Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
Tubular vessels that are involved in the transport of LYMPH and LYMPHOCYTES.
The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Unique slender cells with multiple processes extending along the capillary vessel axis and encircling the vascular wall, also called mural cells. Pericytes are imbedded in the BASEMENT MEMBRANE shared with the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS of the vessel. Pericytes are important in maintaining vessel integrity, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.
Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.
An extra-embryonic membranous sac derived from the YOLK SAC of REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. It lies between two other extra-embryonic membranes, the AMNION and the CHORION. The allantois serves to store urinary wastes and mediate exchange of gas and nutrients for the developing embryo.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.
The formation of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The first to be discovered member of the angiopoietin family. It may play a role in increasing the sprouting and branching of BLOOD VESSELS. Angiopoietin-1 specifically binds to and stimulates the TIE-2 RECEPTOR. Several isoforms of angiopoietin-1 occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.
A TIE receptor tyrosine kinase that is found almost exclusively on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. It is required for both normal embryonic vascular development (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PHYSIOLOGIC) and tumor angiogenesis (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PATHOLOGIC).
The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.
The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.
A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.
A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A tissue preparation technique that involves the injecting of plastic (acrylates) into blood vessels or other hollow viscera and treating the tissue with a caustic substance. This results in a negative copy or a solid replica of the enclosed space of the tissue that is ready for viewing under a scanning electron microscope.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
An angiopoietin that is closely related to ANGIOPOIETIN-1. It binds to the TIE-2 RECEPTOR without receptor stimulation and antagonizes the effect of ANGIOPOIETIN-1. However its antagonistic effect may be limited to cell receptors that occur within the vasculature. Angiopoietin-2 may therefore play a role in down-regulation of BLOOD VESSEL branching and sprouting.
Central retinal artery and its branches. It arises from the ophthalmic artery, pierces the optic nerve and runs through its center, enters the eye through the porus opticus and branches to supply the retina.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Central retinal vein and its tributaries. It runs a short course within the optic nerve and then leaves and empties into the superior ophthalmic vein or cavernous sinus.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
A vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor whose expression is restricted primarily to adult lymphatic endothelium. VEGFR-3 preferentially binds the vascular endothelial growth factor C and vascular endothelial growth factor D and may be involved in the control of lymphangiogenesis.
The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A family of closely related RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES that bind vascular endothelial growth factors. They share a cluster of seven extracellular Ig-like domains which are important for ligand binding. They are highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and are critical for the physiological and pathological growth, development and maintenance of blood and lymphatic vessels.
A highly vascularized extra-embryonic membrane, formed by the fusion of the CHORION and the ALLANTOIS. It is mostly found in BIRDS and REPTILES. It serves as a model for studying tumor or cell biology, such as angiogenesis and TISSUE TRANSPLANTATION.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
Formation of new blood vessels originating from the retinal veins and extending along the inner (vitreal) surface of the retina.
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.
The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Endothelial cells that line venous vessels of the UMBILICAL CORD.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.
The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
A vascular endothelial growth factor that specifically binds to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-2 and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-3. In addition to being an angiogenic factor it can act on LYMPHATIC VESSELS to stimulate LYMPHANGIOGENESIS. It is similar in structure to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR D in that they both contain N- and C-terminal extensions that were not found in other VEGF family members.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The vein which drains the foot and leg.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
Neoplasms composed of vascular tissue. This concept does not refer to neoplasms located in blood vessels.
Veins which return blood from the intestines; the inferior mesenteric vein empties into the splenic vein, the superior mesenteric vein joins the splenic vein to form the portal vein.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
The finer blood vessels of the vasculature that are generally less than 100 microns in internal diameter.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
A TIE receptor found predominantly on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. It is considered essential for vascular development and can form a heterodimer with the TIE-2 RECEPTOR. The TIE-1 receptor may play a role in regulating BLOOD VESSEL stability and maturation.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins that regulate the proliferation of new blood vessels under normal physiological conditions (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGICAL). Aberrant expression of angiogenic proteins during disease states such as tumorigenesis can also result in PATHOLOGICAL ANGIOGENESIS.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.
Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A 180-kDa VEGF receptor found primarily in endothelial cells that is essential for vasculogenesis and vascular maintenance. It is also known as Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1). A soluble, alternatively spliced isoform of the receptor may serve as a binding protein that regulates the availability of various ligands for VEGF receptor binding and signal transduction.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.
Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A vascular malformation of developmental origin characterized pathologically by ectasia of superficial dermal capillaries, and clinically by persistent macular erythema. In the past, port wine stains have frequently been termed capillary hemangiomas, which they are not; unfortunately this confusing practice persists: HEMANGIOMA, CAPILLARY is neoplastic, a port-wine stain is non-neoplastic. Port-wine stains vary in color from fairly pale pink to deep red or purple and in size from a few millimeters to many centimeters in diameter. The face is the most frequently affected site and they are most often unilateral. (From Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 5th ed, p483)
A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Dimeric cell surface receptor involved in angiogenesis (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL) and axonal guidance. Neuropilin-1 is a 140-kDa transmembrane protein that binds CLASS 3 SEMAPHORINS, and several other growth factors. Neuropilin-1 forms complexes with plexins or VEGF RECEPTORS, and binding affinity and specificity are determined by the composition of the neuropilin dimer and the identity of other receptors complexed with it. Neuropilin-1 is expressed in distinct patterns during neural development, complementary to those described for NEUROPILIN-2.
The first of four extra-embryonic membranes to form during EMBRYOGENESIS. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it arises from endoderm and mesoderm to incorporate the EGG YOLK into the DIGESTIVE TRACT for nourishing the embryo. In placental MAMMALS, its nutritional function is vestigial; however, it is the source of INTESTINAL MUCOSA; BLOOD CELLS; and GERM CELLS. It is sometimes called the vitelline sac, which should not be confused with the VITELLINE MEMBRANE of the egg.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Inflammation of any one of the blood vessels, including the ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
A species of gram-negative bacteria highly pathogenic to RATS and MICE. It is the primary cause of murine respiratory mycoplasmosis.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.
Tunable liquid lasers with organic compounds (i.e., dye) which have a strong absorption band, used as the active medium. During emission, the dye has to be optically excited by another light source (e.g., another laser or flash lamp). The range of the emission wavelength may be anywhere from the ultraviolet to the near infrared (i.e., from 180 to 1100nm). These lasers are operated in continuous wave and pulsed modes. (UMDNS, 2005)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A vascular anomaly due to proliferation of BLOOD VESSELS that forms a tumor-like mass. The common types involve CAPILLARIES and VEINS. It can occur anywhere in the body but is most frequently noticed in the SKIN and SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE. (from Stedman, 27th ed, 2000)
The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.
The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Veins draining the cerebrum.
A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
A transmembrane domain containing ephrin that binds with high affinity to EPHB1 RECEPTOR; EPHB3 RECEPTOR; and EPHB4 RECEPTOR. Expression of ephrin-B2 occurs in a variety of adult tissues. During embryogenesis, high levels of ephrin-B2 is seen in the PROSENCEPHALON; RHOMBENCEPHALON; developing SOMITES; LIMB BUD; and bronchial arches.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.
A family of structurally-related tyrosine kinase receptors that are expressed predominantly in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and are essential for development of BLOOD VESSELS (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PHYSIOLOGIC). The name derives from the fact that they are tyrosine kinases that contain Ig and EGF domains.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.

Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis. (1/4225)

OBJECTIVE: To review the literature for evidence that chronic infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae is associated with atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndromes. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and Institute of Science and Information bibliographic databases were searched at the end of September 1998. Indexing terms used were chlamydi*, heart, coronary, and atherosclerosis. Serological and pathological studies published as papers in any language since 1988 or abstracts since 1997 were selected. DATA EXTRACTION: It was assumed that chronic C pneumoniae infection is characterised by the presence of both specific IgG and IgA, and serological studies were examined for associations that fulfilled these criteria. Pathological studies were also reviewed for evidence that the presence of C pneumoniae in diseased vessels is associated with the severity and extent of atherosclerosis. DATA SYNTHESIS: The majority of serological studies have shown an association between C pneumoniae and atherosclerosis. However, the number of cases in studies that have reported a positive association when using strict criteria for chronic infection is similar to the number of cases in studies which found no association. Nevertheless, the organism is widely found in atherosclerotic vessels, although it may not be at all diseased sites and is not confined to the most severe lesions. Rabbit models and preliminary antibiotic trials suggest that the organism might exacerbate atherosclerosis. CONCLUSION: More evidence is required before C pneumoniae can be accepted as playing a role in atherosclerosis. Although use of antibiotics in routine practice is not justified, large scale trials in progress will help to elucidate the role of C pneumoniae.  (+info)

Quantification of tumour vasculature and hypoxia by immunohistochemical staining and HbO2 saturation measurements. (2/4225)

Despite the possibility that tumour hypoxia may limit radiotherapeutic response, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. A new methodology has been developed in which information from several sophisticated techniques is combined and analysed at a microregional level. First, tumour oxygen availability is spatially defined by measuring intravascular blood oxygen saturations (HbO2) cryospectrophotometrically in frozen tumour blocks. Second, hypoxic development is quantified in adjacent sections using immunohistochemical detection of a fluorescently conjugated monoclonal antibody (ELK3-51) to a nitroheterocyclic hypoxia marker (EF5), thereby providing information relating to both the oxygen consumption rates and the effective oxygen diffusion distances. Third, a combination of fluorescent (Hoechst 33342 or DiOC7(3)) and immunohistological (PECAM-1/CD31) stains is used to define the anatomical vascular densities and the fraction of blood vessels containing flow. Using a computer-interfaced microscope stage, image analysis software and a 3-CCD colour video camera, multiple images are digitized, combined to form a photo-montage and revisited after each of the three staining protocols. By applying image registration techniques, the spatial distribution of HbO2 saturations is matched to corresponding hypoxic marker intensities in adjacent sections. This permits vascular configuration to be related to oxygen availability and allows the hypoxic marker intensities to be quantitated in situ.  (+info)

Expression of neuropeptide Y receptors mRNA and protein in human brain vessels and cerebromicrovascular cells in culture. (3/4225)

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been suggested as an important regulator of CBF. However, except for the presence of Y1 receptors in large cerebral arteries, little is known about its possible sites of action on brain vessels. In this study, we sought to identify the NPY receptors present in the human cerebrovascular bed. Specific Y1 receptor binding sites, localized on the smooth muscle of human pial vessels and potently competed by NPY, polypeptide YY (PYY), and the selective Y1 receptor antagonist BIBP 3226, were identified by quantitative radioautography of the Y1 radioligand [125I]-[Leu31, Pro34]-PYY. In contrast, no specific binding of the Y2-([125I]-PYY3-36) and Y4/Y5-(125I-human pancreatic polypeptide [hPP]) radioligands could be detected. By in situ hybridization, expression of Y1 receptor mRNA was restricted to the smooth muscle layer of pial vessels, whereas no specific signals were detected for either Y2, Y4, or Y5 receptors. Similarly, using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), mRNA for Y1 but not Y2, Y4, or Y5 receptors was consistently detected in isolated human pial vessels, intracortical microvessels, and capillaries. In human brain microvascular cells in culture, PCR products for the Y1 receptors were exclusively found in the smooth muscle cells. In cultures of human brain astrocytes, a cell type that associates intimately with brain microvessels, PCR products for Y1, Y2, and Y4 but not Y5 receptors were identified. Finally, NPY significantly inhibited the forskolin-induced cAMP production in smooth muscle but not in endothelial cell cultures. We conclude that smooth muscle Y1 receptors are the primary if not exclusive NPY receptors associated with human brain extraparenchymal and intraparenchymal blood vessels, where they most likely mediate cerebral vasoconstriction.  (+info)

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin alters cardiovascular and craniofacial development and function in sac fry of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). (4/4225)

Hallmark signs of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxicity in rainbow trout sac fry, are yolk sac edema, hemorrhage, craniofacial malformation, and growth retardation culminating in mortality. Our objective was to determine the role of cardiovascular dysfunction in the development of this toxicity. An embryotoxic TCDD dose (385 pg/g egg) caused a progressive reduction in blood flow in rainbow trout sac fry manifested first and most dramatically in the 1st and 2nd branchial arches and vessels perfusing the lower jaw. Blood flow was reduced later in the infraorbital artery and occipital vein of the head as well as segmental vessels and caudal vein of the trunk. Reduced perfusion occurred last in gill branchial arteries involved with oxygen uptake and the subintestinal vein and vitelline vein involved with nutrient uptake. Although heart rate throughout sac fry development was not affected, heart size at 50 days post-fertilization (dpf) was reduced far more than body weight or length, suggesting that the progressive circulatory failure caused by TCDD is associated with reduced cardiac output. Craniofacial development was arrested near hatch, giving rise to craniofacial malformations in which the jaws and anterior nasal structures were underdeveloped. Unlike the medaka embryo, in which TCDD causes apoptosis in the medial yolk vein, endothelial cell death was not observed in rainbow trout sac fry. These findings suggest a primary role for arrested heart development and reduced perfusion of tissues with blood in the early-life stage toxicity of TCDD in trout.  (+info)

The effects of levonorgestrel implants on vascular endothelial growth factor expression in the endometrium. (5/4225)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and the microvascular density of the endometrium were studied in Norplant users and normal controls, using immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded endometrial sections. The VEGF staining index was quantified using computerized image analysis. The VEGF staining index between stages of the menstrual cycle and between normal and Norplant endometria were compared. Norplant VEGF staining index was analysed for correlation with microvascular density, duration of Norplant use, the number of bleeding/spotting days in the reference period up to 90 days prior to biopsy, and the length of time since the last bleeding/spotting episode. The results showed that immunoreactive VEGF was detected predominantly in endometrial glands but weakly expressed in the stroma throughout the menstrual cycle, and also in Norplant users. Large variation in the VEGF staining index between individuals was observed and no significant difference in the VEGF staining index was detected between stages of the menstrual cycle for the glands and stroma. The glandular and stromal VEGF staining indices were significantly higher in Norplant than in normal endometrium (P<1x10(-4)). No correlation was found between the Norplant VEGF staining index and endometrial microvascular density, duration of Norplant use, the number of bleeding/spotting days in the reference period, and the length of time since the last bleeding/spotting episode. The VEGF staining index was higher in glands than stroma for both normal and Norplant endometrium. The results suggest a differential control of endometrial glandular versus stromal VEGF expression, and possible positive effects of levonorgestrel on VEGF expression.  (+info)

Acetylcholine-induced relaxation in blood vessels from endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mice. (6/4225)

1. Isometric tension was recorded in isolated rings of aorta, carotid, coronary and mesenteric arteries taken from endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mice (eNOS(-/-) mice) and the corresponding wild-type strain (eNOS(+/+) mice). The membrane potential of smooth muscle cells was measured in coronary arteries with intracellular microelectrodes. 2. In the isolated aorta, carotid and coronary arteries from the eNOS(+/+) mice, acetylcholine induced an endothelium-dependent relaxation which was inhibited by N(omega)-L-nitro-arginine. In contrast, in the mesenteric arteries, the inhibition of the cholinergic relaxation required the combination of N(omega)-L-nitro-arginine and indomethacin. 3. The isolated aorta, carotid and coronary arteries from the eNOS(-/-) mice did not relax in response to acetylcholine. However, acetylcholine produced an indomethacin-sensitive relaxation in the mesenteric artery from eNOS(-/-) mice. 4. The resting membrane potential of smooth muscle cells from isolated coronary arteries was significantly less negative in the eNOS(-/-) mice (-64.8 +/- 1.8 mV, n = 20 and -58.4 +/- 1.9 mV, n = 17, for eNOS(+/+) and eNOS(-/-) mice, respectively). In both strains, acetylcholine, bradykinin and substance P did not induce endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizations whereas cromakalim consistently produced hyperpolarizations (- 7.9 +/- 1.1 mV, n = 8 and -13.8 +/- 2.6 mV, n = 4, for eNOS(+/+) and eNOS(-/-) mice, respectively). 5. These findings demonstrate that in the blood vessels studied: (1) in the eNOS(+/+) mice, the endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine involve either NO or the combination of NO plus a product of cyclo-oxygenase but not EDHF; (2) in the eNOS(-/-) mice, NO-dependent responses and EDHF-like responses were not observed. In the mesenteric arteries acetylcholine releases a cyclo-oxygenase derivative.  (+info)

BDNF is a target-derived survival factor for arterial baroreceptor and chemoafferent primary sensory neurons. (7/4225)

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) supports survival of 50% of visceral afferent neurons in the nodose/petrosal sensory ganglion complex (NPG; Ernfors et al., 1994a; Jones et al., 1994; Conover et al., 1995; Liu et al., 1995; Erickson et al., 1996), including arterial chemoafferents that innervate the carotid body and are required for development of normal breathing (Erickson et al., 1996). However, the relationship between BDNF dependence of visceral afferents and the location and timing of BDNF expression in visceral tissues is unknown. The present study demonstrates that BDNF mRNA and protein are transiently expressed in NPG targets in the fetal cardiac outflow tract, including baroreceptor regions in the aortic arch, carotid sinus, and right subclavian artery, as well as in the carotid body. The period of BDNF expression corresponds to the onset of sensory innervation and to the time at which fetal NPG neurons are BDNF-dependent in vitro. Moreover, baroreceptor innervation is absent in newborn mice lacking BDNF. In addition to vascular targets, vascular afferents themselves express high levels of BDNF, both during and after the time they are BDNF-dependent. However, endogenous BDNF supports survival of fetal NPG neurons in vitro only under depolarizing conditions. Together, these data indicate two roles for BDNF during vascular afferent pathway development; initially, as a target-derived survival factor, and subsequently, as a signaling molecule produced by the afferents themselves. Furthermore, the fact that BDNF is required for survival of functionally distinct populations of vascular afferents demonstrates that trophic requirements of NPG neurons are not modality-specific but may instead be associated with innervation of particular organ systems.  (+info)

Increased renal resistive index in patients with essential hypertension: a marker of target organ damage. (8/4225)

BACKGROUND: Increased renal resistance detected by ultrasound (US) Doppler has been reported in severe essential hypertension (EH) and recently was shown to correlate with the degree of renal impairment in hypertensive patients with chronic renal failure. However, the pathophysiological significance of this finding is still controversial. METHODS: In a group of 211 untreated patients with EH, we evaluated renal resistive index (RI) by US Doppler of interlobar arteries and early signs of target organ damage (TOD). Albuminuria was measured as the albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) in three non-consecutive first morning urine samples. Left ventricular mass was evaluated by M-B mode echocardiography, and carotid wall thickness (IMT) by high resolution US scan. RESULTS: RI was positively correlated with age (r=0.25, P=0.003) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (r=0.2, P=0.02) and with signs of early TOD, namely ACR (r=0.22, P=0.01) and IMT (r=0.17, P<0.05), and inversely correlated with renal volume (r=-0.22, P=0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (r=-0.23, P=0.006). Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that age, gender, ACR and SBP independently influence RI and together account for approximately 20% of its variations (F=8.153, P<0.0001). When clinical data were analysed according to the degree of RI, the patients in the top quartile were found to be older (P<0.05) and with higher SBP (P<0.05) as well as early signs of TOD, namely increased ACR (P<0.002) and IMT (P<0.005 by ANOVA), despite similar body mass index, uric acid, fasting blood glucose, lipid profile and duration of hypertension. Furthermore, patients with higher RI showed a significantly higher prevalence of microalbuminuria (13 vs 12 vs 3 vs 33% chi2=11.72, P=0.008) and left ventricular hypertrophy (40 vs 43 vs 32 vs 60%, chi2=9.25, P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Increased RI is associated with early signs of TOD in EH and could be a marker of intrarenal atherosclerosis.  (+info)

EL-KARIB, Abbas O et al. Pre-Diabetes Induces Ultrastructural Alterations in the Large Blood Vessel Aorta in Rats. Int. J. Morphol. [online]. 2019, vol.37, n.2, pp.647-653. ISSN 0717-9502. Excessive consumption of carbohydrate and fat increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. We sought to determine the potential ultrastructural alterations in large blood vessels induced by a high fat and fructose diet (HFD) in a rat model of prediabetes. Rats were either fed with HFD (model group) or a standard laboratory chow (control group) for 15 weeks before being sacrificed. The harvested thoracic aorta tissues were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and blood samples were assayed for biomarkers of pre-diabetes.TEM images showed that HFD induced profound pathological changes to the aortic wall layers, tunica intima and tunica media ultrastructures in the pre-diabetic rats as shown by apoptotic endothelial cells with pyknotic nuclei, ...
large blood clots - MedHelps large blood clots Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for large blood clots. Find large blood clots information, treatments for large blood clots and large blood clots symptoms.
We have utilized the zebrafish to study arterial and venous differentiation during embryonic blood vessel formation. As in mouse and Xenopus, we find molecular differences between arteries and veins can be demonstrated before circulation in zebrafish embryos by the expression of the transmembrane ligand EphrinB2 and the EphB4 homolog rtk5 (Cooke et al., 1997), respectively. We find that notch3 is also expressed specifically within the vasculature in the DA beginning at the 18-somite stage, similar to the temporal expression pattern of ephrinB2. This artery-restricted pattern of expression and the known role of Notch signaling in cell fate decisions led us to investigate the role of this pathway during arterio-venous differentiation.. We determined the effect on vascular development of both loss and gain of Notch activity during embryonic development. We are able to effectively inhibit the Notch pathway using a dominant negative form of Su(H) that fails to bind DNA (Wettstein et al., 1997). In ...
In this study we describe a model system that allows continuous in vivo observation of the vertebrate embryonic vasculature. We find that the zebrafish fli1 promoter is able to drive expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in all blood vessels throughout embryogenesis. We demonstrate …
Abstract: A brief overview of mathematical models of contemporary applied hemodynamics is given. The special attention is paid to questions of development of effective computational algorithms implementing one-dimensional model. For this purpose TVD-monotonized schemes having the second order accuracy both in time and space are used. A number of test problems with analytical solutions are proposed. Questions of convergence and a choice of grid parameters for various schemes are investigated. The approaches using multiscale hemodynamics models are considered. An embedding of one-dimensional model of a single vessel into 0-dimensional model of vascular system is implemented. The possibility of using linear model for considered class problems of hemodynamics is analyzed ...
The radius of the pulmonary arteries and of the descending thoracic aorta in man was measured by angiographic techniques. Simultaneously with angiocardiography, pressure measurements were carried out, permitting calculation of radius-pressure (ΔR/ΔP) relationships. The results obtained by this method are similar to those obtained by other methods in which the vessel radius was measured more directly.. ...
To understand what happens when the heart stops, it is first important to understand the function of the heart. After all, when the heart stops its function ceases. The heart is a hollow organ that is made up of four chambers - right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium and left ventricle. Large blood vessels lead to and away from these chambers. Valves control blood flow between chambers and between the chambers and the large blood vessels.. The heart is a pump that receives low oxygen blood from the rest of the body (in the right atrium) and pushes this blood to the lungs (from the right ventricle). The blood is then oxygenated by the lungs and carbon dioxide is expelled. Then the blood returns to the heart (in the left atrium). From here, the oxygen-rich blood is pumped to the rest of the body (from the left ventricle). Therefore the heart is responsible for ensuring that there is sufficient oxygen available for all the cells in the body but blood also carries nutrients and other essential ...
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject areas.
Angiogenesis is an essential process whereby new blood vessels are formed from pre-existing vessels and occurs under both normal and pathophysiological conditions. growth element receptor 1 (sVEGFR-1). Therefore, FoxC1 appears to control angiogenesis by regulating two unique and opposing mechanisms; if so, vascular development could be identified, at least in part, Elvitegravir by a competitive balance between pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic FoxC1-controlled pathways. With this review, we describe the mechanisms by which FoxC1 regulates vessel growth and discuss how these observations could contribute to a more total understanding of the part of FoxC1 in pathological angiogenesis. Intro Under both physiological and pathological conditions, new blood vessels are created from pre-existing vessels through a process called angiogenesis, which is definitely exactly controlled by the balance between pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors. Vascular endothelial growth element (VEGF)-A is perhaps ...
Small Blood Vessel Problems: when your blood sugars stay too high for a long time, your small blood vessels may be harmed. This can cause problems with your eyes and kidneys. It can also cause problems with blood circulation to your feet and skin. High levels of sugar in your blood make it harder for the red blood cells to squeeze into very small blood vessels in your body. Sugar also makes the walls of your blood vessels less strong. When the red blood cells try to squeeze into the small blood vessels, they damage the vessels even more. This can make your blood vessels so weak they burst. If this happens, your eyes may be harmed and further problems, if not detected or treated, can lead to blindness (Diabetic Retinopathy). Your kidneys may also be damaged (Diabetic Nephropathy) and, if not looked after, may end up not working at all ...
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a complex, often underdiagnosed illness with rising prevalence in western world countries. During the past decade there has been a rapid advance especially in the field of endovascular treatment of PAD. Here we present for the first time a case reporting on the placement of coronary stent graft in a peripheral vessel for the management of a peripheral side branch perforation. Interventional angiologists or radiologists may consider such an option for complication management after injury of smaller vessels during peripheral percutaneous interventions. Further specialization and novel options of complication management as described in our case may shift the treatment from surgical to even more endovascular treatment procedures in the future.
The process in which the anatomical structures of venous blood vessels are generated and organized. Veins are blood vessels that transport blood from the body and its organs to the heart. [GOC:dsf, PMID:16740480]
Diabetes mellitus significantly increases the risk for both small and large blood vessel complications e.g. diabetic eye problems and coronary heart disease. Vital organs such as the eye, kidney, heart and brain represent well− recognized preferential targets in patients with diabetes mellitus. The presence of such end−organ damage powerfully influences cardiovascular risk and the benefits of therapeutic interventions. Unfortunately, by the time symptoms develop or events occur as manifestations of target−organ damage, the disease process is already at an advanced stage. Although not traditionally viewed as an end−organ, it is altered structure and function of arterial small blood vessels that acts as the substrate for accelerated disease development and the increased occurrence of vascular events in patients with diabetes mellitus. The ability to detect and monitor sub−clinical damage, representing the cumulative and integrated influence of all risk factors in impairing arterial wall ...
High and low blood sugars can cause a variety of complications in the short term or the long-term. The primary cause of complications is that higher levels of blood sugar cause your blood to become more acidic. Over time, this causes a variety of complications related to your small blood vessels (microvascular) and your large blood vessels (macrovascular). The major long-term studies of diabetes, particularly the DCCT and EDIC, have found that people with diabetes who can keep their HbA1c below 7% experience significantly fewer complications. Most importantly, even a few years of better blood sugars can pay off with fewer complications even decades later. Increasingly, studies are using continuous glucose meters to measure not just average blood sugars, but also how often you spend in the normal range. There is some evidence and many suspect that time spent in this range may be more important than your HbA1c in
Macrovascular disease is related with large blood vessels like arteries, coronary and the sizable arteries in the brain and in the limbs. Diabetes and hyperglycemia are causes of development of microvascular disease. Mostly type 2 diabetes increases the risk of microvascular disease of kidneys, eyes and nerves. Microvascular disease can result into kidney failure, blindness, impotence (in men) and foot ulcers. Usually microvascular complications occur due to high level of sugar over time that is it happens after many years of diabetes.. Macrovascular complications of diabetes directly affect on the blood vessels. Because of high diabetes linings of the blood vessels get damaged and become narrow, as a result of this the blood supply decreases in the affected area. When blood vessels of the brain and heart get affected it results in heart attack or stroke. Problems of blood circulation, decreased sensation, and leg cramps happen due to affected blood vessels in the legs. For diabetes treatment ...
Diabetic macrovascular complications result from changes in the medium to large blood vessels. Blood vessel walls thicken, sclerose, and become occluded by plaque that adheres to the vessel walls. Eventually, blood flow is blocked. These atherosclerotic changes are indistinguishable from atherosclerotic changes in people without diabetes, but they tend to occur more often and at an earlier age in diabetes. Coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral vascular disease are the three main types of macrovascular complications that occur more frequently in the diabetic population. Myocardial infarction is twice as common in diabetic men and three times as common in diabetic women. There is also an increased risk for complications resulting from myocardial infarction and an increased likelihood of a second myocardial infarction. Coronary artery disease may account for 50% to 60% of all deaths in patients with diabetes. One unique feature of coronary artery disease in patients with ...
The purpose of this study is to determine if women with chest pain and clean heart blood vessels have impaired blood flow to the heart due to problems with the small blood vessels that provide blood and oxygen to the heart. Impairment in the small blood vessels will be tested using ultrasound pictures of the heart, called myocardial contrast echocardiography. Since these small blood vessels are not seen in a coronary angiogram, which is an x-ray of the heart vessels using a dye containing iodine injected in the heart vessels, the problem may remain undiagnosed in women until the heart muscle becomes severely damaged.. A second purpose is to identify if there is a common trait in the population of women with this tiny blood vessel dysfunction, which will be investigated by checking blood levels of certain chemical and hormones related to heart disease. Finally, we would like to investigate the relationship between depression and stress, and heart disease. We will do this by measuring cortisol ...
Find liposuctioned fat cells turned into small blood vessels. Mississsippi Stem Cell Therapy Center promotes stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine.
Dear Penny Pritzker, Secretary of Commerce:. We urge you to intervene and to stop all orca experiments that involve satellite tagging and skin biopsies. Both of these barbaric methods can cause infections and deaths.. The death of orca L95 in March 2016 led the US responsible parties to halt all barbaric satellite tags pending a review. The tags are actually sharp barb-like blades that penetrate the skin. On October 4th a press conference was held by NOAA Fisheries. At that meeting the following information was given:. 1. The death of orca L95 was due to a fungal infection. The first dart attempt failed and due to human error it was not properly sterilized as per protocol. It was also done in waters that were known to have this fungus. The dart was shot into the area of the dorsal fin where large blood vessels are located.. 2. Unlike Canada that is not using satellite tags since it is deemed too invasive and alternatives are available, NOAA will only suspend the experiments on the endangered ...
There is a growing body of evidence on the importance of hemodynamic forces (i.e. blood flow and pressure) in regulating endothelial cell behavior and blood vessel formation. I was part of a recent discovery published in Nature Cell Biology that identified a new type of membrane protrusion-called inverse blebbing-at the apical membrane of endothelial cells. These inverse blebs drive the expansion of the lumen, which is a structure that allows blood to flow through the vessels. This process is therefore important in the formation of functional blood vessels ...
Aortobifemoral bypass surgery is used to bypass a narrowed or blocked part of the large blood vessels in the abdomen and groin. To bypass the diseased part of the blood vessel, blood is redirected through a graft. The graft is made of man-made material. This graft is sewn above and below the diseased vessel so that...
The most common symptom of internal hemroids is bright red bleeding on underwear, toilet paper, stool or in toilet water.. Internal hemroids are incredibly prone to easy bleeding for a number of reasons. The first reason is that an internal hemroid is a protrusion into the anal canal, which is supposed to be rather smooth. Of course, any protrusion is going to get hit more than smooth muscle wall.. In addition, the mucus membrane is thinner and more delicate than skin to begin with. When it swells outwards, as with a hemroid, the overlying tissue gets even thinner.. Most internal hemroids are also inflamed to some degree, which means that there is more blood collecting in the hemroid than in other areas of the anal canal, which means that more blood comes out.. Last, an internal hemroid is a varicosity, or swelling, of a relatively large blood vessel. Therefore a hemroid brings its blood vessel much closer to the surface of the mucus membrane than normal, which vastly increases the chance of ...
Biological Process: artery morphogenesis; atrial cardiac muscle morphogenesis; BMP signaling pathway; branching involved in blood vessel morphogenesis; cell adhesion; central nervous system vasculogenesis; chronological cell aging; heart looping; negative regulation of cell migration; negative regulation of protein autophosphorylation; positive regulation of angiogenesis; positive regulation of BMP signaling pathway; positive regulation of collagen biosynthetic process; positive regulation of protein phosphorylation; positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; regulation of transcription, DNA-templated; regulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway; response to corticosteroid stimulus; response to drug; smooth muscle development; sprouting angiogenesis; vasculogenesis; venous blood vessel morphogenesis ...
g. Go to the energency department)- the next cough could break a large blood vessel. Otherwise, blood-tinged sputum can occur with forceful coughing with some smaller blood vessels breaking. In the latter scenario, as long as a person can breath fine, then schedue a visit with your doctor. Would you like to video or text chat with me? ...
For the study, researchers used lasers to create a clean split with two broken ends in the small blood vessels of the zebrafish brain. Then, through a specialized microscope, they observed what happened after the blood vessels were ruptured. The researchers noticed an unexpected repair process that started about a half hour after they induced the vessel damage. A macrophage showed up, and extended two arms from its body toward the ends of a broken blood vessel, using a variety of adhesion molecules to attach itself to the vessel. Then, it pulled the two broken ends together to mediate their repair. The macrophage left the scene after the blood vessel was repaired. The whole process took about three hours.. In addition, the researchers noted that usually only one macrophage arrived at the laser-wound site to mend the broken ends. Rarely, two macrophages arrived at the injury on their own-in these instances, each macrophage grabbed one of the broken ends of the blood vessel. However, the ...
While BOLD contrast reflects hemodynamic changes within capillaries serving neural tissue, it also has a venous component. Studies that have determined the relation of large blood vessels to the activation map indicate that veins are the source of the largest response, and the most delayed in time. It would be informative if the location of these large veins could be extracted from the properties of the functional responses, since vessels are not visible in BOLD contrast images. The present study describes a method for investigating whether measures taken from the functional response can reliably predict vein location, or at least be useful in down-weighting the venous contribution to the activation response, and illustrates this method using data from one subject. We combined fMRI at 3 Tesla with high-resolution anatomic imaging and MR venography to test whether the intrinsic properties of activation time courses corresponded to tissue type. Measures were taken from a gamma fit to the functional
The chemokine CXCL12/SDF1a has first been described in the immune system where it functions include chemotaxis for lymphocytes and macrophages, migration of hematopoietic cells from fetal liver to bone marrow and the formation of large blood vessels. Among other chemokines, CXCL12 has recently attracted much attention in the brain as it has been shown that it can be produced not only by glial cells but also by neurons. In addition, its receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7, which are belonging to the G-protein coupled receptors family, are abundantly expressed in diverse brain area, CXCR4 being a major co-receptor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 entry. This chemokine system has been shown to play important roles in brain plasticity processes occurring during development but also in the physiology of the brain in normal and pathological conditions. For example, in neurons, CXCR4 stimulation has been shown regulate the synaptic release of glutamate and GABA. It can also act post-synaptically by activating a
An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is described by doctors as a pathological dilation of the main abdominal artery (aorta). Its diameter varies depending on age and sex; an abdominal aorta with a diameter of 3 cm or more is called an AAA. The risk increases with age, whereby women are markedly less often affected than men.Most AAAs cause no problems, that is, they are asymptomatic. However, the larger the size of the AAA, the greater the danger that this large blood vessel will rupture. Without treatment such a rupture quickly results in death. But even if patients reach a hospital on time and emergency surgery is still possible, about 40% of patients receiving open surgery and about 20% receiving endovascular surgery die.Screening aims to lower risk of death. In contrast, if an AAA is detected in time and a patient can undergo elective surgery, the chance of survival is considerably higher: Depending on the type of surgery (endovascular or open) in Germany between 1.3% and 3.6% of patients die ...
Abdominal ultrasound is often used to check large blood vessel known as the abdominal aorta that passes from the back of the chest and abdomen. Learn on facts, procedure & more.
The heart has four chambers. Each chamber fills with blood and empties the blood into another chamber or a large blood vessel. Each of the four chambers has a heart valve which opens and closes when the blood fills or is expelled from the chamber. Unfortunately, either by an accident of birth or certain disease and degenerative conditions, the leaflets of these valves can be damaged, malformed or scarred leading to inability of the valve to open (stenosis) or to close correctly,(insufficiency or regurgitation, the leaky valve).. ...
When the child fever does not make calm. Children become fussy and a little inconvenient. Fever also makes the child difficult to sleep, because they feel uncomfortable. There are many causes of fever such as flu, immunization, and teething. There are many ways to reduce fever, one of them by way of compressing. If mom during this time to compress the child with cold water should immediately stop this habit. Compressing the right child is with warm water. Warm water effectively lower body temperature in children. By compressing warm water, then the center of body temperature will receive information that she around the body is warm. Then the body will automatically lower its temperature.. Compressing the right is in the folds of the body rather than on the forehead. So put the compress on the armpit and groin. This is because the body folds are bypassed by large blood vessels, which function to inform the brain to lower the bodys sushi. So the fever was gone. After the compress, dry the wet ...
The procedure of egg collection is practically painless as it is done under intravenous analgesia (sedation) administered by the anaesthetist. Another reason why the egg collection should be done under sedation is to avoid any involuntary movement by the patient that could momentarily move the egg collection needle and cause damage to the ovary or other structures close to the ovary (uterus, intestine, a large blood vessel etc.). An egg collection is usually a quick procedure, lasting about 10-30 minutes, depending on the number of the follicles, the degree of difficulty of the aspiration etc. The patient usually needs to stay in the recovery room for a further 30 minutes to 1 hour to rest and allow the staff to ensure that they are well enough to leave the Unit.. Before leaving the Unit, the patient is informed about the number of the eggs retrieved and will receive further instructions for the continuation of the treatment.. ...
|br/|Three-dimensional visualizations of cerebral vessel structures are helpful for diagnosing diseases. However, when viewing several overlapping cerebral
For validation, we first use synthetically generated airways and vessels produced by the proposed generative model to compute the relative error and directly evaluate the accuracy of CNR in comparison with traditional methods. Then, in-vivo validation is performed by analyzing the association between the percentage of the predicted forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1\%) and the value of the Pi10 parameter, two well-known measures of lung function and airway disease, for airways. For vessels, we assess the correlation between our estimate of the small-vessel blood volume and the lungs diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO ...
During the development of the vascular network, blood vessels are constantly formed but many of them are only required temporarily. Just like a disused arm of a highly branched river, the flow of fresh blood through these vessels is interrupted and the organism begins to prune this side arm. In this way the vascular system regulates itself, optimizing its blood circulation by pruning and recycling the unnecessary vessels with reduced blood flow and blood pressure.. This newly uncovered process is important for the understanding of blood vessel formation and regression on the cellular level, as this can also explain the extraordinary plasticity and changeability of the vascular system, says Anna Lenard, the first author of this publication. These investigations were performed on the zebrafish, as in this almost transparent fish the development of blood vessels can be observed in the living animal using modern microscopy techniques.. Relevance of self-fusion for cancer?. How the cell recognizes ...
blood vessel a vessel in which blood circulates The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system that transport blood throughout the body. There are three major types of blood vessels: the arteries, which carry the blood away from the heart; the capillaries, which enable the actual exchange of water and chemicals between the…
On September 19, 2017, Posted by Birgit Rogell , In Press Releases, With Kommentare deaktiviert für Heidelberg University: How Blood Vessels Are Formed ...
Blood vessels. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a resin cast of blood vessels in a lymph node. The fine network of smaller vessels branching off from the main vessel infiltrates the tissue, supplying it with blood. Gases and nutrients are exchanged between the blood and surrounding tissues through the permeable walls of capillaries, the smallest blood vessels. Connective tissues provide structural support and cohesion throughout the body. The cast was made by injecting resin into the blood vessels, followed by chemical digestion of the surrounding tissues. Magnification: x36 at 6x7cm size. - Stock Image P206/0248
In a study that could point to novel therapies to prevent cancer spread, or metastasis, researchers have targeted a sugar that supports blood vessel growth in the tumor.
The skin is highly vascularized meaning that it has an extensive network of blood vessels just under the outer layer of the skin. Apart from nourishing the skin with oxygen and nutrients, and removing wastes and carbon dioxide, blood vessels also play a role in thermoregulation. Here it can widen (dilate) to allow heat within the body to pass out into the body thereby preventing the internal temperature from rising to dangerous levels. Conversely, when the environment is cold or the internal temperature is lower than normal, these blood vessels become narrow (constrict) thereby reducing the blood flow to the skin. Therefore less heat from within the body is lost to the environment.. Arteries carry oxygen rich blood from the heart to the skin and veins take away blood laden with wastes and carbon dioxide away from the skin. However, these blood vessels are large and slowly become smaller to be able to lie closely to the skin tissue. Arteries become smaller arterioles and eventually blood from ...
T-cell infiltration of solid tumors is associated with improved prognosis and favorable responses to immunotherapy. Mechanisms that enable tumor infiltration of CD8+ T cells have not been defined, nor have drugs that assist this process been discovered. Here we address these issues with a focus on VE-cadherin, a major endothelial cell-specific junctional protein that controls vascular integrity. A decrease in VE-cadherin expression is associated with tumor pathology. We developed an oligonucleotide-based inhibitor (CD5-2), which disrupted the interaction of VE-cadherin with its regulator miR-27a, resulting in increased VE-cadherin expression. Administration of CD5-2 in tumor-bearing mice enhanced expression of VE-cadherin in tumor endothelium, activating TIE-2 and tight junction pathways and normalizing vessel structure and function. CD5-2 administration also enhanced tumor-specific T-cell infiltration and spatially redistributed CD8+ T cells within the tumor parenchyma. Finally, CD5-2 treatment ...
With intracoronary IVUS, a catheter is inserted into a coronary artery where high-frequency sound waves reflect off tissue or vessel walls. The reflected sound waves create a cross-sectional image from within the vessel to aid in visualising vessel structure. IVUS technology provides physicians with a better understanding of atherosclerotic vessels, supporting appropriate treatment strategy, stent selection, stent placement and adequate deployment to restore blood flow at the target site ...
The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a blood vessel over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The blood vessel is the vasculature carrying blood. [GOC:hjd, UBERON:0001981]
Arti kata dari arterial blood vessel. Definisi dari arterial blood vessel. Pengertian dari arterial blood vessel: a blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the body;
1. Cell - structure, function of organelles, cell division. Tissues: epithelial, connective, muscle and nerve. 2. Skeletal system - the shape, surface, internal structure, growth and development, bone connections. skeleton of the torso (spine, chest), skull bone, upper and lower extremities skeleton. 3. Muscular system - structure, composition and properties of skeletal muscles. Description of major muscle groups. 4. Blood - quantity, composition and functions of blood. The heart - shape, structure and activity. Blood vessels - structure (arteries, capillaries, veins). The heart - greater and lesser blood circulation. 5. Lymphatic system. 6. Respiratory system - external and internal respiration, nose, nasal cavity, larynx, trachea, lungs. 7. Digestive system - oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, pancreas, liver. 8. Excretory system - kidneys, urinary tract. 9. Cutaneous system - skin structure, additional skin formations, body temperature and its control. ...
1. Cell - structure, function of organelles, cell division. Tissues: epithelial, connective, muscle and nerve. 2. Skeletal system - the shape, surface, internal structure, growth and development, bone connections. skeleton of the torso (spine, chest), skull bone, upper and lower extremities skeleton. 3. Muscular system - structure, composition and properties of skeletal muscles. Description of major muscle groups. 4. Blood - quantity, composition and functions of blood. The heart - shape, structure and activity. Blood vessels - structure (arteries, capillaries, veins). The heart - greater and lesser blood circulation. 5. Lymphatic system. 6. Respiratory system - external and internal respiration, nose, nasal cavity, larynx, trachea, lungs. 7. Digestive system - oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, pancreas, liver. 8. Excretory system - kidneys, urinary tract. 9. Cutaneous system - skin structure, additional skin formations, body temperature and its control. ...
Scientists estimate that over 70 percent of human deaths worldwide are ultimately caused by damaged or failing blood vessels. Stroke and myocardial infarction are the leading causes of death as a consequence of hypertension, atherosclerotic deposits in the vessel walls or of blood clotting problems. Even cancer or the devastating late effects of diabetes are also closely linked to regulatory defects or damage in the vascular system. The network of scientists in the Collaborative Research Centre (SFB) Transregio 23 is in its 12th year of studying the influences that regulate the cells of the vessel wall. It is undisputed by now that the blood vessels are much more than tubes for the blood and that the function of the vessel wall reaches far beyond that of a mere passive barrier, says SFB coordinator Hellmut Augustin from the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and the Medical Faculty Mannheim of Heidelberg University. We know now that vessels dynamically control their environment, thereby ...
: : My father just had a serious stroke. A doppler test found a blood clot behind the heart measuring some 6 inches from which the clot that caused the stroke must likely broke off from. The surgery ...
Having clots in periods doesnt necessarily indicate a disease and isnt necessarily normal. It has to be judged upon correct parameter by a doctor. However, knowledge is the key for better health and living.
Scientists have managed to grow perfect human blood vessels as organoids in a petri dish for the first time. The breakthrough engineering technology, outlined in a new study published today in Nature, dramatically advances research of vascular diseases like diabetes, identifying a key pathway to potentially prevent changes to blood vessels--a major cause of death and morbidity among those with diabetes.
Blood Vessels. 26 (2): 119-27. PMID 2474340. Epstein, Murray MD, "Diagnosis and Management of Hypertensive Emergencies," ... Fenoldopam causes arterial/arteriolar vasodilation leading to a decrease in blood pressure by activating peripheral D1 ...
Blood Vessels. Cambridge University Press. p. 14. ISBN 0-521-20753-3. Weinreb, Ben; Hibbert, Cristopher (1995). The London ...
... and the ensuing blood vessel relaxation) but not the effect of noradrenaline at α-adrenoceptors (and the ensuing blood vessel ... Guimarães has summarized the knowledge on blood vessels, their nerves and their response to catecholamines in 1983, with Walter ... S. Guimarães (1982). "Two adrenergic biophases in blood vessels". Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. 3 (1): 159-161. doi: ... Walter Osswald, Serafim Guimarães (1983). "Adrenergic mechanisms in blood vessels: morphological and pharmacological aspects". ...
Fowler CJ, Magnusson O, Ross SB (1984). "Intra- and extraneuronal monoamine oxidase". Blood Vessels. 21 (3): 126-31. doi: ...
Blood Vessels. 25 (3): 122-43. doi:10.1159/000158727. PMID 3359052. Verghese, A (May 1968). "Some observations on the ... but was more prone to damaging delicate nerves and blood vessels. Because of these difficulties, and because of disabling ... altered/erratic blood pressure and circulation, defective fight or flight response system, loss of adrenaline, eczema and other ...
g. Blood vessels. h. Muscle cells cut across. Secretion Absorption Protection "Simple epithelium". Kenhub. Retrieved 2021-03-19 ...
The villi are connected to the blood vessels so the circulating blood then carries these nutrients away. Vertical section of a ... g. Blood vessels. h. Muscle cells cut across. MicroCT-based volume projection of the jejunal mucosa of a chicken. Virtual ... They have a large surface area so there will be more efficient absorption of fatty acids and glycerol into the blood stream. ... They have a rich blood supply to keep a concentration gradient. Structure of a villus (see reference quoted in text) In ...
Blood Vessels. 28 (1-3): 129-37. doi:10.1159/000158852. PMID 1848122. Nucleotides,+Cyclic at the US National Library of ... They also work in the liver to coordinate various enzymes that control blood glucose and other nutrients. In bacteria, cyclic ...
It surrounds blood vessels and nerves and penetrates with them even into the small spaces of muscles, tendons, and other ... It also surrounds the blood vessels and nerves. Cells called fibroblasts are widely dispersed in this tissue; they are ... Nearly every epithelium rests on a layer of areolar tissue, whose blood vessels provide the epithelium with nutrition, waste ... It exhibits interlacing, loosely organized fibers,[citation needed] abundant blood vessels, and significant empty space filled ...
... of the innermost layer of the blood vessels or reduced ability of the vessels to dilate. Either abnormality can limit the ... There is ongoing research to make bio-engineered blood vessels, which may be of immense importance in creating AV fistulas for ... Seppa, Nathan (2 February 2011). "Bioengineering Better Blood Vessels". Science News. Retrieved 4 February 2011. Media related ... The orientation of the needles takes the normal flow of the blood into account. The "arterial" needle draws blood from the " ...
"Heart and Blood Vessels". Utah Physicians for a Healthy Environment. Sep 7, 2019. Retrieved Dec 7, 2019. Chu, ... A 2016 study linked poor air quality with blood vessel damage in BYU students. An analysis by the Salt Lake Tribune noted ... Joi O'Donoghue, Amy (Oct 26, 2016). "BYU study links air pollution to blood vessel damage". KSL-TV. Retrieved Dec 14, 2018. ... Particulates can cross into the blood stream and cause irregular heartbeats, heart attacks, and strokes. Particulates can also ...
"Heart and Blood Vessels". Utah Physicians for a Healthy Environment. Sep 7, 2019. Retrieved Dec 7, 2019. "Pollution ...
"Heart and Blood Vessels". Utah Physicians for a Healthy Environment. Sep 7, 2019. Retrieved Dec 7, 2019. "Pollution ...
"Intro to Blood Vessels". Boston Scientific. Archived from the original on 2012-11-14. Retrieved 27 January 2013. "Re: What is ...
Damage to blood vessels. Infection, either Superficial or Deep Dislocation Dislocation Persistent pain; Loss of range of motion ... Cross match of blood is routine also, as a high percentage of people receive a blood transfusion. Pre-operative planning ... In elderly people this usually would include ECG, urine tests, hematology and blood tests. ...
... in and out of the vessel. Blood vessel walls are lined by a single layer of endothelial cells. The gaps between endothelial ... 2005). Disrupting tumour blood vessels. Nat Rev Cancer 5:423- 435 Page, RC; Schroeder, HE. "Pathogenesis of Inflammatory ... characterizes the capacity of a blood vessel wall to allow for the flow of small molecules (drugs, nutrients, water, ions) or ... J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 3, 1-7 (1983). Reyes-Aldasoro, C. C. et al. Estimation of apparent tumor vascular permeability from ...
Blood vessels: Arteries and veins. Most vascular procedures, including all vascular bypass operations (e.g. coronary artery ... such as blood vessels or bowel. For example, an arterial anastomosis is used in vascular bypass and a colonic anastomosis is ...
... calcium deposits in blood vessels); atherosclerosis (blockage of blood vessels); type 2 diabetes; loss of bone mass; ... Most also develop photosensitivity, which causes the blood vessels to be dilated and leads to reddening of the skin, usually ... when she may experience pregnancy-induced high blood pressure and develop HELLP syndrome. The baby has a high risk of being ...
Heart and its blood vessels. Skull and eyeballs. Brain and frontal lobe. 3D printing of BodyParts3D foot bone data. Painting ...
This allows blood from the right ventricle to mostly bypass the pulmonary vessels as they develop. The final section of the ... "The Cardiovascular System (Blood Vessels)". Retrieved 2017-04-22. [email protected] "Printed ... Blood flows from the upper curvature to the upper regions of the body, located above the heart - namely the arms, neck, and ... This is so called because it is a narrowing (isthmus) of the aorta as a result of decreased blood flow when in foetal life. As ...
Minoxidil dilates small blood vessels; it is not clear how this causes hair to grow. Other treatments include tretinoin ...
Estrogen affects certain blood vessels. Improvement in arterial blood flow has been demonstrated in coronary arteries. During ... They may promote uterine blood flow, myometrial growth, stimulate breast growth and at term, promote cervical softening and ... It affects the production of multiple proteins, including lipoproteins, binding proteins, and proteins responsible for blood ... and reduced capillaries and blood flow. The skin also becomes more dry during menopause, which is due to reduced skin hydration ...
Artery Blood vessel with muscular walls on the 'supply side' of the blood circulation, in the network of vessels between the ... Blood-sampling device Blood sugar A (misnomer) name for blood glucose. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) A measurement of a metabolic ... a blocked blood vessel) or hemorrhagic (i.e., a leaking blood vessel). People with diabetes are at higher risk of ... to seal off bleeding blood vessels such as in the eye. The laser can also burn away blood vessels that should not have grown in ...
Surgery of Heart and Blood vessels . In: Sharma AK(editor ). Principles of surgery. Kathmandu. Educational Enterprises(P) Ltd. ...
The blood vessels are all intact. The patient's blood pressure drops. The team start talking about the patient being in Florida ...
"Structure and Function of Blood Vessels". Anatomy and Physiology II. Lumen Learning. Retrieved 2019-09-23. Histology at uni- ... Constriction of these sphincters reduces or shuts off blood flow through their respective capillary beds. This allows the blood ...
The structural adaptation of blood vessels to elevated blood pressure. Folkow and coworkers studied the blood flow in the ... The myogenic response of blood vessels. In 1902 Bayliss described that many blood vessels respond to an elevation of transmural ... This indicated a structural adaptation of the blood vessels to a state with smaller lumen diameter but thicker wall (what now ... Folkow, B (1955). "Nervous control of the blood vessels". Physiol Rev. 35 (3): 629-663. doi:10.1152/physrev.1955.35.3.629. PMID ...
Insects also lack closed blood vessels; instead, they have a long, thin, perforated tube along the top of the body (called the ... and act as living food storage vessels. These food storage workers are called repletes. For instance, these replete workers ...
... the distribution of blood vessels in muscle. Die Arterien der menschlichen Haut, 1895 - The blood vessels of the human skin. ... 2. Regions, muscles, fasciae, heart, blood-vessels. Vol. 3. Viscera, brain, nerves, sense-organs. Other noteworthy written ...
... for blood vessels, the organ supplied). Contrast afferent. egg The organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal ... vasodilation The widening of blood vessels. vector vegetative reproduction Any type of asexual reproduction performed by an ... blood-brain barrier A semipermeable membrane separating the blood from the cerebrospinal fluid, and constituting a barrier to ... Contents: 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z See also References External links white blood cell See ...
The response involves vasodilatation of the cranial vault blood vessels, increasing the volume of one of the elements in the ... Impaired venous outflow is often caused by a hypoplastic jugular foramen.[23] This causes an increase in the intracranial blood ... Most surgeons will not intervene until after the age of six months due to the heightened risk which blood loss poses before ... White N, Bayliss S, Moore D (January 2015). "Systematic review of interventions for minimizing perioperative blood transfusion ...
Intensive blood sugar lowering (HbA1c,6%) as opposed to standard blood sugar lowering (HbA1c of 7-7.9%) does not appear to ... Blood pressure lowering. Many international guidelines recommend blood pressure treatment targets that are lower than 140/90 ... and maintaining blood glucose levels in the normal range.[25] Self-monitoring of blood glucose for people with newly diagnosed ... in adults without symptoms whose blood pressure is greater than 135/80 mmHg.[65] For those whose blood pressure is less, the ...
Rejecting the common notions of his time that the use of breathing is to cool the heart, or assist the passage of the blood ... because he found that when a small animal and a lighted candle were placed in a closed vessel full of air the candle first went ... and supposed that the lungs separate it from the atmosphere and pass it into the blood. It is also necessary, Mayow inferred, ... with the combustible particles in the blood, and is further formed by the combination of these two sets of particles in muscle ...
Hell Girl: Three Vessels (2008-2009). *Junjo Romantica 2 (2008). *Vampire Knight Guilty (2008) ... Hakuoki: Record of the Jade Blood (2010). *Starry Sky (2010-2011). *Dragon Crisis! (2011) ...
... the space-time vessel the TARDIS has blown up with the time-travelling archaeologist River Song (Alex Kingston) inside, and the ... "The Hungry Earth" / "Cold Blood". *"Vincent and the Doctor". *"The Lodger". *"The Pandorica Opens" / "The Big Bang" ...
blood vessel remodeling. •skeletal muscle tissue development. •respiratory gaseous exchange. •blood circulation. •cell ...
... cells lining the inside of blood vessels), liver cells, and several types of immune cells such as macrophages, monocytes, and ... This may cause vomiting blood, coughing up of blood, or blood in stool.[32] Bleeding into the skin may create petechiae, ... Blood products such as packed red blood cells, platelets, or fresh frozen plasma may also be used.[135] Other regulators of ... The breakdown of endothelial cells leading to blood vessel injury can be attributed to EBOV glycoproteins. This damage occurs ...
A blood vessel and an ovarian follicle is also seen. Formation of about 30 primordial follicles in the ovarian cortex region ...
Their bodies are thin and have a lot of blood vessels, this helps them to be able to take water through their skin. The ... These include blood worms and earthworms. They can eat small fish such as goldfish, fathead minnows and guppies. Salamanders ... They are four-legged vertebrates which are cold blooded. Amphibians lay their eggs in water, usually in a foam nest. After ...
... but the bill of ducks is supplied with a few blood vessels to prevent heat loss,[42] and, as in the Greenland mallard, the bill ...
... ductus arteriosus blood vessel.[47][150] Prolonged use of salicylic acid over significant areas of the skin or under occlusive ...
... the blood vessels supplying the nose. These blood vessels include the sphenopalatine, anterior and posterior ethmoidal arteries ... the blood can come up the nasolacrimal duct and out from the eye. Fresh blood and clotted blood can also flow down into the ... The use of silver nitrate to cauterize bleeding blood vessels is common but not very useful for those with more than mild ... The elderly are also more prone to prolonged nose bleeds as their blood vessels are less able to constrict and control the ...
Sometimes an underlying medical condition is sought, and this may include blood tests for full blood count and hematinics. If a ... Oral rinse involves rinsing the mouth with phosphate-buffered saline for 1 minute and then spitting the solution into a vessel ... in persons with blood group O and in non-secretors of blood group antigens in saliva. Increased rates of Candida carriage are ...
... growth of new blood vessels .,[39] and "leg-like pods" on cells (including cancer cells) bestowing upon them mobility.[40] and ... "Blood chemicals link' to eczema". Health. BBC NEWS. 2007-08-26. Retrieved 2008-11-01.. ... white blood cells) in many tissues and organs. SP amplifies or excites most cellular processes.[15][16] ... given that NK1Rs are unprotected by a blood brain barrier in the area postrema just adjacent to neuronal structures in the ...
... where the blood remains inside blood vessels. Octopuses have three hearts; a systemic heart that circulates blood round the ... The blood vessels consist of arteries, capillaries and veins and are lined with a cellular endothelium which is quite unlike ... This makes the blood very viscous and it requires considerable pressure to pump it round the body; octopuses' blood pressures ... The blood circulates through the aorta and capillary system, to the vena cavae, after which the blood is pumped through the ...
Cardiovascular (heart and blood vessels). *Respiratory (large airways and lungs). *Abdomen and rectum ... After examination for signs and interviewing for symptoms, the doctor may order medical tests (e.g. blood tests), take a biopsy ... "Chairman's Reflections: Traditional Medicine Among Gulf Arabs, Part II: Blood-letting". Heart Views. 5 (2): 74-85 [80]. 2004. ... For example, some argue that the principles of autonomy and beneficence clash when patients refuse blood transfusions, ...
Since liquid blood and the vessels are not very dense, a contrast with high density (like the large iodine atoms) is used to ... Angiography is used to find aneurysms, leaks, blockages (thromboses), new vessel growth, and placement of catheters and stents ...
... is deoxygenated blood which travels from the peripheral vessels, through the venous system into the right atrium ... Most medical laboratory tests are conducted on venous blood, with the exception of arterial blood gas tests. Venous blood is ... Venous blood is typically colder than arterial blood,[1] and has a lower oxygen content and pH. It also has lower ... The difference in the oxygen content of arterial blood and venous blood is known as the arteriovenous oxygen difference.[2] ...
tendon, ligament, skin, cornea, cartilage, bone, blood vessels, gut, and intervertebral disc. ... 171 They are found in the walls of large blood vessels and in certain ligaments, particularly in the ligamenta flava.[15]:173 ... Special connective tissue consists of reticular connective tissue, adipose tissue, cartilage, bone, and blood.[8] Other kinds ... Not all authorities include blood[2] or lymph as connective tissue because they lack the fiber component. All are immersed in ...
Illustration of a blood clot traveling through the blood vessels until it gets stuck. A pulmonary embolism is often caused by a ... if a blood clot forms in the leg, it can travel through the blood vessels to the lungs) ... Since no blood can get out to the rest of the body, the person's blood pressure drops and they can go into shock. A saddle ... Blood is supposed to pick up oxygen in the lungs and then carry that oxygen to the rest of the body. If blood cannot get ...
Blood vessels enter the central nervous system through the perivascular space above the pia mater. The cells in the blood ... occurs when a tumor makes use of nearby blood vessels for its supply of blood and the neoplasm enters into competition for ... Anaplasia or dedifferentiation: loss of differentiation of cells and of their orientation to one another and blood vessels, a ... Most of the brain is separated from the blood by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which exerts a restrictive control as to which ...
It is not common to use PAC in a dedicated vessel, due to the high head loss that would occur. Instead, PAC is generally added ... Since this activated carbon has no effect on blood clotting factors, heparin or most other anticoagulants [11] this allows a ... Hemoperfusion is a treatment technique in which large volumes of the patient's blood are passed over an adsorbent substance in ... rivaroxaban and edoxaban from blood plasma samples.[10] For this purpose it has been made into "minitablets", each containing 5 ...
They are warm-blooded, and have a layer of fat, or blubber, under the skin. With streamlined fusiform bodies and two limbs that ... during which whales do not respond to passing vessels unless they are in contact, leading to the suggestion that whales ... In addition to their streamlined bodies, they can slow their heart rate to conserve oxygen; blood is rerouted from tissue ... "More DNA support for a Cetacea/Hippopotamidae clade: the blood-clotting protein gene gamma-fibrinogen" (PDF). Molecular ...
... the cells are inflexible and cannot easily flow through blood vessels, increasing the risk of blood clots and possibly ... high blood pressure, and loss of vision. Sickle red blood cells also have a shortened lifespan and die prematurely.[35] ... The HBB gene encodes information to make the beta-globin subunit of hemoglobin, which is the protein red blood cells use to ... Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease that causes deformed red blood cells with a rigid, crescent shape instead of the normal ...
... and as such frequently engorge with blood to assist in immune responses to common illnesses such as the common cold. The ... Lymphatic vessel. *T cells *High endothelial venules. *B cells *Germinal center. *Mantle zone ...
Goodrich supported this division by the nature of the hearts and blood vessels in each group, and other features, such as the ... Under different conditions, deoxygenated blood can be shunted back to the body or oxygenated blood can be shunted back to the ... Blood is then extracted; the serum is separated, purified and freeze-dried.[146] The cytotoxic effect of snake venom is being ... This variation in blood flow has been hypothesized to allow more effective thermoregulation and longer diving times for aquatic ...
These areas can slowly close off a blood vessel or can suddenly rupture and trigger formation of a blood clot. ... If this happens, the arm or leg may need to be amputated (cut off) if the blood vessel cannot be fixed by doctors. ... This is an inflammatory disease of artery walls in which white blood cells invade the vessel wall and become engorged with ... This can hurt whatever the artery brings blood to. The organ or tissue that the blocked artery brought blood to can even die. ...
... and is directed via a spiral valve to the appropriate vessel - aorta for oxygenated blood and pulmonary vein for deoxygenated ... in which oxygenated blood from the lungs and de-oxygenated blood from the respiring tissues enters by separate atria, ... The spiral valve is essential to keeping the mixing of the two types of blood to a minimum, enabling the animal to have higher ... For this reason, early tetrapods may have experienced chronic hypercapnia (high levels of blood CO2). This is not uncommon in ...
The infants' average blood pressure typically decreases after the music therapy sessions, as well. Although there are ... Others suggest that music serves as a sort of mediator for social interactions, providing a vessel through which to interact ... According to a 2013 Cochrane review, listening to music may improve heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure in those ...
This is especially true in the case of a dislocated ankle, due to the anatomy of the blood supply to the foot.[18] ... Vessel and nerve injuries during a shoulder dislocation is rare, but can cause many impairments and requires a longer recovery ... It is important the joint is reduced as soon as possible, as in the state of dislocation, the blood supply to the joint (or ...
... new potential targets for novel drugs that could selectively cut off a tumors blood supply without affecting the blood vessels ... at high levels only in the blood vessels that feed tumors in mice and humans. These genes, and the proteins they encode, are ... overcoming one of the major concerns of current anticancer therapies targeted at blood vessel growth. The findings are ... NCI Researchers Discover Genes That Are Turned On at High Levels in Tumor-Associated Blood Vessels of Mice and Humans. ...
... blood vessel length, and vessel radius.[2] Blood viscosity is the thickness of the blood and its resistance to flow as a result ... Blood flow[edit]. Main article: Vascular resistance. The blood pressure in blood vessels is traditionally expressed in ... Blood vessels also circulate blood throughout the circulatory system Oxygen (bound to hemoglobin in red blood cells) is the ... "Blood Vessels - Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders - Merck Manuals Consumer Version". Merck Manuals Consumer Version. Retrieved ...
Germans Manufacture Artificial Blood Vessels With a 3-D Printer. From intestines to tracheas, tissue engineers are building a ... Bioengineered Blood Vessels Can Grow Inside Animals. The grafts could treat childrens heart defects without needing to be ... New Phase-Changing Gel Method Repairs Severed Blood Vessels Better than Stitches. A new heat-sensitive gel and glue combo is a ... In Flesh-Engineering Breakthrough, Lab-Grown Tissue Can Finally Grow Its Own Blood Vessels. Tissue engineers have come a long ...
Blood Vessel Review (Shudder) 13 November 2020 , Nerdly * Movie Review - Blood Vessel (2020) 07 November 2020 , Flickeringmyth ... Blood Vessel (2019) TV-MA , 1h 33min , Horror , 21 July 2020 (USA) ... New Trailer for Vampire-on-a-Nazi-Ship Horror Thriller Blood Vessel 06 November 2020 , ... A fun and entertaining Australian made horror, Blood Vessel delivers exactly what its premise promises and has a lot of fun ...
What is the blood-brain barrier?. The blood-brain barrier is the structure formed by the cells that make up blood vessels. In a ... and blood vessels start to leak. When this happens, the vessels are not providing "the nutrients and blood flow that the ... Changes in blood vessel permeability offer new clues about the onset of dementia. ... Their results showed a strong link between cognitive issues and leaky blood vessels. ...
Blood vessels raised in tissue culture may one day help heal broken hearts. According to initial results presented yesterday at ... researchers have taken the first steps toward growing replacement blood vessels in the laboratory for transplant into the ... "or at least keep the heart tissue from dying by creating new capillaries that would provide blood and oxygen as soon as ... envisioned by Ohio State University investigator Nicanor Moldovan and his colleagues entails sowing cells harvested from vessel ...
Engineered blood vessel grafts could be used for surgical procedures like coronary artery bypass and kidney dialysis. ... When blood vessels around the heart become dangerously congested with plaques, surgeons will reroute blood flow and bypass the ... But there are cases when a persons own blood vessels cant be harvested. In those cases, a surgeon may reach for vessels made ... Bioengineering Blood Vessels In the new procedure, reported in the Feb. 2 issue of Science Translational Medicine, researchers ...
Can targeting the red blood cells and blood vessels jointly keep our brains healthy and prevent dementia? ... Drugs that inhibit a hormone that constricts blood vessels also help improve sodium excretion in blacks who hold onto too much ... It can also improve vasodilation -- the widening of blood vessels, -- in the long-term, according to a study by researchers in ... Blue light exposure decreases blood pressure Exposure to blue light decreases blood pressure, reducing the risk of developing ...
broken blood vessels?? Hi Doc, I have redness on and around my nose which looks like broken capillaries under the skin surface ...
Somewhere in the North Atlantic, late 1945. A lift raft adrift at sea, and in it, the survivors of a torpedoed hospital ship: With no food, water, or shelter, all seems lost - until an abandoned Nazi minesweeper drifts ominously towards them, giving them one last chance at survival. Boarding the ship, they find a far more daunting enemy.
Blood Vessels of Gastric Ulcer. Br Med J 1950; 2 doi: (Published 30 December 1950) Cite ...
... is now testing its lab-grown blood vessels in a small group of human patients. ... non-immunogenic blood vessel replacement.. "This collagen matrix graft was made by blood vessel cells, so its sort of like the ... One to draw blood out of the artery and a second to put the filtered blood back into a vein. But for the blood to flow through ... Humacytes lab-grown blood vessels dont use synthetic materials. They rely on a biodegradable scaffolding of tiny fibers ...
Scientists have grown a ready-made supply of blood vessels to transplant into patients undergoing heart surgery and kidney ... Blood vessels, straight off the shelf. Scientists have grown a ready-made supply of blood vessels to transplant into patients ... In both models, Science explains, the new vessels were soon populated by several types of cells present in normal blood vessels ... The vessels remained open and strong for up to 6 months, and the vessel walls didnt thicken. They also made smaller vessels ...
... also known as blood poisoning - stopped mice succumbing to the disease, new study shows. ... An antibody that protects blood vessels against the effects of sepsis - ... that sits on the surface of cells in the lining of blood vessels. When activated, TIE2 boosts the ability of the blood vessel ... Strengthen the blood vessels. One of the first things that happens in sepsis - when the immune system overreacts and attacks ...
... can improve blood vessel function no matter what diet they choose, U.S. researchers say. ... SAN DIEGO, March 14 (UPI) -- Overweight people who lose weight, especially belly fat, can improve blood vessel function no ... allowing more blood to flow more freely. ... Lose belly fat, improve blood vessels. March 14, 2012 at 1:16 ...
However, this may do more harm than good because energy drinks have been found to reduce the diameter of blood vessels and ... Several studies suggest that caffeine-laden energy drinks can harm blood vessels and energy drinks are linked to heart, nerve ... A small study by the American Heart Association found that the blood vessel function of young adults notably diminished after ... Do Energy Drinks Affect Blood Vessels?. News-Medical. ...
VR catheter puts doctors inside patients blood vessels. Wednesday, August 07, 2019 - 01:30 ... VR catheter puts doctors inside patients blood vessels. Wednesday, August 07, 2019 - 01:30 ...
Blood vessels: By far the most satisfactory blood-vessel transplant is an autograft, similar in principle to skin autografts. ... Blood-vessel grafts are frequently used to bypass arteries that have become blocked or dangerously narrowed by fatty deposits, ... Other articles where Blood vessel transplant is discussed: transplant: ... In transplant: Blood vessels. By far the most satisfactory blood-vessel transplant is an autograft, similar in principle to ...
... any of the vessels that, with four exceptions, carry oxygen-depleted blood to the right upper chamber (atrium) of the heart. ... The four exceptions-the pulmonary veins-transport oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left upper chamber of the heart. The ... As in arteries, there are tiny vessels called vasa vasorum that supply blood to the walls of the veins and other minute vessels ... Alternative Titles: blood vein, venous system. Vein, in human physiology, any of the vessels that, with four exceptions, carry ...
... reason to rejoice on Saturday when a small clinical study showed that dark chocolate improves the function of blood vessels. ... blood vessel) function," said Dr. Valentine Yanchou Njike of Yale Prevention Research Center, a co-investigator of the study. ... reason to rejoice on Saturday when a small clinical study showed that dark chocolate improves the function of blood vessels. ... An upper arm arterys ability to relax and expand to accommodate increased blood flow - known as flow mediated dilation (FMD ...
The styles are mountable on a support track whereby the blood vessel can be distended and supported during cryopreservation ... A device for use in cryopreservation of blood vessels comprising a pair of styles insertable into the ends of a dissected blood ... Cryopreserved blood vessels are useful for providing grafts to patients who cannot provide their own blood vessel grafts or ... Stylet port 68 permits fluid or air to enter the blood vessel when the stylet 66 is coupled with the blood vessel. The stylet ...
... blood vessels grown from donor cells have been successfully implanted in human patients, an early report of new research shows. ... Blood Vessels Grown From Donated Cells Closer to Reality. 3 Patients Have Received Engineered Vessels; No Signs of Rejection ... June 27, 2011 -- For the first time, blood vessels grown from donor cells have been successfully implanted in human patients, ... The new vessels can be made in advance and refrigerated until doctors are ready to use them, and they could cost less, around $ ...
Bilayered scaffold for engineering cellularized blood vessels.. Ju YM1, Choi JS, Atala A, Yoo JJ, Lee SJ. ... This study suggests that the use of bilayered scaffolds may lead to improved vessel formation. ...
This can increase the risk of blood vessel blockages. A clot inside your blood vessel is called a thrombus. A thrombus can ... This is especially important if you have blockages in your blood vessels. Sometimes your doctor may take a watchful waiting ... High homocysteine levels in the blood can damage the lining of the arteries. High levels may also make the blood clot more ... Homocysteine is measured using a simple blood test. If your homocysteine level is too high, you need to lower it. ...
High powered intravital microscopy reveals that 50 percent of blood vessels in melanoma tumors do not have any blood flow, ... many of the tumor blood vessels also looked different than typical blood vessels, the authors reported. "Tumor vessels were ... that approximately half of blood vessels in tumors in patients with melanoma had no blood flow and that tumor blood vessels ... Vessel Size Potentially Affects Treatment. The researchers also found that all of the visualized tumor blood vessels were much ...
Normal and abnormal blood vessels. In a brain AVM, blood passes directly from arteries to veins via a tangle of abnormal blood ...
Now, drugs that block the growth of new blood vessels have shown promising results in tests in mice. The drugs, known as ... They found the drugs halved the numbers of lesions, both by preventing the growth of new blood vessels and interfering with the ... However, there is no way for the broken-down tissue and blood to leave the body. This results in inflammation, pain and ... Blood vessel blockers treat womb disease. 28 June 2004 By Claire Ainsworth ...
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Two carry blood to it - the hepatic artery and the portal vein - while the third, the hepatic vein, returns the blood which has ... Three blood-vessels are concerned in the circulation of the liver. ... The Blood-Vessels. Three blood-vessels are concerned in the circulation of the liver. Two carry blood to it - the hepatic ... 90), and then, after uniting and reuniting, form a blood-vessel which runs down the centre of the lobule and is known as the ...
Blood vessels. My 2 1/2 year old daughter seems to have little burst blood vessels on her cheek which have appeared overnight. ...
  • The tunica media may (especially in arteries) be rich in vascular smooth muscle , which controls the caliber of the vessel. (
  • There is a layer of muscle surrounding the arteries and the veins which help contract and expand the vessels. (
  • In general, arteries and arterioles transport oxygenated blood from the lungs to the body and its organs , and veins and venules transport deoxygenated blood from the body to the lungs. (
  • Blood is propelled through arteries and arterioles through pressure generated by the heartbeat . (
  • The bioengineered blood vessels have many potential applications beyond kidney dialysis, including bypass surgeries to get around clogged arteries. (
  • During bypass surgery, doctors looking to circumvent blocked arteries usually harvest vessels from a patient's leg or arm. (
  • In the six-month weight-loss study, the researchers found the more belly fat the participants lost, the better their arteries were able to expand when needed, allowing more blood to flow more freely. (
  • As in arteries, there are tiny vessels called vasa vasorum that supply blood to the walls of the veins and other minute vessels that carry blood away. (
  • Veins are more numerous than arteries and have thinner walls owing to lower blood pressure . (
  • Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood from the heart. (
  • Cryopreservation" is a technique for freezing and storing cellular and tissue matter such as blood vessels, which include veins and arteries, at extremely low temperatures while preserving the viability and function of the tissue. (
  • In addition to helping to make shunts for kidney dialysis patients, researchers said the grafts could be refined and used to help people who need vessels to bypass blockages around their hearts or to help save the limbs of people who have blocked arteries in their legs due to peripheral artery disease . (
  • High homocysteine levels in the blood can damage the lining of the arteries. (
  • In a brain AVM, blood passes directly from arteries to veins via a tangle of abnormal blood vessels. (
  • As the heart pumps inside the center of the chest, oxygenated blood circulates to organs and other tissues starting with the aorta, the largest artery in the body, and arteries that branch from it. (
  • Both the arteries and veins in this area have wide, yet short sections that branch off to other vessels, and both affect blood flow to the right arm and the right side of the head. (
  • Below the thoracic artery are the intercostal arteries, which supply blood to the ribs, and the celiac artery. (
  • Next, the abdominal aorta, which is the largest section of the aorta and spans the entire distance of the abdominal cavity, delivers blood to several areas on the way to the legs, where it branches via the iliac arteries. (
  • Blood flows out of the heart, first through the aorta, then through arteries, which branch out and get smaller and smaller as they go into the tissues. (
  • The grafts also have the potential to be used in lower limb bypass to route blood around diseased arteries, to repair congenital heart defects in pediatric patients and to fix damaged arteries in soldiers, who might otherwise lose a limb, said McAllister. (
  • The tissue-engineered blood vessels, produced from sheets of cultured skin cells rolled around temporary support structures, were used to create access shunts between arteries and veins in the arm for kidney dialysis in three patients. (
  • the parts of the blood vessels are veins,arteries and capillaries arteries-are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. (
  • These are arteries,the veins, and the capillaries.Arteries are thick walled and elastic blood vessels. (
  • the arteries, which carry blood away from the beating heart and the veins, which transport blood from the capillaries to the heart, thus enabling the heart to continue beating. (
  • small blood vessels that branch from the arteries and transport blood from the heart to the body tissues. (
  • The coronary arteries or vessels deliver blood to the heart muscle, providing a continuous supply of oxygen and nutrients needed for it to stay healthy and function normally. (
  • Arteries are the vessels that move blood into and out of the heart. (
  • Nicotine promotes the growth of new blood vessels and can also stimulate tumor growth and the build up of plaque inside arteries, say researchers at Stanford University Medical Center. (
  • b) Intracortical vessels: Arteries and veins were divided into 5 groups according to their degree of cortical penetration. (
  • Problems in distinguishing between arteries and veins, the geometric disposition of cortical vessels, different types of anastomoses and particular vascular features whose significance remains unclear, are discussed. (
  • Researchers have successfully managed to implant blood vessels grown from donor cells, raising hopes that such a procedure can be used as replacement arteries in the future. (
  • The researcher said that the implants were done in order to allow better access for dialysis with the vessels acting as "shunts" between the veins and arteries. (
  • There are three kinds of blood vessels: arteries, veins, and capillaries. (
  • Arteries also contain a strong, muscular middle layer that helps pump blood through the body. (
  • The arteries deliver the oxygen-rich blood to the capillaries, where the actual exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs. (
  • Unlike arteries, veins contain valves that ensure blood flows in only one direction. (
  • Arteries don't require valves because pressure from the heart is so strong that blood is only able to flow in one direction. (
  • Capillaries are small, thin blood vessels that connect the arteries and the veins. (
  • This vast system of blood vessels - arteries, veins, and capillaries - is over 60,000 miles long. (
  • The largest blood vessels are arteries and veins, which have a thick, tough wall of connective tissue and and many layers of smooth muscle cells ( Figure 22-22 ). (
  • A study of the embryo reveals, moreover, that arteries and veins develop from small vessels constructed solely of endothelial cells and a basal lamina: pericytes, connective tissue and smooth muscle are added later where required, under the influence of signals from the endothelial cells. (
  • Heart tissues also weaken with age and can mean the heart has to work harder or the arteries thicken and slow the blood flow. (
  • Those can include urine and blood tests, X-rays of the heart and circulatory system, and if necessary, an angiogram which shows the status of arteries and veins. (
  • In the future, I believe different types of implants such as the creation of arteries by layering walls of blood vessels will be possible. (
  • Backflow of blood is prevented in arteries by the heart. (
  • The new blood vessels are autologous, which means it should lead to far fewer complications than the present techniques, which in many cases use plastic tubes to join arteries and smaller blood vessels. (
  • However this requires large blood flows, which only the arteries can provide. (
  • Surgeons therefore frequently carry out operations to insert synthetic bypasses between arteries and smaller blood vessels. (
  • Our entire body is nurtured by a huge vascular tree consisting of larger blood vessels that bring blood to organs, so called arteries, capillaries where blood flow slows down and oxygen exchange happens, and veins that recirculate the blood back to the lungs and heart ", says lead author Josef Penninger. (
  • When the researchers transplanted the human blood vessel organoids into immunodeficient mice, they gained access to their circulatory system and specified into perfectly functional human blood vessels including arteries, capillaries and venules in vivo . (
  • It pumps blood out through arteries and receives blood through veins (the pulmonary artery and pulmonary vein are exceptions). (
  • Figure 1: Comparative schematic of arteries and related circulatory vessels. (
  • Veins carry deoxygenated blood toward the heart and occur in pairs with arteries. (
  • Blood exiting the heart has the highest pressure, the downstream arteries have the next highest, veins have lower pressures, and blood entering the heart has the lowest pressure. (
  • There are various kinds of blood vessels: Arteries Elastic arteries Distributing arteries Arterioles Capillaries (smallest blood vessels) Venules Veins Large collecting vessels, such as the subclavian vein, the jugular vein, the renal vein and the iliac vein. (
  • and the veins , which carry blood from the capillaries back toward the heart. (
  • It also contains nerves that supply the vessel as well as nutrient capillaries ( vasa vasorum ) in the larger blood vessels. (
  • The grand plan envisioned by Ohio State University investigator Nicanor Moldovan and his colleagues entails sowing cells harvested from vessel lining, or endothelium, in silicon molds shaped like capillaries. (
  • We probably couldn't bring tissue back in its original form, but we could try to revascularize it, to make a heart beat again," Moldovan surmises, "or at least keep the heart tissue from dying by creating new capillaries that would provide blood and oxygen as soon as possible. (
  • The oxygen-depleted blood transported by most veins is collected from the networks of microscopic vessels called capillaries by thread-sized veins called venules. (
  • The blood as it traverses this close net-work of capillaries within the lobules comes into intimate relations with the gland cells which occupy the spaces between them. (
  • Our transformed cells appear to form capillaries in vivo that join with the existing vessels in the animal, as we saw mouse red blood cells inside the vessels composed of human cells. (
  • Other methods only allow limited formation of small blood vessels such as capillaries, which makes tissue less likely to successfully transplant into a patient. (
  • The work focuses on vascular tissue, which includes capillaries, the tiniest blood vessels, and is an important part of the circulatory system. (
  • Capillaries are where the blood gives up oxygen and nutrients to the tissues, and receives carbon dioxide and wastes back from the tissues. (
  • Li, speaking at the Technology, Entertainment and Design conference Wednesday, said the adult human body is packed with 16,000 miles worth of blood vessels, including 19 billion capillaries. (
  • Most blood vessels that rupture during weight lifting sessions are tiny capillaries that are unable to withstand the tremendous force of blood pumping within their paper-thin walls. (
  • The eyeball requires many tiny capillaries to provide blood to the front and back of the eye. (
  • Ruptured vessels, or capillaries, are not painful and generally do not pose a medical problem necessitating a trip to the doctor. (
  • The capillaries then deliver the waste-rich blood to the veins for transport back to the lungs and heart. (
  • The team also noticed that networks of tiny vessels called capillaries had formed to foster blood circulation. (
  • Capillaries run throughout our bodies, but they can deteriorate without our knowing it, becoming ghost blood vessels. (
  • Ninety-nine percent of our blood vessels are said to be capillaries. (
  • The last vessel type on the arterial side includes extremely miniscule vessels called capillaries, generally only a few micrometers in diameter. (
  • The smallest capillaries are big enough to allow passage of only one erythrocyte (red blood cell) at a time. (
  • February 4, 2011 - Scientists report that they have successfully grown and tested collagen-based tubes made from human donor tissue that can be used as blood vessel-like grafts in surgical procedures like coronary artery bypass and for creating vascular access points for patients who need kidney dialysis. (
  • When grafts fail, surgeons have to go in and replace the patient's graft or remove blood clots, neither of which is pleasant for the patients. (
  • These blood vessels (pictured) - also called tissue-engineered vascular grafts - are made ahead of time and stored, so surgeons can grab them off the shelf whenever they need them. (
  • However, these types of patient-specific grafts take up to 9 months to grow and can cost more than $15,000 per vessel. (
  • The synthetic vessels can be stored for long periods and avoid the complications typical of vessel grafts. (
  • Using human cells, scientists have grown shelf-stable blood vessels, like this six-millimeter-diameter model, that they hope to eventually see used as grafts for heart surgeries and hemodialysis. (
  • The other options have complications: grafts from donors are often rejected by the recipient's immune system, artificial plastic vessels have high rates of blood clots and other problems, and vessels grown from a patient's own tissue take more than six months to mature. (
  • Cryopreserved blood vessels are useful for providing grafts to patients who cannot provide their own blood vessel grafts or where fresh blood vessels are unavailable. (
  • The research demonstrates the potential for eventually growing tissue-engineered vessels out of stem cells harvested from the patients who need them, providing a desirable alternative to the venous grafts now routinely done in patients undergoing coronary bypass operations. (
  • Disadvantages with venous grafts include limited availability of vessels, pain and discomfort at the donor site and a high 10-year failure rate. (
  • Other drawbacks are that availability of natural blood vessels is limited, and artificial grafts don't integrate into the body's tissues. (
  • A team of researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), has uncovered a set of genes that are turned on, or expressed, at high levels only in the blood vessels that feed tumors in mice and humans. (
  • Researchers have tried to stop disease-related angiogenesis by identifying the molecules that stimulate blood vessel and developing new drugs to block their action. (
  • The researchers chose to analyze endothelial cells derived from mouse liver, because the liver can be induced to sprout new blood vessels when regenerating itself following partial surgical removal. (
  • According to initial results presented yesterday at the BioMEMS and Biomedical Nanotechnology World 2000 conference in Ohio, researchers have taken the first steps toward growing replacement blood vessels in the laboratory for transplant into the bodies of heart attack victims. (
  • Other researchers have previously reported the ability to develop blood vessels from a patient's own cells. (
  • The researchers have not yet tested the bioengineered vessels in humans, but Dahl says this study lays the foundation to do that. (
  • It can also improve vasodilation -- the widening of blood vessels, -- in the long-term, according to a study by researchers in Japan. (
  • Researchers hope these studies will show that the vessels are safe enough to win permission from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to begin clinical trials. (
  • Now, in a report published in Science Translational Medicine , the researchers have grown vessels using human cells for the first time. (
  • Researchers ultimately hope to test the vessels for heart surgeries, but they first want to show that the technology is safe and effective. (
  • The approach that the researchers behind the new study take is also not exactly a cure for sepsis, but one that attempts to prevent and protect the blood vessels from its worse effects and thus improve the odds that the body can deal with the sepsis. (
  • SAN DIEGO, March 14 (UPI) -- Overweight people who lose weight, especially belly fat, can improve blood vessel function no matter what diet they choose, U.S. researchers say. (
  • The researchers used endothelial cells, which make up the lining of blood vessels, from two groups of people. (
  • Previously, researchers have used cells taken from individual patients to grow tubes of tissue that can be grafted onto natural blood vessels. (
  • Researchers have adapted a high-magnification technique for viewing body structures at the cellular level so that they can visualize blood vessels in human tumors in real time. (
  • To make sure this result wasn't an artifact of the surgical procedure itself (e.g., trauma from the surgery), the researchers examined tumor blood flow in three patients whose skin was so thin that their tumors could be visualized directly through the skin. (
  • The researchers also found that all of the visualized tumor blood vessels were much larger in diameter than would have been anticipated based on animal studies or from pathology, Dr. Skitzki said. (
  • For example, the physical forces of the blood flowing through the vessels "are a substantial hurdle to the trafficking of immune cells across the tumor endothelium," the researchers wrote. (
  • By contrast, blood vessels in various normal mouse tissues the researchers examined were not affected. (
  • In their new paper, the researchers show that if they add key elements, including human endothelial cells, which line the inside of blood vessels, and human pericyte cells, which wrap around the endothelial cells, with animal collagen and other structural cells typically found in a skin graft, the cells start communicating and forming a biologically relevant vascular structure within the span of a few weeks. (
  • To make this usable at a clinical level, researchers need to be able to edit the donor cells using something like the CRISPR technology, so that the vessels can integrate and be accepted by the patient's body. (
  • A Yale-led team of researchers has taken the next step in understanding blood vessel development. (
  • The researchers helped to illuminate the "crosstalk," or the communication of pathways within a cell, among various processes involved in the formation of blood vessels. (
  • According to the researchers, this silencing is a form of "down" regulation, which is what is seen in the crosstalk between blood flow patterns and the expression of the important CXCR4 gene, which governs many elements of vascular development. (
  • WASHINGTON -- Stem cells taken from bone marrow can grow new blood vessels in the eyes of mice, a development researchers say raises the possibility of treating some diseases that often lead to blindness in humans. (
  • Since blood delivers glucose and oxygen to energize the brain, the researchers suggest this contributes to cognitive decline. (
  • In a series of experiments, the researchers found that nicotine could enhance new blood vessel growth in mice whose hind limbs were artificially starved of oxygen. (
  • Researchers speculate that when nicotine binds to the receptor on endothelial cells it stimulates the cells to release a cascade of chemicals that promote the formation of new blood vessels. (
  • The Stanford researchers were surprised to find how strongly nicotine stimulates new blood vessel growth, a process known as angiogenesis. (
  • To test the ability of nicotine to restore blood flow in oxygen-starved tissue, the researchers tied off a main artery that supplies blood to one hind limb in mice, and then injected nicotine daily into the affected leg. (
  • Now, researchers from Cedars-Sinai Medical Center found that this could boil down to a distinct difference in physiology between the genders: women's blood vessels age at a faster rate than men's. (
  • The researchers started by examining study participants' blood pressure readings, which is oftentimes one of the first signs of cardiovascular concerns. (
  • Armed with this information, the researchers hope that clinicians take these findings into account when treating their patients for heart-related conditions, especially high blood pressure. (
  • One of the first major medical uses for 3D printers came around a few months ago when researchers discovered that they could print working blood vessels . (
  • This obstacle may soon wither away as researchers have made significant headway towards fabricating blood vessels using a three-dimensional (3D) bio-printing technique. (
  • The researchers first used a 3D bio-printer to make an agarose (naturally derived sugar-based molecule) fibre template to serve as a mould for the blood vessels. (
  • In their study, researchers at Karolinska Institutet exposed mice to low temperatures and found that the animals developed more blood vessels in their adipose tissue and were able to metabolise body fat more quickly. (
  • Vascular researchers from around the globe will lecture on how blood vessels influence their environment and thereby regulate important processes in the body. (
  • The researchers will give talks about the signaling molecules that regulate the function of blood vessels and the chemical messengers that the vascular wall cells use to communicate among each other or to influence their environment. (
  • The researchers found that caffeine use reduced cerebral blood flow by an average of 27 percent. (
  • The researchers injected three Yorkshire pigs with Pad-PC-Pad suspensions and monitored the heart rate, the electrocardiogram and the blood pressures. (
  • Researchers have been developing ways to replace blood vessels that become damaged in people who need frequent kidney dialysis. (
  • To develop an improved approach, a team of researchers led by Dr. Heather Prichard of Humacyte Inc. created biologically engineered vessels called human acellular vessels. (
  • Researchers at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine have identified in mice a previously unknown protective mechanism by which the smallest blood vessels remove blood clots and other blockages from the brain. (
  • The researchers used a newly developed imaging technique that can view the smallest blood vessels, known as microvessels, in the brains of living mice. (
  • The researchers also found that the ability to move the blockage out of the blood vessel diminished with age. (
  • By studying adult mouse offspring the researchers set out to investigate the effects of a high fat diet during a woman's pregnancy on the networks of small blood vessels - called the microcirculation - and to establish whether these networks are susceptible to damage from a poor maternal diet. (
  • The researchers, led by Fraunhofer's Dr Günter Tovar, have combined 3D printing with multiphoton polymerization to create an artificial blood vessel, which they will be demonstrating at the Hannover Biotechnica Fair in October. (
  • By combining the two, the researchers have found that they can create the target material very quickly, using the laser to create the artificial blood vessel. (
  • Researchers have bio-engineered blood vessels that when implanted into a patient are quickly colonised by native cells and become self-sustaining. (
  • With continued clinical evaluation and development of scalable and cost-efficient manufacturing processes, readily available tissue engineered human blood vessels may offer a promising 'off-the-shelf' and biocompatible alternative," the researchers suggest. (
  • Researchers in Japan are studying elderly urban dwellers to understand the correlation between blood vessels and life expectancy. (
  • Cosmetic company researchers have established a correlation between ghost blood vessels and sagging skin. (
  • In an effort to better understand the factors that affect the eventual fate of mesenchymal stem cells, the researchers designed the experiment to simulate the physical forces a cell would encounter if it were to become a blood vessel. (
  • The researchers placed a single layer of mesenchymal stem cells onto a membrane with microgrooves to resemble the patterns formed in blood vessels by collagen fibers. (
  • These so-called "off-the-shelf" blood vessels were implanted in the primates for six months and withstood frequent needle punctures, were not rejected by the immune system, remained free of blood clots, and were safely stored in a refrigerator for up to one year, the researchers said. (
  • The researchers intend to make both the tube and the new 'genuine' blood vessel in a way that will prevent blockages. (
  • The arteriolar dilation following H-Wave treatment increases blood flow between 26 to 62 percent in a single vessel, researchers said. (
  • The next step for the researchers is to pursue further development of noninvasive high-resolution retinal imaging, potentially targeting pericytes and the molecular changes they discovered in blood vessels, as a means to diagnose Alzheimer's. (
  • BOSTON (May 11, 2009) - In a study led by Akiko Hata, PhD, of Tufts University School of Medicine, researchers have shown that a protein expressed in the heart, FHL2, inhibits the genes necessary for the quiescence of vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs), which line blood vessels. (
  • Venae cavae (the two largest veins, carry blood into the heart). (
  • The four exceptions-the pulmonary veins-transport oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left upper chamber of the heart. (
  • In thrombophlebitis there is thrombosis (clot formation) in the veins and a variable amount of inflammatory reaction in the vessel wall. (
  • many veins, particularly in the arms and legs, have valves to prevent backflow of blood, and the elastic membrane lining the artery is absent in the vein, which consists primarily of endothelium and scant connective tissue . (
  • Veins are blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart. (
  • From this the blood passes out of the lobules into a set of veins beneath it (sublobular veins), and then enters the hepatic vein. (
  • Oxygen-depleted blood returns to the heart through veins. (
  • When the tissues all over the body, especially the brain, organs, and muscles, have used the oxygen, the blood returns to the heart through veins, such as the jugular veins in the neck and the axillary veins in the arms. (
  • Then, the vessels begin to collect together into larger and larger veins, which return blood to the heart. (
  • If pain accompanies ruptured blood vessels, whether they occur in the eyes or legs (visible spidery veins) a doctor should be consulted, as a small blood vessel rupture should not cause any discomfort. (
  • The veins (blue) take oxygen-poor blood back to the heart. (
  • Blood pressure is the measurement of the force with which blood flows through your body and pushes against the walls of the veins. (
  • Since thinning veins result from so many different causes, treatments are designed to specifically target and counter this weakening of the blood vessels. (
  • However in veins, one-direction valves are used to prevent backflow as a result of a decrease in blood pressure as the blood passes through the circulatory system. (
  • Leg veins have valves which prevent backflow of the blood being pumped against gravity by the surrounding muscles. (
  • But about half of kidney patients don't have healthy veins, so a synthetic blood vessel has to be used, Dahl explained. (
  • Figure 2: Comparative schematic of veins and related circulatory vessels. (
  • The numerous one-way valves that prevent the backflow of blood are an element that is unique to veins. (
  • As the collagen was growing, fluid was pumped through the tubes to subject them to stress similar to blood pressure pushing against vessel walls. (
  • The vessels remained open and strong for up to 6 months, and the vessel walls didn't thicken. (
  • In addition other methods of tissue growth require the use of animal products, unnecessary in this technique which uses human platelet lysate gel (hPLG) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) - a type of cell which helps maintain blood vessel walls. (
  • Blood vessels are difficult to simulate because their walls have multiple layers of cells, including the endothelium and the media. (
  • Their thick walls withstand the force of blood from the heart.Blood vessels are an integral part of the circulatory system. (
  • Stroke and myocardial infarction are the leading causes of death as a consequence of hypertension, atherosclerotic deposits in the vessel walls or of blood clotting problems. (
  • Cancer cells migrate into the blood, penetrate the walls of finest blood vessels, and form secondary tumors in other organs. (
  • In the human body, these endothelial cells line the walls of the blood vessels. (
  • However, he pointed out that cells in the walls of a blood vessel are pulled in a circumferential direction, or sideways if the vessel walls are laid flat. (
  • We revealed early molecular and cellular loss in blood vessels together with accumulation of amyloid-beta deposits, a buildup of a toxic protein, in retinal blood vessel walls of Alzheimer's patients. (
  • Blood pressure is the pressure of the blood flowing through your blood vessels against the vessel walls. (
  • St. Croix and his colleagues focused on endothelial cells, which line the inner surface of blood vessels and are critical for new vascular growth. (
  • Using various genetically altered mouse models, the NIH team showed that the engineered toxin works by binding to CMG2 receptors on endothelial cells in the blood vessels feeding the tumor-that is, cells in the animal's own tissues-and not on the tumor cells themselves. (
  • The graft is formed using one bioink containing human foreskin dermal fibroblasts (FBs), human endothelial cells (ECs) derived from cord blood human endothelial colony forming cells (HECFCs), and human placental pericytes (PCs) suspended in rat tail type I collagen to form a dermis followed by printing with a second bioink containing human foreskin keratinocytes (KCs) to form an epidermis," the investigators wrote. (
  • Blood vessels were visualized via immunohistochemical staining specific to two endothelial markers: von Willebrand factor and CD31 antigen. (
  • It was shown that von Willebrand factor and CD31 were present in the endothelial cells of dermal blood vessels at all examined ages, from gestation week 20 to 85 years. (
  • Yoshimori therefore wondered if endothelial cells lining blood vessels are as equipped with xenophagy machinery as epithelial cells. (
  • Endothelial cells line the interior of blood vessels throughout the body. (
  • Almost all tissues depend on a blood supply, and the blood supply depends on endothelial cells , which form the linings of the blood vessels. (
  • If it were not for endothelial cells extending and remodeling the network of blood vessels, tissue growth and repair would be impossible. (
  • Cancerous tissue is as dependent on a blood supply as is normal tissue, and this has led to a surge of interest in endothelial cell biology. (
  • It is hoped that by blocking the formation of new blood vessels through drugs that act on endothelial cells, it may be possible to block the growth of tumors (discussed in Chapter 23). (
  • The amounts of connective tissue and smooth muscle in the vessel wall vary according to the vessel's diameter and function, but the endothelial lining is always present. (
  • Thus, endothelial cells line the entire vascular system, from the heart to the smallest capillary, and control the passage of materials-and the transit of white blood cells-into and out of the bloodstream. (
  • As a result, the embryonic blood vessels develop microaneurysms-microscopic pathological dilatations-that eventually rupture, as well as other abnormalities, reflecting the importance of signals exchanged in both directions between the pericytes and the endothelial cells. (
  • Once a vessel has matured, signals from the endothelial cells to the surrounding connective tissue and smooth muscle continue to play a crucial part in regulating the vessel's function and structure. (
  • To study metastasis formation, physicians use blood samples contaminated with cancer cells and sow endothelial cells onto the membrane. (
  • The finished vessels also have to include endothelial cells, and they have to mimic natural blood vessels well enough that natural cells can attach to the vessels, and nutrients can pass through them. (
  • These genes, and the proteins they encode, are important new potential targets for novel drugs that could selectively cut off a tumor's blood supply without affecting the blood vessels of healthy tissues, overcoming one of the major concerns of current anticancer therapies targeted at blood vessel growth. (
  • In many diseases, including most forms of cancer, this carefully regulated process becomes imbalanced, and normal blood vessel growth is redirected toward supplying nutrients and oxygen to feed diseased tissue, destroy normal tissues, and in the case of cancer, allow tumor cells to escape and travel to distant sites in the body. (
  • Growing tissues and organs in the lab could become easier after scientists discovered an effective way to produce three-dimensional networks of blood vessels. (
  • Growing tissues and organs in the lab for transplantation into patients could become easier after scientists discovered an effective way to produce three-dimensional networks of blood vessels, vital for tissue survival yet a current stumbling block in regenerative medicine. (
  • All living tissues, including new heart muscle, need a blood supply. (
  • Engineered blood vessels could one day be transplanted into tissues such as the kidneys, liver, heart or any other organs that require large amounts of vascular tissue, which moves nutrients, gases and waste to and from cells. (
  • Blood supply, which determines the general conditions for the functioning of different organs and tissues, including skin, is a factor that is likely to affect skin aging. (
  • But what if it was possible to re-build the blood vessels in the heart or in other areas of the body, to kick-start the circulation and prevent tissues from being starved of oxygen, and dying? (
  • They carry oxygen-rich blood away from the heart to all of the body's tissues. (
  • The 4-year study demonstrates that the vessels, called human acellular vessels, can be integrated into human tissues. (
  • In addition, the bioengineered vessels had integrated into nearby tissues. (
  • It gives rise to the body's connective tissues, blood cells, and blood vessels, as well as muscle, kidney, and many other structures and cell types. (
  • [1] These vessels are designed to transport nutrients and oxygen to the tissues of the body. (
  • Blood vessels are needed to sustain life as all of the body's tissues rely on their functionality. (
  • Many of these diabetic symptoms are the consequence of changes in blood vessels, resulting in impaired blood circulation and oxygen supply of tissues. (
  • In addition to carrying oxygen, blood also carries hormones , waste products and nutrients for cells of the body. (
  • When this happens, the vessels are not providing "the nutrients and blood flow that the neurons need," and toxic proteins can get in. (
  • That's extremely important, because we know there is actually a transfer of blood and nutrients to the graft which is keeping the graft alive," according to Karande. (
  • Blood - blood carry nutrients to your whole body. (
  • The coronary blood vessels supply blood (oxygen and nutrients to the heart. (
  • Blood vessels that lead from the heart that are high in oxygen and nutrients have their first branch off the aorta that goes to these blood vessels. (
  • The new vessels then deliver oxygen and nutrients to the interior of tumors and plaque deposits. (
  • One of the major challenges in building lab-grown organs out of a patient's own cells has been making blood vessels that deliver essential nutrients and dispose of hazardous waste from the system to keep our organs working properly. (
  • As the growth of fat cells and their metabolism depend on oxygen and blood-borne nutrients, one possible way to regulate the amount of body fat for fighting obesity, can therefore be to affect the development of blood vessels in the adipose tissue. (
  • LONG BEACH, California - Blood vessels, literally the lifelines in our bodies, are key to delivering the nutrients our organs need to survive. (
  • Persistent blockage can reduce or stop blood flow, limiting the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the surrounding tissue and nerve cells. (
  • Professor Clough explains: "These small blood vessels, which are ten times smaller than a human hair, provide vital organs such as the heart, brain and muscles with important nutrients and oxygen. (
  • Ghost blood vessels develop when pericytes deteriorate, impairing a vessel's ability to carry oxygen and nutrients. (
  • LucyTrelfa Wed, 28/11/2018 - 14:24 Tue, 30/04/2019 - 11:20 /research/our-research-projects/scotland/why-do-blood-vessels-in-kidneys-narrow Why do blood vessels in the kidneys narrow? (
  • For the 2019 Australian film, see Blood Vessel (film) . (
  • Blood Vessel is a 2019 horror film that was filmed in Melbourne, Australia. (
  • The scientists seed the scaffold with blood vessel cells, then place it into a bioreactor for eight to ten weeks. (
  • 3. When the scaffold degraded, fully formed blood vessels were left behind. (
  • Bilayered scaffold for engineering cellularized blood vessels. (
  • In addition the technique to grow the blood vessels in a 3D scaffold cuts down on the risk of transplant rejection because it uses cells from the patient. (
  • The beauty of this new approach is that components of a person's own blood could be manipulated to create a scaffold on which new blood vessels could grow. (
  • provides a scaffold around which the blood vessels form, then dissolves away to leave the resulting vessels open. (
  • The research team seeded tubes made of a biodegradable mesh scaffold with cells from cadaver blood vessels. (
  • To 3D print vessels on such a small scale-100 microns, small enough for tiny blood vessels- Chen leveraged his connection to Innolign, a Boston biomedical technology company he helped found. (
  • These tiny blood vessels are easily ruptured by such simple activities as sneezing, coughing, or laughing. (
  • Professor Christopher Chen (BME, MSE), director of the Biological Design Center, is developing a method using 3D-printed patches infused with cells that offer a promising new approach to growing healthy blood vessels. (
  • In a four year phase II clinical trial, the HAVs were implanted into 60 patients with end-stage kidney failure, where they served as entry ports for hemodialysis treatments - an approach which requires access to healthy blood vessels. (
  • Nitric oxide (NO) is a protective chemical which is important in maintaining healthy blood vessels. (
  • The word vascular , meaning relating to the blood vessels, is derived from the Latin vas , meaning vessel. (
  • When blood vessels connect to form a region of diffuse vascular supply it is called an anastomosis . (
  • But people who suffer from vascular disease or who have had previous procedures may have no suitable vessels left. (
  • Their results confirmed a connection previously suggested by other studies - that blood flow regulates the expression of CXCR4, a gene important to vascular development. (
  • Hence, reduced vascular supply is a factor leading to the age-related decrease in the number of dermal fibroblasts, and clinical measures aimed at prevention and treatment of age-related changes of the skin should rely, in particular, on improving its blood supply. (
  • While these organs are well prepared to combat an invasion, should an infection enter the vascular system, it risks beings transmitted throughout the body via blood. (
  • There is an evolutionary reason that the vascular system does not produce too much nitric oxide because it risks severely low blood pressure. (
  • This may also be part of the mechanism by which vascular risk factors such as high blood pressure and diabetes increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease with age. (
  • These are cells of the connective-tissue family, related to vascular smooth muscle cells, that wrap themselves round the small vessels ( Figure 22-24 ). (
  • Mouse embryos homozygous for the mutant allele ( Pkd1 L ) exhibit s.c. edema, vascular leaks, and rupture of blood vessels, culminating in embryonic lethality at embryonic day 15.5. (
  • These consist of cyst formation in other ductal organs and vascular abnormalities including aneurysms in the cerebral and coronary blood vessels ( 4 ). (
  • While other studies have investigated the impact of a mother's diet on the function of large blood vessels in her offspring, this study, led by Geraldine Clough, Professor of Vascular Physiology at the University of Southampton, is breaking new ground. (
  • A team led by Robert Kirkton of US-based regenerative medical tech company Humacyte Inc created biodegradable scaffolds in the form of blood vessels and then seeded them human vascular cells before incubating them in a bioreactor for eight weeks. (
  • Mutations in the notch-3 gene cause a diagnostic phenotype in vascular smooth muscle and a disturbance in cerebral blood flow regulation, at least in an animal experimental study. (
  • These so called vascular organoids can be robustly cultivated from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in the lab, strikingly mimicking the structure and function of human blood vessels. (
  • Capillary blood vessels, the smallest branches of the vascular system, are in every organ of our body. (
  • Thus, it is possible to not only engineer blood vessel organoids from human stem cells in a dish, but also to grow a functional human vascular tree in another species. (
  • Finally they modelled diabetic vasculopathy in diabetic mice, that where transplanted with stem cell-derived human vascular organoids and carry a functional human blood vessel tree. (
  • So far the shortage of adequate patient-derived scaffolds that can support blood vessel growth has been a major limitation for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. (
  • One of the fundamental goals of regenerative medicine is to find ways to grow a new blood supply from scratch. (
  • The system, developed by Samuel I. Stupp and his colleagues, could become an important tool in regenerative medicine, where new blood vessel formation is critical for growing new tissue. (
  • This is because they are carrying the blood to and from the lungs, respectively, to be oxygenated. (
  • A protein with a role in sensing cell damage and viral infections is a new target for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, or increased blood pressure in the lungs, according to research led by Virginia Commonwealth University and the University of Sheffield in the United Kingdom. (
  • Blood vessels are tubes that carry blood from the heart and lungs to every cell in the body, and back to the heart and lungs. (
  • The chest is the major hub of the circulatory system - it houses the heart, lungs, and other major organs that need large amounts of blood flow. (
  • Oxygen-rich blood returning from the lungs enters the right side of the heart and travels up the ascending aorta and into the aortic arch. (
  • Vessels from the descending aorta supply blood to the chest wall, esophagus, and bronchi in the lungs. (
  • He had blood in his ears and chest and partially collapsed lungs. (
  • The right side pumps blood to the lungs to receive oxygen and get rid of carbon dioxide. (
  • No, Cardiovascular disease relates to disorders of the heart, and blood vessels but not lungs. (
  • The trouble with printing human hearts, kidneys, lungs and other organs is that they need blood vessels - a 3D printed liver is just a lump of dead tissue unless it has an intricate system of blood vessels bringing it oxygen. (
  • Anastomoses provide critical alternative routes for blood to flow in case of blockages. (
  • When blood vessels around the heart become dangerously congested with plaques, surgeons will reroute blood flow and bypass the blockages. (
  • Facial massaging using a roller can increase skin blood flow for more than ten minutes after the massage. (
  • But for the blood to flow through the dialysis machine quickly, doctors have to slightly rearrange the body's plumbing by linking up a vein and artery in the patient's forearm. (
  • The increased blood flow to the vein makes it larger and easier to prick with a needle. (
  • The reason is that the dynamics of blood flow in baboons are a good model for what happens in humans, he says. (
  • However, this may do more harm than good because energy drinks have been found to reduce the diameter of blood vessels and restrict the flow of blood and oxygen delivery. (
  • An upper arm artery's ability to relax and expand to accommodate increased blood flow - known as flow mediated dilation (FMD) - was measured using high-frequency ultrasound before and after daily cocoa or placebo consumption. (
  • These flexible vessels can change in diameter in response to the blood flow needs of the body by becoming larger or smaller. (
  • Using the technique, called intravital microscopy (IVM), they found that approximately half of blood vessels in tumors in patients with melanoma had no blood flow and that tumor blood vessels were much larger than would have been anticipated from prior studies. (
  • Their finding that half of the blood vessels in these tumors did not exhibit blood flow at any given time came as a surprise, Dr. Skitzki said. (
  • They found, again, that approximately 50 percent of the blood vessels had no blood flow. (
  • The findings on tumor vessel size, for example, "would require us to re-examine our understanding of tumor blood flow and associated tumor metabolism, drug delivery, and tumor host interaction," Dr. Zhang said. (
  • The method, described in an upcoming issue of Circulation (early online), appeared to improve blood flow, oxygenation, and nutrition to areas in need. (
  • Our approach will transform some of the scar cells into blood vessel cells that will provide blood flow to heal the injury. (
  • In a second part of the study, the scientists introduced the transformed human cells into immune-deficient mice that had poor blood flow to their hind limbs. (
  • Although the head, brain, and arms are important regions, they don't receive all of the blood flow. (
  • Specifically, the study showed that blood flow patterns directly regulate the expression of the Apelin gene, which in turn controls the expression of the CXCR4 gene through microRNA139-5p, a small RNA molecule. (
  • In particular, the conclusions the team reached about blood flow and the participation of the Apelin gene in the regulation process were directly prefaced by much of the Chun lab's work with zebrafish embryos, said Siekmann. (
  • The media is made mostly of smooth muscle cells that help control the flow and pressure of the blood within. (
  • The constriction of cells surrounding blood vessels may cause decreased blood flow to the brain linked to Alzheimer's disease. (
  • The constriction of cells surrounding blood vessels may cause decreased blood flow to the brain, which has already been linked to Alzheimer's disease, according to research published Thursday in the journal Science. (
  • Since reduced blood flow is the first clinically detectable sign of Alzheimer's, our research generates new leads for possible treatments in the early phase of the disease," Ross Nortley, a researcher at University College London and study lead author, said in a news release. (
  • They found the constriction was tight enough to cut blood flow in half, resembling reduced blood flow in other regions of the brain affected by Alzheimer's. (
  • But in practice, the new branches that sprout form a disorganized and tortuous network that looks like sort of a hairball and doesn't allow blood to flow efficiently through it. (
  • This pre-clinical work presents a novel approach to guide enhanced blood flow to specific areas of the body," said Ozaki. (
  • The valves inside the heart, which control the direction of blood flow, thicken and become stiffer. (
  • This causes dizziness because there is less blood flow to the brain. (
  • Angina (chest pain caused by temporarily reduced blood flow to the heart muscle), shortness of breath with exertion, and heart attack can result from coronary artery disease. (
  • After three weeks the nicotine-injected limbs sported a higher blood vessel density and were receiving more blood flow than those that had been injected with a saline solution. (
  • When vasoconstriction occurs, blood flow is slowed down or partially blocked. (
  • A study published in 2009 in 'Human Brain Mapping' set out to determine the effect of caffeine on cerebral blood flow. (
  • By limiting your caffeine intake, you may be able to avoid vasoconstriction and decreased blood flow in the brain. (
  • The study published in 'Human Brain Mapping' found that those who consumed high levels of caffeine had less cerebral blood flow, when compared to low and moderate caffeine users. (
  • They're tough on the outside but they contain a smooth interior layer of epithelial cells that allows blood to flow easily. (
  • Uninterrupted blood flow is critical for brain function, and the brain has developed various mechanisms to maintain it. (
  • As a result of this process, blood flow is restored to the affected area. (
  • by signaling this information to the surrounding cells, they enable the blood vessel to adapt its diameter and wall thickness to suit the blood flow. (
  • For understanding the processes in blood vessels, however, it is important to also consider blood flow. (
  • At the Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT) of KIT, a microfluidic system has been developed to simulate processes in small blood vessels taking into account flow mechanics. (
  • Professor Bailey's research suggests that poor blood flow through the kidneys is linked to a molecule called P2X7R. (
  • Smoking and high blood pressure contribute to ghosting by impeding blood flow. (
  • He suggests skipping, which can improve blood flow in the calves, parts of the body that play an important role in circulation. (
  • Ischemia, or the decrease of blood flow in the body, is mainly caused by plaque buildup inside blood vessels. (
  • A frequency detector is employed to intensify the beam of the storage display unit to write a spot on the display whenever the output of the pulsed Doppler is above a pre-set amplitude and frequency indicating blood flow within the blood vessel. (
  • The insertion of the bypass leads to a big increase in the blood flow in the smaller vessel. (
  • An occluder apparatus for obstructing the flow of blood in a blood vessel has an elongated hollow tubular body having a leading end sized for reception in the blood vessel and includes portion of the body fabricated from a material soluble in blood, and a piercing device for inserting the body through. (
  • An occluder apparatus for obstructing the flow of blood in a blood vessel has an elongated hollow tubular body having a leading end sized for reception in the blood vessel and includes portion of the body fabricated from a material soluble in blood, and a piercing device for inserting the body through the wall of the blood vessel to extend the leading end into the interior of the blood vessel. (
  • Blood flow follows the pressure drop: Larger-diameter venous vessels have a lower pressure inside them, which allows blood from higher-pressure arterial vessels to flow into them. (
  • The right atrium has the lowest pressure of all the circulatory elements, so the venous blood continues to flow down the pressure gradient into the right atrium, where it begins the cardiac pressure cycle again. (
  • Among many functions, pericytes help regulate blood flow and maintain the blood-brain barrier that protects the brain from toxins. (
  • Further studies will need to answer important questions, such as whether poorly functioning blood vessels in tumors can become functional or what causes them to stop functioning, Dr. Skitzki said. (
  • The protein known as protective antigen (left) binds to two receptors on cells that have been implicated in the growth of new blood vessels in tumors. (
  • Now, NIH scientists developing the toxin-based therapy have shown that it works by selectively targeting and inhibiting proliferation of cells that line the inside wall of blood vessels that feed tumors and support their growth and spread. (
  • By contrast, "this targeted approach could potentially be used to treat many different types of tumors," because the targets are present in blood vessels. (
  • Both TEM8 and CMG2 have been implicated in the growth of new blood vessels in tumors, a process that is stimulated directly and indirectly by chemical signals released by the tumor. (
  • Treatments for halting the growth of cancer-feeding blood vessels could be key to treating tumors and could also have positive effects on reducing obesity, according to Dr. William Li, head of the Angiogenesis Foundation , a non-profit behind much of the research into these new treatments. (
  • The mold was removed, leaving behind a vastly complicated network of blood vessels and ventricles that a complete organ could theoretically be built around. (
  • NEW ORLEANS (Reuters) - Chocoholics were given further reason to rejoice on Saturday when a small clinical study showed that dark chocolate improves the function of blood vessels. (
  • The function of blood vessels is to carry blood around the body. (
  • By understanding the pathways that modulate vSMCs, we are closer to being able to develop reagents to ameliorate abnormal function of blood vessels," says Hata, associate professor at Tufts University School of Medicine and a member of the biochemistry program faculty at the Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences at Tufts. (
  • However, blocking angiogenesis requires a delicate balance between tumor and normal cells as most angiogenesis-related molecules are also critical for normal blood vessel growth in the body - for example, during menstruation, pregnancy, or tissue repair. (
  • In addition, the protein was also found to be frequently overexpressed by the tumor cells themselves, indicating that a suitable inhibitory molecule might be able to deliver a double blow -- one to the tumor cells themselves and the other to the blood vessels that feed them. (
  • Blood vessels also circulate blood throughout the circulatory system Oxygen (bound to hemoglobin in red blood cells ) is the most critical nutrient carried by the blood. (
  • The blood-brain barrier is the structure formed by the cells that make up blood vessels. (
  • In a healthy brain, this blood-brain barrier is strong and the cells fit together tightly, preventing unwanted substances from getting in. (
  • In some aging brains, the junctions between these cells begin to loosen, and blood vessels start to leak. (
  • By combining two imaging modalities--adaptive optics and angiography--investigators at the National Eye Institute can see live neurons, epithelial cells, and blood vessels deep in the eye's light-sensing retina. (
  • Can targeting the red blood cells and blood vessels jointly keep our brains healthy and prevent dementia? (
  • This collagen matrix graft was made by blood vessel cells, so it's sort of like the ideal home," Niklason says. (
  • 4. Then, they used detergent to scrub off the donor muscle cells from the blood vessels. (
  • In both models, Science explains , the new vessels were soon populated by several types of cells present in normal blood vessels, suggesting that the animals' bodies were tolerating the transplants. (
  • Laura Niklason , an anesthesiologist and biomedical engineer at Yale University, and her collaborators have grown blood vessels using human cells and tested them in baboons, showing that they provoke no immune rejection and avoid common complications of synthetic vessels, such as clotting, bursting, or contracting over time. (
  • The cells secrete collagen and other connective tissue molecules around the scaffolds, forming blood vessels. (
  • After the scaffolds break down, the vessels are washed with a detergent that strips away the cells, leaving behind the fibrous tubes of collagen. (
  • The group has previously grown vessels using cells from several different animal species, including canine versions for heart bypass surgeries in dogs . (
  • Also, while previous versions of the vessels required a wait of several weeks while the insides of the vessels were "personalized" with some of the patient's own cells, a process that makes them less likely to clog, these hemodialysis vessels did not need that treatment. (
  • The method focuses on activating a receptor protein - called TIE2 - that sits on the surface of cells in the lining of blood vessels. (
  • During exercise arterial function needs to be at its peak and blood circulation should be efficient so that oxygen is transported to cells effectively and quickly. (
  • 5 The cells from both types of smokers were unable to perform a key function in the same way nonsmoker cells were able - the production of nitric oxide , a colorless gas the body uses to dilate blood vessels. (
  • June 27, 2011 -- For the first time, blood vessels grown from donor cells have been successfully implanted in human patients, an early report of new research shows. (
  • From these, minute branches are given off which enter the lobules and there form a net- work of capillary vessels ramifying among the cells (2, 2, fig. 90), and then, after uniting and reuniting, form a blood-vessel which runs down the centre of the lobule and is known as the intralobular vein (1, fig. 90). (
  • BUFFALO, N.Y. -- Blood vessels that have been tissue-engineered from bone marrow adult stem cells may in the future serve as a patient's own source of new blood vessels following a coronary bypass or other procedures that require vessel replacement, according to new research from the University at Buffalo Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering. (
  • If true, this means that you may be able to develop a universal cell source for smooth muscle cells, so that you could potentially make these vessels into an 'off-the-shelf' product, available to any patient," Andreadis said. (
  • Scar cells (top, nuclei stained blue) are coaxed into becoming blood vessel cells with a new, small-molecule and protein therapy. (
  • HOUSTON -- ( Nov. 7, 2014 ) -- By transforming human scar cells into blood vessel cells, scientists at Houston Methodist may have discovered a new way to repair damaged tissue. (
  • Cardiovascular scientists at Houston Methodist, with colleagues at Stanford University and Cincinnati Children's Hospital, learned that fibroblasts -- cells that causes scarring and are plentiful throughout the human body -- can be coaxed into becoming endothelium, an entirely different type of adult cell that forms the lining of blood vessels. (
  • The human blood vessel cells increased the number of vessels in the mouse limb, improving circulation. (
  • The cells spontaneously form new blood vessels -- they self assemble," Cooke said. (
  • The material can be cast into a variety of shapes, is completely nontoxic, and, when it has done its job, will dissolve naturally in the moist environment of lab-grown tissue, leaving behind spaces that can carry blood to cells. (
  • In tests in mice, the stem cells injected into the eye became incorporated into the eye's structure and formed new blood vessels. (
  • MIT scientists have found a way to induce cells to form parallel tube-like structures that could one day serve as tiny engineered blood vessels. (
  • So we tried to grow miniature artificial blood vessels using induced pluripotent stem cells derived from cells taken from patients with progeria. (
  • The speed with which red blood cells are produced in response to stress or illness is reduced. (
  • Most of the white blood cells stay at the same levels, although certain white blood cells important to immunity ( neutrophils ) decrease in their number and ability to fight off bacteria. (
  • For the first time, blood vessels created in the lab from donor skin cells were successfully implanted in patients. (
  • For the first time, human blood vessels grown in a laboratory from donor skin cells have been successfully implanted into patients, according to new research presented in the American Heart Association's Emerging Science Series webinar. (
  • Investigators previously showed that using vessels individually created from a patient's own skin cells reduced the rate of shunt complications 2.4-fold over a 3-year period. (
  • Cells cultured in the presence of nicotine or VEGF also assembled themselves into whorls in the tissue culture dish -- perhaps a preliminary step to forming new blood vessels. (
  • They found after only a few days that lung cancer cells implanted under the skin or in the lung tissue of animals who drank nicotine-laced water grew much more quickly and were more densely packed with blood vessels than cancers in animals who were not exposed to nicotine. (
  • Previous efforts in building blood vessels took a long time as the device first had to print out a sugar-based cast and the cover them in stem cells to create the working vessels. (
  • Cancer cells mutate and gain the ability to release lots of angiogenesis factors that tip the balance in favor of blood vessels invading the cancer. (
  • Once those vessels invade a tumor, it can expand, and the same vessels feeding the tumor allows cancer cells to then exit into the circulation as metastases. (
  • The network of scientists in the Collaborative Research Centre (SFB) Transregio 23 is in its 12th year of studying the influences that regulate the cells of the vessel wall. (
  • The study was commissioned by Cytograft Tissue Engineering Inc. of Novato, California, and made use of donor skin cells to grow the blood vessels. (
  • Previous studies suggested that patients' cells could grow on the bioengineered vessels in a process called recellularization. (
  • Microscope analysis revealed that over time cells from the participants had formed layers of tissue resembling natural blood vessels. (
  • They found that two to seven days after a blockage in brain microvessels, the cells lining the blood vessel wall engulf the remaining portion of the blockage, encapsulate it, seal it off from the interior of the blood vessel and finally expel the blocking material outside of the vessel. (
  • The incomplete removal of blockages in the brains of older mice led to a prolonged shortage of oxygen to the surrounding nerve cells and damaged the connections between nerve cells in the vicinity of the obstructed blood vessels. (
  • With the help of in-vitro simulation, physicians therefore study the migration of cancer cells through blood vessels. (
  • The blood vessels were made by bio-printing a series of fibers as a sort of mold, which was coated with cells and proteins that harden when exposed to light. (
  • The goal is to find a way to direct the development of vessels that feed oxygen-starved cells in stroke and neurodegenerative disease patients. (
  • Test subjects are asked to try skipping and make changes in their diet to prevent ghost blood cells. (
  • The hope is that once implanted in the body, the polymer will dissolve, leaving behind stem cells that have developed into a working blood vessel. (
  • The artificial blood vessels are created by placing human aorta cells into a biodegradable mesh tube. (
  • The aim is then that the material will selectively attract cells from the blood stream. (
  • The material transmits bio-active signals to the cells, so these will gradually form a new blood vessel. (
  • At the same time the inserted tube slowly dissolves, and ultimately disappears, while a new blood vessel made of autologous cells is formed. (
  • What is so exciting about our work is that we were successful in making real human blood vessels out of stem cells. (
  • Blood vessels also transport red blood cells which contain the oxygen necessary for daily activities. (
  • The amount of red blood cells present in your vessels has an effect on your health. (
  • Hematocrit tests can be performed to calculate the proportion of red blood cells in your blood. (
  • The TEVs also produced both collagen and elastin, which give connective tissue their strength and elasticity and are critical to the functioning of artificial blood vessels. (
  • This is probably related to changes in the connective tissue of the blood vessel wall. (
  • At least initially, Dahl thinks those will be patients who might need vessels to help reroute blood around blockages in the heart, or for whom doctors need to build an access point so that their blood can be cleaned for kidney dialysis. (
  • This can increase the risk of blood vessel blockages. (
  • This is especially important if you have blockages in your blood vessels. (
  • Blockages in the smallest blood vessels can be cleared by processes that disintegrate or wash them out. (
  • The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system , and microcirculation , that transports blood throughout the human body . (
  • Blood vessels are part of the circulatory system, together with the heart and the blood. (
  • As the heart beats, it pumps blood through a system of blood vessels, called the circulatory system. (
  • However, larger vessels that are ruptured may present a danger to the individual, especially when clots are formed that go on to cause embolisms. (
  • The frequent needle pricks caused some of the vessels to be blocked by blood clots or to bulge. (
  • Blood also flows through the aortic arch and into the thoracic aorta . (
  • applying RF energy through the intermediate portion of the blood vessel so that an RF current flows longitudinally along the intermediate portion and welds the intermediate portion. (
  • When any blood vessel is punctured or cut,blood flows out.There are three kinds of blood vessels in the human body. (
  • Here, the blood flows through the stenosed artery segments with high velocity and is subjected to enhanced shear forces. (
  • Blood flows continuously through your body's blood vessels. (
  • Professor Bailey believes that too much P2X7R may lead to the blood vessels narrowing, which means that too little blood flows through the kidneys and stops them working properly. (
  • The growth of blood vessels, a process known as angiogenesis, is a normal process in the body that is essential for organ growth and repair. (
  • The pre-organized architecture of the patch helped to guide the formation of new blood vessels that seemed to deliver sufficient blood to the downstream tissue. (
  • Angiogenesis is the process of formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing blood vessels. (
  • The smallest blood vessels measure only five micrometers. (
  • The retinal blood vessel segmentation for small and low contrast vessels is still a challenging problem. (
  • These studies demonstrate that CD276 is overexpressed in the blood vessels of a variety of human cancers," says St. Croix. (
  • Taking it slow for the first part of the survivors searching of the ship and quest to uncover why a ship such as the one they find themselves on is devoid of human life bar a young girl, Blood Vessel eventually goes all out as we and the films group come face to face with the true horrors of what lays in store for them becomes increasingly more apparent. (
  • Humacyte, winner of a 2011 Popular Mechanics Breakthrough Award, is now testing its lab-grown blood vessels in a small group of human patients. (
  • The U.S. trials-which commence next month-will test the safety of the artificial blood vessels in 20 human patients. (
  • Dahl says they're now "laying the groundwork" for how they might safely begin to test the vessels in human patients. (
  • Vein , in human physiology, any of the vessels that, with four exceptions, carry oxygen-depleted blood to the right upper chamber (atrium) of the heart . (
  • Scientists at the Harvard Medical School have discovered and produced in pure form a human substance that stimulates the production of blood vessels.It is the first known substance that sets off the growth of any human organ. (
  • DURHAM, N.C. -- Biomedical engineers have grown miniature human blood vessels that exhibit many of the symptoms and drug reactions associated with Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome -- an extremely rare genetic disease that causes symptoms resembling accelerated aging in children. (
  • Thus, this work was undertaken to study age-related changes in the number of blood vessels in the human dermis. (
  • because the only thing more expensive than ink toner is human blood []. (
  • Scientists estimate that over 70 percent of human deaths worldwide are ultimately caused by damaged or failing blood vessels. (
  • The bioengineered blood vessel, called a human acellular vessel. (
  • After the incubation, Kirkton and his colleagues removed all the cellular material, leaving behind what they term human acellular vessels (HAVs). (
  • Fresh clinical trials are currently under way, and if these pan out the HAVs developed by Kirkton and colleagues could represent an end-run around rejection issues that arise from the use of human or animal donors as sources of replacement blood vessels. (
  • has successfully created bio-blood-vessels (BBVs) 3D printed using materials extracted from the human body. (
  • Apparatus for transcutaneously producing visual images of the internal dimensions of blood vessels in the human body is disclosed including an ultrasonic pulsed Doppler blood velocity detector having a transducer adapted to transmit a beam of ultrasound toward a blood vessel and detect ultrasound reflected. (
  • Method of use of the disclosed apparatus to produce visualizations of blood vessels in the human body are also disclosed. (
  • To tackle this problem, Josef Penninger and Reiner Wimmer at IMBA, Institute for Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, established a groundbreaking model: self-organizing, three-dimensional (3D) human blood vessel organoids grown in a Petri dish. (
  • a) Superficial or pial vessels: Arterioles and venules at the gyrus surface as well as their mode of penetration into or emergence from nervous tissue is described. (
  • Blood vessel dilators, also called vasodilators, are drugs that cause the blood vessels (especially the arterioles) to expand in an effort to lower blood pressure and reduce the work of the heart in pumping blood. (
  • any vessels smaller than that are called arterioles. (
  • Extremely small vessels located within bone marrow, the spleen, and the liver. (
  • BERKELEY - When stretched, a type of adult stem cell taken from bone marrow can be nudged towards becoming the type of tissue found in blood vessels, according to a new study by bioengineers at the University of California, Berkeley. (
  • Sinusoids Extremely small vessels located within bone marrow, the spleen, and the liver. (
  • Patients with kidney failure need to have their blood cleaned every week by a dialysis machine. (
  • Scientists have grown a ready-made supply of blood vessels to transplant into patients undergoing heart surgery and kidney dialysis. (
  • Functioning blood vessels that aren't rejected by the immune system could be used to make durable shunts for kidney dialysis, and potentially to improve treatment for children with heart defects and adults needing coronary or other bypass graft surgery. (
  • While more testing is needed, such "off-the-shelf" blood vessels could soon be used to improve the process and affordability of kidney dialysis. (
  • These shunts, which connect an artery to a vein, provide access to the blood for dialysis. (
  • At follow-up exams up to eight months after implantation, none of the patients had developed an immune reaction to the implants, and the vessels withstood the high pressure and frequent needle punctures required for dialysis. (
  • Besides addressing a costly and vexing problem in kidney dialysis, off-the-shelf blood vessels might someday be used instead of harvesting patients' own vessels for bypass surgery. (
  • Lead researcher Todd McAllister said that they have implanted the new vessels in three Polish patients who are all in the final stage of their kidney disease and are on dialysis. (
  • Bioengineered vessels that were implanted in people to aid with kidney dialysis matured into living blood vessels. (
  • People with kidney failure can use a dialysis machine to filter blood. (
  • Participants were given dialysis through needles in the vessels three times a week. (
  • In addition to helping people with kidney failure who need frequent dialysis, such bioengineered blood vessels could also be used by surgeons to repair vessels in the chest and abdomen. (
  • WEDNESDAY, April 24 -- Artificial blood vessels may one day reduce some complications of dialysis treatment in people with kidney failure, according to the results of early research in animals. (
  • The [new] artificial vessels had excellent resistance to obstruction and clotting and tolerated the repeated needle punctures required for dialysis," Dahl concluded in the news release. (
  • TU/e together with UMC Utrecht and the TU/e spin-off Xeltis are developing a new way to generate an autologous blood vessel inside the body, for kidney dialysis. (
  • Physicians can then connect the dialysis unit to this vessel. (
  • Each year, 360,000 small vessel coronary bypass "jumps" are performed in the U.S. alone. (
  • Plastic blood vessels as pliable as the real thing have been developed by a Florida medical researcher who sees them as a key addition to the growing inventory of bionic body parts.Dr. Stephen Kovacs of the University of South Florida in Tampa has received a U.S. patent for the material used to make the vessels, which may be implanted in heart bypass patients in the future. (
  • these may make it unnecessary to harvest vessels for coronary artery bypass surgery from patients' legs. (
  • The technology is at its earliest stages, but Dr Tovar believes the artificial vessels could one day be used in applications like bypass surgery. (
  • According to the new study , scientists could use cell banks to make as many as 37 large or 74 smaller blood vessels per donor, and cell banks put together from multiple donors could hold even more. (
  • Scientists at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute have developed a way to 3D print living skin, complete with blood vessels. (
  • If the process turns out to work in humans, the scientists hope to use it to treat eye diseases affecting the blood vessels in the retina. (
  • Scientists at the University of California, San Diego have been playing around with the idea of printing blood vessels with 3D printers for a while now. (
  • From the article: 'To print something as small and complex as a blood vessel, the scientists combined the 3D printing technology with two-photon polymerisation - shining intense laser beams onto the material to stimulate the molecules in a very small focus point. (
  • Washington, Jan 8 (ANI): Scientists have found that controlling blood vessel development may help fight obesity and diabetes. (
  • In humans, it is found in newborn babies, but scientists believe that by controlling blood vessel development it might be possible to transform white fat to brown fat in adults as well. (
  • Finally, the technique for 3D printing blood vessels has been perfected by a team of scientists from Harvard, Stanford, MIT and the University of Sydney. (
  • As a next step, the scientists searched for chemical compounds that could block development of the pathological phenotype in the "diabetic" lab grown vessels. (
  • The scanning electron micrograph shows pericytes wrapping their processes around a small blood vessel (a post-capillary venule) in the mammary gland of a cat. (
  • The top plate is provided with capillary channels simulating small blood vessels. (
  • Generally, many of the tumor blood vessels also looked different than typical blood vessels, the authors reported. (
  • After one month, about 83% of the smaller vessels implanted around the hearts of dogs were still open. (
  • They also made smaller vessels and transplanted those into 5 dogs. (
  • These smaller vessels are located close to the surface of the skin, and are hence easily accessible. (
  • Smaller vessels cannot be seen with the naked eye and are represented at the magnification needed to visualize them graphically. (
  • A small study by the American Heart Association found that the blood vessel function of young adults notably diminished after consuming just one energy drink. (
  • Of the small vessel procedures, 15% are performed on patients who have already had a previous operation resulting in a lack of suitable available tissue or on patients who are diabetic or have a disease which renders the tissue less than adequate. (
  • Dr Paul De Bank, Senior Lecturer in Pharmaceutics at the University of Bath and co-author of the paper, said: "By embedding EPCs in a gel derived from platelets, both of which can be isolated from the patient's blood, we have demonstrated the formation of a network of small vessels. (
  • They are small blood vessels that take deoxygenated blood to the heart. (
  • The experiments implemented on the STARE database indicate that the new method has a better performance than the traditional ones on the small vessels extraction, average accuracy rate, and true and false positive rate. (
  • One side of the eye's white area (sclera) may be entirely red, or small red dots may cover the entire eye, depending on the amount of vessels ruptured. (
  • Professor Matthew Bailey wants to study a specific molecule, called P2X7R, to see if it's responsible for the narrowing of the small blood vessels at the early stages of kidney disease. (
  • This research in mice is looking at how the function of small blood vessels is affected by a poor maternal diet. (
  • A 3D printer can't build things on a small enough scale to create a structure as small as a blood vessel, so instead, it is used to lay down a substrate that the blood vessel will be created in. (
  • Merely creating a small, plastic tube the same size and shape as a blood vessel isn't enough. (
  • 14 Arteriovenous malformations and small angiomas sometimes cause attacks of migraine with aura, further linking blood vessel abnormalities to a migraine with aura phenotype. (
  • and he goes, 'Oh yeah, you have leaky small blood vessels. (
  • MIT engineers tested the ultra-thin guidewire on an obstacle course of small rings, as well as a life-size silicone replica of the brain's blood vessels. (
  • They screened current anti-diabetic medications, none of which had any positive effects on these blood vessel defects, as well as multiple small-molecule inhibitors of different signaling pathways. (
  • Newswise - LOS ANGELES (June 24, 2020) - Alzheimer's disease in its early stages affects the integrity of small blood vessels in the retinas of patients, according to a recent study led by Cedars-Sinai. (
  • The term "arterial blood" is nevertheless used to indicate blood high in oxygen , although the pulmonary artery carries "venous blood" and blood flowing in the pulmonary vein is rich in oxygen. (
  • That requires two big needles: One to draw blood out of the artery and a second to put the filtered blood back into a vein. (
  • They used the vessels to link an artery and a vein in baboons, creating a structure called a fistula to mimic the setup required by hemodialysis patients, who have a needle injected into such a link two or three times a week to get their blood filtered. (
  • Two carry blood to it - the hepatic artery and the portal vein - while the third, the hepatic vein, returns the blood which has circulated through the gland to the posterior vena cava, which it joins just before that vessel perforates the diaphragm to discharge its blood into the right auricle of the heart. (
  • The same blood vessel has different names in different sections, but it is essentially one large artery that branches to serve the entire lower half of the body. (
  • The extra blood from the artery makes the vein wider and thicker. (
  • The bioengineered vessels were grafted between an artery and vein above the elbow in 60 adults with end-stage kidney failure. (
  • When compared with a clinical diagnosis of this large-vessel vasculitis at 3 months, the sensitivity of ultrasound was 81% compared with 53% for temporal artery biopsy, reported Adam P. Croft, PhD , of the University of Birmingham in England. (
  • Blood vessels get inflamed and can either thicken or thin. (
  • Large collecting vessels, such as the subclavian vein , the jugular vein , the renal vein and the iliac vein . (
  • To avoid complications, surgeons prefer to use vessels taken from a patient's own body - harvesting a portion of vein from the leg, for example. (
  • The portal vein is a large trunk that contains the blood returning from the stomach and intestines, and from the spleen and pancreas . (
  • The superior vena cava is the large vein that brings blood from the head and arms to the heart, and the inferior vena cava brings blood from the abdomen and legs into the heart. (
  • It removes blood from a vein in the arm, filters it outside the body, and returns clean blood to another part of the vein. (
  • Another option is for the surgeon to graft a loop of natural blood vessel or an artificial vessel to the vein. (
  • This study suggests that the use of bilayered scaffolds may lead to improved vessel formation. (
  • Clinically, the only alternative is to use less than optimal tissue or use artificial vessels which are prone to occlusion and thus are less than ideal. (
  • The function of the coronary blood vessels? (
  • This creates enough pressure for blood to be pumped around the body. (
  • To do that, they may take blood vessels from other parts of the body, usually the leg or chest wall. (
  • One of the first things that happens in sepsis - when the immune system overreacts and attacks the body - is that blood vessels become weak and leaky. (
  • One of the study authors, Dr. Seung Jun Lee, a researcher at the Institute for Basic Science in Daejeon, South Korea, says the purpose of the treatment is to "strengthen the blood vessels so the body has a stable environment to fight the infection which also prevents further damage. (
  • When dissected from the body, blood vessel tissue has a natural tendency to constrict. (
  • However, there is no way for the broken-down tissue and blood to leave the body. (
  • The left side pumps oxygen-rich blood to the body. (
  • Normally, the heart continues to pump enough blood to supply all parts of the body. (
  • No. Blood carries oxygen in the form of oxyhaemoglobin to all the parts of the body for the body to function. (
  • The heart is the pump, the blood is the product carrying oxygen and the vessels are the network to all points of the body. (
  • These components assist in the transportation of blood within the body, often in and out of the heart. (
  • When we need a brief burst of blood vessels the body releases stimulators that act as natural fertilizer to stimulate new blood vessels. (
  • When those extra blood vessels are no longer needed, the body prunes them back to baseline, using naturally occurring inhibitors. (
  • For a number of diseases, however, there are defects in the system where the body can't prune back those extra blood vessels or grow enough new ones in the right place at the right time. (
  • While most weight lifting related ruptured blood vessels occur in the eye, some occasionally break in other parts of the body, specifically the legs. (
  • Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder passed on through parental genes causing the body to produce abnormal hemoglobin. (
  • The vessels are elastic tubes that carry blood to every part of the body. (
  • Since there is a long list of possible causes for thinning vessels, different parts of the body can be affected. (
  • Baroreceptors in your body monitor blood pressure constantly and modify it as you move around to maintain a fairly constant blood pressure. (
  • We tested whether the bug Rhodnius prolixus can evaluate temperature discontinuities along the body surface in order to locate vessels before piercing the host skin. (
  • This strategy seems to be an efficient one for finding blood vessels within a wide temperature range, allowing finding them on different hosts, as well as on different areas of the host body. (
  • This is done by a unit, located outside the body, which takes over the function of the kidneys to purify the blood. (
  • Elongated openings in the body enable the diaphragm to be released in an inflated state from the body into flexible occluding engagement with the interior wall of the blood vessel about the full circumference of a transverse section thereof. (
  • Nitric oxide (NO) is a naturally occurring chemical inside the body that protects our blood vessels. (
  • Cocaine can cause blood vessels in the brain to spasm or rupture, a finding that could explain why many users of the drug suffer high blood pressure, brain hemorrhages and stroke, a New York researcher reports.In a study on rats, researcher Burton M. Altura reports he was able to produce these symptoms using ''minute'' doses of cocaine -- doses ''even lower than what you would get in a user of cocaine. (
  • Ischemia results when narrowed, hardened or blocked blood vessels starve tissue, often resulting in heart attack, stroke, gangrene and other serious conditions. (
  • It suggests that while nicotine treatment may be useful to revive tissue deprived of blood by a stroke or heart attack, physicians should exercise caution when considering the long-term use of nicotine as a treatment. (
  • When angiogenesis is out of balance a myriad of diseases result --- insufficient angiogenesis (not enough blood vessels) can lead to wounds that don't heal, heart attacks, poor circulation in legs, death from stroke, nerve damage, hair loss, erectile dysfunction. (
  • The research team demonstrated that this complex protective mechanism involves the activity of an enzyme, matrix metalloprotease 2/9, which breaks down large proteins and is known to play a role in blood vessel development and in stroke. (
  • Pregnant women who have high blood pressure are 70 percent more likely to suffer a heart attack or stroke than those who have normal blood pressure, reveals a new study. (
  • Synthetic blood vessels that can be made in advance and stored until surgery could help patients undergoing heart surgery, hemodialysis-cleansing of the blood in cases of kidney failure-and other procedures. (
  • We know that this risk can be reduced by keeping blood glucose levels and blood pressure under control, but we still don't fully understand how kidney problems develop in people with diabetes. (
  • Blood vessel diameter can potentially affect treatment in several ways, including impeding drug delivery and the efficacy of immunotherapy drugs. (
  • The engineered vessels were about a foot long with a diameter of 4.8 millimeters. (
  • These delicate vessels ,with a diameter of 5-10 micrometer, are coated by a structure called basement membrane that gives the blood vessels important physical support. (
  • They are roughly grouped as "arterial" and "venous", determined by whether the blood in it is flowing away from (arterial) or toward (venous) the heart . (
  • Several studies suggest that caffeine-laden energy drinks can harm blood vessels and energy drinks are linked to heart, nerve and stomach issues. (
  • We hope that our recent studies on blood vessel development will shed novel insights into the mechanisms that may be playing key roles in disease contexts, such as in cancer and heart disease," Chun said. (
  • I had an angiogram done and the blood vessels around my heart are not blocked. (
  • Many affected patients die of heart disease brought on by weakened blood vessels before the age of 14. (
  • The resulting symptoms look much like accelerated aging, and affected patients usually die of heart disease brought on by weakened blood vessels before the age of 14. (
  • The augmented blood nourishment provides valuable oxygen to heal and functionally preserve vital organs such as the heart and limbs. (
  • Some changes in the heart and blood vessels normally occur with age. (
  • The heart wall thickens, so the amount of blood that the chamber can hold may actually decrease despite the increased overall heart size. (
  • This makes the blood pressure higher and makes the heart work harder, which may lead to thickening of the heart muscle (hypertrophy). (
  • However, an older heart may not be able to pump blood as well when you make it work harder. (
  • What is the function of the heart and blood vessels? (
  • Heart -your heart is to pump blood into the blood vessels. (
  • coronary blood vessel supplies blood to the heart and drains blood from the heart. (
  • When valves in the heart or blood vessels fail to function? (
  • The heart blood veesels? (
  • Heart blood vessels is what collects blood and pumps it to the lower chamber. (
  • Does Cardiovascular disease relates to disorders of the heart blood vessels and the lung function? (
  • What is the function of the blood vessels on the outer wall of the heart? (
  • That's how important these vessels are to the heart and how it functions. (
  • Can the heart function without the blood and blood vessels? (
  • They carry blood away from the heart. (
  • Which vessels move blood to the heart? (
  • What blood vessels return blood to the heart? (
  • The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, blood and blood vessels. (
  • What vessels take blood from the heart? (
  • They learned that high blood pressure, though a good benchmark for later heart concerns, is different for men and women. (
  • Not only did women present with high blood pressure symptoms earlier in life than their male counterparts, but their heart health progressed at a much more rapid pace over time. (
  • Heart attacks come about when blood vessels in the heart are blocked, and without a supply of oxygen-rich blood, the heart muscle can die. (
  • Valves also help blood travel back to the heart against the force of gravity. (
  • They branch several times, becoming smaller and smaller as they carry blood further from the heart. (
  • These are blood vessels that take oxygen-poor blood back to the heart. (
  • The work was supported in part by NIH's National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). (
  • They'll also study the function of the kidneys and heart, and look at how blood vessels behave, when P2X7R isn't there. (
  • With more research, this could lead to the development of a new treatment to prevent blood vessel complications like heart attacks and strokes. (
  • Having healthy, fully functioning blood vessels is key to preventing complications like heart attacks and strokes. (
  • A greater understanding of how to keep blood vessels healthy will help pave the way for more research to develop new treatments for people with type 2 diabetes that work to prevent complications like heart attacks and strokes. (
  • Higher proportions result in conditions such as dehydration or heart disease while lower proportions could lead to anemia and long-term blood loss. (
  • Hypertension causes stiffening and elasticity loss in blood vessels, which hinders clearance of waste molecules from the brain. (
  • P2X7R is normally found in blood vessels and is responsible for contracting them, but the levels are higher in people with diabetes. (
  • Solenophagous insects such as mosquitoes, sucking lice and kissing bugs need to pierce the skin of their hosts in order to reach the interior of blood-vessels with their mouthparts [1] . (
  • If we can learn how to regulate the development of blood vessels in humans, we"d open up new therapeutic avenues for obesity and metabolic diseases like diabetes," said Professor Yihai Cao, who led the study. (
  • The ability to transition between the two states is necessary for the normal development of blood vessels, regulating blood pressure, and repairing vessels that suffer from injury. (
  • In those cases, a surgeon may reach for vessels made from synthetic polymers, like Teflon or Dacron, or for vessels donated from cadavers. (
  • Humacyte's lab-grown blood vessels don't use synthetic materials. (
  • Shunts created from patients' own vessels or synthetic materials are notoriously prone to failure. (
  • These synthetic blood vessels have many complications and about half fail within a year, and the patients have to undergo surgery to replace them. (