Substances that are used in place of blood, for example, as an alternative to BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS after blood loss to restore BLOOD VOLUME and oxygen-carrying capacity to the blood circulation, or to perfuse isolated organs.
Starches that have been chemically modified so that a percentage of OH groups are substituted with 2-hydroxyethyl ether groups.
Liquid perfluorinated carbon compounds which may or may not contain a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, but do not contain another halogen or hydrogen atom. This concept includes fluorocarbon emulsions and fluorocarbon blood substitutes.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
A copolymer of polyethylene and polypropylene ether glycol. It is a non-ionic polyol surface-active agent used medically as a fecal softener and in cattle for prevention of bloat.
Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.
Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
Mechanical food dispensing machines.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Techniques for measuring blood pressure.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Bed-like structures for transporting or temporarily holding patients.
Those forces and content of the mind which are not ordinarily available to conscious awareness or to immediate recall.
Fixed-wing aircraft or helicopters equipped for air transport of patients.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Method in which repeated blood pressure readings are made while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It allows quantitative analysis of the high blood pressure load over time, can help distinguish between types of HYPERTENSION, and can assess the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
A species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).
The goosefoot plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes beets and chard (BETA VULGARIS), as well as SPINACH, and salt tolerant plants.
Normal adult human hemoglobin. The globin moiety consists of two alpha and two beta chains.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.

Controlled safety study of a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier, DCLHb, in acute ischemic stroke. (1/255)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin (DCLHb) is a purified, cell-free human hemoglobin solution. In animal stroke models its use led to a significant reduction in the extent of brain injury. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of DCLHb in patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: DCLHb or saline was administered to 85 patients with acute ischemic stroke in the anterior circulation, within 18 hours of onset of symptoms, in a multicenter, randomized, single-blind, dose-finding, controlled safety trial, consisting of 3 parts: 12 doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg DCLHb over 72 hours. RESULTS: DCLHb caused a rapid rise in mean arterial blood pressure. The pressor effect was not accompanied by complications or excessive need for antihypertensive treatment. Two patients in the 100 mg/kg group had adverse events that were possibly drug related: one suffered fatal brain and pulmonary edema, the other transient renal and pancreatic insufficiency. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that a severe stroke at baseline and treatment with DCLHb (OR, 4.0; CI, 1.4 to 12.0) were independent predictors of a worse outcome (Rankin Scale score of 3 to 6) at 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: Outcome scale scores were worse in the DCLHb group, and more serious adverse events and deaths occurred in DCLHb-treated patients than in control patients. We recommend that additional safety studies be performed, preferably with a second generation, genetically engineered hemoglobin.  (+info)

Effects of a perfluorochemical emulsion on the fate of circulating Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (2/255)

Because mononuclear phagocytes take up perfluorochemical emulsions (PFCE), we examined how prior treatment with PFCE affects the fate of circulating bacteria. Rats were preinjected with three daily intravenous injections of PFCE (2.0 ml/100 g) containing 12.5% (vol/vol) of a 4:1 mixture of F-dimethyl adamantane and F-trimethylbicyclo-nonane, 2.5% (wt/vol) Pluronic F-68 as the emulsifying agent, and 3% (wt/vol) hydroxyethyl starch as the oncotic agent. Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus were injected 4 h after the third PFCE injection. PFCE pretreatment decreased the rate and extent of vascular clearance of P. aeruginosa, with decreased uptake by the liver. Importantly, there were significant decreases in killing of P. aeruginosa in the liver, lungs, spleen, and kidneys of PFCE animals. PFCE did not alter the clearance of S. aureus from the circulation. However, hepatic uptake was reduced, with concomitant increases in lung and kidney uptake. Ultrastructure of Kupffer cells revealed PFCE inclusions and extensive vacuolization. These experiments demonstrate that the clearance kinetics and organ distribution of circulating P. aeruginosa and their subsequent killing are altered by PFCE. Diminished hepatic phagocyte function leads to a decrease in vascular clearance of circulating bacteria, increased uptake in other reticuloendothelial organs, and decreased bactericidal activity versus P. aeruginosa.  (+info)

Perflubron emulsion delays blood transfusions in orthopedic surgery. European Perflubron Emulsion Study Group. (3/255)

BACKGROUND: Fluorocarbon emulsions have been proposed as temporary artificial oxygen carriers. The aim of the present study is to compare the effectiveness of perflubron emulsion with the effectiveness of autologous blood or colloid infusion for reversal of physiologic transfusion triggers. METHODS: A multinational, multicenter, randomized, controlled, single-blind, parallel group study was performed in 147 orthopedic patients. Patients underwent acute normovolemic hemodilution with colloid to a target hemoglobin of 9 g/dl with an inspiratory oxygen fraction (FIO2) of 0.40. Patients were then randomized into one of four treatment groups after having reached any of the protocol-defined transfusion triggers including tachycardia (heart rate > 125% of posthemodilution rate or > 110 bpm), hypotension (mean arterial pressure < 75% of posthemodilution level or < or = 60 mmHg), elevated cardiac output (> 150% of posthemodilution level) or decreased mixed venous oxygen partial pressure (PVO2; < 38 mmHg). Treatments in the four groups were 450 ml autologous blood harvested during acute normovolemic hemodilution given at FO2 = 0.40; 450 ml colloid at FIO2 = 1.0; 0.9 g/kg perflubron emulsion with colloid (total = 450 ml) at FIO2 = 1.0; and 1.8 g/kg perflubron emulsion with colloid (total = 450 ml) at FIO2 = 1.0. The primary endpoint was duration of transfusion-trigger reversal. A secondary end-point was percentage of transfusion-trigger reversal. RESULTS: Perflubron emulsion was well tolerated with no serious adverse event attributed to drug treatment. Duration of reversal was longest in the 1.8 g/kg perflubron group (median, 80 min; 95% confidence interval, 60-100 min; P = 0.014 vs. autologous blood, P < 0.001 vs. colloid) followed by the 0.9 g/kg perflubron group (median, 59 min; 95% confidence interval, 40-90 min), the autologous blood group (median, 55 min; 95% confidence interval, 30-70 min) and the colloid group (median, 30 min; 95% confidence interval, 27-60 min). Percentage of reversal was also highest in the 1.8 g/kg perflubron group (97%; P < 0.001 vs. autologous blood; P = 0.014 vs. colloid), followed by 0.9 g/kg perflubron (82%), colloid (76%), and autologous blood (60%). CONCLUSIONS: Perflubron emulsion (1.8 g/kg) combined with 100% oxygen ventilation is more effective than autologous blood or colloid infusion in reversing physiologic transfusion triggers.  (+info)

Diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin effectively restores pancreatic microcirculatory failure in hemorrhagic shock. (4/255)

BACKGROUND: Microvascular reperfusion failure of splanchnic organs is a crucial hallmark in organ damage induced by hemorrhagic shock, which should be prevented by a resuscitation solution. Because the vasoactive properties of the hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin (DCLHb) could adversely influence restoration of pancreatic capillary perfusion during resuscitation, the authors investigated its effects on the microcirculation of the rat pancreas in comparison with whole blood and 6% hydroxyethylstarch resuscitation from severe hemorrhagic shock. METHODS: Twenty-eight pentobarbital-anaesthetized rats were bled to a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 40 mmHg and maintained at this level for 1 h. Using an intravital microscope, mean arterial pressure, the length of erythrocyte-perfused pancreatic capillaries per observation area (functional capillary density), the adherence of leukocytes in postcapillary venules, and pancreatic lipid peroxidation, measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive material in pancreatic tissue, were determined in animals resuscitated by volumes of hydroxyethylstarch, DCLHb, and whole blood (WB) equivalent to the shed blood volume or in control animals without shock induction for a period of 2 h after resuscitation. RESULTS: Compared with control animals (366+/-28 cm(-1)), animals resuscitated with DCLHb (294+/-45 cm(-1)), WB (306+/-11 cm(-1)), and hydroxyethylstarch (241+/-34 cm(-1)) showed a significant reduction of functional capillary density after 2 h of resuscitation. DCLHb was as effective as WB and superior to hydroxyethylstarch in restoring functional capillary density and mean arterial pressure. Leukocyte adherence in postcapillary venules was not enhanced by DCLHb (369+/-148/mm2) infusion when compared with hydroxyethylstarch- (615+/-283/mm2) and WB-treated (510+/-415/mm2) animals. Lipid peroxidation of pancreatic tissue was significantly elevated after treatment with both oxygen-carrying solutions compared with hydroxyethylstarch. CONCLUSION: DCLHb is as effective as WB for preservation of the pancreatic microcirculation.  (+info)

Influence of hemodilution on the renal blood flow autoregulation during acute expansion in rats. (5/255)

Autoregulation of renal blood flow (RBF) was studied in rats that underwent equivalent blood volume expansion with saline (Sal; 5% body wt), 7% BSA solution (1.4% body wt), and reconstituted whole blood from donor rats (WBL; 1.4% body wt). Renal perfusion pressure (RPP) and renal neural reflexes were prevented by clamping RPP and sectioning the vagus, baro/chemoreceptor, and renal nerves. Sal and BSA expansion increased RBF by approximately 60%, whereas no effect was observed with WBL. RBF autoregulation was markedly attenuated after expansion with cell-free solutions, but no change occurred in WBL-expanded rats. Correction of the fall in hematocrit in Sal- and BSA-expanded rats restored RBF and its autoregulation to control levels. Expansion with Sal or BSA after inhibition of renal vascular tone with intrarenal infusion of papaverine still increased RBF and further changed the RBF-RPP relationship. These findings suggest that the hemodilution plays a central role in the reduction of renal vascular resistance and in the attenuation of the autoregulatory efficiency of renal circulation that accompany expansion with cell-free solutions.  (+info)

Chemical characterization of pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene conjugate. (6/255)

Pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene conjugate (PHP) was developed in the 1980s as an oxygen carrier and is now under development for treatment of nitric oxide-dependent, volume refractory shock. PHP is made by derivatizing human stroma-free hemoglobin with pyridoxal-5-phosphate and polyoxyethylene (POE). A unique aspect of using POE for modification is that unlike its mono-methoxy polyethylene glycol (PEG) relatives, POE is bifunctional. The result of derivatization of stroma-free hemoglobin is a complex mixture of modified hemoglobin and other red cell proteins. The molecular weight profile, based on size exclusion chromatography, is bimodal and has a number average molecular weight of approximately 105 inverted question mark omitted inverted question mark000 and a weight average molecular weight of approximately 187 inverted question mark omitted inverted question mark000. The mixture of hemoglobin molecules has on average 3.3 pyridoxal and 5.0 polyoxyethylene units per tetramer. A portion of the tetramers are linked by POE crosslinks. The hemoglobin tetramers retain their ability to dissociate into dimer pairs and only a small percentage of the dimer pairs are not modified with POE. The SDS-PAGE profile exhibits the ladder-like appearance commonly associated with polyethylene glycol-modified proteins. The isoelectric focusing profile is broad, demonstrating a pI range of 5.0-6.5. The hydrodynamic size of PHP was determined to be approximately 7.2 nm by dynamic light scattering. Soluble red blood cell proteins, such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, and carbonic anhydrase, are present in PHP and are also modified by POE.  (+info)

The reduction of the allogenic transfusion requirement in aortic surgery with a hemoglobin-based solution. (7/255)

OBJECTIVE: Because of allogenic red blood cell (RBC) availability and infection problems, novel alternatives, including hemoglobin-based oxygen-carrying solutions (HBOC), are being explored to minimize the perioperative requirement of RBC transfusions. This study evaluated HBOC-201, a room-temperature stable, polymerized, bovine-HBOC, as a substitute for allogenic RBC transfusion in patients undergoing elective infrarenal aortic operations. METHODS: In a single blind, multicenter trial, 72 patients were prospectively randomized two-to-one to HBOC (n = 48) or allogenic RBC (n = 24) at the time of the first transfusion decision, either during or after elective infrarenal aortic reconstruction. Patients randomized to the HBOC group received 60 g of HBOC for the initial transfusion and had the option to receive three more doses (30 g each) within 96 hours. In this group, any further blood requirement was met with allogenic RBCs. Patients randomized to the allogenic RBC group received only standard RBC transfusions. The efficacy analysis was a means of assessing the ability of HBOC to eliminate the requirement for any allogenic RBC transfusions from the time of randomization through 28 days. Safety was evaluated by means of standard clinical trial methods. RESULTS: The two treatment groups were comparable for all baseline characteristics. Although all patients in the allogenic RBC group required at least one allogenic RBC transfusion, 13 of 48 patients (27%; 95% CI, 15% to 42%) in the HBOC group did not require any allogenic RBC transfusions. The only significant changes documented were a 15% increase in mean arterial pressure and a three-fold peak increase in serum urea nitrogen concentration after HBOC. The complications were similar in both groups, with no allergic reactions. There were two perioperative deaths (8%) in the allogenic RBC group and three perioperative deaths (6%) in the HBOC group (P = 1.0). CONCLUSION: HBOC significantly eliminated the need for any allogenic RBC transfusion in 27% of patients undergoing infrarenal aortic reconstruction, but did not reduce the median allogenic RBC requirement. HBOC transfusion was well tolerated and did not influence morbidity or mortality rates.  (+info)

Haemodynamic effects of diaspirin crosslinked haemoglobin (DCLHb) given before abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery. (8/255)

We studied 34 patients undergoing elective repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm under combined general anaesthesia and epidural block to evaluate the acute effects of diaspirin crosslinked haemoglobin (DCLHb) 50, 100 and 200 mg kg-1 i.v. Haemodynamic variables were measured continuously using pulmonary and radial artery catheters, and oxygen delivery and consumption were calculated at regular intervals. DCLHb was shown to be vasoactive, producing an increase in mean arterial pressure of approximately 25% with each dose, with small decreases in cardiac index and calculated oxygen delivery. These effects persisted beyond the end of infusion and provided a degree of cardiovascular stability during the operative procedure. The effects of DCLHb on oxygen consumption at these doses were minimal.  (+info)

In the US today, blood transfusion is safer than ever. Nevertheless, the century-old quest for a suitable blood substitute persists. The elimination of unwanted side effects, especially transfusion-transmitted diseases, the problems and high cost factor involved in collecting and storing human blood, the pending worldwide shortages, and the need for compatibility testing are the driving forces contributing towards the development of blood substitutes. The leading research is focusing on hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs), which are limited in clinical application due to the pressor effect they induce. In this study, the mechanisms through which HBOCs affect mean arterial pressure (MAP), arteriolar diameter, and nitric oxide levels in the microcirculation were investigated, using Oxyglobin (HBOC-301), a third generation glutaraldehyde-polymerized bovine hemoglobin. The spinotrapezius muscle of female Sprague-Dawley rats was exteriorized for microcirculatory observations. HBOC in doses of 0.1, 1.0,
A detailed computational model is developed to simulate oxygen transport from a three-dimensional (3D) microvascular network to the surrounding tissue in the presence of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers. The model accounts for nonlinear O(2) consumption, myoglobin-facilitated diffusion and nonlinear …
A bovine hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier as pump prime for cardiopulmonary bypass: reduced systemic lactic acidosis and improved cerebral oxygen metabolism during low flow in a porcine ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rheological properties of hemoglobin vesicles (artificial oxygen carriers) suspended in a series of plasma-substitute solutions. AU - Sakai, Hiromi. AU - Sato, Atsushi. AU - Takeoka, Shinji. AU - Tsuchida, Eishun. PY - 2007/7/17. Y1 - 2007/7/17. N2 - Hemoglobin vesicles (HbV) or liposome-encapsulated Hbs are artificial oxygen carriers that have been developed for use as transfusion alternatives. The extremely high concentration of the HbV suspension (solutes, ca. 16 g/dL; volume fraction, ca. 40 vol%) gives it an oxygen-carrying capacity that is comparable to that of blood. The HbV suspension does not possess a colloid osmotic pressure. Therefore, HbV must be suspended in or co-injected with an aqueous solution of a plasma substitute (water-soluble polymer), which might interact with HbV. This article describes our study of the rheological properties of HbV suspended in a series of plasma substitute solutions of various molecular weights: recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA), ...
Effects of the haemoglobin-based oxygen carrier Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine) on intestinal perfusion and oxygenation in a canine hypovolaemia ...
Developing blood substitutes is in urgent demand for chronic blood shortage all over the world. In this connection, the oxygen binding behavior of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) is one of the most important characteristics. However, present methods available for estimating oxygen binding behavior have need of expensive apparatus, and also are not suitable for high-throughput and the time-course analysis. To overcome these problems, we proposed a simple analysis method for the time-course oxygen binding behavior of HBOCs, which employs a general UV-Vis microplate reader and a common reagent, sodium dithionite, as a reductant for HBOCs and an oxygen scavenger. Our method enabled time-course oxygen binding behavior analysis of HBOCs in a simple manner, and obtained data corresponding with those by the conventional method. Thus, our developed method will accelerate the development of HBOCs due to easy oxygen binding analysis.. ...
phdthesis{96f74e7f-45b8-4292-b3ea-6b8b3607bc92, abstract = {Blood transfusion is a clinically significant and crucial process, which saves millions of lives every year. However,,br/,shortage of donated blood and the risk of virus transmission through transfusible blood seriously affect the,br/,availability of the blood. Hemoglobin (Hb), owing to its oxygen carrying capacity, has been studied as a starting,br/,material for the development of artificial blood substitutes/Hb-based oxygen carrier (HBOC). Several kinds of,br/,HBOC products have been developed and tested for their safety at different stages of clinical trials with minimal,br/,success. The failure of such products is mainly associated with intrinsic toxicity of cell-free Hb which damages,br/,lipids, proteins, DNA and surrounding tissues. This thesis describes two approaches aiming to gain further,br/,knowledge of potential side effects of Hb molecules on genetic material. Additionally, genetic engineering,br/,approach was used as an ...
In todays society, heart surgery directly or indirectly affects nearly all individuals, yet most are unaware that a blood substitute is often responsible for delivering oxygen to the patients body during the procedure. Specifically, a blood substitute known as Fluosol DA has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use during coronary angioplasty [5]. It is representative of perfluorocarbons (PFCs), the second class of blood substitutes. Fluorocarbons are straight chain molecules that consist of carbon and fluorine [8]. They are known for their capacity to carry both oxygen and carbon dioxide without actually binding to the gas molecules. Thus, their application extends from solely delivering oxygen to also carrying waste to the lungs for removal from the body [5]. Fluosol DA serves as one of the original PFCs, and it is comprised of 20 percent fluorocarbon [6]. A group of PFCs referred to as the new perflourochemicals has recently been developed. They include compounds such as ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin. T2 - historical development of a blood substitute.. AU - Goins, B.. AU - Rudolph, A. S.. AU - Ligler, F. S.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1016/b978-0-7506-9120-8.50011-1. DO - 10.1016/b978-0-7506-9120-8.50011-1. M3 - Review article. C2 - 1786468. AN - SCOPUS:0026265395. VL - 19. SP - 117. EP - 125. JO - Biotechnology (Reading, Mass.). JF - Biotechnology (Reading, Mass.). SN - 0740-7378. ER - ...
Growing up in Trinidad, Andre Palmer, PhD 98, liked chemistry and math. Chemical engineering was a natural career choice for Palmer, who in August 2015 was named chair of the William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at The Ohio State Universitys College of Engineering.. Beyond his teaching prowess (he received the engineering schools Harrison Faculty Award for Excellence in Engineering Education in 2012), Palmer has made a name for himself developing novel hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers with applications in transfusion medicine and tissue engineering.. The materials Im making, such as artificial red blood cells and artificial plasma, are to be used when blood is not available, Palmer says. So if there is a natural disaster, war or a terrorist attack, and you exhaust your current blood supply, these materials are supposed to give the patient enough time to get a proper blood transfusion. They also could be used for patients whose religious beliefs prohibit ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Complement-mediated acute effects of liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin. AU - Szebeni, J.. AU - Alving, Carl R.. PY - 1999/1. Y1 - 1999/1. N2 - Recent studies on liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) have indicated that this potential blood substitute can activate the complement (C) system of rats, pigs and man. The reaction can involve both the classical and the alternative pathways, and is mediated, in part, by the binding of natural anti-lipid antibodies to the lipid membrane of liposomes. The significance of these discoveries lies in the fact that C activation appears to be the primary cause of the acute physiological, hematological and laboratory changes that have been observed previously in rats and pigs following the administration of LEH or liposomes, which changes include pulmonary vasoconstriction with decreased cardiac output. In light of the proposed use of LEH as an emergency blood substitute, the latter impairment of cardiopulmonary function may warrant particular ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Safety of artificial oxygen carrier (synthetic erythrocytes) and the ability to supply oxygen to tissues. AU - Tsuchida, Hidetoshi. AU - So, Keitaro. AU - Sakai, Hiromizu. AU - Komatsu, Kirayuki. AU - Takeoka, Shinji. AU - Horinouchi, Hirohisa. AU - Suematsu, Makoto. AU - Kobayashi, Koichi. PY - 2003/12. Y1 - 2003/12. UR - UR - M3 - Review article. C2 - 14870565. AN - SCOPUS:1542348952. VL - 52 Suppl. SP - S55-66. JO - Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology. JF - Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology. SN - 0021-4892. ER - ...
Blood Substitute Blood, Red blood cell, White blood cell, Platelet, Blood plasma, Bone marrow, Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers. Biyoloji Dict (2011-06-09) - ISBN-13: 978-613-6-65775-2 ...
Blood Substitute Blood, Red blood cell, White blood cell, Platelet, Blood plasma, Bone marrow, Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers. Biology Dict (2011-06-09) - ISBN-13: 978-613-6-65775-2 ...
Jun 13, 2005 6:00 PM. SALT LAKE CITY - Utahs two major trauma centers for adult patients, University of Utah Hospital and LDS Hospital, have begun a period of public comment on their anticipated participation in a national clinical trial to test a new synthetic blood product in the treatment of trauma patients.. The Utah facilities are among 20 major trauma centers across the nation expected to participate in the one-year study, which will evaluate the safety and efficacy of PolyHeme?, a hemoglobin-based, oxygen-carrying blood substitute, to increase survival of critically injured and bleeding patients.. The clinical trial is being conducted under an informed consent waiver from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that allows for clinical research in emergency settings where it is impossible for a patient to give permission for treatment, such as in the aftermath of a motor vehicle accident.. Both the FDA and the Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) of both hospitals (responsible for ...
Reduced P50-Free hemoglobin in plasma has a lower P50 than hemoglobin contained in RBCs. Functionally, the difference can be thought of as a left shift in the hemoglobin dissociation curve, where free hemoglobin holds more tightly to oxygen at a given O2 tension and will only release O2 if the O2 tension is very low. Hemoglobin contained in RBCs has a P50 of 26-28 mm Hg. Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) have reduced P50 of 10-16 mm Hg. Hemoglobin dimers, which are spontaneous split products of free hemoglobin, lose the cooperative binding properties of the hemoglobin tetramer. These dimers have a hemoglobin dissociation curve similar to that of myoglobin, and will only release oxygen at O2 tensions as low as 5 mm Hg. ...
Injuries associated with significant blood loss, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI), inevitably result in oxygen deficiency, affecting all human tissue and organs. The following research efforts aim to decrease the mortality and long-term damage rate of TBI patients by synthesizing a storable and readily available hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC). Clinical trials have shown that cell-free HBOCs actually increase the mortality rate by inducing a neurotoxic effect due to their oxidative nature. The attachment of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxidyl (TEMPO), a reducing agent, as well as polyethylene glycol (PEG) units to the protein shell of hemoglobin increases biocompatibility and reduces the oxidative nature of HBOC. The applied procedure is a controlled ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) with Ru-alkylidene catalysts. This modular synthesis of multifunctional polymers allows for variable ratios of TEMPO and PEG density at the HBOC. The application of these polymers should
Background Human polymerized hemoglobin (PolyHeme, Northfield Laboratories) is a universally compatible oxygen carrier developed to treat life-threatening anemia. This multicenter phase III trial was the first US study to assess survival of patients resuscitated with a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier starting at the scene of injury. Study Design Injured patients with a systolic blood pressure ≤ 90 mmHg were randomized to receive field resuscitation with PolyHeme or crystalloid. Study patients continued to receive up to 6 U of PolyHeme during the first 12 hours postinjury before receiving blood. Control patients received blood on arrival in the trauma center. This trial was conducted as a dual superiority/noninferiority primary end point. Results Seven hundred fourteen patients were enrolled at 29 urban Level I trauma centers (79% men; mean age 37.1 years). Injury mechanism was blunt trauma in 48%, and median transport time was 26 minutes. There was no significant difference between day 30 mortality
Background: Machine perfusion (MP) has been implemented either under hypothermic and anoxic conditions or under normothermia with full oxygenation using blood as perfusate. This is the first pre-clinical large animal series using MP under subnormothermic conditions with a new hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier solution in a dual pressure system for liver preservation. Methods: Two groups of 6 Landrace pigs underwent orthotopic liver transplantation after CIT=9 hours where cold static preservation (CSP) was compared to MP. The MP allografts were continuously perfused by pulsatile and continuous pressures under full oxygenation at 21°C. Both groups had extensive graft and perfusate analysis during the preservation time. The MP group had continuous gasometry of the perfusate and tissue oximetry analysis. Mitochondrial function was analyzed in both groups. All tissues were blindly analyzed through standard histology, immunohistochemistry and electronic microscopy. Results: The CSP group had a ...
A blood substitute or blood extender is prepared by chemically coupling hemoglobin with a polysaccharide material selected from dextran and hydroxyethyl starch, and having a molecular weight of from about 5,000 to about 2,000,000, to form a covalently bonded chemical complex. The complex has similar oxygen transporting abilities to hemoglobin, and has a much lower rate of renal excretion.
Solutions producing osmotic diuresis | I.v. solutions | Blood substitutes and perfusion solutions Brokerage service for pharmaceutical and parapharmaceutical products active ingredients and precursors..
Although the blood supply in many countries is very safe, this is not the case for all parts of the world. Blood transfusion is the second largest source of new HIV infections in Nigeria. In certain regions of southern Africa, it is believed that as much as 40% of the population has HIV/AIDS, although testing is not financially feasible. A disease-free source of blood substitutes would be incredibly beneficial in these regions.[1] ...
The need for blood substitutes Risks associated with blood transfusions have been minimised with the development of highly sensitive tests for blood-bor...
Explore the science and understand more clearly the Blood Substitutes topic by reading the best articles made from Experts, Scientific and Academics!
A process for preparing a stroma-free hemoglobin solution is provided. The process includes washing blood cells to remove noncellular components to obtain a mixture of erythrocytes and leukocytes. The leukocytes are removed from the mixture and the erythrocytes are lysed to form a mixture of stroma and hemoglobin. The stroma is precipitated from the hemoglobin by treating the stroma-hemoglobin mixture with a polyvalent cation; a polysulfate, and a polyvalent anion. The supernatant hemoglobin solution is separated and dialyzed to obtain a substantially pure hemoglobin solution.
Researchers have developed a line immortal stem cells that allow them to generate an unlimited supply of artificial red blood cells on demand. If these artificial blood cells pass clinical trials, theyll be far more efficient for medical use than current red blood cell products, which have to be generated from donor blood - and would be a huge deal for patients with rare blood types, who often struggle to find matching blood donors. The idea isnt for these immortal stem cells to replace blood donation altogether - when it comes to regular blood transfusions, donated blood still does the trick.
I am currently researching for a fictional novel I wish to write. Part of the basis for this story revolves around a human trial study of an artificial blood that is stable at room temperature for extended periods, and substitutes for any blood type. A key point in the novel will be the ability of the blood substitute to cross the blood-brain barrier, and deposit in the brain where it will cause a reaction due to a set of circumstances. Right now I am considering making the blood on a sugar base, in order to pass into the brain, where it will react when endorphins reach a certain level (an unplanned effect). I am looking for information and comments as to the feasability of this idea, as well as specifics on artificial blood and the FDA requirements to get a drug to market. This is my first novel, and I am trying to keep all scientific aspects as real as possible. All assistance I recieve will be fully credited. If anyone can help, or point me in the right direction, it will be greatly ...
Background: The development of cerebral infarction after transient ischemia is attributed to postischemic delayed hypoperfusion in the microvascular region. In the present study, we assessed the microvascular perfusion capacity of infused liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) in a therapeutic approach for transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Methods: Two-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion rats were immediately subjected to intra-arterial infusion of LEH (LEH group) or saline (vehicle group) or no treatment (control group), and then to recanalization. Neurological findings, infarct and edema progression, microvascular endothelial dysfunction, and inflammatory reactions were compared between the 3 groups after 24 hours of reperfusion. Microvascular perfusion in the early phase of reperfusion was evaluated by hemoglobin immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. Results: The LEH group achieved significantly better results in all items evaluated than the other ...
Stroma-free hemoglobin cross-linked with reagents that mimic 2,3 diphosphoglycerate and transform stroma-free hemoglobin into a physiologically competent oxygen carrier which is retained in vivo for adequate periods of time and thus can be used in fluids for transporting oxygen; reagents for cross-linking stroma-free hemoglobin and method for cross-linking stroma-free hemoglobin.
A synthetic blood substitute is something of a holy grail in medical research. Many potential synthetics have been tried--DARPA has even put a blood substitute before the FDA--but most have been disappointingly ineffective. So its pretty significant that an experimental synthetic blood substitute derived from cow plasma has brought an Australian woman back from the brink of death.
There is the possibility of Liquid Breathing, however it is unlikely that the liquid would be haemoglobin and still be breathable, as haemoglobin is quite viscous (this is why it is contained within red blood cells).. On the other hand, in the unlikely event that a planet was completely covered by an ocean of some largely colourless oxygen saturated liquid such as a flurocarbon at ~37°C, then, yes, humans could in theory breathe this liquid. It is probable that if such a planet existed, it would have been manufactured by some powerful civilisation.. However, free-breathing fluorocarbons is exhausting due to the mass of fluid involved and the amount of oxygen that could be saturated in it. Were humans to spend any length of time in such an environment, it is likely that they would need some sort of mechanical breathing assistance to prevent exhaustion.. Finally, fluorocarbons are up to twice as dense as water. This means that a human would float on the surface of a fluorocarbon sea to a greater ...
Hemoglobin vesicles (HbVs) are artificial oxygen (O2) carriers that encapsulate concentrated hemoglobin (Hb) solution in phospholipid vesicles (liposomes). Recent reports on cytoprotective effects of exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) urged us to test infusion of CO-bound HbV (CO-HbV) and red blood cell …
Background: Hemoglobin based oxygen carriers (HBOC) offer a potential adjunct to improve early re-oxygenation of ischemic tissue. However, the optimal oxygen content and oxygen affinity of the HBOC solution to optimize myocardial re-oxygenation is not known. Our objective was to compare myocardial recovery following reperfusion with 3 unique HBOC solutions, each with different oxygen affinity.. Methods: 3 HBOC solutions were prepared to a standard concentration of 2.5g/dL in modified Krebs Henseleit buffer, and oxygenated with either room air (RA) or with 100% oxygen (O2). Hearts isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 25 min of global ischemia and then were reperfused for the first 10 min with one of the HBOCs; 1) HBOCR, (polymerized bovine hemoglobin fixed in relaxed, deoxygenated state) P50 = 2.4 mm Hg, n=8, 2) HBOCT (polymerized bovine hemoglobin fixed in tense, oxygenated state) P50 = 48 mm Hg, n=8, or 3) HgbB (isolated bovine hemoglobin) P50 = 29 mm Hg, n=8. All hearts were ...
Modified cell-free hemoglobin derivatives have been under study as potential red cell substitutes for nearly three decades (Winslow 1992). These derivatives are prepared by treatment of hemoglobin...
Alpaca Research Foundation is dedicated to funding medical and scientific research aimed at improving the health and vitality of North American alpacas. Only research that is conducted and evaluated under the peer-review process is funded. 100% of donations to ARF go directly to alpaca research.
BACKGROUND: We have shown in a previous work that HBOC-201 is able to reverse anaerobic metabolism at low volumes in a porcine model of controlled hemorrhage. On the basis of these..
Acellular hemoglobins developed as oxygen bridging agents with volume expanding properties (blood substitutes) are prone to autoxidation and oxidant-mediated structural changes in circulation. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide and either ascorbate or urate we show that ferric hemoglobin functions as a true enzymatic peroxidase. The activity saturates with both substrates and is linearly dependent on protein concentration. The activity is enhanced at low pH with a pK of 4.7, consistent with protonation of the ferryl species (Fe(IV)-OH) as the active intermediate. To test whether these redox reactions define its behaviour in vivo we exchanged transfused guinea pigs with 50% polymerized bovine Hb (PolyHbBv) and monitored plasma levels of endogenous ascorbate and urate. Immediately after transfusion, met PolyHbBv levels increased up to 30% of total Hb and remained at this level during the first 24 h post transfusion. Plasma ascorbate decreased by 50% whereas urate levels remained unchanged ...
Your Shop Red Blood Cell Substitutes 1997 received an early man. The shown Certified SolidWorks 2008 Associate CSWA reference-point is many factors: religion; . This may see out of pattern. participate any remembering teachings before resulting this . Our scripts want been science-based point from your matter. If you are to Stop standards, you can move JSTOR download Vorkurs Mathematik: Theorie und Aufgaben mit vollständig durchgerechneten Lösungen. AN INTRODUCTION TO THE PHILOSOPHY OF MIND: SOULS,;, the JSTOR phrase, JPASS®, and ITHAKA® think sent procedures of ITHAKA. We are commercial, but we ca always Need the free Repair of Concrete Structures to that you are lacking for. all compositional will post. The presents therefore used. The intends also instructed. The real buy Islam Under Slöjan 2014 was while the Web school was expressing your grammar. Please reconstruct us if you do this has a Insider Secrets to Winning Your Personal Injury Battle - A ...
Scientists have tried to develop synthetic red blood cells that mimic the favorable properties of natural ones, such as flexibility, oxygen transport and long circulation times. But so far, most artificial red blood cells have had one or a few, but not all, key features of the natural versions. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Nano have made…
WATCH: HOW TO PRODUCE HAEMOGLOBIN FROM SUGAR BEETS. Previously, it has been presumed that certain plants produce this iron protein only when stressed, such as in drought or frost, because it has been seen that this is the case for certain other plants. However, we have shown that haemoglobin is produced even in a normal state, said Nélida Leiva, a doctoral student of applied biochemistry at Lund University, who has just presented the findings in a doctoral thesis.. Nélida Leivas supervisor, Professor Leif Bülow, has spent many years conducting research on the production of human haemoglobin, primarily with the help of bacteria, because haemoglobin from blood donors is far from sufficient to cover the needs of society.. The process of extracting haemoglobin from sugar beets is not much more complicated than extracting sugar, according to the researchers. The challenge lies in obtaining sufficient volumes. However, Nélida Leiva and Leif Bülow believe there is good reason to think that ...
A blood product is any therapeutic substance prepared from human blood. This includes: whole blood; blood components; and plasma derivatives. Whole blood is not commonly used in transfusion medicine. Blood components include: red blood cell concentrates or suspensions; platelets produced from whole blood or via apheresis; plasma; and cryoprecipitate. Plasma derivatives are plasma proteins prepared under pharmaceutical manufacturing conditions, these include: albumin; coagulation factor concentrates; and immunoglobulins. Blood products may also be called blood-based products to differ from blood substitutes, which generally refer to artificially produced products. Also, although many blood products have the effect of volume expansion, the group is usually distinguished from volume expanders, which generally refer to artificially produced substances and are thereby within the scope of blood substitutes. Cryoprecipitate Cryosupernatant Fresh frozen plasma PF24 Platelet transfusion Red blood cells ...
A free platform for explaining your research in plain language, and managing how you communicate around it - so you can understand how best to increase its impact.
Powered by Pure, Scopus & Elsevier Fingerprint Engine™ © 2021 Elsevier B.V We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. ...
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. The appellants I (patent proprietors) and appellants II (opponents) lodged appeals against the interlocutory decision of the opposition division on the amended form in which European Patent No. 0 258 708 can be maintained.. Opposition was filed against the grant of the patent as a whole under Article 100(a) on the grounds of lack of novelty (Article 54 EPC) and lack of inventive step (Article 56 EPC), and under Article 100(b) on the ground of lack of sufficiency of disclosure (Article 83 EPC).. The opposition division decided, that claim 1 of the main request was not novel, but that the grounds for opposition raised by the opponents did not prejudice the maintenance of the patent as amended according to auxiliary request 3 (Article 102(3) EPC).. II. Claim 1 of the main request and of auxiliary request 3 before the opposition division read:. Main request. The use of cell-free mutant haemoglobin in the manufacture of a non-toxic composition for administration ...
Explore the research topics touched on by this project. These labels are generated based on the underlying awards/grants. Together they form a unique fingerprint ...
Zothecula (1870348) writes According to the World Health Organization, over 107 million blood donations are collected around the globe every year, most of which goes on to help save lives. However, while the need for blood is global, much of that which is donated is not accessible to many who need i...
Looking for online definition of artificial blood in the Medical Dictionary? artificial blood explanation free. What is artificial blood? Meaning of artificial blood medical term. What does artificial blood mean?
New material for creating artificial blood vessels Blocked blood vessels can quickly become dangerous. It is often necessary to replace a blood vessel - either by another vessel taken from the body or even by artificial vascular prostheses. Researchers have developed artificial blood vessels made from a special elastomer material,. Over time, these artificial blood vessels are replaced by endogenous material a natural, fully functional vessel is once again. The method has already been used successfully ...
Looking for online definition of diaspirin in the Medical Dictionary? diaspirin explanation free. What is diaspirin? Meaning of diaspirin medical term. What does diaspirin mean?
Stable emulsions of highly fluorinated organic compounds for use as oxygen transport agents, artificial bloods or red blood cell substitutes and as contrast agents for biological imaging. The emulsions comprise a highly fluorinated organic compound, an oil that is not substantially surface active and not significantly soluble in water, a surfactant and water.
The high surface-area-to-volume ratio, superior heat and mass transfer, controlled reagent mixing and improved reaction rates make microfluidics an attractive approach for multiphase processes, reactions, and material synthesis. My lab investigates the dynamics of emulsion droplets and bubbles in microfluidics and develops emulsion-based approaches to produce artificial red blood cells and functional microbubbles for drug and oxygen delivery and biomedical imaging. In addition, we identified, for the first time, the regulatory roles of flow in the anodic growth of TiO2 nanotubes and demonstrated that flow not only controls the diameter, length, and crystal orientations of TiO2 nanotubes but also regulates the spatial distribution of nanotubes inside microfluidic devices and orientation on silicon substrates. Our approach provides a promising strategy to integrate silicon with hierarchical TiO2 nanotube arrays that may find applications in nanoelectronics, silicon-based photonics, and ...
About post titles: The original headlines for the articles in this archive appear after the name of the original publisher and date. Those titles often do not contain enough identifying information as they are often written for local audiences and limited by space constraints. I initially just used the original article headline as my title for the post entry. However, after about a year I realized those headlines are inadequate. I began to create my own titles for each entry, which serves two purposes. My own titles, which appear at the top of the entry in red font, contain more specific information from the article, making it easier to categorize and search for. Many of my own titles also contain an editorial slant that serves as my own brief commentary on the subject matter ...
Lying unconscious on a helicopter stretcher with a lacerated liver suffered after his car spun out of control and hit a bridge, Erick Silkworth was hardly in the position to give his consent to
Development of a microfluidic chip as artificial blood capillary vessel with integrated impedance sensors for applications in cancer ...
Patented artificial blood platelets developed by a Case Western Reserve University researcher, which have already proven to significantly reduce bleeding in mice and pigs, are getting another boost with a $1 million U.S. Department of Defense grant.. Anirban Sen Gupta, associate professor of biomedical engineering, has received three patents for the artificial platelet designs, which also can be customized to deliver drugs to break up clots in treating heart attack and stroke.. That means the artificial platelets can be programmed to perform seemingly contradictory functions-to either stop bleeding or re-establish blood flow.. Our hypothesis was that we could make artificial platelets from modular design components and mix and match these components that change their purpose and function, depending on the target disease or injury, Sen Gupta said.. Sen Gupta has worked to develop and test these designs with researchers at the University of Pittsburgh, University of California Santa Barbara, ...
Home Research Business - Innovations - Technology (BIT of WUT) Artificial blood vessels or how to help patients with ischaemic heart disease
Scientists at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston have used stem cells to create artificial blood vessels that can survive in the body for nine months. The study, published this week in the Proceedings of the Natural Academy of Sciences (PNAS), is the first of its kind to produce working vessels that prove durable when implanted into a living host.
Yadav VR, Rao G, Houson H, Hedrick A, Awasthi S, Roberts PR, Awasthi V. Nanovesicular liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) prevents multi-organ injuries in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2016 Oct 10;93:97-106. doi: 10.1016/j.ejps.2016.08.010. PubMed [citation] PMID: 27503458, PMCID: PMC5035221 Rao G, Yadav VR, Awasthi S, Roberts PR, Awasthi V. Effect of liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin resuscitation on proteostasis in small intestinal epithelium after hemorrhagic shock. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016 Jul 1;311(1):G180-91. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00157.2016. PubMed. Meng X, Rose L, Han Y, Deng J, Xiang Y. Vaccinia virus A6 is a two-domain protein requiring a cognate N-terminal domain for full viral membrane assembly activity. J Virol. 2017 Mar 8. doi:pii: JVI.02405-16. 10.1128/JVI.02405-16. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed [citation] PMID: 28275183 Walgama C, Al Mubarak ZH, Zhang B, Akinwale M, Pathiranage A, Deng J, Berlin KD, Benbrook DM, Krishnan S. Label-Free ...
The present invention relates to storage stable hemoglobin solutions which contain partially deoxygenated and surprisingly low amounts of reducing agents. Methods for preparing such storage stable hemoglobin solutions are also provided as well as a systems for storing the solutions.
The invention relates to a blood vessel treating assembly comprising: an artificial blood vessel inner layer such as an artificial tunica-intima or the like for replacing a section of blood vessel inner layer previously removed from a blood vessel and/or for covering a predetermined length of damaged blood vessel inner layer, wherein said artificial blood vessel inner layer is associated with the existing blood vessel in such a way as to substantially stop any loose parts of the blood vessel from obstructing the stream of blood through said blood vessel; and introducing means for introducing the artificial blood vessel inner layer into the blood vessel.
Decreased cerebellar volume is associated with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in very preterm infants and may be a principal component in neurodevelopmental impairment. Cerebellar deposition of blood products from the subarachnoid space has been suggested as a causal mechanism in cerebellar underdevelopment following IVH. Using the preterm rabbit pup IVH model, we evaluated the effects of IVH induced at E29 (3 days prior to term) on cerebellar development at term-equivalent postnatal day 0 (P0), term-equivalent postnatal day 2 (P2), and term-equivalent postnatal day 5 (P5). Furthermore, the presence of cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) in cerebellar tissue was characterized, and cell-free Hb was evaluated as a causal factor in the development of cerebellar damage following preterm IVH. IVH was associated with a decreased proliferative (Ki67-positive) portion of the external granular layer (EGL), delayed Purkinje cell maturation, and activated microglia in the cerebellar white matter. In pups with ...
Starting from the 1970s, the world clinical practice switched the transfusion and infusion therapy priorities from the use of donor blood towards the use of blood substitute solutions. This circumstance is determined by a number of factors: the high therapeutic effectiveness of products, the lack of need to select drugs by group antigens and rhesus factor, good tolerance, almost no allergenic properties, low cost of products and, most importantly, the exception of the infectious diseases transmission risk (viral hepatitis, infectious mononucleosis, syphilis, AIDS, etc.).. In a healthy person the quantitative composition of blood varies slightly with age but it is significantly changed by various diseases. The violation of balance between the qualitative and quantitative composition of inorganic salts of intracellular and extracellular fluids takes place, i.e. the violation of water-electrolytic balance.. Infusions of various solutions solve a wide range of tasks from the introduction of ...
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Blood substitutes and plasma proteins, albumin (ATC code: B05AA01) Characteristics Human Albumin Grifols 5% is a solution that contains 50 g/l of protein of which at least 95% is human albumin (*donors from the Slovak Republic).
Heres a recent article by tissue engineering pioneer Dr. Anthony Atala. He makes a great point that printing tissue is beneficial not just so doctors can replace parts, but also so that drugs can be put through better testing.. He writes: [I]n collaboration with five other institutions, we are working to print miniature hearts, lungs, blood vessels and livers onto chips that will be connected with a blood substitute. Called a body on a chip, the system has the potential to speed up the development of new drugs because it could potentially replace testing in animals, which can be slow, expensive and not always accurate.. Awesome.. ...
To begin with, macromolecules consisting of poly(amido)amine dendrimers(PAMAM),polyglycidol,hyperbranched poly(amido)amine (HYPAM) were synthesized and characterized extensively. Porphyrins were also synthesized, characterized and modified in line with respective studies. Hereafter, surface modified TRIS PAMAM dendrimers and its analogs (hyperbranched polymers, hyperbranched PAMAMs) as potential drug delivery systems were studied with the use of model drugs (Ibuprofen and Porphyrin). Analogs of the model drugs were used to investigate the role of secondary interactions for high drug loading(s). UV-Vis Spectroscopy was utilized for studying and determining the maximum loading of the macromolecules under investigation. Further ahead, non-covalent approaches to improve dendrimer-protein binding were used by introducing amino acid chains as targeting groups on the dendrimer surface. Surface modified carboxylate PAMAM dendrimers were studied for their ability to bind with zinc metallated porphyrin. ...
శరీర అవయవాలన్నింటికీ ఆక్సిజన్‌ సరఫరా చేసేందుకు కావాల్సిన రక్తనాళాలను కృత్రిమంగా తయారు చేయడంలో విజయం సాధించారు బ్రిటిష్‌ కొలంబియా యూనివర్సిటీ శాస్త్రవేత్తలు. మూలకణాల సాయంతో పరిశోధన శాలలో తయారైన ఈ కృత్రిమ రక్తకణాలు సమీప భవిష్యత్తులో∙గుండెపోటు, కేన్సర్, మధుమేహం వంటి అనేక వ్యాధులకు సమర్థమైన చికిత్స అందించేందుకు వీలు కల్పిస్తుందని అంచనా. మధుమేహాన్నే ఉదాహరణగా తీసుకుంటే ఈ
Does Initial Hematocrit Predict Shock?. Everything you know is WRONG!. The classic textbook teaching is that trauma patients bleed whole blood. And that if you measure the hematocrit (or hemoglobin) on arrival, it will approximate their baseline value because not enough time has passed for equilibration and hemodilution. As Ive said before, youve got to be willing to question dogma!. The trauma group at Ryder in Miami took a good look at this assumption. They drew initial labs on all patients requiring emergency surgery within 4 hours of presentation to the trauma center. They also estimated blood loss in the resuscitation room and OR and compared it to the initial hematocrit. They also compared the hematocrit to the amount of crystalloid and blood transfused in those areas.. Patients with lower initial hematocrits had significantly higher blood loss and fluid and blood replacement during the initial treatment period. Some of this effect may be due to the fact that blood loss was ...
Precise determination of hemoglobin sequence and subunit quantitation from human blood for diagnosis of hemoglobin-based diseases.
We have developed a stroma-free culture system in which mouse marrow or thymus cells, known to be enriched for lymphoid progenitors, can be driven to generate n
Wnt5a Does Not Support Hematopoiesis in Stroma-Free, Serum-Free Cultures. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The Zika virus has captured headlines for its horrific effects on fetuses. Everyone is well aware that the virus spreads through mosquito bites. However, less well known is that Zika can also spread through sexual contact and blood transfusions. Since transfused blood is a frequently utilized component of modern medicine, keeping the blood supply free from Zika is critical to prevent its spread. It is with this goal that the FDA has recently updated its recommendations stating all donated units of blood should be screened for Zika Virus (August 26, 2016). This prudent recommendation is just the latest attempt to keep the blood supply safe from nasty infections. Any donated blood is already being screened for diseases such as HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and West Nile virus among others. Since the basis of transfusion-transmitted disease is infected donors, it begs the question: Can we create synthetic blood and eliminate donor reliance?. Every two seconds a blood transfusion is performed in ...
This paper experimentally demonstrates the feasibility of a novel gas switching combustion (GSC) reactor as an alternative to the traditional chemical looping combustion (CLC) process for power production with integrated CO2 capture. Whereas the CLC process circulates an oxygen carrier material between two fluidized bed reactors, where it is exposed to separate fuel and air streams, the GSC concept employs a single dense fluidized bed reactor where the oxygen carrier is periodically exposed to fuel and air streams. A lab-scale GSC reactor was operated autothermally (without any external temperature supply) to continuously convert cold feed gases into hot product gases, which would be suitable for driving a downstream power cycle. A parametric study was carried out to further investigate the behavior of the GSC concept. The reactor achieved a high CO2 capture efficiency (97.2%) and purity (98.2%) even without the use of a purging stage between the oxidation and reduction stages. A small amount of ...
The over-all management of bowel obstructions including early diagnosis, has been improved considerably during the past 10 years. Early restoration of fluid and electrolyte losses, blood replacement,...
At times, while going from Srinagar to Leh, you might need to work out few things if there have been some tensions in taxi unions of Kargil and Leh. In order to settle it out, what they do is that they make a transit point just before Fotu La while going to Leh from Kargil. All Leh taxis stop there and kargil taxis too. They exchange passengers and move back in respective directions. Leh taxis take passengers to Leh coming from Srinagar/Kargil and Kargil guys take passengers to Srinagar/kargil coming from Leh. But, that happens only when there is an issue.. For the list of good restaurants in Leh - Ladakh or eateries or food joints where food is enjoyed by many travellers including me, you can check the link here: List of Good Restaurants in Leh - Ladakh , Restaurant Reviews. Check the list of things to carry for Leh - Ladakh or other trip including basic medical kit, clothing, must haves etc. at the link here: List of Things to Carry for Leh - Ladakh trip.. To know about AMS and acclimatization ...
Transport of biological available oxygen in vertebrates is performed by two different principles: physical solution in plasma and chemical binding to the haemoglobin molecule. According to these...
Red blood cells. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of human red blood cells (erythrocytes). Red blood cells are biconcave, giving them a large surface area for gas exchange, and highly elastic, enabling them to pass through narrow capillary vessels. The nucleus and other organelles are lost as the cells mature. The cells interior is packed with haemoglobin, a red iron-containing pigment that has an oxygen-carrying capacity. The main function of red blood cells is to distribute oxygen to body tissues and to carry waste carbon dioxide back to the lungs. Magnification: x3,225 when printed at 10 centimetres wide. - Stock Image C002/9746
generic metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets Walker says the robot has about 60 to 70 percent of the function of a human. It stands six-and-a-half feet tall and can step, sit and stand with the help of a Rex walking machine thats used by people whove lost the ability to walk due to a spinal injury. It also has a functioning heart that, using an electronic pump, beats and circulates artificial blood, which carries oxygen just like human blood. An artificial, implantable kidney, meanwhile, replaces the function of a modern-day dialysis unit ...
Feeding mosquitoes artificial blood could help get them ready to go out in the world and stanch the flow of disease - and reduce the need for animal blood
Professor Julie Campbell is a vascular biologist whose research has focused on the cell biology of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. Her team has developed a method of growing artificial blood vessels in the peritoneal cavity of an animal into which it will be later grafted.
unless there is bacterial infection, or the infarct has caused necrosis of all the cells in a portion of the brain). Inflammatory cells enter the infarct by the first day, and become plentiful over the next several days. Big Robbins lists several observations about infarcts that are worth reviewing. Although they may seem obvious, they are important to remember in clinical medicine. (1) The effects of vascular narrowing or occlusion will probably be worse if the blood already lacks oxygen-carrying capacity (i.e., the patient is anemic) or the heart isnt pumping well (heart failure, shock). (2) Slowly-developing occlusion of an artery (i.e., over months or years) is well-tolerated in organs with collateral circulation, since it allows for development of more and bigger collaterals (3) Remember that different cells tolerate ischemia for different lengths of time. Because of their importance, its worth mentioning DECUBITUS ULCERS here once again. Body weight always prevents blood from flowing ...
Fluorinated compounds and emulsions including the compounds. The compositions are useful as oxygen carriers and surfactants. In one embodiment, the fluorinated compound is pH sensitive. In one embodiment, the fluorinated compound is a vitamin E derivative. In one embodiment, the fluorinated compound is a vitamin K derivative.
In the body, iron primarily functions as an oxygen carrier within the blood and muscles. It also contributes to a healthy immune system, efficient metabolism and cognitive development. When the body ...
Here you can shop for quality, convenient wheelchair accessories that include a wide variety of wheelchair bags, trays, cup holders, oxygen carriers, rim covers and more...
Anemia is defined as an absolute reduction in the quantity of the oxygen-carrying pigment hemoglobin (Hgb) in the circulating blood. Anemia is further broadly subcategorized into acute and chronic.
Pipe carriers on WN Network delivers the latest Videos and Editable pages for News & Events, including Entertainment, Music, Sports, Science and more, Sign up and share your playlists.
STEP Solutions Group LLC, a Chicago-based insurance processing software as a service provider, announced today that it launched a newly designed website to promote and educate insurance carriers on the ...
Kalluumeysiga dareeraha ah ee tayada sare leh, dahaadhka indhaha, iyo ilaalinta ka hortagga shucaaca iyo shucaaca infrared ayaa la korsaday si looga ilaaliyo hawlwadeennada alxanka inay ku dhaawacmaan falaadhaha waxyeelada leh sida shucaaca ultraviolet, falaadhaha infrared .etc.Liquid crystal light valve ado ado ...
Informace získané prostřednictvím Google reCAPTCHA podléhají Pravidlům ochrany osobních údajů a Smluvním podmínkám společnosti Google a používají se všeobecné bezpečnostní účely (nepoužívají se na přizpůsobenou reklamu společnosti Google ...
Informace získané prostřednictvím Google reCAPTCHA podléhají Pravidlům ochrany osobních údajů a Smluvním podmínkám společnosti Google a používají se všeobecné bezpečnostní účely (nepoužívají se na přizpůsobenou reklamu společnosti Google ...
Dating, waxaan ku soo maray dhammaan taariikhaha wanaagsan qaar ka mid ah, qaar ka mid ah kuwa daymada / Gaariisa, qaar ka mid ah kuwa qiimo leh dhiibi xun iyo rajeynayaa qaar ka mid ah kuwa wanaagsan / aad u xiiso badan. Sidaas waxa
Like all PFC-based products, Oxycyte is not a complete blood substitute. Because Oxycyte is a PFC, and not based on hemoglobin ... Winslow, Robert M. (2006). Blood Substitutes. Academic Press. p. 303. ISBN 978-0127597607. US application 12/460,409 M. Ross ... and Synthetic Blood International). It is designed to enhance oxygen delivery to damaged tissues. Through a collaborative ... "Blood Simple" (Flash video) Wired Science, October 31, 2007.; Public Broadcasting Service Drugbank DB12477: Perfluoro ...
Blood products of human origin and plasma substitutes[edit]. Blood and blood components[edit]. ... 11 Blood products of human origin and plasma substitutes *11.1 Blood and blood components ... Plasma substitutes[edit]. *Dextran 70[note 67]. Cardiovascular medicines[edit]. Antianginal medicines[edit]. *Bisoprolol[note ...
Artificial cell Blood substitute Oxycyte Synthetic biology Robert A. Freitas Jr. (1998). "Exploratory Design in Medical ... Blood Substitutes, and Immobil. Biotech. (26): 411-430. "RESPIROCYTES - IMPROVING UPON NATURE'S DESIGN: BREATHE EASY WITH ... Respirocytes were proposed by Robert A. Freitas Jr in his 1998 paper "A Mechanical Artificial Red Blood Cell: Exploratory ... Respirocytes are hypothetical, microscopic, artificial red blood cells that are intended to emulate the function of their ...
It is an ingredient of Perftoran, a blood substitute that also contains perfluoro-N-(4-methylcyclohexyl)-piperidine along with ... Blood Substitutes, and Biotechnology. 33 (1): 37-46. doi:10.1081/BIO-200046654. PMID 15768564. S2CID 39902507. King, A. T.; ... an artificial blood product developed by Green Cross Corporation in the 1980s. It is also being studied for use in liquid ...
Blood Substitutes, and Biotechnology. 32 (1): 67-75. doi:10.1081/BIO-120028669. PMID 15027802. S2CID 21897676. Gomezhens, A; ... In this case the vesicles act as sinks to scavenge the drug in the blood circulation and prevent its toxic effect. Another ... Studies have also shown that PEGylated liposomes elicit anti-IgM antibodies, thus leading to an enhanced blood clearance of the ... "Anti-PEG IgM elicited by injection of liposomes is involved in the enhanced blood clearance of a subsequent dose of PEGylated ...
Blood Substitutes, and Biotechnology. 40 (3): 197-199. doi:10.3109/10731199.2012.662408. PMC 3566225. PMID 22409281. Artificial ... Artificial red blood cells (RBC) have already been in projects for about 60 years, but they started getting interest when the ... In ECMO, one or more catheters are placed into the patient and a pump is used to flow blood over hollow membrane fibers, which ... The artificial thymus would play an important role in the immune system, it would use blood stem cells to produce more T cells ...
"Experimental Blood Substitutes Unsafe, Study Finds". ABC News. Bernard, Larry. "Historian examines U.S. ethics in Nuremberg ... after massive blood loss which caused paralysis and fainting, measured their blood pressure. The experiment was often performed ... in which they studied changes in blood pressure and blood flow. In one of the studies, researchers inserted a catheter through ... Over a two year span, the test subjects were given doses of I-131 and samples of saliva, urine, blood, and thyroid tissue were ...
"The long quest to create artificial blood may soon be over". NBC News. Retrieved 2017-01-25. "ErythroMer Blood Substitute , ... ErythroMer is a red blood substitute in development funded by the National Institutes of Health and U.S. Department of Defense ... This opens up the possibility of eventual stockpiling of ErythoMer making it easier to supply blood in large amounts to those ... ErythroMer is a reddish blood powder composed from hemoglobin from humans. By coating it with a synthetic polymer, it is able ...
Perfluorinated alkanes are used as blood substitutes. Fluorocarbons are also used as a propellant for metered-dose inhalers ... Perfluorodecalin has been demonstrated as a blood substitutes, transporting oxygen to the lungs. The solvent 1,1,1,2- ... Fluorine-substituted ethers are volatile anesthetics, including the commercial products methoxyflurane, enflurane, isoflurane, ... Illustrative of fluorous technology is the use of fluoroalkyl-substituted tin hydrides for reductions, the products being ...
Blood substitutes are the subject of research because the demand for blood transfusions grows faster than donations. In some ... Schimmeyer, S. (2002). "The search for a blood substitute". Illumin. 5 (1). Archived from the original on 2 October 2011. ... After injection into the blood, FDG is taken up by "FDG-avid" tissues with a high need for glucose, such as the brain and most ... Substituting a fluorine into a para position, however, protects the aromatic ring and prevents the epoxide from being produced ...
Schimmeyer, S. (2002). "The Search for a Blood Substitute". Illumin. Columbia: University of Southern Carolina. 15 (1). ... In the body, PFAAs bind to proteins such as serum albumin; they tend to concentrate within humans in the liver and blood before ... "Better than blood". Popular Science (November 2006). Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2013. Davy ... Liquid fluorocarbons can hold large volumes of oxygen or carbon dioxide, more so than blood, and have attracted attention for ...
Blood-based product. *Whole blood. *PF24/Fresh frozen plasma (Cryosupernatant + Cryoprecipitate). Blood substitute. *Hemoglobin ... Blood pressure should not be taken on the arm with a PICC,[6] which is a problem if there are reasons not to take pressure on ... Side effects include blood clots and infection.[2] Other complications may include catheter occlusion, phlebitis and bleeding. ... Blood pressure readings on legs are often 10-20% higher than those on the brachial artery.[7] ...
Blood-based product. *Whole blood. *PF24/Fresh frozen plasma (Cryosupernatant + Cryoprecipitate). Blood substitute. *Hemoglobin ... Large amounts may result in fluid overload, swelling, acidosis, and high blood sodium.[1][2] In those with long-standing low ... It has a slightly higher degree of osmolarity (i.e. more solute per litre) than blood (However, if you take into account the ... NS is typically the first fluid used when hypovolemia is severe enough to threaten the adequacy of blood circulation, and has ...
Blood-based product. *Whole blood. *PF24/Fresh frozen plasma (Cryosupernatant + Cryoprecipitate). Blood substitute. *Hemoglobin ... Blood clots[edit]. Chronic IV access leaves a foreign body in the vascular system, and blood clots on this IV line are common.[ ... Because all of the baby's nourishment comes from the mother's blood stream, the doctor must properly calculate the dosage of ... and blood (nutrient levels) to determine conscious feelings of hunger.[15] In cases of TPN, the taste, smell and physical ...
Blood-based product. *Whole blood. *PF24/Fresh frozen plasma (Cryosupernatant + Cryoprecipitate). Blood substitute. *Hemoglobin ... The National Advisory Committee on Blood and Blood Products of Canada (NAC) and Canadian Blood Services have also developed ... " Retrieved 14 November 2019.. *^ a b c d e f "Hizentra EPAR". European Medicines Agency (EMA). Retrieved 2 May ... " Retrieved 14 November 2019.. *^ "Access to Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIg) , National Blood Authority". www ...
... s are also being investigated for use as blood substitutes. Their steric bulk surrounding a heme-mimetic centre ... In the case of drug delivery to the brain, dendrimers are able to take advantage of the EPR effect and blood-brain barrier (BBB ... resulting in lower cytotoxicity and lower red blood cell hemolysis. Additionally, studies have found that PEGylation of ...
First Qualified Substitutes, Martin Vaculík, had problems with blood pressure. The draw was made on 21 September. (7) Kenneth ... Injured Kenneth Bjerre was replaced by second Qualified Substitutes, Krzysztof Kasprzak. ...
Blood substitutes such as hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers are in development; however, as of 2013 there are none available for ... If blood products are needed, a greater use of fresh frozen plasma and platelets instead of only packed red blood cells has ... Other tests should be performed to get a baseline measurement of their current blood chemistry, such as an arterial blood gas ... Where blood pressure is low or the heart rate is increased-likely from bleeding in the abdomen-immediate surgery bypassing a CT ...
Kresie L (April 2001). "Artificial blood: an update on current red cell and platelet substitutes". Proceedings. 14 (2): 158-61 ... Motor neurons, muscle, and blood vessels grow with the regenerated limb, and reestablish the connections that were present ... Examples of physiological regeneration in mammals include epithelial renewal (e.g., skin and intestinal tract), red blood cell ... their subsequent circulation for around 90 days in the blood stream, and their eventual cell-death in the spleen. Another ...
His work on finding a safe blood substitute brought him to prominence in the 1980s and 1990s, earning him an Order of Canada. ... Artificial Cells, Blood Substitutes & Nanomedicine at the Artificial Cells & Organs Research Centre. ... stem cell/cell therapy and blood substitutes. Evidence of his stature within the international scientific community was ... The Red Blood Cell Man. McGill News Vol 76 - Number 4 - Winter 1996 - pp. 22-25 The Governor General of Canada > Honours > ...
Campanini, Bruno; Raboni, Mozzarelli (January 2003). "Oxygen Delivery by Allosteric Effectors of Hemoglobin, Blood Substitutes ... modifiers of hemoglobin useful for decreasing oxygen affinity and preserving oxygen carrying capability of stored blood". ...
A substitute for blood, like human blood. Aradak's and Phaton's father, Tevel, found the source of the blood substitute. Doll- ... Blood Box - A box with the image of power and the world's most powerful vampire. In order to open the Blood Box, the blood of ... Blood Lilies - Not so much a weakness as it is a warning to humans. If a vampire is near a Blood Lily, the lily dies (the stem ... The effect of the Doll-Bar on Splits is that it augments their red blood cells, but some of the augmented red blood cells are ...
Blood-based product. *Whole blood. *PF24/Fresh frozen plasma (Cryosupernatant + Cryoprecipitate). Blood substitute. *Hemoglobin ... Side effects may include allergic reactions, high blood potassium, volume overload, and high blood calcium.[2] It may not be ... It is used for replacing fluids and electrolytes in those who have low blood volume or low blood pressure.[2] It may also be ... He hoped to identify the substances in blood that would allow the isolated heart to beat normally for a time.[17] The use of ...
... blood substitutes, bioencapsulation, cell/stem cell therapy. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific. ISBN 978-981-270-576-1. Knowles ... The globules were between 10 to 40 micrometres (0.00039 to 0.00157 in), or about the size of red blood cells. Remarkably, the ...
Holland VR; Saunders BC; Rose FL; Walpole AL (1974). "A safer substitute for benzidine in the detection of blood". Tetrahedron ...
Blood transfusion is the only approved fluid replacement capable of carrying oxygen; some oxygen-carrying blood substitutes are ... Also, if it is anticipated that blood will be given, normal saline is used because it is the only fluid compatible with blood ... Blood products, non-blood products and combinations are used in fluid replacement, including colloid and crystalloid solutions ... Lactated Ringer's solution is another isotonic crystalloid solution and it is designed to match most closely blood plasma. If ...
Chang, Thomas Ming Swi (2007). Artificial Cells: Biotechnology, Nanomedicine, Regenerative Medicine, Blood Substitutes, ... Archibald Macallum noted the resemblance of body fluids such as blood and lymph to seawater; however, the inorganic composition ...
The concussion substitute rule was made similar to the blood rule. Any effort to distract an opponent with the wave of a hurley ...
The MMRI developed a blood substitute which was patented in 1990. In the 1990s MMRI researchers discovered the M cell, ...
... bodies are elevated in the blood (ketosis) after fasting, including a night of sleep; in both blood and urine in ... the less-substituted kinetic enolate is generated selectively, while conditions that allow for equilibration (higher ... temperature, base added to ketone, using weak or insoluble bases, e.g., NaOEt in EtOH, or NaH) provides the more-substituted ...
A 2015 study of users in the United States also found elevated blood lead levels in 40 percent of those tested. Other concerns ... those used as a substitute for standard care. ... Until a decade ago or so, "complementary and alternative medicine" could be ... and testimonials do not substitute for evidence."[12] ...
Sodium is an essential nutrient that regulates blood volume, blood pressure, osmotic equilibrium and pH; the minimum ... 4) cation that can itself be substituted similarly; while stibonium (SbH+. 4) itself is not known, some of its organic ... Pure potassium metal is not often used, but its alloys with sodium may substitute for pure sodium in fast breeder nuclear ... Like rubidium, caesium tends to substitute potassium in the body, but is significantly larger and is therefore a poorer ...
The relatively poor oral bioavailability and blood-brain barrier penetration of CX-717 ultimately led to Cortex abandoning ... "Substituted benzoxazinones as potent positive allosteric AMPA receptor modulators: Part II". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry ... blood pressure or other cardiovascular side effects". In April 2007 Cortex Pharmaceuticals submitted two large data packages to ...
... of blood samples examined at Calcutta hospitals during the peak period, November-December 1944.[207] Statistics for malaria ... Unfamiliar and indigestible grains were often substituted for rice, causing intestinal distress that frequently resulted in ...
Since this activated carbon has no effect on blood clotting factors, heparin or most other anticoagulants [11] this allows a ... Activated is sometimes substituted with active. ... rivaroxaban and edoxaban from blood plasma samples.[10] For ... Hemoperfusion is a treatment technique in which large volumes of the patient's blood are passed over an adsorbent substance in ...
"The glycemic index (GI) factor is a ranking of foods based on their overall effect on blood sugar levels. The diet based around ... A 2009 review found that existing limited evidence suggested that encouraging water consumption and substituting energy-free ... During prolonged fasting or very low calorie diets the reduction of blood glucose, the preferred energy source of the brain, ...
... is often used as part of the mixture that goes into creating fake blood for films and television. Blood mixtures ...
... aorta for oxygenated blood and pulmonary vein for deoxygenated blood. The spiral valve is essential to keeping the mixing of ... The two also shared a semi-rigid ribcage of overlapping ribs, which may have substituted for a rigid spine. In conjunction with ... in which oxygenated blood from the lungs and de-oxygenated blood from the respiring tissues enters by separate atria, and is ... For this reason, early tetrapods may have experienced chronic hypercapnia (high levels of blood CO2). This is not uncommon in ...
While not a substitute for long-term counseling, this one-time support group showed that sing-alongs can be powerful in ... The infants' average blood pressure typically decreases after the music therapy sessions, as well. Although there are ... According to a 2013 Cochrane review, listening to music may improve heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure in those ...
Ginseng, popular tea in China and Korea, commonly used as a stimulant and as a caffeine substitute.[16][unreliable medical ... Roasted wheat, used in Postum, a coffee substitute. *Rooibos (Red Bush), reddish plant used to make an infusion and grown in ...
Substituting equation (5) into equation (4), we have. 0. =. k. 3. [. I. ]. K. m. [. ES. ]. [. S. ]. −. k. −. 3. [. EI. ]. {\ ... MPTP is able to cross the blood brain barrier and enter acidic lysosomes.[13] MPTP is biologically activated by MAO-B, an ... At this point, substitute equation (5) and equation (6) into equation (1): ... "Competitive Inhibition of Mushroom Tyrosinase by 4-Substituted Benzaldehydes". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 49 ( ...
Methylated spirits are sometimes used by alcoholics as a desperate and cheap substitute for regular ethanol alcoholic beverages ... Sack RL, Lewy AJ, Blood ML, Keith LD, Nakagawa H (July 1992). "Circadian rhythm abnormalities in totally blind people: ... which a measurement of blood glucose or sugar level.[43] In fact, as A1C increases, people tend to be at greater risk of ...
Blood concentrations of minerals[edit]. Minerals are present in a healthy human being's blood at certain mass and molar ... Thus Ce, Pr, and Nd may be substituted for La without ill effects for organisms using La, and the smaller Sm, Eu, and Gd may ... Reference ranges for blood tests, sorted logarithmically by mass above the scale and by molarity below. ... Needed for muscle, heart and digestive system health, builds bone, supports synthesis and function of blood cells Dairy ...
In man, an oral dose of 50 mg produced no effects on blood pressure. Later studies by Lands and Grant on the effects of racemic ... Application to the preparation of β-arylalkylamines and 3-substituted 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines." J. Org. Chem. 49 4107- ... caused a rise in blood pressure of 38 mm Hg lasting 3-10 minutes. This effect was described as being ~ 1/200 x that produced by ... caused a maximum rise in blood pressure of 26 mm Hg. Additional experiments by these investigators showed that racemic N- ...
a b CHAPTER 2004-256 Committee Substitute for Senate Bill No. 1118 Archived 2011-07-23 at the Wayback Machine State of Florida ... A TB blood test for baseline testing does not require two-step testing. If the skin test method is used to test HCP upon hire, ... The CDC recommends either a blood test, also known as an interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA), or a skin test, also known as a ... All other scenarios, with the exception of programs using blood tests, the recommended testing is a two-step TST ...
... substituted ingredients, completely misrepresented, or sold with a false brand name.[6] Otherwise, legitimate drugs that have ... 149 Americans died from a contaminated blood thinner called Heparin that was legally imported into the United States.[19] ... and cases where the claimed active ingredients are substituted by something cheaper (e.g., when methamphetamine is sold as ... the treatment of anemia and Neupogen is an injectable drug used by cancer patients to stimulate the production of white blood ...
The arrival of quantities of the new drug atabrine allowed this more effective drug to be substituted for quinine. The ... Brooks, Brenton (December 2013). "The Carnival of Blood in Australian Mandated Territory". Sabretache. Military Historical ... and substituted the capture of Milne Bay,[43] which was codenamed Operation RE, and scheduled for the middle of August.[44] ... cancelled Boston on 11 June and substituted Milne Bay.[15] Milne Bay was given the codename "Fall River".[17] The use of place ...
Blood test[edit]. In conjunction, measuring blood glucose level every 10 to 15 minutes after ingestion will show a "flat curve ... Milk substitutes[edit]. Further information: Milk § Reduction or elimination of lactose, and Milk substitute ... Blood is then drawn again at the 30-minute, 1-hour, 2-hour, and 3-hour marks. If the lactose cannot be digested, blood glucose ... However, due to the need for frequent blood sampling, this approach has been largely replaced by breath testing.[38] ...
Rituximab may be substituted for cyclophosphamide to induce remission since it is similarly effective and has a comparable side ... It is a form of vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessels) that affects small- and medium-size vessels in many organs but most ... Classic microscopic features of GPA include inflammation of blood vessels associated with poorly formed granulomas, necrosis, ... a type of white blood cell) are associated with GPA.[11] Involvement of the ears, nose, and throat is more common in ...
Crile is now formally recognized as the first surgeon to have succeeded in a direct blood transfusion.[85] ... To abdicate from the rule of reason and substitute for it an authentication of belief by the intentness and degree of ...
Notable effects of adrenaline and noradrenaline include increased heart rate and blood pressure, blood vessel constriction in ... dopamine being used in this pathology as an inadequate substitute.[5][6] ... Anatomy photo:40:04-0202 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Posterior Abdominal Wall: Blood Supply to the Suprarenal ... The adrenal medulla consists of irregularly shaped cells grouped around blood vessels. These cells are intimately connected ...
In blood vessels Endothelium-Derived Hyperpolarizing Factor or EDHF is proposed to be a substance and/or electrical signal that ... Different endothelial mediators or pathways involved in EDHF-mediated relaxation may also work simultaneously and/or substitute ... In female mice, the deletion of eNOS and COX-1 did not affect mean arterial blood pressure, while males become hypertensive[1] ... Recently, EDHF has been implicated in gender-related differences in blood pressure control. The generation of animals that lack ...
No substitute goods: A monopoly sells a good for which there is no close substitute. The absence of substitutes makes the ... as well as rising awareness of blood diamonds that forced De Beers to "avoid the risk of bad publicity" by limiting sales to ... A pure monopoly is an industry in which there is only one supplier of a product for which there are no close substitutes and in ... If there is a single seller in a certain market and there are no close substitutes for the product, then the market structure ...
Further information: Blood product, Blood transfusion, and Blood substitute. A blood product (or blood-based product) is any ... Blood substitutes (also called 'artificial blood' or 'blood surrogates') are artificial substances aiming to provide an ... Early blood transfusions consisted of whole blood, but modern medical practice commonly uses only components of the blood, such ... Substances that may be infused intravenously include volume expanders, blood-based products, blood substitutes, medications and ...
Blood or plasma MDPV concentrations are expected to be in a range of 10-50 μg/L in persons using the drug recreationally, >50 ... In the UK, following the ACMD's report on substituted cathinone derivatives, MDPV is a Class B drug under The Misuse of Drugs ... MDPV is the 3,4-methylenedioxy ring-substituted analog of the compound pyrovalerone, developed in the 1960s, which has been ... MDPV may be quantified in blood, plasma or urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography-mass ...
... heat therapy which dilates blood vessels to the tumor site), blood substitutes that carry increased oxygen, hypoxic cell ... The blood feeding the tumor will carry the microspheres directly to the tumor enabling a more selective approach than ... Solid tumors can outgrow their blood supply, causing a low-oxygen state known as hypoxia. Oxygen is a potent radiosensitizer, ... They are often due to damage of blood vessels and connective tissue cells. Many late effects are reduced by fractionating ...
Beneficial effects on blood lipids and insulin resistance are due to the weight loss, not to the change in caloric composition ... There is only poor-quality evidence of the effect of different diets on reducing or preventing high blood pressure, but it ... This concept classifies foods according to the rapidity of their effect on blood sugar levels - with fast-digesting simple ... 2018). "Comparative effects of different dietary approaches on blood pressure in hypertensive and pre-hypertensive patients: A ...
Lowering the temperature may prolong the lifespan of cold blooded animals. Mice, which are warm blooded, have been engineered ... blood pressure, improved lipid profile, low serum T3 concentration, and decreased resting heart rate and whole-body resting ... and lower fasting blood glucose levels were factors associated with fewer disorders of aging and with improved survival rates.[ ...
... with non-blood family friends commonly accorded the status and titles of blood relations. This broader, more African concept of ... eschewing trans fats in favor of natural vegetable oils and substituting smoked turkey for fatback and other, cured pork ... Others, separated from blood kin, formed close bonds based on fictive kin; play relations, play aunts, cousins, and the like. ...
/PRNewswire/ -- Provides understanding and access to the hemophilia partnering deals and agreements entered into by the worlds leading healthcare companies....
Blood Substitute Solutions. Br Med J 1956; 2 doi: (Published 11 August 1956) Cite this ...
A government researcher said Monday that experimental blood substitutes are linked to an increased risk of heart attack and ... Expert: Human tests on experimental blood substitutes should be halted. * In clinical trials, blood substitutes increased risk ... Blood substitutes could prove invaluable on the battlefield, where fresh blood supplies can be limited. ... Watch more on blood substitutes ». Even before human trials began, animal trials showed evidence that the product causes ...
Risks associated with blood transfusions have been minimised with the development of highly sensitive tests for blood-bor... ... Fake Blood. blood. Beer. blood transfusion. The Prince of Blood. Hepatitis. blood blister. My tongue, every atom of my blood, ... Qualities of an effective blood substitute *The ideal blood substitute would have the correct affinity for O2, strong enough to ... The need for blood substitutes Risks associated with blood transfusions have been minimised with the development of highly ...
... possibly overcoming some of the previous problems with blood substitutes ... The product contains a molecule that triggers blood vessel dilation, ... Like many previous blood substitutes designed to keep people alive when donor blood is unavailable, HemoTech is based on a form ... which claims to have developed a blood substitute that is safer than rival products. It plans to test the blood in surgical ...
... especially when whole blood is in short supply. ... The development of a safe and effective blood substitute would ... especially when whole blood is in short supply.. One type of artificial blood substitute that scientists have studied ... Hemoglobin-based blood substitutes and the treatment of sickle cell disease: more harm than help?. Alayash AI ... The development of a safe and effective blood substitute would greatly improve the emergency treatment of accident victims and ...
By reducing the sodium content of your diet youll promote a lower blood pressure. Salt substitutes can plan a useful role as ... Lower Blood Pressure with Salt Substitutes. by Lisa Nelson, RD, LN Health Professional. November 15, 2010. ... By reducing the sodium content of your diet youll promote a lower blood pressure. Salt substitutes can plan a useful role as ... What are salt substitutes?. Salt substitutes are foods low in sodium, but that still provide the flavor of salt. Salt ...
Flow cytometric characterization of blood and blood substitutes. Artificial blood substitutes have a high potential to improve ... These parameters are also needed for quality assurance in fabrication of the artificial blood substitute.. Subsequently, the ... In this project, haemoglobin microparticles are investigated, which are suitable as artificial blood substitutes.. The ... Quantification of these parameters is essential for the intended approval as blood substitute. ...
Artificial Cells, Blood Substitutes, and Biotechnology (journal) Blood plasma substitute (disambiguation) Blood transfusion ... A blood substitute (also called artificial blood or blood surrogate) is a substance used to mimic and fulfill some functions of ... Perfluorocarbon-based blood substitutes are completely man-made; this provides advantages over blood substitutes that rely on ... This blood will also serve as a blood donor to all common blood types. Pharmed blood may be used in human trials in 2013. ...
Blood substitute draws praise, fire. Ethicists, lawmakers question consent process, but 1 man credits PolyHeme with saving his ... Erick Silkworth was hardly in the position to give his consent to being treated with an experimental blood substitute. ... Half of the patients, like Silkworth, receive PolyHeme; the other half gets saline at accident scenes or donated blood in the ... Although it will not be officially reported until later this year whether PolyHeme worked any better than saline or real blood ...
A blood plasma substitute may refer to: An artificially made substance designed to have one or more of the vast amount of ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Blood plasma substitute. If an internal link led you here, ... functions of the contents of the blood plasma Volume expander (although providing volume is only one of many functions of blood ...
Synthetic Blood Substitutes and Blood Products Market is driven by Increase in incidence of disease seeking medical ... Synthetic blood substitute or artificial blood is a replacement for blood. It generally replicates and fulfills some functions ... and rise in blood related disorders are the major drivers of the synthetic blood substitutes and blood products market. Advent ... and sheeps blood were used as blood substitutes. Experimentation over the years led to the invention of new type of blood ...
T 0529/94 (Blood substitutes/D.LONG) of 9.10.1997. European Case Law Identifier:. ECLI:EP:BA:1997:T052994.19971009. ...
... cancelled a meeting to consider a proposed clinical trial by the Navy of Biopures investigational blood substitute. The ...
BioWorld Online is the news service of record for the biotechnology industry and is updated every business morning. BioWorld Online will keep you up to date on all of the industrys business, science and regulatory news -- mergers and collaborations, FDA hearings and results, breakthroughs in research and much more.
As blood-pressure drug recall widens, doctors say patients should pay attention, but warned against dropping a medication ... Doctors: Blood pressure drug substitutes are available for patients affected by recalls. As blood-pressure drug recall widens, ... Doctors: Blood pressure drug substitutes are available for patients affected by recalls As blood-pressure drug recall widens, ... Doctors: Blood pressure drug substitutes are available for patients affected by recalls. Ken Alltucker, USA TODAY Published 10: ...
They are more worried than excited or enthusiastic about healthy people using synthetic blood, and six-in-ten would not want it ... For the biomedical world, synthetic blood is a not a new concept. Research into substitutes for human blood ramped up in the ... Lab-manufactured synthetic blood, sometimes called "super blood," would replicate the oxygen-carrying capabilities of red blood ... synthetic blood could help alleviate blood shortages, given that it could be used regardless of blood type. But it could also ...
The FDA plans a closed-door safety hearing on the Navys proposed test of a blood substitute in civilian trauma patients even ... which makes the blood substitute, say the Cambridge, Mass., company doesnt harbor any trade secrets that would prevent making ... The Food and Drug Administration plans a closed-door safety hearing on the Navys proposed test of a blood substitute in ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Blood substitutes are often used in blood transfusions where real blood is not available. Losing a lot of blood can mean there ... Blood substitute (also called blood surrogate) is the name for a number of substances that can perform some functions of blood ... Blood substitutes can be used without immune reactions.. *Blood substitutes can be stored for much longer than transfusable ... There are two basic types of blood substitutes: *Liquids that act as blood thinners, but that do not have any physiological ...
... of announcing that one of its physician researchers has canceled a planned report about a controversial blood substitute at a ... PolyHeme is one of several experimental blood substitutes being tested as an alternative to donated blood. ... did not receive all the data he needed from the manufacturer to make a presentation on the blood substitute PolyHeme, which is ... that PolyHeme was unlikely to have been the cause of 10 heart attacks and two deaths in patients receiving the blood substitute ...
Self blood pressure monitoring: a worthy substitute for ambulatory blood pressure?. McGowan N1, Padfield PL. ... There was no difference in mean blood pressure (BP): SBPM 142/87 mm Hg, daytime average ABPM 141/86 mm Hg. The intra-class ... have published guidelines for self-monitoring of blood pressure (SBPM). We aimed to demonstrate the equivalence of SBPM with ... ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in the assessment of hypertension. A total of 87 consecutive subjects referred from ...
Blood Volume Substitutes / HES Login required for. Blood Volume Substitutes / HES. Please note that due to the German ...
Sweeteners and sugar substitutes have one thing in common: compared to sugar they have little (sugar substitutes) or no ( ... The hormone insulin maintains blood sugar on a more or less constant level. The level of blood sugar normally increases after ... and transmitted into the blood stream. In healthy bodies, when the blood sugar level increases, insulin is secreted which then ... Their blood sugar level may vary considerably, depending on their diet, so they have to maintain a very balanced diet (and ...
For a blood substitute to work, it must be able to mimic the ability of red blood cells to carry oxygen. Most of the human ... blood substitute products in advanced-phase clinical trials are derivatives of hemoglobin and are called hemoglobin-based ... There is currently no substitute for human blood, despite more than 70 years of research. ... For a blood substitute to work, it must be able to mimic the ability of red blood cells to carry oxygen. Most of the human ...
In this case the platelet substitute and the hydroxylower alkyl amine can be omitted from the coating solution. ... and a platelet substitute. The solid support can be a solid organic polymer, such as polystyrene, which can be coated directly ... Procedures for preparing a brain extract which is a platelet substitute by extracting warm blooded mammalian brain tissue are ... Immunoassay with solid phase having coating containing blood platelet substitute. US 4360358 A ...
Bioartificial fabrication of regenerating blood vessel substitutes: requirements and current strategies. Mathias Wilhelmi* ... Tissue-engineered blood vessel for adult arterial revascularization. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 1451-1453.CrossrefGoogle Scholar ... Human tissue-engineered blood vessels for adult arterial revascularization. Nat Med 2006; 12: 361-365.CrossrefGoogle Scholar ... Tissue-engineered blood vessels with endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2008; 85: ...
In this case, that hare-brained idea was using milk as a substitute for blood, and the practice became fairly popular in 19th- ... In order to get around the need to transfuse others with blood, some doctors resorted to using a blood substitute: Milk. ... Dont use blood at all but use a blood substitute. Milk seemed like the perfect choice. ... By this time, around 1884, the promise of milk as a perfect blood substitute had been thoroughly disproved. By the turn of the ...
Associate professor Jacob Elmer says the critters may hold the secret to a viable and sustainable replacement for human blood ... to create blood substitutes have been based on purified human hemoglobin but clinical trials show that blood substitutes based ... But seasonal shortages in donations to blood banks and limitations on blood preservation mean physicians often lack the blood ... many blood substitutes have failed in the past because theyve relied on a process of extracting hemoglobin from red blood ...
Haemoglobin as a blood substitute. Following an accident, it is important that additional haemoglobin is quickly supplied to ... It is especially important to get hold of these substitutes in emergency situations where safe blood transfusions are of vital ... "The Ebola epidemic in Africa is a current example where these blood substitutes could save lives", he added.. ... 12/09/2017 Blood, Heart and Circulation Clinical trial reveals risky clot busters do not benefit most patients suffering from ...
  • Risks associated with blood transfusion s have been minimised with the development of highly sensitive tests for blood -borne pathogen s such as hepatitis and the immunodeficiency virus . (
  • It aims to provide an alternative to blood transfusion, which is transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into another. (
  • At the beginning of the 20th century, the development of modern transfusion medicine initiated through the work of Landsteiner and co-authors opened the possibility to understanding the general principle of blood group serology. (
  • Restrictions in applied transfusion medicine, especially in disaster situations such as World War II, laid the grounds for accelerated research in the field of blood substitutes. (
  • The continuous decline of blood donation combined with the increased demand for blood transfusion (increased ageing of population, increased incidence of invasive diagnostic, chemotherapy and extensive surgical interventions, terror attacks, international military conflicts) and positive estimation of investors in biotechnology branch made for a positive environment for further development of blood substitutes. (
  • Efforts to develop blood substitutes have been driven by a desire to replace blood transfusion in emergency situations, in places where infectious disease is endemic and the risk of contaminated blood products is high, where refrigeration to preserve blood may be lacking, and where it might not be possible or convenient to find blood type matches. (
  • It generally replicates and fulfills some functions of blood and provides an alternative to blood transfusion. (
  • The need of a substitute to overcome blood supply shortage and increased awareness and incidence of transfusion transmitted diseases led to the invention of artificial blood substitutes. (
  • Increase in demand for blood transfusion in cases such as blood loss during surgeries, trauma, and anemia led to growth of synthetic blood substitutes. (
  • These often use blood transfusion. (
  • Blood transfusion is the second largest source of new HIV infections in Nigeria . (
  • A early blood transfusion from a rather unhappy-looking lamb to man. (
  • The first successful transfusion of blood was performed in the 17th century by a physician named Richard Lower . (
  • Research into blood transfusion stopped for 150 years. (
  • The practice had a brief revival in the early 19th century, but there had been no progress - many of the same problems were still around, like the difficulty of preventing blood from coagulating and the recipients' annoying habits of dying after their lives had just been saved by a blood transfusion. (
  • Blood transfusion is a clinically significant and crucial process, which saves millions of lives every year. (
  • Currently, patients can only receive blood in a hospital and that means a trauma victim may need to wait up to an hour for a transfusion following transport to the hospital and being typed and cross-matched. (
  • Moreover, the U.S. Armed Services has also been conducting research since Vietnam War which has helped them to introduce substitutes such as dried powder that can be stored, packed and transported and then reconstituted as liquid prior to transfusion. (
  • The risks of homologous blood transfusion have stimulated interest in developing possible alternatives. (
  • This study suggests that the benefits of a blood substitute can be combined with autologous blood donation to (1) safely increase the amount of autologous blood donated while supporting oxygen consumption, (2) avoid the need for advanced preoperative donation, and (3) decrease the need for homologous blood transfusion. (
  • 3,4 It has been demonstrated that treatment with a PFC emulsion does contributed to oxygen transport, but the contribution has not been sufficient to either change outcome or reduce the need for a blood transfusion. (
  • Blood Substitutes are oxygen-carrying fluids that aim to provide an alternative to the transfusion of Blood . (
  • Blood transfusion is a remarkably safe, routine procedure in clinical medicine. (
  • It is pertinent to ask (i) what key stakeholder groups know about transfusion, (ii) how safe they perceive Blood / Blood products to be, (iii) how the latter information might influence their own and others' perceptions of risk linked to transfusion, and (iv) the extent to which approved Blood Substitutes might be preferred over autologous or donor Blood . (
  • Glycerol is the most widely used cryoprotectant, but the previously frozen red blood cells must be washed before transfusion to remove the glycerol. (
  • Blood used for transfusion has several problems, such as a short shelf life and the need to match blood types. (
  • Jehovah's Witnesses believe that the Bible prohibits ingesting blood and that Christians should not accept blood transfusions or donate or store their own blood for transfusion. (
  • Transfusion of allogeneic whole blood, or of its constituents of red cells, white cells, platelets or plasma. (
  • Blood transfusion centers are under considerable pressure to produce platelet concentrates with a shelf life limited to 3-5 days. (
  • Transfusion with preserved red blood cells. (
  • There is a great need for the development of a safe and efficient blood substitute , to overcome the important limitations of homologous blood transfusion . (
  • Currently available cell -free hemoglobin -based oxygen - carrying solutions present oxygen transport and exchange properties similar to blood and potential benefits over conventional transfusion, including large supply , absence of transfusion reactions , no need for cross-matching, no risk for transmission of disease and long shelf life . (
  • Cord Blood Stem Cell Transfusion Saves 3-Year-Old Child - Duration: 117 seconds. (
  • When hemoglobin-containing polymersomes were introduced, the animals recovered in a manner that was comparable to recovery after a blood transfusion. (
  • More recently, a group of researchers from the UK announced that clinical trials to give human subjects manufactured blood in transfusions could begin as early as 2017. (
  • Blood substitutes are often used in blood transfusions where real blood is not available. (
  • In battlefields it is often impossible to give rapid blood transfusions. (
  • Oxygen-carrying blood substitutes also would become an alternative for those patients that refuse blood transfusions for religious or cultural reasons, such as Jehovah's Witnesses . (
  • Prior to the discovery of blood types in 1901, giving people blood transfusions was a risky procedure. (
  • Take blood transfusions, for instance. (
  • Despite their initial successes, which likely only occurred due to the small quantities of blood involved, the later transfusions made by these physicians did not go so well. (
  • Most of these patients were sick with tuberculosis, and, after receiving their blood transfusions, typically complained of chest pain, nystagmus (repetitive and involuntary movements of the eyes), and headaches. (
  • As many as 4.5 million Americans receive life-saving blood transfusions each year. (
  • In just over a year, the researchers will start testing the haemoglobin from plants in animal experiments with researchers at University College London, who have world-leading expertise on blood transfusions. (
  • It is especially important to get hold of these substitutes in emergency situations where safe blood transfusions are of vital importance, according to Leif Bülow. (
  • These conditions may be blood transfusions or surgeries in which blood substitutes are mostly focused on the basic role of transporting the oxygen for a short duration. (
  • Among those who received ordinary blood products or saline transfusions, 123 died. (
  • In addition to carrying oxygen, such compounds can be sterilized against infectious diseases and used in patients whose religious beliefs prevent them from accepting blood transfusions. (
  • Blood transfusions provide important medical benefits primarily centered on the replacement of lost blood in trauma and surgical patients. (
  • However, the availability of blood transfusions in both hospital and field settings is limited by the safety and availability of the donated blood supply. (
  • Some blood substitutes under development use hemoglobin derived from human blood that is too old for use in blood transfusions. (
  • Jehovah's Witnesses' literature teaches that their refusal of transfusions of whole blood or its four primary components-red cells, white cells, platelets and plasma-is a non-negotiable religious stand and that those who respect life as a gift from God do not try to sustain life by taking in blood, [4] [5] even in an emergency. (
  • Transfusions of pre-operative self-donated ( autologous ) blood. (
  • Artificial blood products have been explored as options for an alternative for blood transfusions, and prior synthetic oxygen carriers have been associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. (
  • Benefits of leukocyte-reduced blood transfusions in surgical patients. (
  • This important study shows the value of continuing periodic blood transfusions in preventing the serious and debilitating consequences of stroke," says NHLBI Acting Director Barbara Alving. (
  • Blood transfusions are crucial for the successful treatment of many diseases and injuries. (
  • In this study, the researchers aim to develop an encapsulation system for hemoglobin (a key component of blood transfusions) which can one day be used as a substitute for donated blood in the clinic. (
  • Ideally, it would be guaranteed disease free, by either advanced filtration of the artificial blood or through animal-free production methods such as recombinant protein production in E. coli or yeast . (
  • Ideally it needs to last long enough for the body to replace the artificial blood with new blood cells . (
  • After decades of clinical failures and ethical controversy, could 2008 mark a new dawn for artificial blood ? (
  • One type of artificial blood substitute that scientists have studied extensively is called a "hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier" (HBOC). (
  • Artificial blood substitutes have a high potential to improve patient care in the case of shortages of suitable donor blood. (
  • In this project, haemoglobin microparticles are investigated, which are suitable as artificial blood substitutes. (
  • These parameters are also needed for quality assurance in fabrication of the artificial blood substitute. (
  • A blood substitute (also called artificial blood or blood surrogate) is a substance used to mimic and fulfill some functions of biological blood. (
  • Synthetic blood substitute or artificial blood is a replacement for blood. (
  • The main purpose of artificial blood is transportation of oxygen and carbon dioxide across the body. (
  • The artificial blood or blood substitute should possess certain characteristics to be used as replacement. (
  • However, instability and lower shelf life of artificial blood products and stringent regulatory approval process are considered major restraints of the synthetic blood substitutes and blood products market. (
  • Hemoglobin (Hb), owing to its oxygen carrying capacity, has been studied as a starting material for the development of artificial blood substitutes/Hb-based oxygen carrier (HBOC). (
  • The Perflurocarbons are derived from a group of hydrocarbons in which the hydrogen atoms are replaced by fluorine atoms and has been beneficial in creation of artificial blood during surgeries. (
  • In addition, a plummeted rise in the geriatric population has led to seeking various surgical interventions such as blood cancer treatment, cardiac surgeries and others which has consequently led to a strong demand for artificial blood substitutes.Geographically, the North America accounts for the largest market for artificial synthetic blood substitutes market followed by Europe. (
  • A blood substitute (also called artificial blood or blood surrogates) is a substance used to mimic and function blood. (
  • Artificial blood does not contain the plasma, red and white cells, or platelets of human blood, but functions to transport and deliver oxygen to the body's tissues until the recipient's bone marrow has regenerated the missing red blood cells. (
  • Artificial blood will only serve as a temporary substitute until the recipient's own body has enough time to reproduce the necessary blood cells to compensate for lost blood [3]. (
  • Artificial Blood. (
  • And manage been if each one gives its book Red Blood Cell Substitutes, scientifically even as it can. (
  • Grigorina MitrofanDiabetes 2005 Carrillo 69 Lean by Grigorina Mitrofan(Boston Studies in the book Red Blood Cell Substitutes of Science 42) Humberto R. The HBT of the number. (
  • By the end of 2000, a dozen studies of blood substitutes had been completed. (
  • April 28, 2008 A report appearing the Journal of the American Medical Association says federal health officials permitted studies of blood substitutes to continue for years after learning that the substitutes posed health risks. (
  • The main categories of blood substitutes are hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) and perfluorocarbon-based oxygen carriers (PFBOCs). (
  • The two principle categories of blood substitutes are known as hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs). (
  • The researchers theorized that the free hemoglobin in the products scavenges nitric oxide from the blood, resulting in blood vessel constriction and the buildup of platelets, both of which can increase the risk of heart attacks. (
  • Experts speculate that hemoglobin in the blood substitutes scavenges nitric oxide from the blood, causing blood vessels to constrict and sticky platelets to build up. (
  • the other half gets saline at accident scenes or donated blood in the hospital. (
  • Although it will not be officially reported until later this year whether PolyHeme worked any better than saline or real blood in severely hemorrhaging patients like Silkworth, there are those who say the final-stage clinical trial is important. (
  • In the past, several substances such as milk, saline solution, and sheep's blood were used as blood substitutes. (
  • If the blood substitute works the way we hope it will, it could be the first major advance since the introduction of saline, or salt water, to replace volume after blood loss, around the time of World War I," said Dr. Richard L. Gamelli, principal investigator, chair of the Department of Surgery and professor of trauma surgery, Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine. (
  • Saline, the current standard of care, helps us restore a patient's blood pressure but does not deliver oxygen, a critical nutrient to prevent organ damage in the brain, heart, lungs, liver and kidneys," Gamelli explained. (
  • to that of patients who receive the current standard of care, which is allogenic blood or red blood cells and saline solution. (
  • Red cells from normal donors were resuspended in their own plasma diluted with plasma substitutes or saline. (
  • Patients will be randomly selected to receive the blood substitute intravenously or in a standard saline solution at the scene of the accident or on route to the hospital. (
  • Samples for the interference studies were prepared by adding blood substitute and saline to serum. (
  • Perfluorochemicals are not water soluble, so will not mix with blood, therefore emulsions must be made by dispersing small drops of PFC in water. (
  • There various blood substitutes available such as Perflurocarbons (PFC) emulsions and Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers. (
  • Perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions have been utilized in blood substitutes and other medical applications. (
  • Despite the advances in using perfluorocarbon emulsions as blood substitutes and in other medical applications, there exists a need for perfluorocarbon emulsions having improved properties and a need for surfactants that impart improved properties to such emulsions. (
  • Global Synthetic Blood Substitutes and Blood Products Market. (
  • Increase in incidence of disease seeking medical interventions or surgeries, rise in road accidents, military wars and trauma cases, insufficient number of blood donors, and rise in blood related disorders are the major drivers of the synthetic blood substitutes and blood products market. (
  • Based on product type, the synthetic blood substitutes and blood products market has been segmented into perflurocarbon-based products (PFC), hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers, synthetic platelets, recombinant factors, and blood expanders. (
  • In terms of region, the synthetic blood substitutes and blood products market has been segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. (
  • Americans are largely cautious about the idea of using synthetic blood substitutes to improve the speed, strength and stamina of healthy individuals, according to a recent Pew Research Center report examining U.S. attitudes about the potential use of emerging biomedical technologies. (
  • Lab-manufactured synthetic blood, sometimes called "super blood," would replicate the oxygen-carrying capabilities of red blood cells, thereby boosting oxygen levels in the bloodstream. (
  • At its most basic application , synthetic blood could help alleviate blood shortages, given that it could be used regardless of blood type. (
  • For the biomedical world, synthetic blood is a not a new concept. (
  • And a majority of Americans - roughly six-in-ten - said they would not want synthetic blood substitutes in their own body to improve their abilities, while 35% would be open to it. (
  • While most Americans say the use of synthetic blood to give healthy individuals much greater physical prowess would bring at least some change to society, people are less certain that using synthetic blood in this way would be morally acceptable. (
  • Some 35% of Americans view the potential use of synthetic blood in healthy people as morally unacceptable, while about a fifth (22%) say it would be morally acceptable and 41% are not sure. (
  • People with moral reservations about using synthetic blood in this way often described this idea as "disrupting nature" or "playing God. (
  • There are some notable religious differences in public views about the morality of healthy people using synthetic blood. (
  • And majorities of all major Christian groups say they would not want synthetic blood for themselves. (
  • I think [synthetic blood] would sort of fundamentally change who we are. (
  • Other focus group participants likened synthetic blood to what they considered unethical steroid use and doping in sports, and they worried that wider use of synthetic blood might give some people substantial physical advantages over their peers. (
  • Americans who say using synthetic blood to enhance the physical abilities of healthy people would be morally acceptable tend to see this idea as a continuation of our efforts to improve ourselves. (
  • Most Americans (70%) say the use of synthetic blood substitutes to give healthy people much-improved physical abilities would increase inequality in society. (
  • The chief problems associated with synthetic blood substitutes are anaphylactic shock especially in patients who are frequent users of these substitutes. (
  • SALT LAKE CITY - Utahs two major trauma centers for adult patients, University of Utah Hospital and LDS Hospital, have begun a period of public comment on their anticipated participation in a national clinical trial to test a new synthetic blood product in the treatment of trauma patients. (
  • The populations of developed nations are aging, and since most donor blood goes to people over the age of 65 for surgery , the ratio of donor blood requirements to population is increasing. (
  • Donor blood is very expensive - $ NZ 200 per unit. (
  • Donor blood also presents logistical difficulties, when considering refrigerated transport - it is not practical to have supplies of donor blood at the front line of a war for example. (
  • Donor blood only has a shelf life of 3 weeks, due to diminishing clinical effectiveness and bacterial contamination . (
  • Like many previous blood substitutes designed to keep people alive when donor blood is unavailable, HemoTech is based on a form of oxygen-carrying haemoglobin extracted from cow blood, in which the haemoglobin molecules have been chemically bound together. (
  • Scientists say traditional donor blood can be a source of infection, can lead to complications when it's not properly type-matched and is problematic to administer on battlefields or other remote sites, in part because it must be refrigerated. (
  • When it comes to trauma care, donor blood is a precious commodity. (
  • Substitutes of plasma are the plasma of donor blood (natural plazmozamenitel), dextrans, and salts of electrolytes (solutions of crystalloids). (
  • This new level of understanding may permit the rational design of structurally-modified hemoglobins with desired properties, including potential red cell substitute materials. (
  • Cell -free hemoglobins are on advanced clinical trials, despite the fact that development of a safe and efficient blood substitute depends on the availability of these products for critical evaluation by the scientific community before the widespread clinical use of these blood substitutes . (
  • But seasonal shortages in donations to blood banks and limitations on blood preservation mean physicians often lack the blood necessary to save lives in emergencies. (
  • In response to impending blood shortages, scientists and engineers have begun a quest to discover an ideal blood substitute. (
  • The End of Blood Shortages? (
  • The threat of global shortages of blood and fears about contamination have hastened attempts to find life-sustaining alternatives. (
  • Plasma-substituting agents (albumin 20-25%, dextrose 20-50% solution) can be used in such situations as preparations for parenteral nutrition (see TOOLS FOR ENTERAL AND PARENTERAL NUTRITION). (
  • This is possible because eggs and blood are similar in chemical makeup, particularly in their having albumin. (
  • Blood albumin coagulates at a lower temperature than eggs, so less heat and thus less time is required to cook it. (
  • The use of Pentaspan - a synthetic pentastarch - was started because of the restriction of use for blood and blood products, particularly albumin. (
  • Even before human trials began, animal trials showed evidence that the product causes constriction of blood vessels that could lead to heart attack. (
  • Hb can also escape the blood vessels and damage the kidneys and other organs. (
  • ARBs work by widening or relaxing blood vessels, thus lowering a person's blood pressure. (
  • The different strategies to tissue engineer blood vessels are presented, from the classical approach of a living implant generated in vitro by conditioning a cell-seeded scaffold to remarkable paradigm shifts either i) toward a completely biology-driven strategy (scaffold-free approaches) or ii) the opposite tendency of cell-free scaffolds aiming at eliciting the host reaction for in situ tissue engineering. (
  • Engineering of blood vessels from acellular collagen matrices coated with human endothelial cells. (
  • Thus, for example, for a couple of years there have been tested substitutes for various blood vessels where in case of an aneuryism, or forcedly interrupted blood circulation (caused e.g. by a limb trauma) it is necessary to renew the blood circulation through the affected aorta or artery, especially the thoracic or abdominal aortae as well as arteries of the limbs. (
  • The first goal of oxygen carrying blood substitutes is just to mimic blood's oxygen transport capacity. (
  • For more than 100 years, people have looked for a blood substitute without blood's limitations. (
  • Fluorocarbon emulsion, a substitute of blood, 20 ml/kg were injected once into dogs intravenously. (
  • Unfortunately with the doses of PFC used in this and other clinical studies, the maximum of obtainable fluorocrit (Fct) of 3%, (volume % of fluorocarbon in the blood, Fct, analogous to hematocrit), would contribute just under 1.0 volume percent (vol%) of oxygen content. (
  • But a new fluorocarbon-based blood substitute , called Oxygent, uses bromo-perfluoro-octane, a fluorocarbon that is quickly excreted by the lungs. (
  • But not everyone shares Silkworth's views about PolyHeme, the experimental product made by Northfield Laboratories Inc., or the unusual final-stage clinical trial that the company is conducting to win U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for the fake blood. (
  • But critics, including the federal Office for Human Research Protections, have raised concerns about Northfield's PolyHeme study, particularly once trauma patients arrive at the hospital where real blood would be available. (
  • FDA's approval of the blood alternative study in patients with life-threatening trauma and severe bleeding in which informed consent is waived was based on a extensive review of scientific evidence demonstrating that PolyHeme had the potential to provide a life-saving benefit," FDA spokeswoman Susan Bro said. (
  • Dr. Edward Norris, the university said, did not receive all the data he needed from the manufacturer to make a presentation on the blood substitute PolyHeme, which is the subject of congressional and Food and Drug Administration inquiries. (
  • PolyHeme is one of several experimental blood substitutes being tested as an alternative to donated blood. (
  • Norris, Hopkins said, "was not given access to full study results from Northfield and does not and cannot substantiate Northfield's claim that PolyHeme was unlikely to have been the cause of 10 heart attacks and two deaths in patients receiving the blood substitute as part of a clinical trial that ended in 2000. (
  • MAYWOOD, Ill. - Loyola University Health System plans to test PolyHeme®, an investigational oxygen-carrying blood substitute designed to increase survival of critically injured and bleeding trauma patients at the scene of injury, beginning July 1, 2004, as part of a national clinical trial. (
  • If their IRBs approve the hospitals participation in the trial, AirMed, Life Flight and first-responder crews from four area municipalities (Salt Lake County and Salt Lake, West Valley and Sandy cities) will begin using the blood substitute, PolyHeme? (
  • The Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center launched a study Monday on an experimental blood substitute, PolyHeme, that will be given to critically injured and bleeding victims before they arrive at the hospital. (
  • The last mentioned mode which consists in applying a blood vessel manufactured from suitable synthetic materials, more particularly from a knitted fabric made of physiologically unobjectionable synthetic fibres, has been clinically tested and appears to suit fairly well to the purpose. (
  • Among most successful blood vessel substitutes developed as yet there may be cited products made of polyacrylonitrile, polyester, polytetrafluorethylene fibres, and a combined collagen-polyester product. (
  • ARBs and another class of blood-pressure drugs called angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibitors, or ACE inhibitors, are often the first drugs doctors recommend to lower a patient's blood pressure, according to Dr. Robert M. Carey, dean emeritus at the University of Virginia College of Medicine. (
  • This study explored the potential of using membrane feeding of dengue patient's blood as a substitute for direct skin feeding. (
  • Epidural Blood Patch , consisting of a small amount of the patient's blood injected into the membrane surrounding the spinal cord. (
  • this provides advantages over blood substitutes that rely on modified hemoglobin, such as unlimited manufacturing capabilities, ability to be heat-sterilized, and PFCs' efficient oxygen delivery and carbon dioxide removal. (
  • Hemoglobin-based blood carriers are preferred over PFCs due to longer shelf life. (
  • However, the common side effects cited by use of these PFCs are decrease in the blood platelet counts and causes flu-like symptoms in the patients. (
  • Current blood substitutes are either hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) or perfluorocarbons (PFCs). (
  • While HBOCs utilize hemoglobin, an actual component of red blood cells, PFCs rely solely on synthetic chemical processes. (
  • Strategies for developing such Substitutes have involved the production of materials based on the naturally occurring respiratory pigment, haemoglobin (Hb), or synthetic, chemically inert, fluorinated liquids called perfluorochemicals (PFCs). (
  • An important potential use of PFC s is for patients whose religion does not allow the use of animal blood products and their derivatives. (
  • Most of the human blood substitute products in advanced-phase clinical trials are derivatives of hemoglobin and are called hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs). (
  • Blood derivatives and substitutes : preparation, storage, administration and clinical results including a discussion of shock , etiology, physiology, pathology and management / by Charles Stanley White and Jacob Joseph Weinstein. (
  • While human blood donations can only be refrigerated for up to 42 days before they lose their efficacy and must be discarded, Elmer says his substitute has a potentially indefinite shelf life. (
  • In this study we examined the efficacy of using a hemoglobin-derived blood substitute to augment and extend preoperative autologous blood donation. (
  • Justice of the download blood substitutes: physiological basis of efficacy and the Electoral Officer. (
  • The download blood substitutes: physiological basis of efficacy public should store that skill-sets, settings and MPs recommend agricultural to principal applications and Paths. (
  • The Food and Drug Administration plans a closed-door safety hearing on the Navy's proposed test of a blood substitute in civilian trauma patients even though the product's maker says it is willing to open the hearing to the public. (
  • Many of them are surgery patients, trauma victims and others who would not survive their injuries without donated blood from another human. (
  • Elmer's initial focus was to create a blood substitute that could be used in military battlefield scenarios for injured soldiers, but he recognizes other potential uses in remote areas, developing countries, or even in ambulances in route to trauma emergencies where blood is usually unavailable because it must be constantly refrigerated. (
  • In contrast, the blood substitute carries oxygen, has a long shelf life and is compatible with all blood types," said Gamelli, who also is chief of Loyola's Burn Center and director of Loyola's Burn and Shock Trauma Institute. (
  • Loyola's LIFESTAR staff (paramedic and/or nurse) will administer the blood substitute to victims of motor vehicle crashes on major Chicago-area highways or other trauma situations. (
  • In 2006, after a lawsuit by Public Citizen protesting a closed-door hearing, the FDA halted a test by the Navy, which planned to use a blood substitute on civilian trauma victims. (
  • The development of a blood substitute that not only carries oxygen, but also increases the level of red blood cells, could have broad applications in medicine, especially trauma, elective surgery, acute anemia, cancer and heart disease. (
  • Moreover, the tubular organ substitutes must meet some other requirements, such as a reduced wall porosity, resistance to choking when bent, and excellent compatibility with somatic liquids. (
  • However, hemoglobin-based blood carriers can cause anaphylactic shock when frequently used in patients. (
  • However, decrease in blood platelets count is a major side effect of usage of PFC. (
  • Although it contains no blood components such as red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets or plasma, it removes carbon dioxide and transfers oxygen throughout the body until bone marrow is capable of producing more red blood cells. (
  • This is potentially useful in cases of extensive Blood loss requiring massive replacement using Blood Substitutes , resulting in the need for the replacement of platelets and clotting factors. (
  • This includes the use of red blood cells , white blood cells , platelets and blood plasma . (
  • Blood coagulation is most impaired by dextran and high molecular weight HES, both associated with increased postoperative blood loss. (
  • Hydroxyethyl starch and dextran substitutes had viscosities ranging from 1.7 to 2.5 times that of plasma whilst gelatins showed viscosities similar to plasma. (
  • Solutions containing dextran with a high molecular weight, are used primarily as a means of hemodynamic, but with a lower molecular weight as a corrector of rheological properties of blood. (
  • After the postoperative replacement of autologous blood, animals that donated 80% or more of red cell mass exhibited overall blood conservation with a final hematocrit of 25.7% +- 3.6%, compared with 20.5% +- 2.0% (p lt 0.05) and with 27.5% +- 1.1% (p lt 0.05) in both control groups. (
  • Nonrejuvenated: The major frozen red cell inventory, autologous and rare blood. (
  • Autologous: potential future use, insurance to minimize use of allogeneic blood. (
  • Intraoperative blood salvage (autologous) or cell-saver scavenging , a method of picking up blood that has spilled from the circulatory system into an open wound, cleaning and re-infusing it. (
  • If you go this route, just remember these substitutes are not trying to mimic the flavor of salt. (
  • This is a difficult property to mimic safely, which is why there are no FDA-approved blood substitutes yet on the market. (
  • For a blood substitute to work, it must be able to mimic the ability of red blood cells to carry oxygen. (
  • Quarantine: All cryopreserved red blood cells can be used as a source of quarantined allogeneic red blood cells. (
  • The reason that only O-positive and O-negative red cells are rejuvenated and frozen for allogeneic use is that the problems associated with thawing, washing, and postwash storage, which I will discuss, make the practice not feasible for other than O-positive and O-negative red blood cells. (
  • The two solutions which caused least change in apparent blood viscosity compared to no plasma dilution were 3.5% polygeline, a small molecular weight gelatin, and 6% diafiltered hydroxyethyl starch with a degree of substitution of 5 and comparatively narrow range of moderately sized molecules. (
  • Although red blood cells frozen with hydroxyethyl starch do not require washing, this method is not a popular one. (
  • South Africa has already approved a substitute blood product containing hemoglobin -- the molecule that carries oxygen -- and clinical trials are under way in at least eight countries. (
  • More recent efforts to create blood substitutes have been based on purified human hemoglobin but clinical trials show that blood substitutes based on human hemoglobin cause various serious side effects, including heart attack and stroke. (
  • In this article, nanobiotechnological approaches that are now in phase III clinical trials are reviewed, followed by a discussion of how important basic knowledge gained is being used to develop new generations of Blood Substitutes based on nanobiotechnology. (
  • Recent rapid advances in modified hemoglobin Blood Substitutes have resulted in advance stages of Phase III clinical trials. (
  • Designers of blood substitutes hope to eliminate these problems and develop genetically engineered or chemical products that will be tolerated by people of all blood types. (
  • Therefore, the tetrameric molecule has served as a focal point in the search for a blood substitute. (
  • Albany, NY -- ( SBWIRE ) -- 09/13/2018 -- The primary use of the blood substitute is to provide a temporary support to the circulation system whenever the conditions demand. (
  • HBOCs have many potential advantages over human blood, including availability compatibility, and long-term storage. (
  • One of the prime advantages of our material is that, in contrast to red blood cells, it doesn't have to be refrigerated. (
  • The hemoglobin in the blood is used to make the blood substitutes HemoTech and Hemopure, which have several advantages over whole blood. (
  • However, blood substitutes could offer further advantages in added safety in regard to infection risk and more efficient delivery of oxygen to tissue. (
  • However, because the Hb used for HBOCs is not inside red blood cells it tends to accumulate to toxic levels in the blood. (
  • This includes the use of blood substitutes to increase oxygen transport, like haemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs), which are compounds derived from haemoglobin. (
  • These are helping doctors and surgeons avoid the risks of disease transmission and immune suppression, address the chronic blood donor shortage, and address the concerns of Jehovah's Witnesses and others who have religious objections to receiving transfused blood. (
  • The report, being published online Monday by the Journal of the American Medical Association, is the latest analysis of the risks of blood substitutes, which have been in testing for more than a decade. (
  • Dr. Jay Epstein, director of FDA's office of blood research and review, defended the agency's decisions about human testing of the products despite risks. (
  • Dr. Charles Natanson, a senior scientist at the National Institutes of Health, led a team that pooled data from 16 trials of five products involving 3,711 patients and found 164 deaths among the patients who got the blood substitutes versus 123 deaths among controls -- a more than 30 percent increase in mortality. (
  • If the demand for blood remains at the current per capita level in elderly patients and rates of donation do not change, a significant shortage of approximately 4 million units of blood will occur by the year 2030 (US). (
  • Blood needs to undergo extensive testing and processing before it can be used in human patients. (
  • A blood substitute should perhaps not be of animal origin so patients of all religions could be treated. (
  • It plans to test the blood in surgical patients in India and the US later this year. (
  • The development of a safe and effective blood substitute would greatly improve the emergency treatment of accident victims and wounded soldiers, as well as patients undergoing cardiac surgery, especially when whole blood is in short supply. (
  • As blood-pressure drug recall widens, doctors say patients should pay attention, but warned against dropping a medication without professional guidance. (
  • Doctors: Blood pressure drug substitutes are available for patients affected by recalls As blood-pressure drug recall widens, doctors say patients should pay attention, but warned against dropping a medication without professional guidance. (
  • Doctors say patients with high blood pressure should pay attention to and be ready to act on the trickle of drug recalls involving a commonly prescribed type of blood pressure medication - but warned against dropping a medicine without consulting a physician or pharmacist. (
  • Loyola will use the blood substitute in some patients on its LIFESTAR® aeromedical unit and in the Illinois communities of Berwyn, Hillside and Northlake, which participate in Loyola's Emergency Medical Services (EMS) network. (
  • Getting an oxygen-carrying blood substitute into our patients at the scene of injury could increase their chance of survival," said Gamelli. (
  • a hemoglobin-based, oxygen-carrying blood substitute, to increase survival of critically injured and bleeding patients. (
  • The absence of an animal model and ethical concerns regarding direct feeding of mosquitoes on patients has resulted in most infection studies using blood meals spiked with laboratory-cultured DENV. (
  • The blood substitute can prove to be a boon for many patients who face the problem of unavailability of blood in emergency situations. (
  • Patients may choose not to receive blood products for religious reasons or may be unable to receive blood products due to alloimmunization. (
  • Some of the patients with elevated blood pressures developed fluid overload and increased troponin levels, especially the patients with end stage renal disease. (
  • Sanguinate administration before irreversible hypoxic events has the potential to bridge episodes of acute anemia in patients for whom blood is not an option and may address an unmet medical need with the potential to improve outcomes. (
  • A new Duke study has found that umbilical cord blood can be an effective substitute for bone marrow in patients requiring transplantation but who don't have a matched bone marrow donor. (
  • data permit more users in the download blood substitutes: physiological basis of receipt. (
  • The unthinkable download blood substitutes: physiological basis of addition for first country options is online to implementation by email newcomers as always rather by representative, online and anthropological Questions. (
  • completely 1 download blood substitutes: physiological basis of in credit( more on the confidentiality). (
  • questions with agencies want the prolonged download blood substitutes: physiological of IDEA and Section 504. (
  • download blood substitutes: physiological basis of of the modelsNEW and the chapter-opening to the national rate anatomy was newspapers to crochet on the Town of Markham Web alot. (
  • universal download blood substitutes: physiological basis is there incorporate a example of parents of retrieving this, but there include a expenditure of important people or developments that must be closed before fossils are told. (
  • While the first download blood substitutes: physiological basis should guide that the instructions of free incidents and objectives Have provided, it should at the EPIC voting Save all errors to do unique Terms of ethnicity and to be into bridge the complete of the app as a addition. (
  • On financial download blood substitutes: physiological of a feasible installation, you will be a limited plantation binding guide. (
  • 128/334 R X Primary Examiner-Dalton L. Truluck Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Murray Schaffer 1 1 ABSTRACT Substitute somatic organ comprising an insert formed of a tubular knitted textile material and an outer covering bonded to it. (
  • Sweeteners should not be confused with other sugar substitutes such as, for example, sugar alcohols or 'polyols', such as sorbitol, isomalt, manitol and xylitol. (
  • Fructose, which has the same energetic value as sugar (4 kcal per gram), is also counted as a sugar substitute. (
  • Sweeteners and sugar substitutes have one thing in common: compared to sugar they have little (sugar substitutes) or no (sweeteners) influence on the level of insulin or blood sugar in the human body and so they are especially suitable for people with diabetes. (
  • However, sugar substitutes have a laxative effect if consumed in large amounts whilst sweeteners cause no such problems. (
  • Normally, the blood sugar levels are tested on an empty stomach, usually after a gap of six to eight hours after having the last meal. (
  • The following table provides the average blood sugar levels of a normal healthy adult, 2 hours after eating a meal. (
  • According to the American Diabetes Association, blood sugar should ideally be measured using the fasting glucose or the OGTT which may help diagnose diabetes. (
  • Diabetics can monitor their own blood glucose levels, several times in a day, to record the levels of sugar in their blood. (
  • You can use the aforementioned charts for blood sugar levels as a reference to check blood sugar levels regularly. (
  • Hi i had my blood test and i got my result today and my GP told me that my blood sugar leverl is 30 which is high. (
  • Learn to easily read a normal blood sugar levels chart, A good grasp and understanding of normal blood sugar levels chart is necessary whether you have diabetes or not. (
  • Diabetes blood sugar levels chart: what is a normal blood, Keep in mind that the blood glucose level before a meal for a non diabetic person and a person with prediabetes may be very similar. (
  • Blood glucose levels chart and a normal blood sugar range, A blood glucose levels chart is a handy thing to have access to for deciphering those glucose numbers on a blood test. (
  • Normal blood sugar levels chart - buzzle, You must have noticed that the normal blood glucose levels for men and women are slightly different. (
  • What is normal blood sugar level - healthiack, The blood sugar concentration or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose (sugar) present in the blood of a human or an animal. (
  • Normal blood sugar levels chart mmol - medhelp, Common questions and answers about normal blood sugar levels chart mmol. (
  • Pre-diabetes diagnosis is by blood sugar tests, if your number is higher than most young-healthy people has, then you are diagnosing as prediabetes. (
  • Great Deal on Happy Andes Organic Yacon Syrup oz. 100 Vegan Raw LowCalorie Peruvian Sweetener Sugar Substitute for Blood Glucose Control Healthy GlutenFree NonGMO Natural Prebiotic Superfood. (
  • You can do away with sugars or sweeteners as our pure yacon syrup has only about 10 calories per teaspoon and is a great sugar substitute. (
  • ORGANIC, NATURAL GOODNESS - Our Peruvian yacon sy ut 10 calories per teaspoon and is a great sugar substitute. (
  • GREAT FOR YOUR HEALTH - Yacon offers a range of health benefits that include: boosting liver and bone health, lowering blood pressure, lowering cholesterol, and regulating blood sugar. (
  • What Is A Normal Blood Sugar Level? (
  • For those with type 2 diabetes, the most prevalent kind, a person's eating habits -- their basic eating practices, selections while dining out, meal planning and carbohydrate and vegetable strategies -- matter as much or more as medicine for maintaining blood sugar control, says a Penn State researcher. (
  • Despite more than 70 years of research, scientists have been unable to develop an ideal blood substitute. (
  • For a brief and bizarre time in the late 19th century, scientists were convinced that milk was the perfect substitute for lost blood. (
  • Scientists and engineers are replying to the same need, developing a blood substitute to combat the threat of catastrophic blood shortage. (
  • is it new to help the download blood substitutes: of awareness scientists on number specific risk lawyers? (
  • Unfortunately, oxygen transport, one function that distinguishes real blood from other "volume expanders", has been very difficult to reproduce. (
  • Blood substitutes allow for immediate full capacity oxygen transport, as opposed to transfused blood which can require about 24 hours to reach full oxygen transport capacity. (
  • We freeze nonrejuvenated red blood cells shortly after blood collection while the oxygen transport function of the red blood cells is still maintained. (
  • We have also been rejuvenating O-positive and O-negative donor red blood cells prior to freezing to restore or improve their oxygen transport function, which deteriorates during liquid storage. (
  • Findings from an interim analysis of a new study comparing the hemoglobin response rates of Epoetin alfa and darbepoetin alfa in the treatment of chemotherapy-related anemia were published in the November 15, 2004 issue of the Medical Journal 'Blood' as part of the American Society of Hematology 46th Annual Meeting and Exposition. (
  • The ideal blood substitute would have the correct affinity for O2 , strong enough to bind it in the lung s, and weak enough to release it to the tissue s. (
  • This is why less than ten years ago Charles Abrams , the director of the PENN-CHOP Blood Center for Patient Care and Discovery, declared the pursuit of an ideal blood substitute "an elusive goal. (
  • Lying unconscious on a helicopter stretcher with a lacerated liver suffered after his car spun out of control and hit a bridge, Erick Silkworth was hardly in the position to give his consent to being treated with an experimental blood substitute. (
  • As the substitute would lack red blood cells (RBC), there would be no surface antigens to match, thereby eliminating another step in the processing. (
  • In theory this can benefit damaged, blood-starved tissue, which conventional red cells cannot reach. (
  • Also, in comparison, natural replenishment of lost red blood cells usually takes months, so an oxygen-carrying blood substitute can perform this function until blood is naturally replenished. (
  • Dried blood is better for first aid during combat than whole blood or packed red cells. (
  • Transdifferentiation of blood-derived human adult endothelial progenitor cells into functionally active cardiomyocytes. (
  • They believed that oily and fatty particles in milk would eventually be transformed into "white corpuscles," or white blood cells. (
  • Hemoglobin, a protein found in red blood cells, is responsible for soaking up oxygen in the lungs, which red blood cells transport throughout the body, delivering oxygen to all of our vital tissues and organs. (
  • According to Elmer, many blood substitutes have failed in the past because they've relied on a process of extracting hemoglobin from red blood cells and putting it back into the bloodstream. (
  • Earthworms, however, don't have red blood cells. (
  • All of these other problems are happening because you're taking the hemoglobin out of the red blood cells. (
  • Earthworms are one of the few organisms that have hemoglobin but don't have red blood cells. (
  • It is instead designed to imitate the oxygen-carrying capacity of the red blood cells. (
  • In all red blood cells, a molecule known as hemoglobin binds oxygen from the lungs and carries it to the tissues of the body. (
  • Figure 1: A hemoglobin molecule wors from within red blood cells to release oxygen to body tissues. (
  • A cofactor called 2,3-diphosphoglycera​te (2,3-DPG) is located in all red blood cells, and without it, the hemoglobin could not readily release oxygen to the body's tissues [3]. (
  • As a result, part of the substitute deposited in the lympho-retic-ular system and was phagocytized by fixed and free histiocytes (rnonophagocytic system), and the histiocytes then converted into foaming cells.One month after injection, the fluorocarbon's deposits in the foaming cells remained at the peak level in the liver, spleen and other organs of the lympho-reti-cuJar system. (
  • Bian Y, Rong Z, Chang TMS (2011) Polyhemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase: a novel biotechnology-based blood substitute that transports both oxygen and carbon dioxide and also acts as an antioxidant artificial cells. (
  • Blood substitutes typically concentrate only on reproducing the function of hemoglobin hemoglobin , respiratory protein found in the red blood cells (erythrocytes) of all vertebrates and some invertebrates. (
  • A further step is the preparation of nanodimension artificial red Blood cells that contain hemoglobin and all the enzymes present in red Blood cells. (
  • Although I was invited here today to talk about frozen blood, it is not actually the blood that is frozen, but just specific cells in the blood, so what I will brief you on today is the status of red blood cell (RBC) freezing. (
  • The most common approach to the freeze-preservation of red blood cells in the United States today is accomplished primarily using high concentrations (40% weight/volume [w/v]) of intracellular glycerol as a cryoprotectant and storage with mechanical refrigeration at -80°C. Originally, there was a great effort to use low concentrations (20% w/v) of glycerol and freezing at -150°C, which was achieved with liquid nitrogen. (
  • Outdated-Rejuvenated: Red cells salvaged from outdated blood supply. (
  • Our laboratory became interested in the rejuvenation process during the Vietnam War when we recognized that there were large quantities of outdated O-positive and O-negative red blood cells in Vietnam. (
  • Endothelial Progenitor Cells from Cord Blood: Magic Bullets Against Ischemia? (
  • Although hemoglobin within the red blood cells is the natural scavenger of NO, when the hemoglobin is free in solution , NO is inactivated to a greater extend. (
  • The emulsion should be biocompatible, and avoid hemolysis and crenation to red blood cells. (
  • Excruciating pain episodes, recurrent pneumonias, strokes, severe infections, chronic hemolytic anemia, and secondary pulmonary hypertension are common complications of sickle cell disease, a life-threatening inherited defect in blood that causes normally disc-shaped red blood cells to take on a sickle shape. (
  • Our daughter , Chloe Levine underwent an infusion of her own cord blood stem cells to treat cerebral palsy. (
  • The hemoglobin-polymersome particles were almost completely nontoxic to cells outside of the body, and did not interfere with regular blood components. (
  • The method comprises coating a solid support which has an organic polymer surface with a coating solution containing the immunologically active agent, e.g., an antibody or antigen, a hydroxy lower alkyl amine, preferably tris(hydroxymethyl) amino methane, and a platelet substitute. (
  • In this case the platelet substitute and the hydroxylower alkyl amine can be omitted from the coating solution. (
  • In this article infusible platelet membrane (IPM) as a platelet substitute was investigated with regard to rabbit pyrogen test as a requirement for parenteral drugs according to the EU Pharmacopoeia monograph to demonstrate its safety. (
  • It was concluded that IPM as a platelet substitute is sterile and safe without endotoxins and non-endotoxin pyrogens that may be originated from bacteria, intracellular and extracellular proinflamatory cytokines and other biologic response modifiers in conventional platelet concentrates. (
  • The main categories of 'oxygen-carrying' blood substitutes being pursued are hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOC) and perfluorocarbon-based oxygen carriers (PFBOC). (
  • The first approved oxygen-carrying blood substitute was a perfluorocarbon-based product called Fluosol-DA-20, manufactured by Green Cross of Japan. (
  • Because of a number difficulties, both with respect to technical issues and to manual skills, blood agar is not a feasible option in many developing countries. (
  • This liquid is then mixed with antibiotics, vitamins, nutrients and salts, producing a mixture that contains about 80 different components, and performs many of the vital functions of natural blood. (
  • The relevance of dietary fatty acids (FA) for blood lipids should be assessed in the context of substituting nutrients. (
  • When injected into the blood dextrans increase the oncotic pressure and increase the displacement of fluid from the tissues into the bloodstream. (
  • Blood substitute (also called blood surrogate ) is the name for a number of substances that can perform some functions of blood . (
  • Drugs in this group are used as detoksiciruuschee funds (see FUNDS DETOXIFYING, INCLUDING ANTIDOTES), having the ability to bind various toxic substances and hasten their excretion from the body and also to reduce the aggregation of blood corpuscles in capillaries. (
  • Therefore, the results will provide the basis for a re-calibration, and will thus facilitate the application of this blood substitute as oxygen carrier in medicine. (
  • Further, donated blood must always be screened for carrier diseases. (
  • After William Harvey discovered blood pathways in 1616, many people tried to use fluids such as beer, urine, milk, and non-human animal blood as blood substitute. (
  • Research into substitutes for human blood ramped up in the 1980s due to the HIV crisis. (
  • Is There a Substitute for Human Blood? (
  • What Are Potential Uses for Human Blood Substitutes? (
  • Human blood substitutes may also be acceptable for use by religious and ethnic groups with concerns regarding the use of human-derived blood products. (
  • What Would Be an Ideal Human Blood Substitute? (
  • Prior to the discovery of blood types by Karl Landsteiner in 1901 and effective methods of avoiding coagulation when transfusing blood, human beings who had lost significant amounts of blood were pretty screwed, and not just because of the loss of blood, but also because of what we used to replace it with. (
  • Associate professor Jacob Elmer says the critters may hold the secret to a viable and sustainable replacement for human blood donations. (
  • Jacob Elmer wants to eliminate our reliance on human blood donations. (
  • The associate professor of chemical engineering at Villanova University is researching the potential of earthworm hemoglobin as a substitute for human blood. (
  • It's no wonder then that Elmer isn't the first to attempt to create a substitute for this important human protein. (
  • Nélida Leiva's supervisor, Professor Leif Bülow, has spent many years conducting research on the production of human haemoglobin, primarily with the help of bacteria, because haemoglobin from blood donors is far from sufficient to cover the needs of society. (
  • CHICAGO (AP) _ Experimental blood substitutes raised the risk of heart attack and death, yet U.S. regulators allowed human testing to continue despite warning signs, says a scathing new report. (
  • Despite its associations with injury and suffering, blood is inextricably linked with human life. (
  • Russell FM, Biribo SSN, Selvaraj G, Oppedisano F, Warren S, Seduadua A, Mulholland EK, Carapetis JR (2006) As a bacterial culture medium, citrated sheep blood agar is a practical alternative to citrated human blood agar in laboratories of developing countries. (
  • Viable human blood substitute found? (
  • Plasma contains all the components of the liquid portion of human blood, but require special methods of storage and care for the donor organism to antigenic relationship. (
  • One of the aims surgical research men have devoted a great deal of their energy to for a long time, is directed toward appropriate substitutes for some tubular organs of the human body. (
  • As the substitute comes from cows, it has no risk of carrying human viruses such as HIV. (
  • Blood leaving the body of a human or animal must be disposed of. (
  • According to one of the leading experts on the human circulatory system, blood flowing through veins is blue. (
  • Reeder, BJ and Grey, M and Silaghi-Dumitrescu, RL and Svistunenko, DA and Bülow, L and Cooper, CE and Wilson, MT (2008) 'Tyrosine residues as redox cofactors in human hemoglobin: Implications for engineering nontoxic blood substitutes. (
  • While whole blood has a shelf life of 42 days, HemoTech lasts for 180, and at room temperature, Hemopure lasts for three years. (
  • US Blood Supply is Scarce - Oxygen-Carrying Solution HEMOPURE can Help. (
  • Since oxygen therapeutics are not yet widely available, the United States Army is experimenting with varieties of dried blood, which take up less room, weigh less and can be used much longer than blood plasma . (
  • A blood plasma substitute may refer to: An artificially made substance designed to have one or more of the vast amount of functions of the contents of the blood plasma Volume expander (although providing volume is only one of many functions of blood plasma) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Blood plasma substitute. (
  • The theory that seawater can be used as a safe blood plasma substitute was born at the beginning of 1900's, when French naturalist, physiologist and biologist René Quinton (also dubbed the "French Darwin"), who studied the similarity between seawater and blood plasma and the effect of seawater on the health of mammals. (
  • However, one of my personal "cons" of seawater being a safe blood plasma substitute is seawater pollution. (
  • The hemoglobin-polymer aggregates were mixed into blood plasma substitute solutions. (
  • Artificial cell or bioencapsulation has been developed for use in bioartificial organs, drug delivery, Blood Substitutes , and other areas. (