Blood Transfusion, Autologous
Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood
Blood Component Transfusion
Blood Transfusion, Intrauterine
Blood Grouping and Crossmatching
Operative Blood Salvage
Blood Group Incompatibility
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Bone Marrow Transplantation
Anemia, Sickle Cell
Leukocyte Reduction Procedures
Surgical Procedures, Elective
Combined Modality Therapy
Surgical Procedures, Operative
Hepatitis C Antibodies
Blood Coagulation Disorders
Stem Cell Transplantation
Blood Cell Count
Hepatitis, Viral, Human
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols
Peptic Ulcer Hemorrhage
Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed
Fibrin Tissue Adhesive
Rh-Hr Blood-Group System
Iron Chelating Agents
Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune
Bone Marrow Purging
Wounds and Injuries
Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation
ABO Blood-Group System
Blood Group Antigens
Acute Lung Injury
Blood Specimen Collection
Patient Identification Systems
Blood Component Removal
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization
Severity of Illness Index
Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures
Disease Transmission, Infectious
Coronary Artery Bypass
Superior autologous blood stem cell mobilization from dose-intensive cyclophosphamide, etoposide, cisplatin plus G-CSF than from less intensive chemotherapy regimens. (1/329)The study purpose was to determine if G-CSF plus dose-intensive cyclophosphamide 5.25 g/m2, etoposide 1.05 g/m2 and cisplatin 105 mg/m2 (DICEP) results in superior autologous blood stem cell mobilization (BSCM) than less intensive chemotherapy. From January 1993 until May 1997, 152 consecutive patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 55), breast cancer (n = 47), Hodgkin's disease (n = 14), multiple myeloma (n = 9), AML (n = 9), or other cancers (n = 18) initially underwent BSCM by one of three methods: Group 1: G-CSF alone x 4 days (n = 30). Group 2: disease-oriented chemotherapy, dosed to avoid blood transfusions, followed by G-CSF starting day 7 or 8, and apheresis day 13 or 14 (n = 82). Group 3: DICEP days 1-3, G-CSF starting day 14, and apheresis planned day 19, 20 or 21 (n = 40). A multivariate analysis was performed to determine which factors independently predicted BSCM. The median peripheral blood CD34+ (PB CD34+) cell count the morning of apheresis linearly correlated with the number of CD34+ cells removed per litre of apheresis that day. The median PB CD34+ cell count and median CD34+ cells x 10(6) removed per litre of apheresis were highest for Group 3, intermediate for Group 2, and lowest for Group 1. By multivariate analysis, mobilization group (3 > 2 > 1), disease other than AML, no prior melphalan or mitomycin-C, and less than two prior chemotherapy regimens predicted better BSCM. Out of 15 Group 3 patients who had infiltrated marrows, 11 had no detectable cancer in marrow and apheresis products after DICEP. These data suggest that DICEP results in superior BSCM than less intensive chemotherapy regimens. (+info)
Autologous versus allogeneic transfusion: patients' perceptions and experiences. (2/329)BACKGROUND: Preoperative autologous donation is one way to decrease a patient's exposure to allogeneic blood transfusion. This study was designed to determine patients' perceptions about the autologous blood donation process and their experiences with transfusion. METHODS: To assess patient perception, a questionnaire was administered a few days before surgery to patients undergoing elective cardiac and orthopedic surgery in a Canadian teaching hospital. All patients attending the preoperative autologous donation clinic during a 10-month period were eligible. A convenience sample of patients undergoing the same types of surgery who had not predonated blood were selected from preadmission clinics. Patient charts were reviewed retrospectively to assess actual transfusion practice in all cases. RESULTS: A total of 80 patients underwent cardiac surgery (40 autologous donors, 40 nondonors) and 73 underwent orthopedic surgery (38 autologous donors, 35 nondonors). Of the autologous donors, 75 (96%) attended all scheduled donation appointments, 73 (93%) said that they were "very likely" or "likely" to predonate again, and 75 (96%) said that they would recommend autologous donation to others. There was little difference in preoperative symptoms between the autologous donors and the nondonors, although the former were more likely than the latter to report that their overall health had remained the same during the month before surgery (30 [75%] v. 21 [52%] for the cardiac surgery patients and 30 [79%] v. 18 [51%] for the orthopedic surgery patients). When the autologous donors were asked what they felt their chances would have been of receiving at least one allogeneic blood transfusion had they not predonated, the median response was 80%. When they were asked what their chances were after predonating their own blood, the median response was 0%. The autologous donors were significantly less likely to receive allogeneic blood transfusions (6 [15%] for cardiac surgery and 3 [8%] for orthopedic surgery) than were the nondonors (14 [35%] for cardiac surgery and 16 [46%] for orthopaedic surgery). They were, however, more likely to receive any transfusion (autologous or allogeneic) than were the nondonors (25 [63%] v. 14 [35%] for cardiac surgery and 31 [81%] v. 16 [46%] for orthopedic surgery). INTERPRETATION: Patients who underwent preoperative autologous blood donation were positive about the experience and did not report more symptoms than patients who did not donate blood preoperatively. Autologous donors overestimated their chances of receiving allogeneic blood transfusions had they not predonated and underestimated their chances after they had predonated. They were less likely to receive allogeneic transfusions, but more likely to receive any type of transfusion, than were patients who did not predonate. (+info)
Transfusion practices among patients who did and did not predonate autologous blood before elective cardiac surgery. (3/329)BACKGROUND: Preoperative autologous blood donation is commonly used to reduce exposure to allogeneic transfusions among patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. However, this technique is associated with an overall increase in transfusions (allogeneic or autologous). The authors assessed the impact of transfusion decision-making on the effectiveness of preoperative autologous donation in reducing the frequency of allogeneic transfusions, and its impact on the increased transfusion rate associated with preoperative autologous donation in cardiac surgery. METHODS: This retrospective analysis compared transfusion practices among 176 patients who predonated autologous blood before elective cardiac surgery and 176 matched cardiac surgery patients who did not predonate blood. The impact of decision-making on transfusion exposure was determined using multivariate analyses to account for major perioperative interventions and complications. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for exposure to allogeneic blood transfusion or any transfusion, before and after exclusion of transfusions not conforming with selected transfusion criteria. RESULTS: Exposure to allogeneic transfusion was more likely among patients who did not predonate blood than among those who did predonate blood (OR 14.0, 95% CI 5.8-33.8). This finding was still true after exclusion of transfusions not meeting the transfusion criteria (OR 19.3, 95% CI 6.7-55.7). The autologous blood donors were more likely than the nondonors to receive any transfusion (OR 10.8, 95% CI 5.7-20.3). However, this association was substantially attenuated after exclusion of transfusions not meeting the transfusion criteria (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.2). INTERPRETATION: Patients who predonated blood before elective cardiac surgery were at lower risk of receiving allogeneic transfusions than the nondonors. This was not because of a deliberate withholding of allogeneic transfusions from autologous donors. However, more liberal transfusion criteria for autologous blood were largely responsible for the increased transfusion rate among the autologous donors. (+info)
Complement activation and increased systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance indices during infusion of postoperatively drained untreated blood. (4/329)In nine healthy young patients, operated on for thoracic scoliosis, a pulmonary artery catheter was inserted for the study of haemodynamic variables and blood sampling during autologous transfusion of postoperatively drained blood. At 1-3 h after wound closure, 10 ml kg/body weight of drained untreated blood from the wound was collected and recirculated over a l-h period. The concentration of the complement activation product, C3bc, increased from a mean of 5.4 (SD 1.5) AU ml-1 before infusion to 11.1 (3.9) AU ml-1 during infusion and then returned to 7.8 (2.8) AU ml-1 after infusion. The concentration of the terminal complement complex (TCC) increased from 0.5 (0.2) to 1.3 (0.5) AU ml-1 and was reduced to 0.7 (0.3) AU ml-1 after infusion. Only TCC exceeded the reference values which are 14 AU ml-1 for C3bc and 1.0 AU ml-1 for TCC. Pulmonary vascular resistance index concomitantly increased from a mean of 130 (SD 52) to 195 (88) dyn s cm-5 m-2 and was reduced to 170 (86) dyn s cm-5 m-2 after infusion. Systemic vascular resistance index increased from a mean of 1238 (SD 403) to 1349 (473) dyn s cm-5 m-2 and returned to 1196 (401) dyn s cm-5 m-2 after infusion. White blood cell count (WCC) increased from 14.4 (4.3) x 10(9) litre-1 before infusion to 17.8 (7.2) x 10(9) litre-1 during and after infusion. No change in platelet count during infusion was observed. There were no differences in WCC or platelet count between mixed venous or peripheral arterial blood. Pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance indices may be influenced by activated complement in drained untreated blood when it is recirculated. (+info)
Haemodynamic assessment of hypovolaemia under general anaesthesia in pigs submitted to graded haemorrhage and retransfusion. (5/329)We have compared the value of different variables used in the assessment of blood loss during progressive hypovolaemia and resuscitation under general anaesthesia in anaesthetized pigs. We measured mean arterial pressure (MAP), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), the negative component of the systolic arterial pressure variation (delta Down) and left ventricular end-diastolic area (LVEDa) using echocardiography. Blood was progressively withdrawn (up to 35 ml kg-1 in seven steps) and then reinfused after the same pattern. Regression coefficient (r) and normalized slope (nS) of the regression relationship between each variable and amount of blood loss were determined. The difference between the withdrawal and reinfusion curves was assessed by the area between the curves. We also estimated the minimal loss of blood volume which induced significant changes in each variable compared with that under control conditions during withdrawal of blood (minWBV) and maximal loss in blood volume which induced no significant changes in a variable compared with control conditions during retransfusion (maxRBV). During haemorrhage, MAP decreased (from mean 74 (SD 9) to 31 (5) mm Hg; P < 0.001), delta Down increased (from 1.2 (1.4) to 11.4 (4.2) mm Hg; P < 0.001), PCWP decreased (from 6.2 (2.1) to 0.3 (1.0) mm Hg; P < 0.001) and LVEDa decreased (from 13.8 (2.0) to 5.1 (2.0) cm2; P < 0.01). The highest r values were obtained with MAP and LVEDa, and the highest nS value with delta Down. The least difference between withdrawal and reinfusion was with LVEDa, the lowest values of minWBV were with PCWP and LVEDa, and the highest value of maxRBV was obtained with PCWP. During progressive haemorrhage under general anaesthesia, LVEDa was an accurate variable for assessment of blood volume loss, delta Down contributed no further information compared with MAP, and PCWP was the most reliable variable for assessing return to baseline blood volume. (+info)
Systemic and microcirculatory effects of autologous whole blood resuscitation in severe hemorrhagic shock. (6/329)Systemic and microcirculatory effects of autologous whole blood resuscitation after 4-h hemorrhagic shock with a mean arterial pressure (MAP) level of 40 mmHg were investigated in 63 conscious Syrian golden hamsters. Microcirculation of skeletal skin muscle and subcutaneous connective tissue was visualized in a dorsal skinfold. Shed blood was retransfused within 30 min after 4 h. Animals were grouped into survivors in good (SG) and poor condition (SP) and nonsurvivors (NS) according to 24-h outcome after resuscitation and studied before shock, during shock (60, 120, and 240 min), and 30 min and 24 h after resuscitation. Microvascular and interstitial PO2 values were determined by phosphorescence decay. Shock caused a significant increase of arterial PO2 and decrease of PCO2, pH, and base excess. In the microcirculation, there was a significant decrease in blood flow (QB), functional capillary density (FCD; capillaries with red blood cell flow), and interstitial PO2 [1.8 +/- 0.8 mmHg (SG), 1.3 +/- 1.3 mmHg (SP), and 0.9 +/- 1.1 mmHg (NS) vs. 23.0 +/- 6.1 mmHg at control]. Blood resuscitation caused immediate MAP recompensation in all animals, whereas metabolic acidosis, hyperventilation, and a significant interstitial PO2 decrease (40-60% of control) persisted. In NS (44.4% of the animals), systemic and microcirculatory alterations were significantly more severe both in shock and after resuscitation than in survivors. Whereas in SG (31.8% of the animals) there was only a slight (15-30%) but still significant impairment of microscopic tissue perfusion (QB, FCD) and oxygenation at 24 h, SP (23.8% of the animals) showed severe metabolic acidosis and substantial decreases (>/=50%) of FCD and interstitial PO2. FCD, interstitial PO2, and metabolic state were the main determinants of shock outcome. (+info)
A prospective randomized comparison of three blood conservation strategies for radical prostatectomy. (7/329)BACKGROUND: Preoperative autologous blood donation is a standard of care for elective surgical procedures requiring transfusion. The authors evaluated the efficacy of alternative blood-conservation strategies including preoperative recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) therapy and acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) in radical retropubic prostatectomy patients. METHODS: Seventy-nine patients were prospectively randomized to preoperative autologous donation (3 U autologous blood); rHuEPO plus ANH (preoperative subcutaneous administration of 600 U/kg rHuEPO at 21 and 14 days before surgery and 300 U/kg on day of surgery followed by ANH in the operating room); or ANH (blinded, placebo injections per the rHuEPO regimen listed previously). Transfusion outcomes, perioperative hematocrit levels, postoperative outcomes, and blood-conservation costs were compared among the three groups. RESULTS: Baseline hematocrit levels were similar in all groups (43%+/-2%). On the day of surgery hematocrit decreased to 34% +/-4% in the preoperative autologous donation group (P < 0.001), increased to 47%+/-2% in the rHuEPO plus ANH group (P < 0.001), and remained unchanged at 43%+/-2% in the ANH group. Allogeneic blood exposure was similar in all groups. The rHuEPO plus ANH group had significantly higher hematocrit levels compared with the other groups throughout the hospitalization (P < 0.001). Average transfusion costs were significantly lower for ANH ($194+/-$192) compared with preoperative autologous donation ($690+/-$128; P < 0.001) or rHuEPO plus ANH ($1,393+/-$204, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: All three blood-conservation strategies resulted in similar allogeneic blood exposure rates, but ANH was the least costly technique. Preoperative rHuEPO plus ANH prevented postoperative anemia but resulted in the highest transfusion costs. (+info)
Perflubron emulsion delays blood transfusions in orthopedic surgery. European Perflubron Emulsion Study Group. (8/329)BACKGROUND: Fluorocarbon emulsions have been proposed as temporary artificial oxygen carriers. The aim of the present study is to compare the effectiveness of perflubron emulsion with the effectiveness of autologous blood or colloid infusion for reversal of physiologic transfusion triggers. METHODS: A multinational, multicenter, randomized, controlled, single-blind, parallel group study was performed in 147 orthopedic patients. Patients underwent acute normovolemic hemodilution with colloid to a target hemoglobin of 9 g/dl with an inspiratory oxygen fraction (FIO2) of 0.40. Patients were then randomized into one of four treatment groups after having reached any of the protocol-defined transfusion triggers including tachycardia (heart rate > 125% of posthemodilution rate or > 110 bpm), hypotension (mean arterial pressure < 75% of posthemodilution level or < or = 60 mmHg), elevated cardiac output (> 150% of posthemodilution level) or decreased mixed venous oxygen partial pressure (PVO2; < 38 mmHg). Treatments in the four groups were 450 ml autologous blood harvested during acute normovolemic hemodilution given at FO2 = 0.40; 450 ml colloid at FIO2 = 1.0; 0.9 g/kg perflubron emulsion with colloid (total = 450 ml) at FIO2 = 1.0; and 1.8 g/kg perflubron emulsion with colloid (total = 450 ml) at FIO2 = 1.0. The primary endpoint was duration of transfusion-trigger reversal. A secondary end-point was percentage of transfusion-trigger reversal. RESULTS: Perflubron emulsion was well tolerated with no serious adverse event attributed to drug treatment. Duration of reversal was longest in the 1.8 g/kg perflubron group (median, 80 min; 95% confidence interval, 60-100 min; P = 0.014 vs. autologous blood, P < 0.001 vs. colloid) followed by the 0.9 g/kg perflubron group (median, 59 min; 95% confidence interval, 40-90 min), the autologous blood group (median, 55 min; 95% confidence interval, 30-70 min) and the colloid group (median, 30 min; 95% confidence interval, 27-60 min). Percentage of reversal was also highest in the 1.8 g/kg perflubron group (97%; P < 0.001 vs. autologous blood; P = 0.014 vs. colloid), followed by 0.9 g/kg perflubron (82%), colloid (76%), and autologous blood (60%). CONCLUSIONS: Perflubron emulsion (1.8 g/kg) combined with 100% oxygen ventilation is more effective than autologous blood or colloid infusion in reversing physiologic transfusion triggers. (+info)
In general, surgical blood loss is considered excessive if it exceeds 10-20% of the patient's total blood volume. This can be determined by measuring the patient's hemoglobin levels before and after the procedure. A significant decrease in hemoglobin levels post-procedure may indicate excessive blood loss.
There are several factors that can contribute to surgical blood loss, including:
1. Injury to blood vessels or organs during the surgical procedure
2. Poor surgical technique
3. Use of scalpels or other sharp instruments that can cause bleeding
4. Failure to control bleeding with proper hemostatic techniques
5. Pre-existing medical conditions that increase the risk of bleeding, such as hemophilia or von Willebrand disease.
Excessive surgical blood loss can lead to a number of complications, including:
1. Anemia and low blood counts
2. Hypovolemic shock (a life-threatening condition caused by excessive fluid and blood loss)
3. Infection or sepsis
4. Poor wound healing
5. Reoperation or surgical intervention to control bleeding.
To prevent or minimize surgical blood loss, surgeons may use a variety of techniques, such as:
1. Applying topical hemostatic agents to the surgical site before starting the procedure
2. Using energy-based devices (such as lasers or ultrasonic devices) to seal blood vessels and control bleeding
3. Employing advanced surgical techniques that minimize tissue trauma and reduce the risk of bleeding
4. Monitoring the patient's hemoglobin levels throughout the procedure and taking appropriate action if bleeding becomes excessive.
During fetofetal transfusion, blood flows from one fetus to another through the placenta, which is a vital organ that provides oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetuses and removes waste products. The transfer of blood can occur through various channels, including the placental vasculature, umbilical cord, or other fetal-maternal interfaces.
There are different types of fetofetal transfusion, depending on the direction of blood flow:
1. Fetofetal transfusion in utero (in the womb): This is the most common type, where blood flows from one fetus to another within the womb.
2. Fetofetal transfusion through the placenta: In this type, blood flows from one fetus to the other through the placenta, which acts as a filter and regulates the exchange of nutrients and waste products between the mother's bloodstream and the fetuses'.
3. Fetofetal transfusion through the umbilical cord: This type occurs when the umbilical cord becomes tangled or compressed, causing blood to flow from one fetus to another.
The causes of fetofetal transfusion are not yet fully understood, but it is believed to be more common in multiple gestations (twins, triplets, etc.) and in cases where there is a placental abnormality or other complications during pregnancy.
Fetofetal transfusion can have both positive and negative effects on the development and health of the fetuses. On one hand, it can provide beneficial effects, such as:
1. Increased blood volume and oxygen supply: The transferred blood can help increase the blood volume and oxygen supply to the recipient fetus, which may be beneficial for its development and growth.
2. Improved nutrient supply: The transferred blood can also provide an increased supply of nutrients to the recipient fetus, which may improve its overall health and development.
However, fetofetal transfusion can also have negative effects, such as:
1. Anemia in the donor fetus: The loss of blood from the donor fetus can lead to anemia, which can negatively affect its growth and development.
2. Increased risk of complications: Fetofetal transfusion can increase the risk of complications during pregnancy, such as preterm labor, preeclampsia, and placental abruption.
3. Adverse effects on fetal development: The transferred blood can also contain substances that are not beneficial for the recipient fetus, which can lead to adverse effects on its development and growth.
Fetofetal transfusion is usually detected during routine ultrasound examinations, where it may appear as an abnormal flow of blood between the fetuses or as a collection of blood in the placenta or umbilical cord. If diagnosed early, fetofetal transfusion can be monitored and managed with regular ultrasound examinations and close maternal monitoring. In some cases, the condition may resolve on its own without any complications.
In severe cases, however, fetofetal transfusion may require medical intervention, such as:
1. Blood sampling: Blood samples may be taken from the donor fetus to determine the extent of the transfer and to monitor the health of both fetuses.
2. Corticosteroid therapy: Corticosteroids may be administered to the mother to promote fetal maturity and reduce the risk of complications.
3. Planned delivery: In some cases, planned delivery may be necessary to avoid any potential risks to the fetuses.
It is important for pregnant women who have a multiple pregnancy to be aware of the risk of fetofetal transfusion and to seek regular prenatal care to monitor the health of both fetuses. Early detection and management can help reduce the risk of complications and improve outcomes for both fetuses.
There are many different types of anemia, each with its own set of causes and symptoms. Some common types of anemia include:
1. Iron-deficiency anemia: This is the most common type of anemia and is caused by a lack of iron in the diet or a problem with the body's ability to absorb iron. Iron is essential for making hemoglobin.
2. Vitamin deficiency anemia: This type of anemia is caused by a lack of vitamins, such as vitamin B12 or folate, that are necessary for red blood cell production.
3. Anemia of chronic disease: This type of anemia is seen in people with chronic diseases, such as kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer.
4. Sickle cell anemia: This is a genetic disorder that affects the structure of hemoglobin and causes red blood cells to be shaped like crescents or sickles.
5. Thalassemia: This is a genetic disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin and can cause anemia, fatigue, and other health problems.
The symptoms of anemia can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include fatigue, weakness, pale skin, shortness of breath, and dizziness or lightheadedness. Anemia can be diagnosed with a blood test that measures the number and size of red blood cells, as well as the levels of hemoglobin and other nutrients.
Treatment for anemia depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, dietary changes or supplements may be sufficient to treat anemia. For example, people with iron-deficiency anemia may need to increase their intake of iron-rich foods or take iron supplements. In other cases, medical treatment may be necessary to address underlying conditions such as kidney disease or cancer.
Preventing anemia is important for maintaining good health and preventing complications. To prevent anemia, it is important to eat a balanced diet that includes plenty of iron-rich foods, vitamin C-rich foods, and other essential nutrients. It is also important to avoid certain substances that can interfere with the absorption of nutrients, such as alcohol and caffeine. Additionally, it is important to manage any underlying medical conditions and seek medical attention if symptoms of anemia persist or worsen over time.
In conclusion, anemia is a common blood disorder that can have significant health implications if left untreated. It is important to be aware of the different types of anemia, their causes, and symptoms in order to seek medical attention if necessary. With proper diagnosis and treatment, many cases of anemia can be successfully managed and prevented.
1. Injury to blood vessels during surgery
2. Poor suturing or stapling techniques
3. Bleeding disorders or use of anticoagulant medications
4. Infection or hematoma (a collection of blood outside the blood vessels)
5. Delayed recovery of blood clotting function
Postoperative hemorrhage can range from mild to severe and life-threatening. Mild bleeding may present as oozing or trickling of blood from the surgical site, while severe bleeding can lead to hypovolemic shock, organ failure, and even death.
To diagnose postoperative hemorrhage, a physical examination and medical history are usually sufficient. Imaging studies such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be ordered to evaluate the extent of bleeding and identify any underlying causes.
Treatment of postoperative hemorrhage depends on the severity and location of the bleeding. Mild bleeding may be managed with dressings, compression bandages, and elevation of the affected limb. Severe bleeding may require interventions such as:
1. Surgical exploration to locate and control the source of bleeding
2. Transfusion of blood products or fresh frozen plasma to restore clotting function
3. Use of vasopressors to raise blood pressure and perfuse vital organs
4. Hemostatic agents such as clotting factors, fibrin sealants, or hemostatic powder to promote clot formation
5. In some cases, surgical intervention may be required to repair damaged blood vessels or organs.
Prevention of postoperative hemorrhage is crucial in reducing the risk of complications and improving patient outcomes. Preventive measures include:
1. Proper preoperative evaluation and preparation, including assessment of bleeding risk factors
2. Use of appropriate anesthesia and surgical techniques to minimize tissue trauma
3. Conservative use of hemostatic agents and blood products during surgery
4. Closure of all bleeding sites before completion of the procedure
5. Monitoring of vital signs, including pulse rate and blood pressure, during and after surgery
6. Preoperative and postoperative management of underlying conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, and coagulopathies.
Early recognition and prompt intervention are critical in effectively managing postoperative hemorrhage. In cases of severe bleeding, timely and appropriate interventions can reduce the risk of complications and improve patient outcomes.
Blood group incompatibility can occur in various ways, including:
1. ABO incompatibility: This is the most common type of blood group incompatibility and occurs when the patient's blood type (A or B) is different from the donor's blood type.
2. Rh incompatibility: This occurs when the patient's Rh factor is different from the donor's Rh factor.
3. Other antigens: In addition to ABO and Rh, there are other antigens on red blood cells that can cause incompatibility, such as Kell, Duffy, and Xg.
Blood group incompatibility can be diagnosed through blood typing and cross-matching tests. These tests determine the patient's and donor's blood types and identify any incompatible antigens that may cause an immune response.
Treatment of blood group incompatibility usually involves finding a compatible donor or using specialized medications to reduce the risk of a negative reaction. In some cases, plasmapheresis, also known as plasma exchange, may be used to remove the incompatible antibodies from the patient's blood.
Prevention of blood group incompatibility is important, and this can be achieved by ensuring that patients receive only compatible blood products during transfusions. Blood banks maintain a database of donor blood types and perform thorough testing before releasing blood for transfusion to ensure compatibility. Additionally, healthcare providers should carefully review the patient's medical history and current medications to identify any potential allergies or sensitivities that may affect blood compatibility.
A condition where newborn babies have a lower than normal number of red blood cells or low levels of hemoglobin in their blood. The condition can be caused by various factors such as premature birth, low birth weight, infections, and genetic disorders. Symptoms may include jaundice, fatigue, and difficulty breathing. Treatment options may vary depending on the underlying cause but may include blood transfusions and iron supplements.
Example usage: "Neonatal anemia is a common condition in newborn babies that can be caused by various factors such as premature birth or low birth weight."
1. Infection: Bacterial or viral infections can develop after surgery, potentially leading to sepsis or organ failure.
2. Adhesions: Scar tissue can form during the healing process, which can cause bowel obstruction, chronic pain, or other complications.
3. Wound complications: Incisional hernias, wound dehiscence (separation of the wound edges), and wound infections can occur.
4. Respiratory problems: Pneumonia, respiratory failure, and atelectasis (collapsed lung) can develop after surgery, particularly in older adults or those with pre-existing respiratory conditions.
5. Cardiovascular complications: Myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac failure can occur after surgery, especially in high-risk patients.
6. Renal (kidney) problems: Acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease can develop postoperatively, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal impairment.
7. Neurological complications: Stroke, seizures, and neuropraxia (nerve damage) can occur after surgery, especially in patients with pre-existing neurological conditions.
8. Pulmonary embolism: Blood clots can form in the legs or lungs after surgery, potentially causing pulmonary embolism.
9. Anesthesia-related complications: Respiratory and cardiac complications can occur during anesthesia, including respiratory and cardiac arrest.
10. delayed healing: Wound healing may be delayed or impaired after surgery, particularly in patients with pre-existing medical conditions.
It is important for patients to be aware of these potential complications and to discuss any concerns with their surgeon and healthcare team before undergoing surgery.
There are two main types of beta-thalassemia:
1. Beta-thalassemia major (also known as Cooley's anemia): This is the most severe form of the condition, and it can cause serious health problems and a shortened lifespan if left untreated. Children with this condition are typically diagnosed at birth or in early childhood, and they may require regular blood transfusions and other medical interventions to manage their symptoms and prevent complications.
2. Beta-thalassemia minor (also known as thalassemia trait): This is a milder form of the condition, and it may not cause any noticeable symptoms. People with beta-thalassemia minor have one mutated copy of the HBB gene and one healthy copy, which allows them to produce some normal hemoglobin. However, they may still be at risk for complications such as anemia, fatigue, and a higher risk of infections.
The symptoms of beta-thalassemia can vary depending on the severity of the condition and the age of onset. Common symptoms include:
* Pale skin
* Shortness of breath
* Frequent infections
* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
* Enlarged spleen
Beta-thalassemia is most commonly found in people of Mediterranean, African, and Southeast Asian ancestry. It is caused by mutations in the HBB gene, which is inherited from one's parents. There is no cure for beta-thalassemia, but it can be managed with blood transfusions, chelation therapy, and other medical interventions. Bone marrow transplantation may also be a viable option for some patients.
In conclusion, beta-thalassemia is a genetic disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin, leading to anemia, fatigue, and other complications. While there is no cure for the condition, it can be managed with medical interventions and bone marrow transplantation may be a viable option for some patients. Early diagnosis and management are crucial in preventing or minimizing the complications of beta-thalassemia.
The condition is caused by sensitization of the mother's immune system to the Rh factor, which can occur when the mother's blood comes into contact with the fetus's blood during pregnancy or childbirth. The antibodies produced by the mother's immune system can attack the red blood cells of the fetus, leading to hemolytic anemia and potentially causing stillbirth or death in the newborn.
Erythroblastosis fetalis is diagnosed through blood tests that measure the levels of antibodies against the Rh factor. Treatment typically involves the administration of Rh immune globulin, which can help to prevent the mother's immune system from producing more antibodies against the Rh factor and reduce the risk of complications for the fetus. In severe cases, a blood transfusion may be necessary to increase the newborn's red blood cell count.
Erythroblastosis fetalis is a serious condition that requires close monitoring and proper medical management to prevent complications and ensure the best possible outcome for both the mother and the baby.
Sickle cell anemia is caused by mutations in the HBB gene that codes for hemoglobin. The most common mutation is a point mutation at position 6, which replaces the glutamic acid amino acid with a valine (Glu6Val). This substitution causes the hemoglobin molecule to be unstable and prone to forming sickle-shaped cells.
The hallmark symptom of sickle cell anemia is anemia, which is a low number of healthy red blood cells. People with the condition may also experience fatigue, weakness, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), infections, and episodes of severe pain. Sickle cell anemia can also increase the risk of stroke, heart disease, and other complications.
Sickle cell anemia is diagnosed through blood tests that measure hemoglobin levels and the presence of sickle cells. Treatment typically involves managing symptoms and preventing complications with medications, blood transfusions, and antibiotics. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may be recommended.
Prevention of sickle cell anemia primarily involves avoiding the genetic mutations that cause the condition. This can be done through genetic counseling and testing for individuals who have a family history of the condition or are at risk of inheriting it. Prenatal testing is also available for pregnant women who may be carriers of the condition.
Overall, sickle cell anemia is a serious genetic disorder that can significantly impact quality of life and life expectancy if left untreated. However, with proper management and care, individuals with the condition can lead fulfilling lives and manage their symptoms effectively.
Example sentence: The patient had a hemorrhage after the car accident and needed immediate medical attention.
The term "fetomaternal" refers to the interaction between the developing fetus and the mother during pregnancy. In this context, "transfusion" describes the transfer of blood from one location to another.
Fetomaternal transfusion can occur in various conditions, such as:
1. Twin-to-twin transfusion: This occurs when there is a shared placenta between twins and blood flows from one twin to the other.
2. Fetal-maternal transfusion: This occurs when blood flows from the fetus to the mother through the umbilical cord or the maternal circulation.
3. Placental abruption: This occurs when the placenta separates from the uterine wall, leading to bleeding and a transfer of blood from the placenta to the mother.
Fetomaternal transfusion can be diagnosed using ultrasound examination, which can detect changes in the amount of blood flowing through the placenta or umbilical cord. Treatment options for fetomaternal transfusion depend on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, delivery may be necessary to prevent complications.
Overall, fetomaternal transfusion is a rare but potentially serious condition that can have significant implications for both the developing fetus and the mother during pregnancy.
There are several types of hepatitis C, including genotype 1, which is the most common and accounts for approximately 70% of cases in the United States. Other genotypes include 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The symptoms of hepatitis C can range from mild to severe and may include fatigue, fever, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, joint pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), dark urine, pale stools, and itching all over the body. Some people with hepatitis C may not experience any symptoms at all.
Hepatitis C is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests that detect the presence of antibodies against HCV or the virus itself. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, including interferon and ribavirin, which can cure the infection but may have side effects such as fatigue, nausea, and depression. In recent years, new drugs known as direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have become available, which can cure the infection with fewer side effects and in a shorter period of time.
Prevention measures for hepatitis C include avoiding sharing needles or other drug paraphernalia, using condoms to prevent sexual transmission, and ensuring that any tattoos or piercings are performed with sterilized equipment. Vaccines are also available for people who are at high risk of contracting the virus, such as healthcare workers and individuals who engage in high-risk behaviors.
Overall, hepatitis C is a serious and common liver disease that can lead to significant health complications if left untreated. Fortunately, with advances in medical technology and treatment options, it is possible to manage and cure the virus with proper care and attention.
Isoimmunization is a condition that occurs when an individual has antibodies against their own red blood cell antigens, specifically the Rh antigen. This can happen due to various reasons such as:
1. Incompatibility between the mother's and father's Rh antigens, leading to the development of antibodies in the mother during pregnancy or childbirth.
2. Blood transfusions from an incompatible donor.
3. Certain medical conditions like autoimmune hemolytic anemia or bone marrow transplantation.
Rh isoimmunization can lead to a range of complications, including:
1. Hemolytic disease of the newborn: This is a condition where the baby's red blood cells are destroyed by the mother's antibodies, leading to anemia, jaundice, and other serious complications.
2. Rh hemolytic crisis: This is a severe and potentially life-threatening complication that can occur during pregnancy or childbirth.
3. Chronic hemolytic anemia: This is a condition where the red blood cells are continuously destroyed, leading to anemia and other complications.
Rh isoimmunization can be diagnosed through blood tests such as the direct antiglobulin test (DAT) or the indirect Coombs test (ICT). Treatment typically involves managing any underlying conditions and monitoring for complications. In severe cases, a bone marrow transplant may be necessary. Prevention is key, and women who are Rh-negative should receive an injection of Rh immune globulin during pregnancy to prevent the development of antibodies against the Rh antigen.
The severity of GIH can vary widely, ranging from mild to life-threatening. Mild cases may resolve on their own or with minimal treatment, while severe cases may require urgent medical attention and aggressive intervention.
Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Symptoms:
* Vomiting blood or passing black tarry stools
* Hematemesis (vomiting blood)
* Melena (passing black, tarry stools)
* Rectal bleeding
* Abdominal pain
* Weakness and dizziness
Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Causes:
* Peptic ulcers
* Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
* Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
* Diverticulosis and diverticulitis
* Cancer of the stomach, small intestine, or large intestine
* Vascular malformations
Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Diagnosis:
* Physical examination
* Medical history
* Laboratory tests (such as complete blood count and coagulation studies)
* Endoscopy (to visualize the inside of the gastrointestinal tract)
* Imaging studies (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI)
Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Treatment:
* Medications to control bleeding and reduce acid production in the stomach
* Endoscopy to locate and treat the site of bleeding
* Surgery to repair damaged blood vessels or remove a bleeding tumor
* Blood transfusions to replace lost blood
Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Prevention:
* Avoiding alcohol and spicy foods
* Taking medications as directed to control acid reflux and other gastrointestinal conditions
* Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
* Reducing stress
* Avoiding smoking and excessive caffeine consumption.
There are several possible causes of thrombocytopenia, including:
1. Immune-mediated disorders such as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
2. Bone marrow disorders such as aplastic anemia or leukemia.
3. Viral infections such as HIV or hepatitis C.
4. Medications such as chemotherapy or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
5. Vitamin deficiencies, especially vitamin B12 and folate.
6. Genetic disorders such as Bernard-Soulier syndrome.
7. Sepsis or other severe infections.
8. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), a condition where blood clots form throughout the body.
9. Postpartum thrombocytopenia, which can occur in some women after childbirth.
Symptoms of thrombocytopenia may include easy bruising, petechiae (small red or purple spots on the skin), and prolonged bleeding from injuries or surgical sites. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause but may include platelet transfusions, steroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and in severe cases, surgery.
In summary, thrombocytopenia is a condition characterized by low platelet counts that can increase the risk of bleeding and bruising. It can be caused by various factors, and treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause.
Symptoms of iron overload can include fatigue, weakness, joint pain, and abdominal discomfort. Treatment for iron overload usually involves reducing iron intake and undergoing regular phlebotomy (blood removal) to remove excess iron from the body. In severe cases, iron chelation therapy may be recommended to help remove excess iron from tissues and organs.
In addition to these medical definitions and treatments, there are also some key points to keep in mind when it comes to iron overload:
1. Iron is essential for human health, but too much of it can be harmful. The body needs a certain amount of iron to produce hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. However, excessive iron levels can damage organs and tissues.
2. Hereditary hemochromatosis is the most common cause of iron overload. This genetic disorder causes the body to absorb too much iron from food, leading to its accumulation in organs and tissues.
3. Iron overload can increase the risk of certain diseases, such as liver cirrhosis, diabetes, and heart disease. It can also lead to a condition called hemosiderosis, which is characterized by the deposition of iron in tissues and organs.
4. Phlebotomy is a safe and effective treatment for iron overload. Regular blood removal can help reduce excess iron levels and prevent complications such as liver damage, heart failure, and anemia.
5. Iron chelation therapy may be recommended in severe cases of iron overload. This involves using drugs to remove excess iron from tissues and organs, but it is not always necessary and can have potential side effects.
Postpartum hemorrhage can be caused by various factors, including:
1. Uterine atony: This occurs when the uterus fails to contract properly after delivery, leading to excessive bleeding.
2. Lacerations or tears in the genital tract: Tears in the vaginal tissues, cervix, or uterus can cause bleeding.
3. Placenta accreta or placenta praevia: These conditions occur when the placenta attaches abnormally to the uterine wall, causing bleeding during delivery.
4. Cervical insufficiency: This occurs when the cervix is unable to support the weight of the baby, leading to bleeding.
5. Blood coagulopathy disorders: These are rare conditions that affect the body's ability to form blood clots, leading to excessive bleeding.
Symptoms of PPH may include:
1. Heavy bleeding within the first 24 hours post-delivery
2. Soaking more than two pads per hour
3. Pale or clammy skin
4. Weak or rapid pulse
5. Shallow breathing
6. Confusion or disorientation
Treatment for PPH may include:
1. Observation and monitoring of vital signs
2. Administration of oxytocin to stimulate uterine contractions
3. Use of a blood transfusion to replace lost blood volume
4. Surgical intervention, such as suturing or repairing any lacerations or tears
5. Management of underlying causes, such as blood coagulopathy disorders
Prevention of PPH includes:
1. Proper prenatal care and monitoring of the mother's health during pregnancy
2. Use of cesarean delivery if necessary
3. Avoidance of excessive forceps or vacuum extraction during delivery
4. Use of oxytocin and other medications to stimulate uterine contractions
5. Close monitoring of the mother's vital signs after delivery
It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the risk factors and symptoms of PPH, as well as the appropriate treatment and prevention strategies, in order to provide optimal care for mothers at risk of developing this condition.
There are several subtypes of NHL, including:
1. B-cell lymphomas (such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma)
2. T-cell lymphomas (such as peripheral T-cell lymphoma and mycosis fungoides)
3. Natural killer cell lymphomas (such as nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma)
4. Histiocyte-rich B-cell lymphoma
5. Primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma
6. Mantle cell lymphoma
7. Waldenström macroglobulinemia
8. Lymphoplasmacytoid lymphoma
9. Myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) related lymphoma
These subtypes can be further divided into other categories based on the specific characteristics of the cancer cells.
Symptoms of NHL can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but may include:
* Swollen lymph nodes in the neck, underarm, or groin
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
* Abdominal pain
* Swollen spleen
Treatment for NHL typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and in some cases, targeted therapy or immunotherapy. The specific treatment plan will depend on the subtype of NHL, the stage of the cancer, and other individual factors.
Overall, NHL is a complex and diverse group of cancers that require specialized care from a team of medical professionals, including hematologists, oncologists, radiation therapists, and other support staff. With advances in technology and treatment options, many people with NHL can achieve long-term remission or a cure.
There are two main types of thalassemia: alpha-thalassemia and beta-thalassemia. Alpha-thalassemia is caused by abnormalities in the production of the alpha-globin chain, which is one of the two chains that make up hemoglobin. Beta-thalassemia is caused by abnormalities in the production of the beta-globin chain.
Thalassemia can cause a range of symptoms, including anemia, fatigue, pale skin, and shortness of breath. In severe cases, it can lead to life-threatening complications such as heart failure, liver failure, and bone deformities. Thalassemia is usually diagnosed through blood tests that measure the levels of hemoglobin and other proteins in the blood.
There is no cure for thalassemia, but treatment can help manage the symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment may include blood transfusions, folic acid supplements, and medications to reduce the severity of anemia. In some cases, bone marrow transplantation may be recommended.
Preventive measures for thalassemia include genetic counseling and testing for individuals who are at risk of inheriting the disorder. Prenatal testing is also available for pregnant women who are carriers of the disorder. In addition, individuals with thalassemia should avoid marriage within their own family or community to reduce the risk of passing on the disorder to their children.
Overall, thalassemia is a serious and inherited blood disorder that can have significant health implications if left untreated. However, with proper treatment and management, individuals with thalassemia can lead fulfilling lives and minimize the risk of complications.
Types of Blood Coagulation Disorders:
1. Hemophilia A: A genetic disorder that affects the blood's ability to clot, leading to prolonged bleeding after injury or surgery.
2. Hemophilia B: Similar to hemophilia A, but caused by a deficiency of factor IX instead of factor VIII.
3. Von Willebrand Disease (VWD): A bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency of von Willebrand factor, which is needed for blood clotting.
4. Platelet Disorders: These include conditions such as low platelet count (thrombocytopenia) or abnormal platelet function, which can increase the risk of bleeding.
5. Coagulopathy: A general term for any disorder that affects the body's blood coagulation process.
Symptoms and Diagnosis:
Blood coagulation disorders can cause a range of symptoms, including easy bruising, frequent nosebleeds, and prolonged bleeding after injury or surgery. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood clotting factor assays and platelet function tests.
Treatment and Management:
Treatment for blood coagulation disorders depends on the specific condition and its severity. Some common treatments include:
1. Infusions of clotting factor concentrates to replace missing or deficient factors.
2. Desmopressin, a medication that stimulates the release of von Willebrand factor and platelets.
3. Platelet transfusions to increase platelet count.
4. Anticoagulation therapy to prevent blood clots from forming.
5. Surgery to repair damaged blood vessels or joints.
Prevention and Prognosis:
Prevention of blood coagulation disorders is often challenging, but some steps can be taken to reduce the risk of developing these conditions. These include:
1. Avoiding trauma or injury that can cause bleeding.
2. Managing underlying medical conditions such as liver disease, vitamin deficiencies, and autoimmune disorders.
3. Avoiding medications that can interfere with blood clotting.
The prognosis for blood coagulation disorders varies depending on the specific condition and its severity. Some conditions, such as mild hemophilia A, may have a good prognosis with appropriate treatment, while others, such as severe hemophilia B, can have a poor prognosis without proper management.
Complications and Comorbidities:
Blood coagulation disorders can lead to a range of complications and comorbidities, including:
1. Joint damage and chronic pain due to repeated bleeding into joints.
2. Infection and sepsis from bacteria entering the body through bleeding sites.
3. Arthritis and other inflammatory conditions.
4. Nerve damage and neuropathy from bleeding into nerve tissue.
5. Increased risk of bleeding during surgery or trauma.
6. Emotional and social challenges due to the impact of the condition on daily life.
7. Financial burden of treatment and management costs.
8. Impaired quality of life, including reduced mobility and activity levels.
9. Increased risk of blood clots and thromboembolic events.
10. Psychological distress and anxiety related to the condition.
Blood coagulation disorders are a group of rare and complex conditions that can significantly impact quality of life, productivity, and longevity. These disorders can be caused by genetic or acquired factors and can lead to a range of complications and comorbidities. Diagnosis is often challenging, but prompt recognition and appropriate treatment can improve outcomes. Management strategies include replacing missing clotting factors, using blood products, and managing underlying conditions. While the prognosis varies depending on the specific condition and its severity, early diagnosis and effective management can improve quality of life and reduce the risk of complications.
Note: This definition may have some variations in different contexts and medical fields.
* Rapidly progressive dementia
* Ataxia (loss of coordination and balance)
* Myoclonus (involuntary muscle jerks)
* Visual disturbances
* Cognitive decline
* Clinical evaluation
* Neuroimaging studies (MRI, CT scans)
* Electroencephalography (EEG)
* Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination
Treatment and Management:
* There is no cure for CJD, but various medications can be used to manage the symptoms.
* Palliative care is essential to alleviate suffering and improve quality of life.
* Supportive care includes physical therapy, speech therapy, and occupational therapy.
* CJD is a rapidly progressive disease with a poor prognosis, typically leading to death within 1-2 years after onset of symptoms.
Causes and Risk Factors:
* The cause of CJD is the transmission of misfolded prions, which are infectious proteins that accumulate in the brain.
* The most common form of transmission is through medical procedures using contaminated tissue, such as corneal transplants or dura mater grafts.
* There is also a rare genetic form of CJD, which is inherited from one's parents.
* CJD can lead to various complications, including pneumonia, seizures, and coma.
* The disease can also cause psychiatric symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and hallucinations.
In conclusion, Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome is a rare and fatal brain disorder characterized by rapid neurological deterioration, prion accumulation in the brain, and poor prognosis. It is important to be aware of the causes and risk factors of CJD, as well as its symptoms and complications, to provide appropriate diagnosis and treatment for affected individuals.
A peptic ulcer hemorrhage is a serious complication that occurs when an ulcer in the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) bleeds. The bleeding can be severe and life-threatening, and it requires immediate medical attention.
There are several factors that can contribute to the development of a peptic ulcer hemorrhage, including:
1. Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacteria
2. Long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen
3. Excessive alcohol consumption
5. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, a rare condition that causes the stomach to produce too much acid
6. Crohn's disease, an inflammatory bowel disorder
7. Ulcers caused by other conditions such as cancer, trauma, or radiation therapy
The symptoms of a peptic ulcer hemorrhage can vary depending on the severity of the bleeding, but they may include:
1. Vomiting blood or coffee ground-like material
2. Dark, tarry stools
3. Abdominal pain that worsens over time
4. Weakness and lightheadedness due to blood loss
5. Pale, cool, or clammy skin
To diagnose a peptic ulcer hemorrhage, a healthcare provider may use one or more of the following tests:
1. Endoscopy: A thin, flexible tube with a camera and light on the end is inserted through the mouth to visualize the stomach and duodenum.
2. Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding scale: This is a system used to assess the severity of bleeding based on symptoms and physical examination findings.
3. Blood tests: These may be used to check for signs of anemia, such as low red blood cell count or high levels of hemoglobin in the urine.
4. Upper GI series: This is a test that uses X-rays to visualize the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.
5. CT scan: A computerized tomography (CT) scan may be used to rule out other causes of bleeding, such as a ruptured ulcer or tumor.
The goal of treatment for a peptic ulcer hemorrhage is to stop the bleeding and prevent further complications. Treatment options may include:
1. Medications: These may include antacids, H2 blockers, or proton pump inhibitors to reduce acid production and protect the ulcer from further irritation.
2. Endoscopy: A healthcare provider may use an endoscope to locate the source of bleeding and apply a topical treatment such as cautery, sclerotherapy, or argon plasma coagulation to stop the bleeding.
3. Interventional radiology: In some cases, a healthcare provider may use interventional radiology techniques to embolize (block) the blood vessel feeding the ulcer. This can help stop the bleeding and promote healing.
4. Surgery: In rare cases where other treatments have failed, surgery may be necessary to repair the ulcer or remove any damaged tissue.
To prevent peptic ulcer hemorrhage from recurring, it is important to take steps to prevent further irritation of the ulcer and promote healing. This may include:
1. Avoiding NSAIDs and aspirin: These medications can irritate the stomach lining and increase the risk of bleeding.
2. Avoiding alcohol and smoking: Both of these can irritate the stomach lining and impair healing.
3. Eating a healthy diet: Avoiding spicy or acidic foods and eating smaller, more frequent meals can help reduce symptoms and promote healing.
4. Managing stress: Stress can exacerbate peptic ulcer symptoms and impair healing.
5. Taking medications as directed: If your healthcare provider has prescribed medication to treat your peptic ulcer, it is important to take it as directed.
6. Follow-up care: Regular follow-up appointments with your healthcare provider can help monitor your condition and ensure that any complications are addressed promptly.
Recurrence can also refer to the re-emergence of symptoms in a previously treated condition, such as a chronic pain condition that returns after a period of remission.
In medical research, recurrence is often studied to understand the underlying causes of disease progression and to develop new treatments and interventions to prevent or delay its return.
The symptoms of hepatitis B can range from mild to severe and may include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, joint pain, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). In some cases, hepatitis B can be asymptomatic, meaning that individuals may not experience any symptoms at all.
Hepatitis B is diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of HBV antigens or antibodies in the body. Treatment for acute hepatitis B typically involves rest, hydration, and medication to manage symptoms, while chronic hepatitis B may require ongoing therapy with antiviral drugs to suppress the virus and prevent liver damage.
Preventive measures for hepatitis B include vaccination, which is recommended for individuals at high risk of infection, such as healthcare workers, sexually active individuals, and those traveling to areas where HBV is common. In addition, safe sex practices, avoiding sharing of needles or other bodily fluids, and proper sterilization of medical equipment can help reduce the risk of transmission.
Overall, hepatitis B is a serious infection that can have long-term consequences for liver health, and it is important to take preventive measures and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Multiple myeloma is the second most common type of hematologic cancer after non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, accounting for approximately 1% of all cancer deaths worldwide. It is more common in older adults, with most patients being diagnosed over the age of 65.
The exact cause of multiple myeloma is not known, but it is believed to be linked to genetic mutations that occur in the plasma cells. There are several risk factors that have been associated with an increased risk of developing multiple myeloma, including:
1. Family history: Having a family history of multiple myeloma or other plasma cell disorders increases the risk of developing the disease.
2. Age: The risk of developing multiple myeloma increases with age, with most patients being diagnosed over the age of 65.
3. Race: African Americans are at higher risk of developing multiple myeloma than other races.
4. Obesity: Being overweight or obese may increase the risk of developing multiple myeloma.
5. Exposure to certain chemicals: Exposure to certain chemicals such as pesticides, solvents, and heavy metals has been linked to an increased risk of developing multiple myeloma.
The symptoms of multiple myeloma can vary depending on the severity of the disease and the organs affected. Common symptoms include:
1. Bone pain: Pain in the bones, particularly in the spine, ribs, or long bones, is a common symptom of multiple myeloma.
2. Fatigue: Feeling tired or weak is another common symptom of the disease.
3. Infections: Patients with multiple myeloma may be more susceptible to infections due to the impaired functioning of their immune system.
4. Bone fractures: Weakened bones can lead to an increased risk of fractures, particularly in the spine, hips, or ribs.
5. Kidney problems: Multiple myeloma can cause damage to the kidneys, leading to problems such as kidney failure or proteinuria (excess protein in the urine).
6. Anemia: A low red blood cell count can cause anemia, which can lead to fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
7. Increased calcium levels: High levels of calcium in the blood can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, constipation, and confusion.
8. Neurological problems: Multiple myeloma can cause neurological problems such as headaches, numbness or tingling in the arms and legs, and difficulty with coordination and balance.
The diagnosis of multiple myeloma typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests. These may include:
1. Complete blood count (CBC): A CBC can help identify abnormalities in the numbers and characteristics of different types of blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
2. Serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP): This test measures the levels of different proteins in the blood, including immunoglobulins (antibodies) and abnormal proteins produced by myeloma cells.
3. Urine protein electrophoresis (UPEP): This test measures the levels of different proteins in the urine.
4. Immunofixation: This test is used to identify the type of antibody produced by myeloma cells and to rule out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms.
5. Bone marrow biopsy: A bone marrow biopsy involves removing a sample of tissue from the bone marrow for examination under a microscope. This can help confirm the diagnosis of multiple myeloma and determine the extent of the disease.
6. Imaging tests: Imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans may be used to assess the extent of bone damage or other complications of multiple myeloma.
7. Genetic testing: Genetic testing may be used to identify specific genetic abnormalities that are associated with multiple myeloma and to monitor the response of the disease to treatment.
It's important to note that not all patients with MGUS or smoldering myeloma will develop multiple myeloma, and some patients with multiple myeloma may not have any symptoms at all. However, if you are experiencing any of the symptoms listed above or have a family history of multiple myeloma, it's important to talk to your doctor about your risk and any tests that may be appropriate for you.
Some common examples of intraoperative complications include:
1. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding during surgery can lead to hypovolemia (low blood volume), anemia (low red blood cell count), and even death.
2. Infection: Surgical wounds can become infected, leading to sepsis or bacteremia (bacterial infection of the bloodstream).
3. Nerve damage: Surgery can sometimes result in nerve damage, leading to numbness, weakness, or paralysis.
4. Organ injury: Injury to organs such as the liver, lung, or bowel can occur during surgery, leading to complications such as bleeding, infection, or organ failure.
5. Anesthesia-related complications: Problems with anesthesia can include respiratory or cardiac depression, allergic reactions, or awareness during anesthesia (a rare but potentially devastating complication).
6. Hypotension: Low blood pressure during surgery can lead to inadequate perfusion of vital organs and tissues, resulting in organ damage or death.
7. Thromboembolism: Blood clots can form during surgery and travel to other parts of the body, causing complications such as stroke, pulmonary embolism, or deep vein thrombosis.
8. Postoperative respiratory failure: Respiratory complications can occur after surgery, leading to respiratory failure, pneumonia, or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
9. Wound dehiscence: The incision site can separate or come open after surgery, leading to infection, fluid accumulation, or hernia.
10. Seroma: A collection of serous fluid that can develop at the surgical site, which can become infected and cause complications.
11. Nerve damage: Injury to nerves during surgery can result in numbness, weakness, or paralysis, sometimes permanently.
12. Urinary retention or incontinence: Surgery can damage the bladder or urinary sphincter, leading to urinary retention or incontinence.
13. Hematoma: A collection of blood that can develop at the surgical site, which can become infected and cause complications.
14. Pneumonia: Inflammation of the lungs after surgery can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi and can lead to serious complications.
15. Sepsis: A systemic inflammatory response to infection that can occur after surgery, leading to organ dysfunction and death if not treated promptly.
It is important to note that these are potential complications, and not all patients will experience them. Additionally, many of these complications are rare, and the vast majority of surgeries are successful with minimal or no complications. However, it is important for patients to be aware of the potential risks before undergoing surgery so they can make an informed decision about their care.
Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a specific type of hemolytic anemia that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys red blood cells. This can happen due to various underlying causes such as infections, certain medications, and some types of cancer.
In autoimmune hemolytic anemia, the immune system produces antibodies that coat the surface of red blood cells and mark them for destruction by other immune cells called complement proteins. This leads to the premature destruction of red blood cells in the spleen, liver, and other organs.
Symptoms of autoimmune hemolytic anemia can include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), dark urine, and a pale or yellowish complexion. Treatment options for AIHA depend on the underlying cause of the disorder, but may include medications to suppress the immune system, plasmapheresis to remove antibodies from the blood, and in severe cases, splenectomy (removal of the spleen) or bone marrow transplantation.
In summary, autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a type of hemolytic anemia that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys red blood cells, leading to premature destruction of red blood cells and various symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, and jaundice. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause of the disorder and may include medications, plasmapheresis, and in severe cases, splenectomy or bone marrow transplantation.
There are two main types of hemolysis:
1. Intravascular hemolysis: This type occurs within the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as mechanical injury, oxidative stress, and certain infections.
2. Extravascular hemolysis: This type occurs outside the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as bone marrow disorders, splenic rupture, and certain medications.
Hemolytic anemia is a condition that occurs when there is excessive hemolysis of RBCs, leading to a decrease in the number of healthy red blood cells in the body. This can cause symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, pale skin, and shortness of breath.
Some common causes of hemolysis include:
1. Genetic disorders such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia.
2. Autoimmune disorders such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA).
3. Infections such as malaria, babesiosis, and toxoplasmosis.
4. Medications such as antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and blood thinners.
5. Bone marrow disorders such as aplastic anemia and myelofibrosis.
6. Splenic rupture or surgical removal of the spleen.
7. Mechanical injury to the blood vessels.
Diagnosis of hemolysis is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as complete blood count (CBC), blood smear examination, and direct Coombs test. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include supportive care, blood transfusions, and medications to suppress the immune system or prevent infection.
Definition: A nosebleed, also known as a bloody nose, is a common condition that occurs when the nasal passages bleed. It can be caused by a variety of factors, such as dry air, allergies, colds, sinus infections, and injuries to the nose.
Synonyms: Nosebleed, bloody nose, anterior epistaxis, posterior epistaxis.
Epistaxis is a common condition that can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Dry air: Dry air can cause the nasal passages to become dry and cracked, leading to bleeding.
2. Allergies: Seasonal allergies or allergies to dust, pollen, or other substances can cause inflammation and irritation in the nasal passages, leading to bleeding.
3. Colds: A common cold can cause inflammation and congestion in the nasal passages, leading to bleeding.
4. Sinus infections: An infection in the sinuses can cause inflammation and bleeding in the nasal passages.
5. Injuries: Trauma to the nose, such as a blow to the face or a fall, can cause bleeding.
6. Medications: Certain medications, such as aspirin or warfarin, can thin the blood and increase the risk of bleeding.
7. High blood pressure: High blood pressure can cause damage to the blood vessels in the nose, leading to bleeding.
8. Nose picking: Picking or blowing the nose too forcefully can cause trauma to the nasal passages and lead to bleeding.
9. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT): A rare genetic disorder that affects the blood vessels and can cause recurring nosebleeds.
Symptoms of epistaxis may include:
1. Blood flowing from one or both nostrils
2. Nasal congestion or stuffiness
3. Pain or discomfort in the nose or face
4. Difficulty breathing through the nose
5. Postnasal drip (mucus running down the back of the throat)
6. Swelling around the eyes or face
7. Fever or chills
9. Weakness or fatigue
If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention. A healthcare professional can diagnose the cause of the nosebleed and recommend appropriate treatment. Treatment for epistaxis may include:
1. Nasal decongestants or antihistamines to reduce nasal congestion
2. Topical or oral antibiotics to treat any underlying infections
3. Applications of a topical ointment or cream to help protect the nasal passages and promote healing
4. Injectable medications to help constrict blood vessels and stop bleeding
5. Surgery to repair damaged blood vessels or remove any foreign objects that may be causing the bleeding.
Acute wounds and injuries are those that occur suddenly and heal within a relatively short period of time, usually within a few days or weeks. Examples of acute wounds include cuts, scrapes, and burns. Chronic wounds and injuries, on the other hand, are those that persist over a longer period of time and may not heal properly, leading to long-term complications. Examples of chronic wounds include diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, and chronic back pain.
Wounds and injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including accidents, sports injuries, violence, and medical conditions such as diabetes or circulatory problems. Treatment for wounds and injuries depends on the severity of the injury and may include cleaning and dressing the wound, applying antibiotics, immobilizing broken bones, and providing pain management. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged tissues or restore function.
Preventive measures for wounds and injuries include wearing appropriate protective gear during activities such as sports or work, following safety protocols to avoid accidents, maintaining proper hygiene and nutrition to prevent infection, and seeking medical attention promptly if an injury occurs.
Overall, wounds and injuries can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, and it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Proper treatment and management of wounds and injuries can help to promote healing, reduce the risk of complications, and improve long-term outcomes.
Symptoms of aplastic anemia may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, pale skin, and increased risk of bleeding or infection. Treatment options for aplastic anemia typically involve blood transfusions and immunosuppressive drugs to stimulate the bone marrow to produce new blood cells. In severe cases, a bone marrow transplant may be necessary.
Overall, aplastic anemia is a rare and serious condition that requires careful management by a healthcare provider to prevent complications and improve quality of life.
The main symptoms of hemosiderosis include:
1. Yellowish discoloration of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
2. Fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath
3. Abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting
4. Pale or clay-colored stools
5. Dark urine
6. Liver enlargement and tenderness
7. Heart failure
8. Arrhythmias (irregular heart rhythms)
10. Weight loss and loss of appetite
Hemosiderosis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment options for hemosiderosis depend on the underlying cause of the condition and may include:
1. Iron chelation therapy to remove excess iron from the body
2. Blood transfusions to reduce iron levels
3. Dietary modifications to limit iron intake
4. Medications to manage symptoms such as anemia, liver failure, or heart problems
5. Surgery to remove affected tissues or organs in severe cases
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the symptoms of hemosiderosis, especially if you have a history of excessive iron intake or chronic blood transfusions. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes for this condition.
The symptoms of ALI can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:
* Shortness of breath (dyspnea)
* Chest pain or tightness (pleurisy)
* Cough, which may produce mucus or pus
* Fatigue, confusion, or disorientation
* Low oxygen levels in the blood (hypoxia)
If left untreated, ALI can progress to a more severe condition called acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which can be fatal. Treatment for ALI typically involves supportive care, such as mechanical ventilation, medications to manage inflammation and fluid buildup in the lungs, and management of underlying causes. In severe cases, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or lung transplantation may be necessary.
It's important to note that ALI can occur in people of all ages and can be caused by a variety of factors, so it's important to seek medical attention right away if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of the condition.
Examples of acute diseases include:
1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.
Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.
Types of Neoplasms
There are many different types of neoplasms, including:
1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.
Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms
The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:
1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.
Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms
The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:
1. Unusual lumps or swelling
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms
The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.
The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:
1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
Prevention of Neoplasms
While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:
1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.
It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.
Some common examples of critical illnesses include:
1. Sepsis: a systemic inflammatory response to an infection that can lead to organ failure and death.
2. Cardiogenic shock: a condition where the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs, leading to serious complications such as heart failure and death.
3. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS): a condition where the lungs are severely inflamed and unable to provide sufficient oxygen to the body.
4. Multi-system organ failure: a condition where multiple organs in the body fail simultaneously, leading to serious complications and death.
5. Trauma: severe physical injuries sustained in an accident or other traumatic event.
6. Stroke: a sudden interruption of blood flow to the brain that can lead to permanent brain damage and death.
7. Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a blockage of coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart, leading to damage or death of heart muscle cells.
8. Pulmonary embolism: a blockage of the pulmonary artery, which can lead to respiratory failure and death.
9. Pancreatitis: inflammation of the pancreas that can lead to severe abdominal pain, bleeding, and organ failure.
10. Hypovolemic shock: a condition where there is a severe loss of blood or fluid from the body, leading to hypotension, organ failure, and death.
The diagnosis and treatment of critical illnesses require specialized knowledge and skills, and are typically handled by intensive care unit (ICU) teams consisting of critical care physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. The goal of critical care is to provide life-sustaining interventions and support to patients who are critically ill until they recover or until their condition stabilizes.
The symptoms of hemorrhagic shock may include:
* Pale, cool, or clammy skin
* Fast heart rate
* Shallow breathing
* Confusion or loss of consciousness
* Decreased urine output
Treatment of hemorrhagic shock typically involves replacing lost blood volume with IV fluids and/or blood transfusions. In severe cases, medications such as vasopressors may be used to raise blood pressure and improve circulation. Surgical intervention may also be necessary to control the bleeding source.
The goal of treatment is to restore blood flow and oxygenation to vital organs, such as the brain, heart, and kidneys, and to prevent further bleeding and hypovolemia. Early recognition and aggressive treatment of hemorrhagic shock are critical to preventing severe complications and mortality.
Neonatal jaundice can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Immaturity of the liver and biliary system, which can lead to an inability to process bilirubin properly
* Infection or sepsis
* Breastfeeding difficulties or poor milk intake
* Blood type incompatibility between the baby and mother
* Genetic disorders such as Crigler-Najjar syndrome
* Other medical conditions such as hypothyroidism or anemia
Symptoms of neonatal jaundice may include:
* Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes
* Dark-colored urine
* Pale or clay-colored stools
* Lack of appetite or poor feeding
* Lethargy or irritability
Treatment for neonatal jaundice may include:
* Phototherapy, which involves exposure to blue light to help break down bilirubin in the blood
* Exchange transfusion, which involves replacing some of the baby's blood with fresh blood to lower bilirubin levels
* Medication to stimulate bowel movements and increase the elimination of bilirubin
* Intravenous fluids to prevent dehydration
In some cases, neonatal jaundice may be a sign of a more serious underlying condition, such as a liver or gallbladder disorder. It is important for parents to seek medical attention if they notice any signs of jaundice in their newborn baby, particularly if the baby is feeding poorly or appears lethargic or irritable.
Inverted Papillomas are usually small, ranging in size from a few millimeters to about 1 centimeter in diameter. They can be either solitary (singular) or multiple and are most commonly found in the ethmoid sinuses, which are air-filled cavities in the skull located between the eyes and nasal passages.
Symptoms of Inverted Papilloma may include:
* Nasal congestion or blockage
* Nasal discharge (rhinorrhea)
* Postnasal drip
* Loss of sense of smell
* Sinus pressure or pain
Inverted Papillomas are usually diagnosed through a procedure called nasal endoscopy, which involves inserting a flexible tube with a camera into the nostrils to visualize the inside of the nasal passages and sinuses. A biopsy may also be taken to confirm the diagnosis.
Treatment for Inverted Papilloma usually involves surgical removal of the tumor, either through traditional open surgery or endoscopic surgery, which is less invasive. In some cases, radiation therapy may be recommended to ensure that all of the tumor cells are removed.
Overall, Inverted Papilloma is a rare but treatable condition that can cause significant symptoms and discomfort. If you experience any of the symptoms listed above or have concerns about your nasal health, it's important to consult with an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialist for proper evaluation and treatment.
What does angiodysplasia mean? What are the symptoms of angiodysplasia? How is angiodysplasia diagnosed and treated?
Hodgkin Disease can spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system, and it can affect people of all ages, although it is most common in young adults and teenagers. The symptoms of Hodgkin Disease can vary depending on the stage of the disease, but they may include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, fatigue, weight loss, and itching.
There are several types of Hodgkin Disease, including:
* Classical Hodgkin Disease: This is the most common type of Hodgkin Disease and is characterized by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells.
* Nodular Lymphocytic predominant Hodgkin Disease: This type of Hodgkin Disease is characterized by the presence of nodules in the lymph nodes.
* Mixed Cellularity Hodgkin Disease: This type of Hodgkin Disease is characterized by a mixture of Reed-Sternberg cells and other immune cells.
Hodgkin Disease is usually diagnosed with a biopsy, which involves removing a sample of tissue from the affected lymph node or other area and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells. Treatment for Hodgkin Disease typically involves chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of both. In some cases, bone marrow or stem cell transplantation may be necessary.
The prognosis for Hodgkin Disease is generally good, especially if the disease is detected and treated early. According to the American Cancer Society, the 5-year survival rate for people with Hodgkin Disease is about 85%. However, the disease can sometimes recur after treatment, and the long-term effects of radiation therapy and chemotherapy can include infertility, heart problems, and an increased risk of secondary cancers.
Hodgkin Disease is a rare form of cancer that affects the immune system. It is most commonly diagnosed in young adults and is usually treatable with chemotherapy or radiation therapy. However, the disease can sometimes recur after treatment, and the long-term effects of treatment can include infertility, heart problems, and an increased risk of secondary cancers.
Symptoms of hemolytic anemia may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, dizziness, headaches, and pale or yellowish skin. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause but may include blood transfusions, medication to suppress the immune system, antibiotics for infections, and removal of the spleen (splenectomy) in severe cases.
Prevention strategies for hemolytic anemia include avoiding triggers such as certain medications or infections, maintaining good hygiene practices, and seeking early medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
It is important to note that while hemolytic anemia can be managed with proper treatment, it may not be curable in all cases, and ongoing monitoring and care are necessary to prevent complications and improve quality of life.
The term "melena" comes from the Greek word for "black," and it is used to describe the characteristic dark color of the stools in these patients. The stools may be black, tarry, and have a distinctive odor, and they may also be accompanied by symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever.
The diagnosis of melena is typically made through a physical examination and laboratory tests, such as a complete blood count (CBC) and a fecal occult blood test (FOBT). Imaging studies, such as an upper endoscopy or a colonoscopy, may also be performed to identify the site of the bleeding.
Treatment of melena depends on the underlying cause of the bleeding, and it may involve medications, endoscopic therapy, or surgery. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the patient. Prognosis for melena is generally good if the underlying cause is identified and treated promptly, but it can be life-threatening if left untreated.
This definition of 'Neoplasm Recurrence, Local' is from the Healthcare Professionals edition of the Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary, copyright © 2007 by Merriam-Webster, Inc.
Liver neoplasms, also known as liver tumors or hepatic tumors, are abnormal growths of tissue in the liver. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant liver tumors can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or metastatic, meaning they spread to the liver from another part of the body.
There are several types of liver neoplasms, including:
1. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer and arises from the main cells of the liver (hepatocytes). HCC is often associated with cirrhosis and can be caused by viral hepatitis or alcohol abuse.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: This type of cancer arises from the cells lining the bile ducts within the liver (cholangiocytes). Cholangiocarcinoma is rare and often diagnosed at an advanced stage.
3. Hemangiosarcoma: This is a rare type of cancer that originates in the blood vessels of the liver. It is most commonly seen in dogs but can also occur in humans.
4. Fibromas: These are benign tumors that arise from the connective tissue of the liver (fibrocytes). Fibromas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.
5. Adenomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the glandular cells of the liver (hepatocytes). Adenomas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.
The symptoms of liver neoplasms vary depending on their size, location, and whether they are benign or malignant. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasound, and a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells.
Treatment options for liver neoplasms depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgery may be an option for some patients with small, localized tumors, while others may require chemotherapy or radiation therapy to shrink the tumor before surgery can be performed. In some cases, liver transplantation may be necessary.
Prognosis for liver neoplasms varies depending on the type and stage of the cancer. In general, early detection and treatment improve the prognosis, while advanced-stage disease is associated with a poorer prognosis.
* Premature birth: A birth that occurs before 37 completed weeks of gestation.
* Preterm birth: A birth that occurs before 37 completed weeks of gestation, but not necessarily before 22 weeks.
* Very preterm birth: A birth that occurs before 28 completed weeks of gestation.
* Extremely preterm birth: A birth that occurs before 24 completed weeks of gestation.
Diseases associated with premature infants:
1. Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS): A condition in which the baby's lungs do not produce enough surfactant, a substance that helps the air sacs in the lungs expand and contract properly.
2. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD): A chronic lung disease that can develop in premature infants who have RDS.
3. Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH): Bleeding in the brain that can occur in premature infants, particularly those with RDS or BPD.
4. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP): A condition that can cause blindness in premature infants due to abnormal blood vessel growth in the retina.
5. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC): A condition that can cause damage to the intestines and other parts of the digestive system in premature infants.
6. Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH): Bleeding in the brain that can occur in premature infants, particularly those with RDS or BPD.
7. Gastrointestinal problems: Premature infants are at risk for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and other gastrointestinal problems.
8. Feeding difficulties: Premature infants may have difficulty feeding, which can lead to weight gain issues or the need for a feeding tube.
9. Respiratory infections: Premature infants are at increased risk for respiratory infections, such as pneumonia and bronchiolitis.
10. Developmental delays: Premature infants may be at risk for developmental delays or learning disabilities, particularly if they experienced significant health problems or required oxygen therapy.
It is important to note that not all premature infants will develop these complications, and the severity of the conditions can vary depending on the individual baby's health and the level of care they receive. However, it is essential for parents and caregivers to be aware of the potential risks and seek prompt medical attention if they notice any signs of distress or illness in their premature infant.
Types of Infection:
1. Bacterial Infections: These are caused by the presence of harmful bacteria in the body. Examples include pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and skin infections.
2. Viral Infections: These are caused by the presence of harmful viruses in the body. Examples include the common cold, flu, and HIV/AIDS.
3. Fungal Infections: These are caused by the presence of fungi in the body. Examples include athlete's foot, ringworm, and candidiasis.
4. Parasitic Infections: These are caused by the presence of parasites in the body. Examples include malaria, giardiasis, and toxoplasmosis.
Symptoms of Infection:
4. Muscle aches
5. Skin rashes or lesions
6. Swollen lymph nodes
7. Sore throat
Treatment of Infection:
1. Antibiotics: These are used to treat bacterial infections and work by killing or stopping the growth of bacteria.
2. Antiviral medications: These are used to treat viral infections and work by interfering with the replication of viruses.
3. Fungicides: These are used to treat fungal infections and work by killing or stopping the growth of fungi.
4. Anti-parasitic medications: These are used to treat parasitic infections and work by killing or stopping the growth of parasites.
5. Supportive care: This includes fluids, nutritional supplements, and pain management to help the body recover from the infection.
Prevention of Infection:
1. Hand washing: Regular hand washing is one of the most effective ways to prevent the spread of infection.
2. Vaccination: Getting vaccinated against specific infections can help prevent them.
3. Safe sex practices: Using condoms and other safe sex practices can help prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections.
4. Food safety: Properly storing and preparing food can help prevent the spread of foodborne illnesses.
5. Infection control measures: Healthcare providers use infection control measures such as wearing gloves, masks, and gowns to prevent the spread of infections in healthcare settings.
Hemoperitoneum can be a life-threatening condition and requires prompt medical attention. Treatment options may include fluid resuscitation, blood transfusions, and surgery to locate and control the source of bleeding. In some cases, hemoperitoneum can lead to hypovolemic shock, sepsis, and even death if left untreated.
Some common causes of hemoperitoneum include:
1. Trauma: Blunt or penetrating trauma to the abdomen can cause bleeding in the peritoneal cavity.
2. Surgical complications: Bleeding during or after surgery can result in hemoperitoneum.
3. Digestive tract bleeding: Ulcers, varices, and malignancies in the digestive tract can cause bleeding that leads to hemoperitoneum.
4. Inflammatory conditions: Conditions such as appendicitis, diverticulitis, and pancreatitis can cause bleeding in the peritoneal cavity.
5. Vascular injuries: Injuries to the vessels within the peritoneal cavity, such as the aorta or vena cava, can cause hemoperitoneum.
Signs and symptoms of hemoperitoneum may include abdominal pain, distension, and tenderness, as well as hypovolemic shock, tachycardia, and tachypnea. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as CT or ultrasound, and laboratory tests to evaluate blood count and coagulation status.
Treatment of hemoperitoneum depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, fluid resuscitation and observation may be sufficient, while in more severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to locate and control the source of bleeding.
Contusions are bruises that occur when blood collects in the tissue due to trauma. They can be painful and may discolor the skin, but they do not involve a break in the skin. Hematomas are similar to contusions, but they are caused by bleeding under the skin.
Non-penetrating wounds are typically less severe than penetrating wounds, which involve a break in the skin and can be more difficult to treat. However, non-penetrating wounds can still cause significant pain and discomfort, and may require medical attention to ensure proper healing and minimize the risk of complications.
Examples of Non-Penetrating Wounds
* Contusions: A contusion is a bruise that occurs when blood collects in the tissue due to trauma. This can happen when someone is hit with an object or falls and strikes a hard surface.
* Hematomas: A hematoma is a collection of blood under the skin that can cause swelling and discoloration. It is often caused by blunt trauma, such as a blow to the head or body.
* Ecchymoses: An ecchymosis is a bruise that occurs when blood leaks into the tissue from damaged blood vessels. This can happen due to blunt trauma or other causes, such as injury or surgery.
Types of Non-Penetrating Wounds
* Closed wounds: These are injuries that do not involve a break in the skin. They can be caused by blunt trauma or other forms of injury, and may result in bruising, swelling, or discoloration of the skin.
* Open wounds: These are injuries that do involve a break in the skin. They can be caused by penetrating objects, such as knives or gunshots, or by blunt trauma.
Treatment for Contusions and Hematomas
* Rest: It is important to get plenty of rest after suffering a contusion or hematoma. This will help your body recover from the injury and reduce inflammation.
* Ice: Applying ice to the affected area can help reduce swelling and pain. Wrap an ice pack in a towel or cloth to protect your skin.
* Compression: Using compression bandages or wraps can help reduce swelling and promote healing.
* Elevation: Elevating the affected limb above the level of your heart can help reduce swelling and improve circulation.
* Medication: Over-the-counter pain medications, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen, can help manage pain and inflammation.
* Wear protective gear: When engaging in activities that may cause injury, wear appropriate protective gear, such as helmets, pads, and gloves.
* Use proper technique: Proper technique when engaging in physical activity can help reduce the risk of injury.
* Stay fit: Being in good physical condition can help improve your ability to withstand injuries.
* Stretch and warm up: Before engaging in physical activity, stretch and warm up to increase blood flow and reduce muscle stiffness.
* Avoid excessive alcohol consumption: Excessive alcohol consumption can increase the risk of injury.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following symptoms:
* Increasing pain or swelling
* Difficulty moving the affected limb
* Fever or chills
* Redness or discharge around the wound
* Deformity of the affected limb.
Priapism is caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Trauma to the genital area
2. Infection of the penis or prostate gland
3. Certain medications, such as antidepressants and antipsychotics
4. Alcohol or drug abuse
5. Sickle cell disease or other blood disorders
6. Certain medical procedures, such as prostate surgery or circumcision
7. Priapism can also occur in newborn babies due to a condition called neonatal priapism, which is caused by a blockage of the blood vessels in the penis.
Symptoms of priapism include:
1. A persistent, painful erection that does not go away within 4-6 hours
2. Swelling and redness of the penis
3. Pain in the scrotum or abdomen
4. Fever and chills
5. Priapism can also cause damage to the penis over time, leading to loss of erectile function and other complications.
If you suspect you or someone else has priapism, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment typically involves draining the blood from the penis and administering antibiotics to prevent infection. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove any damaged tissue.
Prevention of priapism includes avoiding activities that can cause trauma to the genital area, taking medications as directed, and seeking medical attention if you experience any symptoms of priapism. It is also important to maintain good hygiene and practice safe sex to reduce the risk of infection.
In conclusion, priapism is a serious medical condition that requires immediate attention. If you suspect you or someone else has priapism, do not hesitate to seek medical help. With proper treatment, most people with priapism can recover fully and regain normal erectile function.
Multiple trauma can involve various types of injuries, including:
1. Blunt trauma: This refers to injuries caused by a blow or impact, such as those sustained in a car accident or fall.
2. Penetrating trauma: This refers to injuries caused by a sharp object, such as a gunshot wound or stab wound.
3. Burns: This refers to injuries caused by heat or chemicals that can cause tissue damage and scarring.
4. Neurological trauma: This refers to injuries affecting the brain and spinal cord, such as concussions or herniated discs.
5. Orthopedic trauma: This refers to injuries affecting the musculoskeletal system, such as fractures or dislocations.
6. Soft tissue trauma: This refers to injuries affecting the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues, such as lacerations or contusions.
7. Visceral trauma: This refers to injuries affecting the internal organs, such as internal bleeding or organ damage.
The severity of multiple trauma can vary widely, ranging from mild to life-threatening. In some cases, multiple trauma may be caused by a single incident, while in other cases, it may result from a series of events over time.
Treatment for multiple trauma typically involves a comprehensive approach that addresses all of the injuries and takes into account the patient's overall health and well-being. This may include surgery, medication, physical therapy, and other forms of rehabilitation. In severe cases, multiple trauma can result in long-term disability or even death, making prompt and appropriate treatment essential for optimal outcomes.
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.
There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:
1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)
The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
8. Weight loss
If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:
1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)
HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.
Prevention methods for HIV infection include:
1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.
It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.
The definition of MOF varies depending on the context and the specific criteria used to define it. However, in general, MOF is characterized by:
1. The involvement of multiple organs: MOF affects multiple organs in the body, such as the lungs, liver, kidneys, heart, and brain. Each organ failure can have a significant impact on the individual's overall health and survival.
2. Severe dysfunction: The dysfunction of multiple organs is severe enough to cause significant impairment in the individual's physiological functions, such as breathing, circulation, and mental status.
3. Lack of specific etiology: MOF often occurs without a specific identifiable cause, although it can be triggered by various factors such as infections, injuries, or medical conditions.
4. High mortality rate: MOF is associated with a high mortality rate, especially if left untreated or if the underlying causes are not addressed promptly.
The diagnosis of MOF requires a comprehensive evaluation of the individual's medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment involves addressing the underlying causes, supporting the failing organs, and managing symptoms. The prognosis for MOF depends on the severity of the condition, the underlying cause, and the promptness and effectiveness of treatment.
Symptoms of babesiosis can vary in severity and may include:
* Muscle and joint pain
* Nausea and vomiting
* Anemia (low red blood cell count)
In severe cases, babesiosis can lead to complications such as:
* Hemolytic anemia (breakdown of red blood cells)
* Kidney failure
* Respiratory distress syndrome
* Septic shock
Babesiosis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, including:
* Blood smear
* Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
* Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
Treatment for babesiosis typically involves the use of antimicrobial drugs, such as azithromycin and atovaquone, or clindamycin and primaquine. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications.
Prevention of babesiosis primarily involves protecting against tick bites through measures such as:
* Using insect repellents containing DEET or permethrin
* Wearing long-sleeved shirts and pants, and tucking pant legs into socks
* Checking for ticks on the body after spending time outdoors
* Removing any attached ticks promptly and correctly
Early detection and treatment of babesiosis can help to reduce the risk of complications and improve outcomes for affected individuals.
There are several subtypes of MDS, each with distinct clinical features and prognosis. The most common subtype is refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB), followed by chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMMoL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
The exact cause of MDS is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from a combination of genetic mutations and environmental factors. Risk factors for developing MDS include exposure to certain chemicals or radiation, age over 60, and a history of previous cancer treatment.
Symptoms of MDS can vary depending on the specific subtype and severity of the disorder, but may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, infection, bleeding, and easy bruising. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, blood tests, and bone marrow biopsy.
Treatment for MDS depends on the specific subtype and severity of the disorder, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences. Options may include supportive care, such as blood transfusions and antibiotics, or more intensive therapies like chemotherapy, bone marrow transplantation, or gene therapy.
Overall, myelodysplastic syndromes are a complex and heterogeneous group of disorders that can have a significant impact on quality of life and survival. Ongoing research is focused on improving diagnostic accuracy, developing more effective treatments, and exploring novel therapeutic approaches to improve outcomes for patients with MDS.
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- Direct detection of homologous and autologous blood transfusion through immunorecognition of specific markers of blood storage. (wada-ama.org)
- The main objective of the project was to the develop of antibodies able to recognize changes in red blood cells (RBCs) related to ex-vivo storage to unambiguously identify the use of blood transfusion, both autologous blood transfusion (ABT) or homologous blood transfusion (HBT). (wada-ama.org)
- This kind of donation is also called homologous blood donation. (medlineplus.gov)
- It's worth noting that it's impossible follow pro cycling without having a deep knowledge of subjects such as hematocrit levels, the difference between autologous and homologous blood transfusions, chimeras, corticosteroids, Clenbuterol-tainted meat, and now male menstruation. (blogspot.com)
- Prevention of Homologous Blood Transfusion by Intraoperative Predonation on Valvular Surgery without Preoperative Autologous Donation K. Sato, et al. (or.jp)
- We retrospectively evaluated the major factors related to the prevention of homologous blood transfusion by intraoperative predonation in 25 cases following valvular surgery without preoperative autologous donation. (or.jp)
- In conclusion, homologous blood transfusion may be prevented by appropriate intraoperative predonation during surgery for valvular disease. (or.jp)
- Although blood donated by the general public and used for most people is thought to be very safe, some people choose a method called autologous blood donation. (medlineplus.gov)
- Approxi- blood donation by donors that fulfil the mately 18 million Nigerians are chronic criteria for safe blood donation and nowhere carriers . (who.int)
- They are are saved through blood transfusions, blood considered a low-risk group by virtue of transfusion remains a major route of trans- their chosen profession and thus they fulfil mission of these viruses (HBV, HCV and the criteria for safe blood donation. (who.int)
- Though preoperative autologous donation is not acceptable for all cases partly because some are preoperatively in a severe condition, intraoperative predonation is possible in almost all cases. (or.jp)
- A "directed" blood donation occurs when a patient gets the opportunity to choose their blood donor! (bbguy.org)
- This type of donation has substantially decreased in recent years, largely because of the fact that concerns about diseases like HIV and hepatitis C from blood transfusion have lessened. (bbguy.org)
- Winter weather conditions make it harder for committed blood donors and new donors to get to donation centers. (virtualability.org)
- What are the steps at the blood donation center? (virtualability.org)
- Of course to maintain the safety of the blood supply, you must be in general good health and feeling well on the day of your donation. (virtualability.org)
- The American Red Cross restricts donation frequency to every 56 days (about two months) for whole blood donations. (virtualability.org)
- INTRODUCTION: Reports have suggested the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in blood donation shortages and adverse impacts on the blood supply. (cdc.gov)
- The strategies implemented during the research period were effective in increasing apheresis donation of platelets, but had no positive effects on whole-blood donation. (bvsalud.org)
- This study is a prospective, multicenter cohort of persons with HTLV-I and -II infections, which were detected at the time of attempted blood donation at five U.S. blood centers and comparable HTLV-seronegative donors. (cdc.gov)
- The patient had undergone autologous peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation to treat ovarian cancer. (medscape.com)
- Transfusion clinique et biologique : journal de la Société française de transfusion sanguine. (rochester.edu)
- We describe management by cardiopulmonary bypass CPB using exchange transfusion at initiation of bypass and fractionation of collected blood, allowing platelet and plasma apheresis, as an option for patients unable to undergo this procedure off pump. (duke.edu)
- Using data from the National Blood Collection and Utilization Survey (NBCUS), we quantified the pandemic's impact on red blood cell (RBC) and apheresis platelet collections and transfusions in the United States during year 2020. (cdc.gov)
- Healthcare Sales & Marketing Network)-- Orthovita , Inc. (NASDAQ:VITA ), an orthobiologics and biosurgery company, is pleased to announce that Michael Bloomfield, M.D., of Cleveland Clinic, presented results of a study entitled Prospective Randomized Evaluation of a Collagen/Thrombin and Autologous Platelet Hemostatic Agent During Total Knee Arthroplasty on Friday, April 8, at the 29th Annual Meeting of the Mid-America Orthopaedic Association in Tucson, Arizona. (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
- Because of the potential for transfusion-associated transmission of Zika virus, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recommended deferral of blood donors in affected U.S. areas until blood donations can be screened by nucleic acid testing or blood products can be subjected to FDA-approved pathogen reduction technology (PRT). (cdc.gov)
- Also, blood centers keep a list of unsafe donors. (medlineplus.gov)
- Blood from these donors must be collected at least a few days before it is needed. (medlineplus.gov)
- In general, a physician requests in writing that a particular person or persons donate blood specifically for a particular patient (typically, the donors are family members of the patient). (bbguy.org)
- Here's the most important thing about directed donations: According to published data, they are NOT any more safe than getting blood from volunteer, allogeneic blood donors ! (bbguy.org)
- In fact, directed blood donors have a higher rate of having reactive infectious disease tests than regular donors (due in part to the fact that directed donors are very commonly first-time blood donors). (bbguy.org)
- Blood bankers also worry that directed donors may feel pressure to donate, leading to a conscious or unconscious lack of transparency when answering the very detailed donor screening questions. (bbguy.org)
- Finally, since directed donors are commonly family members, blood centers will most often irradiate all units from directed donors to prevent transfusion-associated graft vs. host disease . (bbguy.org)
- Several retail partners offer discounts or other rewards for blood donors. (virtualability.org)
- Arguing that a system of quality assurance should be implemented in all transfusion services and blood banks, the book emphasizes the vital importance of strict quality control procedures at each stage of eah procedure, from the recruitment of donors to the monitoring of the appropriate use of blood or its components for recipients. (who.int)
- Using survival analysis, we studied medical history data from a prospective cohort of HTLV-I- and HTLV-II-infected and -uninfected blood donors, all HIV seronegative. (cdc.gov)
- We have prospectively followed a large cohort of former blood donors with well-documented HTLV-I and -II infection at enrollment, and a similar group of uninfected donors, all of whom are HIV seronegative. (cdc.gov)
- Transfusion and apheresis science : official journal of the World Apheresis Association : official journal of the European Society for Haemapheresis. (rochester.edu)
- METHODS: The 2021 NBCUS survey instrument was modified to include certain blood collection and utilization variables for 2020. (cdc.gov)
- Declines were steepest during March-April 2020, with transfusions subsequently rebounding. (cdc.gov)
- CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in reduced blood donations and transfusions in some months during 2020 but only a minimal annualized decline compared with 2019. (cdc.gov)
- We performed a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study to assess the neuroregenerative potential of intravenous granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) followed by infusion of mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells (mPBMCs) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). (biomedcentral.com)
- Administer busulfan injection in combination with cyclophosphamide as a conditioning regimen prior to bone marrow or peripheral blood progenitor cell replacement. (nih.gov)
- The survey, conducted during February 10-24, 2016, included all blood collection centers performing local collections and importing blood components from the mainland United States for routine clinical use, as well as hospitals performing transfusions in Puerto Rico during 2015. (cdc.gov)
- The survey was distributed to all US blood collection centers, all US hospitals performing 1000 surgeries annually, and a 40% random sample of hospitals performing 100-999 surgeries annually. (cdc.gov)
- In addition to allogeneic HCT, procedures associated with high risk of GVHD include transplantation of solid organs containing lymphoid tissue and transfusion of unirradiated blood products. (medscape.com)
- Control dogs received similar surgical treatment and were administered a similar volume per kg of packed red blood cells as case dogs, but did not undergo autologous transfusion. (tamu.edu)
- Preoperative anemia management program reduces blood transfusion in elective cardiac surgical patients, improving outcomes and decreasing hospital length of stay. (rochester.edu)
- The prospective, double-blind, randomized 100-patient study evaluated the ability of Vitagel Surgical Hemostat (Vitagel), a microfibrillar collagen, thrombin and autologous plasma composite hemostatic agent, to reduce blood loss during primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty. (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
- Furthermore, investigating the pathophysiology of brain injury, cardiopulmonary bypass, and red blood cell and artificial hemoglobin transfusion provides a focus on the potential role of NO as a protective molecule in multiorgan dysfunction. (springeropen.com)
National Blood Collection and Utilization Survey1
- The survey was based on a modified version of the 2015 National Blood Collection and Utilization Survey administered by CDC on behalf of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services ( 5 ), in which U.S. territories have previously not been included. (cdc.gov)
- Blood products or blood appear responsible for AIDS among hemophilia patients who require clotting factor replacement. (cdc.gov)
- The authors found an increase in bleeding and transfusion requirement in patients not treated with aprotinin. (nataonline.com)
- CTX001 is being investigated in two ongoing Phase 1/2 clinical trials as a potential one-time therapy for patients suffering from transfusion-dependent beta thalassemia (TDT) and severe sickle cell disease (SCD). (vrtx.com)
- All 15 patients with TDT, including six who have the beta zero /beta zero or other severe genotypes, were transfusion-free at last follow-up, and all seven patients with severe SCD were free of vaso-occlusive crises (VOCs) from CTX001 infusion through last follow-up. (vrtx.com)
- These results suggest the potential for a durable benefit for patients with transfusion-dependent beta thalassemia. (vrtx.com)
- All 15 patients showed a similar pattern of response, with rapid and sustained increases in total hemoglobin, fetal hemoglobin and transfusion independence. (vrtx.com)
- All 15 patients were transfusion independent with follow-up ranging from 4 to 26 months after CTX001 infusion and had clinically meaningful improvements in total hemoglobin from 8.9 to 16.9 g/dL and fetal hemoglobin from 67.3% to 99.6% at last visit. (vrtx.com)
- Out of 28 countries, 19 have blood and blood products that are provided totally free of charge to the patients. (who.int)
- In nine countries blood and blood products are totally or partially chargeable to the patients. (who.int)
- In countries with low and lower-middle income economies, total or partial costs of blood and blood prod- ucts are recovered directly from the patients. (who.int)
- A mini-physical exam (temperature, blood pressure, hemoglobin level) will check your health status. (virtualability.org)
- Zur Reduktion der Transfusion homologer Blutprodukte und zur Vermeidung transfusionsassoziierter Erkrankungen werden von mehr als der Hälfte der befragten Kliniken die intraoperative Hämodilution (67 %) bzw.die präoperative Eigenblutspende (53 %) durchgeführt. (ai-online.info)
- FDA has recommended that whole blood and blood components for transfusion be obtained from U.S. areas without active Zika virus transmission. (cdc.gov)
- Outsourcing of blood components from unaffected areas might not be feasible if there is widespread Zika virus transmission in heavily populated areas of the continental United States. (cdc.gov)
- The possibility of acquiring AIDS through blood components or blood is further suggested by several cases in persons with no known risk factors who have received blood products or blood within 3 years of AIDS diagnosis (2). (cdc.gov)
- When your blood is collected for plasma, the red cells and other blood components are filtered out and returned to you with additional saline fluid to replace the extracted blood volume. (virtualability.org)
- A comprehensive, authoritative guide to each component of a quality assurance programme for blood transfusion services, whether established in a small hospital blood bank or in a transfusion centre dedicated to the large-scale production of blood components. (who.int)
- The remaining chapters cover the testing and quality assurance of blood components, describe the roles of transfusion committees and audits, and point out the specific responsibilities and tasks of management. (who.int)
- To assess the effectiveness of social marketing and user embracement strategies developed in a hemotherapy service and to assess the restrained demand for blood and blood components in a reference hospital before and after the actions. (bvsalud.org)
- Among these strategies is trying to raise the public awareness on the actual costs of the blood production and changing the cost recovery systems of blood and blood components. (who.int)
- involved in blood transfusion are considered, the However, data on the use of blood products is generally estimated price of transfusion of one unit of red cells is lacking, but studies suggest that blood components are between US$ 700-$1200 ( 7 ). (who.int)
- Comparing the cost related to the preparation wide over 50% of all medicinal interventions are pre- of blood components, a much larger cost is incurred to scribed, dispensed, or sold inappropriately ( 3 ). (who.int)
- Since blood is a scarce and expensive resource, In addition, inappropriate use of blood and blood irrational blood usage places huge burden on health components may result in significant patient harm. (who.int)
- An increasing number of studies show that there is a States of America, the authors concluded that almost half relationship between transfusion of blood components of the transfusions were inadequately indicated causing and the risk of morbidity and mortality ( 10-12 ). (who.int)
- However, the annual cost of providing blood and reaction, transfusion-related acute lung injury and blood components is increasing ( 6 ). (who.int)
- National Blood Foundation 2021 Research and Development summit: Discovery, innovation, and challenges in advancing blood and biotherapies. (rochester.edu)
- This study reports electrolyte and acid/base disturbances observed in clinical cases receiving autologous transfusion of blood processed by a cell salvage device. (tamu.edu)
- Blood transfusion as a life-saving treatment is an irre- that the true cost of blood for clinical use is 3.2 to 4.8- pressible part of modern healthcare. (who.int)
- Placenta previa posed a greater risk of hemorrhage and hence the need for transfusion. (bvsalud.org)
- In this study, standard hemostasis with Vitagel was found to reduce blood transfusions following primary total knee arthroplasty as compared to standard hemostasis alone (electrocautery). (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
- Recently, an infant developed severe immune deficiency and an opportunistic infection several months after receiving a transfusion of platelets derived from the blood of a man subsequently found to have AIDS (12). (cdc.gov)
- A blood transfusion is a safe and common procedure during which you receive blood through an intravenous (IV) line placed in one of your blood vessels. (medlineplus.gov)
- Hsu Y-MS, Ness PM, Cushing MM. Principles of red blood cell transfusion. (medlineplus.gov)
- Electrolyte and acid/base changes in dogs undergoing autologous blood transfusion via a cell salvage device. (tamu.edu)
- The records of 12 client-owned dogs that received an autologous transfusion via a cell salvage device with pre- and post-autologous transfusion blood work available were reviewed. (tamu.edu)
- Case dogs that received autologous transfusion via a cell salvage device were significantly more likely to experience a decrease in ionized calcium and magnesium levels post-transfusion than were control dogs. (tamu.edu)
- Bone marrow (BM)- or cord blood (CB)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have generally been used for cell therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
- It is estimated that red blood often overprescribed in both high-income and low- and cell transfusion costs at least US$ 100 000 000 yearly in middle-income countries ( 2 ). (who.int)
- Information ranges from indicators of successful donor selection and retention, through advice on situations where autologous collections are practical and appropriate, to the reasons why a quality assurance programme must demonstrate its cost-effectiveness in terms of savings and benefits. (who.int)
- However, this study also demonstrates that the withdrawal of aprotinin constitutes a challenge for blood conservation in cardiac surgery and much work is to be done to define the most effective dosage of tranexamic acid or other alternatives to aprotinin. (nataonline.com)
- Importation of blood products from nonaffected areas might serve a role in prevention of transfusion-transmitted Zika virus. (cdc.gov)
- The survey included questions about donor blood collection methods and product types, importation of blood products for routine use, blood use, and extent of PRT implementation for platelets and plasma. (cdc.gov)
- Blood and blood products. (medlineplus.gov)
- Reinfusion of blood or blood products derived from the patient's own circulation. (bvsalud.org)
- Yet the need for blood and blood products continues. (virtualability.org)
- This study aims to compare cost recovery and financing systems of blood and blood products in different countries. (who.int)
- While countries in which blood and blood products are `free of charge' for pa- tients are mostly categorized in upper-middle- or high-income economies with well-developed healthcare and insurance systems. (who.int)
- Blood Banking and Transfusion Medicine Challenges During the COVID-19 Pandemic. (rochester.edu)
- This blood is then tested for infectious diseases before it is allowed to be used. (medlineplus.gov)
- Blood work from the 12 case dogs was compared to blood work from 12 control dogs with similar diseases. (tamu.edu)
- Donated platelets are essential to people with blood-clotting disorders, and those who are battling cancer, traumatic injuries or chronic diseases. (virtualability.org)
- However, the autologous blood pooled before CPB in Group-(－) was significantly more than in Group-(＋)（11.3±2.5 vs 7.3±1.8ml/kg, p ＜0.001). (or.jp)
- next generation transfusion practices to improve recipient safety. (rochester.edu)
- Most of the time, you need to arrange with your hospital or local blood bank before your surgery to have directed donor blood. (medlineplus.gov)
- There is no known reported case of an obstetric patient with the Bombay blood group from Nepal . (bvsalud.org)
- As a result, the units may be released for general use if not transfused to the intended patient (this contrasts to autologous donations , which cannot be "crossed over" into regular inventory if unused). (bbguy.org)
- Patient Blood Management: Improving Outcomes for Millions While Saving Billions. (rochester.edu)
- Elderly Gravida with Bombay Blood Group and Placenta Previa Managed with Autologous Blood Transfusion. (bvsalud.org)
- The Bombay blood group is a rare blood type with an incidence of around one in a million. (bvsalud.org)
- People with this rare blood group can receive blood only from those with the same blood type. (bvsalud.org)
- We report an elderly gravida with the Bombay blood group who had a pregnancy complicated by diabetes, placenta previa , and transverse lie ( back up) following an in vitro fertilization . (bvsalud.org)
- The main challenge was arranging blood for transfusion, and as the Bombay blood group was unavailable, she was managed with autologous blood transfusion which was performed for the first time in a pregnant lady in our institute. (bvsalud.org)
- Egypt ranged from 6% to 38% with a mean table blood donor group that frequently of 15% . (who.int)
- This this group of young clergymen with a view is particularly true in developing countries to making recommendations that would where there is widespread transfusion of improve the safety of blood transfusion. (who.int)
- A chapter focused on the responsibilities of laboratories outlines laboratory tests for quality control and quality monitoring and sets out, in tabular form, specific requirements for the quality control of ABO grouping, Rh(D) blood group reagents, HBsAg testing, anti-HIV testing, and syphilis testing. (who.int)
- You may have read about the danger of becoming infected with hepatitis, HIV, or other viruses after a blood transfusion. (medlineplus.gov)
- How do we forecast tomorrow's transfusion? (rochester.edu)
- Subsequent chapters describe measures for quality assurance in donor selection and blood collection. (who.int)
Hepatitis B vir1
- Many drug abusers share contaminated needles, exposing themselves to blood-borne agents, such as hepatitis B virus. (cdc.gov)
- Each year up to 4 million blood purpose of this prospective study, therefore, donations worldwide are not tested for HIV was to document the seroprevalence of HIV, or HBV and only a small proportion of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and HCV in donated blood is tested for HCV . (who.int)
- I created Blood Bank Guy in 1998 to teach the essentials of Transfusion Medicine to those who are "learners" in the field. (bbguy.org)
- Transfusion medicine: A research agenda for the coming years. (rochester.edu)
- 3Blood Transfusion Research Center, High Institute for Research & Education on Transfusion Medicine, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran. (who.int)
- 5IQM Consulting for International Development of Quality Management in Transfusion Medicine, University of Groningen , Netherlands. (who.int)
- Plasma is the complex liquid component of fluid blood. (virtualability.org)
- This retrospective study compares blood loss and transfusion requirements before and after the withdrawal of aprotinin. (nataonline.com)
- Abstract:Postpartum haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death in the developing country and yet is poorly diagnosed due to inaccurate measurement of blood loss following delivery. (bvsalud.org)
- A study was carried out at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH) Tanzania between October 2005 and January 2006 to determine the accuracy of visual estimation of blood loss (VEBL) in comparison to laboratory measurement of blood loss in diagnosis of primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). (bvsalud.org)
- Active management of third stage of labour was conducted by giving 10IU of oxytocin (intramuscularly or intravenously) and this was followed by visual estimation of blood loss. (bvsalud.org)
- The mean duration of third stage of labour was 8.3 minutes and mean blood loss was 164.9ml. (bvsalud.org)
- Blood collection organizations and public health organizations need to collaborate to prepare for blood safety and adequacy challenges that might arise if Zika virus transmission spreads in the United States. (cdc.gov)
- To inform efforts to maintain the safety and availability of the blood supply in Puerto Rico, CDC, in collaboration with the Puerto Rico Department of Health, conducted a rapid assessment of blood collection and use on the island. (cdc.gov)
- Because of the potential for local Zika virus transmission in areas with a competent mosquito vector ( 4 ), other areas of the United States should develop plans to ensure local blood safety and adequacy. (cdc.gov)
- Blood collection organizations and public health agencies should collaborate to maintain the safety and availability of local blood supplies in accordance with FDA guidance. (cdc.gov)
- Data obtained from the database, particularly records of transfusions requested and performed, were used to compare the number of donations performed before and after the actions with data of the previous year using descriptive statistics and Student's t test. (bvsalud.org)
- Details for: Guidelines for quality assurance programmes for blood transfusion services. (who.int)
- A total of 426 pregnant women who were in active phase of labour were recruited and their venous blood was drawn for estimation of haematocrit before delivery and 12 hours thereafter. (bvsalud.org)
- Organization (WHO) estimates that 112.5 million blood costs. (who.int)