Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Lymphatic Vessels: Tubular vessels that are involved in the transport of LYMPH and LYMPHOCYTES.Retinal Vessels: The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Pericytes: Unique slender cells with multiple processes extending along the capillary vessel axis and encircling the vascular wall, also called mural cells. Pericytes are imbedded in the BASEMENT MEMBRANE shared with the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS of the vessel. Pericytes are important in maintaining vessel integrity, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Lymphatic System: A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.Allantois: An extra-embryonic membranous sac derived from the YOLK SAC of REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. It lies between two other extra-embryonic membranes, the AMNION and the CHORION. The allantois serves to store urinary wastes and mediate exchange of gas and nutrients for the developing embryo.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Lymphangiogenesis: The formation of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Angiopoietin-1: The first to be discovered member of the angiopoietin family. It may play a role in increasing the sprouting and branching of BLOOD VESSELS. Angiopoietin-1 specifically binds to and stimulates the TIE-2 RECEPTOR. Several isoforms of angiopoietin-1 occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.Receptor, TIE-2: A TIE receptor tyrosine kinase that is found almost exclusively on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. It is required for both normal embryonic vascular development (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PHYSIOLOGIC) and tumor angiogenesis (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PATHOLOGIC).Arterioles: The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Endothelial Growth Factors: These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.Mice, Inbred C57BLVascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2: A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.Endothelium: A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors: A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Venules: The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Corrosion Casting: A tissue preparation technique that involves the injecting of plastic (acrylates) into blood vessels or other hollow viscera and treating the tissue with a caustic substance. This results in a negative copy or a solid replica of the enclosed space of the tissue that is ready for viewing under a scanning electron microscope.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Lymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.Angiopoietin-2: An angiopoietin that is closely related to ANGIOPOIETIN-1. It binds to the TIE-2 RECEPTOR without receptor stimulation and antagonizes the effect of ANGIOPOIETIN-1. However its antagonistic effect may be limited to cell receptors that occur within the vasculature. Angiopoietin-2 may therefore play a role in down-regulation of BLOOD VESSEL branching and sprouting.Retinal Artery: Central retinal artery and its branches. It arises from the ophthalmic artery, pierces the optic nerve and runs through its center, enters the eye through the porus opticus and branches to supply the retina.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Retinal Vein: Central retinal vein and its tributaries. It runs a short course within the optic nerve and then leaves and empties into the superior ophthalmic vein or cavernous sinus.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3: A vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor whose expression is restricted primarily to adult lymphatic endothelium. VEGFR-3 preferentially binds the vascular endothelial growth factor C and vascular endothelial growth factor D and may be involved in the control of lymphangiogenesis.Chorion: The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor: A family of closely related RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES that bind vascular endothelial growth factors. They share a cluster of seven extracellular Ig-like domains which are important for ligand binding. They are highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and are critical for the physiological and pathological growth, development and maintenance of blood and lymphatic vessels.Chorioallantoic Membrane: A highly vascularized extra-embryonic membrane, formed by the fusion of the CHORION and the ALLANTOIS. It is mostly found in BIRDS and REPTILES. It serves as a model for studying tumor or cell biology, such as angiogenesis and TISSUE TRANSPLANTATION.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Endothelium, Lymphatic: Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.Angiogenesis Inducing Agents: Agents that induce or stimulate PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS or PATHOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Retinal Neovascularization: Formation of new blood vessels originating from the retinal veins and extending along the inner (vitreal) surface of the retina.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Blood Circulation: The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells: Endothelial cells that line venous vessels of the UMBILICAL CORD.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Umbilical Veins: Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.Vasomotor System: The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C: A vascular endothelial growth factor that specifically binds to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-2 and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-3. In addition to being an angiogenic factor it can act on LYMPHATIC VESSELS to stimulate LYMPHANGIOGENESIS. It is similar in structure to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR D in that they both contain N- and C-terminal extensions that were not found in other VEGF family members.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Pia Mater: The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue: Neoplasms composed of vascular tissue. This concept does not refer to neoplasms located in blood vessels.Mesenteric Veins: Veins which return blood from the intestines; the inferior mesenteric vein empties into the splenic vein, the superior mesenteric vein joins the splenic vein to form the portal vein.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Microvessels: The finer blood vessels of the vasculature that are generally less than 100 microns in internal diameter.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Mesentery: A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Receptor, TIE-1: A TIE receptor found predominantly on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. It is considered essential for vascular development and can form a heterodimer with the TIE-2 RECEPTOR. The TIE-1 receptor may play a role in regulating BLOOD VESSEL stability and maturation.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Angiogenic Proteins: Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins that regulate the proliferation of new blood vessels under normal physiological conditions (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGICAL). Aberrant expression of angiogenic proteins during disease states such as tumorigenesis can also result in PATHOLOGICAL ANGIOGENESIS.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Receptors, Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1: A 180-kDa VEGF receptor found primarily in endothelial cells that is essential for vasculogenesis and vascular maintenance. It is also known as Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1). A soluble, alternatively spliced isoform of the receptor may serve as a binding protein that regulates the availability of various ligands for VEGF receptor binding and signal transduction.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Choroid: The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Mammary Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Retinopathy of Prematurity: A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.von Willebrand Factor: A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.Fluorescein Angiography: Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Port-Wine Stain: A vascular malformation of developmental origin characterized pathologically by ectasia of superficial dermal capillaries, and clinically by persistent macular erythema. In the past, port wine stains have frequently been termed capillary hemangiomas, which they are not; unfortunately this confusing practice persists: HEMANGIOMA, CAPILLARY is neoplastic, a port-wine stain is non-neoplastic. Port-wine stains vary in color from fairly pale pink to deep red or purple and in size from a few millimeters to many centimeters in diameter. The face is the most frequently affected site and they are most often unilateral. (From Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 5th ed, p483)Coturnix: A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Neuropilin-1: Dimeric cell surface receptor involved in angiogenesis (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL) and axonal guidance. Neuropilin-1 is a 140-kDa transmembrane protein that binds CLASS 3 SEMAPHORINS, and several other growth factors. Neuropilin-1 forms complexes with plexins or VEGF RECEPTORS, and binding affinity and specificity are determined by the composition of the neuropilin dimer and the identity of other receptors complexed with it. Neuropilin-1 is expressed in distinct patterns during neural development, complementary to those described for NEUROPILIN-2.Yolk Sac: The first of four extra-embryonic membranes to form during EMBRYOGENESIS. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it arises from endoderm and mesoderm to incorporate the EGG YOLK into the DIGESTIVE TRACT for nourishing the embryo. In placental MAMMALS, its nutritional function is vestigial; however, it is the source of INTESTINAL MUCOSA; BLOOD CELLS; and GERM CELLS. It is sometimes called the vitelline sac, which should not be confused with the VITELLINE MEMBRANE of the egg.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Mice, Inbred BALB CVasculitis: Inflammation of any one of the blood vessels, including the ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Mycoplasma pulmonis: A species of gram-negative bacteria highly pathogenic to RATS and MICE. It is the primary cause of murine respiratory mycoplasmosis.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.ElastinCell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Lasers, Dye: Tunable liquid lasers with organic compounds (i.e., dye) which have a strong absorption band, used as the active medium. During emission, the dye has to be optically excited by another light source (e.g., another laser or flash lamp). The range of the emission wavelength may be anywhere from the ultraviolet to the near infrared (i.e., from 180 to 1100nm). These lasers are operated in continuous wave and pulsed modes. (UMDNS, 2005)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Hemangioma: A vascular anomaly due to proliferation of BLOOD VESSELS that forms a tumor-like mass. The common types involve CAPILLARIES and VEINS. It can occur anywhere in the body but is most frequently noticed in the SKIN and SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE. (from Stedman, 27th ed, 2000)Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Muscle Tonus: The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Cell Hypoxia: A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Ephrin-B2: A transmembrane domain containing ephrin that binds with high affinity to EPHB1 RECEPTOR; EPHB3 RECEPTOR; and EPHB4 RECEPTOR. Expression of ephrin-B2 occurs in a variety of adult tissues. During embryogenesis, high levels of ephrin-B2 is seen in the PROSENCEPHALON; RHOMBENCEPHALON; developing SOMITES; LIMB BUD; and bronchial arches.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Melanoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.Receptors, TIE: A family of structurally-related tyrosine kinase receptors that are expressed predominantly in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and are essential for development of BLOOD VESSELS (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PHYSIOLOGIC). The name derives from the fact that they are tyrosine kinases that contain Ig and EGF domains.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).

Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis. (1/4225)

OBJECTIVE: To review the literature for evidence that chronic infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae is associated with atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndromes. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and Institute of Science and Information bibliographic databases were searched at the end of September 1998. Indexing terms used were chlamydi*, heart, coronary, and atherosclerosis. Serological and pathological studies published as papers in any language since 1988 or abstracts since 1997 were selected. DATA EXTRACTION: It was assumed that chronic C pneumoniae infection is characterised by the presence of both specific IgG and IgA, and serological studies were examined for associations that fulfilled these criteria. Pathological studies were also reviewed for evidence that the presence of C pneumoniae in diseased vessels is associated with the severity and extent of atherosclerosis. DATA SYNTHESIS: The majority of serological studies have shown an association between C pneumoniae and atherosclerosis. However, the number of cases in studies that have reported a positive association when using strict criteria for chronic infection is similar to the number of cases in studies which found no association. Nevertheless, the organism is widely found in atherosclerotic vessels, although it may not be at all diseased sites and is not confined to the most severe lesions. Rabbit models and preliminary antibiotic trials suggest that the organism might exacerbate atherosclerosis. CONCLUSION: More evidence is required before C pneumoniae can be accepted as playing a role in atherosclerosis. Although use of antibiotics in routine practice is not justified, large scale trials in progress will help to elucidate the role of C pneumoniae.  (+info)

Quantification of tumour vasculature and hypoxia by immunohistochemical staining and HbO2 saturation measurements. (2/4225)

Despite the possibility that tumour hypoxia may limit radiotherapeutic response, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. A new methodology has been developed in which information from several sophisticated techniques is combined and analysed at a microregional level. First, tumour oxygen availability is spatially defined by measuring intravascular blood oxygen saturations (HbO2) cryospectrophotometrically in frozen tumour blocks. Second, hypoxic development is quantified in adjacent sections using immunohistochemical detection of a fluorescently conjugated monoclonal antibody (ELK3-51) to a nitroheterocyclic hypoxia marker (EF5), thereby providing information relating to both the oxygen consumption rates and the effective oxygen diffusion distances. Third, a combination of fluorescent (Hoechst 33342 or DiOC7(3)) and immunohistological (PECAM-1/CD31) stains is used to define the anatomical vascular densities and the fraction of blood vessels containing flow. Using a computer-interfaced microscope stage, image analysis software and a 3-CCD colour video camera, multiple images are digitized, combined to form a photo-montage and revisited after each of the three staining protocols. By applying image registration techniques, the spatial distribution of HbO2 saturations is matched to corresponding hypoxic marker intensities in adjacent sections. This permits vascular configuration to be related to oxygen availability and allows the hypoxic marker intensities to be quantitated in situ.  (+info)

Expression of neuropeptide Y receptors mRNA and protein in human brain vessels and cerebromicrovascular cells in culture. (3/4225)

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been suggested as an important regulator of CBF. However, except for the presence of Y1 receptors in large cerebral arteries, little is known about its possible sites of action on brain vessels. In this study, we sought to identify the NPY receptors present in the human cerebrovascular bed. Specific Y1 receptor binding sites, localized on the smooth muscle of human pial vessels and potently competed by NPY, polypeptide YY (PYY), and the selective Y1 receptor antagonist BIBP 3226, were identified by quantitative radioautography of the Y1 radioligand [125I]-[Leu31, Pro34]-PYY. In contrast, no specific binding of the Y2-([125I]-PYY3-36) and Y4/Y5-(125I-human pancreatic polypeptide [hPP]) radioligands could be detected. By in situ hybridization, expression of Y1 receptor mRNA was restricted to the smooth muscle layer of pial vessels, whereas no specific signals were detected for either Y2, Y4, or Y5 receptors. Similarly, using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), mRNA for Y1 but not Y2, Y4, or Y5 receptors was consistently detected in isolated human pial vessels, intracortical microvessels, and capillaries. In human brain microvascular cells in culture, PCR products for the Y1 receptors were exclusively found in the smooth muscle cells. In cultures of human brain astrocytes, a cell type that associates intimately with brain microvessels, PCR products for Y1, Y2, and Y4 but not Y5 receptors were identified. Finally, NPY significantly inhibited the forskolin-induced cAMP production in smooth muscle but not in endothelial cell cultures. We conclude that smooth muscle Y1 receptors are the primary if not exclusive NPY receptors associated with human brain extraparenchymal and intraparenchymal blood vessels, where they most likely mediate cerebral vasoconstriction.  (+info)

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin alters cardiovascular and craniofacial development and function in sac fry of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). (4/4225)

Hallmark signs of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxicity in rainbow trout sac fry, are yolk sac edema, hemorrhage, craniofacial malformation, and growth retardation culminating in mortality. Our objective was to determine the role of cardiovascular dysfunction in the development of this toxicity. An embryotoxic TCDD dose (385 pg/g egg) caused a progressive reduction in blood flow in rainbow trout sac fry manifested first and most dramatically in the 1st and 2nd branchial arches and vessels perfusing the lower jaw. Blood flow was reduced later in the infraorbital artery and occipital vein of the head as well as segmental vessels and caudal vein of the trunk. Reduced perfusion occurred last in gill branchial arteries involved with oxygen uptake and the subintestinal vein and vitelline vein involved with nutrient uptake. Although heart rate throughout sac fry development was not affected, heart size at 50 days post-fertilization (dpf) was reduced far more than body weight or length, suggesting that the progressive circulatory failure caused by TCDD is associated with reduced cardiac output. Craniofacial development was arrested near hatch, giving rise to craniofacial malformations in which the jaws and anterior nasal structures were underdeveloped. Unlike the medaka embryo, in which TCDD causes apoptosis in the medial yolk vein, endothelial cell death was not observed in rainbow trout sac fry. These findings suggest a primary role for arrested heart development and reduced perfusion of tissues with blood in the early-life stage toxicity of TCDD in trout.  (+info)

The effects of levonorgestrel implants on vascular endothelial growth factor expression in the endometrium. (5/4225)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and the microvascular density of the endometrium were studied in Norplant users and normal controls, using immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded endometrial sections. The VEGF staining index was quantified using computerized image analysis. The VEGF staining index between stages of the menstrual cycle and between normal and Norplant endometria were compared. Norplant VEGF staining index was analysed for correlation with microvascular density, duration of Norplant use, the number of bleeding/spotting days in the reference period up to 90 days prior to biopsy, and the length of time since the last bleeding/spotting episode. The results showed that immunoreactive VEGF was detected predominantly in endometrial glands but weakly expressed in the stroma throughout the menstrual cycle, and also in Norplant users. Large variation in the VEGF staining index between individuals was observed and no significant difference in the VEGF staining index was detected between stages of the menstrual cycle for the glands and stroma. The glandular and stromal VEGF staining indices were significantly higher in Norplant than in normal endometrium (P<1x10(-4)). No correlation was found between the Norplant VEGF staining index and endometrial microvascular density, duration of Norplant use, the number of bleeding/spotting days in the reference period, and the length of time since the last bleeding/spotting episode. The VEGF staining index was higher in glands than stroma for both normal and Norplant endometrium. The results suggest a differential control of endometrial glandular versus stromal VEGF expression, and possible positive effects of levonorgestrel on VEGF expression.  (+info)

Acetylcholine-induced relaxation in blood vessels from endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mice. (6/4225)

1. Isometric tension was recorded in isolated rings of aorta, carotid, coronary and mesenteric arteries taken from endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mice (eNOS(-/-) mice) and the corresponding wild-type strain (eNOS(+/+) mice). The membrane potential of smooth muscle cells was measured in coronary arteries with intracellular microelectrodes. 2. In the isolated aorta, carotid and coronary arteries from the eNOS(+/+) mice, acetylcholine induced an endothelium-dependent relaxation which was inhibited by N(omega)-L-nitro-arginine. In contrast, in the mesenteric arteries, the inhibition of the cholinergic relaxation required the combination of N(omega)-L-nitro-arginine and indomethacin. 3. The isolated aorta, carotid and coronary arteries from the eNOS(-/-) mice did not relax in response to acetylcholine. However, acetylcholine produced an indomethacin-sensitive relaxation in the mesenteric artery from eNOS(-/-) mice. 4. The resting membrane potential of smooth muscle cells from isolated coronary arteries was significantly less negative in the eNOS(-/-) mice (-64.8 +/- 1.8 mV, n = 20 and -58.4 +/- 1.9 mV, n = 17, for eNOS(+/+) and eNOS(-/-) mice, respectively). In both strains, acetylcholine, bradykinin and substance P did not induce endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizations whereas cromakalim consistently produced hyperpolarizations (- 7.9 +/- 1.1 mV, n = 8 and -13.8 +/- 2.6 mV, n = 4, for eNOS(+/+) and eNOS(-/-) mice, respectively). 5. These findings demonstrate that in the blood vessels studied: (1) in the eNOS(+/+) mice, the endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine involve either NO or the combination of NO plus a product of cyclo-oxygenase but not EDHF; (2) in the eNOS(-/-) mice, NO-dependent responses and EDHF-like responses were not observed. In the mesenteric arteries acetylcholine releases a cyclo-oxygenase derivative.  (+info)

BDNF is a target-derived survival factor for arterial baroreceptor and chemoafferent primary sensory neurons. (7/4225)

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) supports survival of 50% of visceral afferent neurons in the nodose/petrosal sensory ganglion complex (NPG; Ernfors et al., 1994a; Jones et al., 1994; Conover et al., 1995; Liu et al., 1995; Erickson et al., 1996), including arterial chemoafferents that innervate the carotid body and are required for development of normal breathing (Erickson et al., 1996). However, the relationship between BDNF dependence of visceral afferents and the location and timing of BDNF expression in visceral tissues is unknown. The present study demonstrates that BDNF mRNA and protein are transiently expressed in NPG targets in the fetal cardiac outflow tract, including baroreceptor regions in the aortic arch, carotid sinus, and right subclavian artery, as well as in the carotid body. The period of BDNF expression corresponds to the onset of sensory innervation and to the time at which fetal NPG neurons are BDNF-dependent in vitro. Moreover, baroreceptor innervation is absent in newborn mice lacking BDNF. In addition to vascular targets, vascular afferents themselves express high levels of BDNF, both during and after the time they are BDNF-dependent. However, endogenous BDNF supports survival of fetal NPG neurons in vitro only under depolarizing conditions. Together, these data indicate two roles for BDNF during vascular afferent pathway development; initially, as a target-derived survival factor, and subsequently, as a signaling molecule produced by the afferents themselves. Furthermore, the fact that BDNF is required for survival of functionally distinct populations of vascular afferents demonstrates that trophic requirements of NPG neurons are not modality-specific but may instead be associated with innervation of particular organ systems.  (+info)

Increased renal resistive index in patients with essential hypertension: a marker of target organ damage. (8/4225)

BACKGROUND: Increased renal resistance detected by ultrasound (US) Doppler has been reported in severe essential hypertension (EH) and recently was shown to correlate with the degree of renal impairment in hypertensive patients with chronic renal failure. However, the pathophysiological significance of this finding is still controversial. METHODS: In a group of 211 untreated patients with EH, we evaluated renal resistive index (RI) by US Doppler of interlobar arteries and early signs of target organ damage (TOD). Albuminuria was measured as the albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) in three non-consecutive first morning urine samples. Left ventricular mass was evaluated by M-B mode echocardiography, and carotid wall thickness (IMT) by high resolution US scan. RESULTS: RI was positively correlated with age (r=0.25, P=0.003) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (r=0.2, P=0.02) and with signs of early TOD, namely ACR (r=0.22, P=0.01) and IMT (r=0.17, P<0.05), and inversely correlated with renal volume (r=-0.22, P=0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (r=-0.23, P=0.006). Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that age, gender, ACR and SBP independently influence RI and together account for approximately 20% of its variations (F=8.153, P<0.0001). When clinical data were analysed according to the degree of RI, the patients in the top quartile were found to be older (P<0.05) and with higher SBP (P<0.05) as well as early signs of TOD, namely increased ACR (P<0.002) and IMT (P<0.005 by ANOVA), despite similar body mass index, uric acid, fasting blood glucose, lipid profile and duration of hypertension. Furthermore, patients with higher RI showed a significantly higher prevalence of microalbuminuria (13 vs 12 vs 3 vs 33% chi2=11.72, P=0.008) and left ventricular hypertrophy (40 vs 43 vs 32 vs 60%, chi2=9.25, P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Increased RI is associated with early signs of TOD in EH and could be a marker of intrarenal atherosclerosis.  (+info)

EL-KARIB, Abbas O et al. Pre-Diabetes Induces Ultrastructural Alterations in the Large Blood Vessel Aorta in Rats. Int. J. Morphol. [online]. 2019, vol.37, n.2, pp.647-653. ISSN 0717-9502. Excessive consumption of carbohydrate and fat increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. We sought to determine the potential ultrastructural alterations in large blood vessels induced by a high fat and fructose diet (HFD) in a rat model of prediabetes. Rats were either fed with HFD (model group) or a standard laboratory chow (control group) for 15 weeks before being sacrificed. The harvested thoracic aorta tissues were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and blood samples were assayed for biomarkers of pre-diabetes.TEM images showed that HFD induced profound pathological changes to the aortic wall layers, tunica intima and tunica media ultrastructures in the pre-diabetic rats as shown by apoptotic endothelial cells with pyknotic nuclei, ...
large blood clots - MedHelps large blood clots Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for large blood clots. Find large blood clots information, treatments for large blood clots and large blood clots symptoms.
In this study we describe a model system that allows continuous in vivo observation of the vertebrate embryonic vasculature. We find that the zebrafish fli1 promoter is able to drive expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in all blood vessels throughout embryogenesis. We demonstrate …
Abstract: A brief overview of mathematical models of contemporary applied hemodynamics is given. The special attention is paid to questions of development of effective computational algorithms implementing one-dimensional model. For this purpose TVD-monotonized schemes having the second order accuracy both in time and space are used. A number of test problems with analytical solutions are proposed. Questions of convergence and a choice of grid parameters for various schemes are investigated. The approaches using multiscale hemodynamics models are considered. An embedding of one-dimensional model of a single vessel into 0-dimensional model of vascular system is implemented. The possibility of using linear model for considered class problems of hemodynamics is analyzed ...
The radius of the pulmonary arteries and of the descending thoracic aorta in man was measured by angiographic techniques. Simultaneously with angiocardiography, pressure measurements were carried out, permitting calculation of radius-pressure (ΔR/ΔP) relationships. The results obtained by this method are similar to those obtained by other methods in which the vessel radius was measured more directly.. ...
To understand what happens when the heart stops, it is first important to understand the function of the heart. After all, when the heart stops its function ceases. The heart is a hollow organ that is made up of four chambers - right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium and left ventricle. Large blood vessels lead to and away from these chambers. Valves control blood flow between chambers and between the chambers and the large blood vessels.. The heart is a pump that receives low oxygen blood from the rest of the body (in the right atrium) and pushes this blood to the lungs (from the right ventricle). The blood is then oxygenated by the lungs and carbon dioxide is expelled. Then the blood returns to the heart (in the left atrium). From here, the oxygen-rich blood is pumped to the rest of the body (from the left ventricle). Therefore the heart is responsible for ensuring that there is sufficient oxygen available for all the cells in the body but blood also carries nutrients and other essential ...
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject areas.
Angiogenesis is an essential process whereby new blood vessels are formed from pre-existing vessels and occurs under both normal and pathophysiological conditions. growth element receptor 1 (sVEGFR-1). Therefore, FoxC1 appears to control angiogenesis by regulating two unique and opposing mechanisms; if so, vascular development could be identified, at least in part, Elvitegravir by a competitive balance between pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic FoxC1-controlled pathways. With this review, we describe the mechanisms by which FoxC1 regulates vessel growth and discuss how these observations could contribute to a more total understanding of the part of FoxC1 in pathological angiogenesis. Intro Under both physiological and pathological conditions, new blood vessels are created from pre-existing vessels through a process called angiogenesis, which is definitely exactly controlled by the balance between pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors. Vascular endothelial growth element (VEGF)-A is perhaps ...
Small Blood Vessel Problems: when your blood sugars stay too high for a long time, your small blood vessels may be harmed. This can cause problems with your eyes and kidneys. It can also cause problems with blood circulation to your feet and skin. High levels of sugar in your blood make it harder for the red blood cells to squeeze into very small blood vessels in your body. Sugar also makes the walls of your blood vessels less strong. When the red blood cells try to squeeze into the small blood vessels, they damage the vessels even more. This can make your blood vessels so weak they burst. If this happens, your eyes may be harmed and further problems, if not detected or treated, can lead to blindness (Diabetic Retinopathy). Your kidneys may also be damaged (Diabetic Nephropathy) and, if not looked after, may end up not working at all ...
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a complex, often underdiagnosed illness with rising prevalence in western world countries. During the past decade there has been a rapid advance especially in the field of endovascular treatment of PAD. Here we present for the first time a case reporting on the placement of coronary stent graft in a peripheral vessel for the management of a peripheral side branch perforation. Interventional angiologists or radiologists may consider such an option for complication management after injury of smaller vessels during peripheral percutaneous interventions. Further specialization and novel options of complication management as described in our case may shift the treatment from surgical to even more endovascular treatment procedures in the future.
The process in which the anatomical structures of venous blood vessels are generated and organized. Veins are blood vessels that transport blood from the body and its organs to the heart. [GOC:dsf, PMID:16740480]
Diabetes mellitus significantly increases the risk for both small and large blood vessel complications e.g. diabetic eye problems and coronary heart disease. Vital organs such as the eye, kidney, heart and brain represent well− recognized preferential targets in patients with diabetes mellitus. The presence of such end−organ damage powerfully influences cardiovascular risk and the benefits of therapeutic interventions. Unfortunately, by the time symptoms develop or events occur as manifestations of target−organ damage, the disease process is already at an advanced stage. Although not traditionally viewed as an end−organ, it is altered structure and function of arterial small blood vessels that acts as the substrate for accelerated disease development and the increased occurrence of vascular events in patients with diabetes mellitus. The ability to detect and monitor sub−clinical damage, representing the cumulative and integrated influence of all risk factors in impairing arterial wall ...
High and low blood sugars can cause a variety of complications in the short term or the long-term. The primary cause of complications is that higher levels of blood sugar cause your blood to become more acidic. Over time, this causes a variety of complications related to your small blood vessels (microvascular) and your large blood vessels (macrovascular). The major long-term studies of diabetes, particularly the DCCT and EDIC, have found that people with diabetes who can keep their HbA1c below 7% experience significantly fewer complications. Most importantly, even a few years of better blood sugars can pay off with fewer complications even decades later. Increasingly, studies are using continuous glucose meters to measure not just average blood sugars, but also how often you spend in the normal range. There is some evidence and many suspect that time spent in this range may be more important than your HbA1c in
Macrovascular disease is related with large blood vessels like arteries, coronary and the sizable arteries in the brain and in the limbs. Diabetes and hyperglycemia are causes of development of microvascular disease. Mostly type 2 diabetes increases the risk of microvascular disease of kidneys, eyes and nerves. Microvascular disease can result into kidney failure, blindness, impotence (in men) and foot ulcers. Usually microvascular complications occur due to high level of sugar over time that is it happens after many years of diabetes.. Macrovascular complications of diabetes directly affect on the blood vessels. Because of high diabetes linings of the blood vessels get damaged and become narrow, as a result of this the blood supply decreases in the affected area. When blood vessels of the brain and heart get affected it results in heart attack or stroke. Problems of blood circulation, decreased sensation, and leg cramps happen due to affected blood vessels in the legs. For diabetes treatment ...
The purpose of this study is to determine if women with chest pain and clean heart blood vessels have impaired blood flow to the heart due to problems with the small blood vessels that provide blood and oxygen to the heart. Impairment in the small blood vessels will be tested using ultrasound pictures of the heart, called myocardial contrast echocardiography. Since these small blood vessels are not seen in a coronary angiogram, which is an x-ray of the heart vessels using a dye containing iodine injected in the heart vessels, the problem may remain undiagnosed in women until the heart muscle becomes severely damaged.. A second purpose is to identify if there is a common trait in the population of women with this tiny blood vessel dysfunction, which will be investigated by checking blood levels of certain chemical and hormones related to heart disease. Finally, we would like to investigate the relationship between depression and stress, and heart disease. We will do this by measuring cortisol ...
Find liposuctioned fat cells turned into small blood vessels. Mississsippi Stem Cell Therapy Center promotes stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine.
Dear Penny Pritzker, Secretary of Commerce:. We urge you to intervene and to stop all orca experiments that involve satellite tagging and skin biopsies. Both of these barbaric methods can cause infections and deaths.. The death of orca L95 in March 2016 led the US responsible parties to halt all barbaric satellite "tags" pending a review. The "tags" are actually sharp barb-like blades that penetrate the skin. On October 4th a press conference was held by NOAA Fisheries. At that meeting the following information was given:. 1. The death of orca L95 was due to a fungal infection. The first dart attempt failed and due to human error it was not properly sterilized as per protocol. It was also done in waters that were known to have this fungus. The dart was shot into the area of the dorsal fin where large blood vessels are located.. 2. Unlike Canada that is not using satellite tags since it is deemed too invasive and alternatives are available, NOAA will only suspend the experiments on the endangered ...
There is a growing body of evidence on the importance of hemodynamic forces (i.e. blood flow and pressure) in regulating endothelial cell behavior and blood vessel formation. I was part of a recent discovery published in Nature Cell Biology that identified a new type of membrane protrusion-called inverse blebbing-at the apical membrane of endothelial cells. These inverse blebs drive the expansion of the lumen, which is a structure that allows blood to flow through the vessels. This process is therefore important in the formation of functional blood vessels ...
Aortobifemoral bypass surgery is used to bypass a narrowed or blocked part of the large blood vessels in the abdomen and groin. To bypass the diseased part of the blood vessel, blood is redirected through a graft. The graft is made of man-made material. This graft is sewn above and below the diseased vessel so that...
Biological Process: artery morphogenesis; atrial cardiac muscle morphogenesis; BMP signaling pathway; branching involved in blood vessel morphogenesis; cell adhesion; central nervous system vasculogenesis; chronological cell aging; heart looping; negative regulation of cell migration; negative regulation of protein autophosphorylation; positive regulation of angiogenesis; positive regulation of BMP signaling pathway; positive regulation of collagen biosynthetic process; positive regulation of protein phosphorylation; positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter; regulation of transcription, DNA-templated; regulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway; response to corticosteroid stimulus; response to drug; smooth muscle development; sprouting angiogenesis; vasculogenesis; venous blood vessel morphogenesis ...
g. Go to the energency department)- the next cough could break a large blood vessel. Otherwise, blood-tinged sputum can occur with forceful coughing with some smaller blood vessels breaking. In the latter scenario, as long as a person can breath fine, then schedue a visit with your doctor. Would you like to video or text chat with me? ...
For the study, researchers used lasers to create a clean split with two broken ends in the small blood vessels of the zebrafish brain. Then, through a specialized microscope, they observed what happened after the blood vessels were ruptured. The researchers noticed an unexpected repair process that started about a half hour after they induced the vessel damage. A macrophage showed up, and extended two "arms" from its body toward the ends of a broken blood vessel, using a variety of adhesion molecules to attach itself to the vessel. Then, it pulled the two broken ends together to mediate their repair. The macrophage left the scene after the blood vessel was repaired. The whole process took about three hours.. In addition, the researchers noted that usually only one macrophage arrived at the laser-wound site to mend the broken ends. Rarely, two macrophages arrived at the injury on their own-in these instances, each macrophage grabbed one of the broken ends of the blood vessel. However, the ...
While BOLD contrast reflects hemodynamic changes within capillaries serving neural tissue, it also has a venous component. Studies that have determined the relation of large blood vessels to the activation map indicate that veins are the source of the largest response, and the most delayed in time. It would be informative if the location of these large veins could be extracted from the properties of the functional responses, since vessels are not visible in BOLD contrast images. The present study describes a method for investigating whether measures taken from the functional response can reliably predict vein location, or at least be useful in down-weighting the venous contribution to the activation response, and illustrates this method using data from one subject. We combined fMRI at 3 Tesla with high-resolution anatomic imaging and MR venography to test whether the intrinsic properties of activation time courses corresponded to tissue type. Measures were taken from a gamma fit to the functional
The chemokine CXCL12/SDF1a has first been described in the immune system where it functions include chemotaxis for lymphocytes and macrophages, migration of hematopoietic cells from fetal liver to bone marrow and the formation of large blood vessels. Among other chemokines, CXCL12 has recently attracted much attention in the brain as it has been shown that it can be produced not only by glial cells but also by neurons. In addition, its receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7, which are belonging to the G-protein coupled receptors family, are abundantly expressed in diverse brain area, CXCR4 being a major co-receptor for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 entry. This chemokine system has been shown to play important roles in brain plasticity processes occurring during development but also in the physiology of the brain in normal and pathological conditions. For example, in neurons, CXCR4 stimulation has been shown regulate the synaptic release of glutamate and GABA. It can also act post-synaptically by activating a
An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is described by doctors as a pathological dilation of the main abdominal artery (aorta). Its diameter varies depending on age and sex; an abdominal aorta with a diameter of 3 cm or more is called an AAA. The risk increases with age, whereby women are markedly less often affected than men.Most AAAs cause no problems, that is, they are asymptomatic. However, the larger the size of the AAA, the greater the danger that this large blood vessel will rupture. Without treatment such a rupture quickly results in death. But even if patients reach a hospital on time and emergency surgery is still possible, about 40% of patients receiving open surgery and about 20% receiving endovascular surgery die.Screening aims to lower risk of death. In contrast, if an AAA is detected in time and a patient can undergo elective surgery, the chance of survival is considerably higher: Depending on the type of surgery (endovascular or open) in Germany between 1.3% and 3.6% of patients die ...
Abdominal ultrasound is often used to check large blood vessel known as the abdominal aorta that passes from the back of the chest and abdomen. Learn on facts, procedure & more.
The heart has four chambers. Each chamber fills with blood and empties the blood into another chamber or a large blood vessel. Each of the four chambers has a heart valve which opens and closes when the blood fills or is expelled from the chamber. Unfortunately, either by an accident of birth or certain disease and degenerative conditions, the leaflets of these valves can be damaged, malformed or scarred leading to inability of the valve to open (stenosis) or to close correctly,(insufficiency or regurgitation, the leaky valve).. ...
When the child fever does not make calm. Children become fussy and a little inconvenient. Fever also makes the child difficult to sleep, because they feel uncomfortable. There are many causes of fever such as flu, immunization, and teething. There are many ways to reduce fever, one of them by way of compressing. If mom during this time to compress the child with cold water should immediately stop this habit. Compressing the right child is with warm water. Warm water effectively lower body temperature in children. By compressing warm water, then the center of body temperature will receive information that she around the body is warm. Then the body will automatically lower its temperature.. Compressing the right is in the folds of the body rather than on the forehead. So put the compress on the armpit and groin. This is because the body folds are bypassed by large blood vessels, which function to inform the brain to lower the bodys sushi. So the fever was gone. After the compress, dry the wet ...
|br/|Three-dimensional visualizations of cerebral vessel structures are helpful for diagnosing diseases. However, when viewing several overlapping cerebral
For validation, we first use synthetically generated airways and vessels produced by the proposed generative model to compute the relative error and directly evaluate the accuracy of CNR in comparison with traditional methods. Then, in-vivo validation is performed by analyzing the association between the percentage of the predicted forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1\%) and the value of the Pi10 parameter, two well-known measures of lung function and airway disease, for airways. For vessels, we assess the correlation between our estimate of the small-vessel blood volume and the lungs diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO ...
During the development of the vascular network, blood vessels are constantly formed but many of them are only required temporarily. Just like a disused arm of a highly branched river, the flow of fresh blood through these vessels is interrupted and the organism begins to prune this side arm. In this way the vascular system regulates itself, optimizing its blood circulation by pruning and recycling the unnecessary vessels with reduced blood flow and blood pressure.. "This newly uncovered process is important for the understanding of blood vessel formation and regression on the cellular level, as this can also explain the extraordinary plasticity and changeability of the vascular system", says Anna Lenard, the first author of this publication. These investigations were performed on the zebrafish, as in this almost transparent fish the development of blood vessels can be observed in the living animal using modern microscopy techniques.. Relevance of self-fusion for cancer?. "How the cell recognizes ...
blood vessel a vessel in which blood circulates The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system that transport blood throughout the body. There are three major types of blood vessels: the arteries, which carry the blood away from the heart; the capillaries, which enable the actual exchange of water and chemicals between the…
On September 19, 2017, Posted by Birgit Rogell , In Press Releases, With Kommentare deaktiviert für Heidelberg University: How Blood Vessels Are Formed ...
Blood vessels. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a resin cast of blood vessels in a lymph node. The fine network of smaller vessels branching off from the main vessel infiltrates the tissue, supplying it with blood. Gases and nutrients are exchanged between the blood and surrounding tissues through the permeable walls of capillaries, the smallest blood vessels. Connective tissues provide structural support and cohesion throughout the body. The cast was made by injecting resin into the blood vessels, followed by chemical digestion of the surrounding tissues. Magnification: x36 at 6x7cm size. - Stock Image P206/0248
In a study that could point to novel therapies to prevent cancer spread, or metastasis, researchers have targeted a sugar that supports blood vessel growth in the tumor.
The skin is highly vascularized meaning that it has an extensive network of blood vessels just under the outer layer of the skin. Apart from nourishing the skin with oxygen and nutrients, and removing wastes and carbon dioxide, blood vessels also play a role in thermoregulation. Here it can widen (dilate) to allow heat within the body to pass out into the body thereby preventing the internal temperature from rising to dangerous levels. Conversely, when the environment is cold or the internal temperature is lower than normal, these blood vessels become narrow (constrict) thereby reducing the blood flow to the skin. Therefore less heat from within the body is lost to the environment.. Arteries carry oxygen rich blood from the heart to the skin and veins take away blood laden with wastes and carbon dioxide away from the skin. However, these blood vessels are large and slowly become smaller to be able to lie closely to the skin tissue. Arteries become smaller arterioles and eventually blood from ...
T-cell infiltration of solid tumors is associated with improved prognosis and favorable responses to immunotherapy. Mechanisms that enable tumor infiltration of CD8+ T cells have not been defined, nor have drugs that assist this process been discovered. Here we address these issues with a focus on VE-cadherin, a major endothelial cell-specific junctional protein that controls vascular integrity. A decrease in VE-cadherin expression is associated with tumor pathology. We developed an oligonucleotide-based inhibitor (CD5-2), which disrupted the interaction of VE-cadherin with its regulator miR-27a, resulting in increased VE-cadherin expression. Administration of CD5-2 in tumor-bearing mice enhanced expression of VE-cadherin in tumor endothelium, activating TIE-2 and tight junction pathways and normalizing vessel structure and function. CD5-2 administration also enhanced tumor-specific T-cell infiltration and spatially redistributed CD8+ T cells within the tumor parenchyma. Finally, CD5-2 treatment ...
With intracoronary IVUS, a catheter is inserted into a coronary artery where high-frequency sound waves reflect off tissue or vessel walls. The reflected sound waves create a cross-sectional image from within the vessel to aid in visualising vessel structure. IVUS technology provides physicians with a better understanding of atherosclerotic vessels, supporting appropriate treatment strategy, stent selection, stent placement and adequate deployment to restore blood flow at the target site ...
The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a blood vessel over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The blood vessel is the vasculature carrying blood. [GOC:hjd, UBERON:0001981]
Arti kata dari arterial blood vessel. Definisi dari arterial blood vessel. Pengertian dari arterial blood vessel: a blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the body;
1. Cell - structure, function of organelles, cell division. Tissues: epithelial, connective, muscle and nerve. 2. Skeletal system - the shape, surface, internal structure, growth and development, bone connections. skeleton of the torso (spine, chest), skull bone, upper and lower extremities skeleton. 3. Muscular system - structure, composition and properties of skeletal muscles. Description of major muscle groups. 4. Blood - quantity, composition and functions of blood. The heart - shape, structure and activity. Blood vessels - structure (arteries, capillaries, veins). The heart - greater and lesser blood circulation. 5. Lymphatic system. 6. Respiratory system - external and internal respiration, nose, nasal cavity, larynx, trachea, lungs. 7. Digestive system - oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, pancreas, liver. 8. Excretory system - kidneys, urinary tract. 9. Cutaneous system - skin structure, additional skin formations, body temperature and its control. ...
1. Cell - structure, function of organelles, cell division. Tissues: epithelial, connective, muscle and nerve. 2. Skeletal system - the shape, surface, internal structure, growth and development, bone connections. skeleton of the torso (spine, chest), skull bone, upper and lower extremities skeleton. 3. Muscular system - structure, composition and properties of skeletal muscles. Description of major muscle groups. 4. Blood - quantity, composition and functions of blood. The heart - shape, structure and activity. Blood vessels - structure (arteries, capillaries, veins). The heart - greater and lesser blood circulation. 5. Lymphatic system. 6. Respiratory system - external and internal respiration, nose, nasal cavity, larynx, trachea, lungs. 7. Digestive system - oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, pancreas, liver. 8. Excretory system - kidneys, urinary tract. 9. Cutaneous system - skin structure, additional skin formations, body temperature and its control. ...
Scientists estimate that over 70 percent of human deaths worldwide are ultimately caused by damaged or failing blood vessels. Stroke and myocardial infarction are the leading causes of death as a consequence of hypertension, atherosclerotic deposits in the vessel walls or of blood clotting problems. Even cancer or the devastating late effects of diabetes are also closely linked to regulatory defects or damage in the vascular system. The network of scientists in the Collaborative Research Centre (SFB) Transregio 23 is in its 12th year of studying the influences that regulate the cells of the vessel wall. "It is undisputed by now that the blood vessels are much more than tubes for the blood and that the function of the vessel wall reaches far beyond that of a mere passive barrier," says SFB coordinator Hellmut Augustin from the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and the Medical Faculty Mannheim of Heidelberg University. "We know now that vessels dynamically control their environment, thereby ...
: : My father just had a serious stroke. A doppler test found a blood clot behind the heart measuring some 6 inches from which the clot that caused the stroke must likely broke off from. The surgery ...
Having clots in periods doesnt necessarily indicate a disease and isnt necessarily normal. It has to be judged upon correct parameter by a doctor. However, knowledge is the key for better health and living.
Scientists have managed to grow perfect human blood vessels as organoids in a petri dish for the first time. The breakthrough engineering technology, outlined in a new study published today in Nature, dramatically advances research of vascular diseases like diabetes, identifying a key pathway to potentially prevent changes to blood vessels--a major cause of death and morbidity among those with diabetes.
Computer artwork depicting laser treatment of a malignant (cancerous) tumour cell. These tumour cells promote the formation of new blood vessels, a process known as angiogenesis. The tumour cells release angiogenic growth factor proteins that bind to endothelial cells in nearby blood vessels and encourage the growth of new blood vessels from the existing ones. These blood vessels provide the tumour with oxygen and nutrients. - Stock Image C026/8529
Arrangement for determining the oxygen saturation in human blood vessels and organs with a measurement sensor with at least two light sources of different wavelengths--preferably wavelengths of 660 nm
WASHINGTON - A tiny Roto-Rooter-like tool that shaves plaque from stenosed peripheral arteries can keep them patent in 79% of patients for a year.
The guide wire may also be used to reach and cross a target lesion, provide a pathway within the vessel structure, facilitate the substitution of one diagnostic or interventional device for another, and to distinguish the vasculature. ...
There was a very interesting article in the November 13 issue of Forbes magazine. It talked about breakthrough treatments for macular degeneration which in the its severe form is abnormal blood vessels leaking fluid in the back of the eye. One drug called Lucentis halts blood vessel growth when i...
Cardiologists at the University of Maryland Medical Center in Baltimore have found that blood vessels do not dilate normally after a person eats a high fat meal. But their further study suggests that taking a high dose of vitamins C and E right before afatty meal may prevent the impairment of the blood vessels.
Most lung tissue is made up of tiny clusters of air "balloons" (called alveoli). Each balloon is lined by a thin layer of cells and surrounded by a network of very small blood vessels. When you breathe in, air fills the balloons. The cells in the lining and the small blood vessels exchange oxygen from the air for carbon dioxide, which you then breathe out. The main pathway from the lungs to the outside of the body consists of the trachea (the large airway that begins at the back of the throat and continues down into the lungs) and the nostrils.. Read More ...
Most lung tissue is made up of tiny clusters of air "balloons" (called alveoli). Each balloon is lined by a thin layer of cells and surrounded by a network of very small blood vessels. When you breathe in, air fills the balloons. The cells in the lining and the small blood vessels exchange oxygen from the air for carbon dioxide, which you then breathe out. The main pathway from the lungs to the outside of the body consists of the trachea (the large airway that begins at the back of the throat and continues down into the lungs) and the nostrils.. Read More ...
Most lung tissue is made up of tiny clusters of air "balloons" (called alveoli). Each balloon is lined by a thin layer of cells and surrounded by a network of very small blood vessels. When you breathe in, air fills the balloons. The cells in the lining and the small blood vessels exchange oxygen from the air for carbon dioxide, which you then breathe out. The main pathway from the lungs to the outside of the body consists of the trachea (the large airway that begins at the back of the throat and continues down into the lungs) and the nostrils.. Read More ...
Professor Mangoni, who returns to Flinders after three years at the University of Aberdeen, will continue to work collaboratively with his former workplace to test drugs developed by one of his PhD students to regulate the way the body handles nitric oxide - an essential molecule which controls blood vessel function, growth and the delivery of oxygen and nutrients across organs and tissues.. These drugs, and other similar drugs that will now be developed under his guidance at Flinders, could help block the formation of new blood vessels, which is important in cancer medicine, and could also help reduce cell damage in the brain.. "My main research focus here at Flinders is to drive the development of new drugs to regulate nitric oxide, which is a very important molecule that modulates the tone and the growth of blood vessels," Professor Mangoni said.. "We also hope to develop similar molecules that act as tracers - these tracers would bind to certain areas of the body then show up on a scanner to ...
During organogenesis, vascular remodelling ensures that developing organs receive sufficient oxygen and nutrients. Factors that induce sprouting angiogenesis, which is essential for vascular remodelling, have been identified, but the mechanisms that terminate sprouting angiogenesis, thereby stabilising the vasculature, remain unclear. Here (p. 3859), Adi Ben Shoham, Elazar Zelzer and colleagues report that sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) inhibits sprouting angiogenesis during vascular development. S1P1 is known to mediate interactions between endothelial cells and mural cells during vascular maturation. Now, though, the researchers report that vessel size aberrations and excessive sprouting occur in the limbs of S1P1-null mice before vessel maturation, which suggests that S1P1 acts as an anti-angiogenic factor independently of mural cells. The effect of S1P1 on sprouting is endothelial cell-autonomous, they report, and similar vascular abnormalities develop in S1p1 knockdown zebrafish ...
given general, regional or local anesthetic.. The skin overlying the vessel to be repaired on, is shaved and scrubbed with soap and antiseptic. Most frequently, the doctor will repair the vessel through a cut that is caused by an accident or other trauma. In cases, where an opening, that gives access to the vessel, does not exist, the doctor performs an incision to reach it by cutting through the fascia, skin, and muscle. Bleeding vessels are cauterized or ligated.. Large vessels that are big enough to be repaired on, are clamped and sewn back together. If part of the vessel has been lost, a replacement part of silastic or dacron can be used to replace it. Use of vessels from cadavers to replace damaged vessels is gaining in popularity, but the extent to which rejection of the transplanted vessel might be a problem, is unknown.. Some studies in dogs shown that rejection may be severe and cause up to about 65% failure rate of donor vessels; however, use of the Immunosuppressant Imuran has ...
An improved plasma vessel (i.e., plasma applicator) that provides effective cooling includes a plurality of generally linear tubes having a dielectric interior fluidly connected together by dielectric connectors. The tubes and connectors are joined together to form a leak-tight plasma vessel. A cooling system surrounding the improved plasma vessel includes a rigid cooling plate and a deformable thermal transfer material disposed between the plasma vessel and the cooling plate. After use or at an operators discretion, the plasma vessel can be removed from the cooling system and a new vessel may be inserted in its place. Alternatively, the used vessel may be refurbished and re-inserted into the cooling system. The new or refurbished vessel may or may not be of the same size or configuration as the used vessel. Thermal contact between the cooling system and the new or refurbished vessel, however is maintained through the deformable thermal transfer material.
Blood vessels are a network of tubes that carry blood throughout the entire body.. There are 3 types of Blood Vessels:. 1. Arteries. 2. Veins. 3. Capillaries. Slide 2. ...
What is the difference between Nerves and Blood Vessels? Nerves transmit electrochemical signals whereas blood vessels transport blood throughout the body...
The CorMatrix ECM for Vascular Repair is intended for use as a patch material for repair and reconstruction of peripheral vasculature including the carotid, renal, iliac, femoral, and tibial blood vessels. It may be used for patch closure of vessels, as a pledget, or for suture line buttressing when repairing peripheral vessels. DeviceSpace
Vessel details: 00000000000000000000. Discover the vessels basic Details, including the vessel IMO / vessel MMSI and vessel Call Sign. Type: Pilot Vessel Vessel, Registered in . Find dead-weight-tonnage, Gross Tonnage and the Year of Build vessel details. Vessel details about 00000000000000000000 include Current Vessel Position, Voyage information, and photos. 00000000000000000000 Particulars MMSI 139941711, Call Sign
Vessel details: BABER. Discover the vessels basic Details, including the vessel IMO / vessel MMSI and vessel Call Sign. Type: Anchor Handling Vessel Vessel, Registered in Panama. Find dead-weight-tonnage, Gross Tonnage and the Year of Build vessel details. Vessel details about BABER include Current Vessel Position, Voyage information, and photos. BABER Particulars IMO 9428281, MMSI 351402000, Call Sign HP5403
The proteins involved and differentially expressed in the early response of the endothelial cell to irradiation are studied by broad-spectrum methods (proteomic analysis) to model the response and characterise the essential participants playing a role in initiation and progression of the pathological phenotype. This approach via the biology of complex systems will allow an initial model of the endothelial response to irradiation and the persistence of its dysfunction to be obtained. Subsequently, the correlation explored between early biological effects and later biological effects will be validated in vivo by conventional radiopathology approaches involving innovative preclinical transgenic animal models. Study of the in vivo contribution of the vascular compartment in initiation and progression of radiation-induced lesions is in fact confronted with a technological barrier. The possibility of switching off a gene in a specific cellular compartment with the Cre-lox technology opens new ...
New research suggests that a gene known to be involved in constricting blood vessels also plays a key role in the aberrant blood vessel growth.
When was the last time anyone ever asked you about your endothelial health?. NEVER!. Its estimated that there are approximately 60,000 miles of blood vessels in the adult body. These blood vessels include arteries, veins, and capillaries. They are all protected by a microscopic inner lining of endothelial cells, which are commonly called the endothelium. Its important to note that these cells line the entire circulatory system from the inside of your heart all the way down to your smallest capillary. When added up, the volume of these endothelial cells would cover the surface area of 4 to 8 tennis courts depending upon the size of the individual. Thats amazing since the endothelium is only one cell thick and cant be seen by the human eye.. Once discovered the endothelium was classified as an inert membrane whose primary function was to keep the blood in the circulatory system and out of the bodys tissues and organs. Research over the last 25 years has shown that your endothelium is an ...
Answers for Why do blood vessels pop:Blood vessels pop for a variety of reasons: trauma, high blood pressure, defect in the vessel wall, irritation (allergy), disease process, strenuous exercising, vomiting, pregnancy & some medications.
Angiogenesis is the creation of new blood vessels. The body creates small blood vessels called "collaterals" to help compensate for reduced blood flow.. ...
A 3D view of the leading endothelial cell (tip cell) in a developing blood vessel (isolectionB4-labelled, green). This particular cell possesses numerous
With those ideas in mind, Mammoto and Ingber, who also directs the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard, examined the relationship between vascular permeability-how "leaky" blood vessels are-and tissue stiffness, initially by growing endothelial cells on polyacrylamide gels of varying stiffness. The gels mimicked the extracellular matrix (ECM), the structural mesh of proteins on which cells build tissues and organs.. As the pair reported in Nature Communications, the gel experiments produced some intriguing results. When the gels were soft like Jell-O or rigid like a hard rubber eraser, the endothelial cells wouldnt form tight cell-cell junctions. (These junctions integrity is crucial to blood vessels. When theyre too loose, they leak, causing swelling or edema.) But cells grown on gels about as stiff as muscle flattened out and joined together securely.. Their next challenge was to find the same effects in vivo. By turning up expression of lysyl oxidase (LOX)-an ...
Tubes that carry blood to and from all parts of your body. The three main types of blood vessels are arteries, capillaries, and veins ...
When you exercise, many physiological changes take place to make sure your muscles have enough oxygen to do their job. You blood vessels are able to widen...
I just looked at the underside of my right arm and noticed that all of my major blood vessels are visible. Mild pain in joints (including shoulders) since last night. The color is approximately the same ...
Constriction of the blood vessels is the bodys way to raise the blood pressure. By narrowing the passage in the blood vessels, blood flows more slowly to the organs and the extremities. Certain foods may contribute to this process.
Definition of Venous blood vessel with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
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Innovation and technology have resulted in a new generation of the Xpert small vessel stent system, now enabling to treat peripheral vessels from diameter 2 mm up to 7 mm ...
Blood Vessels News. Find breaking news, commentary, and archival information about Blood Vessels From The tribunedigital-orlandosentinel
For disclaimers, see Part 1. Part 4. Chapter Four. Regina pulled the large, clear plastic clipboard across the chest high counter and studied the lab values for the patient in room ten. They guessed by his weight and body structure that he was approximately sixteen-years old. With no means of identifying him, he remained a John Doe and in the twenty-four hours since he was admitted to the hospital, there had been no frantic phone calls from parents looking for a missing child or family members to stand vigil at his bedside while his battered body hung tenuously in the balance between life and death. His condition was critical and his prognosis guarded. Both would remain so until the pressure from the swelling in his brain resolved. The neurosurgeons were successful in removing the large blood clot that formed on the outer sheath of his brain as a result of the blunt trauma to his head, but no one could predict what his neurological status was going to be until he woke up. Since the boy was under ...
Glad to hear all is well. I know how scary it can be. My mom passed away at 43 from a blood clot and my dad passed away at 65 from cancer. In 2006 I was diagnosised with cancer and two weeks after found out I had a complication of a large blood clot. I feel like God gave me both to tell me to get over being scared and just live your life which is what I am doing now. At my last check up I was cancer free but still have the silly blood clot to deal with just as a reminder I think. Hugs to you ...
Large blood clots in the legs can cause symptoms such as leg redness and warmth, leg swelling, and leg pain that worsens when standing up or walking, according to ClotCare. While blood clots located...
A sample vessel may comprise a tubule having an opening for receiving a sample material and at least one compressible section, a generally rigid container receiving at least a portion of the tubule; and an interface in fluid communication with the opening in the tubule. The at least one compressible section may have a wall constructed at least partially from a material having sufficient flexibility to permit compression of opposed sections of the wall into contact. The interface may facilitate delivery of a sample material to the tubule through the opening. A sample vessel may also comprise a tubule having a plurality of lumens and a wall constructed at least partially from a material having sufficient flexibility to permit compression of opposed sections of the wall into contact with one another and a pressure gate connecting at least two lumens to permit selective fluid flow between the at least two lumens.
If stretched out, the blood vessels in a human body would reach more than twice around the earth. The complex circulatory system nourishes every cell of our body and proper development of new blood vessels is crucial for embryonic development. In the current study, the scientists demonstrated for the first time that the enzyme glutaredoxin 2 has an essential role during cardiovascular development. Glutaredoxin 2 belongs to a family of enzymes that convey specific signals within cells. In previous studies, the same researchers have shown that glutaredoxin 2 is indispensable for nerve cell survival during embryonic brain development. To reduce the number of laboratory mice used, the team was running most of their experiments in zebrafish that were genetically modified so that the circulatory system glowed in a green fluorescent colour. As the young zebrafish is completely transparent, the scientists could follow the growth of the fluorescent blood vessels directly under the microscope. When levels ...
Angiogenesis is an essential process during normal tissue growth and in response to wound healing. It is vital for the development of new connective tissue and small blood vessels from pre-existing vessels.
dear sherry, the dye exam is an easy way for doctor to check for leakage into the vitreous. uncontrolled blood leaking from the small blood vessels is what causes blindness from diabetes. if you have ANY question about the health of your retinal tissues, have the test. it is virtually painless, except for the annoying light in your eyes that you are going to get anyway. good luck, tom from nj ---------------------------------------------------------- for HELP or to subscribe/unsubscribe, contact: [email protected] ...
The device has the potential to improve the accuracy of biopsies and reduce errors when operating on the small blood vessels of children ...
Diabetes Cause: Blood vessel damage caused by processed food. Initially, the kidneys protect against damage by elevating uric acid in the blood. But once the blood vessels are highly damaged, less blood can flow through them to nourish, so kidney benelles purposefully "sweeten the blood" to keep other benelles alive with less. The super-sweet blood kills the kidneys ...
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16.01.2020 - Yale doctors have developed a way to create vascular grafts from stem cells that are as strong as the original blood vessels they would replace. The advance, demonstrated in an animal model, may lead to bioengineered grafts suitable for transplant into any human patient using universally compatible cell lines, said the researchers.
Nitric oxide is a chemical compound that is produced by the human body and relaxes blood vessels. The supplements mentioned below help the body make nitric oxide. According to...
Start studying BIO202 - Chapter 20: Blood Vessels and Circulation. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
Scientists have discovered a new protein which triggers the growth of blood vessels in breast cancer tumors that have spread to the brain, a common locatio
Learn about Quick Facts Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in the Merck Manual. HCP and Vet versions too!
Diabetics are more likely than nondiabetics to develop heart and blood vessel (cardiovascular) diseases. No one knows exactly why this is so, but the best guess
A method of detecting blood vessel shadows in an anterior posterior x-ray radiograph comprising the steps of: generating candidate sub areas of the radiograph showing changes in contrast above a threshold level; supressing rib shadow edges; eliminating lung tissue shadow edges, and categorizing and eliminating nodule shadows.
Scientists aim to 3D print human tissue so they can better study how new drugs interact with our bodies. A recent advance? 3D printed blood vessels.
Study Flashcards On Heart and Blood Vessels Ch. 8 at Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. makes it easy to get the grade you want!
A renal angiogram is an imaging test to look at the blood vessels in your kidneys. Your doctor can use it to look at the ballooning of a blood vessel (aneurysm), narrowing of a blood vessel (stenosis), or blockages in a blood vessel. He or she can also see how well blood is flowing to your kidneys.
Heart and blood vessels[edit]. VIGOR study and publishing controversy[edit]. The VIGOR (Vioxx GI Outcomes Research) study, ... 2.1 Heart and blood vessels *2.1.1 VIGOR study and publishing controversy ... Merck has stated that there was no effect on prostacyclin production in blood vessels in animal testing.[13] Corey speculated ... Rofecoxib crossed the placenta and blood-brain barrier,[5][6][8] and took 1-3 hours to reach peak plasma concentration with an ...
... blood vessel length, and vessel radius.[2] Blood viscosity is the thickness of the blood and its resistance to flow as a result ... Blood flow[edit]. Main article: Vascular resistance. The blood pressure in blood vessels is traditionally expressed in ... Blood vessels also circulate blood throughout the circulatory system Oxygen (bound to hemoglobin in red blood cells) is the ... "Blood Vessels - Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders - Merck Manuals Consumer Version". Merck Manuals Consumer Version. Retrieved ...
The blood vessels form a network (anastamosis) behind the shoulder that helps to supply blood to the arm even when the axillary ... Blood vessels[edit]. The subclavian artery arises from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right and directly from the aorta from ... The armpit (Latin: axilla) is formed by the space between the muscles of the shoulder.[3] The nerves and blood vessels of the ... The axillary artery also supplies blood to the arm, and is one of the major sources of blood to the shoulder region. The other ...
Blood vessels[edit]. Blood vessel problems are observed in 7-29% of people with arterial lesions representing 15% of vascular ... The cause is not well-defined, but it is primarily characterized by auto-inflammation of the blood vessels. Although sometimes ... Vasculitis resulting in occlusion of the vessels supplying the optic nerve may be the cause of acute optic neuropathy and ... GI manifestations include abdominal pain, nausea, and diarrhea with or without blood, and they often involve the ileocecal ...
Heart and blood vessels[edit]. Severe low blood pressure and abnormal heart rhythms can be seen with rapid infusion of IV ... Blood[edit]. Folate is present in food in a polyglutamate form, which is then converted into monoglutamates by intestinal ... Vitamin D deficiency, as well as low calcium and phosphate in the blood cause decreased bone mineral density.[14] ... Potentially serious side effects include sleepiness, self harm, liver problems, bone marrow suppression, low blood pressure, ...
Blood Vessels. 26 (2): 119-27. PMID 2474340.. *^ Epstein, Murray MD, "Diagnosis and Management of Hypertensive Emergencies," ... Fenoldopam causes arterial/arteriolar vasodilation leading to a decrease in blood pressure by activating peripheral D1 ...
A.) Blood vessels; B.) Head of epididymis; C.) Efferent ductules; D.) Seminiferous tubules; E.) Parietal lamina of tunica ... Blood supply and lymphatic drainage. Blood supply and lymphatic drainage of the testes and scrotum are distinct:. *The paired ... The blood-testis barrier. Large molecules cannot pass from the blood into the lumen of a seminiferous tubule due to the ... Thus, the blood-testis barrier may reduce the likelihood that sperm proteins will induce an immune response, reducing fertility ...
Sickle-cell anemia is associated with blood vessel sludging, altered blood flow and blood vessel diameter, and capillary micro- ... Blood supply[edit]. Blood to the bulbar conjunctiva is primarily derived from the ophthalmic artery. The blood supply to the ... Blood vessel imaging methods[edit]. The bulbar conjunctival microvessels are typically imaged with a high-magnification slit ... Type II diabetes is associated with conjunctival hypoxia,[9] increased average blood vessel diameter, and capillary loss.[10][ ...
An anastomosis is the connection of two normally divergent structures.[2] It refers to connections between blood vessels or ... An example of surgical anastomosis occurs when a segment of intestine, blood vessel, or any other structure are connected ... such as between blood vessels, leaf veins, or streams. Such a connection may be normal (such as the foramen ovale in a fetus's ... which allows blood to bypass the liver in patients with portal hypertension, often resulting in hemorrhoids, esophageal varices ...
... calcium deposits in blood vessels); atherosclerosis (blockage of blood vessels); type 2 diabetes; loss of bone mass; ... Most also develop photosensitivity, which causes the blood vessels to be dilated and leads to reddening of the skin, usually ... TTD also affects the mother of the affected child during pregnancy, when she may experience pregnancy-induced high blood ...
Estrogen affects certain blood vessels. Improvement in arterial blood flow has been demonstrated in coronary arteries.[37] ... Reference ranges for the blood content of estradiol during the menstrual cycle - The ranges denoted By biological stage may be ... It affects the production of multiple proteins, including lipoproteins, binding proteins, and proteins responsible for blood ... They may promote uterine blood flow, myometrial growth, stimulate breast growth and at term, promote cervical softening and ...
... of the uterus and providing an area rich in blood vessels in which the zygote(s) can develop. From this point on, the corpus ... 4. Bloodvessels. 5. Vesicular follicles in their earliest stage. 6, 7, 8. More advanced follicles. 9. An almost mature follicle ... Pregnenolone is then converted to progesterone that is secreted out of the cell and into the blood stream. During the bovine ... but the term refers to the visible collection of blood, left after rupture of the follicle, that secretes progesterone. While ...
... refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels,[1] forming an interface ... These functions include fluid filtration, such as in the glomerulus of the kidney, blood vessel tone, hemostasis, neutrophil ... "Blood vessel cells can repair, regenerate organs, scientists say". Retrieved 2018-11-13.. ... This article is about the lining of blood and lymphatic vessels. For the endothelium of the cornea, see corneal endothelium. ...
Foreign material in a blood vessel due to an embolization procedure.. Talcosis of the lung due to intravenous drug use. H&E ...
Burst blood vessel. [59][60] Summary by fence[edit]. The following table summarises the total number of equine fatalities by ...
... contains many small blood vessels. In the integumentary system, which includes the skin, it accumulates in the ... BAT is primarily located around the neck and large blood vessels of the thorax, where may effectively act in heat exchange. BAT ... Insulin secretion is stimulated by high blood sugar, which results from consuming carbohydrates.[citation needed] ... Perivascular adipose tissue releases adipokines such as adiponectin that affect the contractile function of the vessels that ...
shunt from blood vessel to blood vessel. systemic circulation to pulmonary artery shunt Blalock-Taussig shunt. SVC to the right ... Blood or blood expanders may be administered to compensate for blood lost during surgery. Once the procedure is complete, ... shunt from heart chamber to blood vessel. atrium to pulmonary artery Fontan procedure. left ventricle to aorta Rastelli ... Blood vessels may be clamped or cauterized to prevent bleeding, and retractors may be used to expose the site or keep the ...
HSPGs are prominent components of blood vessels. Binding to HS stabilizes fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and vascular ... 2009) The brain is a unique organ for metastasis, since the breast-tumor cells have to pass the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to ... Cancer cell-blood platelet interaction Metastatic breast-cancer cells excrete lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) which binds to ... Organ-specific anatomic considerations also influence metastasis; these include blood-flow patterns from the primary tumor and ...
Promoting blood vessel construction. *Invasion of tissue and formation of metastases[26] ... The use of heparin appears to improve survival and decrease the risk of blood clots.[169][needs update] ... Ulceration can cause bleeding that, if it occurs in the lung, will lead to coughing up blood, in the bowels to anemia or rectal ... Metastasis is common in the late stages of cancer and it can occur via the blood or the lymphatic system or both. The typical ...
Promoting blood vessel construction. *Invasion of tissue and formation of metastases[26] ... People with cancer have an increased risk of blood clots in their veins which can be life-threatening.[176] The use of blood ... Metastasis is common in the late stages of cancer and it can occur via the blood or the lymphatic system or both. The typical ... Vitamin supplementation does not appear to be effective at preventing cancer.[123] While low blood levels of vitamin D are ...
angio- : related to blood vessel. *arthr- : related to a joint. *bi- : two ...
Pulmonary edema occurs when the pressure in blood vessels in the lung is raised because of obstruction to the removal of blood ... a decrease in the oncotic pressure within the blood vessel or an increase in vessel wall permeability. The latter has two ... the colloidal or oncotic pressure of the higher level of protein in the plasma tends to draw water back into the blood vessels ... Hydrostatic pressure within blood vessels tends to cause water to filter out into the tissue. This leads to a difference in ...
The blood vessels engorge and the injury reddens.. Swelling-LTB4 makes the blood vessels more permeable. Plasma leaks out into ... and other blood vessels as well as on the kidney's reabsorption of sodium and water, and act to reduce blood pressure and ... blood platelet aggregation; blood clotting; allergic reactions. NSAIDs inhibit its production to reduce incidence of strokes ... promote the growth of new blood vessels, in the central nervous system regulate the release of neuropeptide hormones, and in ...
The lesions of arteriosclerosis begin as the intima (innermost layer of blood vessel wall) of the arterial wall start to fill ... Diagnosis of an individual suspected of having arteriosclerosis can be based on a physical exam, blood test, EKG and the ... Coronary artery bypass surgery: This surgery creates a new pathway for blood to flow to the heart. Taking a healthy piece of ... All are linked through common features such as the stiffening of arterial vessels, thickening of arterial walls and ...
Vasodilation is where blood vessels widen.[1] It results from relaxation of muscle cells within blood vessel walls. The process ... When vessels widen, blood flow is increased. This in turn decreases blood pressure. Drugs that cause vasodilation are called ... is essentially the opposite of vasoconstriction, which is the narrowing of blood vessels. ...
Intensive blood sugar lowering (HbA1c,6%) as opposed to standard blood sugar lowering (HbA1c of 7-7.9%) does not appear to ... Blood pressure lowering. Many international guidelines recommend blood pressure treatment targets that are lower than 140/90 ... and maintaining blood glucose levels in the normal range.[25] Self-monitoring of blood glucose for people with newly diagnosed ... in adults without symptoms whose blood pressure is greater than 135/80 mmHg.[65] For those whose blood pressure is less, the ...
It also helps widen blood vessels and keep blood from clotting inside them. ... Vitamin E is also important in the formation of red blood cells. It helps the body use vitamin K. ...
... new potential targets for novel drugs that could selectively cut off a tumors blood supply without affecting the blood vessels ... at high levels only in the blood vessels that feed tumors in mice and humans. These genes, and the proteins they encode, are ... overcoming one of the major concerns of current anticancer therapies targeted at blood vessel growth. The findings are ... NCI Researchers Discover Genes That Are Turned On at High Levels in Tumor-Associated Blood Vessels of Mice and Humans. ...
Narrowing of the blood vessels that bring blood to other parts of the body may mean you have a much higher risk for heart ... When the heart cant pump blood as well as it should, blood backs up in the veins that go from the lungs to the heart. Fluid ... Poor blood supply to the legs may lead to:. *Pain, achiness, fatigue, burning, or discomfort in the muscles of your feet, ... But chest pain is still the most common symptom of poor blood flow to the heart or a heart attack. This type of chest pain is ...
Once the blood has gathered more oxygen from the lungs, it is pumped back out to the body through the arteries. ... Blood used by the body is brought back to the heart and lungs by the veins of the body. ... Blood used by the body is brought back to the heart and lungs by the veins of the body. Once the blood has gathered more oxygen ...
Smoking affects the vessels that supply blood to your heart and other parts of your body. Smoking increases the risk of heart ... It reduces the amount of oxygen in your blood and damages blood vessel walls. ... Smoking also increases the stiffness of the blood vessels making it harder for them to expand and contract as needed and more ... Smoking affects the vessels that supply blood to your heart and other parts of your body. ...
... blood vessel length, and vessel radius.[2] Blood viscosity is the thickness of the blood and its resistance to flow as a result ... Blood flow[edit]. Main article: Vascular resistance. The blood pressure in blood vessels is traditionally expressed in ... Blood vessels also circulate blood throughout the circulatory system Oxygen (bound to hemoglobin in red blood cells) is the ... "Blood Vessels - Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders - Merck Manuals Consumer Version". Merck Manuals Consumer Version. Retrieved ...
What is the blood-brain barrier?. The blood-brain barrier is the structure formed by the cells that make up blood vessels. In a ... and blood vessels start to leak. When this happens, the vessels are not providing "the nutrients and blood flow that the ... Changes in blood vessel permeability offer new clues about the onset of dementia. ... Their results showed a strong link between cognitive issues and leaky blood vessels. ...
Blood vessels raised in tissue culture may one day help heal broken hearts. According to initial results presented yesterday at ... researchers have taken the first steps toward growing replacement blood vessels in the laboratory for transplant into the ... "or at least keep the heart tissue from dying by creating new capillaries that would provide blood and oxygen as soon as ... envisioned by Ohio State University investigator Nicanor Moldovan and his colleagues entails sowing cells harvested from vessel ...
Engineered blood vessel grafts could be used for surgical procedures like coronary artery bypass and kidney dialysis. ... When blood vessels around the heart become dangerously congested with plaques, surgeons will reroute blood flow and bypass the ... But there are cases when a persons own blood vessels cant be harvested. In those cases, a surgeon may reach for vessels made ... Bioengineering Blood Vessels In the new procedure, reported in the Feb. 2 issue of Science Translational Medicine, researchers ...
Can targeting the red blood cells and blood vessels jointly keep our brains healthy and prevent dementia? ... Drugs that inhibit a hormone that constricts blood vessels also help improve sodium excretion in blacks who hold onto too much ... It can also improve vasodilation -- the widening of blood vessels, -- in the long-term, according to a study by researchers in ... Blue light exposure decreases blood pressure Exposure to blue light decreases blood pressure, reducing the risk of developing ...
... blood vessels. blood vessels. Tubes that carry blood to and from all parts of your body. The three main types of blood vessels ...
Blood Vessels of Gastric Ulcer. Br Med J 1950; 2 doi: (Published 30 December 1950) Cite ...
... is now testing its lab-grown blood vessels in a small group of human patients. ... non-immunogenic blood vessel replacement.. "This collagen matrix graft was made by blood vessel cells, so its sort of like the ... One to draw blood out of the artery and a second to put the filtered blood back into a vein. But for the blood to flow through ... Humacytes lab-grown blood vessels dont use synthetic materials. They rely on a biodegradable scaffolding of tiny fibers ...
Scientists have grown a ready-made supply of blood vessels to transplant into patients undergoing heart surgery and kidney ... Blood vessels, straight off the shelf. Scientists have grown a ready-made supply of blood vessels to transplant into patients ... In both models, Science explains, the new vessels were soon populated by several types of cells present in normal blood vessels ... The vessels remained open and strong for up to 6 months, and the vessel walls didnt thicken. They also made smaller vessels ...
... also known as blood poisoning - stopped mice succumbing to the disease, new study shows. ... An antibody that protects blood vessels against the effects of sepsis - ... that sits on the surface of cells in the lining of blood vessels. When activated, TIE2 boosts the ability of the blood vessel ... Strengthen the blood vessels. One of the first things that happens in sepsis - when the immune system overreacts and attacks ...
... can improve blood vessel function no matter what diet they choose, U.S. researchers say. ... SAN DIEGO, March 14 (UPI) -- Overweight people who lose weight, especially belly fat, can improve blood vessel function no ... allowing more blood to flow more freely. ... Lose belly fat, improve blood vessels. March 14, 2012 at 1:16 ...
However, this may do more harm than good because energy drinks have been found to reduce the diameter of blood vessels and ... Several studies suggest that caffeine-laden energy drinks can harm blood vessels and energy drinks are linked to heart, nerve ... A small study by the American Heart Association found that the blood vessel function of young adults notably diminished after ... Do Energy Drinks Affect Blood Vessels?. News-Medical. ...
... restricting blood flow from an area. We discuss whats happening and why its normal, what causes vasoconstriction to become ... Vasoconstriction is a normal and complex process where blood vessels in your body narrow, ...
The researchers used endothelial cells, which make up the lining of blood vessels, from two groups of people. One group ... a colorless gas the body uses to dilate blood vessels.. When the nonsmoker cells were directly exposed to menthol, the same ... one of the flavorings tested in the feature study that demonstrated a damaging effect on your blood vessels. The chemical also ... the added flavors may be damaging endothelial cells lining your blood vessels, increasing your risk of heart disease and stroke ...
VR catheter puts doctors inside patients blood vessels. Wednesday, August 07, 2019 - 01:30 ... VR catheter puts doctors inside patients blood vessels. Wednesday, August 07, 2019 - 01:30 ...
... any of the vessels that, with four exceptions, carry oxygen-depleted blood to the right upper chamber (atrium) of the heart. ... The four exceptions-the pulmonary veins-transport oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left upper chamber of the heart. The ... As in arteries, there are tiny vessels called vasa vasorum that supply blood to the walls of the veins and other minute vessels ... Alternative Titles: blood vein, venous system. Vein, in human physiology, any of the vessels that, with four exceptions, carry ...
... reason to rejoice on Saturday when a small clinical study showed that dark chocolate improves the function of blood vessels. ... blood vessel) function," said Dr. Valentine Yanchou Njike of Yale Prevention Research Center, a co-investigator of the study. ... reason to rejoice on Saturday when a small clinical study showed that dark chocolate improves the function of blood vessels. ... An upper arm arterys ability to relax and expand to accommodate increased blood flow - known as flow mediated dilation (FMD ...
Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood from the heart. Veins are blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart. ... blood vessels Blood vessels are tubes that carry blood from the heart and lungs to every cell in the body, and back to the ... These flexible vessels can change in diameter in response to the blood flow needs of the body by becoming larger or smaller. ...
The styles are mountable on a support track whereby the blood vessel can be distended and supported during cryopreservation ... A device for use in cryopreservation of blood vessels comprising a pair of styles insertable into the ends of a dissected blood ... Cryopreserved blood vessels are useful for providing grafts to patients who cannot provide their own blood vessel grafts or ... Stylet port 68 permits fluid or air to enter the blood vessel when the stylet 66 is coupled with the blood vessel. The stylet ...
A ketone molecule produced by the body during calorie restriction keeps blood vessels young, staving off age-related chronic ... Zou explains, "which line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels. It can prevent one type of cell aging ... In turn, Oct4 "increases Lamin B1, a key factor against DNA damage-induced senescence," which keeps the blood vessels young. ... When people become older, the vessels that supply different organs are the most sensitive and more subject to aging damage, so ...
  • Vitamin E is also important in the formation of red blood cells. (
  • However, blocking angiogenesis requires a delicate balance between tumor and normal cells as most angiogenesis-related molecules are also critical for normal blood vessel growth in the body - for example, during menstruation, pregnancy, or tissue repair. (
  • In addition, the protein was also found to be frequently overexpressed by the tumor cells themselves, indicating that a suitable inhibitory molecule might be able to deliver a double blow -- one to the tumor cells themselves and the other to the blood vessels that feed them. (
  • Blood vessels also circulate blood throughout the circulatory system Oxygen (bound to hemoglobin in red blood cells ) is the most critical nutrient carried by the blood. (
  • In addition to carrying oxygen, blood also carries hormones , waste products and nutrients for cells of the body. (
  • The blood-brain barrier is the structure formed by the cells that make up blood vessels. (
  • In a healthy brain, this blood-brain barrier is strong and the cells fit together tightly, preventing unwanted substances from getting in. (
  • In some aging brains, the junctions between these cells begin to loosen, and blood vessels start to leak. (
  • By combining two imaging modalities--adaptive optics and angiography--investigators at the National Eye Institute can see live neurons, epithelial cells, and blood vessels deep in the eye's light-sensing retina. (
  • Can targeting the red blood cells and blood vessels jointly keep our brains healthy and prevent dementia? (
  • The scientists seed the scaffold with blood vessel cells, then place it into a bioreactor for eight to ten weeks. (
  • This collagen matrix graft was made by blood vessel cells, so it's sort of like the ideal home," Niklason says. (
  • 4. Then, they used detergent to scrub off the donor muscle cells from the blood vessels. (
  • In both models, Science explains , the new vessels were soon populated by several types of cells present in normal blood vessels, suggesting that the animals' bodies were tolerating the transplants. (
  • The method focuses on activating a receptor protein - called TIE2 - that sits on the surface of cells in the lining of blood vessels. (
  • During exercise arterial function needs to be at its peak and blood circulation should be efficient so that oxygen is transported to cells effectively and quickly. (
  • 5 The cells from both types of smokers were unable to perform a key function in the same way nonsmoker cells were able - the production of nitric oxide , a colorless gas the body uses to dilate blood vessels. (
  • Interestingly, the research also revealed that beta-hydroxybutyrate promotes the division and multiplication of the cells that line the inside of blood vessels. (
  • June 27, 2011 -- For the first time, blood vessels grown from donor cells have been successfully implanted in human patients, an early report of new research shows. (
  • If the arteriolar blood pressure rises, the skimming effect increases, and the more densely packed axial flow of cells in the vessels offers increasing resistance to the pressure, which has to overcome this heightened viscosity. (
  • Prof. Wasserman and his colleagues note that the "ability of insulin to stimulate glucose uptake" in muscle cells "depends on the rate at which insulin gets through the endothelium," which is the thin layer of tissue that lines the blood vessels and controls movement of substances in and out of the bloodstream. (
  • From these, minute branches are given off which enter the lobules and there form a net- work of capillary vessels ramifying among the cells (2, 2, fig. 90), and then, after uniting and reuniting, form a blood-vessel which runs down the centre of the lobule and is known as the intralobular vein (1, fig. 90). (
  • BUFFALO, N.Y. -- Blood vessels that have been tissue-engineered from bone marrow adult stem cells may in the future serve as a patient's own source of new blood vessels following a coronary bypass or other procedures that require vessel replacement, according to new research from the University at Buffalo Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering. (
  • The research demonstrates the potential for eventually growing tissue-engineered vessels out of stem cells harvested from the patients who need them, providing a desirable alternative to the venous grafts now routinely done in patients undergoing coronary bypass operations. (
  • If true, this means that you may be able to develop a universal cell source for smooth muscle cells, so that you could potentially make these vessels into an 'off-the-shelf' product, available to any patient," Andreadis said. (
  • In addition the technique to grow the blood vessels in a 3D scaffold cuts down on the risk of transplant rejection because it uses cells from the patient. (
  • The material can be cast into a variety of shapes, is completely nontoxic, and, when it has done its job, will dissolve naturally in the moist environment of lab-grown tissue, leaving behind spaces that can carry blood to cells. (
  • In tests in mice, the stem cells injected into the eye became incorporated into the eye's structure and formed new blood vessels. (
  • MIT scientists have found a way to induce cells to form parallel tube-like structures that could one day serve as tiny engineered blood vessels. (
  • The media is made mostly of smooth muscle cells that help control the flow and pressure of the blood within. (
  • So we tried to grow miniature artificial blood vessels using induced pluripotent stem cells derived from cells taken from patients with progeria. (
  • The constriction of cells surrounding blood vessels may cause decreased blood flow to the brain linked to Alzheimer's disease. (
  • The constriction of cells surrounding blood vessels may cause decreased blood flow to the brain, which has already been linked to Alzheimer's disease, according to research published Thursday in the journal Science. (
  • Professor Christopher Chen (BME, MSE), director of the Biological Design Center, is developing a method using 3D-printed patches infused with cells that offer a promising new approach to growing healthy blood vessels. (
  • The speed with which red blood cells are produced in response to stress or illness is reduced. (
  • Most of the white blood cells stay at the same levels, although certain white blood cells important to immunity ( neutrophils ) decrease in their number and ability to fight off bacteria. (
  • For the first time, blood vessels created in the lab from donor skin cells were successfully implanted in patients. (
  • For the first time, human blood vessels grown in a laboratory from donor skin cells have been successfully implanted into patients, according to new research presented in the American Heart Association's Emerging Science Series webinar. (
  • Investigators previously showed that using vessels individually created from a patient's own skin cells reduced the rate of shunt complications 2.4-fold over a 3-year period. (
  • PROTEIN PILEUP Cells that line human blood vessels accumulate cellular junk (globs of proteins seen as bright white dots in image) when treated long-term with a type of heartburn medication called proton pump inhibitors. (
  • Cells cultured in the presence of nicotine or VEGF also assembled themselves into whorls in the tissue culture dish -- perhaps a preliminary step to forming new blood vessels. (
  • They found after only a few days that lung cancer cells implanted under the skin or in the lung tissue of animals who drank nicotine-laced water grew much more quickly and were more densely packed with blood vessels than cancers in animals who were not exposed to nicotine. (
  • The recipients' cells effectively infiltrated the artificial blood vessels, so they became like the patients' native blood vessels. (
  • Previous efforts in building blood vessels took a long time as the device first had to print out a sugar-based cast and the cover them in stem cells to create the working vessels. (
  • One of the major challenges in building lab-grown organs out of a patient's own cells has been making blood vessels that deliver essential nutrients and dispose of hazardous waste from the system to keep our organs working properly. (
  • As the growth of fat cells and their metabolism depend on oxygen and blood-borne nutrients, one possible way to regulate the amount of body fat for fighting obesity, can therefore be to affect the development of blood vessels in the adipose tissue. (
  • The new study investigated how a group of cells called pericytes stimulate the growth of new blood vessels. (
  • Studies that have investigated what happens when pericytes are transplanted into tissue that has suffered from insufficient blood supply, or "ischemia," have already shown that the cells are stimulated by lack of oxygen. (
  • The network of scientists in the Collaborative Research Centre (SFB) Transregio 23 is in its 12th year of studying the influences that regulate the cells of the vessel wall. (
  • The study was commissioned by Cytograft Tissue Engineering Inc. of Novato, California, and made use of donor skin cells to grow the blood vessels. (
  • Persistent blockage can reduce or stop blood flow, limiting the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the surrounding tissue and nerve cells. (
  • They found that two to seven days after a blockage in brain microvessels, the cells lining the blood vessel wall engulf the remaining portion of the blockage, encapsulate it, seal it off from the interior of the blood vessel and finally expel the blocking material outside of the vessel. (
  • The incomplete removal of blockages in the brains of older mice led to a prolonged shortage of oxygen to the surrounding nerve cells and damaged the connections between nerve cells in the vicinity of the obstructed blood vessels. (
  • by signaling this information to the surrounding cells, they enable the blood vessel to adapt its diameter and wall thickness to suit the blood flow. (
  • With the help of in-vitro simulation, physicians therefore study the migration of cancer cells through blood vessels. (
  • The goal is to find a way to direct the development of vessels that feed oxygen-starved cells in stroke and neurodegenerative disease patients. (
  • A new study here shows that tumor blood vessels can develop from precancerous stem cells, a recently discovered type of cell that can either remain benign or become malignant. (
  • These findings suggest that tumor blood vessels are derived mainly from tumor cells, with a smaller number coming from normal blood-vessel cells," says principal investigator Jian-Xin Gao, assistant professor of pathology. (
  • The tumor blood-vessel cells were abnormal and highly variable in appearance compared with normal cells," Gao says. (
  • Test subjects are asked to try skipping and make changes in their diet to prevent ghost blood cells. (
  • These cells begin laying collagen fibers into the core to provide an extracellular matrix for growth of the vessel lumen. (
  • This is especially important in embryonic development as there are not enough resources to create a rich microvasculature with new cells every time a new vessel develops. (
  • These types of blood vessels allow red and white blood cells (7.5 µm - 25 µm diameter) and various serum proteins to pass, aided by a discontinuous basal lamina. (
  • The system collaborates with white blood cells in lymph nodes to protect the body from being infected by cancer cells, fungi, viruses or bacteria. (
  • Alpha cells make and release a hormone called glucagon, which raises the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. (
  • The red-purple color of the lesions is due to the inflammation in the blood vessels causing red blood cells to escape into the dermis skin layer. (
  • In vitro, the Egfl7 protein inhibits human aortic smooth muscle cells migration stimulated by PDGF-BB but has no effects on cell proliferation, suggesting that Egfl7 plays a role in vessel maturation. (
  • In mice, inhibition of egfl7 in hepatocellular carcinoma cells decrease tumour growth and micro-vessel density. (
  • They are followed later by leaks in the blood-brain barrier where T-cells infiltrate causing the known demyelination. (
  • Some of these cells come from blood vessels that enter the tendon to provide direct blood flow to increase healing. (
  • Normally the only components of the blood that are not filtered into Bowman's capsule are blood proteins, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. (
  • The adrenal medulla consists of irregularly shaped cells grouped around blood vessels. (
  • In response to stressors such as exercise or imminent danger, medullary cells release the catecholamines adrenaline and noradrenaline into the blood. (
  • The cells form clusters around large blood vessels. (
  • Mesenchymal cells exterior to this form the muscular and connective tissue components of blood vessels. (
  • Roughly 3 weeks after fertilization, red blood cells, still with a nucleus, and blood plasma develop outside the embryo. (
  • Then the red blood cells break loose and are carried away in the plasma. (
  • Such free blood cells continue to divide. (
  • The blood islands and vessels outside of the embryo are initially the sole source of blood cells and plasma, beginning 3 weeks after fertilization. (
  • These sprouts then form loops to become a full-fledged vessel lumen as cells migrate to the site of angiogenesis. (
  • Markers of electrolyte and water imbalance in the body such as hypotension, low distal tubule sodium concentration, decreased blood volume and high sympathetic tone trigger the release of the enzyme renin from the cells of juxtaglomerular apparatus in the kidney. (
  • Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm. (
  • Neutrophils are normally found in the bloodstream and are the most abundant type of phagocyte, constituting 60% to 65% of the total circulating white blood cells. (
  • Basophils are one of the least abundant cells in bone marrow and blood (occurring at less than two percent of all cells). (
  • Neutrophils (also known as neutrocytes) are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant (40% to 70%) type of white blood cells in most mammals. (
  • Whereas basophilic white blood cells stain dark blue and eosinophilic white blood cells stain bright red, neutrophils stain a neutral pink. (
  • they account for approximately 50-70% of all white blood cells (leukocytes). (
  • The growth of blood vessels, a process known as angiogenesis, is a normal process in the body that is essential for organ growth and repair. (
  • They found that the CD276 protein was overexpressed in tumor-associated blood vessels from colon, lung, breast, esophageal and bladder cancers. (
  • But, until recently, the method had not been used in humans due to several technical challenges, including how to illuminate the tumor without interfering with surgery or disrupting the blood supply to the tumor. (
  • Generally, many of the tumor blood vessels also looked different than typical blood vessels, the authors reported. (
  • Tumor vessels were noted by their tortuosity and convoluted architecture, which was in stark contrast to normal linear vessels detected in the surrounding skin," they wrote. (
  • The findings on tumor vessel size, for example, "would require us to re-examine our understanding of tumor blood flow and associated tumor metabolism, drug delivery, and tumor host interaction," Dr. Zhang said. (
  • In other words, Dr. Leppla said, "We're killing the blood vessels that the tumor induces the host to make. (
  • Cancers such as breast cancer, lung cancer and melanoma release the blood vessel growth factor, VEGF, to encourage blood vessels to grow within the tumor, supplying it with nutrients. (
  • Tumor markers, chemicals sometimes found in the blood of people with cancer, can be helpful in diagnosing and monitoring the course of liver cancers. (
  • citation needed] Many of the breast cancer therapies (like targeted antibodies) fail to penetrate the blood-brain barrier, hence allowing for tumor recurrence in the central nervous system. (
  • The determination of a leiomyoma is done by chest x-rays, blood sample and taking a tissue sample of the tumor. (
  • Angiomyxoma is a myxoid tumor involving the blood vessels. (
  • When grafts fail, surgeons have to go in and replace the patient's graft or remove blood clots, neither of which is pleasant for the patients. (
  • However, these types of patient-specific grafts take up to 9 months to grow and can cost more than $15,000 per vessel. (
  • Cryopreserved blood vessels are useful for providing grafts to patients who cannot provide their own blood vessel grafts or where fresh blood vessels are unavailable. (
  • Disadvantages with venous grafts include limited availability of vessels, pain and discomfort at the donor site and a high 10-year failure rate. (
  • The options for harvesting and repurposing vessels for autografts are restricted, donated vessels carry the risk of rejection, and currently available synthetic grafts are associated with the risk of infection, adverse host cellular reactions and mechanical degradation. (
  • 3. When the scaffold degraded, fully formed blood vessels were left behind. (
  • Bilayered scaffold for engineering cellularized blood vessels. (
  • The beauty of this new approach is that components of a person's own blood could be manipulated to create a scaffold on which new blood vessels could grow. (
  • provides a scaffold around which the blood vessels form, then dissolves away to leave the resulting vessels open. (
  • Here, the blood flows through the stenosed artery segments with high velocity and is subjected to enhanced shear forces. (
  • Blood also flows through the aortic arch and into the thoracic aorta . (
  • applying RF energy through the intermediate portion of the blood vessel so that an RF current flows longitudinally along the intermediate portion and welds the intermediate portion. (
  • By narrowing the passage in the blood vessels, blood flows more slowly to the organs and the extremities. (
  • Professor Bailey believes that too much P2X7R may lead to the blood vessels narrowing, which means that too little blood flows through the kidneys and stops them working properly. (
  • Blood flows from the upper curvature to the upper regions of the body, located above the heart - namely the arms, neck, and head. (
  • Both of these types of blood vessels have continuous basal laminae and are primarily located in the endocrine glands, intestines, pancreas, and the glomeruli of the kidney. (
  • NEW ORLEANS (Reuters) - Chocoholics were given further reason to rejoice on Saturday when a small clinical study showed that dark chocolate improves the function of blood vessels. (
  • A stroke occurs when blood flow to a part of the brain stops. (
  • Cocaine can cause blood vessels in the brain to spasm or rupture, a finding that could explain why many users of the drug suffer high blood pressure, brain hemorrhages and stroke, a New York researcher reports.In a study on rats, researcher Burton M. Altura reports he was able to produce these symptoms using ''minute'' doses of cocaine -- doses ''even lower than what you would get in a user of cocaine. (
  • The research team demonstrated that this complex protective mechanism involves the activity of an enzyme, matrix metalloprotease 2/9, which breaks down large proteins and is known to play a role in blood vessel development and in stroke. (
  • But a prolonged or substantial interruption of blood flow to the brain can cause a stroke. (
  • Patients with kidney failure need to have their blood cleaned every week by a dialysis machine. (
  • While more testing is needed, such "off-the-shelf" blood vessels could soon be used to improve the process and affordability of kidney dialysis. (
  • Besides addressing a costly and vexing problem in kidney dialysis, off-the-shelf blood vessels might someday be used instead of harvesting patients' own vessels for bypass surgery. (
  • A HAV was implanted in the upper arms of 60 people with kidney failure whose blood vessels would not permit the dialysis they needed. (
  • Lead researcher Todd McAllister said that they have implanted the new vessels in three Polish patients who are all in the final stage of their kidney disease and are on dialysis. (
  • Professor Matthew Bailey wants to study a specific molecule, called P2X7R, to see if it's responsible for the narrowing of the small blood vessels at the early stages of kidney disease. (
  • We know that this risk can be reduced by keeping blood glucose levels and blood pressure under control, but we still don't fully understand how kidney problems develop in people with diabetes. (
  • A class of drugs used to decrease hypertension, mainly by interfering with the renin kidney-blood pressure control cycle. (
  • Bowman's capsule (or the Bowman capsule, capsula glomeruli, or glomerular capsule) is a cup-like sack at the beginning of the tubular component of a nephron in the mammalian kidney that performs the first step in the filtration of blood to form urine. (
  • Distribution of blood vessels in cortex of kidney. (
  • Even though the kidney is important for blood pressure control, he viewed it as subordinate to the brain. (
  • Although not yet strong enough for coronary applications, the UB group's tissue-engineered vessels (TEVs) performed similarly to native tissue in critical ways, including their morphology, their expression of several smooth muscle cell proteins, the ability to proliferate and the ability to contract in response to vasoconstrictors, one of the most important properties of blood vessels. (
  • These are the first tissue-engineered vessels to demonstrate the ability to make elastin in vivo," said Andreadis. (
  • It helps the body use vitamin K . It also helps widen blood vessels and keep blood from clotting inside them. (
  • The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system , and microcirculation , that transports blood throughout the human body . (
  • This creates enough pressure for blood to be pumped around the body. (
  • To do that, they may take blood vessels from other parts of the body, usually the leg or chest wall. (
  • Tubes that carry blood to and from all parts of your body. (
  • To avoid complications, surgeons prefer to use vessels taken from a patient's own body - harvesting a portion of vein from the leg, for example. (
  • One of the first things that happens in sepsis - when the immune system overreacts and attacks the body - is that blood vessels become weak and leaky. (
  • One of the study authors, Dr. Seung Jun Lee, a researcher at the Institute for Basic Science in Daejeon, South Korea, says the purpose of the treatment is to "strengthen the blood vessels so the body has a stable environment to fight the infection which also prevents further damage. (
  • When dissected from the body, blood vessel tissue has a natural tendency to constrict. (
  • Blood Vessels are tubes through which the blood circulates in the body. (
  • However, there is no way for the broken-down tissue and blood to leave the body. (
  • The same blood vessel has different names in different sections, but it is essentially one large artery that branches to serve the entire lower half of the body. (
  • Shaped like an upside-down pear, this fist-sized powerhouse pumps five or six quarts of blood each minute to all parts of your body. (
  • This pre-clinical work presents a novel approach to guide enhanced blood flow to specific areas of the body," said Ozaki. (
  • Currently, replacement blood vessels are obtained from autografts taken from another part of the patient's body, donated vessels, or synthetic substitutes. (
  • The artificial vessel had thus been incorporated by the recipient's body and resembled and functioned like a natural blood vessel. (
  • While most weight lifting related ruptured blood vessels occur in the eye, some occasionally break in other parts of the body, specifically the legs. (
  • Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder passed on through parental genes causing the body to produce abnormal hemoglobin. (
  • George L. Bakris, M.D. discusses sodium's role in helping to control blood pressure in the body and its effects on the kidneys in the Merck Manual. (
  • Too much sodium contributes to raising the blood pressure and constricting the blood vessels, especially in the kidneys, which control the blood pressure and electrolyte balance in the body. (
  • Since there is a long list of possible causes for thinning vessels, different parts of the body can be affected. (
  • Baroreceptors in your body monitor blood pressure constantly and modify it as you move around to maintain a fairly constant blood pressure. (
  • He suggests skipping, which can improve blood flow in the calves, parts of the body that play an important role in circulation. (
  • Ischemia, or the decrease of blood flow in the body, is mainly caused by plaque buildup inside blood vessels. (
  • has successfully created bio-blood-vessels (BBVs) 3D printed using materials extracted from the human body. (
  • They are the smallest blood vessels in the body: they convey blood between the arterioles and venules. (
  • A surgical anastomosis is a surgical technique used to make a new connection between two body structures that carry fluid, such as blood vessels or bowel. (
  • Acidosis An acidic condition in body fluids, chiefly blood. (
  • Anti-diabetic drug A kind of medication that helps a person with diabetes control the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood so that the body works as it should. (
  • It contains blood vessels and nerves that supply structures in the head to the body. (
  • The neck contains vessels that links structures in the head to the body. (
  • After ingestion, DEG is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and distributed by the bloodstream throughout the body, reaching peak blood concentrations within 30 to 120 minutes. (
  • The system increases blood pressure by increasing the amount of salt and water the body retains, although angiotensin is also very good at causing the blood vessels to tighten (a potent vasoconstrictor). (
  • To 3D print vessels on such a small scale-100 microns, small enough for tiny blood vessels- Chen leveraged his connection to Innolign, a Boston biomedical technology company he helped found. (
  • These tiny blood vessels are easily ruptured by such simple activities as sneezing, coughing, or laughing. (
  • Research published this week describes how lab-grown blood vessels were transformed into living tissue when grafted into dialysis patients needing replacement blood vessels. (
  • There are many conditions for which replacement blood vessels are needed. (
  • These studies demonstrate that CD276 is overexpressed in the blood vessels of a variety of human cancers," says St. Croix. (
  • Humacyte, winner of a 2011 Popular Mechanics Breakthrough Award, is now testing its lab-grown blood vessels in a small group of human patients. (
  • Dahl says they're now "laying the groundwork" for how they might safely begin to test the vessels in human patients. (
  • Scientists at the Harvard Medical School have discovered and produced in pure form a human substance that stimulates the production of blood vessels.It is the first known substance that sets off the growth of any human organ. (
  • DURHAM, N.C. -- Biomedical engineers have grown miniature human blood vessels that exhibit many of the symptoms and drug reactions associated with Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome -- an extremely rare genetic disease that causes symptoms resembling accelerated aging in children. (
  • Thus, this work was undertaken to study age-related changes in the number of blood vessels in the human dermis. (
  • Bioengineered human acellular vessels recellularize and evolve into living blood vessels after human implantation. (
  • because the only thing more expensive than ink toner is human blood []. (
  • Scientists estimate that over 70 percent of human deaths worldwide are ultimately caused by damaged or failing blood vessels. (
  • Die Arterien der menschlichen Haut, 1895 - The blood vessels of the human skin. (
  • The stated normal range for human blood counts varies between laboratories, but a neutrophil count of 2.5-7.5 x 109/L is a standard normal range. (
  • Of the small vessel procedures, 15% are performed on patients who have already had a previous operation resulting in a lack of suitable available tissue or on patients who are diabetic or have a disease which renders the tissue less than adequate. (
  • Dr Paul De Bank, Senior Lecturer in Pharmaceutics at the University of Bath and co-author of the paper, said: "By embedding EPCs in a gel derived from platelets, both of which can be isolated from the patient's blood, we have demonstrated the formation of a network of small vessels. (
  • The retinal blood vessel segmentation for small and low contrast vessels is still a challenging problem. (
  • The experiments implemented on the STARE database indicate that the new method has a better performance than the traditional ones on the small vessels extraction, average accuracy rate, and true and false positive rate. (
  • From the article: 'To print something as small and complex as a blood vessel, the scientists combined the 3D printing technology with two-photon polymerisation - shining intense laser beams onto the material to stimulate the molecules in a very small focus point. (
  • One side of the eye's white area (sclera) may be entirely red, or small red dots may cover the entire eye, depending on the amount of vessels ruptured. (
  • 14 Arteriovenous malformations and small angiomas sometimes cause attacks of migraine with aura, further linking blood vessel abnormalities to a migraine with aura phenotype. (
  • The level of permeability is such as to allow small and medium-sized proteins such as albumin to readily enter and leave the blood stream. (
  • Liver sinusoids, which help hepatocytes transport a small number of molecules to and from the blood stream. (
  • Considering the wide range of potential causes leading to cutaneous small vessel vasculitis, there are subtle variations in the underlying pathophysiology for each cause. (
  • These structures surround the small blood vessels. (
  • Adipose tissue contains many small blood vessels. (
  • Small blood vessels were collapsed by the freezing process. (
  • Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is a fluoroscopy technique used in interventional radiology to clearly visualize blood vessels in a bony or dense soft tissue environment. (