Blood Urea Nitrogen: The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.CreatinineKidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Acute Kidney Injury: Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.Kidney Function Tests: Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Kidney Tubular Necrosis, Acute: Acute kidney failure resulting from destruction of EPITHELIAL CELLS of the KIDNEY TUBULES. It is commonly attributed to exposure to toxic agents or renal ISCHEMIA following severe TRAUMA.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Azotemia: A biochemical abnormality referring to an elevation of BLOOD UREA NITROGEN and CREATININE. Azotemia can be produced by KIDNEY DISEASES or other extrarenal disorders. When azotemia becomes associated with a constellation of clinical signs, it is termed UREMIA.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Uremia: A clinical syndrome associated with the retention of renal waste products or uremic toxins in the blood. It is usually the result of RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. Most uremic toxins are end products of protein or nitrogen CATABOLISM, such as UREA or CREATININE. Severe uremia can lead to multiple organ dysfunctions with a constellation of symptoms.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Proteinuria: The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Acetylglucosaminidase: A beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucose residues in chitobiose and higher analogs as well as in glycoproteins. Has been used widely in structural studies on bacterial cell walls and in the study of diseases such as MUCOLIPIDOSIS and various inflammatory disorders of muscle and connective tissue.Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Nephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Mercuric Chloride: Mercury chloride (HgCl2). A highly toxic compound that volatizes slightly at ordinary temperature and appreciably at 100 degrees C. It is corrosive to mucous membranes and used as a topical antiseptic and disinfectant.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Renal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Rhabdomyolysis: Necrosis or disintegration of skeletal muscle often followed by myoglobinuria.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Protective Agents: Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.MyoglobinuriaGlycosuria: The appearance of an abnormally large amount of GLUCOSE in the urine, such as more than 500 mg/day in adults. It can be due to HYPERGLYCEMIA or genetic defects in renal reabsorption (RENAL GLYCOSURIA).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Sodium Potassium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS which are concentrated in the thick ascending limb at the junction of the LOOP OF HENLE and KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Kidney Tubules, Proximal: The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Uric Acid: An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Glomerulonephritis: Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Nephritis: Inflammation of any part of the KIDNEY.Hematologic Tests: Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Renal Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Blood Cell Count: The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.Reactive Nitrogen Species: Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.Urinalysis: Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Furosemide: A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Critical Illness: A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Mice, Inbred C57BLSheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Critical Care: Health care provided to a critically ill patient during a medical emergency or crisis.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Peritoneal Dialysis, Continuous Ambulatory: Portable peritoneal dialysis using the continuous (24 hours a day, 7 days a week) presence of peritoneal dialysis solution in the peritoneal cavity except for periods of drainage and instillation of fresh solution.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Diabetic Nephropathies: KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins: A family of signal transducing adaptor proteins that control the METABOLISM of NITROGEN. They are primarily found in prokaryotes.Urease: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC 3.5.1.5.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Lupus Nephritis: Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Autoanalysis: Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Hemodialysis Solutions: Solutions prepared for hemodialysis. The composition of the pre-dialysis solution may be varied in order to determine the effect of solvated metabolites on anoxia, malnutrition, acid-base balance, etc. Of principal interest are the effect of the choice of buffers (e.g., acetate or carbonate), the addition of cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+), and addition of carbohydrates (glucose).

Effect of fasting on temporal variation in the nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B in rats. (1/1427)

Evidence for temporal variation in the nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B was recently reported in experimental animals. The role of food in these variations was determined by studying the effect of a short fasting period on the temporal variation in the renal toxicity of amphotericin B. Twenty-eight normally fed and 28 fasted female Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Food was available ad libitum to the fed rats, while the fasted animals were fasted 12 h before and 24 h after amphotericin B injection to minimize stress for the animals. Water was available ad libitum to both groups of rats, which were maintained on a 14-h light, 10-h dark regimen (light on at 0600 h). Renal toxicity was determined by comparing the levels of excretion of renal enzyme and the serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels at the time of the maximal (0700 h) or the minimal (1900 h) nephrotoxicity after the intraperitoneal administration of a single dose of dextrose (5%; control group) or amphotericin B (50 mg/kg of body weight; treated group) to the rats. The nephrotoxicities obtained after amphotericin B administration at both times of day were compared to the nephrotoxicities observed for time-matched controls. In fed animals, the 24-h urinary excretion of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase and beta-galactosidase was significantly higher when amphotericin B was injected at 0700 and 1900 h. The excretion of these two enzymes was reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in fasting rats, and this effect was larger at 0700 h (P < 0.05) than at 1900 h. The serum creatinine level was also significantly higher (P < 0.05) in fed animals treated at 0700 h than in fed animals treated at 1900 h. Fasting reduced significantly (P < 0.05) the increase in the serum creatinine level, and this effect was larger in the animals treated at 0700 h. Similar data were obtained for BUN levels. Amphotericin B accumulation was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the renal cortexes of fed rats than in those of fasted animals, but there was no difference according to the time of injection. These results demonstrated that fasting reduces the nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B and that food availability is of crucial importance in the temporal variation in the renal toxicity of amphotericin B in rats.  (+info)

Sustained induction of fetal hemoglobin by pulse butyrate therapy in sickle cell disease. (2/1427)

High levels of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) protect from many of the complications of sickle cell disease and lead to improved survival. Butyrate and other short chain fatty acids were previously shown to increase Hb F production in erythroid cells in vitro and in animal models in vivo. However, butyrates are also known to inhibit the proliferation of many cell types, including erythroid cells. Experience with the use of butyrate in animal models and in early clinical trials demonstrated that the Hb F response may be lost after prolonged administration of high doses of butyrate. We hypothesized that this loss of response may be a result of the antiproliferative effects of butyrate. We designed a regimen consisting of intermittent or pulse therapy in which butyrate was administered for 4 days followed by 10 to 24 days with no drug exposure. This pulse regimen induced fetal globin gene expression in 9 of 11 patients. The mean Hb F in this group increased from 7.2% to 21.0% (P <.002) after intermittent butyrate therapy for a mean duration of 29.9 weeks. This was associated with a parallel increase in the number of F cells and F reticulocytes. The total hemoglobin levels also increased from a mean of 7.8 g/dL to a mean of 8.8 g/dL (P <.006). The increased levels of Hb F were sustained in all responders, including 1 patient who has been on pulse butyrate therapy for more than 28 months. This regimen, which resulted in a marked and sustained increase in Hb F levels in more than two thirds of the adult sickle cell patients enrolled in this study, was well tolerated without adverse side effects. These encouraging results require confirmation along with an appropriate evaluation of clinical outcomes in a larger number of patients with sickle cell disease.  (+info)

Comparative nephrotoxicities of netilmicin and gentamicin in rats. (3/1427)

The relative nephrotoxicities of netilmicin (Sch 20569) and gentamicin were compared in rats at doses of 30, 60, 90, and 120 mg/kg per day for 15 days. Both drugs caused proteinuria and a decrease in urine osmolality; however, netilmicin produced significantly less changes at all doses than gentamicin. Whereas gentamicin resulted in a decline in creatinine clearance at all doses, netilmicin failed to cause a decline in creatinine clearance. Renal-cortical concentrations of antibiotic at sacrifice were similar in animals receiving either drug. Light-microscopic changes were less severe with netilmicin than gentamicin. Cytosegresomes with myeloid bodies were identified electron microscopically in the kidneys of animals receiving either netilmicin or gentamicin at all doses. Electron-microscopic manifestations were similar. The data indicate that in the rat, netilmicin is distinctly less nephrotoxic than gentamicin.  (+info)

Total parenteral nutrition in the management of acute renal failure. (4/1427)

Malnutrition is frequently present in patients with acute renal failure and may affect morbidity and mortality in this condition. When adequate nourishment cannot be given through the gastrointestinal tract, total parental nutrition with amino acids and hypertonic glucose may have beneficial results. Total parenteral nutrition has been reported to stabilize or reduce serum urea nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus levels, improve wound healing, enhance survival from acute renal failure, and possibly increase the rate of recovery of renal function. The optimal composition of the total parenteral nutrition infusate is unknown. Preliminary results of a double-blind study are reported in which one man received hypertonic glucose alone, two received glucose with essential amino acids (21 g/day), and three received glucose with essential (21 g/day) and nonessential (21 g/day) amino acids. All infusates were isocaloric. No differences were observed in serum urea nitrogen levels, serum urea nitrogen/creatinine ratios or urea appearance rates. Nitrogen balance was negative in all patients. The ratio of essential amino acids/nonessential amino acids were higher and the tyrosine/phenylalanine ratios were lower in plasma in the two patients receiving glucose with essential amino acids. No patient survived the hospitalization. In view of the markedly negative nitrogen balance frequently observed in these and earlier studies, the use of a different composition or quantity of amino acids, a higher energy intake, and anabolic hormones deserve further investigation.  (+info)

Measurement of the delivery of dialysis in acute renal failure. (5/1427)

BACKGROUND: Recent studies in patients with acute renal failure (ARF) have shown a relationship between the delivered dose of dialysis and patient survival. However, there is currently no consensus on the appropriate method to measure the dose of dialysis in ARF patients. In this study, the dose of dialysis was measured by blood- and dialysate-based kinetic methods in a group of ARF patients who required intermittent hemodialysis. METHODS: Treatments were performed using a Fresenius 2008E volumetric hemodialysis machine with the ability to fractionally collect the spent dialysate. Single-, double-pool, and equilibrated Kt/V were determined from the pre-, immediate post-, and 30-minute post-blood urea nitrogen (BUN) measurements. The solute reduction index was determined from the collected dialysate, as well as the single- and double-pool Kt/V. RESULTS: Forty-six treatments in 28 consecutive patients were analyzed. The mean prescribed Kt/V (1.11 +/- 0.32) was significantly greater than the delivered dose estimated by single-pool (0.96 +/- 0.33), equilibrated (0.84 +/- 0.28), and double-pool (0.84 +/- 0.30) Kt/V (compared with prescribed, each P < 0.001). There was no statistical difference between the equilibrated and double-pool Kt/V (P = NS). The solute removal index, as determined from the dialysate, corresponded to a Kt/V of 0.56 +/- 0.27 and was significantly lower than the single-pool and double-pool Kt/V (each P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Blood-based kinetics used to estimate the dose of dialysis in ARF patients on intermittent hemodialysis provide internally consistent results. However, when compared with dialysate-side kinetics, blood-based kinetics substantially overestimated the amount of solute (urea) removal.  (+info)

Effects of carbon dioxide inhalation on hematology, coagulation, and serum clinical chemistry values in rats. (6/1427)

Blood samples from adult male and female Charles River Crl:CD (SD) BR rats were collected at weekly intervals for 4 wk to evaluate the effects of inhalation of an anesthetic dose of carbon dioxide (CO2) or of a carbon dioxide-oxygen mixture (CO2/O2) on hematology, coagulation, and serum biochemistry values. During the first 3 wk of the study, rats were assigned to 1 of 3 groups and were bled from the orbital sinus once weekly. Prior to the blood collection, rats in group 1 were exposed to room air only, rats in group 2 received CO2/O2 (approximately 66%:34% CO2:O2) by inhalation, and rats in group 3 received 100% CO2 by inhalation. In the rats exposed to CO2/O2 or CO2, leukocyte counts, lymphocyte counts, and glucose values were higher, and aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and calcium values were lower compared with those of rats exposed to room air only. Rats exposed to 100% CO2 had slightly (but statistically significant) lower mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration when compared with rats exposed only to room air. During week 4, all rats were reassigned to 1 of 2 groups and were bled terminally via closed cardiac puncture following exposure to either CO2/O2 or CO2. Increased lymphocyte counts (males only) and glucose and chloride concentrations were noted for rats exposed to CO2/O2 compared with those exposed to CO2. These alterations reiterate the importance of comparing clinical pathology values to those of concurrent control groups that have experienced blood collection under identical conditions in order to avoid potential errors in the interpretation of data.  (+info)

Nordihydroguairetic acid is a potent inhibitor of ferric-nitrilotriacetate-mediated hepatic and renal toxicity, and renal tumour promotion, in mice. (7/1427)

Ferric-nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) is a known renal carcinogen. In the present study, we report the effect of a potent lignin-derived herbal antioxidant, nordihydroguairetic acid (NDGA), against Fe-NTA-mediated tissue toxicity. Fe-NTA (alone) treatment of mice enhances ornithine decarboxylase activity to 259% in liver and 341% in kidney and increases [3H]thymidine incorporation in DNA to 250% in liver and 324% in kidney compared with the corresponding saline-treated controls. The enhanced ornithine decarboxylase activity and DNA synthesis showed a reduction to 138 and 123%, respectively, in liver at a higher dose of 2 mg NDGA/day/animal whereas in kidney the reduction was to 118 and 102%, respectively, compared with the corresponding saline-treated controls. In the Fe-NTA (alone)-treated group, a 12% renal tumour incidence was recorded whereas, in N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-initiated and Fe-NTA-promoted animals, the percentage tumour incidence was increased to 68% as compared with untreated controls. No tumour incidence was recorded in the DEN-initiated, non-promoted group. The administration of NDGA, afforded >80% protection against DEN- and Fe-NTA-mediated renal tissue injury in vivo. Fe-NTA treatment also enhanced hepatic and renal microsomal lipid peroxidation to 170 and 205% of saline-treated controls, respectively, and hydrogen peroxide generation by >2.5-fold in both tissues accompanied by a 51 and 21% decrease in the level of glutathione and 35-48 and 35-50% decrease in the activities of glutathione-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in liver and kidney, respectively. These changes were reversed significantly in animals receiving a pre-treatment of NDGA. Our data show that NDGA can abrogate the toxic and tumour-promoting effects of Fe-NTA in liver and kidney of mice and can serve as a potent chemopreventive agent to suppress oxidant-induced tissue injury and tumorigenesis.  (+info)

Protein metabolism in insulin-treated gestational diabetes. (8/1427)

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that protein metabolism is not totally normalized in insulin treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) patients compared with normal, pregnant control subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Protein metabolism in eight Hispanic women with insulin-treated GDM and eight healthy Hispanic control women was studied in late gestation and at 6 weeks postpartum. Nitrogen flux was assessed from the disposal rate of [15N]-labeled urea over 12 h after a dose of [15N]-labeled leucine. Plasma amino acid concentrations were determined in fasting and 2-h postprandial samples using an amino acid analyzer. RESULTS: Protein turnover was normalized in insulin-treated GDM; however, fasting and postprandial plasma amino acids were elevated antepartum and postpartum. Nitrogen flux was significantly lower during pregnancy (P = 0.04-0.001) and did not differ between groups. Fasting and postprandial plasma amino acids were elevated in GDM antepartum and postpartum, despite satisfactory glycemic control. Fasting levels of taurine, hydroxyproline, glutamic acid, glutamine, cystine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and histidine were higher in GDM antepartum and postpartum (P < 0.05). Postprandial concentrations of taurine, hydroxyproline, valine, cystine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, ornithine, lysine, histidine, and arginine were higher in GDM antepartum and postpartum (P < 0.05). With few exceptions, plasma amino acid concentrations were lower antepartum than postpartum (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Protein turnover was normalized in insulin-treated women with GDM; however, fasting and postprandial plasma concentrations of amino acids were elevated in the antepartum and postpartum periods, despite satisfactory maternal glycemic control.  (+info)

Feasibility of Reagent Test Strips to Estimate Blood Urea Nitrogen Concentrations in Egyptian Fruit Bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus ...
My father age 67 years. Blood urea nitrogen level suddenly jumped from 90 to 165 in 15 days. Creatinine level is 5. I just want to know immediate treatment to reduce blood urea nitrogen level to reduce risk of heart/kidney failure.
The relationship of natriuretic effect and furosemide excretion was studied in normal and azotemic dogs. Graded azotemia was produced in dogs by bilateral uretero-venous shunts of varying duration. The shunts were subsequently opened and urine and blood samples were taken to measure inulin, furosemide and sodium concentrations. Renal blood flow was measured by an electromagnetic flow probe. Two groups of dogs, control and experimental, were studied. The experimental group received a loading dose followed by a constant infusion of furosemide. This dose produced a natriuresis in nonazotemic normal dogs. The magnitude of this natriuresis correlated with furosemide excretion rate (P less than .005) and not with the plasma concentration of the drug. Furosemide clearance and extraction were inversely correlated with blood urea nitrogen. In the furosemide-treated group the augmentation of sodium excretion was not impaired except at blood urea nitrogen concentrations of greater than 200 mg/dl (two ...
Fifty-five multiparous Holstein dairy cows were used to evaluate the singular and combined effects of somatotropin and monensin treatments during the late dry period on postpartum metabolism and production. Treatments were 1) control (C); 2) injection of exogenous bovine somatotropin (bST); 3) TMR top dressed with 300 mg of monensin/day (M); and 4) monensin and somatotropin in combination (bST+M) during the last 28 days before expected parturition. A 500-mg subcutaneous injection of sustained release somatotropin was administered adjacent to the tail head at d -28 and -14 relative to expected calving. Diet and management were the same for all cows after parturition. Production and intake were measured daily until 63 d in milk. Milk composition, blood metabolites, and body weight and condition score were measured weekly. Prepartum glucose, nonesterified fatty acid, and blood urea nitrogen concentrations were not different among treatments. Cows on the M treatment tended to have greater dry matter intake
Looking for blood urea nitrogen (BUN)? Find out information about blood urea nitrogen (BUN). gaseous chemical element; symbol N; at. no. 7; interval in which at. wt. ranges 14.00643-14.00728; m.p. −209.86°C;; b.p. −195.8°C;; density 1.25 grams... Explanation of blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
Synonyms for blood urea nitrogen in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for blood urea nitrogen. 76 synonyms for blood: lifeblood, gore, vital fluid, family, relations, birth, descent, extraction, ancestry, lineage, kinship, kindred, hostility, anger.... What are synonyms for blood urea nitrogen?
Blood Urea Nitrogen is one of common tests that can reflect the kidney function. If your blood urea nitrogen level is higher than normal, which can be a sign of kidney damage.
A key advantage of using laboratory tests to determine prognosis is the potential to monitor a patients initial response to treatment. For patients with acute pancreatitis, initial treatment primarily consists of fluid resuscitation. Several routine laboratory tests have been proposed as possible predictors of outcome: serum hematocrit, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels. Results of several small single-centre studies in the late 1990s and early 2000s suggested that an elevated hematocrit or "hemoconcentration" at admission was a predictor of pancreatic necrosis.17,18 Unfortunately, the accuracy of hematocrit as a prognostic indicator of necrosis was not confirmed in several subsequent external validation studies.19-21 More recently, attention has focused on early changes in serum creatinine levels.22. Recent data suggest that serial measurement of blood urea nitrogen levels is the most useful routine laboratory test for determining risk of death. In a large retrospective cohort ...
The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
Urea is hydrolyzed by urease to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide. The liberated ammonia reacts with α-ketoglutarate in the presence of NADH to yield glutamate. An equimolar quantity of NADH undergoes oxidation during the reaction resulting in a decrease in absorbance that is directly proportional to the urea nitrogen concentration in the sample.. ...
IRIS is interested in advancing methods for standardization of methods for the estimation of GFR. In human and veterinary medicine, estimation of GFR is generally considered the most useful measure for assessment of renal function. Historically, GFR has usually been crudely estimated in people and animals by measurement of blood creatinine or urea nitrogen concentrations. Urinary clearance of inulin is the "gold standard" method for measuring GFR. Recently, validation of simpler methods, without urine sampling (referred to as plasma clearance methods) have been evaluated by a number of individuals, including members of the IRIS Board. Compared to use of blood creatinine or urea nitrogen determinations, the GFR can more accurately be estimated by measurement of plasma clearance of a filtration marker, using a compound that is freely filtered in the glomeruli, without significant tubular reabsorption or secretion.. The IRIS Board recognizes that estimation of GFR can be of great value for ...
Blood urea nitrogen definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
The standard indicators of renal function are serum levels of urea nitrogen and creatinine; their ratio is normally about 10:1. This ratio may increase when renal perfusion or urine flow is decreased, as in urinary tract obstruction or dehydration. Because serum urea nitrogen levels are more affected by these and other factors (eg, nitrogen intake, catabolism, use of corticosteroids) than are creatinine levels, the most reliable single indicator of glomerular function is the serum level of creatinine. For example, an increase in serum creatinine from 0.5 to 1.0 mg/dL represents a 50% decrease in GFR (glomerular filtration rate). Norms for serum creatinine relate to muscle mass. Therefore, only larger adolescents should have levels exceeding 1 mg/dL. Serum cystatin C has been proposed to be a more reliable indicator of glomerular function but may be less widely available, with variable reference ranges in the pediatric population and invalid values observed in the setting of corticosteroid ...
Results:. The serum potassium concentration in the treatment group (mean ±SD) was 3.89 ± 0.46 mmol/L (95% CI, 3.79 to 3.99 mmol/L), and it increased by 1.21 mmol/L (CI, 1.09 to 1.32 mmol/L) 4.6 ± 2.2 days after trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole therapy was initiated. Blood urea nitrogen levels increased from 7.92 ± 5.7 mmol/L (CI, 6.67 to 9.16 mmol/L) to 9.2 ± 5.8 mmol/L (CI, 7.9 to 10.5 mmol/L), and serum creatinine levels increased from 102.5 ± 49.5 µmol/L (CI, 91.4 to 113.6 µmol/L) to 126.1 ± 70.7 µmol/L (CI, 110.3 to 141.9 µmol/L). Patients with a serum creatinine level of 106 µmol/L (1.2 mg/dL) or more developed a higher peak potassium concentration (5.37 ± 0.59 mmol/L [CI, 5.15 to 5.59 mmol/L]) than patients with a serum creatinine level of less than 106 µmol/L (4.95 ± 0.48 mmol/L [CI, 4.80 to 5.08 mmol/L]). Patients with diabetes had a slightly higher peak potassium concentration (5.14 ± 0.45 mmol/L [CI, 4.93 to 5.35 mmol/L]) than did patients without diabetes (5.08 ± 0.59 ...
If your kidneys cant filter wastes from your blood normally, the BUN (blood urea nitrogen) level increases. If the level gets too high, you can become sick. Because of this, you need to control the amount of protein you eat each day. Use this handout to help you.
Deoxyribonuclease-1-like 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DNASE1L2 gene. Model organisms have been used in the study of DNASE1L2 function. A conditional knockout mouse line, called Dnase1l2tm1(KOMP)Wtsi was generated as part of the International Knockout Mouse Consortium program - a high-throughput mutagenesis project to generate and distribute animal models of disease to interested scientists. Male and female animals underwent a standardized phenotypic screen to determine the effects of deletion. Twenty three tests were carried out on mutant mice and eight significant abnormalities were observed. Homozygous mutant animals had a decreased body weight, grip strength and bone mineral content; a kinked tail, abnormal indirect calorimetry and femur/tibia morphology. Females also had an increased blood urea nitrogen level while males had a decreased leukocyte cell number. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000167968 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000024136 - ...
Diagnosis of AKI is based on patient history, physical examination, bloodwork evaluation, urine testing (urinalysis and urine culture) and abdominal ultrasound. During the diagnostic workup, it is critical for your veterinarian to determine if an animal is affected with AKI, longer standing chronic kidney disease or a combination of both, as prognoses can be very different (this can sometimes be difficult to distinguish). If AKI is diagnosed or suspected, further specific testing such as blood pressure measurement and testing for inflammatory or infectious diseases may be performed.. As above, patients with AKI will usually have a sudden onset of abnormal clinical signs and no history of significant weight loss (unless there are other underlying disease processes). On physical examination, patients may exhibit pain in the area of their kidneys.. In a patient with AKI, bloodwork evaluation will show elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine values, which are the most commonly used markers ...
Learn how the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test is used to evaluate kidney function and diagnose disease. Understand when the test is needed, how to interpret results, and the BUN/creatinine ratio.
The blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test is used to evaluate kidney function, to help diagnose kidney disease, and to monitor acute or chronic kidney dysfunction or failure.
The blood urea nitrogen test, BUN, checks kidney function as part of the metabolic panel of blood tests used for screening and monitoring your health.
2016 BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) Test Volume and Sales Forecasts by Country and Market Segment - France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, UK, USA - Hospitals, - Market research report and industry analysis - 9390214
Comparative changes in monthly blood urea nitrogen, total protein concentrations, and body condition scores of Nguni cows and heifers raised on sweetveld
Serum Levels of Blood Urea Nitrogen, Creatinine, and Testosterone and Kidney Tissue Damage Score in Testosterone Plus Cisplatin and Cisplatin Alone Groups.Signi
Title:Long-term Effects of Lysine Restriction on Liver Global Proteins, Meat Quality, and Blood Biochemical Parameters in Pigs. VOLUME: 25 ISSUE: 4. Author(s):Zhaojin Liu, Yong Yuan, Jie Yin, Tiejun Li*, Hongfu Zhang and Jianhua He*. Affiliation:College of Animal Science and Technology, Hunan Agriculture University, Changsha, College of Animal Science and Technology, Hunan Agriculture University, Changsha, Key Laboratory of Agroecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha, Key Laboratory of Agroecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha, College of Animal Science and Technology, Hunan Agriculture University, Changsha, College of Animal Science and Technology, Hunan Agriculture University, Changsha. Keywords:Lysine, proteomics, biochemical parameters, meat quality, transporter, pig.. Abstract:Background: Our previous study suggested that ...
Product Constituents. URINALYSIS, URIC ACID, BUN, CREATININE, BUN/CREATININE RATIO, TOTAL PROTEIN, ALBUMIN, GLOBULIN, ELECTROLYTES. Category. KIDNEY RELATED DISORDERS. Prerequisite. No special preparation required. Report Availability. Same Day. Info. Creatinine and electrolyte levels help to detect kidney disorders. increased BUN level indicates kidney disease, heart failure, gout, and pregnancy diseases. urea is the principle waste product of protein catabolism. BUN is most commonly measured in the diagnosis and treatment of certain renal and metabolic diseases. increased BUN concentration may result from increased production of urea due to (1) diet or excessive destruction of cellular proteins as occurs in massive infection and fevers, (2) reduced renal perfusion resulting from dehydration or heart failure, (3) nearly all types of kidney disease, and (4) mechanical obstruction to urine excretion such as is caused by stones, tumors, infection, or stricture. decreased urea levels are less ...
This report studies Global Serum (Blood) Market, especially in North America, China, Europe, Southeast Asia, Japan and India, with production, revenue, con
Creatinine and urea nitrogen are considered to be the metabolic waste and muscle and protein individually. They are supposed to be filtered by kidneys. The high level of them denotes kidney problem to some extent. Then how to decrease high
DefinitionBUN stands for blood urea nitrogen. Urea nitrogen is what forms when protein breaks down.A test can be done to measure the amount of urea nitrogen in the blood.Alternative NamesBlood urea nitrogen
Container/Tube:. Preferred: Green-top (lithium heparin) tube Acceptable: Gold-top serum gel tube, plain red-top tube, or lavender-top (EDTA) tube. Specimen Volume: 0.1 mL of plasma or serum. Stability: Samples can be kept at 2 - 8°C and analyzed within 7 days. For longer storage,. samples may be frozen at -20°C or colder indefinitely.. ...
A common test in a chemistry panel that measures the amount of nitrogen in the blood that comes from the waste product urea.  It can be used to see how well the kidneys and liver are working and...
Cows with metabolic disorders characterized by phosphorus and endocrine malfunctions. The high possibility of placenta formation, placental function and fetal organogenesis slowdown. Microcirculatory disorders in fetus and maternal parts of the placenta.
Albumin is a protein produced by the liver that carries vital nutrients and hormones and circulates them to different organs and tissues of the body. This type of protein is extremely essential to maintain the growth and repair the tissues. If a person has low albumin content and suffers from various symptoms alike- fatigue, unexpected…
The human body is constantly under attack from free radicals that occur as part of normal cell metabolism, and by exposure to environmental factors such as UV light, cigarette smoke, environmental pollutants and gamma radiation. The resulting
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine are lab values that indicate possible changes in kidney function. GFR measures kidney function.
The most reliable way to measure kidney disease is by testing for glomerular filtration rate-the speed at which blood enters, is cleaned, and then leaves the kidney. A rate of less than 60 milliliters every minute over three months indicates chronic kidney disease.. A blood test for levels of creatine is a part of calculating the filtration rate. Creatinine is an acid that promotes muscle growth. When the kidney is not working effectively, the amount of creatinine in the blood increases. Other commonly ordered tests include calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, potassium, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and bicarbonate.. A doctor also will test for protein in the urine, particularly for a protein called albumin, and ask questions about personal and health histories to determine if there are any other causes for the results of the blood and urine tests.. Your doctor may order an ultrasound ...
INTRODUCTION Assessment of adequacy of dialysis A central issue in the HD patients. Simply following the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) is insufficient because a low BUN can reflect inadequate nutrition rather than sufficient dialytic urea removal.
BioAssay record AID 912480 submitted by ChEMBL: Open TG-GATES: Regimen: Daily Repeat; Time: 8 day; Dose: Low; Route: intravenous injection | Dataset: Biochemistry; Assay: BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen); Study_ID: 617/6.
www.davita.com/kidney-disease/overview/symptoms-and-diagnosis/understanding-your-lab-work/e/4724. BUN - Blood urea nitrogen. Purpose: To detect elevated waste levels in the bloodstream, which is an early sign of reduced kidney function. Normal range: 7 to 20 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl). How this test is conducted: A blood sample is taken and sent for analysis. Test date: In the diagnostic stage, the early and later .... ...
BioAssay record AID 910681 submitted by ChEMBL: Open TG-GATES: Regimen: Single; Time: 6 hr; Dose: Middle; Route: intravenous injection | Dataset: Biochemistry; Assay: BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen); Study_ID: 606/10.
Pregnancy has been reported in dialysis patients. Over 70% of 80 pregnancies reported in one large series, had resulted in surviving infants and no maternal deaths. The largest case series to date of pregnant HD patients is 52 patients over 20 years. In that experience, HD was performed daily but total weekly treatments were shorter( 12-15 hours per week). UF was avoided and over 85% of pregnancies ended up with surviving infants. Most were pre terms. BUN concentration is ,35mg/dl. In other words, pregnancy can be successfully tried in HD patients in the right circumstances and in the experienced centers. Most answered the question correctly ...
Briefly discusses basic metabolic panel, a blood test that measures your sugar (glucose) level, electrolyte and fluid balance, and kidney function. Provides links to more info on specific tests such as blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and potassium tests.
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Comparative observations of fever and associated clinical, haematological and blood biochemical changes after parenteral administration of poly I: poly C, inter
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Vítejte na stránkách Mezinárodního konsorcia pro buněčnou terapii a imunoterapii ICCTI, které spojuje myšlenka propojení nejnovějších poznatků výzkumu v oblasti buněčných technologií s klinickou praxí ...
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Tabelul periodic - Sistemul periodic al elementelor - Nu credeam ca voi reusi sa-mi fac timp, sa mai pun vreo caramida la...Page 1 of 2 -
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Nine multiparous lactating cows averaging 171 days in milk were divided according to days in milk and milk production into three 3×3 Latin squares with three 3-week periods to investigate the effect of rumen degradable protein on milk urea nitrogen. Diets were formulated to provide 3 concentrations of dietary rumen degradable protein (9.8, 10.8, and 11.8% of dry matter), while rumen undegradable protein (4.6% of DM) remained constant. Each period was 3 weeks in length, with 2 weeks used for adjustment and one week used for sampling. Rumen degradable protein levels had a low effect on milk yield (P|0.05), but a significant effect on protein percentage and milk urea nitrogen content. There was linear increase in the milk urea nitrogen content of cows fed diets one to three (P|0.01). Milk urea nitrogen is a simple and noninvasive measurement that can be used to monitor nitrogen efficiency in dairy cows. These results indicated that milk urea nitrogen might be used as a parameter to monitor the change in
Effects of Dietary Resveratrol on Growth Performance, Blood Biochemical Parameter, Immunoglobulin, and Blood Antioxidant Activity in Broiler Chicks - resveratrol;broiler;blood biochemical parameter;immunoglobulin;blood antioxidant activity;
Acute kidney injury (AKI), previously called acute renal failure (ARF), is a rapid loss of kidney function. Its causes are numerous and include low blood volume from any cause, exposure to substances harmful to the kidney, and obstruction of the urinary tract. AKI is diagnosed on the basis of characteristic laboratory findings, such as elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, or inability of the kidneys to produce sufficient amounts of urine. Source: Wikipedia. ...
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an abrupt and usually reversible decline in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This results in an elevation of serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and other metabolic waste products that are normally excreted
Background: Advanced-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) may contribute to left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction, which increase risk of cardiovascular mortality. However, whether cardiac remodeling occurs in early stages of CKD is unclear. In rats subjected to single nephrectomy, we examined cardiac structural changes and their underlying mechanisms in early stages of CKD.. Methods and Results: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent single nephrectomy (SNx; n=8) or sham (n=8) operations. Eight weeks later, the SNx group had a higher serum blood urea nitrogen (18.58±0.67 vs 13.40±0.78 mg/dL; P,.02) level, creatinine (0.45±0.02 vs 0.36±0.02 mg/dL; P,.02) level, systemic pulse pressure (48±5 vs 33±1 mmHg; P,.02), and echocardiographic transmitral deceleration time (65.3±2.6 vs 51.2±2.8 ms; P,.02) than the sham group. Doppler imaging and pressure-volume relationship (PVR) analysis performed in both groups revealed impaired diastolic function in SNx rats, which ...
The terms uremia and azotemia are applied to acute or chronic conditions in which the blood concentration of nitrogenous end products rises. The terms are otherwise poorly defined. Nitrogen retention usually occurs when the renal function is less than 30% of normal. Recently, progressive renal dysfunction has been graded as [1] diminished renal reserve, [2] renal insufficiency, [3] renal failure, and [4] uremia (Strauss and Welt (1) 1963), but each grade overlaps others.. Although urea is present in greatest amount, errors can occur when increased urea concentration is accepted as synonymous with the degree of renal dysfunction. Myers, Fine, and ...
How Is the BUN Level Measured?. To test your pets BUN level, your veterinary team must obtain a small blood sample. This procedure is usually very quick; it may take only a few seconds if the patient is well behaved. For patients that are very frightened or not well behaved, your veterinary team may want to use a muzzle, towel, or other gentle restraint device. In some cases, such as in patients with very thick fur, it may be necessary to shave the hair from the area where blood will be drawn. The hair will grow back, and this is often a good way to find the vein quickly.. Some veterinary offices have in-house blood analysis equipment, so they can perform the BUN level test in the office and have results the same day. Other offices send blood samples to an outside laboratory for the test to be performed. If an outside laboratory is used, results are generally available within 1 to 2 days. Be sure to tell your veterinarian about any medications or supplements your pet may be receiving, as some ...
This test measures the amount of urea nitrogen in your urine.. Urea nitrogen is a waste product made when your liver breaks down protein. Its carried in your blood, filtered out by your kidneys, and removed from your body in your urine. If your liver isnt healthy, it may not break down proteins the way it should. And if your kidneys arent healthy, they may not properly filter urea. Either of these problems can lead to changes in the amount of urea nitrogen in your body. If you dont have enough fluid in your body (are dehydrated), you may have extra urea in your blood because you arent passing much urine. ...
We analyzed the effects of acute ischemia-reperfusion (KIR) injury on the status of kidney function and architecture in dipeptidyl peptidase4-difficient (DPP4(D)) rats and the effect of remote small bowel ischemia-reperfusion (BIR) preconditioning. DPP4-deficient (DPP4(D)) and normal Fischer344 (F344) rats were divided into 6 groups: (1) sham-F344, (2) sham-DPP4(D), (3) KIR-F344 (4) KIR-DPP4(D), (5) DPP4(D)-KIR-extendin-9-39 and (6) BIR-KIR-F344. Blood creatinine and urea nitrogen levels and the urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio was higher in KIR-F344 rats than BIR-KIR-F344 or KIR-DPP4(D) rats 72 h after acute KIR. Conversely, the circulating glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels were higher in BIR-KIR-F344 and KIR-DPP4(D) than KIR-F344 rats after acute KIR. KIR-F344 rats showed greater inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, DNA damage and kidney injury than other rat groups. Damage to the kidney architecture in KIR-F344 rats was greater than in BIR-KIR-F344 or KIR-DPP4(D) rats. ...
Cisplatin (CP) is commonly used in the treatment of different types of cancer but nephrotoxicity has been a major limiting factor. Therefore, the present study aimed to study the possible protective effect of rutin against nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin in rats. Forty male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Rats of group 1 control group intraperitoneal (i.p.) received 2.5 ml/kg, group 2 CP group received single dose 5 mg/kg cisplatin i.p. group 3 rutin group orally received 30 mg/kg rutin group 4 (CP plus rutin) received CP and rutin as in group 2 and 3. Kidneys were harvested for histopathology and for the study the gene expression of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), Mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 (MKK4), MKK7, P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (P38), tumor necrosis factors alpha (TNF-α), TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 2 (TRAF2), and interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1-α). The cisplatin single dose administration to rats induced nephrotoxicity associated with a significant
Reports demonstrate that excess dietary protein significantly alters the ionic composition of uterine fluid during the luteal phase ultimately decreasing fertility. Since the early bovine embryo cannot adapt to changes in the uterine environment, changes in the concentrations of ions (pH) in the uterus can be unfavorable to embryo development and survival therefore having negative effects on fertility. In this study, heifers fed a high protein diet had elevated systemic concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) compared to heifers fed a control diet. However, there was no deleterious effect on uterine pH or reproductive success. In summary, excess protein in a diet did increase PUNs to a concentration that has previously been reported to be detrimental to pregnancy success; however, there was no negative effect on uterine pH or pregnancy success.
A study was conducted to assess the effect of mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) either alone or in combination on serum biochemical profile and immunocompetence in meat-type quails from day old to 5 weeks of age. Nine experimental diets were prepared incorporating three levels (0, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg diet) each of MOS and FOS in a factorial manner. Four hundred and five day-old quail chicks were distributed into 9 experimental groups of 45 chicks in each, with three replicates in each treatment. At the end of five weeks, blood was collected from six birds of each treatment and the serum was analyzed for total protein, total cholesterol and triglycerides. The results revealed that the quails from all treatment groups receiving MOS and /or FOS recorded lower serum cholesterol and triglycerides with higher total protein. However, differences between different treatments were statistically non-significant. The humoral immune response, as measured by haemagglutination ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protective Role of Natural Products in Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity. AU - Ridzuan, Nurul Raudzah Adib. AU - Rashid, Norhashima Abd. AU - Othman, Faizah. AU - Budin, Siti Balkis. AU - Pa Pa Hlaing @ Farida Hussan, Khin. AU - Teoh, Seong Lin. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - Cisplatin is a widely used antineoplastic agent for the treatment of metastatic tumors, advanced bladder cancer and many other solid tumors. However, at higher doses, toxicities such as nephrotoxicity may appear. Cisplatin leads to DNA damage and subsequently renal cell death. Besides that, oxidative stress is also implicated as one of the main causes of nephrotoxicity. Several studies showed that numerous natural products: ginseng, curcumin, licorice, honey and pomegranate were able to reduce the oxidative stress by restoring the levels of antioxidant enzymes and also at the same time act as an anti-inflammatory agent. Furthermore, pre-treatment with vitamin supplementation, such as vitamin C, E and ...
Dr. John Lee explains why its so important to use saliva hormone testing vs. blood testing when trying to determine the cause of a hormone imbalance, and when using bioidentical progesterone cream.
Creatinine and BUN both are the common indicator to show the kidney function. For normal people, the healthy level of creatinine should be controlled in 0.5-1.2mg/dL and the BUN level should keep in 9-20mg/dL. FSGS patients with creatinine
In China, the lab has a renal function test, which is actually a blood test about three index including serum creatinine, BUN( blood urea nitrogen) and uric acid, all of which is used to test whether the renal function is well for all of them are toxins which should have been discharged out. Among them, serum creatinine is the most scientific index which can show how renal functions. After all, kidney is an organ which is used to secrete the waster product. So both in Chinese labs or foreign labs, doctors value serum creatinine as the most valuable reference of renal function. Consequently, patients with kidney disease will also concentrate on the value of their serum creatinine. They also want to know about how to reduce creatinine ...
Backgrounds: Cisplatin (CDDP) is a choice of anti-cancer drug for cancer chemotherapy with serious side effects such as nephrotoxicity. It seems that age is an important factor influencing the side effects of CDDP. This study was designed to determine the role of age and gender simultaneously in CDDP induced renal toxicity. Methods: 40 Wistar male and female rats were assigned as 6 groups in 3 different age categories (10, 16, and 20 weeks old). The single dose of CDDP (7.5 mg/kg, ip) was administrated, and a week later measurements were performed. Results: Body weight changes in male (not in female) animals aged 16 and 20 weeks were more than 10 weeks old animals (P|0.05). In male rats, the serum levels of creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and Cr-clearance in aged 10 weeks, normalized kidney weight (KW) in aged 20 weeks, and serum nitrite, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and kidney tissue damage score (KTDS) in rats aged 16 weeks were significantly
Alkaline Phosphatase (ALKP) - ALKP is an enzyme present in multiple tissues, including liver and bone. Elevated levels can indicate liver disease, Cushings syndrome or steroid therapy.. Total Protein (TP) - The level of TP can indicate a variety of conditions, including dehydration, inflammation and diseases of the liver, kidney or intestine.. Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) - ALT is an enzyme that becomes elevated with liver cell injury.. Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) - BUN is produced by the liver and excreted by the kidneys. Abnormally high levels can indicate kidney disease or dehydration, and low levels can be associated with liver disease.. Creatinine (CREA) - Creatinine is a byproduct of muscle metabolism and is excreted by the kidneys. Elevated levels can indicate kidney disease, urinary tract obstruction or dehydration.. Phosphorus (PHOS) - Elevated phosphorus can be an indicator of kidney disease.. Blood Glucose (GLU) - High levels can indicate diabetes. In cats, high levels can also ...
Several blood tests check kidney function, including serum creatinine, glomerular filtration rate and blood urea nitrogen, or BUN, explains the National Kidney Foundation. These tests measure how...
Pancreatitis, Nitrogen, Urea, Mortality, Patients, Blood, Blood Urea Nitrogen, Bun, Role, Necrosis, Ability, Hemoglobin, Hospital, Hospital Mortality, In-hospital Mortality, Laboratory, Play, Syndrome, Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, Transfer
Materials and method: The rats were divided into four groups, with 10 animals per group: control (C), group, low-treated (LT), group, mediumtreated (MT), group, and high-treated (HT), group. The C group received distilled water, while LT, MT and HT groups were given various doses of PGP (100, 200, 400 mg/kg· d). After 30 days, forced swimming test was carried out in an acrylic plastic pool, then the exhaustive swimming time of rats and some biochemical parameters related to fatigue were measured. The data obtained showed that PGP could extend the exhaustive swimming time of the rats, as well as decrease the blood lactic acid (BLA), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), concentrations, and increase the hemoglobin, liver glycogen and muscle glycogen concentrations ...
Criteria for abnormality: Hemoglobin greater than or equal to(,=)130*lower limit of normal(LLN); less than or equal to(,=)170*upper limit of normal(ULN), hematocrit ,=0.39*LLN;,=0.51*ULN, red blood cell ,=4.5*LLN;,=5.9*ULN, platelet,=150*LLN;,= 450*ULN, white blood cells ,=4*LLN;,=11*ULN; lymphocytes,=0.09;,=0.44, neutrophils=,0.16*LLN;,=0.7*ULN, eosinophils,=0.04*ULN, basophils,=0.02*ULN, monocytes,0.08*ULN; bilirubin ,=5.1*LLN;,=22.2*ULN, aspartate aminotransferase ,=13*LLN;,=36*ULN, alanine aminotransferase,=11*LLN;,=54*ULN, alkaline phosphatase,=31*LLN ;,=104 *ULN, total protein,=60*LLN; ,=76*ULN, albumin=,35*LLN;,=50*ULN, glucose,=3.77 ;,=6.05;blood urea nitrogen,=1.785*LLN;,=7.5*ULN, creatinine,=70.7*LLN;,=114.9*ULN, creatinine kinase,=30*LLN ;,=280*ULN, lactate dehydrogenase,=85*LLN;,=180*ULN, sodium,=137*LLN ;,=144*ULN, potassium ,=3.5*LLN;,=5*ULN, chloride,=102*LLN;,=111*ULN, calcium,=2.22*LLN ;,=2.57*ULN, phosphorus=,0.81 ;,=1.45); nitrogen cholesterol,=1.78*LLN ;,=7.49*ULN ...
Chronic kidney disease is one of the most common disorders in dogs and cats. The plasma urea nitrogen (P-UN) and creatinine (P-Cre) concentrations are not sufficiently sensitive for early diagnosis of renal dysfunction. Although urine and plasma clearance methods allow earlier detection of reductions in the GFR, it is difficult to estimate a mildly reduced GFR from the values obtained by these methods, as they are also affected by physiological factors, such as body weight (BW) and age. The present study is a retrospective survey designed to assess the factors that affect markers of kidney function and to revaluate the clinical utility of the markers, including P-UN, P-Cre and GFR determined by plasma iohexol clearance (PCio) in dogs and cats. The P-UN, P-Cre and PCio values in dogs and the P-Cre and PCio values in cats were significantly correlated with BW (P,0.001). PCio in smaller dogs (≤ 15.0 kg) was significantly and inversely correlated with age. In smaller dogs, increase of P-UN alone ...
Activity be contingent of Vigour and Weak Services, Jingoistic Institutes of Health, Governmental Heart, Lung, and Blood Found, 2005). The opinion includes: · Casket radiograph, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, action emphasis assay, cardiac catheterization, and pulmonary behave tests · CBC figure out with differential, prothrombin and partial thromboplastin things, serum chemistries and electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine · Urinalysis and urine creatinine consent · Blood, throat, urine, stool, and sputum cultures for bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites · Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, varicella, herpes, hepatitis, and HIV titers · HLA typing and panel reactive antibody typing and titer · Computed tomography or MRI research and electroencephalogram · Consults with neurology, schizo, genetics, communal sweat, nutritionist, material and occupational cure, and monetary coordinator or dispute straw boss (Conway & Dipchand, 2010) Children with unalterable lung, ...
Blood urea nitrogen Gr 1:1.25-2.5*ULN;Gr 2:2.6-5.0*ULN; Gr 3:5.1-10*ULN; Gr 4:,10*ULN. Creatinine (mg/dL) Gr 1: 1.1-1.5 *ULN; Gr 2: 1.6-3*ULN: Gr 3: 3.1-6*ULN; Gr 4: ,6*ULN. Hypercarbia (meq/L)Gr 1: 33-36; Gr 2:37-40; Gr 3: 41-45; Gr 4:,45. Hypocarbia (meq/L)Gr 1:19-21; Gr 2: 15-18; Gr 3: 10-14; Gr 4:,10. Hypercalcemia (mg/dL)Gr 1:10.6-11.5;Gr 2:11.6-12.5; Gr 3:12.6-13.5;Gr 4: ,13.5. Hypocalcemia (mg/dL)Gr 1: 8.4-7.8;Gr 2:7.7-7; Gr 3:6.9-6.1; Gr 4: ,6.1.Hyperchloremia(meq/L)Gr 1:113-116; Gr 2:117-120; Gr 3:121-125; Gr 4: ,125.Hypochloremia(meq/L)Gr 1: 90-93; Gr 2: 85-89; Gr 3:80-84; Gr 4:,80 ...
Total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) levels were significantly different among eight range grasses at maturity. Roots, rhizomes, and stem bases (storage organs), differed significantly in percentage TNC within rhizomatous and bunch-type (non-rhizomatous) grasses. Percent organic nitrogen differed significantly among grasses and storage organs but not to the same extent as with TNC. We of nonstructural polysaccharide accumulated (Smith, 1968; suggest that TNC concentrations of storage organs must be determined for each grass before sampling for TNC levels, in Grasses of subtropical order to locate storage organs with greatest TNC concentration.
Cytokinesis plays an important role in the etiology of multiple myeloma. The transforming growth factor (TGF) beta 1 levels in 82 sera from 60 patients with multiple myeloma were analyzed by ELISA. Fourty one sample were obtained before treatment from newly diagnosed patients, 22 after treatment from the same patients and 19 from relapsed/refractory patients. Serum median TGF level of newly diagnosed patients was 769.5 ng/mL (126-1853), and the relapsed/refractory patients had similar levels. TGF levels after chemotherapy were not different between patients that reached plateau phase and those who remained refractory. We found a negative correlation between TGF and C-reactive protein and blood urea nitrogen and a positive correlation between TGF and hemoglobin level in newly diagnosed patients. After treatment, it was determined that TGF levels at diagnosis were higher in patients who reached plateau phase than in the refractory patients. Elevated serum TGF concentration at diagnosis in multiple ...
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Hello! I am trying to set up a small experiment for my class but I am stuck on a problem. We have three saltwater tanks, with the following measurements: The first tank will have a pH of 7.5, an NH3 level of 0.06 mg/L, and a TAN (total ammonia nitrogen) level of 20. Just NH3 is added. The ...
Since the bun cs. dog controversy will never be resolvbed (sic) in real life as simply as Rip suggests it at the end, is there not a more way-out thing he can come up with like Double Dogs. Or having the kids use the excess buns for something altogether weird or different. I think first off we need to establish which has more. I asked aorund and I think it is 10 buns and 8 dogs. So that is two excess buns (I did the math myself ...
... specifications & features from suppliers/manufacturer We sell urea N46% and large qty, prilled & granular,300000mt month. Detail following:Payment: By L/c or T/TMinimum order:12500MTIf need samll qty, price big different.Product specifications prilled urea:Nitrogen:46% minimumBiuret:1% maximumMoisture:0
Calories in Chef Hon Steamed Buns With Pork And Teriyaki Sauce. Find nutrition facts for Chef Hon Steamed Buns With Pork And Teriyaki Sauce and over 2,000,000 other foods in MyFitnessPal.coms food database.
Description: Each package contains 8 low protein homestyle burger buns. Each bun weighs about 80 g. Preparation: Thaw to room temperature or microwave on defrost 1-2 minutes. Serving Suggestions: Use for sandwiches, as dinner rolls or for the ultimate . . .
His phosphorous levels are now normal which is surprising being that he is still not on a prescription diet. I was more concerned with him eating and hopefully gaining a little weight. He is a lot less fussy lately so I am going to try the kidney diet again.. His urea nitrogen is still high, but much better than before. It went from 117 down to 90. His creatinine also went down from 7 to a 4.5 ( still high, but better). Those were all the positives.. There is one number that got worst, the hematocrit. It went from a 35 to a 26 which is odd. He was in the normal range and now he is not. The vet wants this retested again next week because there is a shot that can help that if it stays low. She also said to continue with the fluids every other day for now.. Thank you all for your purrs and prayers. They are greatly appreciated. I will keep you updated on his test next week.. Spooky wants to send a big hug and kiss to his special lady friend , Katie Isabella.. ...
Parity Check - The parity check method is used fro error detection. It is also known as VRC method.In this method, a redundant bit called parity bit is added to each data.
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I have gained insight, knowledge and understanding with your daily posts. Thank you. Are you able to point me in a direction for information about burning/red face symptoms? My RA is somewhat helpful but scoffed when I mentioned a neurologist, which is where my gut is telling me to go. This is painful and disruptive to daily life ...
Lots and lots of Slashdot readers have either sent in this ZDNet article or a direct link to the Jesux homepage. Its a hoax, folks. Think: if you were a Christian believer, would you name your Linux distribution something so close to Jesus Sucks? The concept isnt even original; variations on th...
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Bună sara! Ne-am mutat la casâ nouâ șî am zâs câ ar fi ghini sâ vă cinstesc oleacă! Am pentru voi o sacoșâ cu dulșiuri șî niști bieri. Aș fi vrut sâ vă dau o tavâ cu poale-n brâu șî Continue reading Bre, dam premii pi digeaba!→. ...
Bună sara! Ne-am mutat la casâ nouâ șî am zâs câ ar fi ghini sâ vă cinstesc oleacă! Am pentru voi o sacoșâ cu dulșiuri șî niști bieri. Aș fi vrut sâ vă dau o tavâ cu poale-n brâu șî Continue reading Bre, dam premii pi digeaba!→. ...
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The Posterchildren, by Kitty Burroughs, is a series of YA Superhero novels, and short stories, with LGBTQ themes and more puns than you can shake a stick at …
Menurut Legenda, Penyair kuno, Aeschylus, terbunuh gara-gara kura-kura. Aeschylus berkepala botak sehingga seekor burung rajawali salah mengira kepalanya adalah batu. Rajawali tersebut menerbangkan kura-kura dan dijatuhkan ke batu agar tempurungnya pecah. Sang penyair pun langsung tewas seketika. [Dramatis ya ...
In March 2003, the patient exhibited severe right lower abdominal pain. This 71 year old man was also suffering with severe diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure, and had undergone resection of the descending colon for mesenteric panniculitis in 2001. On admission, the patients white blood cell count was 8900/μl and C reactive protein concentration was 8.9 mg/dl. Serum blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and K+ levels were 77 mg/dl, 4.8 mg/dl, and 4.6 mEq/l, respectively. An abdominal CT was performed (fig 1). ...
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test: urea nitrogen is the byproduct of protein metabolism first formed in the liver then removed ... Complete Blood Count (CBC): a test of the white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets used to assess the presence of ... low blood pressure) is common, and symptoms include fatigue and weakness. Orthostatic hypotension, a marked decrease in blood ... Chem-20: Chem-20 also known as SMA-20 a group of twenty separate chemical tests performed on blood serum. Tests include ...
... blood, urea, nitrogen (BUN); and creatinine. Blood tests, complete blood count (CBC) and electrolytes. Imaging studies of the ... development of blood clots (thrombosis), blocking of arteries (embolism), and injury to adjacent structures, such as bowel or ... and disease progression in a case of inflammation of blood vessels, or vasulitis (one patient). One patient died of sepsis ( ...
Torre, Gregory M.; Lynch, Vincent D.; Jarowski, Charles I. (1981-01-01). "Lowering blood urea nitrogen with amino acid ...
ADHERE Tree rule indicates that patients with blood urea nitrogen , 43 mg/dl and systolic blood pressure at least 115 mm Hg ... Blood tests[edit]. Blood tests routinely performed include electrolytes (sodium, potassium), measures of kidney function, liver ... This increases the blood volume and blood pressure.. *Heart failure also limits the kidneys' ability to dispose of sodium and ... The left side pumps blood into the systemic circulation, whilst the right side pumps blood into the pulmonary circulation. ...
Blood-sampling device Blood sugar A (misnomer) name for blood glucose. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) A measurement of a metabolic ... Self-monitoring of blood glucose A way as person can test how much glucose (sugar) is in the blood. Also called home blood ... High blood pressure The pressure of blood in the arteries has normal values in a population. Blood pressure in an individual ... Postprandial blood glucose Blood taken 1-2 hours after eating to see the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Prediabetes A ...
Blood Urea Nitrogen >28 mg/dL Glucose >252 mg/dL (14 mmol/L) Bicarbonate ...
A blood test may reveal increases in blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, phosphorus, and calcium. Emesis (induction of ... Dialysis of the blood (hemodialysis) and peritoneal dialysis can be used to support the kidneys if anuria develops. Oliguria ( ... increased blood calcium levels). "ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center Issues Nationwide Update: Raisins and Grapes Can Be Toxic ...
Females also had an increased blood urea nitrogen level while males had a decreased leukocyte cell number. GRCh38: Ensembl ...
Kidney function tests (blood urea nitrogen and creatinine) as well as blood tests for liver functions are performed. The latter ... Diagnosis is typically by looking for antibodies against the bacterium or finding its DNA in the blood. Efforts to prevent the ... In dogs, penicillin is most commonly used to end the leptospiremic phase (infection of the blood), and doxycycline is used to ... On infection the microorganism can be found in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for the first 7 to 10 days (invoking ...
However, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine will not be raised above the normal range until 60% of total kidney function ... A more elaborate version of the MDRD equation also includes serum albumin and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels: eGFR = 170 × ... The original MDRD used six variables with the additional variables being the blood urea nitrogen and albumin levels. The ... where the creatinine and blood urea nitrogen concentrations are both in mg/dL. The albumin concentration is in g/dL. These MDRD ...
The rate of fluid resuscitation should be adjusted based on clinical assessment, hematocrit and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) ... 55 years white blood cell count > 16000 cells/mm3 blood glucose > 11.1 mmol/L (> 200 mg/dL) serum AST > 250 IU/L serum LDH > ... Blood investigations - Full blood count, renal function tests, liver function, serum calcium, serum amylase and lipase, ... Blood studies are used to identify organ failure, offer prognostic information, determine if fluid resuscitation is adequate, ...
... glucose testing and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) analysis. He is an innovator in the area of chemical-luminescence instrumentation ... One instrument was designed to test blood samples for steroids and other drugs. Liston also developed specialty test ... particularly measurement of oxides of nitrogen. In addition, Liston and Lowell Edwards formed the Liston-Edwards company to ...
Baum N, Dichoso C, and Carlton CE: Blood Urea Nitrogen and Serum Creatinine: Physiology and Interpretations, Urology 5:583, ...
... by assessing blood ammonia levels and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). In OTC deficiency, hyperammonemia and decreased BUN are seen ... It can also arise secondary to blockage of the urea cycle, particularly in ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (or OTC ... Blood. 14 (6): 615-634. PMID 13651334. Winkler, JK; Suttle, DP (July 1988). "Analysis of UMP synthase gene and mRNA structure ... because the urea cycle is not functioning properly. 1) Detection of orotic acid in urine 2) Deficiency of Enzymes orotate ...
... blood urea nitrogen, electrolytes, and creatinine; determination of thyroid-stimulating hormone; and urinalysis. Other ... The following routine tests are recommended: Complete blood count Blood chemistry (electrolytes, glucose, renal function, liver ... including complete blood count with leukocyte differential; erythrocyte sedimentation rate; serum levels of alanine ... enzymes, and protein levels). Thyroid function tests Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) Urinalysis for blood cells, protein ...
Other changes in blood chemistry such as hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, hyperkalemia, and an increase in blood urea nitrogen ( ... Among the most common effects of this drug is increased blood cholesterol levels. ...
... of the blood urea. The normal range of urea nitrogen in blood or serum is 5 to 20 mg/dl, or 1.8 to 7.1 mmol urea per liter. The ... whereas in the United States only the nitrogen component of urea (the blood or serum urea nitrogen, i.e., BUN or SUN) is ... In medicine, the BUN-to-creatinine ratio is the ratio of two serum laboratory values, the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (mg/dL) and ... Feinfeld DA, Bargouthi H, Niaz Q, Carvounis CP (2002). "Massive and disproportionate elevation of blood urea nitrogen in acute ...
Initial testing for adipsia involves electrolyte, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, serum and urine osmolality, blood ...
consequently, urea cannot be produced and excess nitrogen accumulates in the blood in the form of ammonia. Ammonia and arginine ... The urea cycle is a sequence of reactions that occurs in liver cells(hepatocytes). This cycle processes excess nitrogen, ... which produces urea by extracting nitrogen from arginine. In people with arginase deficiency, arginase is missing, and arginine ... recessive urea cycle disorder where a deficiency of the enzyme arginase causes a buildup of arginine and ammonia in the blood. ...
... concentration of creatinine along with that of urea. BUN-to-creatinine ratio (the ratio of blood urea nitrogen to creatinine) ... If the filtration in the kidney is deficient, creatinine blood levels rise. Therefore, creatinine levels in blood and urine may ... A rise in blood creatinine level is a late marker, observed only with marked damage to functioning nephrons. Therefore, this ... It is then transported through blood to the other organs, muscle, and brain, where, through phosphorylation, it becomes the ...
The Labrador vomited several times and had increased blood urea nitrogen, total protein, and albumin concentrations with ... Despite these variables, the doses of smoke administered to these animals can be determined by examining tissue and blood ...
A moderate increase of aspartate aminotransferase, ALT, and blood urea nitrogen levels was observed whereas the ... in the sugar moiety was designed to have a nitrogen atom. This atom improves the formation of duplexes and triplexes by ...
... increased serum and urinary orotic acid levels and a decreased serum blood urea nitrogen level. This also leads to an increased ... It may be a symptom of an increased ammonia load due to a metabolic disorder, such as a urea cycle disorder. In ornithine ... transcarbamoylase deficiency, an X-linked inherited and the most common urea cycle disorder, excess carbamoyl phosphate is ...
Ernst AA, Haynes ML, Nick TG, Weiss SJ (1999). "Usefulness of the blood urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio in gastrointestinal ...
Diagnoses to be ruled out include the following: Common investigations include blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and electrolytes, ... thromboembolic stockings or low-molecular-weight heparin may be used as measures to prevent the formation of a blood clot. ...
Usually, 50-100 kg/ha (45-90 lb/ac) of nitrogen in the form of urea or anhydrous ammonia is sufficient, as oats use about one ... Oats are a nutrient-rich food associated with lower blood cholesterol when consumed regularly.[1] ... Oats remove substantial amounts of nitrogen from the soil. They also remove phosphorus in the form of P2O5 at the rate of 0.25 ... A sufficient amount of nitrogen is particularly important for plant height and hence, straw quality and yield. When the prior- ...
Feasibility of Reagent Test Strips to Estimate Blood Urea Nitrogen Concentrations in Egyptian Fruit Bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus ... Feasibility of Reagent Test Strips to Estimate Blood Urea Nitrogen Concentrations in Egyptian Fruit Bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus ...
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) is a medical test that measures the amount of urea nitrogen found in blood. The liver produces urea ... mg/dL of nitrogen] x 10 [dL/L] / 14x2 [mg N/mmol urea] (the mass of nitrogen within urea is used) convert BUN to urea in mg/dL ... 0.3571 To convert from mg/dL of blood urea nitrogen to mmol/L of urea, multiply by 0.357 (each molecule of urea having two ... 2 moles N per mole of urea): BUN [mmol/L]= urea [mmol/L] Kt/V Urea reduction ratio Urine urea nitrogen Standardized Kt/V Last ...
The blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test is used to evaluate kidney function, to help diagnose kidney disease, and to monitor acute ... Formal name: Blood Urea Nitrogen. Related tests: Creatinine, Creatinine Clearance, eGFR, Comprehensive Metabolic Panel, Basic ... Also known as: BUN; Urea Nitrogen; Urea. ...
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test - Learn how to prepare, what to expect and possible results of this test to assess kidney and ... Generally, a high blood urea nitrogen level means your kidneys arent working well. But elevated blood urea nitrogen can also ... During the blood urea nitrogen test, a member of your health care team takes a sample of blood by inserting a needle into a ... If your blood sample is being tested only for blood urea nitrogen, you can eat and drink normally before the test. If your ...
Blood urea nitrogen definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look ... blood urea nitrogen in Medicine Expand. blood urea nitrogen n. Abbr. BUN Nitrogen in the form of urea in the blood or serum, ...
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) testing is commonly part of the basic metabolic panel (BMP) or comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP), ... encoded search term (Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)) and Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions ... Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) Updated: Mar 06, 2014 * Author: Edgar V Lerma, MD, FACP, FASN, FAHA, FASH, FNLA, FNKF; Chief Editor: ... Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) testing is commonly part of the basic metabolic panel (BMP) or comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP), ...
... blood urea nitrogen) test, which can provide important information about your kidney function. ... The test measures the amount of urea nitrogen in your blood. Urea nitrogen is one of the waste products removed from your blood ... What is a BUN (blood urea nitrogen) test?. A BUN, or blood urea nitrogen test, can provide important information about your ... medlineplus.gov/lab-tests/bun-blood-urea-nitrogen/ BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen). ...
The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
... checks kidney function as part of the metabolic panel of blood tests used for screening and monitoring your health. ... Blood urea nitrogen - BUN - is a blood test performed as a marker of kidney function. It is part of the basic metabolic panel ... The BUN (blood urea nitrogen) level in the blood is used to monitor the progression of kidney failure. BUN may also be ... BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) Definition and Use of the BUN Test By Debra Manzella, RN , Reviewed by Richard N. Fogoros, MD ...
Blood Urea Nitrogen. test is conducted to measure the nitrogen content of the blood. Nitrogen in the blood comes from urea, the ... Blood is drawn from the vein of the arm. Normal range of urea nitrogen is 7-20 mg per deciliter. If the range is not normal, ... What does higher level of urea nitrogen suggests?. Waste from the blood is flushed out from the kidney through urine. But, if ... Important Facts You Need to Learn About Blood Urea Nitrogen Test And Why It Is Carried Out. ...
This test measures the amount of urea nitrogen in your blood. It can help your doctor find out if you have kidney disease or ... A blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test measures the amount of urea nitrogen found in your blood. Urea nitrogen is a waste product ... Blood Urea Nitrogen. Does this test have other names?. Urea nitrogen, BUN, serum BUN ... Either of these problems can lead to changes in the amount of urea nitrogen in your body. ...
Blood Urea Nitrogen as a Predictor of Severe Acute Pancreatitis Based on the Revised Atlanta Criteria: Timing of Measurement ... B. U. Wu, R. S. Johannes, X. Sun, D. L. Conwell, and P. A. Banks, "Early changes in blood urea nitrogen predict mortality in ... Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) is an important prognostic marker during the initial 24 hours of hospitalization for measuring SAP ... M. Faisst, U. F. Wellner, S. Utzolino, U. T. Hopt, and T. Keck, "Elevated blood urea nitrogen is an independent risk factor of ...
Certain conditions can cause abnormal blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. Use these differentials lists to rule out causes for ... Differential Diagnosis: Increased & Decreased Blood Urea Nitrogen. Julie Allen, BVMS, MS, MRCVS, DACVIM (SAIM), DACVP, Cornell ... Effect of immunosuppressive drug therapy on blood urea nitrogen concentration in dogs with azotemia. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1984; ... for patients presented with increased or decreased blood urea nitrogen (BUN). ...
Creatininemia Versus Uremia: The Relative Significance of Blood Urea Nitrogen and Serum Creatinine Concentrations in Azotemia ... Creatininemia Versus Uremia: The Relative Significance of Blood Urea Nitrogen and Serum Creatinine Concentrations in Azotemia. ... Although urea is present in greatest amount, errors can occur when increased urea concentration is accepted as synonymous with ... Nitrogen retention usually occurs when the renal function is less than 30% of normal. Recently, progressive renal dysfunction ...
BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) - Increases can be caused by excessive protein intake, kidney damage, certain drugs, low fluid intake ... Decreased levels may be due to a poor diet, malabsorption, liver damage or low nitrogen intake.. Normal Adult Range: 7 - 18 mg/ ...
Discusses blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test. Covers why and how it is done. Includes how to prepare for the test. Covers risks. ... Blood Urea Nitrogen. Test Overview. A blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test measures the amount of nitrogen in your blood that comes ... A blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test measures the amount of nitrogen in your blood that comes from the waste product urea. ... Blood urea nitrogen to creatinine ratio (BUN:creatinine). A BUN test may be done with a blood creatinine test. The level of ...
Relationship among antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, blood urea nitrogen and complement in patients with eosinophilic ... Serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels differed significantly between MPO-ANCA-positive and -negative patients. Serum CH50 ... We focused on differences among ANCA, blood urea nitrogen and complement levels such as complement 3 (C3), C4 and total ...
Client Laboratory Data Lab Test Sodium Potassium Chloride Carbon Dioxide Blood Urea ... Van Leeuwen, 2009 p. 277) 22-26 mmol/L 26 WNL Blood Urea Nitrogen Assess nutritional support. Evaluate renal function. (Van ...
A common test in a chemistry panel that measures the amount of nitrogen in the blood that comes from the waste product urea. It ... blood urea nitrogen test (BUN or AZO) A common test in a chemistry panel that measures the amount of nitrogen in the blood that ... comes from the waste product urea. It can be used to see how well the kidneys and liver are working and if dehydration is ...
Blood samples were taken before and after haemodialysis to measure blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, triiodothyronine ( ... Short communication: Creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and thyroid hormone levels before and after haemodialysis ... The aim of this study was to compare the serum levels of thyroid hormones T3 and T4 with blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and ... We suggest that a feedback relationship exists between the major end catabolic products (creatinine and blood urea nitrogen) ...
Blood Urea Nitrogen) Test Volume and Sales Forecasts by Country and Market Segment - France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, UK, ... 2016 BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) Test Volume and Sales Forecasts by Country and Market Segment - France, Germany, Italy, Japan, ... 2016 BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) Test Volume and Sales Forecasts by Country and Market Segment - France, Germany, Italy, Japan, ... 2016 BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) Test Volume and Sales Forecasts by Country and Market Segment - France, Germany, Italy, Japan, ...
Comparative changes in monthly blood urea nitrogen, total protein concentrations, and body condition scores of Nguni cows and ... The objective of this study was to determine the comparative changes in the monthly blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration, ... Comparative changes in monthly blood urea nitrogen, total protein concentrations, and body condition scores of Nguni cows and ... Blood samples were collected from the coccygeal vein, while body condition score was assessed once a month during weighing. ...
This test measures the amount of urea nitrogen in your blood. It can help your doctor find out if you have kidney disease or ... Urea nitrogen, BUN, serum BUN. What is this test?. A blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test measures the amount of urea nitrogen found ... Blood Urea Nitrogen. Does this test have other names?. ... Taking a blood sample with a needle carries risks that include ... If your healthcare provider suspects you may have a kidney problem, he or she may also order other blood and urine tests, as ...
What is Blood Urea Nitrogen Test? Meaning of Blood Urea Nitrogen Test medical term. What does Blood Urea Nitrogen Test mean? ... Looking for online definition of Blood Urea Nitrogen Test in the Medical Dictionary? Blood Urea Nitrogen Test explanation free ... Blood Urea Nitrogen Test. Blood Urea Nitrogen Test. Definition. The blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test measures the level of urea ... Urea then circulates in the blood in the form of urea nitrogen. In healthy people, most urea nitrogen is filtered out by the ...
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  • Individuals that develop hyperammonemia after birth are more likely to have hyperammonemia as a result in urea cycle enzyme deficiency (UCED). (wikipedia.org)
  • A study was done by Hudak to find the differences between transient hyperammonemia of the newborn (THAN) and urea cycle enzyme deficiency(UCED) on 33 THAN victims and 13 UCED victims. (wikipedia.org)
  • In milder (or partial) urea cycle enzyme deficiencies, ammonia accumulation may be triggered by illness or stress at almost any time of life, resulting in multiple mild elevations of plasma ammonia concentration [Bourrier et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Females also had an increased blood urea nitrogen level while males had a decreased leukocyte cell number. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrogen is present in the environment in a wide variety of chemical forms including organic nitrogen, ammonium (NH+ 4), nitrite (NO− 2), nitrate (NO− 3), nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric oxide (NO) or inorganic nitrogen gas (N2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Many drugs are mimics or prodrugs of natural nitrogen-containing signal molecules: for example, the organic nitrates nitroglycerin and nitroprusside control blood pressure by metabolizing into nitric oxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood loss, dehydration, and fluid leaking into the abdominal cavity (ascites) can lead to kidney failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • In states of intravascular volume depletion, proximal sodium and water reabsorption increases, coupled with a parallel increase in the reabsorption of urea. (medscape.com)
  • Sodium phenylbutyrate administration was discovered to lead to an alternative nitrogen disposal pathway by Dr. Saul Brusilow, Mark Batshaw and colleagues at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in the early 1980s, due to some serendipitous discoveries. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers spoke to Norman Radin about this finding, and he remembered a 1914 article on using sodium benzoate to reduce urea excretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium phenylbutyrate and sodium benzoate can serve as alternatives to urea for the excretion of waste nitrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • I.V. nitrogen scavenging therapy (with sodium benzoate and/or sodium phenylacetate) should normalize ammonia levels, but if unsuccessful, hemodialysis is recommended. (wikipedia.org)