Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Rete Testis: The network of channels formed at the termination of the straight SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES in the mediastinum testis. Rete testis channels drain into the efferent ductules that pass into the caput EPIDIDYMIS.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Sertoli Cells: Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.Cryptorchidism: A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the bottom of the SCROTUM. Testicular descent is essential to normal SPERMATOGENESIS which requires temperature lower than the BODY TEMPERATURE. Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis.Leydig Cells: Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.Blood-Testis Barrier: A specialized barrier, in the TESTIS, between the interstitial BLOOD compartment and the adluminal compartment of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. The barrier is formed by layers of cells from the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM of the capillary BLOOD VESSELS, to the SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIUM of the seminiferous tubules. TIGHT JUNCTIONS form between adjacent SERTOLI CELLS, as well as between the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Spermatids: Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Spermatogonia: Euploid male germ cells of an early stage of SPERMATOGENESIS, derived from prespermatogonia. With the onset of puberty, spermatogonia at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule proliferate by mitotic then meiotic divisions and give rise to the haploid SPERMATOCYTES.Seminiferous Epithelium: The epithelium lining the seminiferous tubules composed of primary male germ cells (SPERMATOGONIA) and supporting SERTOLI CELLS. As SPERMATOGENESIS proceeds, the developing germ cells migrate toward the lumen. The adluminal compartment, the inner two thirds of the tubules, contains SPERMATOCYTES and the more advanced germ cells.Blood-Retinal Barrier: A specialized transport barrier, in the EYE, formed by the retinal pigment EPITHELIUM, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the RETINA. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.Epididymis: The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Blood-Air Barrier: The barrier between capillary blood and alveolar air comprising the alveolar EPITHELIUM and capillary ENDOTHELIUM with their adherent BASEMENT MEMBRANE and EPITHELIAL CELL cytoplasm. PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE occurs across this membrane.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Testicular Diseases: Pathological processes of the TESTIS.Testicular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.Tight Junctions: Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)Communication Barriers: Those factors, such as language or sociocultural relationships, which interfere in the meaningful interpretation and transmission of ideas between individuals or groups.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Sperm Count: A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Infertility, Male: The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Genitalia, Male: The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).Orchitis: Inflammation of a TESTIS. It has many features of EPIDIDYMITIS, such as swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS and then the TESTIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.Spermatic Cord Torsion: The twisting of the SPERMATIC CORD due to an anatomical abnormality that left the TESTIS mobile and dangling in the SCROTUM. The initial effect of testicular torsion is obstruction of venous return. Depending on the duration and degree of cord rotation, testicular symptoms range from EDEMA to interrupted arterial flow and testicular pain. If blood flow to testis is absent for 4 to 6 h, SPERMATOGENESIS may be permanently lost.Sexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.Scrotum: A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Occludin: A MARVEL domain protein that plays an important role in the formation and regulation of the TIGHT JUNCTION paracellular permeability barrier.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Blood-Aqueous Barrier: The selectively permeable barrier, in the EYE, formed by the nonpigmented layer of the EPITHELIUM of the CILIARY BODY, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the IRIS. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Orchiectomy: The surgical removal of one or both testicles.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Sex-Determining Region Y Protein: A transcription factor that plays an essential role in the development of the TESTES. It is encoded by a gene on the Y chromosome and contains a specific HMG-BOX DOMAIN that is found within members of the SOX family of transcription factors.Zonula Occludens-1 Protein: A 195-kDa zonula occludens protein that is distinguished by the presence of a ZU5 domain at the C-terminal of the molecule.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Seminal Vesicles: A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Electric Impedance: The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.Blood-Nerve Barrier: The barrier between the perineurium of PERIPHERAL NERVES and the endothelium (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR) of endoneurial CAPILLARIES. The perineurium acts as a diffusion barrier, but ion permeability at the blood-nerve barrier is still higher than at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER.Sex Determination Processes: The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Gonads: The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.Sertoli Cell Tumor: Gonadal neoplasm composed entirely of SERTOLI CELLS or may have a component of GRANULOSA CELLS. Some of the Sertoli cell tumors produce ESTROGEN or ANDROGENS, but seldom in sufficient quantity to cause clinical symptoms such as FEMINIZATION or masculinization (VIRILISM).Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Orchiopexy: A surgical procedure in which an undescended testicle is sutured inside the SCROTUM in male infants or children to correct CRYPTORCHIDISM. Orchiopexy is also performed to treat TESTICULAR TORSION in adults and adolescents.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Dibutyl Phthalate: A plasticizer used in most plastics and found in water, air, soil, plants and animals. It may have some adverse effects with long-term exposure.Mice, Inbred C57BLTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Meige Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by orofacial DYSTONIA; including BLEPHAROSPASM; forceful jaw opening; lip retraction; platysma muscle spasm; and tongue protrusion. It primarily affects older adults, with an incidence peak in the seventh decade of life. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p108)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Sperm Motility: Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Seminoma: A radiosensitive, malignant neoplasm of the testis, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. There are three variants: classical (typical), the most common type; anaplastic; and spermatocytic. The classical seminoma is composed of fairly well differentiated sheets or cords of uniform polygonal or round cells (seminoma cells), each cell having abundant clear cytoplasm, distinct cell membranes, a centrally placed round nucleus, and one or more nucleoli. In the female, a grossly and histologically identical neoplasm, known as dysgerminoma, occurs. (Dorland, 27th ed)Testicular Hormones: Hormones produced in the testis.Sperm Maturation: The maturing process of SPERMATOZOA after leaving the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. Maturation in SPERM MOTILITY and FERTILITY takes place in the EPIDIDYMIS as the sperm migrate from caput epididymis to cauda epididymis.Claudins: A large family of transmembrane proteins found in TIGHT JUNCTIONS. They take part in the formation of paracellular barriers and pores that regulate paracellular permeability.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Dicrocoeliidae: A family of flattened, translucent flukes (TREMATODA) occurring in the gut, gallbladder, bile ducts, liver or pancreatic ducts of amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. (Noble et al., Parasitology: the Biology of Animal Parasites, 6th ed, p188)Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Varicocele: A condition characterized by the dilated tortuous veins of the SPERMATIC CORD with a marked left-sided predominance. Adverse effect on male fertility occurs when varicocele leads to an increased scrotal (and testicular) temperature and reduced testicular volume.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Spermatic Cord: Either of a pair of tubular structures formed by DUCTUS DEFERENS; ARTERIES; VEINS; LYMPHATIC VESSELS; and nerves. The spermatic cord extends from the deep inguinal ring through the INGUINAL CANAL to the TESTIS in the SCROTUM.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelySOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Mice, Hairless: Mutant strains of mice that produce little or no hair.Genes, sry: The primary testis-determining gene in mammalians, located on the Y CHROMOSOME. It codes for a high mobility group box transcription factor (TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS) which initiates the development of the TESTES from the embryonic GONADS.Diethylhexyl Phthalate: An ester of phthalic acid. It appears as a light-colored, odorless liquid and is used as a plasticizer for many resins and elastomers.Claudin-5: A claudin subtype that is found localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS in VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. The protein was initially identified as one of several proteins which are deleted in VELOCARDIOFACIAL SYNDROME and may play an important role in maintaining the integrity of the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.

Passage of leptin across the blood-testis barrier. (1/152)

Leptin is a 17-kDa protein, secreted by fat, that controls adiposity and has been proposed to have numerous effects on reproduction in the mouse. To assess whether the effects of leptin on testicular function are direct, we determined whether leptin can cross the murine blood-testis barrier. Multiple time regression analysis showed that a small amount of blood-borne leptin is able to enter the testis but does so by a nonsaturable process. In addition, no significant expression of leptin receptors was found at the Leydig cells or Sertoli cells of the testis. This compares with the presence of a saturable transport system for leptin at the blood-brain barrier and abundant receptors for leptin at the leptomeninges, neurons, and choroid plexus of the central nervous system (CNS). These results support the hypothesis that the effects of leptin on reproductive function are not mediated at the level of the testis but indirectly, probably through the CNS.  (+info)

Evaluation of cholesteryl ester transfer in the seminiferous tubule cells of immature rats in vivo and in vitro. (2/152)

Sertoli cells and germ cells are separated from the interstitial blood capillaries by an extracellular matrix and the peritubular cells, which constitute a barrier to the movement of plasma lipoproteins. The present study was undertaken to evaluate in vivo and in vitro the high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesteryl ester transfer from plasma to seminiferous tubule cells in the testis of 30-day-old rats. Firstly, the transfer of HDL cholesteryl oleate from plasma to testicular compartments was evaluated and, secondly, the role of apolipoproteins A-I and E in the uptake of cholesteryl ester by Sertoli cells was investigated. At 2 h after the administration of HDL reconstituted with [3H]cholesteryl ester, dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine and apolipoproteins, the tissue space in the interstitial cells (740 +/- 60 microliters g-1 cell protein) was fourfold higher than that in the seminiferous tubule cells (170 +/- 10 microliters g-1). Sertoli cells were isolated and incubated with [3H]cholesteryl ester HDL reconstituted with apolipoprotein A-I or E to evaluate the mechanisms of cholesteryl ester influx. At the same apolipoprotein concentration (50 micrograms apolipoprotein ml-1 medium), the uptake of [3H]cholesteryl oleate from phospholipid-apolipoprotein E vesicles was twofold higher than that with phospholipid-apolipoprotein A-I vesicles. The presence of heparin reduced the uptake of cholesteryl ester from apolipoprotein E vesicles but not with apolipoprotein A-I vesicles, indicating that uptake of apolipoprotein A-I vesicles via a secretion of apolipoprotein E by the cells themselves was not involved. These results demonstrate that plasma lipoprotein cholesterol is able to cross the testis lamina propria and that Sertoli cells take up cholesteryl ester for seminiferous tubule cell metabolism mainly via an apolipoprotein E pathway.  (+info)

Passive immunization with anti-laminin immunoglobulin G modifies the integrity of the seminiferous epithelium and induces arrest of spermatogenesis in the guinea pig. (3/152)

In the testis, the base of the Sertoli cells is in contact with the basement membrane matrix, in which the laminins constitute the major noncollagenous components. We have previously demonstrated that antibodies against a preparation enriched in basement membranes of seminiferous tubules (STBM) or a noncollagenous fraction of STBM passively transferred induced modifications to the basement membranes and focal sloughing of the seminiferous epithelium in the rat. In the present report, we tested the effect of passive immunization with anti-laminin IgG on the limiting membrane of the seminiferous tubules, spermatogenesis, and maintenance of the blood-testis barrier in the adult guinea pig. Rabbit antibodies to laminin 1 (IgG fraction) were injected in adult male guinea pigs (GP). Nonimmunized GP and GP immunized with normal rabbit serum IgG were used as controls. Measurements of variations in the diameter and lumen of the tubules and in the size of individual components of the tubular limiting membrane showed that the highest percentage of tubules with reduced lumen occurred 30 days after passive immunization with anti-laminin, when the limiting membrane was thickest and lesions to the seminiferous epithelium were most severe. The lesions included thickening of the limiting membrane, infolding in the basal lamina, deposits of immune complexes coincident with sloughing of pachytene spermatocytes and spermatids, and vacuolization of the Sertoli cells. Mononuclear cell infiltration of the tubules was rare. Permeability tracer studies revealed that Sertoli cell tight junctions remained impermeable. Fifty and 80 days after treatment, the basement membrane of the tubules and the progression of the spermatogenesis were normal. Passive immunization with anti-laminin IgG provided a valuable experimental model for the in vivo study of the influence of the basement membrane on the issue of spermatogenesis and the integrity of the seminiferous epithelium.  (+info)

Effect of efferent duct ligation on the function of the blood-testis barrier in rats. (4/152)

The function of the blood-testis barrier has been assessed from the ratio of the Cr-EDTA space in the parenchyma to the measured interstitial volume in the testes of rats at various times after unilateral ligation of the efferent ducts. The barrier remained effective during the phase of fluid accumulation and testicular mass gain, which was linear for at least 24 h, but the testis mass began to decrease between 32 and 40 h after efferent duct ligation, and the Cr-EDTA space at 40 and 48 h after efferent duct ligation exceeded the volume of the interstitial tissue. This finding indicated that, at these times, the barrier to Cr-EDTA, which is normally excluded from the tubules, had broken down and the marker was entering the tubules. Thereafter, the Cr-EDTA space decreased again to be less than the interstitial tissue volume, indicating a restoration of the barrier function, although degeneration of the seminiferous epithelium continued to become more obvious. The present study is the first report of a reversible breakdown of the barrier, but the relevance of the breakdown to the effects on spermatogenesis requires further study.  (+info)

Testicular damage by microcirculatory disruption and colonization of an immune-privileged site during Borrelia crocidurae infection. (5/152)

The agent of African relapsing fever, Borrelia crocidurae, causes reversible multiple organ damage. We hypothesize that this damage is caused when the spirochete forms aggregate with erythrocytes in vivo, creating rosettes that plug the microcirculatory system. To test this hypothesis, we compared testicular microcirculation over an extended time period in two groups of rats: one experimentally inoculated with B. crocidurae, the other with the nonerythrocyte rosette-forming Borrelia hermsii. In the B. crocidurae group, erythrocyte rosettes formed during spiro-chetemia blocked precapillary blood vessels and reduced the normal pattern of microcirculatory blood flow. After spirochetemia, erythrocyte rosettes disappeared and flow was normalized. Decreased blood flow and focal vascular damage with increased permeability and interstitial bleeding adjacent to the erythrocyte microemboli induced cell death in seminiferous tubules. Interestingly, we found that B. crocidurae could penetrate the tubules and remain in the testis long after the end of spirochetemia, suggesting that the testis can serve as a reservoir for this bacteria in subsequent relapses. The group infected with B. hermsii displayed normal testicular blood flow and vasomotion at all selected time points, and suffered no testicular damage. These results confirmed our hypothesis that the erythrocyte rosettes produce vascular obstruction and are the main cause of histopathology seen in model animal and human infections.  (+info)

A 22-amino acid synthetic peptide corresponding to the second extracellular loop of rat occludin perturbs the blood-testis barrier and disrupts spermatogenesis reversibly in vivo. (6/152)

When Sertoli cells were cultured in vitro on Matrigel-coated bicameral units, the assembly of the inter-Sertoli tight junction (TJ) permeability barrier correlated with an induction of occludin expression. Inclusion of a 22-amino acid peptide, NH(2)-GSQIYTICSQFYTPGGTGLYVD-COOH, corresponding to residues 209-230 in the second extracellular loop of rat occludin, at 0.2-4 microM into Sertoli cell cultures could perturb the assembly of Sertoli TJs dose-dependently and reversibly. This peptide apparently exerts its effects by interfering with the homotypic interactions of two occludin molecules between adjacent Sertoli cells at the sites of TJs, thereby disrupting TJs, which, in turn, causes a decline in transepithelial electrical resistance across the Sertoli cell epithelium. When similar experiments were performed using a 22-amino acid myotubularin peptide, NH(2)-TKVNERYELCDTYPALLAVPAN-COOH (residues 156-177), no effects on the assembly of inter-Sertoli TJs in vitro were noted. When a single dose of this synthetic occludin peptide was administered to adult rats intratesticularly at 1.5-10 mg/testis, germ cells began to deplete from the seminiferous epithelium within 8-16 days. By 27 days, virtually all tubules were devoid of germ cells. This antispermatogenic effect was reversible, because germ cells progressively repopulated the epithelium thereafter. Treated testes were indistinguishable from normal or control testes by 68 days post-occludin peptide treatment when assessed using histological analysis. In contrast, control rats receiving either no treatment, vehicle alone, or a 22-amino acid synthetic peptide of myotubularin displayed no changes in the testicular morphology at all time points. The occludin peptide-induced germ cell depletion was also accompanied by a disruption of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) when assessed by micropuncture techniques quantifying [(125)I]-BSA in rete testis fluid and seminiferous tubular fluid following i.v. administration of [(125)I]-BSA through the jugular vein. These results illustrate that the occludin peptide-induced disruption of the BTB may possibly affect the underlying adherens junctions, which causes premature release of germ cells from the epithelium and reversible infertility.  (+info)

Expression of a blood-brain barrier-specific antigen in the reproductive tract of the male rat. (7/152)

The endothelial barrier antigen (EBA) is a protein expressed specifically by the endothelial cells of the rat brain barrier vessels. This antigen has been described as a 'barrier protein' and is used as a marker for the competent blood-brain barrier. A blood-testis barrier has also been described. However, unlike the blood-brain barrier, which is formed by endothelial cells, the blood-testis barrier is formed mainly by the Sertoli cells, which provide an isolated environment for spermatogenic cells within the seminiferous tubules. Testicular blood vessels express the erythroid glucose transporter protein and other markers, which are strongly expressed in brain blood vessels, and may contribute to the blood-testis barrier. This study was carried out to determine whether Sertoli cells or testicular blood vessels express EBA. Tissues of other organs were used as controls for EBA expression. EBA was expressed by the endothelial cells in most microvessels of the testis, and in a few vessels of the epididymis, seminal vesicle, prostate gland, vas deferens and bladder-neck region. Furthermore, EBA was strongly and consistently detected in epithelial cells of the rete testis and dorsolateral prostate gland, and in a few epithelial cells of the ventral prostate gland, the seminal vesicle and the coagulating gland. However, Sertoli cells, which are the main site of the blood-testis barrier, were negative for EBA. In conclusion, EBA may have a wider role in rat tissues than has been previously appreciated.  (+info)

Cr(V) involvement in the toxicity pathway of testicular damage. (8/152)

AIM: The functional integrity of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) in male mice exposed to Cr(V) was studied in order to clarify the mechanism underlying testicular injury. METHODS: Adult male mice were subcutaneously injected repeated doses of 8.02 micromol (0.5 ml) of Cr/mouse.day for 5 days. Animals receiving a similar volume of bis(hydroxyethyl)-aminotris(hydroxymethyl)methane buffer (BT) were used as controls. The animals were sacrificed on day 6 and small fragments of seminiferous tubules, approximately 8-10 mm length, were incised and sutured at both ends. They were exposed in vitro to horseradish peroxidase-containing culture medium for 10 minutes. Tissues were then fixed and processed for ultrastructural studies. RESULTS: Controls and Cr(V)-treated group resulted in the uptake of the tracer by Sertoli cells. However, the major finding consisted in the permeability of the BTB only in the Cr(V)-group, as evidenced by the presence of the tracer within the junctions between the neighbouring Sertoli cells. CONCLUSION: The BTB is disrupted in mice submitted to Cr(V). The permeability of the BTB is a crucial feature to be investigated for the understanding of lesions within the seminiferous tubule.  (+info)

*Blood-testis barrier

Blood-air barrier Blood-brain barrier Blood-ocular barrier Blood-retinal barrier Blood-thymus barrier Spermatogenesis Ganong. ... The blood-testis barrier is a physical barrier between the blood vessels and the seminiferous tubules of the animal testes. The ... This composition is maintained by blood-testis barrier. The barrier also protects the germ cells from blood-borne noxious ... "blood-testis barrier" is misleading in that it is not a blood-organ barrier in a strict sense, but is formed between Sertoli ...

*Stem-cell niche

In addition the blood testis barrier provides architectural support and is composed of tight junction components such as ... These tight junctions form the blood testis barrier (BTB) and have been suggested to play a role in isolating differentiated ... Jul 2010). "Molecular dynamics of the blood-testis barrier components during murine spermatogenesis". Mol Reprod Dev. 77 (7): ... been shown to be a necessary component of these tight junctions as mice lacking this gene have a defective blood testis barrier ...

*Reproductive immunology

The blood-testis barrier separates the immune system and the developing spermatozoa. The tight junction between the Sertoli ... or immunological interactions across the blood-testis barrier. The concept has been used by fertility clinics to explain the ... cells form the blood-testis barrier but it is usually breached by physiological leakage. Not all sperms are protected by the ... barrier because spermatogonia and early spermatocytes are located below the junction. They are protected by other means like ...

*Immunocontraception

Spermatozoa are protected from the male's immune system by the blood-testis barrier. However, spermatozoa are deposited into ... Blood samples were taken twice a month, and booster injections were given when antibody titers declined below 50 ng/mL in women ... A novel family of protease inhibitors expressed in the epididymis and testis". Gene. 270: 93-102. doi:10.1016/s0378-1119(01) ... fish exposed to treated sewage effluents were found to have concentrations of the synthetic hormone levonorgestrel in blood ...

*Immune privilege

Mital, Payal; Hinton, Barry T.; Dufour, Jannette M. (2011-05-01). "The blood-testis and blood-epididymis barriers are more than ... They create the Sertoli cell barrier, which complements the blood-testis barrier. The protection is ensured by tight junctions ... The blood-testis barrier is likely to contribute to the survival of sperm. However, it is believed in the field of testicular ... immunology that the blood-testis barrier cannot account for all immune suppression in the testis, due to (1) its incompleteness ...

*3-MCPD

It is able to cross the blood-testis barrier and blood-brain barrier. The oral LD50 of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol is 152 mg/kg ...

*Testicular immunology

The blood-testis barrier is likely to contribute to the survival of sperm. However, it is believed in the field of testicular ... Risk factors for the formation of antisperm antibodies in men include the breakdown of the bloodtestis barrier, trauma and ... immunology that the blood-testis barrier cannot account for all immune suppression in the testis, due to (1) its incompleteness ... at a region called the rete testis and (2) the presence of immunogenic molecules outside the blood-testis barrier, on the ...

*Spermatozoon

... and HIV-infected white blood cells, thereby avoiding an immune response from the host organism. The blood-testis barrier, ... The blood-testis barrier is also important in preventing toxic substances from disrupting spermatogenesis. Fertilization relies ... prevents communication between the forming spermatozoa in the testis and the blood vessels (and immune cells circulating within ... Spermatozoa are produced in the seminiferous tubules of the testes in a process called spermatogenesis. Round cells called ...

*Stress granule

ErLin S, WenJie W, LiNing W, BingXin L, MingDe L, Yan S, RuiFa H (May 2015). "Musashi-1 maintains blood-testis barrier ...

*Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

Ingestion of 0.01% DEHP caused damage to the blood-testis barrier as well as induction of experimental autoimmune orchitis. ... DEHP makes these plastics softer and more flexible and was first introduced in the 1940s in blood bags. For this reason, ... relevance to blood services". Transfusion Medicine. 21 (2): 73-83. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3148.2010.01056.x. PMID 21143327. CDC ... blood bags and transfusion tubing, and air tubes. ...

*Spermatogenesis

... via the blood-testis barrier Contribute to the spermatogonial stem cell niche The intercellular adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and ... via the blood-testis barrier Secrete substances initiating meiosis Secrete supporting testicular fluid Secrete androgen-binding ... and the formation of the blood-testis barrier. ABP is essential to concentrating testosterone in levels high enough to initiate ... soluble ICAM-1 have antagonistic effects on the tight junctions forming the blood-testis barrier. ICAM-2 molecules regulate ...

*ICAM-1

... and soluble ICAM-1 have antagonistic effects on the tight junctions forming the blood-testis barrier, thus playing a ... Blood. 106 (2): 584-92. doi:10.1182/blood-2004-12-4942. PMC 1635241 . PMID 15811956. Gjelstrup, L. C.; Boesen, T.; Kragstrup, T ... Blood. 106 (2): 584-92. doi:10.1182/blood-2004-12-4942. PMC 1635241 . PMID 15811956. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 at the ...

*ICAM2

ICAM-2 molecules regulate spermatid adhesion on Sertori cell on the apical side of the blood-testis barrier (towards the lumen ...

*Testicle

Thus, the blood-testis barrier may reduce the likelihood that sperm proteins will induce an immune response, reducing fertility ... The function of the blood-testis barrier (red highlight in diagram above) may be to prevent an auto-immune reaction. Mature ... Varicocele, swollen vein(s) from the testes, usually affecting the left side, the testis usually being normal Hydrocele testis ... The original Latin word testis, "witness", was used in the firmly established legal principle "Testis unus, testis nullus" (one ...

*BTB

... may refer to: In biology: Blood-testis barrier or Blood-thymus barrier, in testicular anatomy Bovine tuberculosis or ...

*Reversible inhibition of sperm under guidance

Unlike in a vasectomy (see blood-testis barrier), the vas deferens is not completely blocked, the body does not have to absorb ... He originally wanted to create an artificial heart that could pump blood using a strong electrical pulse. Using the 13-chamber ...

*Social immunity

... blood-ovary/blood-testes barrier, increased number of immune cells relative to non-reproductive organs) can be compared to the ... Clotting in an individual's wounded blood vessels can be compared to the entrance-plugging behaviour of special ant workers in ... to ward off mosquitoes and other blood-sucking ornithophillous (bird-targeting) insects. After the broader definition of social ... "Aromatic plants in bird nests as a protection against blood-sucking flying insects?". Behavioural Processes. 56 (2): 113-120. ...

*ABCG2

... and at the blood-testis barrier, the blood-brain barrier, and the membranes of hematopoietic progenitor and other stem cells. ...

*P-glycoprotein

... and in the capillary endothelial cells composing the blood-brain barrier and blood-testis barrier, where it pumps them back ... This protein also functions as a transporter in the blood-brain barrier. P-gp transports various substrates across the cell ... van Assema DM, van Berckel BN (2016). "Blood-Brain Barrier ABC-transporter P-glycoprotein in Alzheimer's disease: still a ... Schinkel AH (Apr 1999). "P-Glycoprotein, a gatekeeper in the blood-brain barrier". Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 36 (2-3): ...

*Sperm

... the infectious proteins would still have to cross the blood-testis barrier to make transmission possible. Sperm were first ...

*GJA1

... key role in spermatogenesis and testis development through controlling the tight junction proteins in the blood-testis barrier ... As a biomarker, GJA1 could also be used to screen young males for risk of testis cancer. Currently, only rotigaptide, an ... and testis cancer. Its role in controlling cell motility and polarity was thought to contribute to cancer development and ... "Connexin 43 a check-point component of cell proliferation implicated in a wide range of human testis diseases". Cellular and ...

*Sertoli cell

... a blood plasma protein for iron ion delivery The occluding junctions of Sertoli cells form the blood-testis barrier, a ... must be dynamically reformed and broken to allow the immunoidentical spermatogonia to cross through the blood-testis barrier so ... Sertoli cells control the entry and exit of nutrients, hormones and other chemicals into the tubules of the testis as well as ... Transverse section of a tubule of the testis of a rat. X 250. Sertoli cell only syndrome Sertoli cell nodule Rato, Luís; Alves ...

*Sustentacular cell

... the maintenance of the blood-testis barrier, and the secretion of inhibin, androgen-binding protein, and Mullerian-inhibiting ... Sustentacular cells are supporting cells of the seminiferous tubules of the testis, responsible for the differentiation of ...

*List of MeSH codes (A05)

... rete testis MeSH A05.360.444.849.700 --- seminiferous tubules MeSH A05.360.444.849.700.349 --- blood-testis barrier MeSH ... testis MeSH A05.810.453.324 --- kidney cortex MeSH A05.810.453.324.359 --- kidney glomerulus MeSH A05.810.453.324.359.224 --- ... testis MeSH A05.360.444.849.513 --- leydig cells MeSH A05.360.444.849.600 --- ...

*Antisperm antibodies

Risk factors for the formation of antisperm antibodies in men include the breakdown of the bloodtestis barrier, trauma and ... While around 75% of vasectomized men who have the process reversed by vasovasostomy have high levels of ASA in their blood, ... ASA can be detected in ejaculate, cervical mucus, follicular fluid, and blood serum. ASA can arise whenever sperm encounter the ...

*Blood-air barrier

... diving portal Blood-brain barrier Blood-ocular barrier Blood-retinal barrier Blood-testis barrier Blood-thymus barrier ... The blood-air barrier (alveolar-capillary barrier or membrane) exists in the gas exchanging region of the lungs. It exists to ... The barrier is permeable to molecular oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and many other gases. This blood gas barrier is ... Possible consequences of rupture of the blood-air barrier include arterial gas embolism and hemoptysis. Failure of the barrier ...
The use of an in vitro system based on primary cultures of Sertoli cells isolated from rat testes has greatly facilitated the study of the blood-testis barrier in recent years. Herein, we summarize the detailed procedures on the isolation of undifferentiated Sertoli cells from 20-day-old rat testes, the culture of these cells as a monolayer on Matrigel-coated bicameral units, the characterization of these cultured cells, and the use of the Sertoli cell epithelium for monitoring the integrity of the Sertoli cell blood-testis barrier. This information is based on the routine use of this system in our laboratory to study the Sertoli cell blood-testis barrier in the past two decades, which should be helpful for investigators in the field.. ...
The blood-testis barrier (BTB), one of the tightest blood-tissue barriers in the mammalian body, creates an immune-privileged site for postmeiotic spermatid development to avoid the production of antibodies against spermatid-specific antigens, many of which express transiently during spermiogenesis and spermiation. However, the BTB undergoes extensive restructuring at stage VIII of the epithelial cycle to facilitate the transit of preleptotene spermatocytes and to prepare for meiosis. This action thus prompted us to investigate whether this stage can be a physiological window for the delivery of therapeutic and/or contraceptive drugs across the BTB to exert their effects at the immune-privileged site. Herein, we report findings that P-glycoprotein, an ATP-dependent efflux drug transporter and an integrated component of the occludin/zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1) adhesion complex at the BTB, structurally interacted with focal adhesion kinase (FAK), creating the occludin/ZO-1/FAK/P-glycoprotein ...
Sperm are immunogenic - that is they will cause an autoimmune reaction if transplanted from the testis into a different part of the body. This has been demonstrated in experiments using rats by Lansteiner (1899) and Metchinikoff (1900),[11][12] mice [13] and guinea pigs.[14] The likely reason for this is that sperm first mature at puberty, after immune tolerance is established, therefore the body recognizes them as foreign and mounts an immune reaction against them. Therefore, mechanisms for their protection must exist in this organ to prevent any autoimmune reaction. The blood-testis barrier is likely to contribute to the survival of sperm. However, it is believed in the field of testicular immunology that the blood-testis barrier cannot account for all immune suppression in the testis, due to (1) its incompleteness at a region called the rete testis [12] and (2) the presence of immunogenic molecules outside the blood-testis barrier, on the surface of spermatogonia.[11][12] Another mechanism ...
The retina is an extension of the central nervous system that has been shown to share the pathological manifestations of a number of neurological disorders, including Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons and multiple sclerosis. Moreover, patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a disease of the central retina, have been shown to have non vision-related cognitive decline. Furthermore, a number of physiological processes that are affected in neuro-degenerative diseases are also impacted in retinal degenerative diseases. To cite a few examples, perturbation in phagocytic clearance, iron metabolism, polarized fluid transport and blood-tissue barrier function are all major cellular characteristics of degenerative diseases of both the retina and the brain. Therefore studying mechanisms of specific retinal degenerative diseases also has significant relevance for understanding other neurological disorders ...
The tissues chosen for study (testis, epididymis, and brain) were selected because they contain restrictive vascular barriers limiting the permeability of the tissue to large proteins and other molecules. The presence of vascular boundaries indicates the need for specialized transport of substances into and out of the tissue. The blood-brain barrier is well known, having been first described at the turn of the century (Biedl and Kraus, 1898). It is comprised of endothelial cells connected by tight junctions which serve to restrict the passage of substances from the vasculature into the cerebral interstitium (Brightman and Reese, 1969). The blood-testis barrier was also recognized in the early 1900s and was characterized by electron microscopy in the rat in 1970 (Dym and Fawcett, 1970). A dispute exists over which cells actually comprise the blood-testis barrier, and it has been suggested that there are actually three barriers in the testis of most species: 1) the endothelial lining of the blood ...
Subcellular Architecture of Regulatory Protein Complexes at the Bacterial Pole Recent advances in microscopic imaging with single fluorescent molecules have led...
A schematic drawing illustrating the likely role of ezrin in the apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES) during the epithelial cycle in the rat testis. Ezrin is
Video created by Universiteit Leiden, Leiden University Medical Center for the course Clinical Kidney, Pancreas and Islet Transplantation. Now you know the factors of importance before transplantation, including the immunological barriers and ...
Looking for online definition of blood-testis barrier in the Medical Dictionary? blood-testis barrier explanation free. What is blood-testis barrier? Meaning of blood-testis barrier medical term. What does blood-testis barrier mean?
The ultrastructure of Sertoli-Sertoli and Sertoli-germ cell surface specializations in the domestic fowl was studied in material fixed by vascular perfusion through the thoracic aorta. Three main types of surface specializations were found between adjacent Sertoli cells. These are focal tight junctions, desmosome-like devices, and a specialization characterized by the presence of long and dilated subsurface cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Typical inter-Sertoli cell junctions similar to those of mammals were absent. Germ cells were attached to Sertoli cells mainly by desmosome-like devices of varying appearance. The junctions between Sertoli cells and elongating or elongated spermatids, the mantle, consisted of only slight condensations of filamentous material in the Sertoli cell. The tight junctions between adjacent Sertoli cells were efficient in preventing lanthanum from passing towards the lumen beyond the level of the spermatogonia.
Uptake and efflux transporters determine plasma and tissue concentrations of a broad variety of drugs. They are localized in organs such as small intestine, liver, and kidney, which are critical for drug absorption and elimination. Moreover, they can be found in important blood-tissue barriers such as the blood-brain barrier. Inhibition or induction of drug transporters by coadministered drugs can alter pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the victim drugs. This review will summarize in particular clinically observed drug-drug interactions attributable to inhibition or induction of intestinal export transporters [P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)], to inhibition of hepatic uptake transporters [organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs)], or to inhibition of transporter-mediated [organic anion transporters (OATs), organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs), P-gp] renal secretion of xenobiotics ...
These data suggest a novel mechanism for the inhibition of atherogenesis by E2: preservation of the integrity of an active barrier function of the endothelium by maintenance of endothelial FasL expression. The potential role of FasL in preventing leukocyte extravasation has been shown previously.9 Our data reveal that hypercholesterolemia, a risk factor for atherosclerosis and a precondition for atheroma formation in the rabbit model, reduces FasL expression in vivo, with an associated increase in macrophage infiltration of the arterial wall. E2, assumed to be the atheroprotective factor in premenopausal women, restores/maintains FasL expression and thereby inhibits leukocyte traffic across the endothelium despite the ongoing presence of severely elevated serum cholesterol levels.. In vivo, 2 forms of FasL can be found: a membrane-bound (42 to 48 kDa) and a soluble (sFasL, 26 kDa) FasL form resulting from the release of the extracellular domain of membrane-bound FasL cleaved by ...
The appeal of using embryonic stem (ES) cells for regenerative medicine lies in their pluripotency and resulting ability to differentiate into all somatic cell types. While graft rejection remains the greatest hurdle to their use in the clinic, several approaches have been proposed to protect the allogeneic ES cell-derived grafts from host immunity: the creation of nuclear transfer human ES (hES) cell lines; the development of parthenogenic hES cells and iPS cells; the establishment of a bank of clinically-approved lines; the generation of hematopoietic chimerism and the induction of peripheral tolerance in recipients. Here, we discuss how the immune-privileged features of ES cells and tissues derived from them may influence these approaches and review the strategies and mechanisms involved in sustaining antigen-specific tolerance through interplay between dendritic cells (DC) and regulatory T cells (Treg). This overview therefore surveys prospects for developing novel regimes to prolong acceptance of
A supporting cell projecting inward from the basement membrane of seminiferous tubules. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete androgen binding protein. Their tight junctions with the spermatogonia and spermatocytes provide a blood-testis barrier." [MESH:A.05.360.444.849.789 ...
Intercellular adhesion molecule 2 (ICAM2), also known as CD102 (Cluster of Differentiation 102), is a human gene, and the protein resulting from it. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) family. All ICAM proteins are type I transmembrane glycoproteins, contain 2-9 immunoglobulin-like C2-type domains, and bind to the leukocyte adhesion LFA-1 protein. ICAM-2 molecules regulate spermatid adhesion on Sertori cell on the apical side of the blood-testis barrier (towards the lumen), thus playing a major role in spermatogenesis. This protein may also play a role in lymphocyte recirculation by blocking LFA-1-dependent cell adhesion. It mediates adhesive interactions important for antigen-specific immune response, NK-cell mediated clearance, lymphocyte recirculation, and other cellular interactions important for immune response and surveillance. ICAM2 has been shown to interact with EZR. Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
Cadmium, Inhibin, Cleft Lip, Cleft Palate, Costs, Emotional Stress, Families, Health, Lip, Palate, Patients, Public Health, Risk, Affect, Annexin V, Anti-mullerian Hormone, Blood, Blood-testis Barrier, Cadmium Chloride, Cells
Caribaeohypnum es un género monotípico confinado a las tierras altas tropicales. Fue ubicado previamente en Hypnum y Stereodon. Mientras comparte con Hypnum las hojas falcado-secundas, difiere de este género en el hábito más grande, pliegues fuertes extendiéndose bien arriba de la base de la hoja, particularmente notables en seco, y células alares irregularmente rectangulares fuertemente porosas y con paredes gruesas, excavadas. Los esporofitos en ambos géneros son aparentemente raros; en Caribaeohypnum los dientes del exostoma son papilosos a todo lo largo, estriado-papilosos abajo, la membrana basal es algo baja, con segmentos levemente plegados y no perforados, con cilios rudimentarios o ausentes. En Hypnum los dientes son estriados transversalmente abajo, y sólo papilosos distalmente, la membrana basal es alta, con segmentos plegados y perforados, con 1-3 cilios. Los esporofitos de Caribaeohypnum son desconocidos en los Andes Tropicales, la descripción se basa en Ando e Higuchi ...
Kodaira Y, Nair SK, Wrenshall LE, Gilboa E, Platt JL. Phenotypic and functional maturation of dendritic cells modulated by heparan sulfate. J Immunol 165:1599, 2000.. Dempsey LA, Brunn GJ, Platt JL. Heparanase, a potential regulator of cell-matrix interactions.Trends Biochem Sci 25:349, 2000.. Saadi S, Holzknecht RA, Patte CP, Platt JL. Endothelial cell activation by pore-forming structures: pivotal role for IL-1a. Circulation 101:1867, 2000.. Holzknecht ZE, Platt JL.The fine cytokine line between graft acceptance and rejection. Nat Med 6: 497, 2000.. Platt JL. Xenotransplantation: new risks and new gains. Nature 407:27, 2000.. Cascalho M, Platt JL. The immunological barrier to xenotransplantation. Immunity 14:437, 2001.. Cascalho M, Platt JL. Xenotransplantation and other means of organ replacement. Nat Rev Immunol1:154, 2001.. Platt JL. Knocking out xenograft rejection. Nat Biotechnol 20:231, 2002.. Johnson GB, Brunn GJ, Kodaira Y, Platt JL. Receptor-mediated monitoring of tissue well being ...
Andrea A. Zachary, Mary S. Leffell Summary: Desensitization protocols are being used worldwide to enable kidney transplantation across immunologic barriers, i.…
01.04.15-31.09.15 MRC Confidence in Concept (£29,126) White MG Shaw JAM - Utilising a novel model of human beta-cell dedifferentiation for screening potential disease-modifying functional impact of candidate therapeutic agents for type 2 diabetes 01.10.15-30.09.18 Diabetes UK (£92,460) Shaw JAM, White M - Defining the role of dedifferentiation as a primary mechanism of beta-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. 01.01.15-31.12.17 Diabetes UK (£360,436) Shaw JAM, Marshall H, Porat Y - Development of a novel donor human islet / recipient endothelial progenitor cell chimeric tissue transplant for type 1 diabetes. 01.04.14-31.03.17 UK Regenerative Medicine Platform (£4.5M) - led Watt F, Kings College London - Overcoming immunological barriers to regenerative medicine. 01.10.13-30.09.16 Diabetes UK (£93,626) Shaw JAM, Marshall H - Targeting islet inflammation ex vivo and following transplantation. 01.03.13-28.02.16 Dompe (£130,000) (Shaw JAM - UK Chief Investigator) - Target the early ...
Video created by Universiteit Leiden, Leiden University Medical Center for the course Clinical Kidney, Pancreas and Islet Transplantation. Now you know the factors of importance before transplantation, including the immunological barriers and ...
Recently Prof Hirst authored a News and Views in Nature focussed on two exciting articles about the cell epithelium as active matter.. "Evidence has been found that a biological tissue might behave like a liquid crystal. Even more remarkably, topological defects in this liquid-crystal system seem to influence cell behaviour. A materials physicist and a biologist discuss what the findings mean for researchers in their fields".. Read the full article here. ...
BioAssay record AID 590850 submitted by ChEMBL: Binding affinity to chicken skeletal muscle tropomyosin within actomyosin protein complex at 125 uM after 1 hr followed by 10 mins irradiation with UVA by SDS-PAGE analysis using coomassie brilliant blue staining.
One thing the Sertoli cells do is act as a blood-testis barrier preventing sperm-immune cell contact. I believe that spermatozoa themselves have immunosuppressive properties (e.g., maybe by producing anti-inflammatory cytokines). The developing sperm are immunogenic - I guess what is happening here is that spermatozoa are not produced until puberty which is long after the establishment of tolerance to self-antigens (breakdown of tolerance to self is one cause of autoimmune diseases).. The testis immunological microenvironment does not always protect sperm against the male immune system since anti-sperm antibodies are not uncommon (e.g., prevalent in men with vasectomies) and can be one cause of infertility. According to one publication (see - http://molehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/13/7/437.long) there are at as many as 35 immunoreactive antigens in sperm from men with anti-sperm antibodies.. Last edited by Steve Lolait (8th Nov 2011 15:30:37). ...
In this study we demonstrate that the placental drug-transporting P-gp can profoundly limit the passage of various potentially toxic or therapeutically beneficial P-gp substrate drugs into the fetus. We further show that this placental P-gp can be completely blocked by orally administered PSC833 or GG918, resulting in greatly increased transplacental passage of drugs into the fetus. Previously, Lankas et al. showed that the absence of Mdr1a P-gp in the placenta of naturally occurring Mdr1a mutant fetuses is associated with increased fetal accumulation and toxicity of the pesticide avermectin (13). Taken together, the data demonstrate that the mouse Mdr1a P-gp makes a major contribution to yet another biologically important protective barrier. The list now includes the blood-brain barrier, the blood-nerve barrier, the blood-testis barrier, the maternal-fetal barrier, and the intestinal barrier (10, 12, 13, 25-28). Thus, P-gp activity protects the central blood circulation and a range of tissue ...
... (Interactive Diagram) -What are the principal functional compartments of the testis? -What are the functions of the testis? -What is cryptorchidism and what are its consequences? -What is the blood-testis barrier? -What is the function of androgen-binding protein and where is it synthesized ...
W.C. Sangren and C.W. Sheppard. A mathematical derivation of the exchange of a labelled substance between a liquid flowing in a vessel and an external compartment. Bull Math BioPhys, 15, 387-394, 1953. C.A. Goresky, W.H. Ziegler, and G.G. Bach. Capillary exchange modeling: Barrier-limited and flow-limited distribution. Circ Res 27: 739-764, 1970. J.B. Bassingthwaighte. A concurrent flow model for extraction during transcapillary passage. Circ Res 35:483-503, 1974. B. Guller, T. Yipintsoi, A.L. Orvis, and J.B. Bassingthwaighte. Myocardial sodium extraction at varied coronary flows in the dog: Estimation of capillary permeability by residue and outflow detection. Circ Res 37: 359-378, 1975. C.P. Rose, C.A. Goresky, and G.G. Bach. The capillary and sarcolemmal barriers in the heart--an exploration of labelled water permeability. Circ Res 41: 515, 1977. J.B. Bassingthwaighte, C.Y. Wang, and I.S. Chan. Blood-tissue exchange via transport and transformation by endothelial cells. Circ. Res. ...
During spermatogenesis, preleptotene and leptotene spermatocytes, residing in the basal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium, must traverse the blood-testis barrier (BTB) to gain entry to the adluminal compartment for further development at late stage VIII and early stage IX of the epithelial cycle. As such, the timely opening and closing of the BTB is crucial to spermatogenesis. A compromise in this process can lead to infertility. Moreover, the BTB is unique in its relative localization in the seminiferous epithelium compared to the tight junctions (TJs) found in other epithelia. Sertoli cell TJs are situated near the basal lamina in the testis, closest to the basement membrane (a modified form of extracellular matrix [ECM]), unlike TJs found in other epithelia, which are found nearest the apical portion of an epithelium, farthest away from ECM. Needless to say, BTB function in the testis is maintained by intricate regulatory mechanisms. In addition to hormones and cytokines, nitric ...
Effects of dietary vitamin E on daily intake, serum testosterone and epididymal sperm quality in SpragueDawley rats subjected to heat stress.D. T. Yates1, A. F.Vitamin C is an essential vitamin with antioxidant properties.The testosterone test or a free testosterone or bioavailable testosterone test is used to detect low testosterone or high testosterone levels in the blood.Vitamin A crosses the blood-testis barrier in its alcohol form as.. The best testosterone supplements work with your body to increase natural testosterone production.Korean researchers have discovered an association between vitamin D levels and testosterone in healthy women without obesity, according to research published in The ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biofilm-stimulated epithelium modulates the inflammatory responses in co-cultured immune cells. AU - Brown, Jason L. AU - Johnston, William. AU - Delaney, Christopher. AU - Rajendran, Ranjith AU - Butcher, John. AU - Khan, Shaz. AU - Bradshaw, David. AU - Ramage, Gordon. AU - Culshaw, Shauna. N1 - Acceptance from webpage OA article. PY - 2019/10/31. Y1 - 2019/10/31. N2 - The gingival epithelium is a physical and immunological barrier to the microbiota of the oral cavity, which interact through soluble mediators with the immune cells that patrol the tissue at the gingival epithelium. We sought to develop a three-dimensional gingivae-biofilm interface model using a commercially available gingival epithelium to study the tissue inflammatory response to oral biofilms associated with "health", "gingivitis" and "periodontitis.". These biofilms were developed by sequential addition of microorganisms to mimic the formation of supra- and sub-gingival plaque in vivo. Secondly, to mimic the ...
In mammalian pregnancy the trophoblast normally constitutes an uninterrupted boundary of foetal tissue in immediate contact with maternal tissue, including blood in some species, and is the decisive immunological barrier to rejection of the foetus as an allograft. The ability of the trophoblast to function as a barrier evidently results from its capacity to resist immunological attack by either alloantibody or alloimmune cells and to prevent immunocompetent cells from reaching and damaging the foetus but, as yet, there is no general agreement regarding the means by which it exercises these functions. In view of the dramatic hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy and the undisputed involvement of trophoblast in these endocrine events, the possibility exists of an interaction between the hormones of pregnancy and the immunological phenomena. The present account furnishes evidence that endocrine activity at the maternal surface of the trophoblast, the presumptive site of the immunological ...
Immune tolerance in pregnancy or gestational/maternal immune tolerance is the absence of a maternal immune response against (in other words, immune tolerance towards) the fetus and placenta during pregnancy, which thus may be viewed as unusually successful allografts, since they genetically differ from the mother. In the same way, many cases of spontaneous abortion may be described in the same way as maternal transplant rejection. It is studied within the field of reproductive immunology. The placenta functions as an immunological barrier between the mother and the fetus, creating an immunologically privileged site. For this purpose, it uses several mechanisms: It secretes Neurokinin B containing phosphocholine molecules. This is the same mechanism used by parasitic nematodes to avoid detection by the immune system of their host. Also, there is presence of small lymphocytic suppressor cells in the fetus that inhibit maternal cytotoxic T cells by inhibiting the response to interleukin 2. The ...
We presented experiments testing the hypothesis that inhibition of the ERK1/2 pathway increases OTA-induced cell death, increased inflammation, fibrosis, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Most of the experiments were performed using OK cells, which are an accepted and well established model system representing proximal tubular cells. Hence, rat proximal tubular NRK-52E cells behaved similarly to OK cells (with only half-maximal action takes place at 48 compared with 24 h) and were thus used for RT-PCR experiments (Sauvant et al., 2005). Moreover, we could additionally show that NRK-52E cells also behaved similarly to OK cells with respect to MAPK activation pattern in the presence of OTA and/or U0126 (data not shown), which is additional evidence that both cell lines behave similarly to OTA exposure.. OTA alone (100 nM) is sufficient to decrease epithelial tightness that inulin (5000 Da) passes the OK cell epithelium paracellularly. OTA (100 nM) did not reduce cell number but clearly ...
The steep section allows a large amount of oxygen to be delivered with only a small drop in PaO2, which allows the rate of oxygen delivery to be maintained (as the blood-tissue partial pressure gradient is steep) with an increase in oxygen demand ...
The study of blood-tissue exchange by the multiple indicator dilution technique often needs frequent sampling in the blood of the indicator dilution curves (IDC). Usually, this requires the use of a catheter supported by a pump. This causes a distortion in the IDC, which must be removed for proper interpretation of the data. A deconvolution-based methodology to remove IDC distortion is presented. First, the catheter impulse response is modelled by means of data obtained from a suitable experiment. Then the reconstruction of the blood IDC is tackled by a new nonparametric deconvolution algorithm, which provides (quasi) time-continuous signals and exploits statistically based criteria for the choice of the regularisation parameter. The methodology is applied to the removal of cathether distortion in studies of glucose blood-tissue exchange in the human forearm and myocardium.. ...
Septate junctions and associated TCJs are necessary to form permeability barriers in a wide range of cell types. While recent work has provided much information about the molecular constituents of the septate junction (Hortsch and Margolis, 2003), little is known about the proteins that reside at the tricellular junction (TCJ). Gliotactin was the first protein found to localize in this region, but previous TEM and freeze fracture analysis suggests a large protein complex in this region. Thus Gliotactin is likely to be one of many proteins at the TCJ. Our results suggest that the protein complex is different from those that form the pleated septate junction. Gliotactin does not interact with Neurexin IV or Coracle at levels detectable in our assays. Only when Gliotactin was overexpressed and spread throughout the SJ domain, was an interaction detected. Although we did not test all SJ components, given the core nature of Neurexin IV interactions with other SJ proteins (Faivre-Sarrailh et al., ...
Our system to produce antibodies is critical for our survival against numerous infections, but it causes also many tumors. B-lymphocytes can modify their immunoglobulin (Ig) genes to generate specific antibodies with a new isotype and enhanced affinity against an antigen. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is the key mutagenic enzyme that initiates these processes by deaminating cytosine to uracil. How somatic hypermutation (SH) and class switch recombination (CSR) are targeted is key to understanding the defect DNA integrity in lymphomas and also in other tumors where inflammatory signals aberrantly induces AID. The trans-acting factors mediating specific targeting of AID and thereby SH and CSR have remained elusive. Here we show that mutant E2A with defect inhibition by the Ca2+sensor protein calmodulin results in reduced B cell receptor- (BCR-), IL4-plus CD40 ligand-stimulated CSR to IgE and instead aberrant CSR. AID is shown to be together with the transcription factors E2A, ...
Everything youll probably ever need to know about safer sex barriers, like which to use, how to use them, how to get more comfortable with them, and how surprisingly cute they are.
Everything youll probably ever need to know about safer sex barriers, like which to use, how to use them, how to get more comfortable with them, and how surprisingly cute they are.
The size and cellular composition of airways and alveoli vary considerably in different compartments of the lung and between species. However, as shown in Fig. 1A, the inner lung surface is composed of the same basic structural elements. It is made up of 3 components: (i) the liquid lining layer consisting of the aqueous phase with the lubricant pericellular and mucus layers, and the surfactant film at the air-liquid interface; (ii) the mobile cells, i.e. mainly macrophages submersed in the aqueous phase and (iii) the highly-differentiated epithelium with its basement membrane. Beneath it, the subepithelial connective tissue containing the blood vessels and further cells of the immune system.. The inner surface of the lungs functions as a physical, biochemical and immunological barrier to separate the outside from the inside. It is precisely these structures that the deposited particles first interact (Figs. 1B and 1C). Studies in vivo and in vitro demonstrated the wetting and displacement of ...
Bacteria use numerous strategies to avoid innate and acquired host defenses and maintain their capacity to cause serious infections. One well-known strategy is illuminated by the poor immune response of human infants and young children to polysaccharide antigens, which are major protective antigens for many bacterial pathogens. However, by conjugating polysaccharides to protein carriers this immunologic barrier can be broken, and effective conjugate vaccines to Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis have been developed (3, 19, 54). Another strategy pathogens use to avoid host immune effectors is to elicit high levels of poorly protective antibodies, which can have this property based on low antibody affinity, production of an inappropriate antibody isotype, or specificity for nonprotective epitopes (32, 37, 46). In the case of the PNAG antigen, it appears that both poor overall immunogenicity of the native polysaccharide and a preferential induction of ...
MYCN gene amplification in neuroblastoma drives a gene expression program that correlates strongly with aggressive disease. Mechanistically, trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) at target gene promoters is a strict prerequisite for this transcriptional program to be enacted. WDR5 is a histone H3K4 presenter that has been found to have an essential role in H3K4 trimethylation. For this reason, in this study, we investigated the relationship between WDR5-mediated H3K4 trimethylation and N-Myc transcriptional programs in neuroblastoma cells. N-Myc upregulated WDR5 expression in neuroblastoma cells. Gene expression analysis revealed that WDR5 target genes included those with MYC-binding elements at promoters such as MDM2. We showed that WDR5 could form a protein complex at the MDM2 promoter with N-Myc, but not p53, leading to histone H3K4 trimethylation and activation of MDM2 transcription. RNAi-mediated attenuation of WDR5 upregulated expression of wild-type but not mutant p53, an effect ...
Медицински университет - Плевен (МУ-Плевен) се откроява на картата на висшето медицинско образование у нас и в Европа със съвременния си облик на водещ образователен и научноизследователски център с приоритети в развитието на роботизираната хирургия и телемедицината, привличащ все повече български и чуждестранни студенти.
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common condition, accounting for 1 to 3% of all primary care consultations in the United Kingdom. It affects patients of both sexes and all ages. The commonest organism causing uncomplicated community-acquired bacterial UTI is Escherichia coli.. The occurrence and course of a UTI is influenced by the integrity of the host defence and by bacterial virulence factors. Disruption of the highly specialized transitional cell epithelium which lines the urinary tract, incomplete bladder emptying, anatomical abnormalities, and the presence of a foreign body, such as a urinary catheter, can all contribute to disruption of the host defence and increase the likelihood of infection. Sexual intercourse, use of condoms, and use of spermicides all increase the risk, and genetic factors influence the susceptibility of some people, e.g. girls with the P1 blood group are at increased risk of acute pyelonephritis. Bacterial characteristics that determine their ability to cause ...
... definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
Male contraception specialists at Spire Gatwick Park Hospital - Find experienced specialists at our state of the art facilities. Expert care for everyone.
Project 5 seeks to develop adjudin into a non-hormonal contraceptive for men. Adjudin exerts its effects primarily at the Sertoli cell-spermatid interface known...
My my story starts by my DH and I not conceiving in the 11 years we have been together and the 1 year we have actually been actively ttc. It has officially been almost 5 months of testing between my DH and I. All my tests came back great - page 4
Substrate recognition component of a SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex which mediates the ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation of target proteins (By similarity). Probably recognizes and binds to phosphorylated target proteins (By similarity). In the wing and eye, negatively regulates cell growth and proliferation by mediating the degradation of Myc and cyclin E, respectively (PubMed:11565033, PubMed:15182669). Required for endocycles, but not mitosis in follicle cell epithelium (PubMed:15175253).
Lancet - Liu et al in an article on male contraception - Hormonal methods for safe, reliable, and reversible contraception based on the suppression of spermatogenesis could soon become available. We have investigated the rate, extent, and predictors of reversibility of hormonal male contraception.
General Information: The second of two pathogenic Neisseria, this organism causes septicemia and is the leading cause of life-threatening meningitis (inflammation of the meninges, the membrane surrounding the brain and spinal cord) in children. This organism typically residies in the nasopharynx cavity but can invade the respiratory epthelial barrier, cross into the bloodstream and the blood brain barrier, and cause inflammation of the meninges. Pathogenicity factors include the surface proteins (porins and opacity proteins), and the type IV pilus (which is also found in Neisseria gonorrhoeae). This organism, like Neisseria gonorrhoeae, is naturally competent, and protein complexes at the cell surface recognize the uptake signal sequence in extracellular DNA, an 8mer that is found at high frequency in Neisseria chromosomal DNA ...
General Information: The second of two pathogenic Neisseria, this organism causes septicemia and is the leading cause of life-threatening meningitis (inflammation of the meninges, the membrane surrounding the brain and spinal cord) in children. This organism typically residies in the nasopharynx cavity but can invade the respiratory epthelial barrier, cross into the bloodstream and the blood brain barrier, and cause inflammation of the meninges. Pathogenicity factors include the surface proteins (porins and opacity proteins), and the type IV pilus (which is also found in Neisseria gonorrhoeae). This organism, like Neisseria gonorrhoeae, is naturally competent, and protein complexes at the cell surface recognize the uptake signal sequence in extracellular DNA, an 8mer that is found at high frequency in Neisseria chromosomal DNA. ...
Laminin-5 and its cell surface receptor a6b4 integrin are required for development of squamous cell carcinomas. Lack of either of these molecules results in a lack of tumor growth, whereas overexpression of these molecules correlates with increasing tumor invasiveness and a worsening patient prognosis. We have identified that laminin-5 undergoes proteolytic processing of two of its three chains, via mammalian Tolloid, a metalloprotease of the astacin family. Processing of laminin-5 promotes tumor invasion. We are currently studying the mechanisms whereby these processing events influence tumor cell invasion, migration and metastasis. Type VII collagen appears to play a key role in tumor invasion, and appears to operate through association with laminin-5. We are currently studying the mechanism of this association and its role in tumorigenesis. The laminin-5 receptor a6b4 integrin interacts with laminin-5 at one end and with intracellular protein complexes at the other end, through which it ...
Start Preamble Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. Appendix 2), notice is hereby given of the following meeting.. The meeting will be closed to the public in accordance with the provisions set forth in sections 552b(c)(4) and 552b(c)(6), Title 5 U.S.C., as amended. The grant applications and the discussions could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as patentable material, and personal information concerning individuals associated with the grant applications, the disclosure of which would constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy.. Name of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; An In Vivo Model to Study Blood-Testes Barrier Dynamics.. Date: March 23, 2006.. Time: 2 p.m. to 3:30 p.m.. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications.. Place: National Institutes of Health, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01, Rockville, MD 20852, (Telephone ...
MCP-1, like other chemokines, was initially recognized as playing a role in migration and activation of specific leukocyte subpopulations in both physiological and pathological contexts. (Rollins, 1997; Mantovani, 1999a; Mantovani, 1999b). In addition to chemotactic activity for leukocytes, several recent studies have indicated that MCP-1 also plays a role in tumor metastasis and angiogenesis, in development of CNS, immune and vascular systems, as well as in modulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, protein synthesis, etc (Gu et al., 1999; Salcedo et al., 2000; Sasayama et al., 2000; Liss et al., 2001; Luther and Cyster, 2001; Rezaie et al., 2002). In line with this new evidence, the present study highlights a possible role for MCP-1 in the regulation of brain endothelial permeability.. Brain endothelial cells form a very tight and highly impermeable barrier serving to regulate and protect the brain microenvironment. The endothelial barrier function is highly dependent on specific adhesion ...
Izawa, Y., Gu, Y-H., Osada, T., Kanazawa, M., Hawkins, B., Koziol, J., ... del Zoppo, G. (2017). β1-integrin-matrix interactions modulate cerebral microvessel endothelial cell tight junction expression and permeability. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. DOI: 10.1177/0271678X17722108 ...
Project SummaryDuring embryogenesis or wound healing, neighboring cells maintain contact and migrate collectively, thoughthe roles of cell-cell adhesion during collective cell migration is poorly defined. Due to constant pulling andpushing between migrating neighboring cells, we hypothesize that mechanical forces regulate theinteraction between the cell-cell adhesion complex and the actin cytoskeleton, and therefore, theadhesive strength. To identify force-sensitive protein complexes at cell-cell junctions, our innovativebiochemical analysis combines in situ proximal biotin labeling with a cell stretch device that promotes theformation of force-sensitive complexes. By fusing ?-catenin with a promiscuous biotin ligase, any proximalproteins of ?-catenin will be biotinylated. The force-dependent change in the biotinylation profile is an indicationof altered protein complexes. Our preliminary study demonstrates that ?-catenin and myosin IIA are likelyinteracting in a force-dependent manner. While ...
Originally Posted by zboss This was just one opinion and not mine. However, there is another thread on the exumas going on right now and the development associated with it. Im not surprised that the,

Definitions of blood-testis barrier - OneLook Dictionary SearchDefinitions of blood-testis barrier - OneLook Dictionary Search

Blood-Testis Barrier: Medical Dictionary [home, info] *blood-testis barrier: online medical dictionary [home, info] *Blood- ... We found 7 dictionaries that include the word blood-testis barrier: General (2 matching dictionaries). *Blood-testis barrier: ... Blood-testis barrier: Legal dictionary [home, info] Computing (1 matching dictionary). *Blood-testis barrier: Encyclopedia [ ... Search for blood-testis barrier on Google or Wikipedia Search completed in 0.018 seconds.. Home Reverse Dictionary Customize ...
more infohttps://www.onelook.com/?lang=all&w=blood-testis+barrier

The Biology of Blood-Testis Barrier Dynamics |  Population CouncilThe Biology of Blood-Testis Barrier Dynamics | Population Council

The blood-testis barrier is a physical barrier separating the testes from the bloodstream. The barrier can be breached, however ... Unlike most blood-tissue barriers, the blood-testis barrier has been found to be made up of specialized, extremely tight ... Regulation of the blood-testis barrier by a local axis in the testis: Role of laminin α2 in the basement membrane Authors: Ying ... mTORC1/rpS6 regulates blood-testis barrier (BTB) dynamics and spermatogenetic function in the testis in vivo Authors: Stephen Y ...
more infohttps://www.popcouncil.org/research/the-biology-of-bloodtestis-barrier-dynamics

Blood-testis barrier | definition of blood-testis barrier by Medical dictionaryBlood-testis barrier | definition of blood-testis barrier by Medical dictionary

What is blood-testis barrier? Meaning of blood-testis barrier medical term. What does blood-testis barrier mean? ... Looking for online definition of blood-testis barrier in the Medical Dictionary? blood-testis barrier explanation free. ... blood-gas barrier alveolocapillary membrane.. blood-testis barrier a barrier separating the blood from the seminiferous tubules ... blood-brain barrier (BBB). the barrier separating the blood from the brain parenchyma. See also blood-brain barrier. ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/blood-testis+barrier

Blood-testis barrier financial definition of Blood-testis barrierBlood-testis barrier financial definition of Blood-testis barrier

What is Blood-testis barrier? Meaning of Blood-testis barrier as a finance term. What does Blood-testis barrier mean in finance ... Definition of Blood-testis barrier in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Blood-testis barrier financial definition of Blood-testis barrier https://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Blood- ... The effect of sleep loss on physical barriers such as the intestinal barrier or blood-testis barrier is not reported; however, ...
more infohttps://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Blood-testis+barrier

An in vitro system to study Sertoli cell blood-testis barrier dynamics |  Population CouncilAn in vitro system to study Sertoli cell blood-testis barrier dynamics | Population Council

This information is based on the routine use of this system in our laboratory to study the Sertoli cell blood-testis barrier in ... on primary cultures of Sertoli cells isolated from rat testes has greatly facilitated the study of the blood-testis barrier in ... An in vitro system to study Sertoli cell blood-testis barrier dynamics. ... and the use of the Sertoli cell epithelium for monitoring the integrity of the Sertoli cell blood-testis barrier. ...
more infohttps://www.popcouncil.org/research/an-in-vitro-system-to-study-sertoli-cell-blood-testis-barrier-dynamics

Androgen binding protein as a biochemical marker of formation of the blood-testis barrier.  - PubMed - NCBIAndrogen binding protein as a biochemical marker of formation of the blood-testis barrier. - PubMed - NCBI

... than in normal testis (0.5 pmol/mg protein). In the SCE testis neither blood-testis barrier development nor lumen formation are ... ABP is found in normal testis as early as 14 days postnatally (0.2 pmol/mg), at which time no blood-testis barrier is observed ... Androgen binding protein as a biochemical marker of formation of the blood-testis barrier.. Tindall DJ, Vitale R, Means AR. ... Indeed, ABP is not detectable in the epididymis until 18-20 days of age (1.0 pmol/mg) at which time blood-testis barrier ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1175511?dopt=Abstract

Blood-testis barrier - WikipediaBlood-testis barrier - Wikipedia

Blood-air barrier Blood-brain barrier Blood-ocular barrier Blood-retinal barrier Blood-thymus barrier Spermatogenesis Ganong. ... The blood-testis barrier is a physical barrier between the blood vessels and the seminiferous tubules of the animal testes. The ... This composition is maintained by blood-testis barrier. The barrier also protects the germ cells from blood-borne noxious ... "blood-testis barrier" is misleading in that it is not a blood-organ barrier in a strict sense, but is formed between Sertoli ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood%E2%80%93testis_barrier

Focal adhesion kinase-Tyr407 and -Tyr397 exhibit antagonistic effects on blood-testis barrier dynamics in the rat | PNASFocal adhesion kinase-Tyr407 and -Tyr397 exhibit antagonistic effects on blood-testis barrier dynamics in the rat | PNAS

2008) An autocrine axis in the testis that coordinates spermiation and blood-testis barrier restructuring during ... 2012) The blood-testis barrier and its implications for male contraception. Pharmacol Rev 64:16-64. ... Focal adhesion kinase-Tyr407 and -Tyr397 exhibit antagonistic effects on blood-testis barrier dynamics in the rat. Pearl P. Y. ... 2011) An in vitro system to study Sertoli cell blood-testis barrier dynamics. Methods Mol Biol 763:237-252. ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/109/31/12562

Nucleoside Transport at the Blood-Testis Barrier Studied with Primary-Cultured Sertoli Cells | Journal of Pharmacology and...Nucleoside Transport at the Blood-Testis Barrier Studied with Primary-Cultured Sertoli Cells | Journal of Pharmacology and...

Nucleoside Transport at the Blood-Testis Barrier Studied with Primary-Cultured Sertoli Cells. Ryo Kato, Tomoji Maeda, Toshihiro ... Nucleoside Transport at the Blood-Testis Barrier Studied with Primary-Cultured Sertoli Cells. Ryo Kato, Tomoji Maeda, Toshihiro ... Nucleoside Transport at the Blood-Testis Barrier Studied with Primary-Cultured Sertoli Cells. Ryo Kato, Tomoji Maeda, Toshihiro ... Nucleoside Transport at the Blood-Testis Barrier Studied with Primary-Cultured Sertoli Cells ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/early/2004/11/16/jpet.104.073387

Connexin 43 is critical to maintain the homeostasis of the blood-testis barrier via its effects on tight junction reassembly.Connexin 43 is critical to maintain the homeostasis of the blood-testis barrier via its effects on tight junction reassembly.

... the blood-testis barrier (BTB) or Sertoli cell barrier created by specialized junctions between Sertoli cells near the basement ... membrane confers an immunological barrier by sequestering the events of meiotic division and postmeio ... In mammalian testes, the blood-testis barrier (BTB) or Sertoli cell barrier created by specialized junctions between Sertoli ... Blood-Testis Barrier*. Connexin 43 / physiology*. Homeostasis / physiology*. Humans. Male. Phenols / pharmacology. RNA ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Connexin-43-critical-to-maintain/20921394.html

Unlocking the Blood-Testis Barrier and the Ectoplasmic Specialization by Cytokines During Spermatogenesis: Emerging Targets..."Unlocking" the Blood-Testis Barrier and the Ectoplasmic Specialization by Cytokines During Spermatogenesis: Emerging Targets...

"Unlocking" the Blood-Testis Barrier and the Ectoplasmic Specialization by Cytokines During Spermatogenesis: Emerging Targets ... C. Yan Cheng, Michelle W.M. Li and Dolores D. Mruk, " "Unlocking" the Blood-Testis Barrier and the Ectoplasmic Specialization ... Title: "Unlocking" the Blood-Testis Barrier and the Ectoplasmic Specialization by Cytokines During Spermatogenesis: Emerging ... Keywords: Cytokines, transforming growth factors, tumor necrosis factor, testis, spermatogenesis, Sertoli cells, blood-testis ...
more infohttp://www.eurekaselect.com/82357/article/ampx201cunlockingampx201d-blood-testis-barrier-and-ectoplasmic-specialization?tracking-code=4

HKU Scholars Hub: Connexin 43 is critical to maintain the homeostasis of the blood-testis barrier via its effects on tight...HKU Scholars Hub: Connexin 43 is critical to maintain the homeostasis of the blood-testis barrier via its effects on tight...

In mammalian testes, the blood-testis barrier (BTB) or Sertoli cell barrier created by specialized junctions between Sertoli ... In mammalian testes, the blood-testis barrier (BTB) or Sertoli cell barrier created by specialized junctions between Sertoli ... Article: Connexin 43 is critical to maintain the homeostasis of the blood-testis barrier via its effects on tight junction ... Connexin 43 is critical to maintain the homeostasis of the blood-testis barrier via its effects on tight junction reassembly. ...
more infohttp://hub.hku.hk/handle/10722/140892

Changes in the permeability of the testicular capillaries and of the blood-testis barrier after injection of cadmium chloride...Changes in the permeability of the testicular capillaries and of the 'blood-testis barrier' after injection of cadmium chloride...

... blood-testis barrier after injection of cadmium chloride in the rat. by Brian P. Setchell et al. ... A study to assess the assembly of a functional blood-testis barrier in developing rat testes.. *Ka-Wai Mok, Dolores D Mruk, ... Focal adhesion kinase is a blood-testis barrier regulator.. *Erica R Siu, Elissa W P Wong, Dolores D Mruk, Catarina S Porto, C ... The blood-testis barrier and its implications for male contraception.. *C Yan Cheng, Dolores D Mruk ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Changes-in-the-permeability-of-the-testicular-capi-Setchell-Waites/c85b9dacb13ad618410125ab931628c021769cf5

Browsing College of Medicine by Subject Blood-Testis BarrierBrowsing College of Medicine by Subject "Blood-Testis Barrier"

... UC DRC Repository. * UC DRC Home ... 5.1.1 Testis  Yearwood, Ryan; La Barbera, Andrew R.; Marsh, Karen (University of Cincinnati. College of Medicine; University ...
more infohttps://drc.libraries.uc.edu/handle/2374.UC/5/browse?rpp=20&order=ASC&sort_by=-1&value=Blood-Testis+Barrier&etal=-1&type=subject&starts_with=R&ztype=subject&restrict=false

Exogenous leptin affects sperm parameters and impairs blood testis barrier integrity in adult male mice | Reproductive Biology...Exogenous leptin affects sperm parameters and impairs blood testis barrier integrity in adult male mice | Reproductive Biology...

Given the function of blood testis barrier in maintaining normal spermatogenesis, leptin-induced blood testis barrier ... Blood testis barrier integrity and the expression of tight junction-associated proteins in testes were also assessed. We ... Mice treated with 3 mg/kg leptin also had impaired blood testis barrier integrity, which was related to decreased tight ... Exogenous leptin negatively affects sperm parameters and impairs blood testis barrier integrity in mice. Leptin reduced tight ...
more infohttps://rbej.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12958-018-0368-4

On Sertoli and Leydig Cells and Blood Testis Barrier - Health and FertilityOn Sertoli and Leydig Cells and Blood Testis Barrier - Health and Fertility

... in the control testis, the tracer is limited to the blood-testis barrier, and no biotin is detected in the luminal compartment ... On Sertoli and Leydig Cells and Blood Testis Barrier. Thu, 29 Mar 2018 , Health and Fertility ... Sertoli cell-specific androgen receptor ablation increases permeability of the blood-testis barrier, implying that androgens ... heat stress on the blood-testis barrier has shown that the biotin tracer is detected in the adluminal compartment of the testis ...
more infohttps://www.mitchmedical.us/health-fertility/on-sertoli-and-leydig-cells-and-bloodtestis-barrier.html

Annexin A2 is critical for blood-testis barrier integrity and spermati by Katarzyna Chojnacka, Barbara Bilinska et al."Annexin A2 is critical for blood-testis barrier integrity and spermati" by Katarzyna Chojnacka, Barbara Bilinska et al.

In the testis, ANXA2 localized to the Sertoli cell stalk, with specific staining at the blood-testis barrier and the concave ( ... Anxa2 knockdown was found to disrupt the Sertoli cell/blood-testis barrier in vitro and in vivo. The disruption in barrier ... Our results indicate that ANXA2 is critical for the integrity of the blood-testis barrier and the timely release of spermatids. ... Furthermore, Anxa2 knockdown resulted in spermiation defects caused by a dysfunction of tubulobulbar complexes, testis-specific ...
more infohttps://knowledgecommons.popcouncil.org/departments_cbr_basic-research/9/

Regulation of blood-testis barrier (BTB) dynamics, role of actin-, and by Qing Wen, Elizabeth I. Tang et al."Regulation of blood-testis barrier (BTB) dynamics, role of actin-, and" by Qing Wen, Elizabeth I. Tang et al.

... is an important ultrastructure in the testis that supports meiosis and postmeiotic spermatid development since a delay in the ... establishment of a functional Sertoli cell barrier during postnatal development in rats or mice by 17-20 day postpartum (dpp) ... The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is an important ultrastructure in the testis that supports meiosis and postmeiotic spermatid ... "Regulation of blood-testis barrier (BTB) dynamics, role of actin-, and microtubule-based cytoskeletons," Methods in Molecular ...
more infohttps://knowledgecommons.popcouncil.org/departments_cbr_basic-research/40/

Diet-Induced Obesity In Male C57BL/6 Mice Decreases Fertility As A Consequence Of Disrupted Blood-Testis Barrier. - ElabscienceDiet-Induced Obesity In Male C57BL/6 Mice Decreases Fertility As A Consequence Of Disrupted Blood-Testis Barrier. - Elabscience

Diet-Induced Obesity In Male C57BL/6 Mice Decreases Fertility As A Consequence Of Disrupted Blood-Testis Barrier[J]. Plos One, ...
more infohttps://www.elabscience.com/List-detail-3457.html

The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is an important ultrastructure for spermatogenesis. failed - Role of adrenergic receptors in...The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is an important ultrastructure for spermatogenesis. failed - Role of adrenergic receptors in...

The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is an important ultrastructure for spermatogenesis. failed. January 6, 2018. The blood-testis ... NC1 domain name protein reversibly perturbed the TJ-barrier, it failed to downregulate the steady-state levels of both TJ and ... barrier (BTB) is an important ultrastructure for spermatogenesis. failed to perturb Sertoli cell tight junction (TJ)- ... Sertoli cell epithelium with fresh F12/DMEM without the recombinant protein allowed the resealing of the disrupted TJ-barrier ( ...
more infohttp://researchreportone.com/?p=4016

Vitamin E and vitamin C attenuate Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate-induced blood-testis barrier disruption by p38 MAPK in immature...Vitamin E and vitamin C attenuate Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate-induced blood-testis barrier disruption by p38 MAPK in immature...

Vitamin E and vitamin C attenuate Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate-induced blood-testis barrier disruption by p38 MAPK in immature ... As an environmental endocrine disruptor, Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) affects blood-testis barrier (BTB)-associated ...
more infohttp://www.tocotrienolresearch.org/vitamin-e-and-vitamin-c-attenuate-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-induced-blood-testis-barrier-disruption-by-p38-mapk-in-immature-sd-rats/

Specialized cell contacts and the blood-testis barrier in the seminiferous tubules of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus). -...Specialized cell contacts and the blood-testis barrier in the seminiferous tubules of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus). -...

The blood-testis barrier in vertebrates having different testicular organization. *Dr. Martin Bergmann. , Jochen Schindelmeiser ... Specialized cell contacts and the blood-testis barrier in the seminiferous tubules of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus).. * ... article{Osman1980SpecializedCC, title={Specialized cell contacts and the blood-testis barrier in the seminiferous tubules of ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Specialized-cell-contacts-and-the-blood-testis-bar-Osman-Ekwall/400b2637a6dbc1d1d472af6b91350e472f621eb5

Urban fine particulate matter exposure causes male reproductive injury through destroying blood-testis barrier (BTB) integrity ...Urban fine particulate matter exposure causes male reproductive injury through destroying blood-testis barrier (BTB) integrity ...

Blood-testis barrier (BTB) provides a suitable microenvironment for germ cells that is required for spermatogenesis. Exposure ... Urban fine particulate matter exposure causes male reproductive injury through destroying blood-testis barrier (BTB) integrity ...
more infohttps://hero.epa.gov/hero/index.cfm/reference/details/reference_id/3455300

PAR-18-853: Drug Transport Across the Blood-Testis and Blood-Epididymal Barriers (R61/R33 - Clinical Trial Not Allowed)PAR-18-853: Drug Transport Across the Blood-Testis and Blood-Epididymal Barriers (R61/R33 - Clinical Trial Not Allowed)

Drug Transport Across the Blood-Testis and Blood-Epididymal Barriers (R61/R33 - Clinical Trial Not Allowed) PAR-18-853. NICHD ... Drug Transport Across the Blood-Testis and Blood-Epididymal Barriers (R61/R33 - Clinical Trial Not Allowed) ... These targets are not fully exposed to the systemic circulation due to the semi-permeable nature of the blood-testis barrier ( ... the chemical features of non-native molecules that facilitate passage across the blood-testis and/or blood-epidydimal barriers. ...
more infohttps://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/pa-files/PAR-18-853.html

SirT1 is required in the male germ cell for differentiation and fecundity in mice | DevelopmentSirT1 is required in the male germ cell for differentiation and fecundity in mice | Development

Blood testes barrier permeability. A biotin tracer was injected into the interstitium of exposed testes. Testes were removed ... 2005). Androgens regulate the permeability of the blood-testis barrier. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 16696-16700. doi: ... S6E), indicated the absence of SirT1 did not affect the blood testes barrier as a function of age. Sertoli cell-specific ... The expression of proteins involved in the formation of the blood testes barrier (supplementary material Fig. S6D), and a ...
more infohttp://dev.biologists.org/content/141/18/3495
  • Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase, displays phosphorylation-dependent localization in the seminiferous epithelium of adult rat testes. (pnas.org)
  • It is expected that multiple cytokines, such as TGF-β3 and TNFα, are working in concert with other yet-to-be identified molecules to coordinate the intriguing events of junction restructuring during different stages of the seminiferous epithelial cycle in adult testes in mammals. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Cytokines are known to regulate an array of physiological functions in the testis, including cell differentiation, apoptosis, steroidogenesis, and cell division. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The barrier can be breached, however, by certain toxicants, such as PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate) and cadmium, that can cause male infertility. (popcouncil.org)
  • The barrier also protects the germ cells from blood-borne noxious agents, prevents antigenic products of germ cell maturation from entering the circulation and generating an autoimmune response, and may help establish an osmotic gradient that facilitates movement of fluid into the tubular lumen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disruption in barrier function was substantiated by changes in the localization of claudin-11, zona occludens-1, N-cadherin, and β-catenin. (popcouncil.org)
  • These axes are found between the blood-testis barrier and the basement membrane, involving fragments of collagen-α3 chain and also laminin-α2 chain, both are constituent components of the basement membrane. (popcouncil.org)
  • placental barrier the tissue layers of the placenta which regulate the exchange of substances between the fetal and maternal circulation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The anti-sperm antibodies generated by the immune system can bind to various antigenic sites on the surface of the developing sperm within the testes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared with WT FAK, Y407E and Y397F mutations each promoted barrier function, and the promoting effect of the Y407E mutant was abolished in the Y397E-Y407E double mutant, demonstrating antagonism between Tyr 407 and Tyr 397 . (pnas.org)
  • These observations were confirmed using the bisphenol A model in which the knockdown of Cx43 by RNAi also perturbed the TJ-barrier reassembly following BPA removal. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Since normal Sertoli cell maturation is required for the development and maintenance of the blood-testis barrier (30) and these cells seem to play an important role in immunosuppression, (31) the Sertoli cell dysgenesis might be an important cause of the focal orchitis observed in this study. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Additionally, it could serve to hold open the blood-testis barrier to allow more Adjudin to enter the testes, thus boosting Adjudin's effectiveness at a lower dosage with potentially fewer side effects. (popcouncil.org)
  • FAK is an integrated component of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) involved in regulating Sertoli cell adhesion via its effects on the occludin-zonula occludens-1 complex. (pnas.org)
  • This disruptive effect was reversible since the removal of the recombinant protein by washing the Sertoli cell epithelium with fresh F12/DMEM without the recombinant protein allowed the resealing of the disrupted TJ-barrier (Fig.?4A). (researchreportone.com)