The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Reinfusion of blood or blood products derived from the patient's own circulation. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The transfer of erythrocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
The transfer of blood platelets from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
Repetitive withdrawal of small amounts of blood and replacement with donor blood until a large proportion of the blood volume has been exchanged. Used in treatment of fetal erythroblastosis, hepatic coma, sickle cell anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septicemia, burns, thrombotic thrombopenic purpura, and fulminant malaria.
The transfer of blood components such as erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, and plasma from a donor to a recipient or back to the donor. This process differs from the procedures undertaken in PLASMAPHERESIS and types of CYTAPHERESIS; (PLATELETPHERESIS and LEUKAPHERESIS) where, following the removal of plasma or the specific cell components, the remainder is transfused back to the donor.
Loss of blood during a surgical procedure.
In utero transfusion of BLOOD into the FETUS for the treatment of FETAL DISEASES, such as fetal erythroblastosis (ERYTHROBLASTOSIS, FETAL).
Centers for collecting, characterizing and storing human blood.
Testing erythrocytes to determine presence or absence of blood-group antigens, testing of serum to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to these antigens, and selecting biocompatible blood by crossmatching samples from the donor against samples from the recipient. Crossmatching is performed prior to transfusion.
Recovery of blood lost from surgical procedures for reuse by the same patient in AUTOLOGOUS BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS. It is collected during (intraoperatively) or after completion of (postoperatively) the surgical procedures.
Passage of blood from one fetus to another via an arteriovenous communication or other shunt, in a monozygotic twin pregnancy. It results in anemia in one twin and polycythemia in the other. (Lee et al., Wintrobe's Clinical Hematology, 9th ed, p737-8)
A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.
Hemorrhage following any surgical procedure. It may be immediate or delayed and is not restricted to the surgical wound.
Antifibrinolytic hemostatic used in severe hemorrhage.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Agents that prevent fibrinolysis or lysis of a blood clot or thrombus. Several endogenous antiplasmins are known. The drugs are used to control massive hemorrhage and in other coagulation disorders.
Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.
Members of a religious denomination founded in the United States during the late 19th century in which active evangelism is practiced, the imminent approach of the millennium is preached, and war and organized government authority in matters of conscience are strongly opposed (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). Jehovah's Witnesses generally refuse blood transfusions and other blood-based treatments based on religious belief.
The process by which blood or its components are kept viable outside of the organism from which they are derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
An antigenic mismatch between donor and recipient blood. Antibodies present in the recipient's serum may be directed against antigens in the donor product. Such a mismatch may result in a transfusion reaction in which, for example, donor blood is hemolyzed. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984).
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The degree to which the blood supply for BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS is free of harmful substances or infectious agents, and properly typed and crossmatched (BLOOD GROUPING AND CROSSMATCHING) to insure serological compatibility between BLOOD DONORS and recipients.
The mildest form of erythroblastosis fetalis in which anemia is the chief manifestation.
The transfer of leukocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.
Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.
Substances that are used in place of blood, for example, as an alternative to BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS after blood loss to restore BLOOD VOLUME and oxygen-carrying capacity to the blood circulation, or to perfuse isolated organs.
The preparation of platelet concentrates with the return of red cells and platelet-poor plasma to the donor.
A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin. There is retardation of hemoglobin A synthesis in the heterozygous form (thalassemia minor), which is asymptomatic, while in the homozygous form (thalassemia major, Cooley's anemia, Mediterranean anemia, erythroblastic anemia), which can result in severe complications and even death, hemoglobin A synthesis is absent.
A condition characterized by the abnormal presence of ERYTHROBLASTS in the circulation of the FETUS or NEWBORNS. It is a disorder due to BLOOD GROUP INCOMPATIBILITY, such as the maternal alloimmunization by fetal antigen RH FACTORS leading to HEMOLYSIS of ERYTHROCYTES, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), general edema (HYDROPS FETALIS), and SEVERE JAUNDICE IN NEWBORN.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Agents acting to arrest the flow of blood. Absorbable hemostatics arrest bleeding either by the formation of an artificial clot or by providing a mechanical matrix that facilitates clotting when applied directly to the bleeding surface. These agents function more at the capillary level and are not effective at stemming arterial or venous bleeding under any significant intravascular pressure.
Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.
The removal of LEUKOCYTES from BLOOD to reduce BLOOD TRANSFUSION reactions and lower the chance of transmitting VIRUSES. This may be performed by FILTRATION or by CYTAPHERESIS.
A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.
Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.
Control of bleeding during or after surgery.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Transplacental passage of fetal blood into the circulation of the maternal organism. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.
Infectious organisms in the BLOOD, of which the predominant medical interest is their contamination of blood-soiled linens, towels, gowns, BANDAGES, other items from individuals in risk categories, NEEDLES and other sharp objects, MEDICAL WASTE and DENTAL WASTE, all of which health workers are exposed to. This concept is differentiated from the clinical conditions of BACTEREMIA; VIREMIA; and FUNGEMIA where the organism is present in the blood of a patient as the result of a natural infectious process.
Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.
The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
The process by which fetal Rh+ erythrocytes enter the circulation of an Rh- mother, causing her to produce IMMUNOGLOBULIN G antibodies, which can cross the placenta and destroy the erythrocytes of Rh+ fetuses. Rh isoimmunization can also be caused by BLOOD TRANSFUSION with mismatched blood.
Agents which improve the quality of the blood, increasing the hemoglobin level and the number of erythrocytes. They are used in the treatment of anemias.
Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
A single-chain polypeptide derived from bovine tissues consisting of 58 amino-acid residues. It is an inhibitor of proteolytic enzymes including CHYMOTRYPSIN; KALLIKREIN; PLASMIN; and TRYPSIN. It is used in the treatment of HEMORRHAGE associated with raised plasma concentrations of plasmin. It is also used to reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients at high risk of major blood loss during and following open heart surgery with EXTRACORPOREAL CIRCULATION. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
Replacement of the knee joint.
An excessive accumulation of iron in the body due to a greater than normal absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract or from parenteral injection. This may arise from idiopathic hemochromatosis, excessive iron intake, chronic alcoholism, certain types of refractory anemia, or transfusional hemosiderosis. (From Churchill's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1989)
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
Therapy of heavy metal poisoning using agents which sequester the metal from organs or tissues and bind it firmly within the ring structure of a new compound which can be eliminated from the body.
Surgery performed on the heart.
Excess blood loss from uterine bleeding associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH. It is defined as blood loss greater than 500 ml or of the amount that adversely affects the maternal physiology, such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEMATOCRIT. Postpartum hemorrhage is divided into two categories, immediate (within first 24 hours after birth) or delayed (after 24 hours postpartum).
An infant during the first month after birth.
The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.
The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
A group of hereditary hemolytic anemias in which there is decreased synthesis of one or more hemoglobin polypeptide chains. There are several genetic types with clinical pictures ranging from barely detectable hematologic abnormality to severe and fatal anemia.
A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of abnormalities in blood coagulation due to a variety of factors such as COAGULATION PROTEIN DISORDERS; BLOOD PLATELET DISORDERS; BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS or nutritional conditions.
Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)
The techniques used to draw blood from a vein for diagnostic purposes or for treatment of certain blood disorders such as erythrocytosis, hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, and porphyria cutanea tarda.
Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
The number of RETICULOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. The values are expressed as a percentage of the ERYTHROCYTE COUNT or in the form of an index ("corrected reticulocyte index"), which attempts to account for the number of circulating erythrocytes.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
An antifibrinolytic agent that acts by inhibiting plasminogen activators which have fibrinolytic properties.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).
Replacement of the hip joint.
A rare transmissible encephalopathy most prevalent between the ages of 50 and 70 years. Affected individuals may present with sleep disturbances, personality changes, ATAXIA; APHASIA, visual loss, weakness, muscle atrophy, MYOCLONUS, progressive dementia, and death within one year of disease onset. A familial form exhibiting autosomal dominant inheritance and a new variant CJD (potentially associated with ENCEPHALOPATHY, BOVINE SPONGIFORM) have been described. Pathological features include prominent cerebellar and cerebral cortical spongiform degeneration and the presence of PRIONS. (From N Engl J Med, 1998 Dec 31;339(27))
Bleeding from a PEPTIC ULCER that can be located in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The indelible marking of TISSUES, primarily SKIN, by pricking it with NEEDLES to imbed various COLORING AGENTS. Tattooing of the CORNEA is done to colorize LEUKOMA spots.
Erythrocyte isoantigens of the Rh (Rhesus) blood group system, the most complex of all human blood groups. The major antigen Rh or D is the most common cause of erythroblastosis fetalis.
Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.
The religion stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus Christ: the religion that believes in God as the Father Almighty who works redemptively through the Holy Spirit for men's salvation and that affirms Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior who proclaimed to man the gospel of salvation. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The period during a surgical operation.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the fetus and amniotic cavity through abdominal or uterine entry.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Bleeding from the nose.
The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
The aggregate of various economic, political, and social policies by which an imperial power maintains or extends its control over other areas or peoples. It includes the practice of or belief in acquiring and retaining colonies. The emphasis is less on its identity as an ideological political system than on its designation in a period of history. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.
Acquired hemolytic anemia due to the presence of AUTOANTIBODIES which agglutinate or lyse the patient's own RED BLOOD CELLS.
A test to detect non-agglutinating ANTIBODIES against ERYTHROCYTES by use of anti-antibodies (the Coombs' reagent.) The direct test is applied to freshly drawn blood to detect antibody bound to circulating red cells. The indirect test is applied to serum to detect the presence of antibodies that can bind to red blood cells.
Use of a thrombelastograph, which provides a continuous graphic record of the physical shape of a clot during fibrin formation and subsequent lysis.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Conditions in which there is a generalized increase in the iron stores of body tissues, particularly of liver and the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM, without demonstrable tissue damage. The name refers to the presence of stainable iron in the tissue in the form of hemosiderin.
A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.
A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
The insertion of a catheter through the skin and body wall into the kidney pelvis, mainly to provide urine drainage where the ureter is not functional. It is used also to remove or dissolve renal calculi and to diagnose ureteral obstruction.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
The senescence of RED BLOOD CELLS. Lacking the organelles that make protein synthesis possible, the mature erythrocyte is incapable of self-repair, reproduction, and carrying out certain functions performed by other cells. This limits the average life span of an erythrocyte to 120 days.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The time periods immediately before, during and following a surgical operation.
Specialized hospital facilities which provide diagnostic and therapeutic services for trauma patients.
Agents used to prevent or reverse the pathological events leading to sickling of erythrocytes in sickle cell conditions.
A space in which the pressure is far below atmospheric pressure so that the remaining gases do not affect processes being carried on in the space.
The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.
Measurement of hemoglobin concentration in blood.
Organized procedures for establishing patient identity, including use of bracelets, etc.
An autologous or commercial tissue adhesive containing FIBRINOGEN and THROMBIN. The commercial product is a two component system from human plasma that contains more than fibrinogen and thrombin. The first component contains highly concentrated fibrinogen, FACTOR VIII, fibronectin, and traces of other plasma proteins. The second component contains thrombin, calcium chloride, and antifibrinolytic agents such as APROTININ. Mixing of the two components promotes BLOOD CLOTTING and the formation and cross-linking of fibrin. The tissue adhesive is used for tissue sealing, HEMOSTASIS, and WOUND HEALING.
A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.
Acute hemorrhage or excessive fluid loss resulting in HYPOVOLEMIA.
A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of medical care.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.
Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen.
Yellow discoloration of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA in the NEWBORN. It is a sign of NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Most cases are transient self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) occurring in the first week of life, but some can be a sign of pathological disorders, particularly LIVER DISEASES.
A mucosal tumor of the urinary bladder or nasal cavity in which proliferating epithelium is invaginated beneath the surface and is more smoothly rounded than in other papillomas. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.
The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Acquired degenerative dilation or expansion (ectasia) of normal BLOOD VESSELS, often associated with aging. They are isolated, tortuous, thin-walled vessels and sources of bleeding. They occur most often in mucosal capillaries of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT leading to GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE and ANEMIA.
A species of protozoa infecting humans via the intermediate tick vector IXODES scapularis. The other hosts are the mouse PEROMYSCUS leucopus and meadow vole MICROTUS pennsylvanicus, which are fed on by the tick. Other primates can be experimentally infected with Babesia microti.
Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.
A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.
Organic and inorganic compounds that contain iron as an integral part of the molecule.
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
Surgery performed on the ear and its parts, the nose and nasal cavity, or the throat, including surgery of the adenoids, tonsils, pharynx, and trachea.
The black, tarry, foul-smelling FECES that contain degraded blood.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
Laboratory tests for evaluating the individual's clotting mechanism.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
The practice of medicine as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.
A family of RNA viruses, many of which cause disease in humans and domestic animals. There are three genera FLAVIVIRUS; PESTIVIRUS; and HEPACIVIRUS, as well as several unassigned species.
Techniques for controlling bleeding.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A condition of inadequate circulating red blood cells (ANEMIA) or insufficient HEMOGLOBIN due to premature destruction of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES).
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Multiple erythrocytic antigens that comprise at least three pairs of alternates and amorphs, determined by one complex gene or possibly several genes at closely linked loci. The system is important in transfusion reactions. Its expression involves the X-chromosome.
A membrane or barrier with micrometer sized pores used for separation purification processes.
Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.
Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.
Shortened forms of written words or phrases used for brevity.
Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.
A prolonged painful erection that may lasts hours and is not associated with sexual activity. It is seen in patients with SICKLE CELL ANEMIA, advanced malignancy, spinal trauma; and certain drug treatments.
Multiple physical insults or injuries occurring simultaneously.
A progressive condition usually characterized by combined failure of several organs such as the lungs, liver, kidney, along with some clotting mechanisms, usually postinjury or postoperative.
Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.
Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Health care provided to a critically ill patient during a medical emergency or crisis.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Starches that have been chemically modified so that a percentage of OH groups are substituted with 2-hydroxyethyl ether groups.
Accumulations of blood in the PERITONEAL CAVITY due to internal HEMORRHAGE.
The period following a surgical operation.

Intrauterine management of fetal parvovirus B19 infection. (1/64)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to determine the outcome of pregnancies after intrauterine management of fetal parvovirus B19 infection. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SUBJECTS: A total of 37 cases of maternofetal parvovirus B19 infection, 35 of which were associated with hydrops fetalis, were referred to our tertiary level center between 1989 and 1996. With regard to fetal hydrops, no apparent cause other than parvovirus B19 infection was found in any patient. METHODS: In all patients, cordocentesis was performed to assess the degree of fetal anemia. When anemia was present, cordocentesis was followed by intrauterine transfusion with packed red cells into the umbilical vein. Further management depended on the degree of fetal anemia and gestational age and included follow-up fetal blood sampling/transfusion as well as ultrasound examinations as deemed appropriate. RESULTS: Packed red cell transfusion was performed in 30 patients with significant fetal anemia (Z-score 1.6-7.8 below the mean for gestational age). The fetal hemoglobin values ranged from 2.1 to 9.6 g/dl. Serum levels of platelets in the transfusion group were 9-228 x 10(9)/l with Z-scores in the range of < 1 to 3.8 below the mean. During treatment and follow-up, there were five intrauterine deaths (13.5%), one neonatal death (2.7%) and 31 live births (83.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Fetal parvovirus infection can lead to marked anemia and hydrops formation. Cordocentesis allows precise assessment of fetal anemia which can then be corrected by intravenous transfusion. Under this regimen, the outcome proved favorable in the majority of fetuses, even those that were severely anemic.  (+info)

Cardiac changes in fetuses secondary to immune hemolytic anemia and their relation to hemoglobin and catecholamine concentrations in fetal blood. (2/64)

OBJECTIVES: Immune hemolytic anemia in the fetus may cause cardiac decompensation and intrauterine death. Postnatally, norepinephrine (noradrenaline) is released in chronic heart failure, and may lead to myocardial hypertrophy. The aim of this study was to determine fetal cardiac changes associated with immune hemolytic anemia by means of echocardiography, and to relate them to fetal hemoglobin and norepinephrine levels. DESIGN: Thirty anemic fetuses underwent a total of 76 umbilical venous transfusions. Before the procedure, fetal echocardiography was performed, and end-diastolic myocardial wall thicknesses and ventricular dimensions together with Doppler flow patterns at the atrioventricular and semilunar valves were measured. Fetal hemoglobin, epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations were determined before the transfusion. Statistical analysis of this prospective study comprised descriptive statistics including linear regression and correlation analyses. Two samples of measurements were compared by the Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: The mean hemoglobin concentration before the first transfusion was 6.9 g% at a mean gestational age of 26.8 weeks. Norepinephrine values were elevated in comparison to a reference range, and were higher than epinephrine values. The most striking echocardiographic finding was myocardial hypertrophy of all ventricular walls. Mean blood flow velocities were increased; at the left ventricle, they were negatively related to the hemoglobin concentrations, and positively to the norepinephrine values. CONCLUSIONS: Fetal myocardial hypertrophy in anemia may be the result of an augmented cardiac workload, indicated by the increased left ventricular mean velocities. This reaction reflects the redistribution of blood flow that may depend on hemoglobin and norepinephrine concentrations.  (+info)

Perinatal management of fetal hemolytic disease due to Rh incompatibility combined with fetal alloimmune thrombocytopenia due to HPA-5b incompatibility. (3/64)

We report out experience in the perinatal management of a complex case of fetal hemolytic disease primarily due to Rhesus incompatibility combined with fetal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. The lowest fetal hemoglobin and platelet levels were 2.6 g/dl and 13,000/microliter, respectively. Intrauterine treatment consisted of six transfusions of packed red cells into the umbilical vein and one transfusion of platelets. The neonate required four transfusions of packed red cells to correct her hyporegenerative erythropoiesis. Postnatal management also included one platelet transfusion, intravenous immunoglobulins and erythropoietin. Although some degree of fetal thrombocytopenia may invariably be found in fetal red cell incompatibility, other rare causes need to be excluded.  (+info)

Pathophysiology and treatment of fetal anemia due to placental chorioangioma. (4/64)

Placental chorioangiomas occur in 1% of pregnancies. Large chorioangiomas may cause serious complications such as fetal anemia, hydrops and fetal death. In this case report, a pregnancy complicated by a large placental chorioangioma is described. Severe fetal anemia without the occurrence of hydrops fetalis was suspected using ultrasound and Doppler examinations. Successful intrauterine blood transfusion was performed, with an unusually large amount of blood needed to obtain an adequate rise in fetal hematocrit. Two weeks later, at 32 weeks, the infant was born in good condition. In pregnancies with large chorioangiomas, we advise regular ultrasound and Doppler examinations, with the aim of detecting fetal anemia before hydrops develops. When anemia is suspected, fetal blood sampling is indicated and intrauterine transfusion therapy may be beneficial to preserve fetal health until maturity is reached.  (+info)

Survival of donor cells 25 years after intrauterine transfusion. (5/64)

Persistence of donor leukocytes in the circulation of recipients of intrauterine transfusion (IUT) has been observed up to 5 years after birth. The aim of this study was to determine whether transfusions with nonirradiated, nonleukocyte-depleted donor blood during the fetal period resulted in long-term immunomodulation of the recipient. Twenty-four surviving IUT recipients between 1966 and 1976 were tested for autoimmune disease and autoantibodies at follow-up. Ten had sex-mismatched donors and were therefore informative for chimerism studies using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Seven female recipients could be tested for chimerism using a Y- chromosome-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) because they received at least 1 IUT from a male donor. Nine recipients could be studied for cytotoxic T-lymphocyte precursor (CTLp) and helper T-lymphocyte precursor (HTLp) frequencies because the original donors were available for testing. All surviving IUT recipients were in good health at the time of the examination, and routine laboratory testing revealed no abnormalities. None of the IUT recipients were chimeric as determined by FISH analysis, but Y-chromosome-specific sequences were detected by PCR in 6 of the 7 women. However, the CTLp and HTLp frequencies of the IUT recipients against the donors were comparable to those of the controls. The current study provides evidence that IUT can result in the persistence of donor cells in the recipient for a period longer than 20 years but that it is not associated with immunotolerance or with signs of chronic antigenic stimulation. (Blood. 2000;95:2709-2714)  (+info)

Dual natriuretic peptide response to volume load in the fetal circulation. (6/64)

OBJECTIVE: To measure atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in control fetuses and fetuses with Rhesus isoimmunisation before and after intravascular transfusion. The current study was designed to investigate the response of ANP and BNP to cardiac short-term and long-term volume load in the human fetus. METHODS: Fetal blood samples were collected from 18 human fetuses (nine controls, nine anemic fetuses with Rhesus isoimmunisation before and after intravascular transfusion). Fetal ANP and BNP concentrations were measured and compared to maternal plasma levels. RESULTS: Both ANP and BNP were significantly higher in fetal blood compared to the mothers. Fetuses with Rhesus isoimmunisation, characterized by long-term cardiac overload, showed significantly elevated ANP but not BNP concentration compared to the fetal controls (ANP: 80.8+/-16.6 vs. 31.6+/-7.7 pg/ml, P<0.05). However, short-term volume load due to intravascular transfusion leads to a significant increase in the fetal BNP- but not ANP-plasma level (BNP: 112.9+/-14.1 vs. 64.8+/-6.6 pg/ml, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: ANP and BNP respond differently to cardiac short- and long-term volume load in the fetal circulation. Therefore, the data suggest that in the fetus, similar to adults, ANP and BNP constitute a dual natriuretic peptide system responsive to changes in cardiac filling pressure.  (+info)

Hydrops fetalis-associated congenital dyserythropoietic anemia treated with intrauterine transfusions and bone marrow transplantation. (7/64)

Hydrops fetalis is rarely caused by congenital dyserythropoietic anemia (CDA). We report a patient with hydrops fetalis as a result of severe anemia. This patient needed intrauterine transfusions from 21 weeks of gestation until birth. The hematologic study showed an atypical CDA (hydrops fetalis-associated CDA) characterized by features resembling CDA type II, but negative acidified serum lysis test (HEMPAS negative). The patient was regularly transfused for a year, after which an allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from an HLA-identical sibling was successfully carried out. His actual hemoglobin is 127 g/L, and he has not received transfusions for more than a year. In conclusion, intrauterine transfusions and BMT could cure an otherwise lethal atypical CDA.  (+info)

Management of single fetal death in twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome: a role for fetal blood sampling. (8/64)

OBJECTIVE: Intrauterine death of one twin in monochorionic pregnancies is associated with an increased mortality and morbidity of the cotwin. This is likely to occur as a consequence of acute hemodynamic changes due to feto-fetal hemorrhage at the time of death of the cotwin. We assessed the role of fetal blood sampling and intrauterine transfusion to rescue the survivor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We managed 12 cases of single intrauterine death at between 17 and 26 weeks' gestation in monochorionic twins complicated by twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). All these cases had been treated either by laser therapy or by serial amniodrainage. When the demise of one twin occurred, ultrasound-guided fetal blood sampling was performed in the surviving twin using a 20-gauge needle within 24 h of death. Intrauterine transfusion was performed at the same time in cases where the survivor was anemic. All survivors were assessed in the neonatal period and at 1 year of age. RESULTS: Six of the 12 surviving fetuses were found to be anemic and underwent intrauterine transfusion. All fetuses survived the procedure. Four of these fetuses had normal neurological development at 1 year of age. Periventricular leukomalacia developed in one case and the patient underwent termination of pregnancy at 34 weeks. In one case delivery occurred at 34 weeks' gestation and the baby developed periventricular leukomalacia at 1 month of age. In all six non-anemic fetuses pediatric examination was normal at birth and at 1 year of age. CONCLUSION: Intrauterine death of one monochorionic twin in TTTS puts the survivor at high risk of intrauterine death or of developing ischemic/hypoxic lesions. Our results suggest that fetal blood sampling is a useful diagnostic tool to identify those fetuses that are not anemic and hence unlikely to be at risk of developing a cerebral lesion.  (+info)

In general, surgical blood loss is considered excessive if it exceeds 10-20% of the patient's total blood volume. This can be determined by measuring the patient's hemoglobin levels before and after the procedure. A significant decrease in hemoglobin levels post-procedure may indicate excessive blood loss.

There are several factors that can contribute to surgical blood loss, including:

1. Injury to blood vessels or organs during the surgical procedure
2. Poor surgical technique
3. Use of scalpels or other sharp instruments that can cause bleeding
4. Failure to control bleeding with proper hemostatic techniques
5. Pre-existing medical conditions that increase the risk of bleeding, such as hemophilia or von Willebrand disease.

Excessive surgical blood loss can lead to a number of complications, including:

1. Anemia and low blood counts
2. Hypovolemic shock (a life-threatening condition caused by excessive fluid and blood loss)
3. Infection or sepsis
4. Poor wound healing
5. Reoperation or surgical intervention to control bleeding.

To prevent or minimize surgical blood loss, surgeons may use a variety of techniques, such as:

1. Applying topical hemostatic agents to the surgical site before starting the procedure
2. Using energy-based devices (such as lasers or ultrasonic devices) to seal blood vessels and control bleeding
3. Employing advanced surgical techniques that minimize tissue trauma and reduce the risk of bleeding
4. Monitoring the patient's hemoglobin levels throughout the procedure and taking appropriate action if bleeding becomes excessive.

During fetofetal transfusion, blood flows from one fetus to another through the placenta, which is a vital organ that provides oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetuses and removes waste products. The transfer of blood can occur through various channels, including the placental vasculature, umbilical cord, or other fetal-maternal interfaces.

There are different types of fetofetal transfusion, depending on the direction of blood flow:

1. Fetofetal transfusion in utero (in the womb): This is the most common type, where blood flows from one fetus to another within the womb.
2. Fetofetal transfusion through the placenta: In this type, blood flows from one fetus to the other through the placenta, which acts as a filter and regulates the exchange of nutrients and waste products between the mother's bloodstream and the fetuses'.
3. Fetofetal transfusion through the umbilical cord: This type occurs when the umbilical cord becomes tangled or compressed, causing blood to flow from one fetus to another.

The causes of fetofetal transfusion are not yet fully understood, but it is believed to be more common in multiple gestations (twins, triplets, etc.) and in cases where there is a placental abnormality or other complications during pregnancy.

Fetofetal transfusion can have both positive and negative effects on the development and health of the fetuses. On one hand, it can provide beneficial effects, such as:

1. Increased blood volume and oxygen supply: The transferred blood can help increase the blood volume and oxygen supply to the recipient fetus, which may be beneficial for its development and growth.
2. Improved nutrient supply: The transferred blood can also provide an increased supply of nutrients to the recipient fetus, which may improve its overall health and development.

However, fetofetal transfusion can also have negative effects, such as:

1. Anemia in the donor fetus: The loss of blood from the donor fetus can lead to anemia, which can negatively affect its growth and development.
2. Increased risk of complications: Fetofetal transfusion can increase the risk of complications during pregnancy, such as preterm labor, preeclampsia, and placental abruption.
3. Adverse effects on fetal development: The transferred blood can also contain substances that are not beneficial for the recipient fetus, which can lead to adverse effects on its development and growth.

Fetofetal transfusion is usually detected during routine ultrasound examinations, where it may appear as an abnormal flow of blood between the fetuses or as a collection of blood in the placenta or umbilical cord. If diagnosed early, fetofetal transfusion can be monitored and managed with regular ultrasound examinations and close maternal monitoring. In some cases, the condition may resolve on its own without any complications.

In severe cases, however, fetofetal transfusion may require medical intervention, such as:

1. Blood sampling: Blood samples may be taken from the donor fetus to determine the extent of the transfer and to monitor the health of both fetuses.
2. Corticosteroid therapy: Corticosteroids may be administered to the mother to promote fetal maturity and reduce the risk of complications.
3. Planned delivery: In some cases, planned delivery may be necessary to avoid any potential risks to the fetuses.

It is important for pregnant women who have a multiple pregnancy to be aware of the risk of fetofetal transfusion and to seek regular prenatal care to monitor the health of both fetuses. Early detection and management can help reduce the risk of complications and improve outcomes for both fetuses.

There are many different types of anemia, each with its own set of causes and symptoms. Some common types of anemia include:

1. Iron-deficiency anemia: This is the most common type of anemia and is caused by a lack of iron in the diet or a problem with the body's ability to absorb iron. Iron is essential for making hemoglobin.
2. Vitamin deficiency anemia: This type of anemia is caused by a lack of vitamins, such as vitamin B12 or folate, that are necessary for red blood cell production.
3. Anemia of chronic disease: This type of anemia is seen in people with chronic diseases, such as kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer.
4. Sickle cell anemia: This is a genetic disorder that affects the structure of hemoglobin and causes red blood cells to be shaped like crescents or sickles.
5. Thalassemia: This is a genetic disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin and can cause anemia, fatigue, and other health problems.

The symptoms of anemia can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include fatigue, weakness, pale skin, shortness of breath, and dizziness or lightheadedness. Anemia can be diagnosed with a blood test that measures the number and size of red blood cells, as well as the levels of hemoglobin and other nutrients.

Treatment for anemia depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, dietary changes or supplements may be sufficient to treat anemia. For example, people with iron-deficiency anemia may need to increase their intake of iron-rich foods or take iron supplements. In other cases, medical treatment may be necessary to address underlying conditions such as kidney disease or cancer.

Preventing anemia is important for maintaining good health and preventing complications. To prevent anemia, it is important to eat a balanced diet that includes plenty of iron-rich foods, vitamin C-rich foods, and other essential nutrients. It is also important to avoid certain substances that can interfere with the absorption of nutrients, such as alcohol and caffeine. Additionally, it is important to manage any underlying medical conditions and seek medical attention if symptoms of anemia persist or worsen over time.

In conclusion, anemia is a common blood disorder that can have significant health implications if left untreated. It is important to be aware of the different types of anemia, their causes, and symptoms in order to seek medical attention if necessary. With proper diagnosis and treatment, many cases of anemia can be successfully managed and prevented.

1. Injury to blood vessels during surgery
2. Poor suturing or stapling techniques
3. Bleeding disorders or use of anticoagulant medications
4. Infection or hematoma (a collection of blood outside the blood vessels)
5. Delayed recovery of blood clotting function

Postoperative hemorrhage can range from mild to severe and life-threatening. Mild bleeding may present as oozing or trickling of blood from the surgical site, while severe bleeding can lead to hypovolemic shock, organ failure, and even death.

To diagnose postoperative hemorrhage, a physical examination and medical history are usually sufficient. Imaging studies such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be ordered to evaluate the extent of bleeding and identify any underlying causes.

Treatment of postoperative hemorrhage depends on the severity and location of the bleeding. Mild bleeding may be managed with dressings, compression bandages, and elevation of the affected limb. Severe bleeding may require interventions such as:

1. Surgical exploration to locate and control the source of bleeding
2. Transfusion of blood products or fresh frozen plasma to restore clotting function
3. Use of vasopressors to raise blood pressure and perfuse vital organs
4. Hemostatic agents such as clotting factors, fibrin sealants, or hemostatic powder to promote clot formation
5. In some cases, surgical intervention may be required to repair damaged blood vessels or organs.

Prevention of postoperative hemorrhage is crucial in reducing the risk of complications and improving patient outcomes. Preventive measures include:

1. Proper preoperative evaluation and preparation, including assessment of bleeding risk factors
2. Use of appropriate anesthesia and surgical techniques to minimize tissue trauma
3. Conservative use of hemostatic agents and blood products during surgery
4. Closure of all bleeding sites before completion of the procedure
5. Monitoring of vital signs, including pulse rate and blood pressure, during and after surgery
6. Preoperative and postoperative management of underlying conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, and coagulopathies.

Early recognition and prompt intervention are critical in effectively managing postoperative hemorrhage. In cases of severe bleeding, timely and appropriate interventions can reduce the risk of complications and improve patient outcomes.

Blood group incompatibility can occur in various ways, including:

1. ABO incompatibility: This is the most common type of blood group incompatibility and occurs when the patient's blood type (A or B) is different from the donor's blood type.
2. Rh incompatibility: This occurs when the patient's Rh factor is different from the donor's Rh factor.
3. Other antigens: In addition to ABO and Rh, there are other antigens on red blood cells that can cause incompatibility, such as Kell, Duffy, and Xg.

Blood group incompatibility can be diagnosed through blood typing and cross-matching tests. These tests determine the patient's and donor's blood types and identify any incompatible antigens that may cause an immune response.

Treatment of blood group incompatibility usually involves finding a compatible donor or using specialized medications to reduce the risk of a negative reaction. In some cases, plasmapheresis, also known as plasma exchange, may be used to remove the incompatible antibodies from the patient's blood.

Prevention of blood group incompatibility is important, and this can be achieved by ensuring that patients receive only compatible blood products during transfusions. Blood banks maintain a database of donor blood types and perform thorough testing before releasing blood for transfusion to ensure compatibility. Additionally, healthcare providers should carefully review the patient's medical history and current medications to identify any potential allergies or sensitivities that may affect blood compatibility.

A condition where newborn babies have a lower than normal number of red blood cells or low levels of hemoglobin in their blood. The condition can be caused by various factors such as premature birth, low birth weight, infections, and genetic disorders. Symptoms may include jaundice, fatigue, and difficulty breathing. Treatment options may vary depending on the underlying cause but may include blood transfusions and iron supplements.

Example usage: "Neonatal anemia is a common condition in newborn babies that can be caused by various factors such as premature birth or low birth weight."

There are two main types of beta-thalassemia:

1. Beta-thalassemia major (also known as Cooley's anemia): This is the most severe form of the condition, and it can cause serious health problems and a shortened lifespan if left untreated. Children with this condition are typically diagnosed at birth or in early childhood, and they may require regular blood transfusions and other medical interventions to manage their symptoms and prevent complications.
2. Beta-thalassemia minor (also known as thalassemia trait): This is a milder form of the condition, and it may not cause any noticeable symptoms. People with beta-thalassemia minor have one mutated copy of the HBB gene and one healthy copy, which allows them to produce some normal hemoglobin. However, they may still be at risk for complications such as anemia, fatigue, and a higher risk of infections.

The symptoms of beta-thalassemia can vary depending on the severity of the condition and the age of onset. Common symptoms include:

* Fatigue
* Weakness
* Pale skin
* Shortness of breath
* Frequent infections
* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
* Enlarged spleen

Beta-thalassemia is most commonly found in people of Mediterranean, African, and Southeast Asian ancestry. It is caused by mutations in the HBB gene, which is inherited from one's parents. There is no cure for beta-thalassemia, but it can be managed with blood transfusions, chelation therapy, and other medical interventions. Bone marrow transplantation may also be a viable option for some patients.

In conclusion, beta-thalassemia is a genetic disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin, leading to anemia, fatigue, and other complications. While there is no cure for the condition, it can be managed with medical interventions and bone marrow transplantation may be a viable option for some patients. Early diagnosis and management are crucial in preventing or minimizing the complications of beta-thalassemia.

The condition is caused by sensitization of the mother's immune system to the Rh factor, which can occur when the mother's blood comes into contact with the fetus's blood during pregnancy or childbirth. The antibodies produced by the mother's immune system can attack the red blood cells of the fetus, leading to hemolytic anemia and potentially causing stillbirth or death in the newborn.

Erythroblastosis fetalis is diagnosed through blood tests that measure the levels of antibodies against the Rh factor. Treatment typically involves the administration of Rh immune globulin, which can help to prevent the mother's immune system from producing more antibodies against the Rh factor and reduce the risk of complications for the fetus. In severe cases, a blood transfusion may be necessary to increase the newborn's red blood cell count.

Erythroblastosis fetalis is a serious condition that requires close monitoring and proper medical management to prevent complications and ensure the best possible outcome for both the mother and the baby.

1. Infection: Bacterial or viral infections can develop after surgery, potentially leading to sepsis or organ failure.
2. Adhesions: Scar tissue can form during the healing process, which can cause bowel obstruction, chronic pain, or other complications.
3. Wound complications: Incisional hernias, wound dehiscence (separation of the wound edges), and wound infections can occur.
4. Respiratory problems: Pneumonia, respiratory failure, and atelectasis (collapsed lung) can develop after surgery, particularly in older adults or those with pre-existing respiratory conditions.
5. Cardiovascular complications: Myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac failure can occur after surgery, especially in high-risk patients.
6. Renal (kidney) problems: Acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease can develop postoperatively, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal impairment.
7. Neurological complications: Stroke, seizures, and neuropraxia (nerve damage) can occur after surgery, especially in patients with pre-existing neurological conditions.
8. Pulmonary embolism: Blood clots can form in the legs or lungs after surgery, potentially causing pulmonary embolism.
9. Anesthesia-related complications: Respiratory and cardiac complications can occur during anesthesia, including respiratory and cardiac arrest.
10. delayed healing: Wound healing may be delayed or impaired after surgery, particularly in patients with pre-existing medical conditions.

It is important for patients to be aware of these potential complications and to discuss any concerns with their surgeon and healthcare team before undergoing surgery.

Sickle cell anemia is caused by mutations in the HBB gene that codes for hemoglobin. The most common mutation is a point mutation at position 6, which replaces the glutamic acid amino acid with a valine (Glu6Val). This substitution causes the hemoglobin molecule to be unstable and prone to forming sickle-shaped cells.

The hallmark symptom of sickle cell anemia is anemia, which is a low number of healthy red blood cells. People with the condition may also experience fatigue, weakness, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), infections, and episodes of severe pain. Sickle cell anemia can also increase the risk of stroke, heart disease, and other complications.

Sickle cell anemia is diagnosed through blood tests that measure hemoglobin levels and the presence of sickle cells. Treatment typically involves managing symptoms and preventing complications with medications, blood transfusions, and antibiotics. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may be recommended.

Prevention of sickle cell anemia primarily involves avoiding the genetic mutations that cause the condition. This can be done through genetic counseling and testing for individuals who have a family history of the condition or are at risk of inheriting it. Prenatal testing is also available for pregnant women who may be carriers of the condition.

Overall, sickle cell anemia is a serious genetic disorder that can significantly impact quality of life and life expectancy if left untreated. However, with proper management and care, individuals with the condition can lead fulfilling lives and manage their symptoms effectively.

Example sentence: The patient had a hemorrhage after the car accident and needed immediate medical attention.

The term "fetomaternal" refers to the interaction between the developing fetus and the mother during pregnancy. In this context, "transfusion" describes the transfer of blood from one location to another.

Fetomaternal transfusion can occur in various conditions, such as:

1. Twin-to-twin transfusion: This occurs when there is a shared placenta between twins and blood flows from one twin to the other.
2. Fetal-maternal transfusion: This occurs when blood flows from the fetus to the mother through the umbilical cord or the maternal circulation.
3. Placental abruption: This occurs when the placenta separates from the uterine wall, leading to bleeding and a transfer of blood from the placenta to the mother.

Fetomaternal transfusion can be diagnosed using ultrasound examination, which can detect changes in the amount of blood flowing through the placenta or umbilical cord. Treatment options for fetomaternal transfusion depend on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, delivery may be necessary to prevent complications.

Overall, fetomaternal transfusion is a rare but potentially serious condition that can have significant implications for both the developing fetus and the mother during pregnancy.

There are several types of hepatitis C, including genotype 1, which is the most common and accounts for approximately 70% of cases in the United States. Other genotypes include 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The symptoms of hepatitis C can range from mild to severe and may include fatigue, fever, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, joint pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), dark urine, pale stools, and itching all over the body. Some people with hepatitis C may not experience any symptoms at all.

Hepatitis C is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests that detect the presence of antibodies against HCV or the virus itself. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, including interferon and ribavirin, which can cure the infection but may have side effects such as fatigue, nausea, and depression. In recent years, new drugs known as direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have become available, which can cure the infection with fewer side effects and in a shorter period of time.

Prevention measures for hepatitis C include avoiding sharing needles or other drug paraphernalia, using condoms to prevent sexual transmission, and ensuring that any tattoos or piercings are performed with sterilized equipment. Vaccines are also available for people who are at high risk of contracting the virus, such as healthcare workers and individuals who engage in high-risk behaviors.

Overall, hepatitis C is a serious and common liver disease that can lead to significant health complications if left untreated. Fortunately, with advances in medical technology and treatment options, it is possible to manage and cure the virus with proper care and attention.

Isoimmunization is a condition that occurs when an individual has antibodies against their own red blood cell antigens, specifically the Rh antigen. This can happen due to various reasons such as:

1. Incompatibility between the mother's and father's Rh antigens, leading to the development of antibodies in the mother during pregnancy or childbirth.
2. Blood transfusions from an incompatible donor.
3. Certain medical conditions like autoimmune hemolytic anemia or bone marrow transplantation.

Rh isoimmunization can lead to a range of complications, including:

1. Hemolytic disease of the newborn: This is a condition where the baby's red blood cells are destroyed by the mother's antibodies, leading to anemia, jaundice, and other serious complications.
2. Rh hemolytic crisis: This is a severe and potentially life-threatening complication that can occur during pregnancy or childbirth.
3. Chronic hemolytic anemia: This is a condition where the red blood cells are continuously destroyed, leading to anemia and other complications.

Rh isoimmunization can be diagnosed through blood tests such as the direct antiglobulin test (DAT) or the indirect Coombs test (ICT). Treatment typically involves managing any underlying conditions and monitoring for complications. In severe cases, a bone marrow transplant may be necessary. Prevention is key, and women who are Rh-negative should receive an injection of Rh immune globulin during pregnancy to prevent the development of antibodies against the Rh antigen.

The severity of GIH can vary widely, ranging from mild to life-threatening. Mild cases may resolve on their own or with minimal treatment, while severe cases may require urgent medical attention and aggressive intervention.

Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Symptoms:

* Vomiting blood or passing black tarry stools
* Hematemesis (vomiting blood)
* Melena (passing black, tarry stools)
* Rectal bleeding
* Abdominal pain
* Fever
* Weakness and dizziness

Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Causes:

* Peptic ulcers
* Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
* Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
* Diverticulosis and diverticulitis
* Cancer of the stomach, small intestine, or large intestine
* Vascular malformations

Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Diagnosis:

* Physical examination
* Medical history
* Laboratory tests (such as complete blood count and coagulation studies)
* Endoscopy (to visualize the inside of the gastrointestinal tract)
* Imaging studies (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI)

Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Treatment:

* Medications to control bleeding and reduce acid production in the stomach
* Endoscopy to locate and treat the site of bleeding
* Surgery to repair damaged blood vessels or remove a bleeding tumor
* Blood transfusions to replace lost blood

Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Prevention:

* Avoiding alcohol and spicy foods
* Taking medications as directed to control acid reflux and other gastrointestinal conditions
* Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
* Reducing stress
* Avoiding smoking and excessive caffeine consumption.

Symptoms of iron overload can include fatigue, weakness, joint pain, and abdominal discomfort. Treatment for iron overload usually involves reducing iron intake and undergoing regular phlebotomy (blood removal) to remove excess iron from the body. In severe cases, iron chelation therapy may be recommended to help remove excess iron from tissues and organs.

In addition to these medical definitions and treatments, there are also some key points to keep in mind when it comes to iron overload:

1. Iron is essential for human health, but too much of it can be harmful. The body needs a certain amount of iron to produce hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. However, excessive iron levels can damage organs and tissues.
2. Hereditary hemochromatosis is the most common cause of iron overload. This genetic disorder causes the body to absorb too much iron from food, leading to its accumulation in organs and tissues.
3. Iron overload can increase the risk of certain diseases, such as liver cirrhosis, diabetes, and heart disease. It can also lead to a condition called hemosiderosis, which is characterized by the deposition of iron in tissues and organs.
4. Phlebotomy is a safe and effective treatment for iron overload. Regular blood removal can help reduce excess iron levels and prevent complications such as liver damage, heart failure, and anemia.
5. Iron chelation therapy may be recommended in severe cases of iron overload. This involves using drugs to remove excess iron from tissues and organs, but it is not always necessary and can have potential side effects.

Postpartum hemorrhage can be caused by various factors, including:

1. Uterine atony: This occurs when the uterus fails to contract properly after delivery, leading to excessive bleeding.
2. Lacerations or tears in the genital tract: Tears in the vaginal tissues, cervix, or uterus can cause bleeding.
3. Placenta accreta or placenta praevia: These conditions occur when the placenta attaches abnormally to the uterine wall, causing bleeding during delivery.
4. Cervical insufficiency: This occurs when the cervix is unable to support the weight of the baby, leading to bleeding.
5. Blood coagulopathy disorders: These are rare conditions that affect the body's ability to form blood clots, leading to excessive bleeding.

Symptoms of PPH may include:

1. Heavy bleeding within the first 24 hours post-delivery
2. Soaking more than two pads per hour
3. Pale or clammy skin
4. Weak or rapid pulse
5. Shallow breathing
6. Confusion or disorientation

Treatment for PPH may include:

1. Observation and monitoring of vital signs
2. Administration of oxytocin to stimulate uterine contractions
3. Use of a blood transfusion to replace lost blood volume
4. Surgical intervention, such as suturing or repairing any lacerations or tears
5. Management of underlying causes, such as blood coagulopathy disorders

Prevention of PPH includes:

1. Proper prenatal care and monitoring of the mother's health during pregnancy
2. Use of cesarean delivery if necessary
3. Avoidance of excessive forceps or vacuum extraction during delivery
4. Use of oxytocin and other medications to stimulate uterine contractions
5. Close monitoring of the mother's vital signs after delivery

It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the risk factors and symptoms of PPH, as well as the appropriate treatment and prevention strategies, in order to provide optimal care for mothers at risk of developing this condition.

There are two main types of thalassemia: alpha-thalassemia and beta-thalassemia. Alpha-thalassemia is caused by abnormalities in the production of the alpha-globin chain, which is one of the two chains that make up hemoglobin. Beta-thalassemia is caused by abnormalities in the production of the beta-globin chain.

Thalassemia can cause a range of symptoms, including anemia, fatigue, pale skin, and shortness of breath. In severe cases, it can lead to life-threatening complications such as heart failure, liver failure, and bone deformities. Thalassemia is usually diagnosed through blood tests that measure the levels of hemoglobin and other proteins in the blood.

There is no cure for thalassemia, but treatment can help manage the symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment may include blood transfusions, folic acid supplements, and medications to reduce the severity of anemia. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may be recommended.

Preventive measures for thalassemia include genetic counseling and testing for individuals who are at risk of inheriting the disorder. Prenatal testing is also available for pregnant women who are carriers of the disorder. In addition, individuals with thalassemia should avoid marriage within their own family or community to reduce the risk of passing on the disorder to their children.

Overall, thalassemia is a serious and inherited blood disorder that can have significant health implications if left untreated. However, with proper treatment and management, individuals with thalassemia can lead fulfilling lives and minimize the risk of complications.

There are several possible causes of thrombocytopenia, including:

1. Immune-mediated disorders such as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
2. Bone marrow disorders such as aplastic anemia or leukemia.
3. Viral infections such as HIV or hepatitis C.
4. Medications such as chemotherapy or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
5. Vitamin deficiencies, especially vitamin B12 and folate.
6. Genetic disorders such as Bernard-Soulier syndrome.
7. Sepsis or other severe infections.
8. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), a condition where blood clots form throughout the body.
9. Postpartum thrombocytopenia, which can occur in some women after childbirth.

Symptoms of thrombocytopenia may include easy bruising, petechiae (small red or purple spots on the skin), and prolonged bleeding from injuries or surgical sites. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause but may include platelet transfusions, steroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and in severe cases, surgery.

In summary, thrombocytopenia is a condition characterized by low platelet counts that can increase the risk of bleeding and bruising. It can be caused by various factors, and treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause.

Types of Blood Coagulation Disorders:

1. Hemophilia A: A genetic disorder that affects the blood's ability to clot, leading to prolonged bleeding after injury or surgery.
2. Hemophilia B: Similar to hemophilia A, but caused by a deficiency of factor IX instead of factor VIII.
3. Von Willebrand Disease (VWD): A bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency of von Willebrand factor, which is needed for blood clotting.
4. Platelet Disorders: These include conditions such as low platelet count (thrombocytopenia) or abnormal platelet function, which can increase the risk of bleeding.
5. Coagulopathy: A general term for any disorder that affects the body's blood coagulation process.

Symptoms and Diagnosis:

Blood coagulation disorders can cause a range of symptoms, including easy bruising, frequent nosebleeds, and prolonged bleeding after injury or surgery. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood clotting factor assays and platelet function tests.

Treatment and Management:

Treatment for blood coagulation disorders depends on the specific condition and its severity. Some common treatments include:

1. Infusions of clotting factor concentrates to replace missing or deficient factors.
2. Desmopressin, a medication that stimulates the release of von Willebrand factor and platelets.
3. Platelet transfusions to increase platelet count.
4. Anticoagulation therapy to prevent blood clots from forming.
5. Surgery to repair damaged blood vessels or joints.

Prevention and Prognosis:

Prevention of blood coagulation disorders is often challenging, but some steps can be taken to reduce the risk of developing these conditions. These include:

1. Avoiding trauma or injury that can cause bleeding.
2. Managing underlying medical conditions such as liver disease, vitamin deficiencies, and autoimmune disorders.
3. Avoiding medications that can interfere with blood clotting.

The prognosis for blood coagulation disorders varies depending on the specific condition and its severity. Some conditions, such as mild hemophilia A, may have a good prognosis with appropriate treatment, while others, such as severe hemophilia B, can have a poor prognosis without proper management.

Complications and Comorbidities:

Blood coagulation disorders can lead to a range of complications and comorbidities, including:

1. Joint damage and chronic pain due to repeated bleeding into joints.
2. Infection and sepsis from bacteria entering the body through bleeding sites.
3. Arthritis and other inflammatory conditions.
4. Nerve damage and neuropathy from bleeding into nerve tissue.
5. Increased risk of bleeding during surgery or trauma.
6. Emotional and social challenges due to the impact of the condition on daily life.
7. Financial burden of treatment and management costs.
8. Impaired quality of life, including reduced mobility and activity levels.
9. Increased risk of blood clots and thromboembolic events.
10. Psychological distress and anxiety related to the condition.


Blood coagulation disorders are a group of rare and complex conditions that can significantly impact quality of life, productivity, and longevity. These disorders can be caused by genetic or acquired factors and can lead to a range of complications and comorbidities. Diagnosis is often challenging, but prompt recognition and appropriate treatment can improve outcomes. Management strategies include replacing missing clotting factors, using blood products, and managing underlying conditions. While the prognosis varies depending on the specific condition and its severity, early diagnosis and effective management can improve quality of life and reduce the risk of complications.

Note: This definition may have some variations in different contexts and medical fields.


* Rapidly progressive dementia
* Ataxia (loss of coordination and balance)
* Myoclonus (involuntary muscle jerks)
* Visual disturbances
* Cognitive decline


* Clinical evaluation
* Neuroimaging studies (MRI, CT scans)
* Electroencephalography (EEG)
* Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination

Treatment and Management:

* There is no cure for CJD, but various medications can be used to manage the symptoms.
* Palliative care is essential to alleviate suffering and improve quality of life.
* Supportive care includes physical therapy, speech therapy, and occupational therapy.


* CJD is a rapidly progressive disease with a poor prognosis, typically leading to death within 1-2 years after onset of symptoms.

Causes and Risk Factors:

* The cause of CJD is the transmission of misfolded prions, which are infectious proteins that accumulate in the brain.
* The most common form of transmission is through medical procedures using contaminated tissue, such as corneal transplants or dura mater grafts.
* There is also a rare genetic form of CJD, which is inherited from one's parents.


* CJD can lead to various complications, including pneumonia, seizures, and coma.
* The disease can also cause psychiatric symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and hallucinations.

In conclusion, Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome is a rare and fatal brain disorder characterized by rapid neurological deterioration, prion accumulation in the brain, and poor prognosis. It is important to be aware of the causes and risk factors of CJD, as well as its symptoms and complications, to provide appropriate diagnosis and treatment for affected individuals.

A peptic ulcer hemorrhage is a serious complication that occurs when an ulcer in the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) bleeds. The bleeding can be severe and life-threatening, and it requires immediate medical attention.


There are several factors that can contribute to the development of a peptic ulcer hemorrhage, including:

1. Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacteria
2. Long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen
3. Excessive alcohol consumption
4. Smoking
5. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, a rare condition that causes the stomach to produce too much acid
6. Crohn's disease, an inflammatory bowel disorder
7. Ulcers caused by other conditions such as cancer, trauma, or radiation therapy


The symptoms of a peptic ulcer hemorrhage can vary depending on the severity of the bleeding, but they may include:

1. Vomiting blood or coffee ground-like material
2. Dark, tarry stools
3. Abdominal pain that worsens over time
4. Weakness and lightheadedness due to blood loss
5. Pale, cool, or clammy skin


To diagnose a peptic ulcer hemorrhage, a healthcare provider may use one or more of the following tests:

1. Endoscopy: A thin, flexible tube with a camera and light on the end is inserted through the mouth to visualize the stomach and duodenum.
2. Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding scale: This is a system used to assess the severity of bleeding based on symptoms and physical examination findings.
3. Blood tests: These may be used to check for signs of anemia, such as low red blood cell count or high levels of hemoglobin in the urine.
4. Upper GI series: This is a test that uses X-rays to visualize the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.
5. CT scan: A computerized tomography (CT) scan may be used to rule out other causes of bleeding, such as a ruptured ulcer or tumor.


The goal of treatment for a peptic ulcer hemorrhage is to stop the bleeding and prevent further complications. Treatment options may include:

1. Medications: These may include antacids, H2 blockers, or proton pump inhibitors to reduce acid production and protect the ulcer from further irritation.
2. Endoscopy: A healthcare provider may use an endoscope to locate the source of bleeding and apply a topical treatment such as cautery, sclerotherapy, or argon plasma coagulation to stop the bleeding.
3. Interventional radiology: In some cases, a healthcare provider may use interventional radiology techniques to embolize (block) the blood vessel feeding the ulcer. This can help stop the bleeding and promote healing.
4. Surgery: In rare cases where other treatments have failed, surgery may be necessary to repair the ulcer or remove any damaged tissue.


To prevent peptic ulcer hemorrhage from recurring, it is important to take steps to prevent further irritation of the ulcer and promote healing. This may include:

1. Avoiding NSAIDs and aspirin: These medications can irritate the stomach lining and increase the risk of bleeding.
2. Avoiding alcohol and smoking: Both of these can irritate the stomach lining and impair healing.
3. Eating a healthy diet: Avoiding spicy or acidic foods and eating smaller, more frequent meals can help reduce symptoms and promote healing.
4. Managing stress: Stress can exacerbate peptic ulcer symptoms and impair healing.
5. Taking medications as directed: If your healthcare provider has prescribed medication to treat your peptic ulcer, it is important to take it as directed.
6. Follow-up care: Regular follow-up appointments with your healthcare provider can help monitor your condition and ensure that any complications are addressed promptly.

Some common examples of intraoperative complications include:

1. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding during surgery can lead to hypovolemia (low blood volume), anemia (low red blood cell count), and even death.
2. Infection: Surgical wounds can become infected, leading to sepsis or bacteremia (bacterial infection of the bloodstream).
3. Nerve damage: Surgery can sometimes result in nerve damage, leading to numbness, weakness, or paralysis.
4. Organ injury: Injury to organs such as the liver, lung, or bowel can occur during surgery, leading to complications such as bleeding, infection, or organ failure.
5. Anesthesia-related complications: Problems with anesthesia can include respiratory or cardiac depression, allergic reactions, or awareness during anesthesia (a rare but potentially devastating complication).
6. Hypotension: Low blood pressure during surgery can lead to inadequate perfusion of vital organs and tissues, resulting in organ damage or death.
7. Thromboembolism: Blood clots can form during surgery and travel to other parts of the body, causing complications such as stroke, pulmonary embolism, or deep vein thrombosis.
8. Postoperative respiratory failure: Respiratory complications can occur after surgery, leading to respiratory failure, pneumonia, or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
9. Wound dehiscence: The incision site can separate or come open after surgery, leading to infection, fluid accumulation, or hernia.
10. Seroma: A collection of serous fluid that can develop at the surgical site, which can become infected and cause complications.
11. Nerve damage: Injury to nerves during surgery can result in numbness, weakness, or paralysis, sometimes permanently.
12. Urinary retention or incontinence: Surgery can damage the bladder or urinary sphincter, leading to urinary retention or incontinence.
13. Hematoma: A collection of blood that can develop at the surgical site, which can become infected and cause complications.
14. Pneumonia: Inflammation of the lungs after surgery can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi and can lead to serious complications.
15. Sepsis: A systemic inflammatory response to infection that can occur after surgery, leading to organ dysfunction and death if not treated promptly.

It is important to note that these are potential complications, and not all patients will experience them. Additionally, many of these complications are rare, and the vast majority of surgeries are successful with minimal or no complications. However, it is important for patients to be aware of the potential risks before undergoing surgery so they can make an informed decision about their care.

The symptoms of hepatitis B can range from mild to severe and may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, joint pain, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). In some cases, hepatitis B can be asymptomatic, meaning that individuals may not experience any symptoms at all.

Hepatitis B is diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of HBV antigens or antibodies in the body. Treatment for acute hepatitis B typically involves rest, hydration, and medication to manage symptoms, while chronic hepatitis B may require ongoing therapy with antiviral drugs to suppress the virus and prevent liver damage.

Preventive measures for hepatitis B include vaccination, which is recommended for individuals at high risk of infection, such as healthcare workers, sexually active individuals, and those traveling to areas where HBV is common. In addition, safe sex practices, avoiding sharing of needles or other bodily fluids, and proper sterilization of medical equipment can help reduce the risk of transmission.

Overall, hepatitis B is a serious infection that can have long-term consequences for liver health, and it is important to take preventive measures and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Definition: A nosebleed, also known as a bloody nose, is a common condition that occurs when the nasal passages bleed. It can be caused by a variety of factors, such as dry air, allergies, colds, sinus infections, and injuries to the nose.

Synonyms: Nosebleed, bloody nose, anterior epistaxis, posterior epistaxis.

Antonyms: None.

Epistaxis is a common condition that can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Dry air: Dry air can cause the nasal passages to become dry and cracked, leading to bleeding.
2. Allergies: Seasonal allergies or allergies to dust, pollen, or other substances can cause inflammation and irritation in the nasal passages, leading to bleeding.
3. Colds: A common cold can cause inflammation and congestion in the nasal passages, leading to bleeding.
4. Sinus infections: An infection in the sinuses can cause inflammation and bleeding in the nasal passages.
5. Injuries: Trauma to the nose, such as a blow to the face or a fall, can cause bleeding.
6. Medications: Certain medications, such as aspirin or warfarin, can thin the blood and increase the risk of bleeding.
7. High blood pressure: High blood pressure can cause damage to the blood vessels in the nose, leading to bleeding.
8. Nose picking: Picking or blowing the nose too forcefully can cause trauma to the nasal passages and lead to bleeding.
9. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT): A rare genetic disorder that affects the blood vessels and can cause recurring nosebleeds.

Symptoms of epistaxis may include:

1. Blood flowing from one or both nostrils
2. Nasal congestion or stuffiness
3. Pain or discomfort in the nose or face
4. Difficulty breathing through the nose
5. Postnasal drip (mucus running down the back of the throat)
6. Swelling around the eyes or face
7. Fever or chills
8. Headache
9. Weakness or fatigue

If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention. A healthcare professional can diagnose the cause of the nosebleed and recommend appropriate treatment. Treatment for epistaxis may include:

1. Nasal decongestants or antihistamines to reduce nasal congestion
2. Topical or oral antibiotics to treat any underlying infections
3. Applications of a topical ointment or cream to help protect the nasal passages and promote healing
4. Injectable medications to help constrict blood vessels and stop bleeding
5. Surgery to repair damaged blood vessels or remove any foreign objects that may be causing the bleeding.

Acute wounds and injuries are those that occur suddenly and heal within a relatively short period of time, usually within a few days or weeks. Examples of acute wounds include cuts, scrapes, and burns. Chronic wounds and injuries, on the other hand, are those that persist over a longer period of time and may not heal properly, leading to long-term complications. Examples of chronic wounds include diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, and chronic back pain.

Wounds and injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including accidents, sports injuries, violence, and medical conditions such as diabetes or circulatory problems. Treatment for wounds and injuries depends on the severity of the injury and may include cleaning and dressing the wound, applying antibiotics, immobilizing broken bones, and providing pain management. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged tissues or restore function.

Preventive measures for wounds and injuries include wearing appropriate protective gear during activities such as sports or work, following safety protocols to avoid accidents, maintaining proper hygiene and nutrition to prevent infection, and seeking medical attention promptly if an injury occurs.

Overall, wounds and injuries can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, and it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Proper treatment and management of wounds and injuries can help to promote healing, reduce the risk of complications, and improve long-term outcomes.

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a specific type of hemolytic anemia that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys red blood cells. This can happen due to various underlying causes such as infections, certain medications, and some types of cancer.

In autoimmune hemolytic anemia, the immune system produces antibodies that coat the surface of red blood cells and mark them for destruction by other immune cells called complement proteins. This leads to the premature destruction of red blood cells in the spleen, liver, and other organs.

Symptoms of autoimmune hemolytic anemia can include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), dark urine, and a pale or yellowish complexion. Treatment options for AIHA depend on the underlying cause of the disorder, but may include medications to suppress the immune system, plasmapheresis to remove antibodies from the blood, and in severe cases, splenectomy (removal of the spleen) or bone marrow transplantation.

In summary, autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a type of hemolytic anemia that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys red blood cells, leading to premature destruction of red blood cells and various symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, and jaundice. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause of the disorder and may include medications, plasmapheresis, and in severe cases, splenectomy or bone marrow transplantation.

The main symptoms of hemosiderosis include:

1. Yellowish discoloration of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
2. Fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath
3. Abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting
4. Pale or clay-colored stools
5. Dark urine
6. Liver enlargement and tenderness
7. Heart failure
8. Arrhythmias (irregular heart rhythms)
9. Anemia
10. Weight loss and loss of appetite

Hemosiderosis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment options for hemosiderosis depend on the underlying cause of the condition and may include:

1. Iron chelation therapy to remove excess iron from the body
2. Blood transfusions to reduce iron levels
3. Dietary modifications to limit iron intake
4. Medications to manage symptoms such as anemia, liver failure, or heart problems
5. Surgery to remove affected tissues or organs in severe cases

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the symptoms of hemosiderosis, especially if you have a history of excessive iron intake or chronic blood transfusions. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes for this condition.

The symptoms of ALI can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

* Shortness of breath (dyspnea)
* Chest pain or tightness (pleurisy)
* Cough, which may produce mucus or pus
* Fatigue, confusion, or disorientation
* Low oxygen levels in the blood (hypoxia)

If left untreated, ALI can progress to a more severe condition called acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which can be fatal. Treatment for ALI typically involves supportive care, such as mechanical ventilation, medications to manage inflammation and fluid buildup in the lungs, and management of underlying causes. In severe cases, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or lung transplantation may be necessary.

It's important to note that ALI can occur in people of all ages and can be caused by a variety of factors, so it's important to seek medical attention right away if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of the condition.

There are two main types of hemolysis:

1. Intravascular hemolysis: This type occurs within the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as mechanical injury, oxidative stress, and certain infections.
2. Extravascular hemolysis: This type occurs outside the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as bone marrow disorders, splenic rupture, and certain medications.

Hemolytic anemia is a condition that occurs when there is excessive hemolysis of RBCs, leading to a decrease in the number of healthy red blood cells in the body. This can cause symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, pale skin, and shortness of breath.

Some common causes of hemolysis include:

1. Genetic disorders such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia.
2. Autoimmune disorders such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA).
3. Infections such as malaria, babesiosis, and toxoplasmosis.
4. Medications such as antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and blood thinners.
5. Bone marrow disorders such as aplastic anemia and myelofibrosis.
6. Splenic rupture or surgical removal of the spleen.
7. Mechanical injury to the blood vessels.

Diagnosis of hemolysis is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as complete blood count (CBC), blood smear examination, and direct Coombs test. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include supportive care, blood transfusions, and medications to suppress the immune system or prevent infection.

The symptoms of hemorrhagic shock may include:

* Pale, cool, or clammy skin
* Fast heart rate
* Shallow breathing
* Confusion or loss of consciousness
* Decreased urine output

Treatment of hemorrhagic shock typically involves replacing lost blood volume with IV fluids and/or blood transfusions. In severe cases, medications such as vasopressors may be used to raise blood pressure and improve circulation. Surgical intervention may also be necessary to control the bleeding source.

The goal of treatment is to restore blood flow and oxygenation to vital organs, such as the brain, heart, and kidneys, and to prevent further bleeding and hypovolemia. Early recognition and aggressive treatment of hemorrhagic shock are critical to preventing severe complications and mortality.

Neonatal jaundice can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Immaturity of the liver and biliary system, which can lead to an inability to process bilirubin properly
* Infection or sepsis
* Breastfeeding difficulties or poor milk intake
* Blood type incompatibility between the baby and mother
* Genetic disorders such as Crigler-Najjar syndrome
* Other medical conditions such as hypothyroidism or anemia

Symptoms of neonatal jaundice may include:

* Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes
* Dark-colored urine
* Pale or clay-colored stools
* Lack of appetite or poor feeding
* Lethargy or irritability

Treatment for neonatal jaundice may include:

* Phototherapy, which involves exposure to blue light to help break down bilirubin in the blood
* Exchange transfusion, which involves replacing some of the baby's blood with fresh blood to lower bilirubin levels
* Medication to stimulate bowel movements and increase the elimination of bilirubin
* Intravenous fluids to prevent dehydration

In some cases, neonatal jaundice may be a sign of a more serious underlying condition, such as a liver or gallbladder disorder. It is important for parents to seek medical attention if they notice any signs of jaundice in their newborn baby, particularly if the baby is feeding poorly or appears lethargic or irritable.

Inverted Papillomas are usually small, ranging in size from a few millimeters to about 1 centimeter in diameter. They can be either solitary (singular) or multiple and are most commonly found in the ethmoid sinuses, which are air-filled cavities in the skull located between the eyes and nasal passages.

Symptoms of Inverted Papilloma may include:

* Nasal congestion or blockage
* Nasal discharge (rhinorrhea)
* Postnasal drip
* Loss of sense of smell
* Headaches
* Sinus pressure or pain
* Coughing
* Sneezing

Inverted Papillomas are usually diagnosed through a procedure called nasal endoscopy, which involves inserting a flexible tube with a camera into the nostrils to visualize the inside of the nasal passages and sinuses. A biopsy may also be taken to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment for Inverted Papilloma usually involves surgical removal of the tumor, either through traditional open surgery or endoscopic surgery, which is less invasive. In some cases, radiation therapy may be recommended to ensure that all of the tumor cells are removed.

Overall, Inverted Papilloma is a rare but treatable condition that can cause significant symptoms and discomfort. If you experience any of the symptoms listed above or have concerns about your nasal health, it's important to consult with an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialist for proper evaluation and treatment.

Symptoms of aplastic anemia may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, pale skin, and increased risk of bleeding or infection. Treatment options for aplastic anemia typically involve blood transfusions and immunosuppressive drugs to stimulate the bone marrow to produce new blood cells. In severe cases, a bone marrow transplant may be necessary.

Overall, aplastic anemia is a rare and serious condition that requires careful management by a healthcare provider to prevent complications and improve quality of life.

What does angiodysplasia mean? What are the symptoms of angiodysplasia? How is angiodysplasia diagnosed and treated?

Some common examples of critical illnesses include:

1. Sepsis: a systemic inflammatory response to an infection that can lead to organ failure and death.
2. Cardiogenic shock: a condition where the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs, leading to serious complications such as heart failure and death.
3. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): a condition where the lungs are severely inflamed and unable to provide sufficient oxygen to the body.
4. Multi-system organ failure: a condition where multiple organs in the body fail simultaneously, leading to serious complications and death.
5. Trauma: severe physical injuries sustained in an accident or other traumatic event.
6. Stroke: a sudden interruption of blood flow to the brain that can lead to permanent brain damage and death.
7. Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a blockage of coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart, leading to damage or death of heart muscle cells.
8. Pulmonary embolism: a blockage of the pulmonary artery, which can lead to respiratory failure and death.
9. Pancreatitis: inflammation of the pancreas that can lead to severe abdominal pain, bleeding, and organ failure.
10. Hypovolemic shock: a condition where there is a severe loss of blood or fluid from the body, leading to hypotension, organ failure, and death.

The diagnosis and treatment of critical illnesses require specialized knowledge and skills, and are typically handled by intensive care unit (ICU) teams consisting of critical care physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. The goal of critical care is to provide life-sustaining interventions and support to patients who are critically ill until they recover or until their condition stabilizes.

The term "melena" comes from the Greek word for "black," and it is used to describe the characteristic dark color of the stools in these patients. The stools may be black, tarry, and have a distinctive odor, and they may also be accompanied by symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever.

The diagnosis of melena is typically made through a physical examination and laboratory tests, such as a complete blood count (CBC) and a fecal occult blood test (FOBT). Imaging studies, such as an upper endoscopy or a colonoscopy, may also be performed to identify the site of the bleeding.

Treatment of melena depends on the underlying cause of the bleeding, and it may involve medications, endoscopic therapy, or surgery. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the patient. Prognosis for melena is generally good if the underlying cause is identified and treated promptly, but it can be life-threatening if left untreated.

Symptoms of hemolytic anemia may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, dizziness, headaches, and pale or yellowish skin. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause but may include blood transfusions, medication to suppress the immune system, antibiotics for infections, and removal of the spleen (splenectomy) in severe cases.

Prevention strategies for hemolytic anemia include avoiding triggers such as certain medications or infections, maintaining good hygiene practices, and seeking early medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

It is important to note that while hemolytic anemia can be managed with proper treatment, it may not be curable in all cases, and ongoing monitoring and care are necessary to prevent complications and improve quality of life.

Other definitions:

* Premature birth: A birth that occurs before 37 completed weeks of gestation.
* Preterm birth: A birth that occurs before 37 completed weeks of gestation, but not necessarily before 22 weeks.
* Very preterm birth: A birth that occurs before 28 completed weeks of gestation.
* Extremely preterm birth: A birth that occurs before 24 completed weeks of gestation.

Diseases associated with premature infants:

1. Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS): A condition in which the baby's lungs do not produce enough surfactant, a substance that helps the air sacs in the lungs expand and contract properly.
2. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD): A chronic lung disease that can develop in premature infants who have RDS.
3. Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH): Bleeding in the brain that can occur in premature infants, particularly those with RDS or BPD.
4. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP): A condition that can cause blindness in premature infants due to abnormal blood vessel growth in the retina.
5. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC): A condition that can cause damage to the intestines and other parts of the digestive system in premature infants.
6. Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH): Bleeding in the brain that can occur in premature infants, particularly those with RDS or BPD.
7. Gastrointestinal problems: Premature infants are at risk for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and other gastrointestinal problems.
8. Feeding difficulties: Premature infants may have difficulty feeding, which can lead to weight gain issues or the need for a feeding tube.
9. Respiratory infections: Premature infants are at increased risk for respiratory infections, such as pneumonia and bronchiolitis.
10. Developmental delays: Premature infants may be at risk for developmental delays or learning disabilities, particularly if they experienced significant health problems or required oxygen therapy.

It is important to note that not all premature infants will develop these complications, and the severity of the conditions can vary depending on the individual baby's health and the level of care they receive. However, it is essential for parents and caregivers to be aware of the potential risks and seek prompt medical attention if they notice any signs of distress or illness in their premature infant.

Contusions are bruises that occur when blood collects in the tissue due to trauma. They can be painful and may discolor the skin, but they do not involve a break in the skin. Hematomas are similar to contusions, but they are caused by bleeding under the skin.

Non-penetrating wounds are typically less severe than penetrating wounds, which involve a break in the skin and can be more difficult to treat. However, non-penetrating wounds can still cause significant pain and discomfort, and may require medical attention to ensure proper healing and minimize the risk of complications.

Examples of Non-Penetrating Wounds

* Contusions: A contusion is a bruise that occurs when blood collects in the tissue due to trauma. This can happen when someone is hit with an object or falls and strikes a hard surface.
* Hematomas: A hematoma is a collection of blood under the skin that can cause swelling and discoloration. It is often caused by blunt trauma, such as a blow to the head or body.
* Ecchymoses: An ecchymosis is a bruise that occurs when blood leaks into the tissue from damaged blood vessels. This can happen due to blunt trauma or other causes, such as injury or surgery.

Types of Non-Penetrating Wounds

* Closed wounds: These are injuries that do not involve a break in the skin. They can be caused by blunt trauma or other forms of injury, and may result in bruising, swelling, or discoloration of the skin.
* Open wounds: These are injuries that do involve a break in the skin. They can be caused by penetrating objects, such as knives or gunshots, or by blunt trauma.

Treatment for Contusions and Hematomas

* Rest: It is important to get plenty of rest after suffering a contusion or hematoma. This will help your body recover from the injury and reduce inflammation.
* Ice: Applying ice to the affected area can help reduce swelling and pain. Wrap an ice pack in a towel or cloth to protect your skin.
* Compression: Using compression bandages or wraps can help reduce swelling and promote healing.
* Elevation: Elevating the affected limb above the level of your heart can help reduce swelling and improve circulation.
* Medication: Over-the-counter pain medications, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen, can help manage pain and inflammation.


* Wear protective gear: When engaging in activities that may cause injury, wear appropriate protective gear, such as helmets, pads, and gloves.
* Use proper technique: Proper technique when engaging in physical activity can help reduce the risk of injury.
* Stay fit: Being in good physical condition can help improve your ability to withstand injuries.
* Stretch and warm up: Before engaging in physical activity, stretch and warm up to increase blood flow and reduce muscle stiffness.
* Avoid excessive alcohol consumption: Excessive alcohol consumption can increase the risk of injury.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following symptoms:

* Increasing pain or swelling
* Difficulty moving the affected limb
* Fever or chills
* Redness or discharge around the wound
* Deformity of the affected limb.

Priapism is caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Trauma to the genital area
2. Infection of the penis or prostate gland
3. Certain medications, such as antidepressants and antipsychotics
4. Alcohol or drug abuse
5. Sickle cell disease or other blood disorders
6. Certain medical procedures, such as prostate surgery or circumcision
7. Priapism can also occur in newborn babies due to a condition called neonatal priapism, which is caused by a blockage of the blood vessels in the penis.

Symptoms of priapism include:

1. A persistent, painful erection that does not go away within 4-6 hours
2. Swelling and redness of the penis
3. Pain in the scrotum or abdomen
4. Fever and chills
5. Priapism can also cause damage to the penis over time, leading to loss of erectile function and other complications.

If you suspect you or someone else has priapism, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment typically involves draining the blood from the penis and administering antibiotics to prevent infection. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove any damaged tissue.

Prevention of priapism includes avoiding activities that can cause trauma to the genital area, taking medications as directed, and seeking medical attention if you experience any symptoms of priapism. It is also important to maintain good hygiene and practice safe sex to reduce the risk of infection.

In conclusion, priapism is a serious medical condition that requires immediate attention. If you suspect you or someone else has priapism, do not hesitate to seek medical help. With proper treatment, most people with priapism can recover fully and regain normal erectile function.

Multiple trauma can involve various types of injuries, including:

1. Blunt trauma: This refers to injuries caused by a blow or impact, such as those sustained in a car accident or fall.
2. Penetrating trauma: This refers to injuries caused by a sharp object, such as a gunshot wound or stab wound.
3. Burns: This refers to injuries caused by heat or chemicals that can cause tissue damage and scarring.
4. Neurological trauma: This refers to injuries affecting the brain and spinal cord, such as concussions or herniated discs.
5. Orthopedic trauma: This refers to injuries affecting the musculoskeletal system, such as fractures or dislocations.
6. Soft tissue trauma: This refers to injuries affecting the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues, such as lacerations or contusions.
7. Visceral trauma: This refers to injuries affecting the internal organs, such as internal bleeding or organ damage.

The severity of multiple trauma can vary widely, ranging from mild to life-threatening. In some cases, multiple trauma may be caused by a single incident, while in other cases, it may result from a series of events over time.

Treatment for multiple trauma typically involves a comprehensive approach that addresses all of the injuries and takes into account the patient's overall health and well-being. This may include surgery, medication, physical therapy, and other forms of rehabilitation. In severe cases, multiple trauma can result in long-term disability or even death, making prompt and appropriate treatment essential for optimal outcomes.

The definition of MOF varies depending on the context and the specific criteria used to define it. However, in general, MOF is characterized by:

1. The involvement of multiple organs: MOF affects multiple organs in the body, such as the lungs, liver, kidneys, heart, and brain. Each organ failure can have a significant impact on the individual's overall health and survival.
2. Severe dysfunction: The dysfunction of multiple organs is severe enough to cause significant impairment in the individual's physiological functions, such as breathing, circulation, and mental status.
3. Lack of specific etiology: MOF often occurs without a specific identifiable cause, although it can be triggered by various factors such as infections, injuries, or medical conditions.
4. High mortality rate: MOF is associated with a high mortality rate, especially if left untreated or if the underlying causes are not addressed promptly.

The diagnosis of MOF requires a comprehensive evaluation of the individual's medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment involves addressing the underlying causes, supporting the failing organs, and managing symptoms. The prognosis for MOF depends on the severity of the condition, the underlying cause, and the promptness and effectiveness of treatment.

Symptoms of babesiosis can vary in severity and may include:

* Fever
* Chills
* Headache
* Muscle and joint pain
* Fatigue
* Nausea and vomiting
* Diarrhea
* Anemia (low red blood cell count)

In severe cases, babesiosis can lead to complications such as:

* Hemolytic anemia (breakdown of red blood cells)
* Kidney failure
* Respiratory distress syndrome
* Septic shock

Babesiosis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, including:

* Blood smear
* Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
* Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

Treatment for babesiosis typically involves the use of antimicrobial drugs, such as azithromycin and atovaquone, or clindamycin and primaquine. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications.

Prevention of babesiosis primarily involves protecting against tick bites through measures such as:

* Using insect repellents containing DEET or permethrin
* Wearing long-sleeved shirts and pants, and tucking pant legs into socks
* Checking for ticks on the body after spending time outdoors
* Removing any attached ticks promptly and correctly

Early detection and treatment of babesiosis can help to reduce the risk of complications and improve outcomes for affected individuals.

Liver neoplasms, also known as liver tumors or hepatic tumors, are abnormal growths of tissue in the liver. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant liver tumors can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or metastatic, meaning they spread to the liver from another part of the body.

There are several types of liver neoplasms, including:

1. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer and arises from the main cells of the liver (hepatocytes). HCC is often associated with cirrhosis and can be caused by viral hepatitis or alcohol abuse.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: This type of cancer arises from the cells lining the bile ducts within the liver (cholangiocytes). Cholangiocarcinoma is rare and often diagnosed at an advanced stage.
3. Hemangiosarcoma: This is a rare type of cancer that originates in the blood vessels of the liver. It is most commonly seen in dogs but can also occur in humans.
4. Fibromas: These are benign tumors that arise from the connective tissue of the liver (fibrocytes). Fibromas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.
5. Adenomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the glandular cells of the liver (hepatocytes). Adenomas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.

The symptoms of liver neoplasms vary depending on their size, location, and whether they are benign or malignant. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasound, and a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells.

Treatment options for liver neoplasms depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgery may be an option for some patients with small, localized tumors, while others may require chemotherapy or radiation therapy to shrink the tumor before surgery can be performed. In some cases, liver transplantation may be necessary.

Prognosis for liver neoplasms varies depending on the type and stage of the cancer. In general, early detection and treatment improve the prognosis, while advanced-stage disease is associated with a poorer prognosis.

Hemoperitoneum can be a life-threatening condition and requires prompt medical attention. Treatment options may include fluid resuscitation, blood transfusions, and surgery to locate and control the source of bleeding. In some cases, hemoperitoneum can lead to hypovolemic shock, sepsis, and even death if left untreated.

Some common causes of hemoperitoneum include:

1. Trauma: Blunt or penetrating trauma to the abdomen can cause bleeding in the peritoneal cavity.
2. Surgical complications: Bleeding during or after surgery can result in hemoperitoneum.
3. Digestive tract bleeding: Ulcers, varices, and malignancies in the digestive tract can cause bleeding that leads to hemoperitoneum.
4. Inflammatory conditions: Conditions such as appendicitis, diverticulitis, and pancreatitis can cause bleeding in the peritoneal cavity.
5. Vascular injuries: Injuries to the vessels within the peritoneal cavity, such as the aorta or vena cava, can cause hemoperitoneum.

Signs and symptoms of hemoperitoneum may include abdominal pain, distension, and tenderness, as well as hypovolemic shock, tachycardia, and tachypnea. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as CT or ultrasound, and laboratory tests to evaluate blood count and coagulation status.

Treatment of hemoperitoneum depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, fluid resuscitation and observation may be sufficient, while in more severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to locate and control the source of bleeding.

An Intrauterine transfusion (IUT) is a procedure that provides blood to a fetus, most commonly through the umbilical cord. It ... the blood is delivered into the fetus's umbilical cord blood vessel. Following the transfusion, an additional blood sample is ... "Intrauterine Fetal Blood Transfusion for Rh Disease , Michigan Medicine". Retrieved 2019-04-07. Pasman, S.A ... Prior to the transfusion, percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling (PUBS) is conducted. The fetal blood sample is drawn and ...
Interventional ultrasonography involves biopsy, emptying fluids, intrauterine Blood transfusion (Hemolytic disease of the ... A power doppler blood flow study is done prior to injection. The blood flow can be destroyed and the node rendered inactive. ... Power doppler visualized blood flow can be eradicated, and there may be a drop in the cancer blood marker test, thyroglobulin, ... Other types display blood flow, motion of tissue over time, the location of blood, the presence of specific molecules, the ...
The US outbreak identified additional transmission methods through blood transfusion, organ transplant, intrauterine exposure, ... Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service. "West Nile virus". Mayo Clinic. Archived from the original on 26 October 2017. ... Rarely the virus is spread through blood transfusions, organ transplants, or from mother to baby during pregnancy, delivery, or ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2002). "Investigation of blood transfusion recipients with West Nile virus ...
Liley successfully carried out the first ever successful intrauterine blood transfusion. The fetus had Rh disease/hemolytic ...
1988). "Consequences of fetomaternal haemorrhage after intrauterine transfusion". BMJ. 297 (6660): 1379-81. doi:10.1136/bmj. ... Finally, a white blood cell count can detect maternal blood in the sample, as fetal white blood cells are primarily leukocytes ... If the blood sample was obtained at the site close to the placenta, a fetal blood confirmation test should be done to ensure no ... Suspicion of fetal infections, such as rubella and toxoplasmosis, as well as the need to supply medicine or blood transfusions ...
... anemia caused by a parvovirus infection or fetomaternal hemorrhage is fetal blood sampling followed by intrauterine transfusion ... Severely anemic fetuses, including those with Rh disease and alpha thalassemia major, can be treated with blood transfusions ... against the infant's Rh-D positive blood cells. The immune response results in hemolysis of fetal red blood cells causing ... which means high-output cardiac failure causes the blood to circulate rapidly. The excessive pumping of blood causes the left ...
... of Twin Anemia-Polycythemia Sequence Using Intrauterine Blood Transfusion for the Donor and Partial Exchange Transfusion for ... It is distinguished from classic twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome by differing red blood cell counts between the fetuses, a ... The use of the so-called Solomon technique or dichorionization in fetoscopic laser therapy for twin-to-twin transfusion ... Herway, C.; Johnson, A.; Moise, K.; Moise, K. J. (2009-05-01). "Fetal intraperitoneal transfusion for iatrogenic twin anemia- ...
5 April 2018). "Blood Transfusion in Children: The Refusal of Jehovah's Witness Parents'". Open Medicine. 13 (1): 101-104. doi: ... intrauterine transfusion, and enforced bed rest.: 188 There are cases of clinicians threatening pregnant patients with removal ... Courts in the United States have consistently upheld the right of competent adults to decline blood transfusion even when it ... court orders have been used to give children of Jehovah's Witnesses life-saving blood transfusion that were refused by their ...
... unless intrauterine blood transfusion is performed. Since hemoglobin Barts is elevated in alpha thalassemia, it can be measured ... of having a child with Fetal Hydrops can continue their pregnancy with regular ultrasounds and intrauterine blood transfusion. ... "20 years review of antenatal diagnosis of haemoglobin Bart's disease and treatment with intrauterine transfusion". Prenatal ... Blood. 129 (10): 1251-1259. doi:10.1182/blood-2016-08-697110. PMC 5345731. PMID 28057638. "Validate User". Fogel BN, Nguyen HL ...
... by blood transfusions). There is some evidence that intrauterine parvovirus B19 infection leads to developmental abnormalities ... This is termed "aplastic crisis" (also called reticulocytopenia). It is treated with blood transfusion. Parvovirus infection in ... This is due to a combination of hemolysis of the red blood cells, as well as the virus directly negatively affecting the red ... It is classified as an erythrovirus because of its capability to invade red blood cell precursors in the bone marrow. Three ...
Monozygotic twins who share a placenta can develop twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. This condition means that blood from one ... There are two types of stillbirth, including intrauterine death and intrapartum death. Intrauterine death occurs when a baby ... The DNA in white blood cells of 66 pairs of monozygotic twins was analyzed for 506,786 single-nucleotide polymorphisms known to ... Polymorphisms appeared in 2 of the 33 million comparisons, leading the researchers to extrapolate that the blood cells of ...
... blood transfusion, intrauterine MeSH E02.095.135.469 - exchange transfusion, whole blood MeSH E02.095.135.750 - plasma exchange ... blood component transfusion MeSH E02. - erythrocyte transfusion MeSH E02. - leukocyte transfusion ... platelet transfusion MeSH E02.095.135.164 - blood transfusion, autologous MeSH E02.095.135.264 - ... MeSH E02. - lymphocyte transfusion MeSH E02. - ...
... post of Director from 1946 to 1978 Dr Tovey was one of the first surgeons regularly to perform intrauterine blood transfusions ... He was also president of the International Society of Blood Transfusion. He was Consultant Adviser on Blood Transfusion at the ... In that year he was appointed Director of the South West Regional Blood Transfusion Service. It was in the evening of J D R ... During the Second World War, he joined the Royal Army Medical Corps and was posted to the Army Blood Transfusion Service from ...
Irradiated blood components should be issued in the following situations: Intrauterine transfusions Prematurity, low ... Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GvHD) is a rare complication of blood transfusion, in which the ... Darrell J. Triulzi: Transfusion associated graft vs. host disease and irradiated blood components Eric Kardon, eMedicine: ... The incidence of TA-GvHD in immunocompromised patients receiving blood transfusions is estimated to be 0.1-1.0%, and mortality ...
Treatment includes surgery, blood transfusions, medications, and overnight stays (20). Unsafe abortions can lead to sepsis, ... Today, oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices (IUDs), and male and female condoms are available for free at public health ...
... might be negative after fetal interuterine blood transfusion) Blood tests done on the mother Positive indirect Coombs test ... The woman may have received a therapeutic blood transfusion. ABO blood group system and the D antigen of the Rhesus (Rh) blood ... Intrauterine Transfusion (IUT) is done either by intraperitoneal transfusion (IPT) or intravenous transfusion (IVT). IVT is ... Once a woman has antibodies, she is at high risk for a future transfusion reaction if she is in need of a blood transfusion. ...
Blood transfusion can result in alloantibodies reacting towards the transfused cells, resulting in a transfusion reaction. Even ... Severe cases require intrauterine transfusions or early delivery to survive, while mild cases may only require phototherapy at ... Endothelium of the blood vessels is being damaged, therefore the graft is not sufficiently supplied with blood and is replaced ... by repeated blood transfusion). In case of hyperacute rejection, antibodies activate complement; moreover, the reaction can be ...
For example, a blood group B individual who has received a transfusion of group O donor red cells may show mixed field ... This may result from intrauterine exchange of erythrocyte precursors between twins (twin chimerism) or two fertilized eggs fuse ... The cause of mixed field agglutinations should be sought prior to setting up blood for transfusion. By far the most common ... Twin chimerism results from mixing of blood between two twin fetuses through placental blood vessel anastomoses, leading to ...
In cases of identical twins, they may even have twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). This means that the twins share the ... same placenta and blood and nutrients can then move between twins. The twins may also be suffering from intrauterine growth ... Resnik, R. (2002). "Intrauterine Growth Restriction" (PDF). Obstetrics and Gynecology. 99 (3): 490-496. doi:10.1097/00006250- ... Sebire, N.; Souka, A.; Skentou, H.; Geerts, L. & Nicolaides, K. (2000). "Early prediction of severe twin-to-twin transfusion ...
IUT - Intrauterine Transfusion (IUT) is done either by intraperitoneal transfusion (IPT) or intravenous transfusion (IVT). IVT ... Newborn Screening Tests - Transfusion with donor blood during pregnancy or shortly after birth can affect the results of the ... Deka, Dipika (2016). "Intrauterine Transfusion". Journal of Fetal Medicine. 27 (3): 13-17. doi:10.1007/s40556-016-0072-4. PMID ... Donated blood is not currently screened (in the U.S.A.) for the Kell blood group antigens as it is not considered cost ...
IUT - intrauterine transfusion (IUT) is done either by intraperitoneal transfusion (IPT) or intravenous transfusion (IVT). IVT ... Newborn screening tests - transfusion with donor blood during pregnancy or shortly after birth can affect the results of the ... Blood is taken from the mother, and using PCR, can detect the K, C, c, D, and E alleles of fetal DNA. This blood test is non- ... Deka, Dipika (2016). "Intrauterine Transfusion". Journal of Fetal Medicine. 27 (3): 13-17. doi:10.1007/s40556-016-0072-4. PMID ...
Generally, blood with serum ferritin level that exceed 1000 ug/L and a transfusion of 20 units of red blood cells will require ... prenatal diagnosis and possibility of intrauterine treatment". The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine. 31 (7): 946- ... Transfusion-dependent anemia is a form of anemia characterized by the need for continuous blood transfusion. It is a condition ... The use of blood transfusions can ease some of these symptoms by replenishing the blood cells and maintain sufficient ...
IUT - Intrauterine transfusion (IUT) is done either by intraperitoneal transfusion (IPT) or intravenous transfusion (IVT). IVT ... This would require a lot of extra work in blood transfusion departments and it is considered not economical to do the blood ... Sensitization to Rhc antigens can also be caused by blood transfusion.[citation needed] Testing for HDN involves blood work ... Newborn Screening Tests - Transfusion with donor blood during pregnancy or shortly after birth can affect the results of the ...
Due to the possibility of adverse reactions such as excessive bleeding, which may require a blood transfusion, and incomplete ... Women with an intrauterine device in their uterus should remove the IUD prior to medication abortion to avoid unnecessary ... Other incidents reported to the FDA included 612 nonlethal hospitalizations, 339 blood transfusions, 48 severe infections, and ... Mifepristone is used for the medical treatment of high blood sugar caused by high cortisol levels in the blood ( ...
... to blood transfusions or intravenous immunoglobulin due to the presence of IgA in these blood products. Patients have an ... but has been associated with some congenital intrauterine infections. Pathogenesis of IgA Deficiency 'In IgA-deficient patients ... severe reactions to blood transfusions are very rare. People with selective IgA deficiency do not require special blood ... "Guideline on the investigation and management of acute transfusion reactions Prepared by the BCSH Blood Transfusion Task Force ...
Thus blood transfusion is frequent in the management of patients with this kind of pregnancy, with others even using tranexamic ... an acute abdomen with an intrauterine pregnancy and a fibroid uterus with an intrauterine pregnancy . Ideally the management of ... there is continuous hospitalization in a well-equipped and well-staffed maternity unit which has immediate blood transfusion ... It is a dangerous condition as there can be bleeding into the abdomen that results in low blood pressure and can be fatal. ...
Transfusion of blood and blood components (99.1) Injection or infusion of therapeutic or prophylactic substance (99.2) ... Intrauterine transfusion (75.3) Other intrauterine operations on fetus and amnion (75.31) Amnioscopy Fetoscopy Laparoamnioscopy ... 00) Procedures and interventions, not elsewhere classified (00.6) Procedures on blood vessels (00.61) Percutaneous angioplasty ... blood (90.6) specimen from spleen and of bone marrow (90.7) specimen from lymph node and of lymph (90.8) specimen from upper ...
... in utero mother to infant and blood transfusions. With the medical community wanting not to believe that AIDS could affect ... Elevated cord macroglobulins in the diagnosis of intrauterine infections. NEJM, 275:971-977, 1966. Ammann AJ, Wara D, Salmon S ... discovering in utero transmission and the risk of contaminated transfusions and blood products, and his role in the development ... Ammann's initial publication blood transfusion infection was rejected by prominent medical journals. This discovery changed the ...
Treatment may require blood transfusion or emergency hysterectomy. Placental abruption occurs in about 1 in 200 pregnancies. ... intrauterine growth restriction, and oligohydramnios (low levels of amniotic fluid). Pre-eclampsia Chronic hypertension Short ... The accumulating blood pushes between the layers of the decidua, pushing the uterine wall and placenta apart. When the placenta ... Diagnosis is made retrospectively by finding an organized blood clot or a depressed area on a delivered placenta. Class 1: Mild ...
Tranexamic acid, a clot stabilizing medication, may also be used to reduce bleeding and blood transfusions in low-risk patients ... Stage 2: bleeding continues - check coagulation status, assemble response team, move to operating room, place intrauterine ... As more blood is lost, the patient may feel cold, blood pressure may drop, and they may become restless or unconscious. The ... As more blood is lost, the patient may feel cold, blood pressure may drop, and they may become unconscious. Signs and symptoms ...
CMV can also be transferred through blood transfusions and close contact with large groups of children. To summarise, during a ... CMV is a member of the virus family herpesviridae and is the most common intrauterine infection. Human cytomegalovirus is one ... The virus can be diagnosed through viral isolation, or using blood, urine, or saliva samples. When infected with CMV, most ... Considering that the CMV virus is present in saliva, urine, tears, blood, mucus, and other bodily fluids, frequent hand washing ...
Major complications from laparoscopic surgery may include need for blood transfusion, infection, conversion to open surgery, or ... These rates are roughly equivalent to the effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraceptives such as intrauterine devices ... Examples of this include intrauterine devices. However, patients who desire pregnancy after having undergone a female ...
Proper development of blood vessels in the placenta is crucial for the higher blood requirement of the fetus later in pregnancy ... Twin-to-Twin transfusion syndrome is another disease associated with the PGF gene. This is a rare disease occurring primarily ... PlGF and their receptors in a model of placental insufficiency-intrauterine growth restriction (PI-IUGR)". Placenta. 23 (2-3): ... a condition in which blood vessels in the placenta are too narrow, resulting in high blood pressure. As mentioned before, ...
In 1963, Albert William Liley developed a course of intrauterine transfusions for Rh incompatibility at the National Women's ... fetal blood sampling and transfusion, fetoscopy, and open fetal surgery. For the ABOG, MFM subspecialists are required to do a ... Expecting mothers with chronic conditions, such as high blood pressure, drug use during or before pregnancy, or a diagnosed ... The development of amniocentesis in 1952, fetal blood sampling during labor in the early 1960s, more precise fetal heart ...
... patient groups were all identified from medical records as either intravenous drug abusers or recipients of blood transfusions ... A 2010 study by Garcia-Falgueras and Swaab stated that "the fetal brain develops during the intrauterine period in the male ... As both blood type and Rh factor are genetically inherited traits controlled by alleles located on chromosome 9 and chromosome ... From here, the anti-male bodies would then cross the blood/brain barrier (BBB) of the developing fetal brain, altering sex- ...
... intrauterine growth restriction, and babies with genetic abnormalities. Polycythemia can make the blood thicker than normal and ... Most blood transfusions involve adding blood or blood products without removing any blood, these are also known as simple ... other blood or blood products. The patient's blood is removed and replaced by donated blood or blood components. This exchange ... An exchange transfusion is a blood transfusion in which the patient's blood or components of it are exchanged with (replaced by ...
It is a hamartoma-like growth in the placenta consisting of blood vessels, and is seen in approximately 0.5 to 1% pregnancies. ... In case of maternal or foetal complications, possible interventions are serial foetal transfusions, fetoscopic laser ... intrauterine growth retardation, preeclampsia, abruption of placenta and congenital anomalies. The origin of chorioangioma is ... When chorioangiomas have deceased blood flow, fetal hemodynamics and clinical outcome are found to be improved. It is the most ...
... of red blood cells if the recipient of a blood transfusion receives blood that is not compatible with their blood type. A ... Demonstrating IgM antibodies in a patient's serum indicates recent infection, or in a neonate's serum indicates intrauterine ... For example, the IgM antibodies that bind to the red blood cell A and B antigens might be formed in early life as a result of ... Urbaniak, S. J. & Greiss, M. A. (2000). "RhD haemolytic disease of the fetus and the newborn". Blood Rev. 14 (1): 33-61. doi: ...
Medical interventions like hospitalizations or blood transfusions were needed by fewer than 0.4 percent of patients, according ... Some consider an intrauterine device in place to be a contraindication as well. A previous allergic reaction to mifepristone or ... bleeding requiring a blood transfusion occurred in 0.03-0.6% of women and serious infection in 0.01-0.5%. Because infection is ... and/or blood transfusion (0.1%). Vaginal bleeding generally diminishes gradually over about two weeks after a medical abortion ...
He distinguished veins from the arteries and had at least vague understanding of the circulation of the blood. Variously ... First intrauterine device described by Richard Richter. 1910 - Hans Christian Jacobaeus performs the first laparoscopy on ... James Blundell performs the first successful human transfusion. 1842 - Crawford Long performs the first surgical operation ... 1845 - John Hughes Bennett first describes leukemia as a blood disorder. 1846 - First painless surgery with general anesthetic ...
HC IV is also intended to provide blood transfusion services and comprehensive emergency obstetric care. In terms of governance ... intrauterine device, injectables, implants, male condom, diaphragm, and the lactational amenorrhea method. MCM were used by ... and semi-autonomous institutions including the Uganda Blood Transfusion Services, the Uganda National Medical Stores, the ...
"Neonatal asphyxia pallida treated with hypothermia alone or with hypothermia and transfusion of oxygenated blood". Surgery. 45 ... "Apoptosis in the brains of infants suffering intrauterine cerebral injury". Pediatric Research. 42 (5): 684-689. doi:10.1203/ ... Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy has many causes and is defined essentially as the reduction in the supply of blood or oxygen to ... Siesjö BK (1981). "Cell damage in the brain: a speculative synthesis". Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. 1 (2): ...
... misoprostol reduces operative blood loss and requirement of blood transfusion. Misoprostol is used either alone or in ... In women with prior caesarean section or prior failure of insertion of an intrauterine contraceptive device, pre-procedure ... All cervical ripening and induction agents can cause uterine hyperstimulation, which can negatively affect the blood supply to ... Tassi A, Parisi N, Londero AP (February 2020). "Misoprostol administration prior to intrauterine contraceptive device insertion ...
One Cochrane review showed administration of erythropoietin (EPO) decreases later need for blood transfusions, and also is ... Others have intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) due to any of various pathologic processes. Babies with chromosomal ... Elevated blood lead levels in pregnant women, even those well below the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 10 ug/ ... It may be tied to one or more of the following processes: premature fetal endocrine activation, intrauterine inflammation, over ...
To summarize the clinical efficacy and nursing experience of intrauterine blood transfusion (IUT) treatment for fetal anemia ... Clinical Efficacy and Nursing Care of Fetal Intrauterine Blood Transfusion: Previous Experience Review]. ... Clinical Efficacy and Nursing Care of Fetal Intrauterine Blood Transfusion: Previous Expe ... In addition, they were closely monitored for blood transfusion reactions. Postprocedural observation of the puncture site and ...
... usually caused by Rh incompatibility between the mothers blood type and that of ... attack the red blood cells of the fetus. An intrauterine transfusion of blood may be indicated. ... usually caused by Rh incompatibility between the mothers blood type and that of the fetus, ...
... blood transfusion; and laboratory exposure (1-5). Most Zika virus infections are asymptomatic (1,6). Clinical illness, when it ... Zika virus infections have also been documented through intrauterine transmission resulting in congenital infection; ... Revised recommendations for reducing the risk of Zika virus transmission by blood and blood components: guidance for industry. ... as well as testing of all blood donations collected in the United States and its territories to reduce the risk for transfusion ...
Other routes include sexual transmission, blood transfusions and laboratory exposure. There is a theoretical concern of ... Maternal-fetal infections have occurred intrauterine and perinatally. ... So the first most important thing is Zika virus usually remains in the blood of an infected person just for a few days and up ... To address the transfusion question, we do know that other flaviviruses that are arthropod-borne have been implicated in ...
In case of suspected fetal anemia, fetal blood sampling and intrauterine transfusion should be offered rapidly. ... With the introduction of widespread immunoprophylaxis for red blood cell alloimmunization and the use of in utero transfusions ... Once IHF is suspected, maternal blood typing and antibody screening against Rh and a determination of minor blood types (eg, ... maternal blood chemistry testing for G6PD deficiency; Betke-Kleihauer testing for fetal-maternal transfusion; and screening for ...
It may also happen if the mom and baby have different blood types. ... It happens when the Rh factors in the moms and babys blood dont match. ... Intrauterine blood transfusion. This test puts red blood cells into your babys circulation. In this test, a needle is placed ... Percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling or fetal blood sampling. In this test, a blood sample is taken from your babys ...
Other modes of transmission, including intrauterine, perinatal, sexual, blood transfusions, and laboratory exposure, have been ... through blood transfusion, and by laboratory exposure (1-6). Healthcare providers and public health officials should be aware ... and had not received a blood transfusion or organ transplant. However, patient A had contact with the index patient during his ... 6 who provided blood and urine samples, and 2 who provided only a urine sample. Of the 130 blood samples, 2 were positive for ...
Intrauterine blood transfusion (IBT) has been proposed as treatment for the fetus with B19-induced severe anemia. However, IBT ... The virus can also be transmitted parenterally by transfusion of blood or blood products and vertically from mother to fetus (1 ... Management of the patient with TAC is based on treating symptoms of the associated anemia and may require blood transfusion. ... 54,55). Transmission rarely occurs during transfusion with single-donor blood products but is common during treatment with ...
Blood Transfusion, Intrauterine Preferred Concept UI. M0002723. Scope Note. In utero transfusion of BLOOD into the FETUS for ... Blood Transfusion [E02.095.135] * Blood Component Transfusion [E02.095.135.140] * Blood Transfusion, Autologous [E02.095. ... Blood Transfusion, Intrauterine Preferred Term Term UI T005244. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1965). ... Blood Transfusion, Intrauterine. Tree Number(s). E02.095.135.264. E02.467.500. Unique ID. D001805. RDF Unique Identifier. http ...
... a type of blood cancer that results when bone marrow makes too many red blood cells. ... Blood Transfusion. During a blood transfusion, blood or blood products are transferred from one person to another. There are ... intrauterine hypoxia) due to placental inadequacy. ... your own blood), and donor blood (someone elses blood). There ... and after a blood transfusion, and the risks, side effecs, or complications of blood transfusions. ...
OBI transmission has been reported after blood transfusion, liver transfusion (24) and intrauterine infection in pregnant women ... None of the HCWs with OBI had a history of surgery, PAT, type 2 diabetes (Table 2), blood transfusion or haemodialysis. Male ... None of the HCWs had a history of blood transfusion or haemodialysis. Seventeen (12.88%) HCWs were positive for anti-HCV and ... Blood sampling. For each study participant, 5 ml of venous blood was collected. Each sample was centrifuged within 6 hours of ...
In severe cases, an intrauterine blood transfusion for the fetus may be required to correct the anemia. ... Rh incompatibility occurs when a pregnant woman whose blood type is Rh-negative is exposed to Rh-positive blood from her fetus ... These antibodies have the potential to cross the placenta and attach to fetal red blood cells, resulting in hemolysis, or ... destruction of the fetus s red blood cells. This causes the fetus to become anemic, which can lead to hemolytic disease of the ...
The finding that intrauterine tamponade may increase total blood loss , 1000 mL suggests that introducing condom-balloon ... Very low-certainty evidence means that we are unclear about the effect on blood transfusion (risk ratio (RR) 2.33, 95% ... Blood flow can also be stopped by tying off or blocking the blood vessels that feed the uterus. ... Intrauterine Tamponade Studies included various methods of intrauterine tamponade: the commercial Bakri balloon, a fluid-filled ...
... antihypertensive medications to bring down their blood pressure, blood product transfusions, and other treatments that require ... interuterine growth restriction (IUGR) that may have caused them to be small for gestational age (SGA). ... Her team would remind me to take my medication and check my blood pressure." ...
If oliguria occurs, attention should be directed toward support of blood pressure and renal perfusion. Exchange transfusion or ... Prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation, and patent ductus arteriosus have also been reported, although it is not clear ... Creatinine, Blood Urea Nitrogen: Increases (greater than 1.25 times the upper limit of normal) in serum creatinine and blood ... The drug also accumulates in red blood cells, so that whole blood levels are 1.6 to 1.8 times those measured in plasma. ...
... blood transfusion, and laboratory exposure (5). There is a theoretical concern that transmission could occur through organ or ... In addition to mosquito-to-human transmission, Zika virus infections have been documented through intrauterine transmission ...
The States first Intra Uterine Fetal Blood Transfusion. Read More. CHLs drive to provide cancer drugs at guaranteed best ...
Intrauterine Blood Transfusion Intrauterine Blood Transfusions Intrauterine Transfusion Intrauterine Transfusions Transfusion, ... Blood Transfusions, Intrauterine. Fetal Transfusion. Fetal Transfusions. Intrauterine Blood Transfusion. Intrauterine Blood ... Intrauterine Transfusion, Intrauterine Blood Transfusions, Fetal Transfusions, Intrauterine Transfusions, Intrauterine Blood ... Transfusion, Intrauterine Blood. Transfusions, Fetal. Transfusions, Intrauterine. Transfusions, Intrauterine Blood. Tree number ...
Blood Transfusion, Intrauterine Preferred Concept UI. M0002723. Scope Note. In utero transfusion of BLOOD into the FETUS for ... Blood Transfusion [E02.095.135] * Blood Component Transfusion [E02.095.135.140] * Blood Transfusion, Autologous [E02.095. ... Blood Transfusion, Intrauterine Preferred Term Term UI T005244. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1965). ... Blood Transfusion, Intrauterine. Tree Number(s). E02.095.135.264. E02.467.500. Unique ID. D001805. RDF Unique Identifier. http ...
bIncludes transfusion of 4 or more units of packed red blood cells and surgical or radiologic interventions to control bleeding ... and related complications (eg, uterine packing, intrauterine balloon tamponade, uterine artery ligation, uterine compression ... or transfusion of 4 or more units of blood. ... blood concentrations of liver enzymes 2 times the upper limit ... aIncludes eclampsia; hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome; pulmonary edema; severe hypertension (blood ...
... and probably with apoptosis by intrauterine transfusion significantly decreases the foetal mediated demise of red blood cells [ ... and ciliary body forming its apex at the blindness due to loss of rods and will progress to complete pupillary margin blood ... Hyperreactivity in a Murine Model of Premature Airways Small Airway Smooth Muscle Contractility in Obstructive Disease/P blood ... and probably with apoptosis by intrauterine transfusion significantly decreases the foetal mediated demise of red blood cells [ ...
Eight cases received blood transfusion/low-dose corticosteroids or combination therapy during pregnancy, and four of them were ... thrombosis and intrauterine fetal death in one case each. No maternal deaths were reported, with a live birth rate of 8/9 ... Objective@#To analyze the effect of sunlike spectrum LED illumination on retinal blood flow perfusion, and to explore the the ... Two sample independent t test and multivariable linear regression model were applied to compare the changes of retinal blood ...
Telangana State to perform intra-uterine fetal blood transfusion for Rh isoimmunization pregnancies. So far, 16 Hyphenate intra ... blood transfusions have been performed. In the case of 11 patients, 9 have had successful pregnancies. ... Intra-uterine blood transfusion). ...
Third trimester USG exhibited 32% developed IUGR (Intrauterine growth restriction). 40% patients received blood transfusion ...
Intrauterine Fetal Blood Transfusion for Rh Disease * Miscarriage * Special Concerns During Pregnancy ... Blood disorders: Blood disorders happen when the part of the red blood cell that carries oxygen (hemoglobin) throughout the ... The blood sample is sent to the laboratory at BC Childrens hospital for testing. The same blood sample is used to screen for ... What happens to my babys blood sample (blood spot card) when the screening is complete?. Your babys card with the leftover ...
Blood Transfusion Eye prophylaxis Medication Given at Birth Research Activity Organism Bacteria Bordetella pertussis Neisseria ... Intrauterine Cordocentesis Route of Administration Nasal Route of Administration Oral Route of Administration Parenteral Route ... Blood Test Blood Cell Count Blood Test for Protein Level Alpha-fetoprotein Measurement Pregnancy Associated Plasma Protein A Rh ... Blood Glucose Measurement Blood Type Contraction Stress Test Fetal Biophysical Profile Fetal Fibronectin Test Group B ...
An example of such, is performing intrauterine blood transfusion for severe fetal anemia ...
Hematometrocolpos is blood accumulation in the vagina and uterine cavity due to intra-uterine hemorrhage. A 20- year old female ... Initial treatment was blood transfusion and medical drug therapy. After resolution of the hematometrocolpos was shown by ...
  • Erythroblastosis fetalis is a condition manifested by anemia that develops in an unborn infant when maternal antibodies, usually caused by Rh incompatibility between the mother's blood type and that of the fetus, attack the red blood cells of the fetus. (
  • In utero transfusion of BLOOD into the FETUS for the treatment of FETAL DISEASES , such as fetal erythroblastosis ( ERYTHROBLASTOSIS, FETAL ). (
  • In rare cases, neonatal polycythemia may occur due to the transfusion of placental blood to the baby or chronic oxygen insufficiency of the fetus (intrauterine hypoxia ) due to placental inadequacy. (
  • A fetal blood transfusion is a procedure used to treat anemia in the fetus. (
  • However, some experts believe it happens when there is a mismatch of certain blood proteins between the birthing parent and the fetus. (
  • Mothers recovering from preeclampsia, eclampsia, and HELLP syndrome may need oxygen, magnesium sulfate to prevent seizures, antihypertensive medications to bring down their blood pressure, blood product transfusions, and other treatments that require increased healthcare provider supervision. (
  • 6. Did not receive blood product transfusions within 30 days prior to screening. (
  • With the introduction of widespread immunoprophylaxis for red blood cell alloimmunization and the use of in utero transfusions for immune hydrops therapy, IHF represents a minority of cases. (
  • One reason doctors may want to kill an identical twin in utero is Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome, in which the twins share a circulatory system, thanks to a disease of the placenta. (
  • To summarize the clinical efficacy and nursing experience of intrauterine blood transfusion (IUT) treatment for fetal anemia cases. (
  • Fetal anemia occurs when the baby's blood count is too low. (
  • The condition can be life threatening, which is why fetal blood transfusions need to be conducted shortly after discovering fetal anemia. (
  • Premature babies face challenges around organ development, body temperature regulations, and in many cases with preeclampsia, interuterine growth restriction (IUGR) that may have caused them to be small for gestational age (SGA). (
  • Third trimester USG exhibited 32% developed IUGR (Intrauterine growth restriction). (
  • Twin-To-Twin Transfusion Syndrome What is it? (
  • Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome is a specific disease unique to multiple pregnancies in which two or more foetuses share the same placenta. (
  • Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a specific complication unique to multiple pregnancies that have just a single placenta (monochorionic twins). (
  • The incidence of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome is 10-15% of monochorionic pregnancies and so it affects approximately 1 in every 3,000 pregnancies. (
  • Your child's healthcare provider will check this blood for antibodies, bilirubin, and anemia. (
  • It can also cause TAC in other conditions in which increased red cell production is necessary to maintain stable red cell indices, as may occur in anemia due to blood loss. (
  • Blood tests can also reveal that the baby has anemia or a low RBC count. (
  • This is from having too few red blood cells (anemia). (
  • Our primary outcomes were the adhesion score and incidence of recurrence of severe intrauterine adhesions postoperatively. (
  • The aim of this pilot study is to explore the feasibility, efficacy and safety of MWA reduction for severe complicated monochorionic pregnancies and may provide evidence for using the MWA in intrauterine surgeries extensively. (
  • The test will also help them determine whether you have anti-Rh antibodies in your blood from a previous pregnancy. (
  • If initial testing shows your baby may be at risk for erythroblastosis fetalis, your blood will be continually tested for antibodies throughout your pregnancy - approximately every two to four weeks. (
  • However, if the father's blood type is Rh positive or their blood type isn't known, your blood may be tested again between 18 to 20 weeks of pregnancy, and again at 26 to 27 weeks. (
  • It is thus used in pregnancy to study blood circulation in the baby, uterus and placenta. (
  • Although asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic in most cases, ZIKV can cause Guillain-Barré syndrome and infection during pregnancy has been associated with intrauterine fetal death and congenital Zika syndrome. (
  • Polycythemia (also called polyglobulia) is a disease in which the hematocrit level (volume of red blood cells) and hemoglobin concentration are raised in the peripheral blood. (
  • The mean intraoperative blood loss, mean difference in hemoglobin level, mean difference in hematocrit level, rate of perioperative blood transfusion, and mean operative time were significantly reduced in favor of the vasopressin group compared with the control group. (
  • Patient A had not traveled to an area with ongoing Zika virus transmission, had not had sexual contact with a person who recently traveled to such an area, and had not received a blood transfusion or organ transplant. (
  • In addition to mosquito-to-human transmission, Zika virus infections have been documented through intrauterine transmission resulting in congenital infection, intrapartum transmission from a viremic mother to her newborn, sexual transmission, blood transfusion, and laboratory exposure ( 5 ). (
  • This study (REDS-III US Zika Natural History Study) used donor NAT screening to identify and enroll asymptomatic ZIKV infected blood donors into a one-year follow-up study. (
  • Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus that can also be transmitted congenitally and through transfusion and sexual contact. (
  • Blood donor index donation plasma samples were screened using either the RMS cobas® Zika or Grifols Procleix Zika Virus NAT assays. (
  • Many have problems with their bone marrow causing low numbers of blood cells like platelets, red blood cells or white blood cells, which is called cytopenia. (
  • Platelets are responsible for blood clotting, and when their count becomes too low, it can lead to bleeding in the baby's brain or other organs. (
  • There is no routine blood test to see if a birthing parent has antibodies to platelets. (
  • Transmission may occur during intrauterine life, delivery, or breastfeeding. (
  • The blood sample is sent to the laboratory at BC Children's hospital for testing. (
  • Multivariable logistic regression showed risk factors for IVH to be VLBW, extreme prematurity, exposure to HIV, outborn delivery and receipt of a blood transfusion. (
  • The lowercase unit is the first in AP & Telangana State to perform intra-uterine fetal blood transfusion for Rh isoimmunization pregnancies. (
  • This occurs when the mother's blood type of A, B, or O isn't compatible with the baby's. (
  • Prenatal diagnostic procedures (Amniocentesis / Chorionic Villi Sampling (CVS) / Intra-uterine blood transfusion). (
  • To diagnose erythroblastosis fetalis, a doctor will order a routine blood test during your first prenatal visit . (
  • The high precision Doppler ultrasound uses sound waves to detect the movement of blood in vessels. (
  • The correction of foetal anaemia cytotoxicity, viral activation and probably with apoptosis by intrauterine transfusion significantly decreases the foetal mediated demise of red blood cells [23]. (
  • Blood tests performed in the mother can provide information regarding Rh and other immune causes of hydrops fetalis, as well as evidence of infection and metabolic diseases. (
  • Testing of donated blood has essentially eliminated blood transfusions as a source of infection. (
  • This information is needed to inform blood donor and diagnostic testing policies and understand the natural history of ZIKV infection. (
  • Surgical and mechanical methods apply direct pressure on blood vessels to reduce uterine blood flow. (
  • Blood flow can also be stopped by tying off or blocking the blood vessels that feed the uterus. (
  • One study (23 women) compared using imaging to block the blood vessels to the uterus (uterine artery embolisation) with surgical techniques to cut off the blood supply and compress the uterus but found little to no effect. (
  • It develops when there is an unbalanced transfer of blood from one foetus to the other by means of abnormal, interconnecting blood vessels (anastomoses) running through the shared placenta. (
  • However, laser surgery can improve their chances of survival by sealing all the abnormal blood vessels connecting them. (
  • Other causes include retained placenta, vaginal or cervical tears, and failure of the blood to clot. (
  • Occurs in individuals with low degrees of oxygen in their blood for extensive stretches of time. (
  • The lack of oxygen for longer durations causes the body to produce higher amounts of erythropoietin , which is a hormone produced by the kidneys that signal the bone marrow cells to produce red blood cells. (
  • Blood disorders happen when the part of the red blood cell that carries oxygen (hemoglobin) throughout the body is changed. (
  • These blood cells carry oxygen, iron, and many other nutrients to the appropriate places in the body. (
  • To make a diagnosis, your child's healthcare provider will look for blood types that cannot work together. (
  • The ideal time to collect the newborn screening blood sample is between 24 and 48 hours after birth. (
  • Patients with polycythemia may have other blood disorders as well. (
  • 40% patients received blood transfusion after delivery. (
  • CONCLUSION Among patients undergoing myomectomy, prophylactic administration of vasopressin was largely safe and correlated with significant reductions in intraoperative blood loss and associated morbidities compared with a passive control intervention. (
  • OBJECTIVE To evaluate the value of intrauterine platelet-rich concentrates among patients with intrauterine adhesions (IUAs) after hysteroscopic adhesiolysis. (
  • The Rh negative mom's immune system sees the baby's Rh positive red blood cells as foreign. (
  • The Rh negative mother's immune system sees the baby's Rh positive red blood cells as foreign. (
  • Testing for Rh positive antibodies in your blood. (
  • These antibodies will attack the blood cells if you ever become pregnant with another Rh-positive baby. (
  • Another type of blood type mismatch that can cause maternal antibodies against her baby's blood cells is ABO incompatibility. (
  • Testing is done to look for Rh positive antibodies in your blood. (
  • This can cause a condition known as erythroblastosis fetalis, where the mother's white blood cells (WBCs) attack the baby's RBCs as they would any foreign invaders. (
  • Erythroblastosis fetalis is suspected if the baby's blood flow is affected. (
  • Treatment of polycythemia includes treating any underlying conditions, if possible, and bringing down blood cell levels. (
  • Initial treatment was blood transfusion and medical drug therapy. (
  • CONCLUSIONS Intrauterine placement of platelet-rich concentrates is an effective method for the treatment of intrauterine adhesions after hysteroscopy. (
  • It may also happen if the mom and baby have different blood types. (
  • A baby may have the blood type and Rh factor of either parent, or a combination of both parents. (
  • Your baby may cry, but taking the blood sample does not harm your baby. (
  • If your antibody levels start to rise, a doctor may recommend a test to detect fetal cerebral artery blood flow, which isn't invasive to the baby. (
  • ABO incompatibility occurs most frequently when a mother with an O blood type gives birth to a baby who has an A, B, or AB blood type. (
  • There can be a problem if a mother and baby have a different blood type and Rh factor. (
  • This is done to check if your baby needs an intrauterine blood transfusion. (
  • In this situation, one baby donates blood to another baby. (
  • Percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling or fetal blood sampling. (
  • Fetal blood sampling (FBS) refers to three techniques used to gain access to fetal blood: cordocentesis - also known as percutaneous umbilical blood sampling, intrahepatic blood sampling, and cardiocentesis. (
  • The Rh factor is a protein on the covering of the red blood cells. (
  • If the baby's Rh factor is positive, like his or her father's, this can be an issue if the baby's red blood cells cross to the Rh negative mother. (
  • But it may also happen any time the mom's and baby's blood cells mix. (
  • This is a substance that is released when blood cells break down. (
  • This test puts red blood cells into your baby's circulation. (
  • This may be because of an increase in the number of red blood cells or a decrease in plasma volume. (
  • An excessive amount of erythropoietin in the body can result in the production of a large number of red blood cells due to any underlying acquired cause. (
  • When many red blood cells unexpectedly enter circulation from storage. (
  • Increase in the actual mass of red blood cells in the body. (
  • A high concentration of red blood cells indicates polycythemia. (
  • The adult human body is home to trillions of red blood cells , also known as RBCs or erythrocytes. (
  • Your blood cells attack the baby's as a protective mechanism that can end up harming the child. (
  • It occurs when your baby's red blood cells break down at a fast rate. (
  • Hemolytic means breaking down of red blood cells. (
  • Erythroblastosis means making immature red blood cells. (
  • But it may also happen any time the mother's and baby's blood cells mix. (
  • Once IHF is suspected, maternal blood typing and antibody screening against Rh and a determination of minor blood types (eg, Kell, Duffy, MNSs) should be performed. (
  • Doctors can do this by performing serological testing on maternal, paternal, and newborn blood samples. (
  • Clinical Efficacy and Nursing Care of Fetal Intrauterine Blood Transfusion: Previous Experience Review]. (
  • We selected randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that compared platelet-rich concentrates in the intervention group versus no injection of platelet-rich concentrates in the control group among women with intrauterine adhesions after operative hysteroscopy. (
  • A2843 720 Dasatinib and Quercetin Reverse Hyperoxia-Induced Airway 706 Potential Differences in Calcium Sensitization Driving Human Hyperreactivity in a Murine Model of Premature Airways Small Airway Smooth Muscle Contractility in Obstructive Disease/P blood pressure medication missed dose buy midamor paypal . (
  • Participants will be screened with medical history, medication review, physical exam and blood and urine tests. (
  • The four pregnant women underwent 1-3 times of IUT in the second and third trimesters , with the minimum gestational age at the time of IUT being 25 + weeks and the blood transfusion volume being 20-107 mL/ time . (
  • The condition may be diagnosed during a normal blood examination or when examining another condition. (
  • B19 was discovered in England in 1975 in serum specimens from healthy blood donors (1). (
  • 53 initially asymptomatic blood donors recruited into follow-up study were eligible for enrollment if donating at blood centers participating in our follow-up study (Banco de Sangre de Servicios Mutuos, OneBlood, Vitalant, New York Blood Center or American Red Cross) from April through December 2016, coinciding with a large ZIKV virus epidemic in PR and small autochthonous outbreak in South Florida. (
  • When a woman is pregnant, it's possible that her baby's blood type will be incompatible with her own. (
  • Both causes are associated with blood type . (
  • They'll test for your blood type . (
  • The fetus's blood type is rarely tested. (
  • It's difficult to test for a fetus's blood type and doing so can increase the risk for complications. (
  • If the father's blood type is Rh negative, no further testing is needed. (
  • All people have a blood type (A, B, AB, or O). Everyone also has an Rh factor (positive or negative). (
  • Quinapril inhibits the elevation in blood pressure caused by intravenously administered angiotensin I, but has no effect on the pressor response to angiotensin II, norepinephrine, or epinephrine. (
  • This was compared to external pressure with stitches in one study (13 women) and it was found that Bakri balloon may reduce blood loss but no other effects were seen. (
  • The earliest scientific finding is night floor of the lens and ciliary body forming its apex at the blindness due to loss of rods and will progress to complete pupillary margin blood pressure 8550 order clonidine 0.1mg visa . (
  • Avoid coadministration with other drugs that decrease pulse or blood pressure to mitigate risk of excessive bradycardia and hypotension. (
  • Other Cochrane Reviews consider the use of drugs that promote blood clotting or contractions of the uterus. (
  • these are the result of haemodynamic changes secondary to an increase (hypervolaemia) or decrease (hypovolaemia) in the total volume of blood circulating in each foetus. (
  • Hematometrocolpos is blood accumulation in the vagina and uterine cavity due to intra-uterine hemorrhage. (
  • The results suggested that the modified suture may reduce blood loss and the risk of hysterectomy. (