The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Reinfusion of blood or blood products derived from the patient's own circulation. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The transfer of erythrocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.
The transfer of blood platelets from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
Repetitive withdrawal of small amounts of blood and replacement with donor blood until a large proportion of the blood volume has been exchanged. Used in treatment of fetal erythroblastosis, hepatic coma, sickle cell anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septicemia, burns, thrombotic thrombopenic purpura, and fulminant malaria.
Loss of blood during a surgical procedure.
The transfer of blood components such as erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, and plasma from a donor to a recipient or back to the donor. This process differs from the procedures undertaken in PLASMAPHERESIS and types of CYTAPHERESIS; (PLATELETPHERESIS and LEUKAPHERESIS) where, following the removal of plasma or the specific cell components, the remainder is transfused back to the donor.
In utero transfusion of BLOOD into the FETUS for the treatment of FETAL DISEASES, such as fetal erythroblastosis (ERYTHROBLASTOSIS, FETAL).
Centers for collecting, characterizing and storing human blood.
Testing erythrocytes to determine presence or absence of blood-group antigens, testing of serum to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to these antigens, and selecting biocompatible blood by crossmatching samples from the donor against samples from the recipient. Crossmatching is performed prior to transfusion.
Recovery of blood lost from surgical procedures for reuse by the same patient in AUTOLOGOUS BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS. It is collected during (intraoperatively) or after completion of (postoperatively) the surgical procedures.
Passage of blood from one fetus to another via an arteriovenous communication or other shunt, in a monozygotic twin pregnancy. It results in anemia in one twin and polycythemia in the other. (Lee et al., Wintrobe's Clinical Hematology, 9th ed, p737-8)
A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.
Hemorrhage following any surgical procedure. It may be immediate or delayed and is not restricted to the surgical wound.
Antifibrinolytic hemostatic used in severe hemorrhage.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Agents that prevent fibrinolysis or lysis of a blood clot or thrombus. Several endogenous antiplasmins are known. The drugs are used to control massive hemorrhage and in other coagulation disorders.
Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.
Members of a religious denomination founded in the United States during the late 19th century in which active evangelism is practiced, the imminent approach of the millennium is preached, and war and organized government authority in matters of conscience are strongly opposed (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). Jehovah's Witnesses generally refuse blood transfusions and other blood-based treatments based on religious belief.
The process by which blood or its components are kept viable outside of the organism from which they are derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
An antigenic mismatch between donor and recipient blood. Antibodies present in the recipient's serum may be directed against antigens in the donor product. Such a mismatch may result in a transfusion reaction in which, for example, donor blood is hemolyzed. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984).
The transfer of leukocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.
The degree to which the blood supply for BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS is free of harmful substances or infectious agents, and properly typed and crossmatched (BLOOD GROUPING AND CROSSMATCHING) to insure serological compatibility between BLOOD DONORS and recipients.
The mildest form of erythroblastosis fetalis in which anemia is the chief manifestation.
The preparation of platelet concentrates with the return of red cells and platelet-poor plasma to the donor.
Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
Substances that are used in place of blood, for example, as an alternative to BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS after blood loss to restore BLOOD VOLUME and oxygen-carrying capacity to the blood circulation, or to perfuse isolated organs.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin. There is retardation of hemoglobin A synthesis in the heterozygous form (thalassemia minor), which is asymptomatic, while in the homozygous form (thalassemia major, Cooley's anemia, Mediterranean anemia, erythroblastic anemia), which can result in severe complications and even death, hemoglobin A synthesis is absent.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.
A condition characterized by the abnormal presence of ERYTHROBLASTS in the circulation of the FETUS or NEWBORNS. It is a disorder due to BLOOD GROUP INCOMPATIBILITY, such as the maternal alloimmunization by fetal antigen RH FACTORS leading to HEMOLYSIS of ERYTHROCYTES, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), general edema (HYDROPS FETALIS), and SEVERE JAUNDICE IN NEWBORN.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Agents acting to arrest the flow of blood. Absorbable hemostatics arrest bleeding either by the formation of an artificial clot or by providing a mechanical matrix that facilitates clotting when applied directly to the bleeding surface. These agents function more at the capillary level and are not effective at stemming arterial or venous bleeding under any significant intravascular pressure.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.
Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.
The removal of LEUKOCYTES from BLOOD to reduce BLOOD TRANSFUSION reactions and lower the chance of transmitting VIRUSES. This may be performed by FILTRATION or by CYTAPHERESIS.
Control of bleeding during or after surgery.
Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.
Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.
The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.
Transplacental passage of fetal blood into the circulation of the maternal organism. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
Infectious organisms in the BLOOD, of which the predominant medical interest is their contamination of blood-soiled linens, towels, gowns, BANDAGES, other items from individuals in risk categories, NEEDLES and other sharp objects, MEDICAL WASTE and DENTAL WASTE, all of which health workers are exposed to. This concept is differentiated from the clinical conditions of BACTEREMIA; VIREMIA; and FUNGEMIA where the organism is present in the blood of a patient as the result of a natural infectious process.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
Replacement of the knee joint.
A single-chain polypeptide derived from bovine tissues consisting of 58 amino-acid residues. It is an inhibitor of proteolytic enzymes including CHYMOTRYPSIN; KALLIKREIN; PLASMIN; and TRYPSIN. It is used in the treatment of HEMORRHAGE associated with raised plasma concentrations of plasmin. It is also used to reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients at high risk of major blood loss during and following open heart surgery with EXTRACORPOREAL CIRCULATION. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
The process by which fetal Rh+ erythrocytes enter the circulation of an Rh- mother, causing her to produce IMMUNOGLOBULIN G antibodies, which can cross the placenta and destroy the erythrocytes of Rh+ fetuses. Rh isoimmunization can also be caused by BLOOD TRANSFUSION with mismatched blood.
Agents which improve the quality of the blood, increasing the hemoglobin level and the number of erythrocytes. They are used in the treatment of anemias.
The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
Surgery performed on the heart.
A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
An infant during the first month after birth.
An excessive accumulation of iron in the body due to a greater than normal absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract or from parenteral injection. This may arise from idiopathic hemochromatosis, excessive iron intake, chronic alcoholism, certain types of refractory anemia, or transfusional hemosiderosis. (From Churchill's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1989)
Therapy of heavy metal poisoning using agents which sequester the metal from organs or tissues and bind it firmly within the ring structure of a new compound which can be eliminated from the body.
Excess blood loss from uterine bleeding associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH. It is defined as blood loss greater than 500 ml or of the amount that adversely affects the maternal physiology, such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEMATOCRIT. Postpartum hemorrhage is divided into two categories, immediate (within first 24 hours after birth) or delayed (after 24 hours postpartum).
Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.
Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)
A group of hereditary hemolytic anemias in which there is decreased synthesis of one or more hemoglobin polypeptide chains. There are several genetic types with clinical pictures ranging from barely detectable hematologic abnormality to severe and fatal anemia.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of abnormalities in blood coagulation due to a variety of factors such as COAGULATION PROTEIN DISORDERS; BLOOD PLATELET DISORDERS; BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS or nutritional conditions.
The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
The techniques used to draw blood from a vein for diagnostic purposes or for treatment of certain blood disorders such as erythrocytosis, hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, and porphyria cutanea tarda.
The number of RETICULOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. The values are expressed as a percentage of the ERYTHROCYTE COUNT or in the form of an index ("corrected reticulocyte index"), which attempts to account for the number of circulating erythrocytes.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Replacement of the hip joint.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
An antifibrinolytic agent that acts by inhibiting plasminogen activators which have fibrinolytic properties.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).
An alkylating nitrogen mustard that is used as an antineoplastic in the form of the levo isomer - MELPHALAN, the racemic mixture - MERPHALAN, and the dextro isomer - MEDPHALAN; toxic to bone marrow, but little vesicant action; potential carcinogen.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
A rare transmissible encephalopathy most prevalent between the ages of 50 and 70 years. Affected individuals may present with sleep disturbances, personality changes, ATAXIA; APHASIA, visual loss, weakness, muscle atrophy, MYOCLONUS, progressive dementia, and death within one year of disease onset. A familial form exhibiting autosomal dominant inheritance and a new variant CJD (potentially associated with ENCEPHALOPATHY, BOVINE SPONGIFORM) have been described. Pathological features include prominent cerebellar and cerebral cortical spongiform degeneration and the presence of PRIONS. (From N Engl J Med, 1998 Dec 31;339(27))
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Bleeding from a PEPTIC ULCER that can be located in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
An autologous or commercial tissue adhesive containing FIBRINOGEN and THROMBIN. The commercial product is a two component system from human plasma that contains more than fibrinogen and thrombin. The first component contains highly concentrated fibrinogen, FACTOR VIII, fibronectin, and traces of other plasma proteins. The second component contains thrombin, calcium chloride, and antifibrinolytic agents such as APROTININ. Mixing of the two components promotes BLOOD CLOTTING and the formation and cross-linking of fibrin. The tissue adhesive is used for tissue sealing, HEMOSTASIS, and WOUND HEALING.
The period during a surgical operation.
The indelible marking of TISSUES, primarily SKIN, by pricking it with NEEDLES to imbed various COLORING AGENTS. Tattooing of the CORNEA is done to colorize LEUKOMA spots.
The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
Erythrocyte isoantigens of the Rh (Rhesus) blood group system, the most complex of all human blood groups. The major antigen Rh or D is the most common cause of erythroblastosis fetalis.
The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.
The religion stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus Christ: the religion that believes in God as the Father Almighty who works redemptively through the Holy Spirit for men's salvation and that affirms Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior who proclaimed to man the gospel of salvation. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the fetus and amniotic cavity through abdominal or uterine entry.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.
The senescence of RED BLOOD CELLS. Lacking the organelles that make protein synthesis possible, the mature erythrocyte is incapable of self-repair, reproduction, and carrying out certain functions performed by other cells. This limits the average life span of an erythrocyte to 120 days.
Acquired hemolytic anemia due to the presence of AUTOANTIBODIES which agglutinate or lyse the patient's own RED BLOOD CELLS.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Techniques for the removal of subpopulations of cells (usually residual tumor cells) from the bone marrow ex vivo before it is infused. The purging is achieved by a variety of agents including pharmacologic agents, biophysical agents (laser photoirradiation or radioisotopes) and immunologic agents. Bone marrow purging is used in both autologous and allogeneic BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
Bleeding from the nose.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.
Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
The aggregate of various economic, political, and social policies by which an imperial power maintains or extends its control over other areas or peoples. It includes the practice of or belief in acquiring and retaining colonies. The emphasis is less on its identity as an ideological political system than on its designation in a period of history. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.
A test to detect non-agglutinating ANTIBODIES against ERYTHROCYTES by use of anti-antibodies (the Coombs' reagent.) The direct test is applied to freshly drawn blood to detect antibody bound to circulating red cells. The indirect test is applied to serum to detect the presence of antibodies that can bind to red blood cells.
Use of a thrombelastograph, which provides a continuous graphic record of the physical shape of a clot during fibrin formation and subsequent lysis.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.
Conditions in which there is a generalized increase in the iron stores of body tissues, particularly of liver and the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM, without demonstrable tissue damage. The name refers to the presence of stainable iron in the tissue in the form of hemosiderin.
A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The insertion of a catheter through the skin and body wall into the kidney pelvis, mainly to provide urine drainage where the ureter is not functional. It is used also to remove or dissolve renal calculi and to diagnose ureteral obstruction.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.
The time periods immediately before, during and following a surgical operation.
Specialized hospital facilities which provide diagnostic and therapeutic services for trauma patients.
Agents used to prevent or reverse the pathological events leading to sickling of erythrocytes in sickle cell conditions.
A space in which the pressure is far below atmospheric pressure so that the remaining gases do not affect processes being carried on in the space.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.
Measurement of hemoglobin concentration in blood.
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Organized procedures for establishing patient identity, including use of bracelets, etc.
A cell-cycle phase nonspecific alkylating antineoplastic agent. It is used in the treatment of brain tumors and various other malignant neoplasms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p462) This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.
A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.
Acute hemorrhage or excessive fluid loss resulting in HYPOVOLEMIA.
Any procedure in which blood is withdrawn from a donor, a portion is separated and retained and the remainder is returned to the donor.
A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of medical care.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.
Yellow discoloration of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA in the NEWBORN. It is a sign of NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Most cases are transient self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) occurring in the first week of life, but some can be a sign of pathological disorders, particularly LIVER DISEASES.
A mucosal tumor of the urinary bladder or nasal cavity in which proliferating epithelium is invaginated beneath the surface and is more smoothly rounded than in other papillomas. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
The preparation of leukocyte concentrates with the return of red cells and leukocyte-poor plasma to the donor.
Acquired degenerative dilation or expansion (ectasia) of normal BLOOD VESSELS, often associated with aging. They are isolated, tortuous, thin-walled vessels and sources of bleeding. They occur most often in mucosal capillaries of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT leading to GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE and ANEMIA.
A species of protozoa infecting humans via the intermediate tick vector IXODES scapularis. The other hosts are the mouse PEROMYSCUS leucopus and meadow vole MICROTUS pennsylvanicus, which are fed on by the tick. Other primates can be experimentally infected with Babesia microti.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Laboratory tests for evaluating the individual's clotting mechanism.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.
Organic and inorganic compounds that contain iron as an integral part of the molecule.
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.
A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.
A condition of inadequate circulating red blood cells (ANEMIA) or insufficient HEMOGLOBIN due to premature destruction of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES).
Surgery performed on the ear and its parts, the nose and nasal cavity, or the throat, including surgery of the adenoids, tonsils, pharynx, and trachea.
The black, tarry, foul-smelling FECES that contain degraded blood.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.
A therapeutic approach, involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery, after initial regimens have failed to lead to improvement in a patient's condition. Salvage therapy is most often used for neoplastic diseases.

Superior autologous blood stem cell mobilization from dose-intensive cyclophosphamide, etoposide, cisplatin plus G-CSF than from less intensive chemotherapy regimens. (1/329)

The study purpose was to determine if G-CSF plus dose-intensive cyclophosphamide 5.25 g/m2, etoposide 1.05 g/m2 and cisplatin 105 mg/m2 (DICEP) results in superior autologous blood stem cell mobilization (BSCM) than less intensive chemotherapy. From January 1993 until May 1997, 152 consecutive patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 55), breast cancer (n = 47), Hodgkin's disease (n = 14), multiple myeloma (n = 9), AML (n = 9), or other cancers (n = 18) initially underwent BSCM by one of three methods: Group 1: G-CSF alone x 4 days (n = 30). Group 2: disease-oriented chemotherapy, dosed to avoid blood transfusions, followed by G-CSF starting day 7 or 8, and apheresis day 13 or 14 (n = 82). Group 3: DICEP days 1-3, G-CSF starting day 14, and apheresis planned day 19, 20 or 21 (n = 40). A multivariate analysis was performed to determine which factors independently predicted BSCM. The median peripheral blood CD34+ (PB CD34+) cell count the morning of apheresis linearly correlated with the number of CD34+ cells removed per litre of apheresis that day. The median PB CD34+ cell count and median CD34+ cells x 10(6) removed per litre of apheresis were highest for Group 3, intermediate for Group 2, and lowest for Group 1. By multivariate analysis, mobilization group (3 > 2 > 1), disease other than AML, no prior melphalan or mitomycin-C, and less than two prior chemotherapy regimens predicted better BSCM. Out of 15 Group 3 patients who had infiltrated marrows, 11 had no detectable cancer in marrow and apheresis products after DICEP. These data suggest that DICEP results in superior BSCM than less intensive chemotherapy regimens.  (+info)

Autologous versus allogeneic transfusion: patients' perceptions and experiences. (2/329)

BACKGROUND: Preoperative autologous donation is one way to decrease a patient's exposure to allogeneic blood transfusion. This study was designed to determine patients' perceptions about the autologous blood donation process and their experiences with transfusion. METHODS: To assess patient perception, a questionnaire was administered a few days before surgery to patients undergoing elective cardiac and orthopedic surgery in a Canadian teaching hospital. All patients attending the preoperative autologous donation clinic during a 10-month period were eligible. A convenience sample of patients undergoing the same types of surgery who had not predonated blood were selected from preadmission clinics. Patient charts were reviewed retrospectively to assess actual transfusion practice in all cases. RESULTS: A total of 80 patients underwent cardiac surgery (40 autologous donors, 40 nondonors) and 73 underwent orthopedic surgery (38 autologous donors, 35 nondonors). Of the autologous donors, 75 (96%) attended all scheduled donation appointments, 73 (93%) said that they were "very likely" or "likely" to predonate again, and 75 (96%) said that they would recommend autologous donation to others. There was little difference in preoperative symptoms between the autologous donors and the nondonors, although the former were more likely than the latter to report that their overall health had remained the same during the month before surgery (30 [75%] v. 21 [52%] for the cardiac surgery patients and 30 [79%] v. 18 [51%] for the orthopedic surgery patients). When the autologous donors were asked what they felt their chances would have been of receiving at least one allogeneic blood transfusion had they not predonated, the median response was 80%. When they were asked what their chances were after predonating their own blood, the median response was 0%. The autologous donors were significantly less likely to receive allogeneic blood transfusions (6 [15%] for cardiac surgery and 3 [8%] for orthopedic surgery) than were the nondonors (14 [35%] for cardiac surgery and 16 [46%] for orthopaedic surgery). They were, however, more likely to receive any transfusion (autologous or allogeneic) than were the nondonors (25 [63%] v. 14 [35%] for cardiac surgery and 31 [81%] v. 16 [46%] for orthopedic surgery). INTERPRETATION: Patients who underwent preoperative autologous blood donation were positive about the experience and did not report more symptoms than patients who did not donate blood preoperatively. Autologous donors overestimated their chances of receiving allogeneic blood transfusions had they not predonated and underestimated their chances after they had predonated. They were less likely to receive allogeneic transfusions, but more likely to receive any type of transfusion, than were patients who did not predonate.  (+info)

Transfusion practices among patients who did and did not predonate autologous blood before elective cardiac surgery. (3/329)

BACKGROUND: Preoperative autologous blood donation is commonly used to reduce exposure to allogeneic transfusions among patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. However, this technique is associated with an overall increase in transfusions (allogeneic or autologous). The authors assessed the impact of transfusion decision-making on the effectiveness of preoperative autologous donation in reducing the frequency of allogeneic transfusions, and its impact on the increased transfusion rate associated with preoperative autologous donation in cardiac surgery. METHODS: This retrospective analysis compared transfusion practices among 176 patients who predonated autologous blood before elective cardiac surgery and 176 matched cardiac surgery patients who did not predonate blood. The impact of decision-making on transfusion exposure was determined using multivariate analyses to account for major perioperative interventions and complications. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for exposure to allogeneic blood transfusion or any transfusion, before and after exclusion of transfusions not conforming with selected transfusion criteria. RESULTS: Exposure to allogeneic transfusion was more likely among patients who did not predonate blood than among those who did predonate blood (OR 14.0, 95% CI 5.8-33.8). This finding was still true after exclusion of transfusions not meeting the transfusion criteria (OR 19.3, 95% CI 6.7-55.7). The autologous blood donors were more likely than the nondonors to receive any transfusion (OR 10.8, 95% CI 5.7-20.3). However, this association was substantially attenuated after exclusion of transfusions not meeting the transfusion criteria (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.2). INTERPRETATION: Patients who predonated blood before elective cardiac surgery were at lower risk of receiving allogeneic transfusions than the nondonors. This was not because of a deliberate withholding of allogeneic transfusions from autologous donors. However, more liberal transfusion criteria for autologous blood were largely responsible for the increased transfusion rate among the autologous donors.  (+info)

Complement activation and increased systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance indices during infusion of postoperatively drained untreated blood. (4/329)

In nine healthy young patients, operated on for thoracic scoliosis, a pulmonary artery catheter was inserted for the study of haemodynamic variables and blood sampling during autologous transfusion of postoperatively drained blood. At 1-3 h after wound closure, 10 ml kg/body weight of drained untreated blood from the wound was collected and recirculated over a l-h period. The concentration of the complement activation product, C3bc, increased from a mean of 5.4 (SD 1.5) AU ml-1 before infusion to 11.1 (3.9) AU ml-1 during infusion and then returned to 7.8 (2.8) AU ml-1 after infusion. The concentration of the terminal complement complex (TCC) increased from 0.5 (0.2) to 1.3 (0.5) AU ml-1 and was reduced to 0.7 (0.3) AU ml-1 after infusion. Only TCC exceeded the reference values which are 14 AU ml-1 for C3bc and 1.0 AU ml-1 for TCC. Pulmonary vascular resistance index concomitantly increased from a mean of 130 (SD 52) to 195 (88) dyn s cm-5 m-2 and was reduced to 170 (86) dyn s cm-5 m-2 after infusion. Systemic vascular resistance index increased from a mean of 1238 (SD 403) to 1349 (473) dyn s cm-5 m-2 and returned to 1196 (401) dyn s cm-5 m-2 after infusion. White blood cell count (WCC) increased from 14.4 (4.3) x 10(9) litre-1 before infusion to 17.8 (7.2) x 10(9) litre-1 during and after infusion. No change in platelet count during infusion was observed. There were no differences in WCC or platelet count between mixed venous or peripheral arterial blood. Pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance indices may be influenced by activated complement in drained untreated blood when it is recirculated.  (+info)

Haemodynamic assessment of hypovolaemia under general anaesthesia in pigs submitted to graded haemorrhage and retransfusion. (5/329)

We have compared the value of different variables used in the assessment of blood loss during progressive hypovolaemia and resuscitation under general anaesthesia in anaesthetized pigs. We measured mean arterial pressure (MAP), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), the negative component of the systolic arterial pressure variation (delta Down) and left ventricular end-diastolic area (LVEDa) using echocardiography. Blood was progressively withdrawn (up to 35 ml kg-1 in seven steps) and then reinfused after the same pattern. Regression coefficient (r) and normalized slope (nS) of the regression relationship between each variable and amount of blood loss were determined. The difference between the withdrawal and reinfusion curves was assessed by the area between the curves. We also estimated the minimal loss of blood volume which induced significant changes in each variable compared with that under control conditions during withdrawal of blood (minWBV) and maximal loss in blood volume which induced no significant changes in a variable compared with control conditions during retransfusion (maxRBV). During haemorrhage, MAP decreased (from mean 74 (SD 9) to 31 (5) mm Hg; P < 0.001), delta Down increased (from 1.2 (1.4) to 11.4 (4.2) mm Hg; P < 0.001), PCWP decreased (from 6.2 (2.1) to 0.3 (1.0) mm Hg; P < 0.001) and LVEDa decreased (from 13.8 (2.0) to 5.1 (2.0) cm2; P < 0.01). The highest r values were obtained with MAP and LVEDa, and the highest nS value with delta Down. The least difference between withdrawal and reinfusion was with LVEDa, the lowest values of minWBV were with PCWP and LVEDa, and the highest value of maxRBV was obtained with PCWP. During progressive haemorrhage under general anaesthesia, LVEDa was an accurate variable for assessment of blood volume loss, delta Down contributed no further information compared with MAP, and PCWP was the most reliable variable for assessing return to baseline blood volume.  (+info)

Systemic and microcirculatory effects of autologous whole blood resuscitation in severe hemorrhagic shock. (6/329)

Systemic and microcirculatory effects of autologous whole blood resuscitation after 4-h hemorrhagic shock with a mean arterial pressure (MAP) level of 40 mmHg were investigated in 63 conscious Syrian golden hamsters. Microcirculation of skeletal skin muscle and subcutaneous connective tissue was visualized in a dorsal skinfold. Shed blood was retransfused within 30 min after 4 h. Animals were grouped into survivors in good (SG) and poor condition (SP) and nonsurvivors (NS) according to 24-h outcome after resuscitation and studied before shock, during shock (60, 120, and 240 min), and 30 min and 24 h after resuscitation. Microvascular and interstitial PO2 values were determined by phosphorescence decay. Shock caused a significant increase of arterial PO2 and decrease of PCO2, pH, and base excess. In the microcirculation, there was a significant decrease in blood flow (QB), functional capillary density (FCD; capillaries with red blood cell flow), and interstitial PO2 [1.8 +/- 0.8 mmHg (SG), 1.3 +/- 1.3 mmHg (SP), and 0.9 +/- 1.1 mmHg (NS) vs. 23.0 +/- 6.1 mmHg at control]. Blood resuscitation caused immediate MAP recompensation in all animals, whereas metabolic acidosis, hyperventilation, and a significant interstitial PO2 decrease (40-60% of control) persisted. In NS (44.4% of the animals), systemic and microcirculatory alterations were significantly more severe both in shock and after resuscitation than in survivors. Whereas in SG (31.8% of the animals) there was only a slight (15-30%) but still significant impairment of microscopic tissue perfusion (QB, FCD) and oxygenation at 24 h, SP (23.8% of the animals) showed severe metabolic acidosis and substantial decreases (>/=50%) of FCD and interstitial PO2. FCD, interstitial PO2, and metabolic state were the main determinants of shock outcome.  (+info)

A prospective randomized comparison of three blood conservation strategies for radical prostatectomy. (7/329)

BACKGROUND: Preoperative autologous blood donation is a standard of care for elective surgical procedures requiring transfusion. The authors evaluated the efficacy of alternative blood-conservation strategies including preoperative recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) therapy and acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) in radical retropubic prostatectomy patients. METHODS: Seventy-nine patients were prospectively randomized to preoperative autologous donation (3 U autologous blood); rHuEPO plus ANH (preoperative subcutaneous administration of 600 U/kg rHuEPO at 21 and 14 days before surgery and 300 U/kg on day of surgery followed by ANH in the operating room); or ANH (blinded, placebo injections per the rHuEPO regimen listed previously). Transfusion outcomes, perioperative hematocrit levels, postoperative outcomes, and blood-conservation costs were compared among the three groups. RESULTS: Baseline hematocrit levels were similar in all groups (43%+/-2%). On the day of surgery hematocrit decreased to 34% +/-4% in the preoperative autologous donation group (P < 0.001), increased to 47%+/-2% in the rHuEPO plus ANH group (P < 0.001), and remained unchanged at 43%+/-2% in the ANH group. Allogeneic blood exposure was similar in all groups. The rHuEPO plus ANH group had significantly higher hematocrit levels compared with the other groups throughout the hospitalization (P < 0.001). Average transfusion costs were significantly lower for ANH ($194+/-$192) compared with preoperative autologous donation ($690+/-$128; P < 0.001) or rHuEPO plus ANH ($1,393+/-$204, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: All three blood-conservation strategies resulted in similar allogeneic blood exposure rates, but ANH was the least costly technique. Preoperative rHuEPO plus ANH prevented postoperative anemia but resulted in the highest transfusion costs.  (+info)

Perflubron emulsion delays blood transfusions in orthopedic surgery. European Perflubron Emulsion Study Group. (8/329)

BACKGROUND: Fluorocarbon emulsions have been proposed as temporary artificial oxygen carriers. The aim of the present study is to compare the effectiveness of perflubron emulsion with the effectiveness of autologous blood or colloid infusion for reversal of physiologic transfusion triggers. METHODS: A multinational, multicenter, randomized, controlled, single-blind, parallel group study was performed in 147 orthopedic patients. Patients underwent acute normovolemic hemodilution with colloid to a target hemoglobin of 9 g/dl with an inspiratory oxygen fraction (FIO2) of 0.40. Patients were then randomized into one of four treatment groups after having reached any of the protocol-defined transfusion triggers including tachycardia (heart rate > 125% of posthemodilution rate or > 110 bpm), hypotension (mean arterial pressure < 75% of posthemodilution level or < or = 60 mmHg), elevated cardiac output (> 150% of posthemodilution level) or decreased mixed venous oxygen partial pressure (PVO2; < 38 mmHg). Treatments in the four groups were 450 ml autologous blood harvested during acute normovolemic hemodilution given at FO2 = 0.40; 450 ml colloid at FIO2 = 1.0; 0.9 g/kg perflubron emulsion with colloid (total = 450 ml) at FIO2 = 1.0; and 1.8 g/kg perflubron emulsion with colloid (total = 450 ml) at FIO2 = 1.0. The primary endpoint was duration of transfusion-trigger reversal. A secondary end-point was percentage of transfusion-trigger reversal. RESULTS: Perflubron emulsion was well tolerated with no serious adverse event attributed to drug treatment. Duration of reversal was longest in the 1.8 g/kg perflubron group (median, 80 min; 95% confidence interval, 60-100 min; P = 0.014 vs. autologous blood, P < 0.001 vs. colloid) followed by the 0.9 g/kg perflubron group (median, 59 min; 95% confidence interval, 40-90 min), the autologous blood group (median, 55 min; 95% confidence interval, 30-70 min) and the colloid group (median, 30 min; 95% confidence interval, 27-60 min). Percentage of reversal was also highest in the 1.8 g/kg perflubron group (97%; P < 0.001 vs. autologous blood; P = 0.014 vs. colloid), followed by 0.9 g/kg perflubron (82%), colloid (76%), and autologous blood (60%). CONCLUSIONS: Perflubron emulsion (1.8 g/kg) combined with 100% oxygen ventilation is more effective than autologous blood or colloid infusion in reversing physiologic transfusion triggers.  (+info)

In general, surgical blood loss is considered excessive if it exceeds 10-20% of the patient's total blood volume. This can be determined by measuring the patient's hemoglobin levels before and after the procedure. A significant decrease in hemoglobin levels post-procedure may indicate excessive blood loss.

There are several factors that can contribute to surgical blood loss, including:

1. Injury to blood vessels or organs during the surgical procedure
2. Poor surgical technique
3. Use of scalpels or other sharp instruments that can cause bleeding
4. Failure to control bleeding with proper hemostatic techniques
5. Pre-existing medical conditions that increase the risk of bleeding, such as hemophilia or von Willebrand disease.

Excessive surgical blood loss can lead to a number of complications, including:

1. Anemia and low blood counts
2. Hypovolemic shock (a life-threatening condition caused by excessive fluid and blood loss)
3. Infection or sepsis
4. Poor wound healing
5. Reoperation or surgical intervention to control bleeding.

To prevent or minimize surgical blood loss, surgeons may use a variety of techniques, such as:

1. Applying topical hemostatic agents to the surgical site before starting the procedure
2. Using energy-based devices (such as lasers or ultrasonic devices) to seal blood vessels and control bleeding
3. Employing advanced surgical techniques that minimize tissue trauma and reduce the risk of bleeding
4. Monitoring the patient's hemoglobin levels throughout the procedure and taking appropriate action if bleeding becomes excessive.

During fetofetal transfusion, blood flows from one fetus to another through the placenta, which is a vital organ that provides oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetuses and removes waste products. The transfer of blood can occur through various channels, including the placental vasculature, umbilical cord, or other fetal-maternal interfaces.

There are different types of fetofetal transfusion, depending on the direction of blood flow:

1. Fetofetal transfusion in utero (in the womb): This is the most common type, where blood flows from one fetus to another within the womb.
2. Fetofetal transfusion through the placenta: In this type, blood flows from one fetus to the other through the placenta, which acts as a filter and regulates the exchange of nutrients and waste products between the mother's bloodstream and the fetuses'.
3. Fetofetal transfusion through the umbilical cord: This type occurs when the umbilical cord becomes tangled or compressed, causing blood to flow from one fetus to another.

The causes of fetofetal transfusion are not yet fully understood, but it is believed to be more common in multiple gestations (twins, triplets, etc.) and in cases where there is a placental abnormality or other complications during pregnancy.

Fetofetal transfusion can have both positive and negative effects on the development and health of the fetuses. On one hand, it can provide beneficial effects, such as:

1. Increased blood volume and oxygen supply: The transferred blood can help increase the blood volume and oxygen supply to the recipient fetus, which may be beneficial for its development and growth.
2. Improved nutrient supply: The transferred blood can also provide an increased supply of nutrients to the recipient fetus, which may improve its overall health and development.

However, fetofetal transfusion can also have negative effects, such as:

1. Anemia in the donor fetus: The loss of blood from the donor fetus can lead to anemia, which can negatively affect its growth and development.
2. Increased risk of complications: Fetofetal transfusion can increase the risk of complications during pregnancy, such as preterm labor, preeclampsia, and placental abruption.
3. Adverse effects on fetal development: The transferred blood can also contain substances that are not beneficial for the recipient fetus, which can lead to adverse effects on its development and growth.

Fetofetal transfusion is usually detected during routine ultrasound examinations, where it may appear as an abnormal flow of blood between the fetuses or as a collection of blood in the placenta or umbilical cord. If diagnosed early, fetofetal transfusion can be monitored and managed with regular ultrasound examinations and close maternal monitoring. In some cases, the condition may resolve on its own without any complications.

In severe cases, however, fetofetal transfusion may require medical intervention, such as:

1. Blood sampling: Blood samples may be taken from the donor fetus to determine the extent of the transfer and to monitor the health of both fetuses.
2. Corticosteroid therapy: Corticosteroids may be administered to the mother to promote fetal maturity and reduce the risk of complications.
3. Planned delivery: In some cases, planned delivery may be necessary to avoid any potential risks to the fetuses.

It is important for pregnant women who have a multiple pregnancy to be aware of the risk of fetofetal transfusion and to seek regular prenatal care to monitor the health of both fetuses. Early detection and management can help reduce the risk of complications and improve outcomes for both fetuses.

There are many different types of anemia, each with its own set of causes and symptoms. Some common types of anemia include:

1. Iron-deficiency anemia: This is the most common type of anemia and is caused by a lack of iron in the diet or a problem with the body's ability to absorb iron. Iron is essential for making hemoglobin.
2. Vitamin deficiency anemia: This type of anemia is caused by a lack of vitamins, such as vitamin B12 or folate, that are necessary for red blood cell production.
3. Anemia of chronic disease: This type of anemia is seen in people with chronic diseases, such as kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer.
4. Sickle cell anemia: This is a genetic disorder that affects the structure of hemoglobin and causes red blood cells to be shaped like crescents or sickles.
5. Thalassemia: This is a genetic disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin and can cause anemia, fatigue, and other health problems.

The symptoms of anemia can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include fatigue, weakness, pale skin, shortness of breath, and dizziness or lightheadedness. Anemia can be diagnosed with a blood test that measures the number and size of red blood cells, as well as the levels of hemoglobin and other nutrients.

Treatment for anemia depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, dietary changes or supplements may be sufficient to treat anemia. For example, people with iron-deficiency anemia may need to increase their intake of iron-rich foods or take iron supplements. In other cases, medical treatment may be necessary to address underlying conditions such as kidney disease or cancer.

Preventing anemia is important for maintaining good health and preventing complications. To prevent anemia, it is important to eat a balanced diet that includes plenty of iron-rich foods, vitamin C-rich foods, and other essential nutrients. It is also important to avoid certain substances that can interfere with the absorption of nutrients, such as alcohol and caffeine. Additionally, it is important to manage any underlying medical conditions and seek medical attention if symptoms of anemia persist or worsen over time.

In conclusion, anemia is a common blood disorder that can have significant health implications if left untreated. It is important to be aware of the different types of anemia, their causes, and symptoms in order to seek medical attention if necessary. With proper diagnosis and treatment, many cases of anemia can be successfully managed and prevented.

1. Injury to blood vessels during surgery
2. Poor suturing or stapling techniques
3. Bleeding disorders or use of anticoagulant medications
4. Infection or hematoma (a collection of blood outside the blood vessels)
5. Delayed recovery of blood clotting function

Postoperative hemorrhage can range from mild to severe and life-threatening. Mild bleeding may present as oozing or trickling of blood from the surgical site, while severe bleeding can lead to hypovolemic shock, organ failure, and even death.

To diagnose postoperative hemorrhage, a physical examination and medical history are usually sufficient. Imaging studies such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be ordered to evaluate the extent of bleeding and identify any underlying causes.

Treatment of postoperative hemorrhage depends on the severity and location of the bleeding. Mild bleeding may be managed with dressings, compression bandages, and elevation of the affected limb. Severe bleeding may require interventions such as:

1. Surgical exploration to locate and control the source of bleeding
2. Transfusion of blood products or fresh frozen plasma to restore clotting function
3. Use of vasopressors to raise blood pressure and perfuse vital organs
4. Hemostatic agents such as clotting factors, fibrin sealants, or hemostatic powder to promote clot formation
5. In some cases, surgical intervention may be required to repair damaged blood vessels or organs.

Prevention of postoperative hemorrhage is crucial in reducing the risk of complications and improving patient outcomes. Preventive measures include:

1. Proper preoperative evaluation and preparation, including assessment of bleeding risk factors
2. Use of appropriate anesthesia and surgical techniques to minimize tissue trauma
3. Conservative use of hemostatic agents and blood products during surgery
4. Closure of all bleeding sites before completion of the procedure
5. Monitoring of vital signs, including pulse rate and blood pressure, during and after surgery
6. Preoperative and postoperative management of underlying conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, and coagulopathies.

Early recognition and prompt intervention are critical in effectively managing postoperative hemorrhage. In cases of severe bleeding, timely and appropriate interventions can reduce the risk of complications and improve patient outcomes.

Blood group incompatibility can occur in various ways, including:

1. ABO incompatibility: This is the most common type of blood group incompatibility and occurs when the patient's blood type (A or B) is different from the donor's blood type.
2. Rh incompatibility: This occurs when the patient's Rh factor is different from the donor's Rh factor.
3. Other antigens: In addition to ABO and Rh, there are other antigens on red blood cells that can cause incompatibility, such as Kell, Duffy, and Xg.

Blood group incompatibility can be diagnosed through blood typing and cross-matching tests. These tests determine the patient's and donor's blood types and identify any incompatible antigens that may cause an immune response.

Treatment of blood group incompatibility usually involves finding a compatible donor or using specialized medications to reduce the risk of a negative reaction. In some cases, plasmapheresis, also known as plasma exchange, may be used to remove the incompatible antibodies from the patient's blood.

Prevention of blood group incompatibility is important, and this can be achieved by ensuring that patients receive only compatible blood products during transfusions. Blood banks maintain a database of donor blood types and perform thorough testing before releasing blood for transfusion to ensure compatibility. Additionally, healthcare providers should carefully review the patient's medical history and current medications to identify any potential allergies or sensitivities that may affect blood compatibility.

A condition where newborn babies have a lower than normal number of red blood cells or low levels of hemoglobin in their blood. The condition can be caused by various factors such as premature birth, low birth weight, infections, and genetic disorders. Symptoms may include jaundice, fatigue, and difficulty breathing. Treatment options may vary depending on the underlying cause but may include blood transfusions and iron supplements.

Example usage: "Neonatal anemia is a common condition in newborn babies that can be caused by various factors such as premature birth or low birth weight."

1. Infection: Bacterial or viral infections can develop after surgery, potentially leading to sepsis or organ failure.
2. Adhesions: Scar tissue can form during the healing process, which can cause bowel obstruction, chronic pain, or other complications.
3. Wound complications: Incisional hernias, wound dehiscence (separation of the wound edges), and wound infections can occur.
4. Respiratory problems: Pneumonia, respiratory failure, and atelectasis (collapsed lung) can develop after surgery, particularly in older adults or those with pre-existing respiratory conditions.
5. Cardiovascular complications: Myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac failure can occur after surgery, especially in high-risk patients.
6. Renal (kidney) problems: Acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease can develop postoperatively, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal impairment.
7. Neurological complications: Stroke, seizures, and neuropraxia (nerve damage) can occur after surgery, especially in patients with pre-existing neurological conditions.
8. Pulmonary embolism: Blood clots can form in the legs or lungs after surgery, potentially causing pulmonary embolism.
9. Anesthesia-related complications: Respiratory and cardiac complications can occur during anesthesia, including respiratory and cardiac arrest.
10. delayed healing: Wound healing may be delayed or impaired after surgery, particularly in patients with pre-existing medical conditions.

It is important for patients to be aware of these potential complications and to discuss any concerns with their surgeon and healthcare team before undergoing surgery.

There are two main types of beta-thalassemia:

1. Beta-thalassemia major (also known as Cooley's anemia): This is the most severe form of the condition, and it can cause serious health problems and a shortened lifespan if left untreated. Children with this condition are typically diagnosed at birth or in early childhood, and they may require regular blood transfusions and other medical interventions to manage their symptoms and prevent complications.
2. Beta-thalassemia minor (also known as thalassemia trait): This is a milder form of the condition, and it may not cause any noticeable symptoms. People with beta-thalassemia minor have one mutated copy of the HBB gene and one healthy copy, which allows them to produce some normal hemoglobin. However, they may still be at risk for complications such as anemia, fatigue, and a higher risk of infections.

The symptoms of beta-thalassemia can vary depending on the severity of the condition and the age of onset. Common symptoms include:

* Fatigue
* Weakness
* Pale skin
* Shortness of breath
* Frequent infections
* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
* Enlarged spleen

Beta-thalassemia is most commonly found in people of Mediterranean, African, and Southeast Asian ancestry. It is caused by mutations in the HBB gene, which is inherited from one's parents. There is no cure for beta-thalassemia, but it can be managed with blood transfusions, chelation therapy, and other medical interventions. Bone marrow transplantation may also be a viable option for some patients.

In conclusion, beta-thalassemia is a genetic disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin, leading to anemia, fatigue, and other complications. While there is no cure for the condition, it can be managed with medical interventions and bone marrow transplantation may be a viable option for some patients. Early diagnosis and management are crucial in preventing or minimizing the complications of beta-thalassemia.

The condition is caused by sensitization of the mother's immune system to the Rh factor, which can occur when the mother's blood comes into contact with the fetus's blood during pregnancy or childbirth. The antibodies produced by the mother's immune system can attack the red blood cells of the fetus, leading to hemolytic anemia and potentially causing stillbirth or death in the newborn.

Erythroblastosis fetalis is diagnosed through blood tests that measure the levels of antibodies against the Rh factor. Treatment typically involves the administration of Rh immune globulin, which can help to prevent the mother's immune system from producing more antibodies against the Rh factor and reduce the risk of complications for the fetus. In severe cases, a blood transfusion may be necessary to increase the newborn's red blood cell count.

Erythroblastosis fetalis is a serious condition that requires close monitoring and proper medical management to prevent complications and ensure the best possible outcome for both the mother and the baby.

Sickle cell anemia is caused by mutations in the HBB gene that codes for hemoglobin. The most common mutation is a point mutation at position 6, which replaces the glutamic acid amino acid with a valine (Glu6Val). This substitution causes the hemoglobin molecule to be unstable and prone to forming sickle-shaped cells.

The hallmark symptom of sickle cell anemia is anemia, which is a low number of healthy red blood cells. People with the condition may also experience fatigue, weakness, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), infections, and episodes of severe pain. Sickle cell anemia can also increase the risk of stroke, heart disease, and other complications.

Sickle cell anemia is diagnosed through blood tests that measure hemoglobin levels and the presence of sickle cells. Treatment typically involves managing symptoms and preventing complications with medications, blood transfusions, and antibiotics. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may be recommended.

Prevention of sickle cell anemia primarily involves avoiding the genetic mutations that cause the condition. This can be done through genetic counseling and testing for individuals who have a family history of the condition or are at risk of inheriting it. Prenatal testing is also available for pregnant women who may be carriers of the condition.

Overall, sickle cell anemia is a serious genetic disorder that can significantly impact quality of life and life expectancy if left untreated. However, with proper management and care, individuals with the condition can lead fulfilling lives and manage their symptoms effectively.

Example sentence: The patient had a hemorrhage after the car accident and needed immediate medical attention.

The term "fetomaternal" refers to the interaction between the developing fetus and the mother during pregnancy. In this context, "transfusion" describes the transfer of blood from one location to another.

Fetomaternal transfusion can occur in various conditions, such as:

1. Twin-to-twin transfusion: This occurs when there is a shared placenta between twins and blood flows from one twin to the other.
2. Fetal-maternal transfusion: This occurs when blood flows from the fetus to the mother through the umbilical cord or the maternal circulation.
3. Placental abruption: This occurs when the placenta separates from the uterine wall, leading to bleeding and a transfer of blood from the placenta to the mother.

Fetomaternal transfusion can be diagnosed using ultrasound examination, which can detect changes in the amount of blood flowing through the placenta or umbilical cord. Treatment options for fetomaternal transfusion depend on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, delivery may be necessary to prevent complications.

Overall, fetomaternal transfusion is a rare but potentially serious condition that can have significant implications for both the developing fetus and the mother during pregnancy.

There are several types of hepatitis C, including genotype 1, which is the most common and accounts for approximately 70% of cases in the United States. Other genotypes include 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The symptoms of hepatitis C can range from mild to severe and may include fatigue, fever, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, joint pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), dark urine, pale stools, and itching all over the body. Some people with hepatitis C may not experience any symptoms at all.

Hepatitis C is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests that detect the presence of antibodies against HCV or the virus itself. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, including interferon and ribavirin, which can cure the infection but may have side effects such as fatigue, nausea, and depression. In recent years, new drugs known as direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have become available, which can cure the infection with fewer side effects and in a shorter period of time.

Prevention measures for hepatitis C include avoiding sharing needles or other drug paraphernalia, using condoms to prevent sexual transmission, and ensuring that any tattoos or piercings are performed with sterilized equipment. Vaccines are also available for people who are at high risk of contracting the virus, such as healthcare workers and individuals who engage in high-risk behaviors.

Overall, hepatitis C is a serious and common liver disease that can lead to significant health complications if left untreated. Fortunately, with advances in medical technology and treatment options, it is possible to manage and cure the virus with proper care and attention.

Isoimmunization is a condition that occurs when an individual has antibodies against their own red blood cell antigens, specifically the Rh antigen. This can happen due to various reasons such as:

1. Incompatibility between the mother's and father's Rh antigens, leading to the development of antibodies in the mother during pregnancy or childbirth.
2. Blood transfusions from an incompatible donor.
3. Certain medical conditions like autoimmune hemolytic anemia or bone marrow transplantation.

Rh isoimmunization can lead to a range of complications, including:

1. Hemolytic disease of the newborn: This is a condition where the baby's red blood cells are destroyed by the mother's antibodies, leading to anemia, jaundice, and other serious complications.
2. Rh hemolytic crisis: This is a severe and potentially life-threatening complication that can occur during pregnancy or childbirth.
3. Chronic hemolytic anemia: This is a condition where the red blood cells are continuously destroyed, leading to anemia and other complications.

Rh isoimmunization can be diagnosed through blood tests such as the direct antiglobulin test (DAT) or the indirect Coombs test (ICT). Treatment typically involves managing any underlying conditions and monitoring for complications. In severe cases, a bone marrow transplant may be necessary. Prevention is key, and women who are Rh-negative should receive an injection of Rh immune globulin during pregnancy to prevent the development of antibodies against the Rh antigen.

The severity of GIH can vary widely, ranging from mild to life-threatening. Mild cases may resolve on their own or with minimal treatment, while severe cases may require urgent medical attention and aggressive intervention.

Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Symptoms:

* Vomiting blood or passing black tarry stools
* Hematemesis (vomiting blood)
* Melena (passing black, tarry stools)
* Rectal bleeding
* Abdominal pain
* Fever
* Weakness and dizziness

Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Causes:

* Peptic ulcers
* Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
* Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
* Diverticulosis and diverticulitis
* Cancer of the stomach, small intestine, or large intestine
* Vascular malformations

Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Diagnosis:

* Physical examination
* Medical history
* Laboratory tests (such as complete blood count and coagulation studies)
* Endoscopy (to visualize the inside of the gastrointestinal tract)
* Imaging studies (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI)

Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Treatment:

* Medications to control bleeding and reduce acid production in the stomach
* Endoscopy to locate and treat the site of bleeding
* Surgery to repair damaged blood vessels or remove a bleeding tumor
* Blood transfusions to replace lost blood

Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Prevention:

* Avoiding alcohol and spicy foods
* Taking medications as directed to control acid reflux and other gastrointestinal conditions
* Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
* Reducing stress
* Avoiding smoking and excessive caffeine consumption.

There are several possible causes of thrombocytopenia, including:

1. Immune-mediated disorders such as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
2. Bone marrow disorders such as aplastic anemia or leukemia.
3. Viral infections such as HIV or hepatitis C.
4. Medications such as chemotherapy or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
5. Vitamin deficiencies, especially vitamin B12 and folate.
6. Genetic disorders such as Bernard-Soulier syndrome.
7. Sepsis or other severe infections.
8. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), a condition where blood clots form throughout the body.
9. Postpartum thrombocytopenia, which can occur in some women after childbirth.

Symptoms of thrombocytopenia may include easy bruising, petechiae (small red or purple spots on the skin), and prolonged bleeding from injuries or surgical sites. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause but may include platelet transfusions, steroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and in severe cases, surgery.

In summary, thrombocytopenia is a condition characterized by low platelet counts that can increase the risk of bleeding and bruising. It can be caused by various factors, and treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause.

Symptoms of iron overload can include fatigue, weakness, joint pain, and abdominal discomfort. Treatment for iron overload usually involves reducing iron intake and undergoing regular phlebotomy (blood removal) to remove excess iron from the body. In severe cases, iron chelation therapy may be recommended to help remove excess iron from tissues and organs.

In addition to these medical definitions and treatments, there are also some key points to keep in mind when it comes to iron overload:

1. Iron is essential for human health, but too much of it can be harmful. The body needs a certain amount of iron to produce hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. However, excessive iron levels can damage organs and tissues.
2. Hereditary hemochromatosis is the most common cause of iron overload. This genetic disorder causes the body to absorb too much iron from food, leading to its accumulation in organs and tissues.
3. Iron overload can increase the risk of certain diseases, such as liver cirrhosis, diabetes, and heart disease. It can also lead to a condition called hemosiderosis, which is characterized by the deposition of iron in tissues and organs.
4. Phlebotomy is a safe and effective treatment for iron overload. Regular blood removal can help reduce excess iron levels and prevent complications such as liver damage, heart failure, and anemia.
5. Iron chelation therapy may be recommended in severe cases of iron overload. This involves using drugs to remove excess iron from tissues and organs, but it is not always necessary and can have potential side effects.

Postpartum hemorrhage can be caused by various factors, including:

1. Uterine atony: This occurs when the uterus fails to contract properly after delivery, leading to excessive bleeding.
2. Lacerations or tears in the genital tract: Tears in the vaginal tissues, cervix, or uterus can cause bleeding.
3. Placenta accreta or placenta praevia: These conditions occur when the placenta attaches abnormally to the uterine wall, causing bleeding during delivery.
4. Cervical insufficiency: This occurs when the cervix is unable to support the weight of the baby, leading to bleeding.
5. Blood coagulopathy disorders: These are rare conditions that affect the body's ability to form blood clots, leading to excessive bleeding.

Symptoms of PPH may include:

1. Heavy bleeding within the first 24 hours post-delivery
2. Soaking more than two pads per hour
3. Pale or clammy skin
4. Weak or rapid pulse
5. Shallow breathing
6. Confusion or disorientation

Treatment for PPH may include:

1. Observation and monitoring of vital signs
2. Administration of oxytocin to stimulate uterine contractions
3. Use of a blood transfusion to replace lost blood volume
4. Surgical intervention, such as suturing or repairing any lacerations or tears
5. Management of underlying causes, such as blood coagulopathy disorders

Prevention of PPH includes:

1. Proper prenatal care and monitoring of the mother's health during pregnancy
2. Use of cesarean delivery if necessary
3. Avoidance of excessive forceps or vacuum extraction during delivery
4. Use of oxytocin and other medications to stimulate uterine contractions
5. Close monitoring of the mother's vital signs after delivery

It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the risk factors and symptoms of PPH, as well as the appropriate treatment and prevention strategies, in order to provide optimal care for mothers at risk of developing this condition.

There are several subtypes of NHL, including:

1. B-cell lymphomas (such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma)
2. T-cell lymphomas (such as peripheral T-cell lymphoma and mycosis fungoides)
3. Natural killer cell lymphomas (such as nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma)
4. Histiocyte-rich B-cell lymphoma
5. Primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma
6. Mantle cell lymphoma
7. Waldenström macroglobulinemia
8. Lymphoplasmacytoid lymphoma
9. Myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) related lymphoma

These subtypes can be further divided into other categories based on the specific characteristics of the cancer cells.

Symptoms of NHL can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but may include:

* Swollen lymph nodes in the neck, underarm, or groin
* Fever
* Fatigue
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
* Itching
* Abdominal pain
* Swollen spleen

Treatment for NHL typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and in some cases, targeted therapy or immunotherapy. The specific treatment plan will depend on the subtype of NHL, the stage of the cancer, and other individual factors.

Overall, NHL is a complex and diverse group of cancers that require specialized care from a team of medical professionals, including hematologists, oncologists, radiation therapists, and other support staff. With advances in technology and treatment options, many people with NHL can achieve long-term remission or a cure.

There are two main types of thalassemia: alpha-thalassemia and beta-thalassemia. Alpha-thalassemia is caused by abnormalities in the production of the alpha-globin chain, which is one of the two chains that make up hemoglobin. Beta-thalassemia is caused by abnormalities in the production of the beta-globin chain.

Thalassemia can cause a range of symptoms, including anemia, fatigue, pale skin, and shortness of breath. In severe cases, it can lead to life-threatening complications such as heart failure, liver failure, and bone deformities. Thalassemia is usually diagnosed through blood tests that measure the levels of hemoglobin and other proteins in the blood.

There is no cure for thalassemia, but treatment can help manage the symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment may include blood transfusions, folic acid supplements, and medications to reduce the severity of anemia. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may be recommended.

Preventive measures for thalassemia include genetic counseling and testing for individuals who are at risk of inheriting the disorder. Prenatal testing is also available for pregnant women who are carriers of the disorder. In addition, individuals with thalassemia should avoid marriage within their own family or community to reduce the risk of passing on the disorder to their children.

Overall, thalassemia is a serious and inherited blood disorder that can have significant health implications if left untreated. However, with proper treatment and management, individuals with thalassemia can lead fulfilling lives and minimize the risk of complications.

Types of Blood Coagulation Disorders:

1. Hemophilia A: A genetic disorder that affects the blood's ability to clot, leading to prolonged bleeding after injury or surgery.
2. Hemophilia B: Similar to hemophilia A, but caused by a deficiency of factor IX instead of factor VIII.
3. Von Willebrand Disease (VWD): A bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency of von Willebrand factor, which is needed for blood clotting.
4. Platelet Disorders: These include conditions such as low platelet count (thrombocytopenia) or abnormal platelet function, which can increase the risk of bleeding.
5. Coagulopathy: A general term for any disorder that affects the body's blood coagulation process.

Symptoms and Diagnosis:

Blood coagulation disorders can cause a range of symptoms, including easy bruising, frequent nosebleeds, and prolonged bleeding after injury or surgery. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood clotting factor assays and platelet function tests.

Treatment and Management:

Treatment for blood coagulation disorders depends on the specific condition and its severity. Some common treatments include:

1. Infusions of clotting factor concentrates to replace missing or deficient factors.
2. Desmopressin, a medication that stimulates the release of von Willebrand factor and platelets.
3. Platelet transfusions to increase platelet count.
4. Anticoagulation therapy to prevent blood clots from forming.
5. Surgery to repair damaged blood vessels or joints.

Prevention and Prognosis:

Prevention of blood coagulation disorders is often challenging, but some steps can be taken to reduce the risk of developing these conditions. These include:

1. Avoiding trauma or injury that can cause bleeding.
2. Managing underlying medical conditions such as liver disease, vitamin deficiencies, and autoimmune disorders.
3. Avoiding medications that can interfere with blood clotting.

The prognosis for blood coagulation disorders varies depending on the specific condition and its severity. Some conditions, such as mild hemophilia A, may have a good prognosis with appropriate treatment, while others, such as severe hemophilia B, can have a poor prognosis without proper management.

Complications and Comorbidities:

Blood coagulation disorders can lead to a range of complications and comorbidities, including:

1. Joint damage and chronic pain due to repeated bleeding into joints.
2. Infection and sepsis from bacteria entering the body through bleeding sites.
3. Arthritis and other inflammatory conditions.
4. Nerve damage and neuropathy from bleeding into nerve tissue.
5. Increased risk of bleeding during surgery or trauma.
6. Emotional and social challenges due to the impact of the condition on daily life.
7. Financial burden of treatment and management costs.
8. Impaired quality of life, including reduced mobility and activity levels.
9. Increased risk of blood clots and thromboembolic events.
10. Psychological distress and anxiety related to the condition.


Blood coagulation disorders are a group of rare and complex conditions that can significantly impact quality of life, productivity, and longevity. These disorders can be caused by genetic or acquired factors and can lead to a range of complications and comorbidities. Diagnosis is often challenging, but prompt recognition and appropriate treatment can improve outcomes. Management strategies include replacing missing clotting factors, using blood products, and managing underlying conditions. While the prognosis varies depending on the specific condition and its severity, early diagnosis and effective management can improve quality of life and reduce the risk of complications.

Note: This definition may have some variations in different contexts and medical fields.


* Rapidly progressive dementia
* Ataxia (loss of coordination and balance)
* Myoclonus (involuntary muscle jerks)
* Visual disturbances
* Cognitive decline


* Clinical evaluation
* Neuroimaging studies (MRI, CT scans)
* Electroencephalography (EEG)
* Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination

Treatment and Management:

* There is no cure for CJD, but various medications can be used to manage the symptoms.
* Palliative care is essential to alleviate suffering and improve quality of life.
* Supportive care includes physical therapy, speech therapy, and occupational therapy.


* CJD is a rapidly progressive disease with a poor prognosis, typically leading to death within 1-2 years after onset of symptoms.

Causes and Risk Factors:

* The cause of CJD is the transmission of misfolded prions, which are infectious proteins that accumulate in the brain.
* The most common form of transmission is through medical procedures using contaminated tissue, such as corneal transplants or dura mater grafts.
* There is also a rare genetic form of CJD, which is inherited from one's parents.


* CJD can lead to various complications, including pneumonia, seizures, and coma.
* The disease can also cause psychiatric symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and hallucinations.

In conclusion, Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome is a rare and fatal brain disorder characterized by rapid neurological deterioration, prion accumulation in the brain, and poor prognosis. It is important to be aware of the causes and risk factors of CJD, as well as its symptoms and complications, to provide appropriate diagnosis and treatment for affected individuals.

A peptic ulcer hemorrhage is a serious complication that occurs when an ulcer in the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) bleeds. The bleeding can be severe and life-threatening, and it requires immediate medical attention.


There are several factors that can contribute to the development of a peptic ulcer hemorrhage, including:

1. Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacteria
2. Long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen
3. Excessive alcohol consumption
4. Smoking
5. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, a rare condition that causes the stomach to produce too much acid
6. Crohn's disease, an inflammatory bowel disorder
7. Ulcers caused by other conditions such as cancer, trauma, or radiation therapy


The symptoms of a peptic ulcer hemorrhage can vary depending on the severity of the bleeding, but they may include:

1. Vomiting blood or coffee ground-like material
2. Dark, tarry stools
3. Abdominal pain that worsens over time
4. Weakness and lightheadedness due to blood loss
5. Pale, cool, or clammy skin


To diagnose a peptic ulcer hemorrhage, a healthcare provider may use one or more of the following tests:

1. Endoscopy: A thin, flexible tube with a camera and light on the end is inserted through the mouth to visualize the stomach and duodenum.
2. Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding scale: This is a system used to assess the severity of bleeding based on symptoms and physical examination findings.
3. Blood tests: These may be used to check for signs of anemia, such as low red blood cell count or high levels of hemoglobin in the urine.
4. Upper GI series: This is a test that uses X-rays to visualize the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.
5. CT scan: A computerized tomography (CT) scan may be used to rule out other causes of bleeding, such as a ruptured ulcer or tumor.


The goal of treatment for a peptic ulcer hemorrhage is to stop the bleeding and prevent further complications. Treatment options may include:

1. Medications: These may include antacids, H2 blockers, or proton pump inhibitors to reduce acid production and protect the ulcer from further irritation.
2. Endoscopy: A healthcare provider may use an endoscope to locate the source of bleeding and apply a topical treatment such as cautery, sclerotherapy, or argon plasma coagulation to stop the bleeding.
3. Interventional radiology: In some cases, a healthcare provider may use interventional radiology techniques to embolize (block) the blood vessel feeding the ulcer. This can help stop the bleeding and promote healing.
4. Surgery: In rare cases where other treatments have failed, surgery may be necessary to repair the ulcer or remove any damaged tissue.


To prevent peptic ulcer hemorrhage from recurring, it is important to take steps to prevent further irritation of the ulcer and promote healing. This may include:

1. Avoiding NSAIDs and aspirin: These medications can irritate the stomach lining and increase the risk of bleeding.
2. Avoiding alcohol and smoking: Both of these can irritate the stomach lining and impair healing.
3. Eating a healthy diet: Avoiding spicy or acidic foods and eating smaller, more frequent meals can help reduce symptoms and promote healing.
4. Managing stress: Stress can exacerbate peptic ulcer symptoms and impair healing.
5. Taking medications as directed: If your healthcare provider has prescribed medication to treat your peptic ulcer, it is important to take it as directed.
6. Follow-up care: Regular follow-up appointments with your healthcare provider can help monitor your condition and ensure that any complications are addressed promptly.

Recurrence can also refer to the re-emergence of symptoms in a previously treated condition, such as a chronic pain condition that returns after a period of remission.

In medical research, recurrence is often studied to understand the underlying causes of disease progression and to develop new treatments and interventions to prevent or delay its return.

The symptoms of hepatitis B can range from mild to severe and may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, joint pain, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). In some cases, hepatitis B can be asymptomatic, meaning that individuals may not experience any symptoms at all.

Hepatitis B is diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of HBV antigens or antibodies in the body. Treatment for acute hepatitis B typically involves rest, hydration, and medication to manage symptoms, while chronic hepatitis B may require ongoing therapy with antiviral drugs to suppress the virus and prevent liver damage.

Preventive measures for hepatitis B include vaccination, which is recommended for individuals at high risk of infection, such as healthcare workers, sexually active individuals, and those traveling to areas where HBV is common. In addition, safe sex practices, avoiding sharing of needles or other bodily fluids, and proper sterilization of medical equipment can help reduce the risk of transmission.

Overall, hepatitis B is a serious infection that can have long-term consequences for liver health, and it is important to take preventive measures and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Multiple myeloma is the second most common type of hematologic cancer after non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, accounting for approximately 1% of all cancer deaths worldwide. It is more common in older adults, with most patients being diagnosed over the age of 65.

The exact cause of multiple myeloma is not known, but it is believed to be linked to genetic mutations that occur in the plasma cells. There are several risk factors that have been associated with an increased risk of developing multiple myeloma, including:

1. Family history: Having a family history of multiple myeloma or other plasma cell disorders increases the risk of developing the disease.
2. Age: The risk of developing multiple myeloma increases with age, with most patients being diagnosed over the age of 65.
3. Race: African Americans are at higher risk of developing multiple myeloma than other races.
4. Obesity: Being overweight or obese may increase the risk of developing multiple myeloma.
5. Exposure to certain chemicals: Exposure to certain chemicals such as pesticides, solvents, and heavy metals has been linked to an increased risk of developing multiple myeloma.

The symptoms of multiple myeloma can vary depending on the severity of the disease and the organs affected. Common symptoms include:

1. Bone pain: Pain in the bones, particularly in the spine, ribs, or long bones, is a common symptom of multiple myeloma.
2. Fatigue: Feeling tired or weak is another common symptom of the disease.
3. Infections: Patients with multiple myeloma may be more susceptible to infections due to the impaired functioning of their immune system.
4. Bone fractures: Weakened bones can lead to an increased risk of fractures, particularly in the spine, hips, or ribs.
5. Kidney problems: Multiple myeloma can cause damage to the kidneys, leading to problems such as kidney failure or proteinuria (excess protein in the urine).
6. Anemia: A low red blood cell count can cause anemia, which can lead to fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
7. Increased calcium levels: High levels of calcium in the blood can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, constipation, and confusion.
8. Neurological problems: Multiple myeloma can cause neurological problems such as headaches, numbness or tingling in the arms and legs, and difficulty with coordination and balance.

The diagnosis of multiple myeloma typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests. These may include:

1. Complete blood count (CBC): A CBC can help identify abnormalities in the numbers and characteristics of different types of blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
2. Serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP): This test measures the levels of different proteins in the blood, including immunoglobulins (antibodies) and abnormal proteins produced by myeloma cells.
3. Urine protein electrophoresis (UPEP): This test measures the levels of different proteins in the urine.
4. Immunofixation: This test is used to identify the type of antibody produced by myeloma cells and to rule out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms.
5. Bone marrow biopsy: A bone marrow biopsy involves removing a sample of tissue from the bone marrow for examination under a microscope. This can help confirm the diagnosis of multiple myeloma and determine the extent of the disease.
6. Imaging tests: Imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans may be used to assess the extent of bone damage or other complications of multiple myeloma.
7. Genetic testing: Genetic testing may be used to identify specific genetic abnormalities that are associated with multiple myeloma and to monitor the response of the disease to treatment.

It's important to note that not all patients with MGUS or smoldering myeloma will develop multiple myeloma, and some patients with multiple myeloma may not have any symptoms at all. However, if you are experiencing any of the symptoms listed above or have a family history of multiple myeloma, it's important to talk to your doctor about your risk and any tests that may be appropriate for you.

Some common examples of intraoperative complications include:

1. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding during surgery can lead to hypovolemia (low blood volume), anemia (low red blood cell count), and even death.
2. Infection: Surgical wounds can become infected, leading to sepsis or bacteremia (bacterial infection of the bloodstream).
3. Nerve damage: Surgery can sometimes result in nerve damage, leading to numbness, weakness, or paralysis.
4. Organ injury: Injury to organs such as the liver, lung, or bowel can occur during surgery, leading to complications such as bleeding, infection, or organ failure.
5. Anesthesia-related complications: Problems with anesthesia can include respiratory or cardiac depression, allergic reactions, or awareness during anesthesia (a rare but potentially devastating complication).
6. Hypotension: Low blood pressure during surgery can lead to inadequate perfusion of vital organs and tissues, resulting in organ damage or death.
7. Thromboembolism: Blood clots can form during surgery and travel to other parts of the body, causing complications such as stroke, pulmonary embolism, or deep vein thrombosis.
8. Postoperative respiratory failure: Respiratory complications can occur after surgery, leading to respiratory failure, pneumonia, or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
9. Wound dehiscence: The incision site can separate or come open after surgery, leading to infection, fluid accumulation, or hernia.
10. Seroma: A collection of serous fluid that can develop at the surgical site, which can become infected and cause complications.
11. Nerve damage: Injury to nerves during surgery can result in numbness, weakness, or paralysis, sometimes permanently.
12. Urinary retention or incontinence: Surgery can damage the bladder or urinary sphincter, leading to urinary retention or incontinence.
13. Hematoma: A collection of blood that can develop at the surgical site, which can become infected and cause complications.
14. Pneumonia: Inflammation of the lungs after surgery can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi and can lead to serious complications.
15. Sepsis: A systemic inflammatory response to infection that can occur after surgery, leading to organ dysfunction and death if not treated promptly.

It is important to note that these are potential complications, and not all patients will experience them. Additionally, many of these complications are rare, and the vast majority of surgeries are successful with minimal or no complications. However, it is important for patients to be aware of the potential risks before undergoing surgery so they can make an informed decision about their care.

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a specific type of hemolytic anemia that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys red blood cells. This can happen due to various underlying causes such as infections, certain medications, and some types of cancer.

In autoimmune hemolytic anemia, the immune system produces antibodies that coat the surface of red blood cells and mark them for destruction by other immune cells called complement proteins. This leads to the premature destruction of red blood cells in the spleen, liver, and other organs.

Symptoms of autoimmune hemolytic anemia can include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), dark urine, and a pale or yellowish complexion. Treatment options for AIHA depend on the underlying cause of the disorder, but may include medications to suppress the immune system, plasmapheresis to remove antibodies from the blood, and in severe cases, splenectomy (removal of the spleen) or bone marrow transplantation.

In summary, autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a type of hemolytic anemia that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys red blood cells, leading to premature destruction of red blood cells and various symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, and jaundice. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause of the disorder and may include medications, plasmapheresis, and in severe cases, splenectomy or bone marrow transplantation.

There are two main types of hemolysis:

1. Intravascular hemolysis: This type occurs within the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as mechanical injury, oxidative stress, and certain infections.
2. Extravascular hemolysis: This type occurs outside the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as bone marrow disorders, splenic rupture, and certain medications.

Hemolytic anemia is a condition that occurs when there is excessive hemolysis of RBCs, leading to a decrease in the number of healthy red blood cells in the body. This can cause symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, pale skin, and shortness of breath.

Some common causes of hemolysis include:

1. Genetic disorders such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia.
2. Autoimmune disorders such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA).
3. Infections such as malaria, babesiosis, and toxoplasmosis.
4. Medications such as antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and blood thinners.
5. Bone marrow disorders such as aplastic anemia and myelofibrosis.
6. Splenic rupture or surgical removal of the spleen.
7. Mechanical injury to the blood vessels.

Diagnosis of hemolysis is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as complete blood count (CBC), blood smear examination, and direct Coombs test. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include supportive care, blood transfusions, and medications to suppress the immune system or prevent infection.

Definition: A nosebleed, also known as a bloody nose, is a common condition that occurs when the nasal passages bleed. It can be caused by a variety of factors, such as dry air, allergies, colds, sinus infections, and injuries to the nose.

Synonyms: Nosebleed, bloody nose, anterior epistaxis, posterior epistaxis.

Antonyms: None.

Epistaxis is a common condition that can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Dry air: Dry air can cause the nasal passages to become dry and cracked, leading to bleeding.
2. Allergies: Seasonal allergies or allergies to dust, pollen, or other substances can cause inflammation and irritation in the nasal passages, leading to bleeding.
3. Colds: A common cold can cause inflammation and congestion in the nasal passages, leading to bleeding.
4. Sinus infections: An infection in the sinuses can cause inflammation and bleeding in the nasal passages.
5. Injuries: Trauma to the nose, such as a blow to the face or a fall, can cause bleeding.
6. Medications: Certain medications, such as aspirin or warfarin, can thin the blood and increase the risk of bleeding.
7. High blood pressure: High blood pressure can cause damage to the blood vessels in the nose, leading to bleeding.
8. Nose picking: Picking or blowing the nose too forcefully can cause trauma to the nasal passages and lead to bleeding.
9. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT): A rare genetic disorder that affects the blood vessels and can cause recurring nosebleeds.

Symptoms of epistaxis may include:

1. Blood flowing from one or both nostrils
2. Nasal congestion or stuffiness
3. Pain or discomfort in the nose or face
4. Difficulty breathing through the nose
5. Postnasal drip (mucus running down the back of the throat)
6. Swelling around the eyes or face
7. Fever or chills
8. Headache
9. Weakness or fatigue

If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention. A healthcare professional can diagnose the cause of the nosebleed and recommend appropriate treatment. Treatment for epistaxis may include:

1. Nasal decongestants or antihistamines to reduce nasal congestion
2. Topical or oral antibiotics to treat any underlying infections
3. Applications of a topical ointment or cream to help protect the nasal passages and promote healing
4. Injectable medications to help constrict blood vessels and stop bleeding
5. Surgery to repair damaged blood vessels or remove any foreign objects that may be causing the bleeding.

Acute wounds and injuries are those that occur suddenly and heal within a relatively short period of time, usually within a few days or weeks. Examples of acute wounds include cuts, scrapes, and burns. Chronic wounds and injuries, on the other hand, are those that persist over a longer period of time and may not heal properly, leading to long-term complications. Examples of chronic wounds include diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, and chronic back pain.

Wounds and injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including accidents, sports injuries, violence, and medical conditions such as diabetes or circulatory problems. Treatment for wounds and injuries depends on the severity of the injury and may include cleaning and dressing the wound, applying antibiotics, immobilizing broken bones, and providing pain management. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged tissues or restore function.

Preventive measures for wounds and injuries include wearing appropriate protective gear during activities such as sports or work, following safety protocols to avoid accidents, maintaining proper hygiene and nutrition to prevent infection, and seeking medical attention promptly if an injury occurs.

Overall, wounds and injuries can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, and it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Proper treatment and management of wounds and injuries can help to promote healing, reduce the risk of complications, and improve long-term outcomes.

Symptoms of aplastic anemia may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, pale skin, and increased risk of bleeding or infection. Treatment options for aplastic anemia typically involve blood transfusions and immunosuppressive drugs to stimulate the bone marrow to produce new blood cells. In severe cases, a bone marrow transplant may be necessary.

Overall, aplastic anemia is a rare and serious condition that requires careful management by a healthcare provider to prevent complications and improve quality of life.

The main symptoms of hemosiderosis include:

1. Yellowish discoloration of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
2. Fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath
3. Abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting
4. Pale or clay-colored stools
5. Dark urine
6. Liver enlargement and tenderness
7. Heart failure
8. Arrhythmias (irregular heart rhythms)
9. Anemia
10. Weight loss and loss of appetite

Hemosiderosis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment options for hemosiderosis depend on the underlying cause of the condition and may include:

1. Iron chelation therapy to remove excess iron from the body
2. Blood transfusions to reduce iron levels
3. Dietary modifications to limit iron intake
4. Medications to manage symptoms such as anemia, liver failure, or heart problems
5. Surgery to remove affected tissues or organs in severe cases

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the symptoms of hemosiderosis, especially if you have a history of excessive iron intake or chronic blood transfusions. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes for this condition.

The symptoms of ALI can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

* Shortness of breath (dyspnea)
* Chest pain or tightness (pleurisy)
* Cough, which may produce mucus or pus
* Fatigue, confusion, or disorientation
* Low oxygen levels in the blood (hypoxia)

If left untreated, ALI can progress to a more severe condition called acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which can be fatal. Treatment for ALI typically involves supportive care, such as mechanical ventilation, medications to manage inflammation and fluid buildup in the lungs, and management of underlying causes. In severe cases, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or lung transplantation may be necessary.

It's important to note that ALI can occur in people of all ages and can be caused by a variety of factors, so it's important to seek medical attention right away if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of the condition.

Examples of acute diseases include:

1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.

Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

Some common examples of critical illnesses include:

1. Sepsis: a systemic inflammatory response to an infection that can lead to organ failure and death.
2. Cardiogenic shock: a condition where the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs, leading to serious complications such as heart failure and death.
3. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): a condition where the lungs are severely inflamed and unable to provide sufficient oxygen to the body.
4. Multi-system organ failure: a condition where multiple organs in the body fail simultaneously, leading to serious complications and death.
5. Trauma: severe physical injuries sustained in an accident or other traumatic event.
6. Stroke: a sudden interruption of blood flow to the brain that can lead to permanent brain damage and death.
7. Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a blockage of coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart, leading to damage or death of heart muscle cells.
8. Pulmonary embolism: a blockage of the pulmonary artery, which can lead to respiratory failure and death.
9. Pancreatitis: inflammation of the pancreas that can lead to severe abdominal pain, bleeding, and organ failure.
10. Hypovolemic shock: a condition where there is a severe loss of blood or fluid from the body, leading to hypotension, organ failure, and death.

The diagnosis and treatment of critical illnesses require specialized knowledge and skills, and are typically handled by intensive care unit (ICU) teams consisting of critical care physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. The goal of critical care is to provide life-sustaining interventions and support to patients who are critically ill until they recover or until their condition stabilizes.

The symptoms of hemorrhagic shock may include:

* Pale, cool, or clammy skin
* Fast heart rate
* Shallow breathing
* Confusion or loss of consciousness
* Decreased urine output

Treatment of hemorrhagic shock typically involves replacing lost blood volume with IV fluids and/or blood transfusions. In severe cases, medications such as vasopressors may be used to raise blood pressure and improve circulation. Surgical intervention may also be necessary to control the bleeding source.

The goal of treatment is to restore blood flow and oxygenation to vital organs, such as the brain, heart, and kidneys, and to prevent further bleeding and hypovolemia. Early recognition and aggressive treatment of hemorrhagic shock are critical to preventing severe complications and mortality.

Neonatal jaundice can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Immaturity of the liver and biliary system, which can lead to an inability to process bilirubin properly
* Infection or sepsis
* Breastfeeding difficulties or poor milk intake
* Blood type incompatibility between the baby and mother
* Genetic disorders such as Crigler-Najjar syndrome
* Other medical conditions such as hypothyroidism or anemia

Symptoms of neonatal jaundice may include:

* Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes
* Dark-colored urine
* Pale or clay-colored stools
* Lack of appetite or poor feeding
* Lethargy or irritability

Treatment for neonatal jaundice may include:

* Phototherapy, which involves exposure to blue light to help break down bilirubin in the blood
* Exchange transfusion, which involves replacing some of the baby's blood with fresh blood to lower bilirubin levels
* Medication to stimulate bowel movements and increase the elimination of bilirubin
* Intravenous fluids to prevent dehydration

In some cases, neonatal jaundice may be a sign of a more serious underlying condition, such as a liver or gallbladder disorder. It is important for parents to seek medical attention if they notice any signs of jaundice in their newborn baby, particularly if the baby is feeding poorly or appears lethargic or irritable.

Inverted Papillomas are usually small, ranging in size from a few millimeters to about 1 centimeter in diameter. They can be either solitary (singular) or multiple and are most commonly found in the ethmoid sinuses, which are air-filled cavities in the skull located between the eyes and nasal passages.

Symptoms of Inverted Papilloma may include:

* Nasal congestion or blockage
* Nasal discharge (rhinorrhea)
* Postnasal drip
* Loss of sense of smell
* Headaches
* Sinus pressure or pain
* Coughing
* Sneezing

Inverted Papillomas are usually diagnosed through a procedure called nasal endoscopy, which involves inserting a flexible tube with a camera into the nostrils to visualize the inside of the nasal passages and sinuses. A biopsy may also be taken to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment for Inverted Papilloma usually involves surgical removal of the tumor, either through traditional open surgery or endoscopic surgery, which is less invasive. In some cases, radiation therapy may be recommended to ensure that all of the tumor cells are removed.

Overall, Inverted Papilloma is a rare but treatable condition that can cause significant symptoms and discomfort. If you experience any of the symptoms listed above or have concerns about your nasal health, it's important to consult with an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialist for proper evaluation and treatment.

What does angiodysplasia mean? What are the symptoms of angiodysplasia? How is angiodysplasia diagnosed and treated?

Hodgkin Disease can spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system, and it can affect people of all ages, although it is most common in young adults and teenagers. The symptoms of Hodgkin Disease can vary depending on the stage of the disease, but they may include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, fatigue, weight loss, and itching.

There are several types of Hodgkin Disease, including:

* Classical Hodgkin Disease: This is the most common type of Hodgkin Disease and is characterized by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells.
* Nodular Lymphocytic predominant Hodgkin Disease: This type of Hodgkin Disease is characterized by the presence of nodules in the lymph nodes.
* Mixed Cellularity Hodgkin Disease: This type of Hodgkin Disease is characterized by a mixture of Reed-Sternberg cells and other immune cells.

Hodgkin Disease is usually diagnosed with a biopsy, which involves removing a sample of tissue from the affected lymph node or other area and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells. Treatment for Hodgkin Disease typically involves chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of both. In some cases, bone marrow or stem cell transplantation may be necessary.

The prognosis for Hodgkin Disease is generally good, especially if the disease is detected and treated early. According to the American Cancer Society, the 5-year survival rate for people with Hodgkin Disease is about 85%. However, the disease can sometimes recur after treatment, and the long-term effects of radiation therapy and chemotherapy can include infertility, heart problems, and an increased risk of secondary cancers.

Hodgkin Disease is a rare form of cancer that affects the immune system. It is most commonly diagnosed in young adults and is usually treatable with chemotherapy or radiation therapy. However, the disease can sometimes recur after treatment, and the long-term effects of treatment can include infertility, heart problems, and an increased risk of secondary cancers.

Symptoms of hemolytic anemia may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, dizziness, headaches, and pale or yellowish skin. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause but may include blood transfusions, medication to suppress the immune system, antibiotics for infections, and removal of the spleen (splenectomy) in severe cases.

Prevention strategies for hemolytic anemia include avoiding triggers such as certain medications or infections, maintaining good hygiene practices, and seeking early medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

It is important to note that while hemolytic anemia can be managed with proper treatment, it may not be curable in all cases, and ongoing monitoring and care are necessary to prevent complications and improve quality of life.

The term "melena" comes from the Greek word for "black," and it is used to describe the characteristic dark color of the stools in these patients. The stools may be black, tarry, and have a distinctive odor, and they may also be accompanied by symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever.

The diagnosis of melena is typically made through a physical examination and laboratory tests, such as a complete blood count (CBC) and a fecal occult blood test (FOBT). Imaging studies, such as an upper endoscopy or a colonoscopy, may also be performed to identify the site of the bleeding.

Treatment of melena depends on the underlying cause of the bleeding, and it may involve medications, endoscopic therapy, or surgery. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the patient. Prognosis for melena is generally good if the underlying cause is identified and treated promptly, but it can be life-threatening if left untreated.

This definition of 'Neoplasm Recurrence, Local' is from the Healthcare Professionals edition of the Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary, copyright © 2007 by Merriam-Webster, Inc.

Liver neoplasms, also known as liver tumors or hepatic tumors, are abnormal growths of tissue in the liver. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant liver tumors can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or metastatic, meaning they spread to the liver from another part of the body.

There are several types of liver neoplasms, including:

1. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer and arises from the main cells of the liver (hepatocytes). HCC is often associated with cirrhosis and can be caused by viral hepatitis or alcohol abuse.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: This type of cancer arises from the cells lining the bile ducts within the liver (cholangiocytes). Cholangiocarcinoma is rare and often diagnosed at an advanced stage.
3. Hemangiosarcoma: This is a rare type of cancer that originates in the blood vessels of the liver. It is most commonly seen in dogs but can also occur in humans.
4. Fibromas: These are benign tumors that arise from the connective tissue of the liver (fibrocytes). Fibromas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.
5. Adenomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the glandular cells of the liver (hepatocytes). Adenomas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.

The symptoms of liver neoplasms vary depending on their size, location, and whether they are benign or malignant. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasound, and a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells.

Treatment options for liver neoplasms depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgery may be an option for some patients with small, localized tumors, while others may require chemotherapy or radiation therapy to shrink the tumor before surgery can be performed. In some cases, liver transplantation may be necessary.

Prognosis for liver neoplasms varies depending on the type and stage of the cancer. In general, early detection and treatment improve the prognosis, while advanced-stage disease is associated with a poorer prognosis.

Other definitions:

* Premature birth: A birth that occurs before 37 completed weeks of gestation.
* Preterm birth: A birth that occurs before 37 completed weeks of gestation, but not necessarily before 22 weeks.
* Very preterm birth: A birth that occurs before 28 completed weeks of gestation.
* Extremely preterm birth: A birth that occurs before 24 completed weeks of gestation.

Diseases associated with premature infants:

1. Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS): A condition in which the baby's lungs do not produce enough surfactant, a substance that helps the air sacs in the lungs expand and contract properly.
2. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD): A chronic lung disease that can develop in premature infants who have RDS.
3. Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH): Bleeding in the brain that can occur in premature infants, particularly those with RDS or BPD.
4. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP): A condition that can cause blindness in premature infants due to abnormal blood vessel growth in the retina.
5. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC): A condition that can cause damage to the intestines and other parts of the digestive system in premature infants.
6. Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH): Bleeding in the brain that can occur in premature infants, particularly those with RDS or BPD.
7. Gastrointestinal problems: Premature infants are at risk for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and other gastrointestinal problems.
8. Feeding difficulties: Premature infants may have difficulty feeding, which can lead to weight gain issues or the need for a feeding tube.
9. Respiratory infections: Premature infants are at increased risk for respiratory infections, such as pneumonia and bronchiolitis.
10. Developmental delays: Premature infants may be at risk for developmental delays or learning disabilities, particularly if they experienced significant health problems or required oxygen therapy.

It is important to note that not all premature infants will develop these complications, and the severity of the conditions can vary depending on the individual baby's health and the level of care they receive. However, it is essential for parents and caregivers to be aware of the potential risks and seek prompt medical attention if they notice any signs of distress or illness in their premature infant.

Types of Infection:

1. Bacterial Infections: These are caused by the presence of harmful bacteria in the body. Examples include pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and skin infections.
2. Viral Infections: These are caused by the presence of harmful viruses in the body. Examples include the common cold, flu, and HIV/AIDS.
3. Fungal Infections: These are caused by the presence of fungi in the body. Examples include athlete's foot, ringworm, and candidiasis.
4. Parasitic Infections: These are caused by the presence of parasites in the body. Examples include malaria, giardiasis, and toxoplasmosis.

Symptoms of Infection:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Headache
4. Muscle aches
5. Skin rashes or lesions
6. Swollen lymph nodes
7. Sore throat
8. Coughing
9. Diarrhea
10. Vomiting

Treatment of Infection:

1. Antibiotics: These are used to treat bacterial infections and work by killing or stopping the growth of bacteria.
2. Antiviral medications: These are used to treat viral infections and work by interfering with the replication of viruses.
3. Fungicides: These are used to treat fungal infections and work by killing or stopping the growth of fungi.
4. Anti-parasitic medications: These are used to treat parasitic infections and work by killing or stopping the growth of parasites.
5. Supportive care: This includes fluids, nutritional supplements, and pain management to help the body recover from the infection.

Prevention of Infection:

1. Hand washing: Regular hand washing is one of the most effective ways to prevent the spread of infection.
2. Vaccination: Getting vaccinated against specific infections can help prevent them.
3. Safe sex practices: Using condoms and other safe sex practices can help prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections.
4. Food safety: Properly storing and preparing food can help prevent the spread of foodborne illnesses.
5. Infection control measures: Healthcare providers use infection control measures such as wearing gloves, masks, and gowns to prevent the spread of infections in healthcare settings.

Hemoperitoneum can be a life-threatening condition and requires prompt medical attention. Treatment options may include fluid resuscitation, blood transfusions, and surgery to locate and control the source of bleeding. In some cases, hemoperitoneum can lead to hypovolemic shock, sepsis, and even death if left untreated.

Some common causes of hemoperitoneum include:

1. Trauma: Blunt or penetrating trauma to the abdomen can cause bleeding in the peritoneal cavity.
2. Surgical complications: Bleeding during or after surgery can result in hemoperitoneum.
3. Digestive tract bleeding: Ulcers, varices, and malignancies in the digestive tract can cause bleeding that leads to hemoperitoneum.
4. Inflammatory conditions: Conditions such as appendicitis, diverticulitis, and pancreatitis can cause bleeding in the peritoneal cavity.
5. Vascular injuries: Injuries to the vessels within the peritoneal cavity, such as the aorta or vena cava, can cause hemoperitoneum.

Signs and symptoms of hemoperitoneum may include abdominal pain, distension, and tenderness, as well as hypovolemic shock, tachycardia, and tachypnea. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as CT or ultrasound, and laboratory tests to evaluate blood count and coagulation status.

Treatment of hemoperitoneum depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, fluid resuscitation and observation may be sufficient, while in more severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to locate and control the source of bleeding.

Contusions are bruises that occur when blood collects in the tissue due to trauma. They can be painful and may discolor the skin, but they do not involve a break in the skin. Hematomas are similar to contusions, but they are caused by bleeding under the skin.

Non-penetrating wounds are typically less severe than penetrating wounds, which involve a break in the skin and can be more difficult to treat. However, non-penetrating wounds can still cause significant pain and discomfort, and may require medical attention to ensure proper healing and minimize the risk of complications.

Examples of Non-Penetrating Wounds

* Contusions: A contusion is a bruise that occurs when blood collects in the tissue due to trauma. This can happen when someone is hit with an object or falls and strikes a hard surface.
* Hematomas: A hematoma is a collection of blood under the skin that can cause swelling and discoloration. It is often caused by blunt trauma, such as a blow to the head or body.
* Ecchymoses: An ecchymosis is a bruise that occurs when blood leaks into the tissue from damaged blood vessels. This can happen due to blunt trauma or other causes, such as injury or surgery.

Types of Non-Penetrating Wounds

* Closed wounds: These are injuries that do not involve a break in the skin. They can be caused by blunt trauma or other forms of injury, and may result in bruising, swelling, or discoloration of the skin.
* Open wounds: These are injuries that do involve a break in the skin. They can be caused by penetrating objects, such as knives or gunshots, or by blunt trauma.

Treatment for Contusions and Hematomas

* Rest: It is important to get plenty of rest after suffering a contusion or hematoma. This will help your body recover from the injury and reduce inflammation.
* Ice: Applying ice to the affected area can help reduce swelling and pain. Wrap an ice pack in a towel or cloth to protect your skin.
* Compression: Using compression bandages or wraps can help reduce swelling and promote healing.
* Elevation: Elevating the affected limb above the level of your heart can help reduce swelling and improve circulation.
* Medication: Over-the-counter pain medications, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen, can help manage pain and inflammation.


* Wear protective gear: When engaging in activities that may cause injury, wear appropriate protective gear, such as helmets, pads, and gloves.
* Use proper technique: Proper technique when engaging in physical activity can help reduce the risk of injury.
* Stay fit: Being in good physical condition can help improve your ability to withstand injuries.
* Stretch and warm up: Before engaging in physical activity, stretch and warm up to increase blood flow and reduce muscle stiffness.
* Avoid excessive alcohol consumption: Excessive alcohol consumption can increase the risk of injury.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following symptoms:

* Increasing pain or swelling
* Difficulty moving the affected limb
* Fever or chills
* Redness or discharge around the wound
* Deformity of the affected limb.

Priapism is caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Trauma to the genital area
2. Infection of the penis or prostate gland
3. Certain medications, such as antidepressants and antipsychotics
4. Alcohol or drug abuse
5. Sickle cell disease or other blood disorders
6. Certain medical procedures, such as prostate surgery or circumcision
7. Priapism can also occur in newborn babies due to a condition called neonatal priapism, which is caused by a blockage of the blood vessels in the penis.

Symptoms of priapism include:

1. A persistent, painful erection that does not go away within 4-6 hours
2. Swelling and redness of the penis
3. Pain in the scrotum or abdomen
4. Fever and chills
5. Priapism can also cause damage to the penis over time, leading to loss of erectile function and other complications.

If you suspect you or someone else has priapism, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment typically involves draining the blood from the penis and administering antibiotics to prevent infection. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove any damaged tissue.

Prevention of priapism includes avoiding activities that can cause trauma to the genital area, taking medications as directed, and seeking medical attention if you experience any symptoms of priapism. It is also important to maintain good hygiene and practice safe sex to reduce the risk of infection.

In conclusion, priapism is a serious medical condition that requires immediate attention. If you suspect you or someone else has priapism, do not hesitate to seek medical help. With proper treatment, most people with priapism can recover fully and regain normal erectile function.

Multiple trauma can involve various types of injuries, including:

1. Blunt trauma: This refers to injuries caused by a blow or impact, such as those sustained in a car accident or fall.
2. Penetrating trauma: This refers to injuries caused by a sharp object, such as a gunshot wound or stab wound.
3. Burns: This refers to injuries caused by heat or chemicals that can cause tissue damage and scarring.
4. Neurological trauma: This refers to injuries affecting the brain and spinal cord, such as concussions or herniated discs.
5. Orthopedic trauma: This refers to injuries affecting the musculoskeletal system, such as fractures or dislocations.
6. Soft tissue trauma: This refers to injuries affecting the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues, such as lacerations or contusions.
7. Visceral trauma: This refers to injuries affecting the internal organs, such as internal bleeding or organ damage.

The severity of multiple trauma can vary widely, ranging from mild to life-threatening. In some cases, multiple trauma may be caused by a single incident, while in other cases, it may result from a series of events over time.

Treatment for multiple trauma typically involves a comprehensive approach that addresses all of the injuries and takes into account the patient's overall health and well-being. This may include surgery, medication, physical therapy, and other forms of rehabilitation. In severe cases, multiple trauma can result in long-term disability or even death, making prompt and appropriate treatment essential for optimal outcomes.

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.

There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:

1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)

The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss

If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:

1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)

HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.

Prevention methods for HIV infection include:

1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.

It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.

The definition of MOF varies depending on the context and the specific criteria used to define it. However, in general, MOF is characterized by:

1. The involvement of multiple organs: MOF affects multiple organs in the body, such as the lungs, liver, kidneys, heart, and brain. Each organ failure can have a significant impact on the individual's overall health and survival.
2. Severe dysfunction: The dysfunction of multiple organs is severe enough to cause significant impairment in the individual's physiological functions, such as breathing, circulation, and mental status.
3. Lack of specific etiology: MOF often occurs without a specific identifiable cause, although it can be triggered by various factors such as infections, injuries, or medical conditions.
4. High mortality rate: MOF is associated with a high mortality rate, especially if left untreated or if the underlying causes are not addressed promptly.

The diagnosis of MOF requires a comprehensive evaluation of the individual's medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment involves addressing the underlying causes, supporting the failing organs, and managing symptoms. The prognosis for MOF depends on the severity of the condition, the underlying cause, and the promptness and effectiveness of treatment.

Symptoms of babesiosis can vary in severity and may include:

* Fever
* Chills
* Headache
* Muscle and joint pain
* Fatigue
* Nausea and vomiting
* Diarrhea
* Anemia (low red blood cell count)

In severe cases, babesiosis can lead to complications such as:

* Hemolytic anemia (breakdown of red blood cells)
* Kidney failure
* Respiratory distress syndrome
* Septic shock

Babesiosis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, including:

* Blood smear
* Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
* Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

Treatment for babesiosis typically involves the use of antimicrobial drugs, such as azithromycin and atovaquone, or clindamycin and primaquine. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications.

Prevention of babesiosis primarily involves protecting against tick bites through measures such as:

* Using insect repellents containing DEET or permethrin
* Wearing long-sleeved shirts and pants, and tucking pant legs into socks
* Checking for ticks on the body after spending time outdoors
* Removing any attached ticks promptly and correctly

Early detection and treatment of babesiosis can help to reduce the risk of complications and improve outcomes for affected individuals.

There are several subtypes of MDS, each with distinct clinical features and prognosis. The most common subtype is refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB), followed by chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMMoL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

The exact cause of MDS is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from a combination of genetic mutations and environmental factors. Risk factors for developing MDS include exposure to certain chemicals or radiation, age over 60, and a history of previous cancer treatment.

Symptoms of MDS can vary depending on the specific subtype and severity of the disorder, but may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, infection, bleeding, and easy bruising. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, blood tests, and bone marrow biopsy.

Treatment for MDS depends on the specific subtype and severity of the disorder, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences. Options may include supportive care, such as blood transfusions and antibiotics, or more intensive therapies like chemotherapy, bone marrow transplantation, or gene therapy.

Overall, myelodysplastic syndromes are a complex and heterogeneous group of disorders that can have a significant impact on quality of life and survival. Ongoing research is focused on improving diagnostic accuracy, developing more effective treatments, and exploring novel therapeutic approaches to improve outcomes for patients with MDS.

Journal of Hematology and Blood Transfusion. 30 (Suppl 1): 202-204. doi:10.1007/s12288-013-0327-3. PMC 4192214. PMID 25332578. ... Autologous immune enhancement therapy (AIET) is a treatment method in which immune cells are taken out from the patient's body ... "Autologous immune enhancement therapy in recurrent ovarian cancer with metastases: a case report-Global Medical Discovery key ... Till date different kinds of autologous and allogenic immune cells such as lymphokine-activated killer(LAK)cells, Natural ...
2.2 per cent of blood volume) is permitted. He has questioned why donating blood and storing blood for autologous transfusion ... platelets or plasma for either allogeneic or autologous transfusion. Transfusions of autologous blood part of a "current ... Blood introduced directly into the veins circulates and functions as blood, not as nutrition. Hence, blood transfusion is a ... In 1945, the application of the doctrine on blood was expanded to prohibit blood transfusions of whole blood, whether ...
It is also possible to use the patient's own blood for transfusion. This is called autologous blood transfusion, which is ... for suitability in blood transfusion. A complete blood type would describe each of the 43 blood groups, and an individual's ... possibly a fetomaternal transfusion of blood from a fetus in pregnancy or occasionally a blood transfusion with D positive RBCs ... along with the work of a blood bank to provide a transfusion service for blood and other blood products. Across the world, ...
1998). "CD34+CD33- cells influence days to engraftment and transfusion requirements in autologous blood stem-cell recipients". ... after high-dose chemotherapy with autologous blood stem cell rescue and peritransplantation rituximab". Blood. 99 (4): 1486- ... Blood. 102 (10): 3521-3529. doi:10.1182/blood-2003-04-1205. PMID 12893748. S2CID 9234114. Lorence, Robert; Pecora, Andrew; et ... doi:10.1182/blood.V99.4.1486. PMID 11830505. S2CID 7028301. Pecora, Andrew; et al. (May 1, 2002). "Phase I Trial of Intravenous ...
... towards autologous transfusion, in which patients receive their own blood. Another impetus for autologous transfusion is the ... Intraoperative blood salvage (IOS), also known as cell salvage, is a specific type of autologous blood transfusion. ... is a form of autologous transfusion where whole blood is collected from a patient at the start of surgery into a standard blood ... choose not to accept any allogeneic transfusions from a volunteer's blood donation but may accept the use of autologous blood ...
Blood transfusions use as sources of blood either one's own (autologous transfusion), or someone else's (allogeneic or ... Blood Transfusion Leaflets (NHS Blood and Transplant) Blood Transfusion Leaflets (Welsh Blood Service) Blood Transfusion ... Anemia Arnault Tzanck Blood transfusion in Sri Lanka Blood type (non-human) Xenotransfusion Young blood transfusion, a ... American Association of Blood Banks (AABB) British Blood Transfusion Society (BBTS) International Society of Blood Transfusion ...
... "whole blood, packed red cells, platelets, white cells or plasma". Autologous blood donation, where an individual's own blood is ... Members are directed to refuse blood transfusions, even in "a life-or-death situation". Jehovah's Witnesses accept non-blood ... autologous) "How Do I View Blood Fractions and Medical Procedures Involving My Own Blood?" (PDF). Our Kingdom Ministry. ... Jehovah's Witnesses refuse blood transfusions, which they consider a violation of God's law based on their interpretation of ...
... followed by suction regulators and autologous blood transfusion products. In 2007 Boehringer introduced the Engenex product ...
"Patient Blood Management Guidelines , National Blood Authority". Archived from the original on 2016-01-15. ... However, this benefit was only seen in certain patient groups, and people undergoing an autologous stem cell transplant derived ... Unlike other blood products demand for platelet transfusions appears to be increasing in several countries around the world. An ... Despite prophylactic platelet transfusions, people with blood cancers often bleed, and other risk factors for bleeding such as ...
The other options is using the person's own blood. This is known as autologous blood transfusion. The person's red blood cells ... Packed red blood cells, also known as packed cells, are red blood cells that have been separated for blood transfusion. The ... "Single Unit Transfusion Guide , National Blood Authority". Retrieved 2019-03-05. Koch CG, Li L, Duncan AI, ... December 2021). "Transfusion thresholds for guiding red blood cell transfusion". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. ...
... leading to suspicions that Di Luca had received an autologous blood transfusion between the two tests. A CONI commission later ... Cycling News (12 August 2007). "Antidoping briefs: Petacchi, Piepoli cleared, D-Tour blood tests, Moreni, Klöden reacts". ...
April 1998: p. 30 "Autologous (self-donated) Blood as an Alternative to Allogeneic (donor-donated) Blood Transfusion". AABB. ... "Transfusion handbook, Summary information for Red Blood Cells". National Blood Transfusion Committee. Archived from the ... Blood bank#History (history of blood donation) Blood donation restrictions on men who have sex with men Blood substitute James ... For direct transfusions a vein can be used but the blood may be taken from an artery instead. In this case, the blood is not ...
Blood, Alternative medical treatments, Ozone therapy, Transfusion medicine). ... Autologous blood therapy, also known as autologous blood injection or autohemotherapy, comprises certain types of hemotherapy ... Although autologous blood donation and plasmapheresis are conceptually analogous, they are differentiated from autologous blood ... The original, unscientific form is "the immediate intramuscular or subcutaneous reinjection of freshly drawn autologous blood ...
Man, D., Plosker, H., Winland-Brown, J.E. "The use of autologous platelet-rich plasma (platelet gel) and autologous platelet ... "Current concepts in Blood Management". Orthopaedics, 2004;27:S643-S641 R. Justin Thomas, Scott E. Marwin. "The role of fibrin ... Transfusion medicine). ... Platelet-Poor Plasma (PPP) is blood plasma with very low number ... "Platelet aggregation studies: autologous platelet-poor plasma inhibits platelet aggregation when added to platelet-rich plasma ...
... blood from other people) and they also make use of pre-donated blood for autologous transfusion (blood pre-donated by the ... but the technique is not an option for patients who refuse autologous blood transfusions. Intraoperative blood salvage is a ... The expression does not mean surgery that makes no use of blood or blood transfusion. Rather, it refers to surgery performed ... Updates in Blood Conservation and Transfusion alternatives'. In this article Prof. Isbister coined the term 'patient blood ...
... and autologous blood transfusions (all banned practices), Hamilton staunchly opposed the sanction, since he had never used the ... That medal was placed in doubt on September 20, 2004, after he failed a test for blood doping (receiving blood transfusions to ... The calendar includes two blood transfusions during the Tour de France. "The first time before the three stages in the Alps and ... El País charged that Hamilton's 2003 win of Liège-Bastogne-Liège came days after a "double" blood transfusion planned by ...
Most blood for transfusion is collected as whole blood. Autologous donations are sometimes transfused without further ... Several types of blood transfusion exist:[citation needed] Whole blood, which is blood transfused without separation. Red blood ... A blood bank is a center where blood gathered as a result of blood donation is stored and preserved for later use in blood ... The use of blood plasma as a substitute for whole blood and for transfusion purposes was proposed as early as 1918, in the ...
... and autologous blood transfusions, Hamilton staunchly opposed the sanction, since he had never used the blood of another person ... such as EPO injections and blood transfusions. They parted ways when Hamilton went riding for CSC. This decision was motivated ... He then recounts his years on the Phonak Team when he tested positive during the Vuelta a España to an alleged homologous blood ... It was speculated that Fuentes and his assistant had mixed the blood of another rider with his. His career in shambles, he ...
... after he became seriously ill allegedly through a self-administered autologous blood transfusion. He then signed to UCI ... allegedly due to a blood transfusion he performed on himself with 25-day-old blood. Riccò admitted to the doctor treating him ... "Ricco Confesses To Blood Transfusion ,". Archived from the original on 13 October 2011. ... In October 2011, it was reported that Riccò confessed to the blood transfusion to CONI although his lawyer later denied these ...
... platelet transfusion MeSH E02.095.135.164 - blood transfusion, autologous MeSH E02.095.135.264 - blood transfusion, ... blood component transfusion MeSH E02. - erythrocyte transfusion MeSH E02. - leukocyte transfusion ... intrauterine MeSH E02.095.135.469 - exchange transfusion, whole blood MeSH E02.095.135.750 - plasma exchange MeSH E02.095. ... MeSH E02. - lymphocyte transfusion MeSH E02. - ...
... red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and plasma), and transfusions of stored autologous blood or its primary ... peri-operative extraction and transfusion of autologous blood). This religious position is due to their belief that blood is ... As a doctrine, Jehovah's Witnesses do not reject transfusion of whole autologous blood so long as it is not stored prior to ... "abstain from blood") to include taking blood into the body via a transfusion. Controversy has stemmed, however, from what ...
... company that was the European leader in the market for extracorporeal blood circulation and autologous blood transfusion ... and a line of blood management products. It began as a nuclear research company owned primarily by Fiat, transformed into a ...
... amid allegations that he had carried out a self-administered autologous blood transfusion at his home. (For more information on ... after an apparent self-administered autologous blood transfusion at his home, and obtained his medical records while Riccò was ... in relation to the February blood transfusion. He eventually received a twelve-year ban from the Italian National Anti-Doping ... Two days later, the Italian State Police confirmed that they were investigating Riccò for blood doping, ...
With the advent of recombinant erythropoietin in the 1990s, the practice of autologous and homologous blood transfusion has ... Jelkmann W, Lundby C (Sep 2011). "Blood doping and its detection" (PDF). Blood. 118 (9): 2395-404. doi:10.1182/blood-2011-02- ... Conconi had worked on the idea of giving athletes transfusions of their own blood in the 1980s. Donati felt this work "opened ... In these situations they decrease the need for blood transfusions. The different agents are more or less equivalent. They are ...
Blood transfusion Packed red blood cells transfusion Fresh frozen plasma transfusion Plasmapheresis of various kinds, including ... with autologous blood that is usually modified in some way Merriam-Webster, Merriam-Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Merriam- ... is the treatment of disease by the use of blood or blood products from blood donation (by others or for oneself). It includes ... v t e (All articles with unsourced statements, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2021, Transfusion medicine, All ...
... who usually require frequent blood transfusions to treat their disease, were able to forgo blood transfusions for extended ... "Autologous CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells transduced with LentiGlobin BB305 lentiviral vector encoding the human BA-T87Q-globin ... Stein R (18 April 2018). "Gene Therapy For Inherited Blood Disorder Reduced Transfusions". NPR. Archived from the original on ... 15 were able to stop or reduce regular blood transfusions. In February 2021, a clinical trial of betibeglogene autotemcel in ...
Blood transfusions can be traditionally classified as autologous, where the blood donor and transfusion recipient are the same ... Blood transfusion begins by the withdrawal of 1 to 4 units of blood (1 unit = 450 mL of blood) several weeks before competition ... Blood doping can be achieved by making the body produce more red blood cells itself using drugs, giving blood transfusions ... Nearly 50% of autologous donations are not used by the donor and are discarded, as current standards do not allow transfusion ...
An Improved Anticoagulant Preservative Solution for Human Blood". International Society of Blood Transfusion. 29: 758-763. doi: ... "Comparison of 4 blood storage methods in a protocol for equine pre-operative autologous donation". Veterinary Surgery. 33 (5): ... in 1943 for preserving whole blood. They found that the mixture offers better red blood cell survival than the then state-of- ... From experimentation on horse and donkey blood, it does seem that the newer human-blood storage technogies also translate to ...
The Vel blood group is a human blood group that has been implicated in hemolytic transfusion reactions. The blood group ... and it may be necessary to perform autologous blood donation or to contact rare blood banks. Cases of anti-Vel causing ... The Vel blood group was officially recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion in 2016. Harmening D (10 July ... ISBN 978-1-4443-9617-1. Rudmann SV (2005). "Section 2: Blood group serology". Textbook of Blood Banking and Transfusion ...
... known as Beating Heart Coronary Artery Bypass with autologous blood with minimal to nil usage of homologous blood transfusion, ...
White blood cells are removed from the patient's blood and are treated using photoactive drugs called 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP ... "Autologous stem cell transplant - Type - Mayo Clinic". Retrieved 2020-04-26. "NCI Dictionary of Cancer ... Asian Journal of Transfusion Science. 11 (2): 81-86. doi:10.4103/ajts.ajts_87_16. ISSN 0973-6247. PMC 5613442. PMID 28970672. ( ... Blood. 127 (20): 2375-2390. doi:10.1182/blood-2016-01-643569. ISSN 0006-4971. PMC 4874220. PMID 26980727. Foss, Francine M.; ...
Blood transfusions have been ruled out as a risk factor. The diagnosis of CLL is based on the demonstration of an abnormal ... Autologous stem cell transplantation, using the recipient's own cells, is not curative.: 1458 Younger individuals, if at high ... of adults with normal blood counts". Blood. 100 (2): 635-639. doi:10.1182/blood.V100.2.635. PMID 12091358. "Chronic Lymphocytic ... Most people are diagnosed as having CLL based on the result of a routine blood test that shows a high white blood cell count, ...
The neoantigen-loaded dendritic cells were cultured in vitro for autologous transfusion. Results showed that the vaccine ... Tumor biopsies and healthy tissue (e.g., peripheral blood cells) of a patient diagnosed with cancer are examined by NGS. Tumor- ... Immune surveillance analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients demonstrated that the RNA vaccines ... that are recognized by autologous T cells as foreign and constitute cancer vaccine targets. Tumor Mutational Burden (TMB, the ...
... the new blood or blood products come from another person or persons, via donated blood); autologous exchange transfusion is ... Most blood transfusions involve adding blood or blood products without removing any blood, these are also known as simple ... other blood or blood products. The patient's blood is removed and replaced by donated blood or blood components. This exchange ... An exchange transfusion is a blood transfusion in which the patient's blood or components of it are exchanged with (replaced by ...
The results of the study were presented at the 4th International Congress of Blood Transfusion in Lisbon (1951), and were ... Plasmapheresis of the autologous and exchange types is used to treat a variety of disorders, including those of the immune ... During plasmapheresis, blood, which consists of blood cells and a clear liquid called blood plasma, is initially taken out of ... In such a plasma donation procedure, blood is removed from the body, blood cells and plasma are separated, and the blood cells ...
HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 can be transmitted sexually, by blood to blood contact (e.g. by blood transfusion or sharing needles when ... eradicate HTLV-1 in combination with autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells via antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity ... In the United States, HTLV-1/2 seroprevalence rates among volunteer blood donors average 0.016 percent.[citation needed] No ...
... red blood cells, and platelets. Anemia and thrombocytopenia may require blood transfusion. Neutropenia (a decrease of the ... cells that produce white and red blood cells) are destroyed, meaning allogenic or autologous bone marrow cell transplants are ... Passive targeting exploits the difference between tumor blood vessels and normal blood vessels. Blood vessels in tumors are " ... Medications that kill rapidly dividing cells or blood cells can reduce the number of platelets in the blood, which can result ...
... the infant may be deprived of a placental blood transfusion, resulting in lower blood volume and increased risk for anemia." ... Only nine cases involved giving cord blood back to the donor, a practice known as autologous transplantation and the chief ... Cord blood stem cells are blood cell progenitors which can form red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. This is why ... A cord blood bank is a facility which stores umbilical cord blood for future use. Both private and public cord blood banks have ...
"Preoperative Autologous Blood Donation: Waning Indications in an Era of Improved Blood Safety". Transfusion Medicine Reviews. ... Modern Blood Banking & Transfusion Practices. F.A. Davis. p. 552. ISBN 978-0-8036-9462-0. "Patient Blood Management". NHS Blood ... "Patient Blood Management: a revolutionary approach to transfusion medicine". Blood Transfusion = Trasfusione del Sangue. 17 (3 ... People who are in good health and not anemic may sometimes donate their own blood prior to the surgery (autologous blood ...
Furthermore, blood transfusion centers should be routinely notified when sending such a sample. Daratumumab can also interfere ... and prednisone to include the treatment of people with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma who are ineligible for autologous stem ... June 2015). "Resolving the daratumumab interference with blood compatibility testing". Transfusion. 55 (6 Pt 2): 1545-1554. doi ... Blood. 128 (22): 5630. doi:10.1182/blood.V128.22.5630.5630. ISSN 0006-4971. Dhillon S (June 2020). "Isatuximab: First Approval ...
... blood transfusion (28% of injuries) and tracheostomy (22% of injuries) are also common following trauma. Head injuries often ... March 2000). "Autologous bone marrow stromal cells loaded onto porous hydroxyapatite ceramic accelerate bone repair in critical ... Blood. 84 (12): 4164-73. doi:10.1182/blood.v84.12.4164.bloodjournal84124164. PMID 7994030. Gronthos S, Zannettino AC, Hay SJ, ... This process takes place in the form of fast outgrowth and organization of blood vessels. Angiogenesis occurs in organ ...
In blood banking terminology, autologous blood donation refers to a blood donation marked for use by the donor, typically for a ... Harlaar, JJ; Gosselink, MP; Hop, WC; Lange, JF; Busch, OR; Jeekel, H (November 2012). "Blood transfusions and prognosis in ... Blood type will always match, even with a rare blood type or antibody type. If only autologous blood is used during surgery the ... the patient could still be exposed to donor blood instead of autologous blood. Autologous donation is also not suitable for ...
He is also the head of the Blood Transfusion Center Jette and head of the Clinical Department of Medical Oncology and ... and autologous bone marrow transplantation. Between 2000 and 2008 he was the rector of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Benjamin ...
By definition, autologous cells are obtained from one's own body, just as one may bank their own blood for elective surgical ... Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy. 43 (4): 247-254. doi:10.1159/000447748. PMC 5040947. PMID 27721700. Ralston, Michelle (17 ... Blood, which requires extraction through apheresis, wherein blood is drawn from the donor (similar to a blood donation), and ... Stem cells can also be taken from umbilical cord blood just after birth. Of all stem cell types, autologous harvesting involves ...
Transfusion. 2003 Feb;43(2):259-64. Leukapheresis after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell ... Leukapheresis may be performed to decrease a very high white blood cell count, to obtain blood cells from a patient (autologous ... is a laboratory procedure in which white blood cells are separated from a sample of blood. It is a specific type of apheresis, ... Leukapheresis may be performed to obtain the patient's own blood cells for a later transplant. White blood cells may be removed ...
"Proof of principle for transfusion of in vitro-generated red blood cells". Blood. 118 (19): 5071-9. doi:10.1182/blood-2011-06- ... Of concern for autologous use, in particular in the elderly most in need of tissue repair, MSCs decline in quantity and quality ... Shah S, Huang X, Cheng L (March 2014). "Concise review: stem cell-based approaches to red blood cell production for transfusion ... RBC transfusion is necessary for many patients. However, to date the supply of RBCs remains labile. In addition, transfusion ...
... deletion syndrome but no other cytogenetic abnormalities and are dependent on red blood cell transfusions, for whom other ... for people with multiple myeloma following autologous stem cell transplant. In 2009, The National Institute for Health and ... Severe side effects include low blood platelets, low white blood cells, and blood clots. Use during pregnancy may harm the ... Blood. 119 (12): 2764-7. doi:10.1182/blood-2011-08-373514. PMID 22323483. "FDA approves lenalidomide oral capsules (Revlimid) ...
... related to ex-vivo storage to unambiguously identify the use of blood transfusion, both autologous blood transfusion (ABT) or ... Direct detection of homologous and autologous blood transfusion through immunorecognition of specific markers of blood storage ... Direct detection of homologous and autologous blood transfusion through immunorecognition of specific markers of blood storage ... Direct detection of homologous and autologous blood transfusion through immunorecognition of specific markers of blood storage ...
Survey estimates blood supply in Puerto Rico that must be replaced following FDA guidance. ... Survey estimates blood supply in Puerto Rico that must be replaced following FDA guidance. ... Autologous¶ 22. 28. (0-68). Red blood cells. Allogeneic. 135,966. 47. (110,856-161,075). ... Transfusion 2016. In press.. *Musso D, Nhan T, Robin E, et al. Potential for Zika virus transmission through blood transfusion ...
There are many reasons you may need a blood transfusion: ... Autologous blood is blood donated by you, which you later ... Blood and blood products. Updated July 12, 2021. Accessed November ... or other viruses after a blood transfusion. Blood transfusions are not 100% safe. But the current blood supply is thought to be ... When your body cannot make enough blood A blood transfusion is a safe and common procedure during which you receive blood ...
Electrolyte and acid/base changes in dogs undergoing autologous blood transfusion via a cell salvage device. - Texas A&M ... and post-autologous transfusion blood work available were reviewed. Blood work from the 12 case dogs was compared to blood work ... Electrolyte and acid/base changes in dogs undergoing autologous blood transfusion via a cell salvage device. Academic Article * ... but did not undergo autologous transfusion. Case dogs that received autologous transfusion via a cell salvage device were ...
Serious hazards of transfusion: evaluating the dangers of a wrong patient autologous salvaged blood in cardiac surgery. ...
Autologous transfusion in developing countries, Geneva, 10-12 December 1990  Global Blood Safety Initiative Consultation on ... Blood Transfusion, Autologous (‎1)‎Expansores de la Sangre (‎1)‎ Paises del Tercer Mundo (‎1)‎ ... Health Laboratory Technology and Blood Safety Unit; WHO Global Programme on AIDS; League of Red Cross Societies (‎WHO/GPA/INF/ ... Health Laboratory Technology and Blood Safety Unit; WHO Global Programme on AIDS; League of Red Cross Societies (‎WHO/GPA/INF/ ...
The patient had undergone autologous peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation to treat ovarian cancer. Courtesy of Romeo A. ... Current understanding of the biology of GVHD includes the occurrence of autologous GVHD and transfusion-associated GVHD. The ... The patient had undergone autologous peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation to treat ovarian cancer. Courtesy of Romeo A. ... The patient had undergone autologous peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation to treat ovarian cancer. Courtesy of Romeo A. ...
First of all this discovery will likely expand the possibilities for autologous transfusion, that is transfusion using a ... With each stem cell yielding about two million young blood cells, the team is now focusing on industrializing the process, in ... A French research team has succeeded in producing massive quantities of red blood cells in vitro beginning with adult stem ... patients own blood, by easily providing sufficient quantities of blood.. Stem Cells Help Paralyzed Rats Walk - (Associated ...
Calvo W, Fliedner TM, Herbst E, Hugl E, Bruch C. Regeneration of blood-forming organs after autologous leukocyte transfusion in ... immature red blood cell islands, thereby supporting the maturation of red blood cells. This is consistent with previous animal ... Kumar S, Greipp PR, Haug J, Kline M, Chng WJ, Blood E, et al. Gene expression profiling of myeloma cells at diagnosis can ... The sinusoidal niche, on the other hand, consists of sinusoidal endothelial cell lining blood vessels, which provide an ...
... the difference between autologous and homologous blood transfusions, chimeras, corticosteroids, Clenbuterol-tainted meat, and ... They kicked up their feet and watched French sitcoms while enjoying a refreshing blood transfusion in the hotel during the rest ... Whats the real difference between taking corticosteroid because you got sick during a race and getting a blood transfusion ... Then do you think they would let me have a blood transfusion. ... the blood red hemocrit at noon. right up against the limit did ...
Physicians should adhere strictly to medical indications for transfusions, and autologous blood transfusions are encouraged.. * ... To date, no person-to-person transmission has been identified other than through intimate contact or blood transfusion.. ... Blood products or blood appear responsible for AIDS among hemophilia patients who require clotting factor replacement. The ... This is an interim measure to protect recipients of blood products and blood until specific laboratory tests are available. * ...
Blood Transfusion, Autologous Entry term(s). Autologous Blood Transfusion Autologous Blood Transfusions Autotransfusion ... Blood Transfusions, Autologous. Transfusion, Autologous Blood. Transfusions, Autologous Blood. Tree number(s):. E02.095.135.164 ... Transfusion sanguine autologue Entry term(s):. Autologous Blood Transfusion. Autologous Blood Transfusions. Autotransfusion. ... Blood Transfusion, Autologous - Preferred Concept UI. M0002722. Scope note. Reinfusion of blood or blood products derived from ...
Autologous and heterologous blood transfusion in head and neck cancer surgery. Moir, M. S., Samy, R. N., Hanasono, M. M. & ... Autologous mesenchymal stem cells for post-ischemic myocardial repair.. Tang, Y. L., 2005, In: Methods in molecular medicine. ... Autologous fat transfer in aesthetic facial recontouring. Gamboa, G. M. & Ross, W. A., May 1 2013, In: Annals of plastic ... Autologous antibody is protective against HSV-1 infection of the immunocompromised mouse. Alexander, T. S. & Rosenthal, K. S., ...
Blood transfusion and autologous donation: a survey of post-surgical patients, interest group members and the public * Creator: ... 2flood 2residential satisfaction 1SEM 1affect 1allogeneic transfusion 1autologous donation 1barriers 1brand likeability 1brand ... 2flood 2residential satisfaction 1SEM 1affect 1allogeneic transfusion 1autologous donation 1barriers 1brand likeability 1brand ...
Blood Conservation Strategies / Autologous Transfusion (130) *Blood Transfusion Services / Risks of Transfusion (131) ... This retrospective study compares blood loss and transfusion requirements before and after the withdrawal of aprotinin. ... Thromboelastometrically guided transfusion protocol during aortic surgery with circulatory arrest: a prospective, randomized ... However, this study also demonstrates that the withdrawal of aprotinin constitutes a challenge for blood conservation in ...
... for transfusion back to donor, coordinate with BLOOD TRANSFUSION, AUTOLOGOUS; /‌adv eff: coordinate with TRANSFUSION REACTION ... Transfusion, White Blood Cell Transfusions, White Blood Cell White Blood Cell Transfusion White Blood Cell Transfusions NLM ... Blood Transfusion [E02.095.135] * Blood Component Transfusion [E02.095.135.140] * Erythrocyte Transfusion [E02.] ... 94; was see BLOOD COMPONENT TRANSFUSION 1992-93. Online Note. use BLOOD COMPONENT TRANSFUSION to search LEUKOCYTE TRANSFUSION ...
Transfusion of predeposit or salvaged autologous blood has continued to grow since the 1980s. Issues such as the indications ... Increasing knowledge of the deleterious effects of allogeneic blood transfusion both in terms of the increased number of viral ... contamination of autologous RBC with cancer cells responsible for metastasis has limited the use of autologous salvaged blood ... Autoapheresis and intraoperative blood salvage in oncologic surgery. Valbonesi, M; Bruni, R; Lercari, G; Florio, G; Carlier, P ...
Blood Transfusion, Autologous * Students, Nursing * Filtration * Emergency Medicine * Leadership Explore _. Co-Authors (26) ...
Autologous blood transfusions are not considered an exclusion criterion.. 17. *Has participated in another clinical study of an ... Has received a blood transfusion or blood products, including immunoglobulins within the 6 months before receipt of study ... vaccine or is scheduled to receive a blood transfusion or blood product within 30 days of receipt of study vaccine. ... 4. Has a known or suspected blood dyscrasia, leukemia, lymphoma of any type or other malignant neoplasm affecting the ...
Prevention of Homologous Blood Transfusion by Intraoperative Predonation on Valvular Surgery without Preoperative Autologous ... Prevention of Homologous Blood Transfusion by Intraoperative Predonation on Valvular Surgery without Preoperative Autologous ... However, the autologous blood pooled before CPB in Group-(-) was significantly more than in Group-(+)(11.3±2.5 vs 7.3±1.8ml/kg ... blood transfusion by intraoperative predonation in 25 cases following valvular surgery without preoperative autologous donation ...
... are recruited to donate blood for a specific person. ... A directed donation occurs when a patient chooses their blood ... Blood Bank Guy. I created Blood Bank Guy in 1998 to teach the essentials of Transfusion Medicine to those who are "learners" in ... this contrasts to autologous donations, which cannot be "crossed over" into regular inventory if unused). Finally, since ... they are NOT any more safe than getting blood from volunteer, allogeneic blood donors! In fact, directed blood donors have a ...
MI Therapies Using Autologous and Allogeneic hMSCs. Autologous bone marrow-derived hMSCs were also used to treat patients with ... Therefore, several trials on the treatment of patients with AMI using G-CSF instead of intracoronary transfusion of hBMNCs were ... Cells expressing early cardiac markers reside in the bone marrow and are mobilized into the peripheral blood after myocardial ... MI Therapies Using Autologous Cardiac Stem Cells and Cardiosphere-Derived Cells. Autologous cardiac stem cells from bone marrow ...
Blood Transfusion, Autologous * Cardiopulmonary Bypass * Child, Preschool * Cyanosis * Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood ... by cardiopulmonary bypass CPB using exchange transfusion at initiation of bypass and fractionation of collected blood, allowing ...
... or autologous blood transfusion (53 %). ... In order to reduce the transfusion of homologous blood products ... Zur Reduktion der Transfusion homologer Blutprodukte und zur Vermeidung transfusionsassoziierter Erkrankungen werden von mehr ... and to avoid illnesses associated with transfusions, more than half of the clinics responded that they used intraoperative ...
What is autologous donation?. If you are scheduled for surgery and the surgeon anticipates the need for a blood transfusion, ... Is all donated blood tested for infectious diseases?. Yes, the Red Cross tests every single unit of donated blood or blood ... If I identify as LGBTQ, can I donate blood?. ... What are the eligibility criteria to become a blood donor?. Of course to maintain the safety of the blood supply, you must be ...
... followed by infusion of mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells (mPBMCs) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Children ... Papadopoulos KI, Low SS, Aw TC, Chantarojanasiri T. Safety and feasibility of autologous umbilical cord blood transfusion in 2 ... Differences in quality between privately and publicly banked umbilical cord blood units: a pilot study of autologous cord blood ... et al. Neuroregenerative potential of intravenous G-CSF and autologous peripheral blood stem cells in children with cerebral ...
The median number of platelet transfusions per patient was 6, and the median number of red blood cell transfusions per patient ... Despite prophylactic therapy with phenytoin, one seizure (1/42 patients) was reported during an autologous transplantation ... Blood Sample Collection for AUC Determination Calculate the AUC (μM•min) based on blood samples collected at the following time ... For each scheduled blood sample, collect one to three mL of blood into heparinized (Na or Li heparin) Vacutainer® tubes. The ...
... plasma and granulocyte transfusions, pediatric transfusions, transfusion-associated adverse events, cost of blood units, ... autologous and directed donations and transfusions, platelets, plasma and granulocyte transfusions, pediatric transfusions, ... Continued stabilization of blood collections and transfusions in the United States: Findings from the 2021 National Blood ... Transfusion-associated adverse events and implementation of blood safety measures - findings from the 2017 National Blood ...
  • Direct detection of homologous and autologous blood transfusion through immunorecognition of specific markers of blood storage. (
  • The main objective of the project was to the develop of antibodies able to recognize changes in red blood cells (RBCs) related to ex-vivo storage to unambiguously identify the use of blood transfusion, both autologous blood transfusion (ABT) or homologous blood transfusion (HBT). (
  • This kind of donation is also called homologous blood donation. (
  • It's worth noting that it's impossible follow pro cycling without having a deep knowledge of subjects such as hematocrit levels, the difference between autologous and homologous blood transfusions, chimeras, corticosteroids, Clenbuterol-tainted meat, and now male menstruation. (
  • Prevention of Homologous Blood Transfusion by Intraoperative Predonation on Valvular Surgery without Preoperative Autologous Donation K. Sato, et al. (
  • We retrospectively evaluated the major factors related to the prevention of homologous blood transfusion by intraoperative predonation in 25 cases following valvular surgery without preoperative autologous donation. (
  • In conclusion, homologous blood transfusion may be prevented by appropriate intraoperative predonation during surgery for valvular disease. (
  • Although blood donated by the general public and used for most people is thought to be very safe, some people choose a method called autologous blood donation. (
  • Approxi- blood donation by donors that fulfil the mately 18 million Nigerians are chronic criteria for safe blood donation and nowhere carriers [5]. (
  • They are are saved through blood transfusions, blood considered a low-risk group by virtue of transfusion remains a major route of trans- their chosen profession and thus they fulfil mission of these viruses (HBV, HCV and the criteria for safe blood donation. (
  • Though preoperative autologous donation is not acceptable for all cases partly because some are preoperatively in a severe condition, intraoperative predonation is possible in almost all cases. (
  • A "directed" blood donation occurs when a patient gets the opportunity to choose their blood donor! (
  • This type of donation has substantially decreased in recent years, largely because of the fact that concerns about diseases like HIV and hepatitis C from blood transfusion have lessened. (
  • Winter weather conditions make it harder for committed blood donors and new donors to get to donation centers. (
  • What are the steps at the blood donation center? (
  • Of course to maintain the safety of the blood supply, you must be in general good health and feeling well on the day of your donation. (
  • The American Red Cross restricts donation frequency to every 56 days (about two months) for whole blood donations. (
  • INTRODUCTION: Reports have suggested the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in blood donation shortages and adverse impacts on the blood supply. (
  • The strategies implemented during the research period were effective in increasing apheresis donation of platelets, but had no positive effects on whole-blood donation. (
  • This study is a prospective, multicenter cohort of persons with HTLV-I and -II infections, which were detected at the time of attempted blood donation at five U.S. blood centers and comparable HTLV-seronegative donors. (
  • The patient had undergone autologous peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation to treat ovarian cancer. (
  • Transfusion clinique et biologique : journal de la Société française de transfusion sanguine. (
  • We describe management by cardiopulmonary bypass CPB using exchange transfusion at initiation of bypass and fractionation of collected blood, allowing platelet and plasma apheresis, as an option for patients unable to undergo this procedure off pump. (
  • Using data from the National Blood Collection and Utilization Survey (NBCUS), we quantified the pandemic's impact on red blood cell (RBC) and apheresis platelet collections and transfusions in the United States during year 2020. (
  • Healthcare Sales & Marketing Network)-- Orthovita , Inc. (NASDAQ:VITA ), an orthobiologics and biosurgery company, is pleased to announce that Michael Bloomfield, M.D., of Cleveland Clinic, presented results of a study entitled Prospective Randomized Evaluation of a Collagen/Thrombin and Autologous Platelet Hemostatic Agent During Total Knee Arthroplasty on Friday, April 8, at the 29th Annual Meeting of the Mid-America Orthopaedic Association in Tucson, Arizona. (
  • Because of the potential for transfusion-associated transmission of Zika virus, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recommended deferral of blood donors in affected U.S. areas until blood donations can be screened by nucleic acid testing or blood products can be subjected to FDA-approved pathogen reduction technology (PRT). (
  • Also, blood centers keep a list of unsafe donors. (
  • Blood from these donors must be collected at least a few days before it is needed. (
  • In general, a physician requests in writing that a particular person or persons donate blood specifically for a particular patient (typically, the donors are family members of the patient). (
  • Here's the most important thing about directed donations: According to published data, they are NOT any more safe than getting blood from volunteer, allogeneic blood donors ! (
  • In fact, directed blood donors have a higher rate of having reactive infectious disease tests than regular donors (due in part to the fact that directed donors are very commonly first-time blood donors). (
  • Blood bankers also worry that directed donors may feel pressure to donate, leading to a conscious or unconscious lack of transparency when answering the very detailed donor screening questions. (
  • Finally, since directed donors are commonly family members, blood centers will most often irradiate all units from directed donors to prevent transfusion-associated graft vs. host disease . (
  • Several retail partners offer discounts or other rewards for blood donors. (
  • Arguing that a system of quality assurance should be implemented in all transfusion services and blood banks, the book emphasizes the vital importance of strict quality control procedures at each stage of eah procedure, from the recruitment of donors to the monitoring of the appropriate use of blood or its components for recipients. (
  • Using survival analysis, we studied medical history data from a prospective cohort of HTLV-I- and HTLV-II-infected and -uninfected blood donors, all HIV seronegative. (
  • We have prospectively followed a large cohort of former blood donors with well-documented HTLV-I and -II infection at enrollment, and a similar group of uninfected donors, all of whom are HIV seronegative. (
  • Transfusion and apheresis science : official journal of the World Apheresis Association : official journal of the European Society for Haemapheresis. (
  • METHODS: The 2021 NBCUS survey instrument was modified to include certain blood collection and utilization variables for 2020. (
  • Declines were steepest during March-April 2020, with transfusions subsequently rebounding. (
  • CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in reduced blood donations and transfusions in some months during 2020 but only a minimal annualized decline compared with 2019. (
  • We performed a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study to assess the neuroregenerative potential of intravenous granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) followed by infusion of mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells (mPBMCs) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). (
  • Administer busulfan injection in combination with cyclophosphamide as a conditioning regimen prior to bone marrow or peripheral blood progenitor cell replacement. (
  • The survey, conducted during February 10-24, 2016, included all blood collection centers performing local collections and importing blood components from the mainland United States for routine clinical use, as well as hospitals performing transfusions in Puerto Rico during 2015. (
  • The survey was distributed to all US blood collection centers, all US hospitals performing 1000 surgeries annually, and a 40% random sample of hospitals performing 100-999 surgeries annually. (
  • In addition to allogeneic HCT, procedures associated with high risk of GVHD include transplantation of solid organs containing lymphoid tissue and transfusion of unirradiated blood products. (
  • In very rare cases, though, blood from family members can cause a condition called graft-versus-host disease. (
  • Autologous graft versus host disease (GVHD) involving the skin of a patient's arm appeared shortly after signs of engraftment appeared. (
  • Control dogs received similar surgical treatment and were administered a similar volume per kg of packed red blood cells as case dogs, but did not undergo autologous transfusion. (
  • Preoperative anemia management program reduces blood transfusion in elective cardiac surgical patients, improving outcomes and decreasing hospital length of stay. (
  • The prospective, double-blind, randomized 100-patient study evaluated the ability of Vitagel Surgical Hemostat (Vitagel), a microfibrillar collagen, thrombin and autologous plasma composite hemostatic agent, to reduce blood loss during primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty. (
  • Furthermore, investigating the pathophysiology of brain injury, cardiopulmonary bypass, and red blood cell and artificial hemoglobin transfusion provides a focus on the potential role of NO as a protective molecule in multiorgan dysfunction. (
  • The survey was based on a modified version of the 2015 National Blood Collection and Utilization Survey administered by CDC on behalf of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services ( 5 ), in which U.S. territories have previously not been included. (
  • Blood products or blood appear responsible for AIDS among hemophilia patients who require clotting factor replacement. (
  • The authors found an increase in bleeding and transfusion requirement in patients not treated with aprotinin. (
  • CTX001 is being investigated in two ongoing Phase 1/2 clinical trials as a potential one-time therapy for patients suffering from transfusion-dependent beta thalassemia (TDT) and severe sickle cell disease (SCD). (
  • All 15 patients with TDT, including six who have the beta zero /beta zero or other severe genotypes, were transfusion-free at last follow-up, and all seven patients with severe SCD were free of vaso-occlusive crises (VOCs) from CTX001 infusion through last follow-up. (
  • These results suggest the potential for a durable benefit for patients with transfusion-dependent beta thalassemia. (
  • All 15 patients showed a similar pattern of response, with rapid and sustained increases in total hemoglobin, fetal hemoglobin and transfusion independence. (
  • All 15 patients were transfusion independent with follow-up ranging from 4 to 26 months after CTX001 infusion and had clinically meaningful improvements in total hemoglobin from 8.9 to 16.9 g/dL and fetal hemoglobin from 67.3% to 99.6% at last visit. (
  • Out of 28 countries, 19 have blood and blood products that are provided totally free of charge to the patients. (
  • In nine countries blood and blood products are totally or partially chargeable to the patients. (
  • In countries with low and lower-middle income economies, total or partial costs of blood and blood prod- ucts are recovered directly from the patients. (
  • A mini-physical exam (temperature, blood pressure, hemoglobin level) will check your health status. (
  • Zur Reduktion der Transfusion homologer Blutprodukte und zur Vermeidung transfusionsassoziierter Erkrankungen werden von mehr als der Hälfte der befragten Kliniken die intraoperative Hämodilution (67 %) bzw.die präoperative Eigenblutspende (53 %) durchgeführt. (
  • FDA has recommended that whole blood and blood components for transfusion be obtained from U.S. areas without active Zika virus transmission. (
  • Outsourcing of blood components from unaffected areas might not be feasible if there is widespread Zika virus transmission in heavily populated areas of the continental United States. (
  • The possibility of acquiring AIDS through blood components or blood is further suggested by several cases in persons with no known risk factors who have received blood products or blood within 3 years of AIDS diagnosis (2). (
  • When your blood is collected for plasma, the red cells and other blood components are filtered out and returned to you with additional saline fluid to replace the extracted blood volume. (
  • A comprehensive, authoritative guide to each component of a quality assurance programme for blood transfusion services, whether established in a small hospital blood bank or in a transfusion centre dedicated to the large-scale production of blood components. (
  • The remaining chapters cover the testing and quality assurance of blood components, describe the roles of transfusion committees and audits, and point out the specific responsibilities and tasks of management. (
  • To assess the effectiveness of social marketing and user embracement strategies developed in a hemotherapy service and to assess the restrained demand for blood and blood components in a reference hospital before and after the actions. (
  • Among these strategies is trying to raise the public awareness on the actual costs of the blood production and changing the cost recovery systems of blood and blood components. (
  • involved in blood transfusion are considered, the However, data on the use of blood products is generally estimated price of transfusion of one unit of red cells is lacking, but studies suggest that blood components are between US$ 700-$1200 ( 7 ). (
  • Comparing the cost related to the preparation wide over 50% of all medicinal interventions are pre- of blood components, a much larger cost is incurred to scribed, dispensed, or sold inappropriately ( 3 ). (
  • Since blood is a scarce and expensive resource, In addition, inappropriate use of blood and blood irrational blood usage places huge burden on health components may result in significant patient harm. (
  • An increasing number of studies show that there is a States of America, the authors concluded that almost half relationship between transfusion of blood components of the transfusions were inadequately indicated causing and the risk of morbidity and mortality ( 10-12 ). (
  • However, the annual cost of providing blood and reaction, transfusion-related acute lung injury and blood components is increasing ( 6 ). (
  • The strategies included social marketing through the sending of letters and e-mails and phone calls to people who could give blood again. (
  • In response to this challenge, governments and health care providers are developing different strategies to optimize blood utilization. (
  • National Blood Foundation 2021 Research and Development summit: Discovery, innovation, and challenges in advancing blood and biotherapies. (
  • This study reports electrolyte and acid/base disturbances observed in clinical cases receiving autologous transfusion of blood processed by a cell salvage device. (
  • Blood transfusion as a life-saving treatment is an irre- that the true cost of blood for clinical use is 3.2 to 4.8- pressible part of modern healthcare. (
  • Placenta previa posed a greater risk of hemorrhage and hence the need for transfusion. (
  • In this study, standard hemostasis with Vitagel was found to reduce blood transfusions following primary total knee arthroplasty as compared to standard hemostasis alone (electrocautery). (
  • Recently, an infant developed severe immune deficiency and an opportunistic infection several months after receiving a transfusion of platelets derived from the blood of a man subsequently found to have AIDS (12). (
  • A blood transfusion is a safe and common procedure during which you receive blood through an intravenous (IV) line placed in one of your blood vessels. (
  • Hsu Y-MS, Ness PM, Cushing MM. Principles of red blood cell transfusion. (
  • Electrolyte and acid/base changes in dogs undergoing autologous blood transfusion via a cell salvage device. (
  • The records of 12 client-owned dogs that received an autologous transfusion via a cell salvage device with pre- and post-autologous transfusion blood work available were reviewed. (
  • Case dogs that received autologous transfusion via a cell salvage device were significantly more likely to experience a decrease in ionized calcium and magnesium levels post-transfusion than were control dogs. (
  • Bone marrow (BM)- or cord blood (CB)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have generally been used for cell therapy. (
  • It is estimated that red blood often overprescribed in both high-income and low- and cell transfusion costs at least US$ 100 000 000 yearly in middle-income countries ( 2 ). (
  • Information ranges from indicators of successful donor selection and retention, through advice on situations where autologous collections are practical and appropriate, to the reasons why a quality assurance programme must demonstrate its cost-effectiveness in terms of savings and benefits. (
  • However, this study also demonstrates that the withdrawal of aprotinin constitutes a challenge for blood conservation in cardiac surgery and much work is to be done to define the most effective dosage of tranexamic acid or other alternatives to aprotinin. (
  • Importation of blood products from nonaffected areas might serve a role in prevention of transfusion-transmitted Zika virus. (
  • The survey included questions about donor blood collection methods and product types, importation of blood products for routine use, blood use, and extent of PRT implementation for platelets and plasma. (
  • Blood and blood products. (
  • Reinfusion of blood or blood products derived from the patient's own circulation. (
  • Yet the need for blood and blood products continues. (
  • This study aims to compare cost recovery and financing systems of blood and blood products in different countries. (
  • While countries in which blood and blood products are `free of charge' for pa- tients are mostly categorized in upper-middle- or high-income economies with well-developed healthcare and insurance systems. (
  • Blood Banking and Transfusion Medicine Challenges During the COVID-19 Pandemic. (
  • This blood is then tested for infectious diseases before it is allowed to be used. (
  • Blood work from the 12 case dogs was compared to blood work from 12 control dogs with similar diseases. (
  • Donated platelets are essential to people with blood-clotting disorders, and those who are battling cancer, traumatic injuries or chronic diseases. (
  • However, the autologous blood pooled before CPB in Group-(-) was significantly more than in Group-(+)(11.3±2.5 vs 7.3±1.8ml/kg, p <0.001). (
  • Miller RD. Blood therapy. (
  • Removal of aprotinin from low-dose aprotinin/tranexamic acid antifibrinolytic therapy increases transfusion requirements in cardiothoracic surgery. (
  • next generation transfusion practices to improve recipient safety. (
  • Most of the time, you need to arrange with your hospital or local blood bank before your surgery to have directed donor blood. (
  • There is no known reported case of an obstetric patient with the Bombay blood group from Nepal . (
  • As a result, the units may be released for general use if not transfused to the intended patient (this contrasts to autologous donations , which cannot be "crossed over" into regular inventory if unused). (
  • Patient Blood Management: Improving Outcomes for Millions While Saving Billions. (
  • Elderly Gravida with Bombay Blood Group and Placenta Previa Managed with Autologous Blood Transfusion. (
  • The Bombay blood group is a rare blood type with an incidence of around one in a million. (
  • People with this rare blood group can receive blood only from those with the same blood type. (
  • We report an elderly gravida with the Bombay blood group who had a pregnancy complicated by diabetes, placenta previa , and transverse lie ( back up) following an in vitro fertilization . (
  • The main challenge was arranging blood for transfusion, and as the Bombay blood group was unavailable, she was managed with autologous blood transfusion which was performed for the first time in a pregnant lady in our institute. (
  • Egypt ranged from 6% to 38% with a mean table blood donor group that frequently of 15% [7]. (
  • This this group of young clergymen with a view is particularly true in developing countries to making recommendations that would where there is widespread transfusion of improve the safety of blood transfusion. (
  • A chapter focused on the responsibilities of laboratories outlines laboratory tests for quality control and quality monitoring and sets out, in tabular form, specific requirements for the quality control of ABO grouping, Rh(D) blood group reagents, HBsAg testing, anti-HIV testing, and syphilis testing. (
  • You may have read about the danger of becoming infected with hepatitis, HIV, or other viruses after a blood transfusion. (
  • Subsequent chapters describe measures for quality assurance in donor selection and blood collection. (
  • Many drug abusers share contaminated needles, exposing themselves to blood-borne agents, such as hepatitis B virus. (
  • Each year up to 4 million blood purpose of this prospective study, therefore, donations worldwide are not tested for HIV was to document the seroprevalence of HIV, or HBV and only a small proportion of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and HCV in donated blood is tested for HCV [8]. (
  • I created Blood Bank Guy in 1998 to teach the essentials of Transfusion Medicine to those who are "learners" in the field. (
  • Transfusion medicine: A research agenda for the coming years. (
  • 3Blood Transfusion Research Center, High Institute for Research & Education on Transfusion Medicine, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran. (
  • 5IQM Consulting for International Development of Quality Management in Transfusion Medicine, University of Groningen , Netherlands. (
  • This retrospective study compares blood loss and transfusion requirements before and after the withdrawal of aprotinin. (
  • Abstract:Postpartum haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death in the developing country and yet is poorly diagnosed due to inaccurate measurement of blood loss following delivery. (
  • A study was carried out at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) Tanzania between October 2005 and January 2006 to determine the accuracy of visual estimation of blood loss (VEBL) in comparison to laboratory measurement of blood loss in diagnosis of primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). (
  • Active management of third stage of labour was conducted by giving 10IU of oxytocin (intramuscularly or intravenously) and this was followed by visual estimation of blood loss. (
  • The mean duration of third stage of labour was 8.3 minutes and mean blood loss was 164.9ml. (
  • Blood collection organizations and public health organizations need to collaborate to prepare for blood safety and adequacy challenges that might arise if Zika virus transmission spreads in the United States. (
  • To inform efforts to maintain the safety and availability of the blood supply in Puerto Rico, CDC, in collaboration with the Puerto Rico Department of Health, conducted a rapid assessment of blood collection and use on the island. (
  • Because of the potential for local Zika virus transmission in areas with a competent mosquito vector ( 4 ), other areas of the United States should develop plans to ensure local blood safety and adequacy. (
  • Blood collection organizations and public health agencies should collaborate to maintain the safety and availability of local blood supplies in accordance with FDA guidance. (
  • Data obtained from the database, particularly records of transfusions requested and performed, were used to compare the number of donations performed before and after the actions with data of the previous year using descriptive statistics and Student's t test. (
  • This January, there is a critical need for both O negative and B negative whole blood and for platelets. (
  • Whole blood haemostatic function throughout a 28-day cold storage period: an in vitro study. (
  • Details for: Guidelines for quality assurance programmes for blood transfusion services. (
  • For more on directed donations, please listen to episode 062 of the Blood Bank Guy Essentials Podcast ! (
  • The average number of voluntary blood donations decreased from 237 donations/month in 2014 to 222 donations/month in 2015. (
  • A total of 426 pregnant women who were in active phase of labour were recruited and their venous blood was drawn for estimation of haematocrit before delivery and 12 hours thereafter. (
  • Organization (WHO) estimates that 112.5 million blood costs. (