased by using two tubes (one for low and one for high flow rates), or by varying the taper so that a greatly increased diameter results at the top of the tube.. Inaccuracy results from anything that causes the bobbin to stick in the tube, including dirt or static electricity. To prevent build-up of static, the inside walls of a rotameter and its ...
The effects of Pluronic F68, a nonionic surface-active agent, on blood viscosity and platelet adhesiveness during extracorporeal circulation were investigated. Blood viscosity was significantly decreased. Platelet adhesiveness decreased markedly in six patients within ten minutes after intravenous injection. Pluronic F68 has many properties and actions which make it a useful additive to perfusion systems. Its potential in the treatment of diseases in which high viscosity or increased platelet adhesiveness are present deserves investigation.. ...
Thirty one patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) receiving standardised prednisolone treatment were followed up for one year with analyses of plasma viscosity, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C reactive protein (CRP), and fibrinogen concentration. On the day of diagnosis all patients had an increased plasma viscosity and ESR, whereas the concentration of CRP was normal in three patients and fibrinogen concentration and haptoglobin values were normal in one patient. IgG levels were increased in two patients. Plasma viscosity correlated significantly with the ESR, IgG level, and fibrinogen concentration. Laboratory variables in subgroups of patients with GCA proved by biopsy were not different from the whole group of patients with GCA. The follow up showed that CRP normalised faster than the ESR, plasma viscosity, and fibrinogen concentration. Plasma viscosity and the ESR paralleled clinical findings more closely and predicted flare ups better than the other variables. Plasma viscosity ...
In this study, we investigated the effect of ginkgoglycoside in two different doses (19.2 mg/day and 28.8 mg/day) on blood viscosity and erythrocyte deformability in 27 patients suffering from cerebrovascular insufficiency. The patients were divided
TY - JOUR. T1 - Erythrocyte deformability and its hemorheological consideration. AU - Shin, Sehyun. AU - Ku, Yunhee. AU - Park, Myung Su. AU - Suh, Jang Soo. PY - 2004/12/1. Y1 - 2004/12/1. N2 - The suspension of hardened erythrocytes (red blood cells) differs from the suspension of normal erythrocytes with respect to their rheological behavior. The deformability of normal and hardened erythrocytes (obtained by heating blood at 49°C or by incubating erythrocytes in a solution of hydrogen peroxide) was measured with a slit diffractometer and erythrocyte suspension viscosity was measured with a rotational viscometer. We found that when erythrocytes were heated at 49°C, with much less deformability than normal erythrocytes, their suspension viscosity was almost the same as the normal blood viscosity at high shear rates, whereas when erythrocytes were incubated in a solution of hydrogen peroxide, with an intermediate decrease of deformability, their suspension viscosity was greatly increased. The ...
As Waldenstroms macroglobulinaemia is incurable, treatment is only indicated in symptomatic cases. Plasmapheresis is effective for short term control of hyperviscosity and its associated symptoms. The oral alkylating agent chlorambucil is effective in controlling the disease and there are reports of its successful use in cases with pulmonary involvement,4 5 although treatment for 12 months may be required before an adequate response is obtained. Treatment with combinations of chemotherapeutic agents has also been found to be effective.. In view of her hyperviscosity, our patient was admitted to hospital for plasmapheresis, ultimately requiring eight sessions. As treatment for her underlying macroglobulinaemia she received chemotherapy with six cycles of the nucleoside analogue fludarabine (25 mg/m2daily for five days, repeated every four weeks). There was a marked improvement in the appearances of the chest radiograph (see fig 1below) and the patient is now symptom free. Plasma viscosity fell ...
A comparative study of the effects of plasma substitutes on apparent blood viscosity was made at low and high shear rates. Red cells from normal donors were resuspended in their own plasma diluted with plasma substitutes or saline. The haematocrit wa
Hemorheology, also spelled haemorheology (from the Greek αἷμα, haima "blood" and rheology), or blood rheology, is the study of flow properties of blood and its elements of plasma and cells. Proper tissue perfusion can occur only when bloods rheological properties are within certain levels. Alterations of these properties play significant roles in disease processes. Blood viscosity is determined by plasma viscosity, hematocrit (volume fraction of red blood cell, which constitute 99.9% of the cellular elements) and mechanical properties of red blood cells. Red blood cells have unique mechanical behavior, which can be discussed under the terms erythrocyte deformability and erythrocyte aggregation. Because of that, blood behaves as a non-Newtonian fluid. As such, the viscosity of blood varies with shear rate. Blood becomes less viscous at high shear rates like those experienced with increased flow such as during exercise or in peak-systole. Therefore, blood is a shear-thinning fluid. ...
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D4683 - 17 Standard Test Method for Measuring Viscosity of New and Used Engine Oils at High Shear Rate and High Temperature by Tapered Bearing Simulator Viscometer at 150 °C , absolute viscometer, absolute viscometry, dynamic viscosity, engine oils, high shear rate viscosity, high shear viscosity, high temperature viscosity, high shear rate viscosity at 150 ,°,C, rotational viscometer, rotational viscometry, Tapered Bearing Simulator Viscometer, TBS,,
Viscosizer TD provides automated relative viscosity measurements with high reproducibility at low viscosity, to help identify molecules with abnormally high viscosity-concentration profiles at low sample concentrations as early as possible in the development pipeline.. ...
Erythrapheresis was performed in 10 patients with polycythaemia secondary to hypoxic lung disease (mean PaO2, 6.8 kPa (51 mm Hg)). The mean packed cell volume decreased from 0.64 to 0.48 in men and from 0.56 to 0.42 in women, with significant decreases in blood viscosity at both high and low shear rates (p less than 0.001). Patients showed significant improvement in six-minute walking distances (p less than 0.001) and in tests of mental alertness (p less than 0.01) compared to control subjects. Visual analogue scales confirmed symptomatic improvement after erythrapheresis. Erythrapheresis significantly improved symptoms, mental function, and work performance in patients with polycythaemia secondary to hypoxic lung disease. The procedure was well tolerated by all patients and no complications occurred. ...
The modeling of the viscous behavior of nanoemulsions and nanosuspensions is discussed. The influences of the viscosity ratio, solvation and aggregation of nanodroplets and nanoparticles on the relative viscosity of nanofluids are considered. The relative viscosity of a nanofluid is strongly affected by solvation of nanoparticles. The scaling of the relative viscosity of nanoemulsions is successfully carried out using the volume fraction of the solvated nanodroplets. Four sets of experimental relative viscosity data of nanoemulsions consisting of different diameter nanodroplets (27.5 nm-205 nm) all collapse on a single unique curve when the data are scaled on the basis of the volume fraction of the solvated nanodroplets. A similar scaling is achieved using six sets of experimental relative viscosity data on nanosuspensions consisting of different diameter nanoparticles (29 nm-146 nm). A new modified version of the Oldroyd model is proposed to describe and predict the viscosity of nanofluids. The model
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The present invention relates to novel polymeric compositions based upon A.sub.n(BCB)A.sub.n polyester/polyether multi-blocks. Compositions according to the present invention exhibit unexpectedly exceptional reverse thermal gellation properties and in certain cases, relatively low viscosities at approximately room temperature and extremely high viscosities at temperatures above room temperature (preferably at approximately physiological or body temperature, i.e., within a temperature range of about 32-40.degree. C.). Compositions according to the present invention may be used advantageously in applications which make use of their reverse thermal gellation properties. Preferred applications for use of the present compositions include, for example, medical applications which make advantageous use of the inherent composition characteristic of being of relatively low viscosity at room temperature and much higher viscosity at elevated temperatures,
The pathogenic potential of RBC aggregation within the microcirculation is dependent on the extent of RBC aggregation and the cohesive forces within the aggregate (i.e., the resistance of aggregates to shear-induced disaggregation).25 This increase of the required shear forces might have important physiological consequences, especially at the microcirculatory level, since RBC are only able to pass through small capillaries as single cells.5 However, since γmin for SCA and SCC patients were similar, differences of blood viscosity and RBC deformability between the two groups probably play a role in their unequal clinical severity.26. Although the forces required to disperse preformed RBC aggregates are elevated in SCA and SCC subjects, the extent of aggregation at stasis (i.e., AI) was lower than control in both groups; this finding contrasts with results obtained by Obiefuna et al.27 on SCA patients but is consistent with results obtained by Chien et al.2 The reasons for the discordant results ...
... , commonly known as Molylube 87M EP Grease, is an aluminum complex, multi-purpose grease formulated to extend the service life of machine components in the severe duty applications encountered in mining, quarrying, construction, cement and other heavy industries where its high base oil viscosity ensures maximum lubricating film thickness. Molylube Extreme Pressure High Viscosity Grease is especially effective when used to lubricate the suspension components of heavy-duty equipment such as excavators, dozers, loaders and haul trucks. The rust and corrosion inhibitors utilized in of Molylube Extreme Pressure High Viscosity Grease provide full protection of equipment surfaces. Grades 680-1 and 1000-1 are Komatsu approved.. ...
Viscosity is measured with various types of viscometers and rheometers. A rheometer is used for those fluids that cannot be defined by a single value of viscosity and therefore require more parameters to be set and measured than is the case for a viscometer. Close temperature control of the fluid is essential to acquire accurate measurements, particularly in materials like lubricants, whose viscosity can double with a change of the only 5 °C.. For some fluids, the viscosity is constant over a wide range of shear rates (Newtonian fluids). The fluids without a constant viscosity (non-Newtonian fluids) cannot be described by a single number. Non-Newtonian fluids exhibit a variety of different correlations between shear stress and shear rate.. One of the most common instruments for measuring kinematic viscosity is the glass capillary viscometer.. In coating industries, viscosity may be measured with a cup in which the efflux time is measured. There are several sorts of cup - such as the Zahn cup ...
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While the above-mentioned viscosity modifiers can satisfy part of the oil recovery needs, these polymers still experience some challenges that hinder their effectiveness. For example, when the viscosity of reservoir oil is high, so should the displacing fluid be to match the mobility ratio. The current heuristics suggest that polymer flooding should be applied in reservoirs with oil viscosities between 10 and 150 cP (Taber et al. 1997).. The key factor limiting the recommended range is that for oil viscosities greater than 150 cP, the injected-water-viscosity values required for a favorable mobility ratio correspond to prohibitively low values of polymer injectivity. In addition, pumping high-viscosity displacing fluids tends to lead to clogging in oil wells, which results in a major economic well operating loss. One potential solution is to use displacement fluids with an adjustable viscosity, with the fluid having a low viscosity at the injection site and a high viscosity upon reaching the oil ...
Cambridge Viscosity recently installed a fourth in-line viscometer for monitoring the viscosity of diesel fuel on common rail test stands at Delphis facility in Park Royal, United Kingdom. Delphi Automotive is a leading global supplier of electronics and technologies for automotive, commercial vehicle and other market segments. The site in Park Royal specializes in the development of high-precision fuel injection equipment for commercial vehicles, enabling manufacturers to meet increasingly stringent emissions legislation.. Such real-time viscosity monitoring systems bring innovative approaches to age-old problems. At Delphis Technical Centre in Park Royal, viscometers from Cambridge Viscosity are installed on the test stands to monitor the changes to the viscosity of the fuel. These are installed before and after the injectors to monitor any changes to the performance over time. Before purchasing the viscometers, technicians had to pull used fuel samples, then send them for lab for analysis ...
We all know that viscosity is a critical property of hydraulic oil as it can impact on the performance and efficiency of entire systems, along with the wear rates of specific components such as pumps and valves. However, measuring or calculating the viscosity of your hydraulic oil at different pressures has never been the most straightforward of tasks. Thankfully, this is now set to change with the introduction of Webtecs new hydraulic oil viscosity calculator, which is now available online.. Hydraulic fluid suppliers provide oils with different viscosities. These oils are most-often badged in terms of their ISO number or grade, where common grades for hydraulic circuits include ISO 32, 46 and 68. Using our app, engineers simply select the oil being used, along with the system temperature (°C) and pressure (bar), hit the submit button and up pops the viscosity (cSt). Hydraulic measurement and control has never been easier.. If you want to see the effects on viscosity of fluctuations in ...
A low viscosity lubricating oil composition having a CCS viscosity less than 3500 mPa.s at −25 C. and having no more than 0.16 mass % of phosphorus which comprises a dispersant, and a detergent of calcium or magnesium or both; and optionally a zinc dihydrocarbyldithiophosphate, a viscosity modifier, a pour point depressant and an antioxidant. The oil satisfies the Cummins M11 cross-head wear engine test specification in a low phosphorus and low viscosity formulation.
Browse Solution 22 Bearing Retaining Compound- High Viscosity in the Emerson Bearing catalog including Item #,Type,Content,Color,Viscosity [9cP] ASTM 1084, 1824,Fixture Time,Working Time,Full Strength,Gap Filled,Specified Gravity,Soluble In,List Pric
In addition, in-service oil analysis includes various other parameters that have to be tested. Anton Paar provides the SVM 4001 and SVM 3001 Viscometers for measurements according to to ASTM D7042 respectively to DIN 51659-2 ASTM D7042. It is an excellent alternative to conventional capillary viscometers for fast and economical measurement of the low-shear kinematic viscosity over a wide temperature range. Consequently, ASTM D2270 references ASTM D7042 for the determination of kinematic viscosity. Automation of viscosity measurements provides several benefits over conventional manual measurements due to reduced handling errors, higher reproducibility, reduced costs per sample and increased productivity in the laboratory. This report describes specifically how to test inservice lube oils with the SVM 4001 in combination with Xsample 530 and a manually filled SVM 3001 to get data comparable to ASTM D445. ...
The principal aim of the study is to determine the effects n3-PUFA on top of standard therapy on surrogate markers of disease severity and/or prognosis in patients with PAD.. Treatment duration will be 3 months, final follow-up is planned at 6 months after inclusion.. Primary outcome parameter is endothelial function assessed by flow-mediated vasodilation using brachial artery ultrasound.. Secondary outcome measures comprise maximum and pain-free treadmill walking distance, pulse wave velocity, whole blood viscosity, platelet activation and plasma markers of inflammation. ...
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G.D.O. Lowe, J.C. Barbenel. Plasma and blood viscosity. In: Clinical Blood Rheology, edited by G.D.O. Lowe (CRC Press, 1988), V. 1, p. 11. https://doi.org/10.1201/9780429261176-2 M. Brust, C. Schaefer, R. Doerr, L. Pan, M. Garcia, P.E. Arratia, C.Wagner. Rheology of human blood plasma: Viscoelastic versus Newtonian behavior. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 078305 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.078305 E. Davila, D. Pares, G. Cuvelier, P. Relkin. Heat-induced gelation of porcine blood plasma proteins as affected by pH. Meat Sci. 76, 216 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2006.11.002 P.D. Watson. Modeling the effects of proteins on pH in plasma. J. Appl. Physiol. 86, 1421 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1999.86.4.1421 F. Roosen-Runge, M. Hennig, F. Zhang, R.M.J. Jacobs, M. Sztucki et al. Protein self-diffusion in crowded solutions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 11815 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1107287108 S.A. Volkova, N.N. Borovkov. The Fundamentals of Clinical ...
In this paper were determined viscosity index of rapeseed oil using two methods. Viscosity index is calculated from the measured viscosity at 40 and 1000C using ASTM D 2270 and method graphically using ASTM D 341. The viscosity-temperature coefficient of rapeseed oil was calculated from the measured viscosity at 40 and 1000C.
Back ground:Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) offer a great promise in biomedicine. Currently, there is no data available regarding the toxicity of GNPs .ROS and free radical production is one of the primary mechanisms of nanoparticle toxicity.The present in vivo study investigated the toxicological effects of size-sorted GNPs along four different time intervals at the cellular levels that include liver, spleen and blood cells through biophysical and biochemical studies, these studies were confirmed by histopathological studies Animals and Methods:Adult SpragueDewally male rats weighting (100- 120g) received intraperitoneal injection of colloidal gold nanoparticles of different sizes(10,50,100nm) that were repeated day by day .Animals were scarified after (14,21,30 and 40) blood samples ,liver and spleen were collected. The parameters studied included: measuring of whole blood viscosity , RBCs aggregation parameters, hepatic lipid peroxidation, Super oxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), glutathione ...
Cambridge Viscosity is the global leader in fluid viscosity measurement, including oil and gas; petroleum and biofuels; coatings, paints, and inks; pharmaceuticals, and other substances. Where accurate viscosity measurement is mission critical in both process and laboratory environments, Cambridge Viscosity technologies are chosen time and time again.. Our leadership is based on a quarter-century of experience, the extraordinary range of our products - including both in-line and in-tank applications - and our innovative proprietary technology. Our customers include leading organisations in oil and gas exploration, refining, automotive, research, industrial materials, and other high-stakes fields.. Cambridge Viscosity has set the standard for extraordinarily precise, reliable, and virtually maintenance-free viscosity measurement systems. Our sensors and viscometer systems conform to ASTM, DIN, JIS and ISO standards, with a range of models designed to meet specific industry and application needs. ...
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AMETEK Brookfield, the world standard for viscosity measurement and control, is offerings its Practical Course on Viscosity Measurements. This popular course was created to help AMETEK Brookfield Vi
Following the launch of the new m-VROCi, Viscometer/Rheometer On a Chip, at Pittcon 2014, Malvern Instruments will focus on the unique technology of this system and the considerable benefits it delivers in a webinar on 16 April 2014. The m-VROCi provides safe, accurate viscosity measurement for low viscosity industrial fluids, under conditions that reflect those that apply during end-product use.
The viscosity of oil can be easily determined by looking at the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) number on the oils container. For a single weight oil, the number shown is a representation of the viscosity at normal vehicle operating temperatures. For multi-grade oils, the SAE number comes in two parts. The first number represents the ability of the oil to be cranked over in your engine at below freezing temperatures, where as the second number represents the oils viscosity. Knowing this will help you determine what to look for when buying the proper oil for your vehicle.. The video also walks you through when to use a higher viscosity oil (when operating a vehicle in extreme temperatures or driving conditions) and when to use a lower viscosity oil.. Understanding the viscosity of your oil and how it should be changed based on your driving habits may not be the most entertaining part about owning a car, in fact we know its not, but its still important to understand the basics. Thanks to ...
TY - GEN. T1 - A method of numerical viscosity measurement for solid-liquid mixture. AU - Nomura, Reika. AU - Terada, Kenjiro. AU - Takase, Shinsuke. AU - Moriguchi, Shuji. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - We present a space-time homogenization procedure for multiscale modeling of solid-liquid mixture. The derived mathematical model enables us to set up two separate governing equations at both macro- and micro-scales. The fluid in the macroscopic governing equation is teated as an equivalent homogeneous medium with average or homogenized viscosity and is regarded as an incompressible Newtonian fluid, whose motion is assumed to be governed by the Navier-Stokes equations. The microscopic equations of motion governing the coupling phenomenon of the fluid and solid particles in a certain local domain and are solved to determine the microscopic flow fields under adequate boundary and loading conditions. Then the macrosopic viscosity is determined as the quantity averaged over the microscopic domain ...
The viscosity of non-Newtonian liquids usually arises from the presence of at least one dispersed phase in a liquid. The deviation of the flow lines caused by the presence of particles of the dispersed phase increases the resistance, i.e., the viscosity. At higher concentrations, hydrodynamic and physical interactions between suspended particles increases the resistance even further. The flow itself can rearrange the spatial order of the particles, so that the random arrangement at low shear rates can become ordered into strings and layers of particles at high shear rates. This results in the lowering of the viscosity with increasing shear rate. It is possible for this ordered arrangement to become disturbed and some degree of three-dimensional structure returns, either as random packing or as clusters. The viscosity in these circumstances increases, and shear thickening takes place-this was previously called by the confusing name of dilatancy. This description of particles generally holds for ...
China Kinematic Viscosity Tester with Single-Chip Automatic Chronograph, Find details about China Viscometer, Kinematic Viscosity Tester from Kinematic Viscosity Tester with Single-Chip Automatic Chronograph - Labmen Instrument Technology Limited
Auto Club Oil & Chemicals Corp. New York, NY. Purchased in: Shell, Camden, NJ Date of purchase: 6/2/2012. Consumer Alert: The labels for this product claim the oil meets the engineering material standards for both General Motors Dexron III and Ford Motors Mercon. PQIAs test results for this sample show the oil fails both standards with respect to viscosity at 100 C, Brookfield viscosity at -40 C, and flash point. In addition, the results show higher levels of calcium, zinc, and sulfur than would normally be expected for an ATF meeting these specifications, and an unusually low viscosity index. Use of this oil could result in performance issues and potentially cause damage to automatic transmissions designed for Dexron III and Mercon. ...
Check out our latest video tutorial on waterborne viscosity. Viscosity is one of the most important aspects of waterborne basecoat to understand before beginning a refinish repair. Proper viscosity ensures fast flash times, through-dry, easy blending, and world class color match.. Using a DIN 4 cup to measure viscosity is easy and this short video will walk you through the process. PPG recommends a viscosity measurement between 23 and 28 seconds for waterborne basecoat. When measuring, look for the first "clean break" in the stream of paint coming from the bottom of the cup. Measuring viscosity allows you to always know how your paint is going to spray before you walk into the booth and achieve the same beautiful result every time.. ...
M. M. R. F, E. E. K and R. W. D.-The data presented in the attached Figs. 1, 2, and 3 show that the two viscometers yield values of about the same precision and reproducibility. To compare the results from the two different instruments, an average rate of shear must be assigned to the capillary type of viscometer. Values ranging from 0.5 to 0.66 of the maximum rate of shear at the capillary wall have been used as the average rate of shear. This basis appears adequate for the present comparisons given in Figs. 1, 2, and 3. Considering all the variables involved, the differences in equipment and in techniques, and the number of experimental points covered in the two studies, the agreement between the two instruments is good; the maximum difference is about 6 percentage units in viscosity decrease. The agreement between the two instruments is poorest at +210 F with both oils. The best agreement for oil No. 104 is at 150 F and for oil No. 103 at 100 F. ...
High viscosity systems utilize various blade configurations, such as double and triple shaft designs for high and medium viscosity substances, to consistently
A low viscosity hot melt acrylic pressure sensitive adhesive polymer is formed by bulk polymerization of at least one alkyl acrylate monomer containing from about 4 to 8 carbon atoms in the alkyl group and present in an amount of from about 60 to about 95% by weight of the polymer, from 1 to about 10% by weight of a copolymerizable amide monomer, from 1 to 10% by weight of a copolymerizble carboxylic acid, and a positive amount up to about 6% by weight of the monomers of a copolymerizable anhydride, said polymer formed thermally reversible crosslinks with a metal cation having a valence of from 2 to 4. Viscosity of the polymer is typically from 2 to 8 Pa.s at 150 C. as formed and increases up to 100 Pa.s at 150 C. on addition of the metal cation.
Brookfield, a world standard for viscosity measurement and control, offers two hands-on courses that equip users of Brookfield instruments with the knowledge to get the most out of their viscosity test methods. These one-day training sessions are presented in easy-to-understand terms that give attendees the working know-how to verify and improve upon the data required for meaningful R&D and successful QC testing.
Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia is a rare cancer and is characterized by high level of immunoglobulin M (IgM) in the serum, which leads to increased serum viscosity, and presence of a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate in the bone marrow. Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia starts in B cells or B lymphocytes and leads to excess amount of IgM. Treatment options for Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia vary according to symptoms. In the last few years, medical science has made much progress and a number of new treatments for this type of cancer have been introduced. However, very few studies have been done to compare the treatment options and thus, discover the best available option. Hence, there is no single treatment available that works for all patients.
An automatic transmission fluid of low Brookfield viscosity and high shear stability is disclosed which contains a base oil of lubricating viscosity and a combination of a poly alkyl (meth) acrylate viscosity index improver of low Brookfield viscosity and high shear stability and a functionalized poly alkyl (meth) acrylate viscosity index improver with dispersant properties of high Brookfield viscosity and high shear stability.
The reason of the change of the sludge viscosity in submerged membrane bioreactor and the effect of the viscosity on the filtration resistance of the membrane were discussed.The results of the test showed that: high-concentration extracellular polymeric substances(EPS) accumulated in the reactor was the main reason caused the increasing of the sludge viscosity;the sludge viscosity changed with the variation of the EPS concentration,there existed a good relativity between the above two(r = 0.9958),and the relativity between the sludge viscosity and the filtration resistance of the membrane was also good(r = 0.9006).
Viscometers have an additional source of broadening beyond mixing (see band broadening correction for details). When a sample enters the second stage of the capillary bridge, it creates a differential pressure that shows up as the viscometer signal. The volume of one arm of the bridge is about 30 µL. Because the sample flow is split in the bridge, the detected elution volume is thus approximately 60 µL for a viscometer. Contrast this with the , 1 µL detection volume of a light scattering or concentration detector.. An initially sharp peak will therefore be broadened by approximately 60 µL for the viscometer alone, without even taking into account the broadening due to mixing. This makes the band broadening correction essential for determining intrinsic viscosity accurately, since intrinsic viscosity is calculated by taking the ratio of the viscometer and concentration peaks.. ASTRAs powerful band broadening correction accounts for the type of broadening present in viscometers, as well as ...
Heavy-oil development is becoming increasingly important because of the continuous decline in conventional-oil production. For heavy-oil reservoirs, the oil viscosity usually varies dramatically during production processes such as in thermal processes. When producing heavy oil, the high viscosity is a major impediment to recovery. Oil viscosity is often correlated directly to the reserves estimate in heavy-oil formations and can determine the success or failure of a given enhanced-oil-recovery scheme. As a result, viscosity is an important parameter for performing numerical simulation and determining the economics of a project. In this work, a simple-to-use correlation has been developed to correlate the viscosity of heavy oil to temperature and to a simple correlating parameter that can be used for heavy-oil characterization. The reported results are the product of the analysis of heavy-oil data collected from the open literature for various heavy-oil fields around the world. The tool developed in this
Fig. 3 Reciprocal dislocation mobility (1/k) for major minerals in the upper mantle, MTZ, and lower mantle shown in relation to relative viscosity (thick pink line).. The relative viscosity (η) is estimated from postglacial rebound data and gravity data (12-14). The dislocation mobility data for ringwoodite and bridgmanite are from this study, and that for olivine is from Wang (31); the dislocation mobility in wadsleyite is assumed to be the same as that for ringwoodite. The activation volume for all minerals is assumed to be 2.6 cm3/mol (31). ...
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Abstract A waterflood study has been performed on a high viscosity saturated oil deposit with bottom water aquifer and complex geometry driven by regional tectonic stress and numerous shale breaks. The commercial production is on-going for the last
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Blood resistance varies depending on blood viscosity and its plugged flow (or sheath flow since they are complementary across ... Blood[edit]. Main article: Blood. Blood is a complex liquid. Blood is composed of plasma and formed elements. The plasma ... This in turn affects the mechanics of the whole blood.[4] Red blood cells[edit]. The red blood cell is highly flexible and ... Relation between blood flow velocity and total cross-section area in human Type of blood vessels Total cross-section area Blood ...
Because of that, blood behaves as a non-Newtonian fluid. As such, the viscosity of blood varies with shear rate. Blood becomes ... Blood viscosity also increases with increases in red cell aggregability (see below). Blood viscosity is a measure of the ... Blood viscosity is determined by plasma viscosity, hematocrit (volume fraction of red blood cell, which constitute 99.9% of the ... The primary determinants of blood viscosity are hematocrit, red blood cell deformability, red blood cell aggregation, and ...
... the latter may modify platelet aggregation and blood viscosity. Stroke, particularly intracerebral hemorrhage, is the most ...
Blood viscosity is the thickness of the blood and its resistance to flow as a result of the different components of the blood. ... Blood flow[edit]. Main article: Vascular resistance. The blood pressure in blood vessels is traditionally expressed in ... Blood vessels also circulate blood throughout the circulatory system Oxygen (bound to hemoglobin in red blood cells) is the ... Resistance is an accumulation of three different factors: blood viscosity, blood vessel length, and vessel radius.[2] ...
... radius of the blood vessel δ = distance in the plasma release-cell layer Blood resistance varies depending on blood viscosity ... Diastolic blood pressure BPsys = Systolic blood pressure Differences in mean blood pressure are responsible for blood flow from ... It had been thought that aspirin and related "blood thinner" drugs decreased the viscosity of blood, but instead studies found ... Certain medical conditions can change the viscosity of the blood. For instance, anemia (low red blood cell concentration), ...
... is a common ingredient in fake blood recipes, and in gunge/slime. The viscosity of xanthan gum solutions decreases ... Xanthan gum, 1%, can produce a significant increase in the viscosity of a liquid. In foods, xanthan gum is common in salad ... It has also been added to concrete poured underwater, to increase its viscosity and prevent washout. In cosmetics, xanthan gum ...
... is an important determinant of blood viscosity, hence blood flow resistance in the vascular system. ... It affects blood flow in large blood vessels, due to the increased frictional resistance between fluid laminae under laminar ... It also affects the microcirculatory blood flow significantly, where erythrocytes are forced to pass through blood vessels with ... Erythrocyte deformability refers to the ability of erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBC) to change shape under a given level of ...
Biro GP, Beresford-Kroeger D, Hendry P. Am Heart J. 1982 May;103(5):870-8. The effect of propranolol on blood viscosity changes ... 1984 Oct;62(10):1333-7. Myocardial blood flow and O2-supply following dextran-haemodilution and methaemoglobinaemia in the dog ...
... is a group of symptoms triggered by increase in the viscosity of the blood. Symptoms of high blood ... May occur with a white blood cell count greater than 100,000/mm3 (100×109/L). Although elevated whole blood viscosity is a ... Blood transfusions should be used with caution as they can increase serum viscosity. Hydration is a temporizing measure to ... serum viscosity and plasma viscosity are more frequently measured. Normal plasma viscosity is between 1.4 and 1.8 centipoise ...
... this is a misnomer since it does not affect the viscosity of blood. Warfarin inhibits the vitamin K-dependent synthesis of ... in areas of slowly running blood (such as in veins and the pooled blood behind artificial and natural valves) and in blood ... Instead of a blood draw, the point of care test involves a simple finger prick. When initiating warfarin therapy (" ... Warfarin decreases blood clotting by blocking an enzyme called vitamin K epoxide reductase that reactivates vitamin K1. Without ...
Reubi, François C. (1953-04-29). "Glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow and blood viscosity during and after diabetic ... Transporters found in the kidney eliminate organic anions and cations from the blood by moving substances, in this case, drug ... para-aminohippurate was given along with penicillin in order to prolong the time penicillin circulated in the blood. Because ... metabolites, from blood into urine. In vultures, the NSAID diclofenac, which is extraordinarily toxic to vultures, interferes ...
One study showed a reduction in blood viscosity and blood pressure, a key factor in cardiovascular disease. Advocates say this ... Chevalier, G; Sinatra, ST; Oschman, JL; Delany, RM (2014-01-24). "Earthing (Grounding) the Human Body Reduces Blood Viscosity-a ... Lower Your Blood Pressure in Eight Weeks (Ballantine, 2003) Heart Sense for Women (Plume, 2001) Tocotrienols and Vitamin E ( ... blood pressure, heart disease, drugs and surgery, and metabolic cardiology, as well as various other topics like EMF ...
Because the cell-free layer is red cell-poor, its effective viscosity is lower than that of whole blood. This layer therefore ... ISBN 0-07-147217-7. Fahraeus R, Lindqvist T (1931) The viscosity of the blood in narrow capillary tubes. The American Journal ... Cell-free marginal layer model Fåhræus effect Blood viscosity hemodynamics [1] Martini P, Pierach A, Scheryer E. Die Strömung ... It is clear that red blood cells cannot pass through the capillary wall, which implies that the centers of red blood cells must ...
... when the dried blood usually liquefies. If the blood fails to liquefy, then legend has it that disaster will befall Naples. A ... In such a substance viscosity increases if left unstirred and decreases if stirred or moved. Researchers have proposed ... The Blood Miracle Garlaschelli, L.; Ramaccini, F.; Della Sala, S. (1994). "The Blood of St. Januarius". Chemistry in Britain. ... The blood did not liquify when Pope Benedict XVI visited in 2007. Saint Januarius Pope Innocent IV Charles I of Naples Saint ...
Renal blood flow Reubi FC (September 1953). "Glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow and blood viscosity during and after ... therefore the rate at which the kidneys can clear PAH from the blood reflects total renal blood flow. The concentration of PAH ... PAH is completely removed from blood that passes through the kidneys (PAH undergoes both glomerular filtration and tubular ... is measured in one arterial blood sample (PPAH) and one urine sample(UPAH). The urine flow (V) is also measured. Renal ...
This lowers the viscosity of the synovial fluid, increasing friction, and causing white blood cells and enzymes to enter to ... PSGAG reaches peak blood concentration in 20-40 minutes when injected intramuscularly; 30-40% of it binds to blood proteins. It ... The inhibition of blood coagulation reduces the amount of resultant fibrinolysis, which would cause cell death and increase ... PSGAG also stimulates the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans, hyaluronic acid, and collagen, which increase synovial viscosity. It ...
Soluble glycoproteins often show a high viscosity, for example, in egg white and blood plasma. Miraculin, is a glycoprotein ... A famous example of this latter effect is the ABO blood system.[citation needed] There are several types of glycosylation, ... H antigen of the ABO blood compatibility antigens. Other examples of glycoproteins include: gonadotropins (luteinizing hormone ... Glycoproteins are important for white blood cell recognition, especially in mammals.[citation needed] Examples of glycoproteins ...
... the effective viscosity is equal to bulk blood viscosity μ c {\displaystyle \mu _{c}} at high shear rates (Newtonian fluid). ... Fåhræus-Lindqvist effect Blood viscosity hemodynamics W. Pan, B. Caswell and G. E. Karniadakis (2010). "A low-dimensional model ... is viscosity in core region μ p {\displaystyle \mu _{p}} is viscosity of plasma in cell-free region δ {\displaystyle \delta } ... Comparison with the viscosity which applies in the Poiseuille flow yields effective viscosity, μ e {\displaystyle \mu _{e}} as ...
... this is a misnomer since it does not affect the viscosity of blood. ... such as in veins and the pooled blood behind artificial and natural valves) and in blood pooled in dysfunctional cardiac atria ... Warfarin decreases blood clotting by blocking an enzyme called vitamin K epoxide reductase that reactivates vitamin K1.[5] ... Blood products should not be routinely used to reverse warfarin overdose when vitamin K could work alone.[5] PCC has been found ...
Cell-free marginal layer model Fåhræus-Lindqvist effect Blood viscosity hemodynamics "Blood Flow and Fahraeus Effect". ... The Fåhræus effect is the decrease in average concentration of red blood cells in human blood as the diameter of the glass tube ... Considering steady laminar fully developed blood flow in a small tube with radius of r 0 {\displaystyle r_{0}} , whole blood ... which describes the dependence of apparent viscosity of blood on the capillary size, but the former is not the only cause of ...
... including red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets). Blood viscosity is determined by plasma viscosity, hematocrit ( ... In particular there is a specialist study of blood flow called hemorheology. This is the study of flow properties of blood and ... Therefore, red blood cell mechanics is the major determinant of flow properties of blood.[14] ... Since Sir Isaac Newton originated the concept of viscosity, the study of liquids with strain-rate-dependent viscosity is also ...
... s promote beneficial physiologic effects including laxation, and/or blood cholesterol attenuation, and/or blood ... Bile acids may be trapped within the lumen of the ileum either because of a high luminal viscosity or because of binding to a ... Regulates blood sugar, which may reduce glucose and insulin levels in diabetic patients and may lower risk of diabetes[1][76] ... stabilize blood glucose levels by acting on pancreatic insulin release and liver control of glycogen breakdown ...
Changes in temperature affect the viscosity and surface tension of the blood, altering the minimum blood flow rate. At high ... In vasodilation the blood vessels dilate to allow more blood flow. The smooth muscle cells are relaxed to increase the diameter ... Changes in temperature affect the viscosity of blood and the surface tension. Surface tension decreases with increasing ... The blood brain barrier restricts diffusion to small hydrophobic molecules, making drug diffusion difficult to achieve. Blood ...
The level of echinocytosis appeared to be related to the increase in blood viscosity that occurs during hemodialysis. The ... Echinocytosis is a reversible condition of red blood cells that is often merely an artifact produced by EDTA, which is used as ... Instead, it is speculated that cell surface receptors on the red blood cells bind with HDL cholesterol which induces the shape ... Alternating electric current produces modifications in the membranes of red blood cells, attributed to a higher permeability to ...
... which causes a significant increase of viscosity in blood. This causes diminished blood flow in tissues, so oxygen distribution ... Arteriole spasms include the major part of the blood flow through the pulmonary vessels, producing a short circuit in the blood ... all the blood pressure in veins will increase. This means less blood reaches the heart, affecting its ability to function, with ... with an increase of the hemoglobin concentration in blood from 15 g/dl up to 20-21 g/dl. Also the blood volume increases 20% ...
Separation of urine components and blood components in forensic and research laboratories ... viscosity of the medium and rotor speed.[1] This process is used to separate two miscible substances, but also to analyze the ... and the viscosity. The most common application is the separation of solid from highly concentrated suspensions, which is used ...
Blood viscosity reducer agents. Class Summary. These agents decrease the viscosity of blood. ... May alter rheology of red blood cells, which, in turn, reduces blood viscosity ... Neurological manifestations in HTLV-I-infected blood donors. J Neurol Sci. 2003 Oct 15. 214(1-2):49-56. [Medline]. ... Common human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) integration sites in cerebrospinal fluid and blood lymphocytes of patients ...
... notes Blood Flow Online. Blood viscosity is measured in millipoise units. An increase in blood viscosity is linked to major... ... The normal blood viscosity level for healthy adults is 40/100, ... notes Blood Flow Online. Blood viscosity is measured in ... What is a BUN blood test?. A: A blood urea nitrogen, or BUN, test is a blood test that determines the blood nitrogen level, ... An increase in blood viscosity is linked to major cardiovascular problems, including high blood pressure, lower high-density ...
G. M. El-Aragi, "Effect of Electrohydraulic Discharge on Viscosity of Human Blood," Physics Research International, vol. 2013, ... Effect of Electrohydraulic Discharge on Viscosity of Human Blood. G. M. El-Aragi ...
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PubMed journal article Increased blood viscosity in diabetic proliferative retinopath were found in PRIME PubMed. Download ... AdultAgedBlood ViscosityDiabetic RetinopathyFemaleHumansMaleMiddle AgedRheology ... "Increased Blood Viscosity in Diabetic Proliferative Retinopathy." Diabetes Research (Edinburgh, Scotland), vol. 3, no. 2, 1986 ... Increased Blood Viscosity in Diabetic Proliferative Retinopathy. Diabetes Res. 1986;3(2):67-70. PubMed PMID: 3698481. ...
Blood viscosity is correlated with all known risk factors for cardiovascular disease - elevated blood viscosity is a strong ... For that reason a meaningful blood viscosity test requires two numbers: systolic blood viscosity (high shear rate), which is ... Blood viscosity is a measurement of the thickness and stickiness of an individuals blood. It is a direct measure of the ... The blood viscosity rises and falls from one extreme to the other with every cardiac cycle - much like blood pressure ...
Blood viscosity and blood density depends on what? and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes ... Viscosity Blood is more viscous than water. Relative value of blood viscosity is 4.5, compared with the viscosity of water ... 1. Blood viscosity depends on the content of the blood, or the concentration of each of many components in the plasma fluid. It ... Blood viscosity and blood density are two different physical properties that are closly related and dedending on the properties ...
Clinical Aspects of Blood Viscosity and Cell Deformability, 9780387102993, available at Book Depository with free delivery ...
University of Connecticut researchers have created a small electronic device that can measure blood viscosity quickly and ... In fact, one study found that increased blood viscosity is a more likely sign of a potential cardiac event than high blood ... But less attention has been paid to blood viscosity.. Viscosity measures a fluids resistance to flow. Thick or sticky liquids ... In the case of blood, higher viscosity may signal potential problems, since the heart needs to work harder to pump sticky blood ...
This article discusses the fundamentals for measuring the viscosity of whole blood, serum, and plasma and its application to ... Blood Viscosity / physiology*. Clinical Laboratory Techniques*. Humans. Pathology, Clinical / methods*. Plasma / physiology*. ... This article discusses the fundamentals for measuring the viscosity of whole blood, serum, and plasma and its application to ... 2280239 - Increased whole blood viscosity combined with decreased erythrocyte fluidity in untreat.... 19488109 - Three- ...
... G. C. Shit, M. Roy ... "Mathematical Modelling of Blood Flow through a Tapered Overlapping Stenosed Artery with Variable Viscosity," Applied Bionics ...
PubMed journal article Blood viscosity and erythrocyte filterability: their evaluation in diabetes mellitu were found in PRIME ... AdolescentAdultAgedBlood ViscosityChildDiabetes Mellitus, Type 1Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2Diabetic AngiopathiesErythrocytes ... Caimi G. Blood Viscosity and Erythrocyte Filterability: Their Evaluation in Diabetes Mellitus. Horm Metab Res. 1983;15(10):467- ... Blood viscosity and erythrocyte filterability: their evaluation in diabetes mellitus.. Horm Metab Res 1983; 15(10):467-70HM ...
Shear Dependence of Effective Cell Volume as a Determinant of Blood Viscosity ... Shear Dependence of Effective Cell Volume as a Determinant of Blood Viscosity ... Shear Dependence of Effective Cell Volume as a Determinant of Blood Viscosity ... Shear Dependence of Effective Cell Volume as a Determinant of Blood Viscosity ...
... on blood viscosity and platelet adhesiveness during extracorporeal circulation were investigated. Blood viscosity was ... Effect of a Nonionic Surface-Active Agent on Blood Viscosity and Platelet Adhesiveness. FREDERICK L. GROVER, MICHAEL W. HERON, ... Effect of a Nonionic Surface-Active Agent on Blood Viscosity and Platelet Adhesiveness ... Effect of a Nonionic Surface-Active Agent on Blood Viscosity and Platelet Adhesiveness ...
The blood viscosity becomes anisotropic: Along the flow direction the viscosity is significantly reduced, but in the directions ... Abstract: B54.00007 : Magnetorheology for Reduction of Blood Viscosity, Turbulence, and Atherosclerosis*. 12:27 PM-12:39 PM. ... THe disturbed blood flow is thus suppressed, becomes laminar, and the blood circulation is greatly improved. Our recent tests ... Here we report our finding with magnetorheology: application of a strong magnetic field to blood along its flow direction, red ...
Association of Blood Pressure With Blood Viscosity in American Indians. The Strong Heart Study. Giovanni de Simone, Richard B. ... Association of Blood Pressure With Blood Viscosity in American Indians. The Strong Heart Study ... Association of Blood Pressure With Blood Viscosity in American Indians. The Strong Heart Study ... Association of Blood Pressure With Blood Viscosity in American Indians. The Strong Heart Study ...
Increases in platelet and red cell counts, blood viscosity, and arterial pressure during mild surface cooling: factors in ... Increases in platelet and red cell counts, blood viscosity, and arterial pressure during mild surface cooling: factors in ... Increases in platelet and red cell counts, blood viscosity, and arterial pressure during mild surface cooling: factors in ... Increases in platelet and red cell counts, blood viscosity, and arterial pressure during mild surface cooling: factors in ...
Zooming In on Blood Coagulation and Viscosity: Computation Takes On Blood Behavior. Simulations illuminate the inner workings ... while the other is trying to predict changes in blood viscosity by modeling individual red blood cells and their interactions. ... modeling changes in blood viscosity and simulating the kinds of abnormal red blood cell aggregation that occurs in diseases ... Medium Close-Up: Modeling Blood Viscosity. George Karniadakis, PhD, professor of applied mathematics at Brown University, also ...
... of α-linolenic fatty acid on blood pressure and complex blood vi ... Of course, the effects on blood viscosity cannot explain the ... of α-linolenic fatty acid on blood pressure and complex blood viscosity was investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rats. A ... Dierberger, B., Schäch, M., Anadere, I. et al. Effect of a diet rich in linseed oil on complex viscosity and blood pressure in ... Effect of a diet rich in linseed oil on complex viscosity and blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). *B. ...
Blood viscosity is the only biological parameter that has been correlated with all of the major cardiovascular risk factors ... Blood Pressure Diet Tips. * In another way, will the blood pressure regimen work? Hypertension can be present without knowing ... A blood pressure reading gives two digits - the first digit is systolic pressure, when the heart contracts and forces the blood ... Blood Pressure Diet Guide. Eat These Power Foods For The Ultimate High Blood Pressure Diet!. ...
Although the increase in Qc and blood flow during exercise probably promoted NO production due to shear dependent stimulation ... Blood was sampled at rest and at the end of exercise. The ηb was determined at high shear rate and was used to calculate ... We tested the effects of submaximal exercise on blood viscosity (ηb), nitric oxide production (NO) and hemodynamics. ... Connes, P., Pichon, A., Hardy-Dessources, M-D., Waltz, X., Lamarre, Y., Simmonds, M.J., & Tripette, J. (2012). Blood viscosity ...
Whole blood is a non-Newtonian liquid. Its viscosity changes with the applied shear stress. The blood viscosity rises and falls ... Blood viscosity is correlated with all known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Elevated blood viscosity is a strong ... Therefore, a meaningful blood viscosity test requires more than one measurement: systolic blood viscosity (high shear rate), ... Medical , Lovis 2000 M/ME and DMA 4500 M: Viscosity Measurement of Whole Blood. Increased blood viscosity is correlated with ...
Simply put, blood viscosity is the thickness and stickiness of blood. It is a direct measure of the ability of blood to flow ... Many studies have linked cholesterol with blood viscosity; LDL is consistently associated with higher blood viscosity, while ... Blood viscosity--the stickiness of blood and its ability to flow through vasculature--is a key CVD risk factor, and the only ... Blood viscosity is defined as the inherent resistance of blood to flow, and is a highly dynamic property. This is in contrast ...
... and thereby affect regular blood flow. It is known that blood from patients with SCA has a higher viscosity than normal blood. ... Abstract: B07.00004 : The Effect of Rigid Cells on Blood Viscosity: Linking Rheology and Sickle Cell Anemia*. 5:19 PM-5:32 PM ... However, it is unclear how the rigidity of cells is related to the viscosity of blood, in part because SCA patients are often ... Our results show that there is a rheological signature within blood viscosity to clearly identify the fraction of rigidified ...
What is Blood-Viscosity Reducing Drugs? Meaning of Blood-Viscosity Reducing Drugs medical term. What does Blood-Viscosity ... Looking for online definition of Blood-Viscosity Reducing Drugs in the Medical Dictionary? Blood-Viscosity Reducing Drugs ... Blood-Viscosity Reducing Drugs. Blood-Viscosity Reducing Drugs. Definition. Blood-viscosity reducing drugs are medicines that ... medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Blood-Viscosity+Reducing+Drugs,Blood-Viscosity Reducing Drugs,/a,. *Facebook ...
  • Increases in platelet and red cell counts, blood viscosity, and arterial pressure during mild surface cooling: factors in mortality from coronary and cerebral thrombosis in winter. (bmj.com)
  • Therefore, we have zeroed in on vulnerable blood: Blood that is too thick or sticky, that increases friction and, causes biomechanical abrasion, injury and inflammation at the arterial wall. (holisticprimarycare.net)
  • However, increasing Hct also increases blood viscosity, which may thus lower DO2 if the arterial circulation is a rigid hydraulic system as the resistance to blood flow will increase. (uzh.ch)
  • Microvascular blood flow (MBF) impairment in patients with lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD) is associated with more severe major adverse limb events (MALE). (springer.com)
  • After blood replacement, systemic parameters such as cardiac index, arterial blood pressure, blood gases, and acid-base status were not different between the UPBHB and the UPBHB-PVP groups. (mysciencework.com)
  • stroke volume cardiac output and arterial blood pressure. (scribd.com)
  • Blood flow was considered laminar, and arterial wall was considered rigid. (srttu.edu)
  • We previously showed that arterial wall viscosity (AWV) was 3-fold lower in vivo than in vitro and suggested that in vivo active mechanisms could minimize intrinsic AWV to improve the efficiency of heart-vessel coupling energy balance. (ahajournals.org)
  • 6 7 8 9 We used this approach in a recent study 10 and showed that the viscosity measured in vivo in intact animals was 3-fold lower than viscosity measured in vitro at the same arterial site under similar pressure conditions. (ahajournals.org)
  • After the formation of aneurysm a gradual expansion might persist on the weakened arterial wall due to the hemodynamic forces exerted by the pulsatile flow of blood. (scirp.org)
  • Blood viscosity, fibrinogen, and activation of coagulation and leukocytes in peripheral arterial disease and the normal population in the Edinburgh Artery Study. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The concentration of PAH is measured in one arterial blood sample (PPAH) and one urine sample(UPAH). (wikipedia.org)
  • They are roughly grouped as arterial and venous, determined by whether the blood in it is flowing away from (arterial) or toward (venous) the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "arterial blood" is nevertheless used to indicate blood high in oxygen, although the pulmonary artery carries "venous blood" and blood flowing in the pulmonary vein is rich in oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Considering that aspect, we can deduce that venous blood has a light absorption different from arterial blood (in which sanguine viscosity is greater, due to the higher concentration of CO2. (wikipedia.org)
  • When an arterial-venous fistulae is transluminated, there are few reflected images because flow velocity is higher and sanguine viscosity lower than in the venous segment. (wikipedia.org)
  • In animals with lungs, arterial blood carries oxygen from inhaled air to the tissues of the body, and venous blood carries carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism produced by cells, from the tissues to the lungs to be exhaled. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words: Systemic Vascular Resistance = 80x(Mean Arterial Pressure - Mean Venous Pressure or CVP) / Cardiac Output Mean arterial pressure is most commonly measured using a sphygmomanometer, and calculating a specialized average between systolic and diastolic blood pressures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood flow in straight sections of the arterial tree are typically laminar (high, directed wall stress), but branches and curvatures in the system cause turbulent flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Impaired arterial blood gas (oxygen) tensions during intense exercise, increased blood lactate, and rarely death have been noted (likely due to ruptured chordae tendinae or a different mechanism of lung hemorrhage). (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with these conditions may suffer a range of symptoms including dyspnea (breathlessness), hypoxemia (below-normal oxygen content in the arterial blood) and eventually a weakening of the respiratory muscles due to exhaustion, which can lead to respiratory failure and require intubation and mechanical ventilation. (wikipedia.org)
  • From heart attacks to strokes, routine blood tests can screen for several types of life-threatening cardiac events. (eurekalert.org)
  • In fact, one study found that increased blood viscosity is a more likely sign of a potential cardiac event than high blood pressure, gender, or smoking. (eurekalert.org)
  • The research shows there is a connection between blood viscosity and cardiac events, and the equipment exists to test it, but not in a practical or efficient way. (eurekalert.org)
  • A few minutes after the sample is placed on the microchannel, a digital screen displays a viscosity reading that indicates whether the patient is at elevated risk for cardiac events. (eurekalert.org)
  • Au v D, Brandle M, Rupp H, Jacob R (1988) Influence of a diet rich in fish oil on blood pressure, body weight and cardiac hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats. (springer.com)
  • An example of cardiac mechanotransduction that is familiar to all physicians is the Frank-Starling law of the heart, which states that the volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle is a function of left ventricular end diastolic volume. (bloodflowonline.com)
  • Warfarin is best suited for anticoagulation (clot formation inhibition) in areas of slowly running blood (such as in veins and the pooled blood behind artificial and natural valves) and in blood pooled in dysfunctional cardiac atria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Central cardiovascular adaptations include decreased heart rate, increased stroke volume of the heart, increased blood plasma, without any major changes in red blood cell count, which reduces blood viscosity and increased cardiac output as well as total mitochondrial volume in the muscle fibers used in the training (i.e. the thigh muscles in runners will have more mitochondria than the thigh muscles of swimmers). (wikipedia.org)
  • It was suggested that in such abnormal fetuses, increased clumping and sludging of red blood cells would occur in fetal and feto-placental microcirculation and impair the tissue oxygenation of the fetuses during parturition. (iospress.com)
  • It appears therefore that the immersed-boundary lattice Boltzmann numerical model may be useful in providing valuable information on microscopic blood flows in various microcirculation situations. (elsevier.com)
  • A study conducted at the University of Pittsburgh and published in Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation demonstrated on average 62% higher systolic blood viscosity and 25% higher diastolic blood viscosity in men over premenopausal women. (bloodflowonline.com)
  • A blood pressure reading gives two digits - the first digit is systolic pressure, when the heart contracts and forces the blood around your body. (blood-pressure-diet.com)
  • The results show stress reduction as measured by heart rate, respiratory rate and hear rate variability (HRV) and a lowering effect on blood viscosity that lasted for at least one week after ungrounding, with systolic blood viscosity becoming significantly lower at the end of the study. (scirp.org)
  • Its potential in the treatment of diseases in which high viscosity or increased platelet adhesiveness are present deserves investigation. (ahajournals.org)
  • More common tests of blood coagulation include prothrombin time (PT,INR) and partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) which measure coagulation factor function, but TEG also can assess platelet function, clot strength, and fibrinolysis which these other tests cannot. (wikipedia.org)
  • In view of these findings, and of our recent demonstration that increased blood viscosity also exists in those patients with retinal vein occlusion who develop a similar proliferative retinopathy, we suggest that hyperviscosity may contribute to retinal ischaemia and hence proliferative retinopathy. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • This phenomenon termed "rheological claudication" was reported in about 25% of patients with moderate to severe claudication and blood hyperviscosity. (springer.com)
  • Most acute ischemic stroke patients (88.6%) had blood hyperviscosity. (innovareacademics.in)
  • The role of a novel digital microcapillary instrument in detecting blood and plasma hyperviscosity. (innovareacademics.in)
  • Hyperviscosity syndrome is a group of symptoms triggered by increase in the viscosity of the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hyperviscosity occurs from pathologic changes of either cellular or protein fractions of the blood such as is found in polycythemias, multiple myeloma (particularly IgA and IgG3), leukemia, monoclonal gammopathies such as Waldenström macroglobulinemia, sickle cell anemia, and sepsis. (wikipedia.org)
  • If hyperviscosity is suspected, treatment may need to be started prior to obtaining the official viscosity level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood viscosity and erythrocyte filterability were assessed in forty-five diabetics subdivided for type and vascular complications. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • From the obtained data, it is evident that blood viscosity at high shear rates does not distinguish diabetics from normals nor diabetics from one another, whereas at low shear rates it is able to differentiate normals from diabetics and diabetics with and without vascular complications. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Ohkubo T, Rupp H, Jacob R (1991) Effect of linseed oil feeding on blood pressure, vascular prostanoids and fatty acids in shr. (springer.com)
  • This result is due to the nonlinear regulation of peripheral vascular resistance arising from the increased production of nitric oxide following the increase of shear stress on the vascular wall due to increasing blood viscosity. (iospress.com)
  • Elevated blood viscosity directly increases systemic vascular resistance, which can be sensed by stretch receptors in the left ventricle. (bloodflowonline.com)
  • The end result of this pathway is decreased red cell mass, blood viscosity, and systemic vascular resistance. (bloodflowonline.com)
  • Pulmonary heart disease, also known as cor pulmonale is the enlargement and failure of the right ventricle of the heart as a response to increased vascular resistance (such as from pulmonic stenosis) or high blood pressure in the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of course, the effects on blood viscosity cannot explain the observed degree of blood-pressure lowering. (springer.com)
  • Despite the differences in haemodynamic mechanisms underlying the decrease in BP, amlodipine and metoprolol exert beneficial effects on blood viscosity. (diva-portal.org)
  • Commercial rheometers require large samples, take much longer, cost thousands of dollars, and are also commonly used to measure the viscosity of industrial liquids like oil, paint, or personal care products. (eurekalert.org)
  • When describing the viscosity of liquids, however, it is therefore useful to distinguish shear-thinning (pseudoplastic) behaviour from thixotropic behaviour, where the viscosity at all shear rates is decreased for some duration after agitation: both of these effects can often be seen separately in the same liquid. (wikipedia.org)
  • CBF increased in the left caudate 56% with hypertension and 47% with lower viscosity, again much more than on the right (p less than 0.001 and p less than 0.01, respectively). (ahajournals.org)
  • Appreciation of blood viscosity has provided important insights into the pathogenesis of other cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis , hypertension , and the metabolic syndrome . (bloodflowonline.com)
  • raised blood pressure in the lungs (pulmonary hypertension) can develop over time and in some cases progress to heart failure (cor pulmonale). (wikipedia.org)
  • The net effect of transfusion on DO2 in this system can be analyzed by using the relationship between Hct and systemic blood viscosity of circulating blood at the posttransfusion Hct to calculate DO2 and comparing this value with pretransfusion DO2. (uzh.ch)
  • citation needed] The symptoms/signs of pulmonary heart disease (cor pulmonale) can be non-specific and depend on the stage of the disorder, and can include blood backing up into the systemic venous system, including the hepatic vein. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5 In erythropoietin treated patients, those with higher hematocrits had higher all-cause mortality, increased arteriovenous access thrombosis, and poorly-controlled blood pressure, all of which can reasonably be attributed to elevated blood viscosity. (bloodflowonline.com)
  • It is commonly used to treat blood clots such as deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism and to prevent stroke in people who have atrial fibrillation, valvular heart disease or artificial heart valves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Warfarin is used to decrease the tendency for thrombosis or as secondary prophylaxis (prevention of further episodes) in those individuals who have already formed a blood clot (thrombus). (wikipedia.org)