The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
The network of channels formed at the termination of the straight SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES in the mediastinum testis. Rete testis channels drain into the efferent ductules that pass into the caput EPIDIDYMIS.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.
A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the bottom of the SCROTUM. Testicular descent is essential to normal SPERMATOGENESIS which requires temperature lower than the BODY TEMPERATURE. Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis.
Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.
A specialized barrier, in the TESTIS, between the interstitial BLOOD compartment and the adluminal compartment of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. The barrier is formed by layers of cells from the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM of the capillary BLOOD VESSELS, to the SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIUM of the seminiferous tubules. TIGHT JUNCTIONS form between adjacent SERTOLI CELLS, as well as between the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
Euploid male germ cells of an early stage of SPERMATOGENESIS, derived from prespermatogonia. With the onset of puberty, spermatogonia at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule proliferate by mitotic then meiotic divisions and give rise to the haploid SPERMATOCYTES.
The epithelium lining the seminiferous tubules composed of primary male germ cells (SPERMATOGONIA) and supporting SERTOLI CELLS. As SPERMATOGENESIS proceeds, the developing germ cells migrate toward the lumen. The adluminal compartment, the inner two thirds of the tubules, contains SPERMATOCYTES and the more advanced germ cells.
A specialized transport barrier, in the EYE, formed by the retinal pigment EPITHELIUM, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the RETINA. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.
The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
The barrier between capillary blood and alveolar air comprising the alveolar EPITHELIUM and capillary ENDOTHELIUM with their adherent BASEMENT MEMBRANE and EPITHELIAL CELL cytoplasm. PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE occurs across this membrane.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Pathological processes of the TESTIS.
Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.
Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)
Those factors, such as language or sociocultural relationships, which interfere in the meaningful interpretation and transmission of ideas between individuals or groups.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).
Inflammation of a TESTIS. It has many features of EPIDIDYMITIS, such as swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS and then the TESTIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.
The twisting of the SPERMATIC CORD due to an anatomical abnormality that left the TESTIS mobile and dangling in the SCROTUM. The initial effect of testicular torsion is obstruction of venous return. Depending on the duration and degree of cord rotation, testicular symptoms range from EDEMA to interrupted arterial flow and testicular pain. If blood flow to testis is absent for 4 to 6 h, SPERMATOGENESIS may be permanently lost.
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A MARVEL domain protein that plays an important role in the formation and regulation of the TIGHT JUNCTION paracellular permeability barrier.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
The selectively permeable barrier, in the EYE, formed by the nonpigmented layer of the EPITHELIUM of the CILIARY BODY, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the IRIS. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.
The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.
The surgical removal of one or both testicles.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
A transcription factor that plays an essential role in the development of the TESTES. It is encoded by a gene on the Y chromosome and contains a specific HMG-BOX DOMAIN that is found within members of the SOX family of transcription factors.
A 195-kDa zonula occludens protein that is distinguished by the presence of a ZU5 domain at the C-terminal of the molecule.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
The barrier between the perineurium of PERIPHERAL NERVES and the endothelium (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR) of endoneurial CAPILLARIES. The perineurium acts as a diffusion barrier, but ion permeability at the blood-nerve barrier is still higher than at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER.
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.
Gonadal neoplasm composed entirely of SERTOLI CELLS or may have a component of GRANULOSA CELLS. Some of the Sertoli cell tumors produce ESTROGEN or ANDROGENS, but seldom in sufficient quantity to cause clinical symptoms such as FEMINIZATION or masculinization (VIRILISM).
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A surgical procedure in which an undescended testicle is sutured inside the SCROTUM in male infants or children to correct CRYPTORCHIDISM. Orchiopexy is also performed to treat TESTICULAR TORSION in adults and adolescents.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A plasticizer used in most plastics and found in water, air, soil, plants and animals. It may have some adverse effects with long-term exposure.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
A radiosensitive, malignant neoplasm of the testis, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. There are three variants: classical (typical), the most common type; anaplastic; and spermatocytic. The classical seminoma is composed of fairly well differentiated sheets or cords of uniform polygonal or round cells (seminoma cells), each cell having abundant clear cytoplasm, distinct cell membranes, a centrally placed round nucleus, and one or more nucleoli. In the female, a grossly and histologically identical neoplasm, known as dysgerminoma, occurs. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Hormones produced in the testis.
The maturing process of SPERMATOZOA after leaving the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. Maturation in SPERM MOTILITY and FERTILITY takes place in the EPIDIDYMIS as the sperm migrate from caput epididymis to cauda epididymis.
A large family of transmembrane proteins found in TIGHT JUNCTIONS. They take part in the formation of paracellular barriers and pores that regulate paracellular permeability.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
A condition characterized by the dilated tortuous veins of the SPERMATIC CORD with a marked left-sided predominance. Adverse effect on male fertility occurs when varicocele leads to an increased scrotal (and testicular) temperature and reduced testicular volume.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Either of a pair of tubular structures formed by DUCTUS DEFERENS; ARTERIES; VEINS; LYMPHATIC VESSELS; and nerves. The spermatic cord extends from the deep inguinal ring through the INGUINAL CANAL to the TESTIS in the SCROTUM.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectively
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
Mutant strains of mice that produce little or no hair.
The primary testis-determining gene in mammalians, located on the Y CHROMOSOME. It codes for a high mobility group box transcription factor (TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS) which initiates the development of the TESTES from the embryonic GONADS.
An ester of phthalic acid. It appears as a light-colored, odorless liquid and is used as a plasticizer for many resins and elastomers.
A claudin subtype that is found localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS in VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. The protein was initially identified as one of several proteins which are deleted in VELOCARDIOFACIAL SYNDROME and may play an important role in maintaining the integrity of the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.

Passage of leptin across the blood-testis barrier. (1/152)

Leptin is a 17-kDa protein, secreted by fat, that controls adiposity and has been proposed to have numerous effects on reproduction in the mouse. To assess whether the effects of leptin on testicular function are direct, we determined whether leptin can cross the murine blood-testis barrier. Multiple time regression analysis showed that a small amount of blood-borne leptin is able to enter the testis but does so by a nonsaturable process. In addition, no significant expression of leptin receptors was found at the Leydig cells or Sertoli cells of the testis. This compares with the presence of a saturable transport system for leptin at the blood-brain barrier and abundant receptors for leptin at the leptomeninges, neurons, and choroid plexus of the central nervous system (CNS). These results support the hypothesis that the effects of leptin on reproductive function are not mediated at the level of the testis but indirectly, probably through the CNS.  (+info)

Evaluation of cholesteryl ester transfer in the seminiferous tubule cells of immature rats in vivo and in vitro. (2/152)

Sertoli cells and germ cells are separated from the interstitial blood capillaries by an extracellular matrix and the peritubular cells, which constitute a barrier to the movement of plasma lipoproteins. The present study was undertaken to evaluate in vivo and in vitro the high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesteryl ester transfer from plasma to seminiferous tubule cells in the testis of 30-day-old rats. Firstly, the transfer of HDL cholesteryl oleate from plasma to testicular compartments was evaluated and, secondly, the role of apolipoproteins A-I and E in the uptake of cholesteryl ester by Sertoli cells was investigated. At 2 h after the administration of HDL reconstituted with [3H]cholesteryl ester, dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine and apolipoproteins, the tissue space in the interstitial cells (740 +/- 60 microliters g-1 cell protein) was fourfold higher than that in the seminiferous tubule cells (170 +/- 10 microliters g-1). Sertoli cells were isolated and incubated with [3H]cholesteryl ester HDL reconstituted with apolipoprotein A-I or E to evaluate the mechanisms of cholesteryl ester influx. At the same apolipoprotein concentration (50 micrograms apolipoprotein ml-1 medium), the uptake of [3H]cholesteryl oleate from phospholipid-apolipoprotein E vesicles was twofold higher than that with phospholipid-apolipoprotein A-I vesicles. The presence of heparin reduced the uptake of cholesteryl ester from apolipoprotein E vesicles but not with apolipoprotein A-I vesicles, indicating that uptake of apolipoprotein A-I vesicles via a secretion of apolipoprotein E by the cells themselves was not involved. These results demonstrate that plasma lipoprotein cholesterol is able to cross the testis lamina propria and that Sertoli cells take up cholesteryl ester for seminiferous tubule cell metabolism mainly via an apolipoprotein E pathway.  (+info)

Passive immunization with anti-laminin immunoglobulin G modifies the integrity of the seminiferous epithelium and induces arrest of spermatogenesis in the guinea pig. (3/152)

In the testis, the base of the Sertoli cells is in contact with the basement membrane matrix, in which the laminins constitute the major noncollagenous components. We have previously demonstrated that antibodies against a preparation enriched in basement membranes of seminiferous tubules (STBM) or a noncollagenous fraction of STBM passively transferred induced modifications to the basement membranes and focal sloughing of the seminiferous epithelium in the rat. In the present report, we tested the effect of passive immunization with anti-laminin IgG on the limiting membrane of the seminiferous tubules, spermatogenesis, and maintenance of the blood-testis barrier in the adult guinea pig. Rabbit antibodies to laminin 1 (IgG fraction) were injected in adult male guinea pigs (GP). Nonimmunized GP and GP immunized with normal rabbit serum IgG were used as controls. Measurements of variations in the diameter and lumen of the tubules and in the size of individual components of the tubular limiting membrane showed that the highest percentage of tubules with reduced lumen occurred 30 days after passive immunization with anti-laminin, when the limiting membrane was thickest and lesions to the seminiferous epithelium were most severe. The lesions included thickening of the limiting membrane, infolding in the basal lamina, deposits of immune complexes coincident with sloughing of pachytene spermatocytes and spermatids, and vacuolization of the Sertoli cells. Mononuclear cell infiltration of the tubules was rare. Permeability tracer studies revealed that Sertoli cell tight junctions remained impermeable. Fifty and 80 days after treatment, the basement membrane of the tubules and the progression of the spermatogenesis were normal. Passive immunization with anti-laminin IgG provided a valuable experimental model for the in vivo study of the influence of the basement membrane on the issue of spermatogenesis and the integrity of the seminiferous epithelium.  (+info)

Effect of efferent duct ligation on the function of the blood-testis barrier in rats. (4/152)

The function of the blood-testis barrier has been assessed from the ratio of the Cr-EDTA space in the parenchyma to the measured interstitial volume in the testes of rats at various times after unilateral ligation of the efferent ducts. The barrier remained effective during the phase of fluid accumulation and testicular mass gain, which was linear for at least 24 h, but the testis mass began to decrease between 32 and 40 h after efferent duct ligation, and the Cr-EDTA space at 40 and 48 h after efferent duct ligation exceeded the volume of the interstitial tissue. This finding indicated that, at these times, the barrier to Cr-EDTA, which is normally excluded from the tubules, had broken down and the marker was entering the tubules. Thereafter, the Cr-EDTA space decreased again to be less than the interstitial tissue volume, indicating a restoration of the barrier function, although degeneration of the seminiferous epithelium continued to become more obvious. The present study is the first report of a reversible breakdown of the barrier, but the relevance of the breakdown to the effects on spermatogenesis requires further study.  (+info)

Testicular damage by microcirculatory disruption and colonization of an immune-privileged site during Borrelia crocidurae infection. (5/152)

The agent of African relapsing fever, Borrelia crocidurae, causes reversible multiple organ damage. We hypothesize that this damage is caused when the spirochete forms aggregate with erythrocytes in vivo, creating rosettes that plug the microcirculatory system. To test this hypothesis, we compared testicular microcirculation over an extended time period in two groups of rats: one experimentally inoculated with B. crocidurae, the other with the nonerythrocyte rosette-forming Borrelia hermsii. In the B. crocidurae group, erythrocyte rosettes formed during spiro-chetemia blocked precapillary blood vessels and reduced the normal pattern of microcirculatory blood flow. After spirochetemia, erythrocyte rosettes disappeared and flow was normalized. Decreased blood flow and focal vascular damage with increased permeability and interstitial bleeding adjacent to the erythrocyte microemboli induced cell death in seminiferous tubules. Interestingly, we found that B. crocidurae could penetrate the tubules and remain in the testis long after the end of spirochetemia, suggesting that the testis can serve as a reservoir for this bacteria in subsequent relapses. The group infected with B. hermsii displayed normal testicular blood flow and vasomotion at all selected time points, and suffered no testicular damage. These results confirmed our hypothesis that the erythrocyte rosettes produce vascular obstruction and are the main cause of histopathology seen in model animal and human infections.  (+info)

A 22-amino acid synthetic peptide corresponding to the second extracellular loop of rat occludin perturbs the blood-testis barrier and disrupts spermatogenesis reversibly in vivo. (6/152)

When Sertoli cells were cultured in vitro on Matrigel-coated bicameral units, the assembly of the inter-Sertoli tight junction (TJ) permeability barrier correlated with an induction of occludin expression. Inclusion of a 22-amino acid peptide, NH(2)-GSQIYTICSQFYTPGGTGLYVD-COOH, corresponding to residues 209-230 in the second extracellular loop of rat occludin, at 0.2-4 microM into Sertoli cell cultures could perturb the assembly of Sertoli TJs dose-dependently and reversibly. This peptide apparently exerts its effects by interfering with the homotypic interactions of two occludin molecules between adjacent Sertoli cells at the sites of TJs, thereby disrupting TJs, which, in turn, causes a decline in transepithelial electrical resistance across the Sertoli cell epithelium. When similar experiments were performed using a 22-amino acid myotubularin peptide, NH(2)-TKVNERYELCDTYPALLAVPAN-COOH (residues 156-177), no effects on the assembly of inter-Sertoli TJs in vitro were noted. When a single dose of this synthetic occludin peptide was administered to adult rats intratesticularly at 1.5-10 mg/testis, germ cells began to deplete from the seminiferous epithelium within 8-16 days. By 27 days, virtually all tubules were devoid of germ cells. This antispermatogenic effect was reversible, because germ cells progressively repopulated the epithelium thereafter. Treated testes were indistinguishable from normal or control testes by 68 days post-occludin peptide treatment when assessed using histological analysis. In contrast, control rats receiving either no treatment, vehicle alone, or a 22-amino acid synthetic peptide of myotubularin displayed no changes in the testicular morphology at all time points. The occludin peptide-induced germ cell depletion was also accompanied by a disruption of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) when assessed by micropuncture techniques quantifying [(125)I]-BSA in rete testis fluid and seminiferous tubular fluid following i.v. administration of [(125)I]-BSA through the jugular vein. These results illustrate that the occludin peptide-induced disruption of the BTB may possibly affect the underlying adherens junctions, which causes premature release of germ cells from the epithelium and reversible infertility.  (+info)

Expression of a blood-brain barrier-specific antigen in the reproductive tract of the male rat. (7/152)

The endothelial barrier antigen (EBA) is a protein expressed specifically by the endothelial cells of the rat brain barrier vessels. This antigen has been described as a 'barrier protein' and is used as a marker for the competent blood-brain barrier. A blood-testis barrier has also been described. However, unlike the blood-brain barrier, which is formed by endothelial cells, the blood-testis barrier is formed mainly by the Sertoli cells, which provide an isolated environment for spermatogenic cells within the seminiferous tubules. Testicular blood vessels express the erythroid glucose transporter protein and other markers, which are strongly expressed in brain blood vessels, and may contribute to the blood-testis barrier. This study was carried out to determine whether Sertoli cells or testicular blood vessels express EBA. Tissues of other organs were used as controls for EBA expression. EBA was expressed by the endothelial cells in most microvessels of the testis, and in a few vessels of the epididymis, seminal vesicle, prostate gland, vas deferens and bladder-neck region. Furthermore, EBA was strongly and consistently detected in epithelial cells of the rete testis and dorsolateral prostate gland, and in a few epithelial cells of the ventral prostate gland, the seminal vesicle and the coagulating gland. However, Sertoli cells, which are the main site of the blood-testis barrier, were negative for EBA. In conclusion, EBA may have a wider role in rat tissues than has been previously appreciated.  (+info)

Cr(V) involvement in the toxicity pathway of testicular damage. (8/152)

AIM: The functional integrity of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) in male mice exposed to Cr(V) was studied in order to clarify the mechanism underlying testicular injury. METHODS: Adult male mice were subcutaneously injected repeated doses of 8.02 micromol (0.5 ml) of Cr/mouse.day for 5 days. Animals receiving a similar volume of bis(hydroxyethyl)-aminotris(hydroxymethyl)methane buffer (BT) were used as controls. The animals were sacrificed on day 6 and small fragments of seminiferous tubules, approximately 8-10 mm length, were incised and sutured at both ends. They were exposed in vitro to horseradish peroxidase-containing culture medium for 10 minutes. Tissues were then fixed and processed for ultrastructural studies. RESULTS: Controls and Cr(V)-treated group resulted in the uptake of the tracer by Sertoli cells. However, the major finding consisted in the permeability of the BTB only in the Cr(V)-group, as evidenced by the presence of the tracer within the junctions between the neighbouring Sertoli cells. CONCLUSION: The BTB is disrupted in mice submitted to Cr(V). The permeability of the BTB is a crucial feature to be investigated for the understanding of lesions within the seminiferous tubule.  (+info)

The use of an in vitro system based on primary cultures of Sertoli cells isolated from rat testes has greatly facilitated the study of the blood-testis barrier in recent years. Herein, we summarize the detailed procedures on the isolation of undifferentiated Sertoli cells from 20-day-old rat testes, the culture of these cells as a monolayer on Matrigel-coated bicameral units, the characterization of these cultured cells, and the use of the Sertoli cell epithelium for monitoring the integrity of the Sertoli cell blood-testis barrier. This information is based on the routine use of this system in our laboratory to study the Sertoli cell blood-testis barrier in the past two decades, which should be helpful for investigators in the field.. ...
The blood-testis barrier (BTB), one of the tightest blood-tissue barriers in the mammalian body, creates an immune-privileged site for postmeiotic spermatid development to avoid the production of antibodies against spermatid-specific antigens, many of which express transiently during spermiogenesis and spermiation. However, the BTB undergoes extensive restructuring at stage VIII of the epithelial cycle to facilitate the transit of preleptotene spermatocytes and to prepare for meiosis. This action thus prompted us to investigate whether this stage can be a physiological window for the delivery of therapeutic and/or contraceptive drugs across the BTB to exert their effects at the immune-privileged site. Herein, we report findings that P-glycoprotein, an ATP-dependent efflux drug transporter and an integrated component of the occludin/zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1) adhesion complex at the BTB, structurally interacted with focal adhesion kinase (FAK), creating the occludin/ZO-1/FAK/P-glycoprotein ...
The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is an important ultrastructure in the testis since the onset of spermatogenesis coincides with the establishment of a functional barrier in rodents and humans. It is also noted that a delay in the assembly of a functional BTB following treatment of neonatal rats with drugs such as diethylstilbestrol or adjudin also delays the first wave of spermiation. While the BTB is one of the tightest blood-tissue barriers, it undergoes extensive remodeling, in particular at stage VIII of the epithelial cycle to facilitate the transport of preleptotene spermatocytes connected in clones across the immunological barrier. Without this timely transport of preleptotene spermatocytes derived from type B spermatogonia, meiosis will be arrested, causing aspermatogenesis. Yet the biology and regulation of the BTB remains largely unexplored since the morphological studies in the 1970s. Recent studies, however, have shed new light on the biology of the BTB. Herein, we critically evaluate some of
Sperm are immunogenic - that is they will cause an autoimmune reaction if transplanted from the testis into a different part of the body. This has been demonstrated in experiments using rats by Lansteiner (1899) and Metchinikoff (1900),[11][12] mice [13] and guinea pigs.[14] The likely reason for this is that sperm first mature at puberty, after immune tolerance is established, therefore the body recognizes them as foreign and mounts an immune reaction against them. Therefore, mechanisms for their protection must exist in this organ to prevent any autoimmune reaction. The blood-testis barrier is likely to contribute to the survival of sperm. However, it is believed in the field of testicular immunology that the blood-testis barrier cannot account for all immune suppression in the testis, due to (1) its incompleteness at a region called the rete testis [12] and (2) the presence of immunogenic molecules outside the blood-testis barrier, on the surface of spermatogonia.[11][12] Another mechanism ...
The retina is an extension of the central nervous system that has been shown to share the pathological manifestations of a number of neurological disorders, including Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons and multiple sclerosis. Moreover, patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a disease of the central retina, have been shown to have non vision-related cognitive decline. Furthermore, a number of physiological processes that are affected in neuro-degenerative diseases are also impacted in retinal degenerative diseases. To cite a few examples, perturbation in phagocytic clearance, iron metabolism, polarized fluid transport and blood-tissue barrier function are all major cellular characteristics of degenerative diseases of both the retina and the brain. Therefore studying mechanisms of specific retinal degenerative diseases also has significant relevance for understanding other neurological disorders ...
The tissues chosen for study (testis, epididymis, and brain) were selected because they contain restrictive vascular barriers limiting the permeability of the tissue to large proteins and other molecules. The presence of vascular boundaries indicates the need for specialized transport of substances into and out of the tissue. The blood-brain barrier is well known, having been first described at the turn of the century (Biedl and Kraus, 1898). It is comprised of endothelial cells connected by tight junctions which serve to restrict the passage of substances from the vasculature into the cerebral interstitium (Brightman and Reese, 1969). The blood-testis barrier was also recognized in the early 1900s and was characterized by electron microscopy in the rat in 1970 (Dym and Fawcett, 1970). A dispute exists over which cells actually comprise the blood-testis barrier, and it has been suggested that there are actually three barriers in the testis of most species: 1) the endothelial lining of the blood ...
A computational study of CYP3A4 mediated drug interaction profiles for anti-HIV drugs Regulation of blood-testis barrier dynamics by desmosome, gap junction, hemidesmosome and polarity proteins: An unexpected turn of events Synthesis, biological evaluation, and SAR study of novel pyrazole analogues as inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Part 2. Synthesis of rigid pyrazolones Peer-to-Peer Overlays and Data Integration in a Life Science Grid Diversity of true mangroves and their associates in the Pondicherry region of South India and development of a mangrove knowledgebase Analysis of CYP3A4-HIV-1 protease drugs interactions by computational methods for Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV/AIDS ZifBASE: a database of zinc finger proteins and associated resources A quantitative test of the thermogenesis hypothesis of cetacean brain evolution, using phylogenetic comparative methods A comparative analysis of the preference for dark environments in five teleosts Influence of the estrous cycle in
Yearwood, Ryan; La Barbera, Andrew R.; Marsh, Karen (University of Cincinnati. College of Medicine; University of Cincinnati, 2007-02-06) ...
Subcellular Architecture of Regulatory Protein Complexes at the Bacterial Pole Recent advances in microscopic imaging with single fluorescent molecules have led...
A schematic drawing illustrating the likely role of ezrin in the apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES) during the epithelial cycle in the rat testis. Ezrin is
Video created by Universiteit Leiden, Leiden University Medical Center for the course Clinical Kidney, Pancreas and Islet Transplantation. Now you know the factors of importance before transplantation, including the immunological barriers and ...
The discovery of a protein complex at the heart of cellular transport networks could have broad implications for disease research.
Looking for online definition of blood-testis barrier in the Medical Dictionary? blood-testis barrier explanation free. What is blood-testis barrier? Meaning of blood-testis barrier medical term. What does blood-testis barrier mean?
The ultrastructure of Sertoli-Sertoli and Sertoli-germ cell surface specializations in the domestic fowl was studied in material fixed by vascular perfusion through the thoracic aorta. Three main types of surface specializations were found between adjacent Sertoli cells. These are focal tight junctions, desmosome-like devices, and a specialization characterized by the presence of long and dilated subsurface cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Typical inter-Sertoli cell junctions similar to those of mammals were absent. Germ cells were attached to Sertoli cells mainly by desmosome-like devices of varying appearance. The junctions between Sertoli cells and elongating or elongated spermatids, the mantle, consisted of only slight condensations of filamentous material in the Sertoli cell. The tight junctions between adjacent Sertoli cells were efficient in preventing lanthanum from passing towards the lumen beyond the level of the spermatogonia.
Uptake and efflux transporters determine plasma and tissue concentrations of a broad variety of drugs. They are localized in organs such as small intestine, liver, and kidney, which are critical for drug absorption and elimination. Moreover, they can be found in important blood-tissue barriers such as the blood-brain barrier. Inhibition or induction of drug transporters by coadministered drugs can alter pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the victim drugs. This review will summarize in particular clinically observed drug-drug interactions attributable to inhibition or induction of intestinal export transporters [P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)], to inhibition of hepatic uptake transporters [organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs)], or to inhibition of transporter-mediated [organic anion transporters (OATs), organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs), P-gp] renal secretion of xenobiotics ...
BACKGROUND: The ATP-dependent drug-efflux pump, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) encoded by ABCB1 (MDR1), plays a crucial role in several tissues forming blood-tissue barriers. Absence of a normally functioning P-gp can lead to a highly increased tissue penetration of a number of clinically important drugs. METHODS: We have studied the dose-response effect of exogenous ATP on the placental transfer of the well-established P-gp substrate saquinavir in 17 dually perfused human term placentas. We have also studied the influence of the ABCB1 polymorphisms 2677G,T/A and 3435C,T on placental P-gp expression (n = 44) and the transfer (n = 16) of saquinavir. RESULTS: The present results indicate that the addition of exogenous ATP to the perfusion medium does not affect the function of P-gp as measured by saquinavir transfer across the human placenta. The variant allele 3435T was associated with significantly higher placental P-gp expression than the wild-type alleles. However, neither polymorphism affected ...
Deca-bromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) regulates various aspects of spermatogenesis and male fertility through its effect on estrogen receptor α (ERα
These data suggest a novel mechanism for the inhibition of atherogenesis by E2: preservation of the integrity of an active barrier function of the endothelium by maintenance of endothelial FasL expression. The potential role of FasL in preventing leukocyte extravasation has been shown previously.9 Our data reveal that hypercholesterolemia, a risk factor for atherosclerosis and a precondition for atheroma formation in the rabbit model, reduces FasL expression in vivo, with an associated increase in macrophage infiltration of the arterial wall. E2, assumed to be the atheroprotective factor in premenopausal women, restores/maintains FasL expression and thereby inhibits leukocyte traffic across the endothelium despite the ongoing presence of severely elevated serum cholesterol levels.. In vivo, 2 forms of FasL can be found: a membrane-bound (42 to 48 kDa) and a soluble (sFasL, 26 kDa) FasL form resulting from the release of the extracellular domain of membrane-bound FasL cleaved by ...
Header}}[[Image:Frazer002 bw600.jpg,right,300px]] ==Introduction== [[File:Human-spermatozoa.jpg,thumb,Human spermatozoa (light microscope)]] [[File:Human-spermatozoa EM01.jpg,thumb,Human spermatozoa (electron microscope)]] [[File:Single_human_spermatozoa.jpg,thumb,Single human spermatozoa{{#pmid:20529256,PMID20529256}}]] This page introduces spermatogenesis the development of spermatozoa, the male haploid gamete cell. In humans at puberty, spermatozoa are produced by {{spermatogonia}} meiosis in the seminiferous tubules of the testis (male gonad). A second process of {{spermiogenesis}} leads to change in cellular organisation and shape before release into the central lumen of the seminiferous tubule. This overall process has been variously divided into specific identifiable stages in different species: 6 in human, 12 in mouse, and 14 in rat. Structurally, the seminiferous tubule epithelium is divided into a basal and an apical (adluminal) compartment by the blood-testis barrier (BTB). (More? ...
The appeal of using embryonic stem (ES) cells for regenerative medicine lies in their pluripotency and resulting ability to differentiate into all somatic cell types. While graft rejection remains the greatest hurdle to their use in the clinic, several approaches have been proposed to protect the allogeneic ES cell-derived grafts from host immunity: the creation of nuclear transfer human ES (hES) cell lines; the development of parthenogenic hES cells and iPS cells; the establishment of a bank of clinically-approved lines; the generation of hematopoietic chimerism and the induction of peripheral tolerance in recipients. Here, we discuss how the immune-privileged features of ES cells and tissues derived from them may influence these approaches and review the strategies and mechanisms involved in sustaining antigen-specific tolerance through interplay between dendritic cells (DC) and regulatory T cells (Treg). This overview therefore surveys prospects for developing novel regimes to prolong acceptance of
A supporting cell projecting inward from the basement membrane of seminiferous tubules. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete androgen binding protein. Their tight junctions with the spermatogonia and spermatocytes provide a blood-testis barrier. [MESH:A.05.360.444.849.789 ...
Intercellular adhesion molecule 2 (ICAM2), also known as CD102 (Cluster of Differentiation 102), is a human gene, and the protein resulting from it. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) family. All ICAM proteins are type I transmembrane glycoproteins, contain 2-9 immunoglobulin-like C2-type domains, and bind to the leukocyte adhesion LFA-1 protein. ICAM-2 molecules regulate spermatid adhesion on Sertori cell on the apical side of the blood-testis barrier (towards the lumen), thus playing a major role in spermatogenesis. This protein may also play a role in lymphocyte recirculation by blocking LFA-1-dependent cell adhesion. It mediates adhesive interactions important for antigen-specific immune response, NK-cell mediated clearance, lymphocyte recirculation, and other cellular interactions important for immune response and surveillance. ICAM2 has been shown to interact with EZR. Cluster of differentiation GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
Cadmium, Inhibin, Cleft Lip, Cleft Palate, Costs, Emotional Stress, Families, Health, Lip, Palate, Patients, Public Health, Risk, Affect, Annexin V, Anti-mullerian Hormone, Blood, Blood-testis Barrier, Cadmium Chloride, Cells
Caribaeohypnum es un género monotípico confinado a las tierras altas tropicales. Fue ubicado previamente en Hypnum y Stereodon. Mientras comparte con Hypnum las hojas falcado-secundas, difiere de este género en el hábito más grande, pliegues fuertes extendiéndose bien arriba de la base de la hoja, particularmente notables en seco, y células alares irregularmente rectangulares fuertemente porosas y con paredes gruesas, excavadas. Los esporofitos en ambos géneros son aparentemente raros; en Caribaeohypnum los dientes del exostoma son papilosos a todo lo largo, estriado-papilosos abajo, la membrana basal es algo baja, con segmentos levemente plegados y no perforados, con cilios rudimentarios o ausentes. En Hypnum los dientes son estriados transversalmente abajo, y sólo papilosos distalmente, la membrana basal es alta, con segmentos plegados y perforados, con 1-3 cilios. Los esporofitos de Caribaeohypnum son desconocidos en los Andes Tropicales, la descripción se basa en Ando e Higuchi ...
Kodaira Y, Nair SK, Wrenshall LE, Gilboa E, Platt JL. Phenotypic and functional maturation of dendritic cells modulated by heparan sulfate. J Immunol 165:1599, 2000.. Dempsey LA, Brunn GJ, Platt JL. Heparanase, a potential regulator of cell-matrix interactions.Trends Biochem Sci 25:349, 2000.. Saadi S, Holzknecht RA, Patte CP, Platt JL. Endothelial cell activation by pore-forming structures: pivotal role for IL-1a. Circulation 101:1867, 2000.. Holzknecht ZE, Platt JL.The fine cytokine line between graft acceptance and rejection. Nat Med 6: 497, 2000.. Platt JL. Xenotransplantation: new risks and new gains. Nature 407:27, 2000.. Cascalho M, Platt JL. The immunological barrier to xenotransplantation. Immunity 14:437, 2001.. Cascalho M, Platt JL. Xenotransplantation and other means of organ replacement. Nat Rev Immunol1:154, 2001.. Platt JL. Knocking out xenograft rejection. Nat Biotechnol 20:231, 2002.. Johnson GB, Brunn GJ, Kodaira Y, Platt JL. Receptor-mediated monitoring of tissue well being ...
Andrea A. Zachary, Mary S. Leffell Summary: Desensitization protocols are being used worldwide to enable kidney transplantation across immunologic barriers, i.…
01.04.15-31.09.15 MRC Confidence in Concept (£29,126) White MG Shaw JAM - Utilising a novel model of human beta-cell dedifferentiation for screening potential disease-modifying functional impact of candidate therapeutic agents for type 2 diabetes 01.10.15-30.09.18 Diabetes UK (£92,460) Shaw JAM, White M - Defining the role of dedifferentiation as a primary mechanism of beta-cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. 01.01.15-31.12.17 Diabetes UK (£360,436) Shaw JAM, Marshall H, Porat Y - Development of a novel donor human islet / recipient endothelial progenitor cell chimeric tissue transplant for type 1 diabetes. 01.04.14-31.03.17 UK Regenerative Medicine Platform (£4.5M) - led Watt F, Kings College London - Overcoming immunological barriers to regenerative medicine. 01.10.13-30.09.16 Diabetes UK (£93,626) Shaw JAM, Marshall H - Targeting islet inflammation ex vivo and following transplantation. 01.03.13-28.02.16 Dompe (£130,000) (Shaw JAM - UK Chief Investigator) - Target the early ...
Video created by Universiteit Leiden, Leiden University Medical Center for the course Clinical Kidney, Pancreas and Islet Transplantation. Now you know the factors of importance before transplantation, including the immunological barriers and ...
Recently Prof Hirst authored a News and Views in Nature focussed on two exciting articles about the cell epithelium as active matter.. Evidence has been found that a biological tissue might behave like a liquid crystal. Even more remarkably, topological defects in this liquid-crystal system seem to influence cell behaviour. A materials physicist and a biologist discuss what the findings mean for researchers in their fields.. Read the full article here. ...
BioAssay record AID 590850 submitted by ChEMBL: Binding affinity to chicken skeletal muscle tropomyosin within actomyosin protein complex at 125 uM after 1 hr followed by 10 mins irradiation with UVA by SDS-PAGE analysis using coomassie brilliant blue staining.
Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. Their tight junctions with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.
One thing the Sertoli cells do is act as a blood-testis barrier preventing sperm-immune cell contact. I believe that spermatozoa themselves have immunosuppressive properties (e.g., maybe by producing anti-inflammatory cytokines). The developing sperm are immunogenic - I guess what is happening here is that spermatozoa are not produced until puberty which is long after the establishment of tolerance to self-antigens (breakdown of tolerance to self is one cause of autoimmune diseases).. The testis immunological microenvironment does not always protect sperm against the male immune system since anti-sperm antibodies are not uncommon (e.g., prevalent in men with vasectomies) and can be one cause of infertility. According to one publication (see - http://molehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/13/7/437.long) there are at as many as 35 immunoreactive antigens in sperm from men with anti-sperm antibodies.. Last edited by Steve Lolait (8th Nov 2011 15:30:37). ...
In this study we demonstrate that the placental drug-transporting P-gp can profoundly limit the passage of various potentially toxic or therapeutically beneficial P-gp substrate drugs into the fetus. We further show that this placental P-gp can be completely blocked by orally administered PSC833 or GG918, resulting in greatly increased transplacental passage of drugs into the fetus. Previously, Lankas et al. showed that the absence of Mdr1a P-gp in the placenta of naturally occurring Mdr1a mutant fetuses is associated with increased fetal accumulation and toxicity of the pesticide avermectin (13). Taken together, the data demonstrate that the mouse Mdr1a P-gp makes a major contribution to yet another biologically important protective barrier. The list now includes the blood-brain barrier, the blood-nerve barrier, the blood-testis barrier, the maternal-fetal barrier, and the intestinal barrier (10, 12, 13, 25-28). Thus, P-gp activity protects the central blood circulation and a range of tissue ...
5.1.1 Testis (Interactive Diagram) -What are the principal functional compartments of the testis? -What are the functions of the testis? -What is cryptorchidism and what are its consequences? -What is the blood-testis barrier? -What is the function of androgen-binding protein and where is it synthesized ...
W.C. Sangren and C.W. Sheppard. A mathematical derivation of the exchange of a labelled substance between a liquid flowing in a vessel and an external compartment. Bull Math BioPhys, 15, 387-394, 1953. C.A. Goresky, W.H. Ziegler, and G.G. Bach. Capillary exchange modeling: Barrier-limited and flow-limited distribution. Circ Res 27: 739-764, 1970. J.B. Bassingthwaighte. A concurrent flow model for extraction during transcapillary passage. Circ Res 35:483-503, 1974. B. Guller, T. Yipintsoi, A.L. Orvis, and J.B. Bassingthwaighte. Myocardial sodium extraction at varied coronary flows in the dog: Estimation of capillary permeability by residue and outflow detection. Circ Res 37: 359-378, 1975. C.P. Rose, C.A. Goresky, and G.G. Bach. The capillary and sarcolemmal barriers in the heart--an exploration of labelled water permeability. Circ Res 41: 515, 1977. J.B. Bassingthwaighte, C.Y. Wang, and I.S. Chan. Blood-tissue exchange via transport and transformation by endothelial cells. Circ. Res. ...
During spermatogenesis, preleptotene and leptotene spermatocytes, residing in the basal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium, must traverse the blood-testis barrier (BTB) to gain entry to the adluminal compartment for further development at late stage VIII and early stage IX of the epithelial cycle. As such, the timely opening and closing of the BTB is crucial to spermatogenesis. A compromise in this process can lead to infertility. Moreover, the BTB is unique in its relative localization in the seminiferous epithelium compared to the tight junctions (TJs) found in other epithelia. Sertoli cell TJs are situated near the basal lamina in the testis, closest to the basement membrane (a modified form of extracellular matrix [ECM]), unlike TJs found in other epithelia, which are found nearest the apical portion of an epithelium, farthest away from ECM. Needless to say, BTB function in the testis is maintained by intricate regulatory mechanisms. In addition to hormones and cytokines, nitric ...
Effects of dietary vitamin E on daily intake, serum testosterone and epididymal sperm quality in SpragueDawley rats subjected to heat stress.D. T. Yates1, A. F.Vitamin C is an essential vitamin with antioxidant properties.The testosterone test or a free testosterone or bioavailable testosterone test is used to detect low testosterone or high testosterone levels in the blood.Vitamin A crosses the blood-testis barrier in its alcohol form as.. The best testosterone supplements work with your body to increase natural testosterone production.Korean researchers have discovered an association between vitamin D levels and testosterone in healthy women without obesity, according to research published in The ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biofilm-stimulated epithelium modulates the inflammatory responses in co-cultured immune cells. AU - Brown, Jason L.. AU - Johnston, William. AU - Delaney, Chris. AU - Rajendran, Ranjith AU - Butcher, John. AU - Khan, Shaz. AU - Bradshaw, David. AU - Ramage, Gordon. AU - Culshaw, Shauna. N1 - Acceptance from webpage OA article. PY - 2019/10/31. Y1 - 2019/10/31. N2 - The gingival epithelium is a physical and immunological barrier to the microbiota of the oral cavity, which interact through soluble mediators with the immune cells that patrol the tissue at the gingival epithelium. We sought to develop a three-dimensional gingivae-biofilm interface model using a commercially available gingival epithelium to study the tissue inflammatory response to oral biofilms associated with health, gingivitis and periodontitis.. These biofilms were developed by sequential addition of microorganisms to mimic the formation of supra- and sub-gingival plaque in vivo. Secondly, to mimic the ...
In mammalian pregnancy the trophoblast normally constitutes an uninterrupted boundary of foetal tissue in immediate contact with maternal tissue, including blood in some species, and is the decisive immunological barrier to rejection of the foetus as an allograft. The ability of the trophoblast to function as a barrier evidently results from its capacity to resist immunological attack by either alloantibody or alloimmune cells and to prevent immunocompetent cells from reaching and damaging the foetus but, as yet, there is no general agreement regarding the means by which it exercises these functions. In view of the dramatic hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy and the undisputed involvement of trophoblast in these endocrine events, the possibility exists of an interaction between the hormones of pregnancy and the immunological phenomena. The present account furnishes evidence that endocrine activity at the maternal surface of the trophoblast, the presumptive site of the immunological ...
Immune tolerance in pregnancy or gestational/maternal immune tolerance is the absence of a maternal immune response against (in other words, immune tolerance towards) the fetus and placenta during pregnancy, which thus may be viewed as unusually successful allografts, since they genetically differ from the mother. In the same way, many cases of spontaneous abortion may be described in the same way as maternal transplant rejection. It is studied within the field of reproductive immunology. The placenta functions as an immunological barrier between the mother and the fetus, creating an immunologically privileged site. For this purpose, it uses several mechanisms: It secretes Neurokinin B containing phosphocholine molecules. This is the same mechanism used by parasitic nematodes to avoid detection by the immune system of their host. Also, there is presence of small lymphocytic suppressor cells in the fetus that inhibit maternal cytotoxic T cells by inhibiting the response to interleukin 2. The ...
Not enough neutrophils, neutrophils being a type of white blood cell (specifically a form of granulocyte) filled with neutrally-staining granules, tiny sacs of enzymes that help the cell to kill and digest microorganisms it has engulfed by phagocytosis. The mature neutrophil has a segmented nucleus (it is called a seg or poly) while the immature neutrophil has band-shape nucleus (it is called a band). The neutrophil has a lifespan of about 3 days. Neutropenia may be seen with viral infections and after radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Neutropenia lowers the immunologic barrier to bacterial and fungal infection. Granulocytopenia or, as it is also called, agranulocytosis results in a syndrome of frequent chronic bacterial infections of the skin, lungs, etc. Although agranulocytosis literally means no granulocytes, there may, in fact, be some granulocytes but too few of them, i.e. granulocytopenia. Granulocytopenia can be genetic and inherited or it can be acquired as, for example, an aspect of ...
This webinar will discuss new aspects in living donor selection, new techniques in order to minimize surgical trauma in living donors; immunological barriers in living kidney transplantation. Who should attend? Transplant surgeons, nephrologists, immunologists Creators and Moderators: Paolo Rigotti | Padova, Italy - Creator Frank Dor | London, UK - Moderator Speakers: Lluís Guirado | Barcelona, Spain Enrico Benedetti | Chicago, USA Emanuele Cozzi | Padova, Italy
We presented experiments testing the hypothesis that inhibition of the ERK1/2 pathway increases OTA-induced cell death, increased inflammation, fibrosis, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Most of the experiments were performed using OK cells, which are an accepted and well established model system representing proximal tubular cells. Hence, rat proximal tubular NRK-52E cells behaved similarly to OK cells (with only half-maximal action takes place at 48 compared with 24 h) and were thus used for RT-PCR experiments (Sauvant et al., 2005). Moreover, we could additionally show that NRK-52E cells also behaved similarly to OK cells with respect to MAPK activation pattern in the presence of OTA and/or U0126 (data not shown), which is additional evidence that both cell lines behave similarly to OTA exposure.. OTA alone (100 nM) is sufficient to decrease epithelial tightness that inulin (5000 Da) passes the OK cell epithelium paracellularly. OTA (100 nM) did not reduce cell number but clearly ...
The steep section allows a large amount of oxygen to be delivered with only a small drop in PaO2, which allows the rate of oxygen delivery to be maintained (as the blood-tissue partial pressure gradient is steep) with an increase in oxygen demand ...
Our interactions with the outside world trigger changes at synapses that are critical for proper brain development and higher cognitive function. Research in the Greenberg laboratory has focused on the identification of a genetic program that is activated by neuronal activity, the mechanisms of signal transduction that carry the neuronal activity-dependent signal from the membrane to the nucleus, and the identification of regulators of this experience-dependent process that affect synapse development and plasticity. Our recent studies using global screening techniques have identified activity-dependent genes that control 1) the complexity of the dendritic arbor, 2) the formation and maturation of excitatory and inhibitory synapses, 3) the composition of protein complexes at the pre- and post-synaptic sites, and 4) the production and secretion of neuropeptides that control neural circuit development. These activity-regulated processes are critical for normal brain development and function, and ...
The study of blood-tissue exchange by the multiple indicator dilution technique often needs frequent sampling in the blood of the indicator dilution curves (IDC). Usually, this requires the use of a catheter supported by a pump. This causes a distortion in the IDC, which must be removed for proper interpretation of the data. A deconvolution-based methodology to remove IDC distortion is presented. First, the catheter impulse response is modelled by means of data obtained from a suitable experiment. Then the reconstruction of the blood IDC is tackled by a new nonparametric deconvolution algorithm, which provides (quasi) time-continuous signals and exploits statistically based criteria for the choice of the regularisation parameter. The methodology is applied to the removal of cathether distortion in studies of glucose blood-tissue exchange in the human forearm and myocardium.. ...
Septate junctions and associated TCJs are necessary to form permeability barriers in a wide range of cell types. While recent work has provided much information about the molecular constituents of the septate junction (Hortsch and Margolis, 2003), little is known about the proteins that reside at the tricellular junction (TCJ). Gliotactin was the first protein found to localize in this region, but previous TEM and freeze fracture analysis suggests a large protein complex in this region. Thus Gliotactin is likely to be one of many proteins at the TCJ. Our results suggest that the protein complex is different from those that form the pleated septate junction. Gliotactin does not interact with Neurexin IV or Coracle at levels detectable in our assays. Only when Gliotactin was overexpressed and spread throughout the SJ domain, was an interaction detected. Although we did not test all SJ components, given the core nature of Neurexin IV interactions with other SJ proteins (Faivre-Sarrailh et al., ...
Our system to produce antibodies is critical for our survival against numerous infections, but it causes also many tumors. B-lymphocytes can modify their immunoglobulin (Ig) genes to generate specific antibodies with a new isotype and enhanced affinity against an antigen. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is the key mutagenic enzyme that initiates these processes by deaminating cytosine to uracil. How somatic hypermutation (SH) and class switch recombination (CSR) are targeted is key to understanding the defect DNA integrity in lymphomas and also in other tumors where inflammatory signals aberrantly induces AID. The trans-acting factors mediating specific targeting of AID and thereby SH and CSR have remained elusive. Here we show that mutant E2A with defect inhibition by the Ca2+sensor protein calmodulin results in reduced B cell receptor- (BCR-), IL4-plus CD40 ligand-stimulated CSR to IgE and instead aberrant CSR. AID is shown to be together with the transcription factors E2A, ...
Everything youll probably ever need to know about safer sex barriers, like which to use, how to use them, how to get more comfortable with them, and how surprisingly cute they are.
Everything youll probably ever need to know about safer sex barriers, like which to use, how to use them, how to get more comfortable with them, and how surprisingly cute they are.
Mital, Payal; Hinton, Barry T.; Dufour, Jannette M. (2011-05-01). "The blood-testis and blood-epididymis barriers are more than ... They create the Sertoli cell barrier, which complements the blood-testis barrier. The protection is ensured by tight junctions ... The blood-testis barrier is likely to contribute to the survival of sperm. However, it is believed in the field of testicular ... immunology that the blood-testis barrier cannot account for all immune suppression in the testis, due to (1) its incompleteness ...
The blood-testis barrier is likely to contribute to the survival of sperm. However, it is believed in the field of testicular ... Risk factors for the formation of antisperm antibodies in men include the breakdown of the bloodtestis barrier, trauma and ... immunology that the blood-testis barrier cannot account for all immune suppression in the testis, due to (1) its incompleteness ... at a region called the rete testis and (2) the presence of immunogenic molecules outside the blood-testis barrier, on the ...
... and HIV-infected white blood cells, thereby avoiding an immune response from the host organism. The blood-testis barrier, ... The blood-testis barrier is also important in preventing toxic substances from disrupting spermatogenesis. Fertilization relies ... prevents communication between the forming spermatozoa in the testis and the blood vessels (and immune cells circulating within ... It also has a ring centriole (annulus) that form a diffusion barrier between the middle piece and the principal piece and serve ...
... via the blood-testis barrier Contribute to the spermatogonial stem cell niche The intercellular adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and ... via the blood-testis barrier Secrete substances initiating meiosis Secrete supporting testicular fluid Secrete androgen-binding ... and the formation of the blood-testis barrier. ABP is essential to concentrating testosterone in levels high enough to initiate ... soluble ICAM-1 have antagonistic effects on the tight junctions forming the blood-testis barrier. ICAM-2 molecules regulate ...
In the process, it creates anti-testicular cell antibodies, or proteins that cross the injured blood-testis barrier and damage ... Gangrene, or a type of tissue damage caused by lack of blood supply, of the testis. Recurrence of torsion may occur even after ... Typically, venous blood flow is compromised first. The increase in venous pressure subsequently causes decreased arterial blood ... Such testes are usually necrotic from birth and must be removed surgically. The exact cause of or specific risk factors for ...
... may refer to: In biology: Blood-testis barrier or Blood-thymus barrier, in testicular anatomy Bovine tuberculosis or ...
Spermatozoa are protected from the male's immune system by the blood-testis barrier. However, spermatozoa are deposited into ... Blood samples were taken twice a month, and booster injections were given when antibody titers declined below 50 ng/mL in women ... A novel family of protease inhibitors expressed in the epididymis and testis". Gene. 270: 93-102. doi:10.1016/s0378-1119(01) ... fish exposed to treated sewage effluents were found to have concentrations of the synthetic hormone levonorgestrel in blood ...
The blood-testis barrier, maintained by the tight junctions between the Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubules, prevents ... The blood-testis barrier is also important in preventing toxic substances from disrupting spermatogenesis. ... Spermatozoa are produced in the seminiferous tubules of the testes in a process called spermatogenesis. Round cells called ... communication between the forming spermatozoa in the testis and the blood vessels (and immune cells circulating within them) ...
DYM, M.; FAWCETT, D. W.. The blood-testis barrier in the rat and the physiological compartmentation of the seminiferous ... Movement of spermatocytes from the basal to the adluminal compartment of the rat testis. American Journal of Anatomy, 1977-03- ... Testis. Endocrinology, 2013-11-01, roč. 154, čís. 11, s. 4365-4376. Dostupné online [cit. 2018-08-22]. ISSN 0013-7227. DOI: ... and their relevance to disorders of testis function in adulthood. Reproduction, 2003-06-01, roč. 125, čís. 6, s. 769 - 784. ...
The blood-testis barrier. Large molecules cannot pass from the blood into the lumen of a seminiferous tubule due to the ... Thus, the blood-testis barrier may reduce the likelihood that sperm proteins will induce an immune response, reducing fertility ... The function of the blood-testis barrier (red highlight in diagram above) may be to prevent an auto-immune reaction. Mature ... Blood supply and lymphatic drainage. Blood supply and lymphatic drainage of the testes and scrotum are distinct:. *The paired ...
Risk factors for the formation of antisperm antibodies in men include the breakdown of the bloodtestis barrier, trauma and ... although barriers exist in terms of medical coverage and affordability. The medicalization of infertility has unwittingly led ...
Blood-testis barrier. Spermatogenesis. *Spermatogonium. *Spermatocytogenesis. *Spermatocyte. *Spermatidogenesis. *Spermatid. * ... Lobulus testis, 4. Mediastinum testis, 5. Tubuli seminiferi contorti, 6. Tubuli seminiferi recti, 7. Rete testis, 8. Ductuli ... Tail or lower pole of testis, 7: Testicular lobules, 8: Parenchyma of testis, 9: Efferent ductules, 10: Mediastinum testis, 11 ... The glandular structure of the testis consists of numerous lobules.. Their number, in a single testis, is estimated by Berres ...
Blood-testis barrier. Spermatogenesis. *Spermatogonium. *Spermatocytogenesis. *Spermatocyte. *Spermatidogenesis. *Spermatid. * ...
... blood testis barrier) ... known as the wall of the seminiferous tubule within the testes ... Histology image: 17803loa - Histology Learning System at Boston University - "Male Reproductive System: testis, germinal ...
Blood-testis barrier. Spermatogenesis. *Spermatogonium. *Spermatocytogenesis. *Spermatocyte. *Spermatidogenesis. *Spermatid. * ... The secretions also contain zinc with a concentration 500-1,000 times the concentration in blood. ... level in the blood, or checking for the presence of the protein Engrailed-2 (EN2) in the urine. ...
Blood-testis barrier. Spermatogenesis. *Spermatogonium. *Spermatocytogenesis. *Spermatocyte. *Spermatidogenesis. *Spermatid. * ... In reptiles, there is an additional canal between the testis and the head of the epididymis and which receives the various ... Spermatozoa formed in the testis enter the caput epididymis, progress to the corpus, and finally reach the cauda region, where ... The head of the epididymis receives spermatozoa via the efferent ducts of the mediastinium of the testis. It is characterized ...
Tunica vasculosa testis. *Appendix. *Mediastinum. *Lobules. *Septa. *Leydig cell. *Sertoli cell. *Blood-testis barrier ...
Tunica vasculosa testis. *Appendix. *Mediastinum. *Lobules. *Septa. *Leydig cell. *Sertoli cell. *Blood-testis barrier ... Bagamang sa agham, ang katawagang "gonad" ay maaaring tumukoy sa panlalaking gonad (testis) o kaya sa pambabaeng gonad (mga ... bahay-itlog o obaryo sa halip na itlog ng bayag o testis). ... o salitang-kanto ay tumutukoy lamang sa itlog ng bayag o testis ...
... and in the capillary endothelial cells composing the blood-brain barrier and blood-testis barrier, where it pumps them back ... Schinkel AH (April 1999). "P-Glycoprotein, a gatekeeper in the blood-brain barrier". Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 36 (2-3): ... This protein also functions as a transporter in the blood-brain barrier. Mutations in this gene are associated with colchicine ... van Assema DM, van Berckel BN (2016). "Blood-Brain Barrier ABC-transporter P-glycoprotein in Alzheimer's Disease: Still a ...
... but no intermingling of fetal and maternal blood occurs ("placental barrier").[14] ... Examples of proteins with elevated expression in placenta compared to other organs and tissues are PEG10 and the cancer testis ... The placenta also provides a reservoir of blood for the fetus, delivering blood to it in case of hypotension and vice versa, ... Placental blood circulation Archived 2011-09-28 at the Wayback Machine *^ a b Kiserud T, Acharya G (2004). "The fetal ...
Women who have borne multiple children by the same father typically have antibodies against the father's red blood cell and ... Reactions are mounted, however, to pathogenic microbes and microbes that breach physiological barriers. Peripheral mucosal ... like in the eye or testes) or has strong molecular signals in place to prevent dangerous inflammation (like in the brain). The ... Self-antigens are present due to endogenous expression, importation of antigen from peripheral sites via circulating blood, and ...
... is expressed in a variety of tissues and organs such as: the cornea where it is required for epithelial barrier function[ ... white blood cells where it mediates inflammatory responses cellular differentiation[61][62][63][64] and proliferation;[64][65] ... in postnatal mouse testis". Mechanisms of Development. 115 (1-2): 167-9. doi:10.1016/s0925-4773(02)00127-2. PMID 12049784.. ... Segre JA, Bauer C, Fuchs E (August 1999). "Klf4 is a transcription factor required for establishing the barrier function of the ...
Because of taurine has the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier in the brain, it has been found to have a role in many ... Deficiencies of Vitamin E will result in cell damage and death in skeletal muscle, heart, testes, liver, and nerves. Inadequate ... homocysteine molecules circulate the blood, which are thought to accelerate brain aging and increase risk of cognitive ...
This instrument uses electricity to heat the blood vessels to seal them and to cut them. No sutures are placed inside. The ... Early-age neutering, also known as pediatric spaying or prepubertal gonadectomy, is the removal of the ovaries or testes before ... leaving the cervix as a natural barrier). The entire uterus and ovaries are then removed. The abdomen is checked for bleeding ... Studies of cardiac tumors in dogs showed that there was a 5 times greater risk of hemangiosarcoma (cancer of blood vessel ...
Requiring the maintenance of testes at 116 °F (47 °C) (just below the threshold of pain) for 45 minutes, it is not a widely ... A condom is a sheath-shaped barrier device that may be used during sexual intercourse to reduce the probability of pregnancy. ... A total of 83 men completed the study and successfully provided the researchers with blood and cholesterol samples. The ... Traditionally used for contraception, papaya seeds had no apparent ill effects on the testes or other organs of rats tested ...
After vasectomy, the testes remain in the scrotum where Leydig cells continue to produce testosterone and other male hormones ... in which a tissue barrier is placed between the cut ends of the vas by suturing, may help to prevent this type of failure, ... bruising and bleeding into the scrotum resulting in a collection of blood known as a hematoma. A study in 2012 demonstrated an ...
... is lipophilic and readily crosses the blood-brain barrier. This is in contrast to pregnenolone sulfate, which does ... 20-desmolase activity takes place in the human testis. Bélanger A, Dupont A, Labrie F (September 1984). "Inhibition of basal ... not cross the blood-brain barrier. Pregnenolone undergoes further steroid metabolism in one of several ways: Pregnenolone can ...
A blood flow study is done prior to the injection, by power doppler. The blood flow can be destroyed and the node become ... Superficial structures such as muscle, tendon, testis, breast, thyroid and parathyroid glands, and the neonatal brain are ... until these completely close at about 1 year of age and form a virtually impenetrable acoustic barrier for the ultrasound. The ... Power doppler visualized blood flow can be eradicated, and there may be a drop in the cancer blood marker test, thyroglobulin, ...
... but no blood supply and must be nourished by substances diffusing from the blood vessels in the underlying tissue. The basement ... The thinness of the epithelial barrier facilitates these processes.[3]. In general, simple epithelial tissues are classified by ... and the germinal epithelium that lines the walls of the seminferous tubules in the testes are also of the cuboidal type. ... A specialised form of epithelium - endothelium forms the inner lining of blood vessels and the heart, and is known as vascular ...
GABA does not cross the blood-brain barrier,[44] although certain areas of the brain that have no effective blood-brain barrier ... GABA has also been detected in other peripheral tissues including intestines, stomach, Fallopian tubes, uterus, ovaries, testes ... Traditionally it was thought that exogenous GABA did not penetrate the blood-brain barrier,[44] however more current research[ ... Kuriyama K, Sze PY (January 1971). "Blood-brain barrier to H3-γ-aminobutyric acid in normal and amino oxyacetic acid-treated ...
They kill their prey by biting the throat, which damages the trachea and the major blood vessels of the neck.[63] The size of ... Catling, PC (1979). "Seasonal variation in plasma testosterone and the testis in captive male dingoes, Canis familiaries dingo ... large barrier fences, including the Dingo Fence, excluded them from the sheep-grazing areas. Land clearance, poisoning, and ... "Comparative NMR studies of diffusional water permeability of red blood cells from different species: XVI Dingo (Canis ...
Vasectomy: In a more delicate procedure than castration, the vasa deferentia - ducts that run from the testes to the penis - ... This instrument uses electricity to heat the blood vessels to seal them and to cut them. No sutures are placed inside. The ... leaving the cervix as a natural barrier). The entire uterus and ovaries are then removed. The abdomen is checked for bleeding ... Studies of cardiac tumors in dogs showed that there was a 5 times greater risk of hemangiosarcoma (cancer of blood vessel ...
The surgeon moves one or both testes, with blood vessels, from an abdominal or inguinal position to the scrotum. If the ... Assuming infant surgery is successful, there is no barrier to engaging in normal sexual activities, and less distortion of ... 1) If the gonads are dysgenetic testes or streak gonads and at least some of the boy's cells have a Y chromosome, the gonads or ... If the gonads are dysgenetic testes or streak gonads and at least some of the cells have a Y chromosome, the gonads or streaks ...
Hemodynamics (blood circulation)Edit. Blood velocity can be measured in various blood vessels, such as middle cerebral artery ... Superficial structures such as muscle, tendon, testis, breast, thyroid and parathyroid glands, and the neonatal brain are ... until these completely close at about 1 year of age and form a virtually impenetrable acoustic barrier for the ultrasound. The ... A blood flow study is done prior to the injection, by power doppler. The blood flow can be destroyed and the node become ...
After vasectomy, the testes remain in the scrotum where Leydig cells continue to produce testosterone and other male hormones ... Short-term possible complications include infection, bruising and bleeding into the scrotum resulting in a collection of blood ... in which a tissue barrier is placed between the cut ends of the vas by suturing, may help to prevent this type of failure, ... Temporary local inflammation of the testes, long-term genital pain.. There are several methods by which a surgeon might ...
These other transplants are otherwise impossible due to blood type or antibody barriers to transplantation. The "Good Samaritan ... Transplant of a single gonad (testis) from a living donor was carried out in early July 1926 in Zaječar, Serbia, by a Russian ... "Blood Harvest: The Slaughter" (PDF). End Organ Pillaging: 428.. *^ Samuels, Gabriel (29 June 2016). "China kills millions of ... In living donors, the donor remains alive and donates a renewable tissue, cell, or fluid (e.g., blood, skin), or donates an ...
Lead is able to pass through the endothelial cells at the blood brain barrier because it can substitute for calcium ions and be ... Dimercaprol used alone may also redistribute lead to the brain and testes.[188] An adverse side effect of calcium EDTA is renal ... Blood film examination may reveal basophilic stippling of red blood cells (dots in red blood cells visible through a microscope ... of whole blood, in a venous blood sample, as the reference blood lead level for adults. An elevated BLL is defined as a BLL ≥5 ...
A Three-Dimensional Cell Culture System To Model RNA Virus Infections at the Blood-Brain Barrier» (en anglès). mSphere, 2017 ... Ma, W; Li, S; Ma, S; Jia, L; et al «Zika Virus Causes Testis Damage and Leads to Male Infertility in Mice» (en anglès). Cell, ... Saá P, Proctor M, Foster G, Krysztof D, et al «Investigational Testing for Zika Virus among U.S. Blood Donors» (en anglès). N ... Musso D, Richard V, Teissier A, Stone M, et al «Detection of ZIKV RNA in semen of asymptomatic blood donors» (en anglès). Clin ...
... which crosses the blood-brain barrier and enters the male brain, whereas female fetuses have α-fetoprotein, which binds the ... The largest amounts of testosterone (,95%) are produced by the testes in men,[2] while the adrenal glands account for most of ... In male humans, testosterone plays a key role in the development of male reproductive tissues such as testes and prostate, as ... Berthold AA (1849). "Transplantation der Hoden" [Transplantation of testis]. Arch. Anat. Physiol. Wiss. (in German). 16: 42-6. ...
... located in the center of the brain but outside the blood-brain barrier. Light/dark information reaches the suprachiasmatic ... Melatonin can cause nausea, next-day grogginess, and irritability.[29] In the elderly, it can cause reduced blood flow and ... Immediate-release formulations cause blood levels of melatonin to reach their peak in about an hour. The hormone may be ... In animals, melatonin is involved in synchronizing the circadian rhythms including sleep-wake timing, blood pressure regulation ...
Women who have borne multiple children by the same father typically have antibodies against the father's red blood cell and ... Reactions are mounted, however, to pathogenic microbes and microbes that breach physiological barriers. Peripheral mucosal ... like in the eye or testes) or has strong molecular signals in place to prevent dangerous inflammation (like in the brain). The ... Self-antigens are present due to endogenous expression, importation of antigen from peripheral sites via circulating blood, and ...
Eista (Testicle (fræðiheiti:testis)). *Leggöng (Vagina). *Leg (Uterus (enska:womb)). *Eggjastokkur (eggjakerfi) (Ovary ( ... Kóralrifið mikla (Great Barrier Reef). *Stóru vötnin (Great Lakes). *Indlandshaf (Indian Ocean) ... Blóð (Blood). *Hjarta (Heart). *Innkirtlakerfi (Endocrine system). *Meltingarfæri (Gastrointestinal tract) *Digurgirni (Large ...
Unlike the case of many other endogenous peptides, ghrelin is able to cross the blood-brain-barrier, giving exogenously- ... Blood levels[edit]. Blood levels are in the pmol/l range. Both active and total ghrelin can be measured.[50] Circulating ... Cord blood levels of active and total ghrelin show a correlation between ghrelin levels and birth weight.[50] ... An inverse relationship between the hours of sleep and blood plasma concentrations of ghrelin exists; as the hours of sleep ...
... blood-CNS barrier permeability changes, and tissue damage in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis». The FASEB journal. 14 (5): ... Blood. 101 (12): 5033-8. PMID 12586629. doi:10.1182/blood-2002-08-2548. !CS1 manut: Nomes múltiplos: lista de autores (link) ... Blood. 90 (12): 4973-8. PMID 9389716. !CS1 manut: Nomes múltiplos: lista de autores (link) ... Effect of Short-Term Ketogenic Diet on Redox Status of Human Blood». Rejuvenation Research. 10 (4): 435-40. PMID 17663642. doi: ...
Peptide hormones have important influences upon the hypothalamus, and to do so they must pass through the blood-brain barrier. ... The human testis secretes high levels of testosterone from about week 8 of fetal life until 5-6 months after birth (a similar ... The hypothalamus is bounded in part by specialized brain regions that lack an effective blood-brain barrier; the capillary ... In the case of prolactin and leptin, there is evidence of active uptake at the choroid plexus from the blood into the ...
DNA methylation age of blood predicts all-cause mortality in later life.[72][73][74] Furthermore, prematurely aged mice can be ... As a result, the mice were rejuvenated: Shrivelled testes grew back to normal and the animals regained their fertility. Other ... Nussbaum, J.F., Thompson, T.L., & Robinson, J.D. (1989). "Barriers to conversation", pp. 234-53 in Jon F. Nussbaum, Teresa ... This is thought to prevent spikes of glucose concentration in the blood, leading to reduced insulin signalling. This has been ...
In Bram Stoker's 1897 Gothic horror novel Dracula, and its many film adaptations, the eponymous Count Dracula is a blood- ... The physical barrier of the tough and often dry and waterproof skin of reptiles, birds and mammals keeps invading ... In the case of Sacculina, the testes of over two-thirds of their crab hosts degenerate sufficiently for these male crabs to ... The whole point of vampirism is sucking other people's blood-living at other people's expense."[122] ...
... UC DRC Repository. * UC DRC Home ... 5.1.1 Testis  Yearwood, Ryan; La Barbera, Andrew R.; Marsh, Karen (University of Cincinnati. College of Medicine; University ...
... the integrity of the Sertoli cell barrier can be assessed separately from the vascular component of the blood-testis barrier. ... 1970) The blood-testis barrier in the rat and the physiological compartmentation of the seminiferous epithelium. Biol Reprod 3: ... 1992) Blood-testis barriers revisited: A homage to Lennart Nicander. Int J Androl 15:1-4. ... 1992) Human interleukin-1α crosses the blood-testis barriers of the mouse. J Androl 13:254-259. ...
The blood-testis barrier is likely to contribute to the survival of sperm. However, it is believed in the field of testicular ... immunology that the blood-testis barrier cannot account for all immune suppression in the testis, due to (1) its incompleteness ... at a region called the rete testis [12] and (2) the presence of immunogenic molecules outside the blood-testis barrier, on the ... Sperm are immunogenic - that is they will cause an autoimmune reaction if transplanted from the testis into a different part of ...
A computational study of CYP3A4 mediated drug interaction profiles for anti-HIV drugs Regulation of blood-testis barrier ... Regulation of blood-testis barrier dynamics by desmosome, gap junction, hemidesmosome and polarity proteins: An unexpected turn ...
... during the epithelial cycle in the rat testis. Ezrin is ... active peptide fragments to induce blood-testis barrier (BTB) ... MMP2-mediated degration of laminin chains generate biologically active peptide fragments to induce blood-testis barrier (BTB) ... Mentions: Ezrin was first reported in the mouse testis by fluorescence microscopy, illustrating it is expressed by Sertoli and ... Mentions: Ezrin was first reported in the mouse testis by fluorescence microscopy, illustrating it is expressed by Sertoli and ...
Blood-Testis Barrier: Medical Dictionary [home, info] *blood-testis barrier: online medical dictionary [home, info] *Blood- ... We found 7 dictionaries that include the word blood-testis barrier: General (2 matching dictionaries). *Blood-testis barrier: ... Blood-testis barrier: Legal dictionary [home, info] Computing (1 matching dictionary). *Blood-testis barrier: Encyclopedia [ ... Search for blood-testis barrier on Google or Wikipedia Search completed in 0.018 seconds.. Home Reverse Dictionary Customize ...
The blood-testis barrier is a physical barrier separating the testes from the bloodstream. The barrier can be breached, however ... Unlike most blood-tissue barriers, the blood-testis barrier has been found to be made up of specialized, extremely tight ... Regulation of the blood-testis barrier by a local axis in the testis: Role of laminin α2 in the basement membrane Authors: Ying ... mTORC1/rpS6 regulates blood-testis barrier (BTB) dynamics and spermatogenetic function in the testis in vivo Authors: Stephen Y ...
Damage to the integrity of the blood-testis barrier (BTB), which ensures spermatogenesis, was assessed by transmission electron ... Metformin alleviated the decrease in male fertility, decreased ectopic lipid deposition in the testis, and increased serum FSH ... In the testes of the oral metformin mice, the fluorescence intensity of ROS (. vs. , ) and concentration of MDA (. vs. , ) ... Metformin treatment resulted in a significant decrease of the expression level of NF-κB/p65 in the whole testis (. vs. and vs. ...
What is blood-testis barrier? Meaning of blood-testis barrier medical term. What does blood-testis barrier mean? ... Looking for online definition of blood-testis barrier in the Medical Dictionary? blood-testis barrier explanation free. ... blood-gas barrier alveolocapillary membrane.. blood-testis barrier a barrier separating the blood from the seminiferous tubules ... blood-brain barrier (BBB). the barrier separating the blood from the brain parenchyma. See also blood-brain barrier. ...
2008) An autocrine axis in the testis that coordinates spermiation and blood-testis barrier restructuring during ... 2012) The blood-testis barrier and its implications for male contraception. Pharmacol Rev 64:16-64. ... Focal adhesion kinase-Tyr407 and -Tyr397 exhibit antagonistic effects on blood-testis barrier dynamics in the rat. Pearl P. Y. ... 2011) An in vitro system to study Sertoli cell blood-testis barrier dynamics. Methods Mol Biol 763:237-252. ...
... than in normal testis (0.5 pmol/mg protein). In the SCE testis neither blood-testis barrier development nor lumen formation are ... ABP is found in normal testis as early as 14 days postnatally (0.2 pmol/mg), at which time no blood-testis barrier is observed ... Androgen binding protein as a biochemical marker of formation of the blood-testis barrier.. Tindall DJ, Vitale R, Means AR. ... Indeed, ABP is not detectable in the epididymis until 18-20 days of age (1.0 pmol/mg) at which time blood-testis barrier ...
This information is based on the routine use of this system in our laboratory to study the Sertoli cell blood-testis barrier in ... on primary cultures of Sertoli cells isolated from rat testes has greatly facilitated the study of the blood-testis barrier in ... An in vitro system to study Sertoli cell blood-testis barrier dynamics. ... and the use of the Sertoli cell epithelium for monitoring the integrity of the Sertoli cell blood-testis barrier. ...
What is Blood-testis barrier? Meaning of Blood-testis barrier as a finance term. What does Blood-testis barrier mean in finance ... Definition of Blood-testis barrier in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Blood-testis barrier financial definition of Blood-testis barrier https://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Blood- ... The effect of sleep loss on physical barriers such as the intestinal barrier or blood-testis barrier is not reported; however, ...
Drug Transport Across the Blood-Testis and Blood-Epididymal Barriers (R61/R33 - Clinical Trial Not Allowed) PAR-18-853. NICHD ... Drug Transport Across the Blood-Testis and Blood-Epididymal Barriers (R61/R33 - Clinical Trial Not Allowed) ... These targets are not fully exposed to the systemic circulation due to the semi-permeable nature of the blood-testis barrier ( ... the chemical features of non-native molecules that facilitate passage across the blood-testis and/or blood-epidydimal barriers. ...
Nucleoside Transport at the Blood-Testis Barrier Studied with Primary-Cultured Sertoli Cells. Ryo Kato, Tomoji Maeda, Toshihiro ... Nucleoside Transport at the Blood-Testis Barrier Studied with Primary-Cultured Sertoli Cells. Ryo Kato, Tomoji Maeda, Toshihiro ... Nucleoside Transport at the Blood-Testis Barrier Studied with Primary-Cultured Sertoli Cells. Ryo Kato, Tomoji Maeda, Toshihiro ... Nucleoside Transport at the Blood-Testis Barrier Studied with Primary-Cultured Sertoli Cells ...
Li N, Mruk DD, Cheng CY (2015) Actin binding proteins in blood-testis barrier function. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 22: ... Wan HT, Mruk DD, Wong CK, Cheng CY (2014) Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) perturbs male rat Sertoli cell blood-testis barrier ... Because molecular mechanisms such as remodeling of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) play crucial roles in spermatogenesis, we ... An increase of estrogen receptor α protein level regulates BDE-209-mediated blood-testis barrier disruption during ...
... claudin-11 is responsible for the formation of specific parallel TJ strands of the blood-testis barrier (BTB). Concerning the ... In mouse testis, claudin-11 is responsible for the formation of specific parallel TJ strands of the blood-testis barrier (BTB ... Claudin-11 Is Over-Expressed and Dislocated From the Blood-Testis Barrier in Sertoli Cells Associated With Testicular ...
... the blood-testis barrier (BTB) or Sertoli cell barrier created by specialized junctions between Sertoli cells near the basement ... membrane confers an immunological barrier by sequestering the events of meiotic division and postmeio ... In mammalian testes, the blood-testis barrier (BTB) or Sertoli cell barrier created by specialized junctions between Sertoli ... Blood-Testis Barrier*. Connexin 43 / physiology*. Homeostasis / physiology*. Humans. Male. Phenols / pharmacology. RNA ...
Why testes are resistant to hydatidosis: Is blood-testis-barrier responsible for this resistance? * H Ahmadnia ... Keywords: hydatid disease, hydatidosis, testis, blood-testis-barrier, rabbit, echinoccocosis. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology ... The mechanism of testicular resistance to echinococcosis could be due to blood-testis barrier because when we directly infected ... and then all testes were studied with ultrasonography. In Group A, all testes were excised, and in Group B, we removed the ...
Here we report that reversible disruption of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) between Sertoli cells enhances the homing ...
"Unlocking" the Blood-Testis Barrier and the Ectoplasmic Specialization by Cytokines During Spermatogenesis: Emerging Targets ... C. Yan Cheng, Michelle W.M. Li and Dolores D. Mruk, " "Unlocking" the Blood-Testis Barrier and the Ectoplasmic Specialization ... Title: "Unlocking" the Blood-Testis Barrier and the Ectoplasmic Specialization by Cytokines During Spermatogenesis: Emerging ... Keywords: Cytokines, transforming growth factors, tumor necrosis factor, testis, spermatogenesis, Sertoli cells, blood-testis ...
In mammalian testes, the blood-testis barrier (BTB) or Sertoli cell barrier created by specialized junctions between Sertoli ... In mammalian testes, the blood-testis barrier (BTB) or Sertoli cell barrier created by specialized junctions between Sertoli ... Article: Connexin 43 is critical to maintain the homeostasis of the blood-testis barrier via its effects on tight junction ... Connexin 43 is critical to maintain the homeostasis of the blood-testis barrier via its effects on tight junction reassembly. ...
Damage to the integrity of the blood-testis barrier (BTB), which ensures spermatogenesis, was assessed by transmission electron ... Metformin Improves Fertility in Obese Males by Alleviating Oxidative Stress-Induced Blood-Testis Barrier Damage. ... Metformin alleviated the decrease in male fertility, decreased ectopic lipid deposition in the testis, and increased serum FSH ... Metformin Improves Fertility in Obese Males by Alleviating Oxidative Stress-Induced Blood- ...
... blood-testis barrier after injection of cadmium chloride in the rat. by Brian P. Setchell et al. ... A study to assess the assembly of a functional blood-testis barrier in developing rat testes.. *Ka-Wai Mok, Dolores D Mruk, ... Focal adhesion kinase is a blood-testis barrier regulator.. *Erica R Siu, Elissa W P Wong, Dolores D Mruk, Catarina S Porto, C ... The blood-testis barrier and its implications for male contraception.. *C Yan Cheng, Dolores D Mruk ...
Given the function of blood testis barrier in maintaining normal spermatogenesis, leptin-induced blood testis barrier ... Blood testis barrier integrity and the expression of tight junction-associated proteins in testes were also assessed. We ... Mice treated with 3 mg/kg leptin also had impaired blood testis barrier integrity, which was related to decreased tight ... Exogenous leptin negatively affects sperm parameters and impairs blood testis barrier integrity in mice. Leptin reduced tight ...
Find all the synonyms and alternative words for blood-testis barrier at Synonyms.com, the largest free online thesaurus, ... What are some alternative words for blood-testis barrier?. Synonyms for blood-testis barrier. This thesaurus page is about all ... We couldnt find direct synonyms for the term blood-testis barrier.. Maybe you were looking for one of these terms?. bloody- ... or search for blood-testis barrier inside other dictionary definitions.. Search inside. ...
The testes are the male sex glands that make sperm and testosterone. These egg-shaped organs are located in the scrotum near ... There is a similar barrier in the testes that is referred to as the blood-testis barrier. This barrier protects the developing ... The Blood-Testis Barrier The blood-brain barrier is a basic anatomical concept, with implications for disease and treatment. ... The blood-testis barrier and its implications for male contraception. Pharmacol Rev. 2012;64(1):16-64. doi:10.1124/pr. ...
Mital, Payal; Hinton, Barry T.; Dufour, Jannette M. (2011-05-01). "The blood-testis and blood-epididymis barriers are more than ... They create the Sertoli cell barrier, which complements the blood-testis barrier. The protection is ensured by tight junctions ... The blood-testis barrier is likely to contribute to the survival of sperm. However, it is believed in the field of testicular ... immunology that the blood-testis barrier cannot account for all immune suppression in the testis, due to (1) its incompleteness ...
The blood-testis barrier is likely to contribute to the survival of sperm. However, it is believed in the field of testicular ... Risk factors for the formation of antisperm antibodies in men include the breakdown of the bloodtestis barrier, trauma and ... immunology that the blood-testis barrier cannot account for all immune suppression in the testis, due to (1) its incompleteness ... at a region called the rete testis and (2) the presence of immunogenic molecules outside the blood-testis barrier, on the ...
... in the control testis, the tracer is limited to the blood-testis barrier, and no biotin is detected in the luminal compartment ... On Sertoli and Leydig Cells and Blood Testis Barrier. Thu, 29 Mar 2018 , Health and Fertility ... Sertoli cell-specific androgen receptor ablation increases permeability of the blood-testis barrier, implying that androgens ... heat stress on the blood-testis barrier has shown that the biotin tracer is detected in the adluminal compartment of the testis ...
... on blood-testis barrier (BTB), an androgen-dependent ultrastructure in the testis, in particular their involvement on BTB ... such as environmental toxicant-induced reproductive dysfunction since the testis, in particular the BTB, is sensitive to ... to facilitate the transport of preleptotene spermatocytes residing in the basal compartment across the immunological barrier ... on blood-testis barrier (BTB), an androgen-dependent ultrastructure in the testis, in particular their involvement on BTB ...
Blood-testis barrier; Contraception; Fertility; Isozymes; Sertoli cells; Spermatozoa; Testes. PMID:. 24368213. DOI:. 10.1016/j. ...
Article: Connexin 43 and plakophilin-2 as a protein complex that regulates blood-testis barrier dynamics. *Show simple item ... The blood-testis barrier (BTB) formed by adjacent Sertoli cells is composed of coexisting tight junction (TJ), basal ... The blood-testis barrier (BTB) formed by adjacent Sertoli cells is composed of coexisting tight junction (TJ), basal ... Connexin 43 and plakophilin-2 as a protein complex that regulates blood-testis barrier dynamics. en_US. ...
  • A schematic drawing illustrating the likely role of ezrin in the apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES) during the epithelial cycle in the rat testis. (nih.gov)
  • Herein, we critically evaluate recent data on ERM in light of recent findings in the field in particular ezrin regarding its role in actin dynamics at the ES in the testis, illustrating additional studies are warranted to examine its physiological significance in spermatogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Ezrin: a regulator of actin microfilaments in cell junctions of the rat testis. (nih.gov)
  • Since ectoplasmic specialization (ES) is an F-actin-rich testis-specific anchoring junction-a highly dynamic ultrastructure in the seminiferous epithelium due to continuous transport of germ cells, in particular spermatids, across the epithelium during the epithelial cycle-it is conceivable that ERM proteins are playing an active role in these events. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, MMP2-mediated degration of laminin chains generate biologically active peptide fragments to induce blood-testis barrier (BTB) restructuring,5758 coordinating the events of spermation and BTB remodeling at stage VIII of the cycle. (nih.gov)
  • 11][12] Another mechanism which is likely to protect sperm is the suppression of immune responses in the testis. (biology-online.org)
  • Androgen binding protein (ABP) was measured during postnatal development in normal and irradiated rats to determine whether development of a blood-testis barrier and formation of a continuous lumen from testis to epididymis is correlated with entry of ABP into the caput epididymis. (nih.gov)
  • Indeed, ABP is not detectable in the epididymis until 18-20 days of age (1.0 pmol/mg) at which time blood-testis barrier formation and lumen development is complete. (nih.gov)
  • In the SCE testis neither blood-testis barrier development nor lumen formation are complete until 30 days of age, at which time ABP is first detectable in epididymis of the irradiated rat. (nih.gov)
  • Thereafter there is a gradual decline of ABP in the SCE testis-and a dramatic increase in the epididymis. (nih.gov)
  • These findings suggest that entry of ABP into caput epididymis is an index of blood-testis barrier formation and lumen development. (nih.gov)
  • As sperm develop and mature they move through the tubules until they are collected in the rete testes and then passed through to the epididymis. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Resistant murine strains demonstrate a decreased cadmium concentration in the testis and also in the epididymis and seminal vesicle. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In this study we analyzed cadmium transport into tissues with a vascular barrier, the testis, epididymis, and brain, in an attempt to characterize the mechanisms of strain resistance to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • an increase in capillary permeability occurs within 1 to 2 h of cadmium exposure ( Aoki and Fawcett, 1975 ) and the distribution of injury parallels the anatomical distribution of the blood supply to the testis and epididymis ( Gunn and Gould, 1970 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Blood-tissue barriers are found in the brain, the retina, the testis, and the epididymis. (physiology.org)
  • The effects of obstructive azoospermia on the testis and epididymis have been studied in vasectomized subjects. (ispub.com)
  • However, effects of obstruction to sperm egress in primary obstructive azoospermia on the testes and epididymis have not been extensively reported. (ispub.com)
  • The present study on fifty patients of primary obstructive azoospermia focuses on the local immune response and its effect on the testis and epididymis. (ispub.com)
  • 6 They postulated that these abnormalities may be a consequence of severe stress on the testis due to defective absorption of testicular fluid by the obstructed epididymis and the resultant pressure effect caused by fluid circulation. (ispub.com)
  • Another condition that mimics testicular torsion in presentation is torsion of the appendix testis or appendix epididymis, which is most commonly seen in older prepubertal boys. (medscape.com)
  • however, gut bacteria are present in blood after sleep deprivation [26] and both sleep-deprived and sleep-restricted rats exhibit lower sperm viabilities associated with an increase in endothelial NOS expression [27]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The blood-testis barrier is damaged, and the immune system becomes inoculated with testis antigens and anti-sperm antibodies that cause immunologic infertility during reproductive years. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This barrier protects the developing sperm, reducing the likelihood that their development will be affected by any health or environmental factors. (verywellhealth.com)
  • and, (2) some factors which normally lead to inflammation are present at high levels in the testis, where they regulate the development of sperm instead of promoting inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1954 Discovery that sperm autoantibodies contribute to infertility, 1977 Billingham recognized that the testis is site of immune privilege Immune cells of the human testis are not as well characterized as those from rodents, due to the rarity of normal human testes available for experiment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since anti-sperm antibodies can cause infertility, it is important that antibody-producing B-lymphocytes are kept separated from the testis. (wikipedia.org)
  • DA-9401 exerts beneficial effects against oxidative stress, ER stress, and mitochondria-mediated cell death pathway in testis tissue by up-regulating expression levels of tight junction protein markers, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, GSK-3 alpha, and cation channels of sperm. (springer.com)
  • They are also strongly expressed in testis and sperm, but their functions in these tissues were previously unknown. (pnas.org)
  • An inverse relationship has been observed between blood glucose level and sperm quality in humans and animals [4]. (termedia.pl)
  • How JQ1 works: it's small enough to cross the blood-testis barrier, so it can reach the cells that make sperm. (time.com)
  • Recent reports have shown that in vitro fertilization with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) seems to be very promising, because it can overcome all potential ASA-related barriers (17-19). (scielo.br)
  • The disruption in barrier function was substantiated by changes in the localization of claudin-11, zona occludens-1, N-cadherin, and β-catenin. (popcouncil.org)
  • Oxidative stress in the choroid plexus contributes to blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier disruption during sepsis development. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Disruption of the blood-testis barrier and increased germ cell apoptosis were observed in all three AQ-treated groups. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Collectively, our study suggests that AQ exerts substantial acute side effects on the reproductive systems of adult male rats by inducing the apoptosis of differentiating spermatogenic cells and disruption of blood-testis barrier function. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cytokines are known to regulate an array of physiological functions in the testis, including cell differentiation, apoptosis, steroidogenesis, and cell division. (eurekaselect.com)
  • In addition, Wip1 deficiency was associated with elevated levels of cytokines and germ cell apoptosis in the testis. (mcponline.org)
  • Testes of mutant mice displayed increased apoptosis of pachytene spermatocytes, an increased number of macrophages in the interstitium and a loss of advanced germ cells. (biologists.org)
  • Cheng, "TGF-^3 regulates the blood-testis barrier dynamics via the p38 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway: An In Vivo Study," Endocrinology, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Key genes affected by CBZ, IPR and CCK were Tnfa and Tgffl, genes encoding cytoskeletal proteins such as actins, tubulin and nectin (Pvrl) and also the claudins family (Cldn), E-cadherin, occludin, ZO1 (Tjpl), ZO2 (Tjp2), and epsin 3, in coherence with most of the recent literature concerning blood-testis barrier (BTB) dynamics (Jiang et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An In Vivo Model to Study Blood-Testes Barrier Dynamics. (federalregister.gov)
  • Mice treated with 3 mg/kg leptin also had impaired blood testis barrier integrity, which was related to decreased tight junction-associated proteins in testes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Also present in the testes of rats and humans are natural killer cells and Natural killer T cells have been found in rats and mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • To study the function of SirT1 specifically in the male germ line, we deleted this sirtuin in male germ cells and found that mutant mice had smaller testes, a delay in differentiation of pre-meiotic germ cells, decreased spermatozoa number, an increased proportion of abnormal spermatozoa and reduced fertility. (biologists.org)
  • Diet-Induced Obesity In Male C57BL/6 Mice Decreases Fertility As A Consequence Of Disrupted Blood-Testis Barrier. (elabscience.com)
  • To elucidate how iron is supplied to developing male germ cells, we analyzed iron deposition and iron transport proteins in testes of mice with iron overload and with genetic ablation of the iron regulators Hfe and iron regulatory protein 2. (physiology.org)
  • Here we examined the proteome and phosphoproteome of testes from Wip1-knockout mice using a quantitative proteomic approach. (mcponline.org)
  • Wip1-knockout mice showed decreased expression of junction-associated proteins (occludin, ZO-1, and N-cadherin) and impaired integrity of the blood-testis barrier. (mcponline.org)
  • Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase, displays phosphorylation-dependent localization in the seminiferous epithelium of adult rat testes. (pnas.org)
  • Androgen binding protein as a biochemical marker of formation of the blood-testis barrier. (nih.gov)
  • However, between 21 and 30 days of age the specific activity of ABP is significantly higher in the SCE tests (2.8 pmol/mg protein) than in normal testis (0.5 pmol/mg protein). (nih.gov)
  • Sphingosine-1-phosphate protects against brain microvascular endothelial junctional protein disorganization and barrier dysfunction caused by alcohol. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Western blot analyses showed increases in α-E-catenin, β-catenin, and N-cadherin, decreases in E-cadherin, afadin, and nectin-3, and no changes in vinculin, nectin-2, focal adhesion kinase, and integrin-β1 protein levels in Ggnbp2-null testes compared to wild-type siblings. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The aim of the study was to verify whether finasteride has a transgenerational effect on the expression of connexin 43 (Cx43), a gap junction protein in testes of the F1 generation. (termedia.pl)
  • Meanwhile, the integrity of the blood-testis barrier was severely interrupted consistent with declines in the tight junction related proteins, occludin, ZO-1 and androgen receptor, but instead endocytic vesicle-associated protein, clathrin rose. (nih.gov)
  • Testes morphology was analyzed using hematoxylin-and-eosin staining, terminal dUTP nicked-end labeling (TUNEL), and immunostaining whereas protein expression was determined by Western blotting. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • placental barrier the tissue layers of the placenta which regulate the exchange of substances between the fetal and maternal circulation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • model of testis showing the anatomy of interstitial tissue and SFT, where male germ cell development proceeds from the SFT basal membrane (BM) to the SFT lumen (Lu). (physiology.org)
  • Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Erection is achieved because blood sinuses within the erectile tissue of the penis become filled with blood. (bionity.com)
  • The arteries of the penis are dilated while the veins are passively compressed so that blood flows into the erectile tissue under pressure. (bionity.com)
  • what is the thick, fibrous connective tissue capsule of the testes? (studystack.com)
  • A panel of 15 peroxidase labeled lectins, supplemented with haematoxylin-eosin staining and PAS-reaction, were used to study modifications of carbohydrates in rat testis during postnatal morphogenesis , including prenatal day 20th, postnatal days 1st, 20th, 40th, in comparison to the adult rat testis. (omicsonline.org)
  • It was detected that postnatal morphogenesis of rat testis is accompanied by active glycoconjugates rearrangement. (omicsonline.org)
  • However in the available literature we found no data concerning the investigation of rat testis carbohydrates remodelling in postnatal morphogenesis by means of lectin-peroxidase technique. (omicsonline.org)
  • While the lack of antigen presentation (due to the physical barriers) is sufficient to prevent the activation of autoreactive immune cells to the eye, the failure to induce sufficient anergy to T cells has detrimental results. (wikipedia.org)
  • This phenomenon is established through combinations of physical barriers and circulatory adaptations, together with organ expression of potent cell surface and soluble immunomodulatory factors ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • This knockdown of Cx43 affected neither the TJ barrier function nor the steady-state levels of junction proteins of TJ, basal ES, and desmosome-like junction. (hku.hk)
  • Further protection and separation of the developing male germ cells from the periphery takes place at the basal membrane of the SFT by peritubular myoid cells (PTM) and due to the fact that most capillaries in the testis are not fenestrated ( 10 , 36 , 41 ). (physiology.org)
  • It is expected that multiple cytokines, such as TGF-β3 and TNFα, are working in concert with other yet-to-be identified molecules to coordinate the intriguing events of junction restructuring during different stages of the seminiferous epithelial cycle in adult testes in mammals. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Blood testis barrier integrity and the expression of tight junction-associated proteins in testes were also assessed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The barrier can be breached, however, by certain toxicants, such as PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate) and cadmium, that can cause male infertility. (popcouncil.org)
  • A better understanding of how cells cross this barrier could inform the development of novel male contraceptives, while also providing insights into the causes of unwanted male infertility. (popcouncil.org)
  • Furthermore, according to some Studies, usage of antioxidants and vitamin B,E and C can lower infertility through reducing damages caused by free radicals, sperms DNA regeneration and preservation, and through strengthening blood-testis barrier [2,8,26]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We provide a model on how ABPs regulate BTB remodeling, shedding new light on unexplained male infertility, such as environmental toxicant-induced reproductive dysfunction since the testis, in particular the BTB, is sensitive to environmental toxicants, such as cadmium, bisphenol A, phthalates, and PFOS (perfluorooctanesulfonic acid or perfluorooctane sulfonate). (popcouncil.org)
  • As an environmental endocrine disruptor, Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) affects blood-testis barrier (BTB)-associated proteins expression, which compromises BTB integrity and causes infertility. (tocotrienolresearch.org)
  • These observations were confirmed using the bisphenol A model in which the knockdown of Cx43 by RNAi also perturbed the TJ-barrier reassembly following BPA removal. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These axes are found between the blood-testis barrier and the basement membrane, involving fragments of collagen-α3 chain and also laminin-α2 chain, both are constituent components of the basement membrane. (popcouncil.org)
  • They are present in rat and human testes, where they constitute approximately 10 to 20% of the immune cells present, as well as mouse and ram testes. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, due to the immune-deficient nature of mouse models, these studies are limited in human predictive capacity, and thus, the important features of ZIKV infection in human testes, such as the specific effects on host immune response, remain poorly defined. (nature.com)
  • Adult Ggnbp2-null males were sterile, with smaller testes and an azoospermic phenotype, whereas mutant females were fertile. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These include the regulation of cell-cell adhesion and tight junction permeability barriers in multiple epithelia and endothelia, such as those found in the small intestine, kidney, skin, and testis. (eurekaselect.com)
  • barrier methods contraceptive methods such as condoms and diaphragms in which a plastic or rubber barrier blocks passage of spermatozoa through the vagina or cervix. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Differentiation takes place in the seminiferous tubules in testis, and proceeds from the outside to the inside of this structure, resulting in the release of mature spermatozoa into the lumen. (biologists.org)
  • Detection of ZIKV in the seminal fluid and spermatozoa for months after viremia has cleared 2 , 3 , 5 provides indirect evidence that ZIKV establishes persistent infection within seminiferous tubules, an immune privileged compartment of the testis. (nature.com)
  • Histopathological analysis of 2-month-old Ggnbp2-null testes revealed absence of mature spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubules and epididymides and reduction of the number of spermatids. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Actin binding proteins in blood-testis barrier function" by Nan Li, Dolores D. Mruk et al. (popcouncil.org)
  • 2015. "Actin binding proteins in blood-testis barrier function," Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity 22(3): 238-247. (popcouncil.org)
  • ANXA2 also bound actin when testis lysates were used for immunoprecipitation. (popcouncil.org)
  • Furthermore, Anxa2 knockdown resulted in spermiation defects caused by a dysfunction of tubulobulbar complexes, testis-specific actin-rich ultrastructures that internalize remnant cell junction components prior to spermiation. (popcouncil.org)
  • The testes, or testicles, are male sex glands that play an important role in the reproductive system. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Whole body deletion of SirT1 alters reproductive function in oocytes and the testes, in part caused by defects in central neuro-endocrine control. (biologists.org)
  • Cutting-edge studies of the blood-testis barrier promise to help the Council develop novel male contraceptives. (popcouncil.org)
  • We directly infected the right testis of seven rabbits (Group A) with infective viable protoscoleces that were obtained from hydatid cyst of cow's liver, and we injected intraperitoneally the same fluid to another male rabbits (Group B) for control, Then, housed them under pathogen-free conditions for a ten-week period (70 days). (ajol.info)
  • The blood-testis barrier and its implications for male contraception. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The testes hang outside the abdominal cavity of the male within the scrotum . (bionity.com)
  • Additionally, it could serve to hold open the blood-testis barrier to allow more Adjudin to enter the testes, thus boosting Adjudin's effectiveness at a lower dosage with potentially fewer side effects. (popcouncil.org)
  • Subsequently, they recruit additional lymphocytes and mononuclear cells to cross the blood-brain barrier, resulting in inflammation and demyelination leading to varying degrees of paraparesis and paralysis ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Heat-induced alterations in tight-junction proteins and damage to the blood-testis barrier are transient, and they recover approximately 10 days after heat )reatment. (mitchmedical.us)