Substances that are used in place of blood, for example, as an alternative to BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS after blood loss to restore BLOOD VOLUME and oxygen-carrying capacity to the blood circulation, or to perfuse isolated organs.
A plant genus of the family Costaceae (sometimes classified in Zingiberaceae), order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). It is a source of SAPONINS and furostanol glycosides.
Liquid perfluorinated carbon compounds which may or may not contain a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, but do not contain another halogen or hydrogen atom. This concept includes fluorocarbon emulsions and fluorocarbon blood substitutes.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
A copolymer of polyethylene and polypropylene ether glycol. It is a non-ionic polyol surface-active agent used medically as a fecal softener and in cattle for prevention of bloat.
Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.
Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
Mechanical food dispensing machines.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Starches that have been chemically modified so that a percentage of OH groups are substituted with 2-hydroxyethyl ether groups.
The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Techniques for measuring blood pressure.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Bed-like structures for transporting or temporarily holding patients.
Those forces and content of the mind which are not ordinarily available to conscious awareness or to immediate recall.
Fixed-wing aircraft or helicopters equipped for air transport of patients.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.
Method in which repeated blood pressure readings are made while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It allows quantitative analysis of the high blood pressure load over time, can help distinguish between types of HYPERTENSION, and can assess the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
A species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).
The goosefoot plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes beets and chard (BETA VULGARIS), as well as SPINACH, and salt tolerant plants.
Normal adult human hemoglobin. The globin moiety consists of two alpha and two beta chains.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.

Controlled safety study of a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier, DCLHb, in acute ischemic stroke. (1/255)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin (DCLHb) is a purified, cell-free human hemoglobin solution. In animal stroke models its use led to a significant reduction in the extent of brain injury. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of DCLHb in patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: DCLHb or saline was administered to 85 patients with acute ischemic stroke in the anterior circulation, within 18 hours of onset of symptoms, in a multicenter, randomized, single-blind, dose-finding, controlled safety trial, consisting of 3 parts: 12 doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg DCLHb over 72 hours. RESULTS: DCLHb caused a rapid rise in mean arterial blood pressure. The pressor effect was not accompanied by complications or excessive need for antihypertensive treatment. Two patients in the 100 mg/kg group had adverse events that were possibly drug related: one suffered fatal brain and pulmonary edema, the other transient renal and pancreatic insufficiency. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that a severe stroke at baseline and treatment with DCLHb (OR, 4.0; CI, 1.4 to 12.0) were independent predictors of a worse outcome (Rankin Scale score of 3 to 6) at 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: Outcome scale scores were worse in the DCLHb group, and more serious adverse events and deaths occurred in DCLHb-treated patients than in control patients. We recommend that additional safety studies be performed, preferably with a second generation, genetically engineered hemoglobin.  (+info)

Effects of a perfluorochemical emulsion on the fate of circulating Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (2/255)

Because mononuclear phagocytes take up perfluorochemical emulsions (PFCE), we examined how prior treatment with PFCE affects the fate of circulating bacteria. Rats were preinjected with three daily intravenous injections of PFCE (2.0 ml/100 g) containing 12.5% (vol/vol) of a 4:1 mixture of F-dimethyl adamantane and F-trimethylbicyclo-nonane, 2.5% (wt/vol) Pluronic F-68 as the emulsifying agent, and 3% (wt/vol) hydroxyethyl starch as the oncotic agent. Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus were injected 4 h after the third PFCE injection. PFCE pretreatment decreased the rate and extent of vascular clearance of P. aeruginosa, with decreased uptake by the liver. Importantly, there were significant decreases in killing of P. aeruginosa in the liver, lungs, spleen, and kidneys of PFCE animals. PFCE did not alter the clearance of S. aureus from the circulation. However, hepatic uptake was reduced, with concomitant increases in lung and kidney uptake. Ultrastructure of Kupffer cells revealed PFCE inclusions and extensive vacuolization. These experiments demonstrate that the clearance kinetics and organ distribution of circulating P. aeruginosa and their subsequent killing are altered by PFCE. Diminished hepatic phagocyte function leads to a decrease in vascular clearance of circulating bacteria, increased uptake in other reticuloendothelial organs, and decreased bactericidal activity versus P. aeruginosa.  (+info)

Perflubron emulsion delays blood transfusions in orthopedic surgery. European Perflubron Emulsion Study Group. (3/255)

BACKGROUND: Fluorocarbon emulsions have been proposed as temporary artificial oxygen carriers. The aim of the present study is to compare the effectiveness of perflubron emulsion with the effectiveness of autologous blood or colloid infusion for reversal of physiologic transfusion triggers. METHODS: A multinational, multicenter, randomized, controlled, single-blind, parallel group study was performed in 147 orthopedic patients. Patients underwent acute normovolemic hemodilution with colloid to a target hemoglobin of 9 g/dl with an inspiratory oxygen fraction (FIO2) of 0.40. Patients were then randomized into one of four treatment groups after having reached any of the protocol-defined transfusion triggers including tachycardia (heart rate > 125% of posthemodilution rate or > 110 bpm), hypotension (mean arterial pressure < 75% of posthemodilution level or < or = 60 mmHg), elevated cardiac output (> 150% of posthemodilution level) or decreased mixed venous oxygen partial pressure (PVO2; < 38 mmHg). Treatments in the four groups were 450 ml autologous blood harvested during acute normovolemic hemodilution given at FO2 = 0.40; 450 ml colloid at FIO2 = 1.0; 0.9 g/kg perflubron emulsion with colloid (total = 450 ml) at FIO2 = 1.0; and 1.8 g/kg perflubron emulsion with colloid (total = 450 ml) at FIO2 = 1.0. The primary endpoint was duration of transfusion-trigger reversal. A secondary end-point was percentage of transfusion-trigger reversal. RESULTS: Perflubron emulsion was well tolerated with no serious adverse event attributed to drug treatment. Duration of reversal was longest in the 1.8 g/kg perflubron group (median, 80 min; 95% confidence interval, 60-100 min; P = 0.014 vs. autologous blood, P < 0.001 vs. colloid) followed by the 0.9 g/kg perflubron group (median, 59 min; 95% confidence interval, 40-90 min), the autologous blood group (median, 55 min; 95% confidence interval, 30-70 min) and the colloid group (median, 30 min; 95% confidence interval, 27-60 min). Percentage of reversal was also highest in the 1.8 g/kg perflubron group (97%; P < 0.001 vs. autologous blood; P = 0.014 vs. colloid), followed by 0.9 g/kg perflubron (82%), colloid (76%), and autologous blood (60%). CONCLUSIONS: Perflubron emulsion (1.8 g/kg) combined with 100% oxygen ventilation is more effective than autologous blood or colloid infusion in reversing physiologic transfusion triggers.  (+info)

Diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin effectively restores pancreatic microcirculatory failure in hemorrhagic shock. (4/255)

BACKGROUND: Microvascular reperfusion failure of splanchnic organs is a crucial hallmark in organ damage induced by hemorrhagic shock, which should be prevented by a resuscitation solution. Because the vasoactive properties of the hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin (DCLHb) could adversely influence restoration of pancreatic capillary perfusion during resuscitation, the authors investigated its effects on the microcirculation of the rat pancreas in comparison with whole blood and 6% hydroxyethylstarch resuscitation from severe hemorrhagic shock. METHODS: Twenty-eight pentobarbital-anaesthetized rats were bled to a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 40 mmHg and maintained at this level for 1 h. Using an intravital microscope, mean arterial pressure, the length of erythrocyte-perfused pancreatic capillaries per observation area (functional capillary density), the adherence of leukocytes in postcapillary venules, and pancreatic lipid peroxidation, measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive material in pancreatic tissue, were determined in animals resuscitated by volumes of hydroxyethylstarch, DCLHb, and whole blood (WB) equivalent to the shed blood volume or in control animals without shock induction for a period of 2 h after resuscitation. RESULTS: Compared with control animals (366+/-28 cm(-1)), animals resuscitated with DCLHb (294+/-45 cm(-1)), WB (306+/-11 cm(-1)), and hydroxyethylstarch (241+/-34 cm(-1)) showed a significant reduction of functional capillary density after 2 h of resuscitation. DCLHb was as effective as WB and superior to hydroxyethylstarch in restoring functional capillary density and mean arterial pressure. Leukocyte adherence in postcapillary venules was not enhanced by DCLHb (369+/-148/mm2) infusion when compared with hydroxyethylstarch- (615+/-283/mm2) and WB-treated (510+/-415/mm2) animals. Lipid peroxidation of pancreatic tissue was significantly elevated after treatment with both oxygen-carrying solutions compared with hydroxyethylstarch. CONCLUSION: DCLHb is as effective as WB for preservation of the pancreatic microcirculation.  (+info)

Influence of hemodilution on the renal blood flow autoregulation during acute expansion in rats. (5/255)

Autoregulation of renal blood flow (RBF) was studied in rats that underwent equivalent blood volume expansion with saline (Sal; 5% body wt), 7% BSA solution (1.4% body wt), and reconstituted whole blood from donor rats (WBL; 1.4% body wt). Renal perfusion pressure (RPP) and renal neural reflexes were prevented by clamping RPP and sectioning the vagus, baro/chemoreceptor, and renal nerves. Sal and BSA expansion increased RBF by approximately 60%, whereas no effect was observed with WBL. RBF autoregulation was markedly attenuated after expansion with cell-free solutions, but no change occurred in WBL-expanded rats. Correction of the fall in hematocrit in Sal- and BSA-expanded rats restored RBF and its autoregulation to control levels. Expansion with Sal or BSA after inhibition of renal vascular tone with intrarenal infusion of papaverine still increased RBF and further changed the RBF-RPP relationship. These findings suggest that the hemodilution plays a central role in the reduction of renal vascular resistance and in the attenuation of the autoregulatory efficiency of renal circulation that accompany expansion with cell-free solutions.  (+info)

Chemical characterization of pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene conjugate. (6/255)

Pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene conjugate (PHP) was developed in the 1980s as an oxygen carrier and is now under development for treatment of nitric oxide-dependent, volume refractory shock. PHP is made by derivatizing human stroma-free hemoglobin with pyridoxal-5-phosphate and polyoxyethylene (POE). A unique aspect of using POE for modification is that unlike its mono-methoxy polyethylene glycol (PEG) relatives, POE is bifunctional. The result of derivatization of stroma-free hemoglobin is a complex mixture of modified hemoglobin and other red cell proteins. The molecular weight profile, based on size exclusion chromatography, is bimodal and has a number average molecular weight of approximately 105 inverted question mark omitted inverted question mark000 and a weight average molecular weight of approximately 187 inverted question mark omitted inverted question mark000. The mixture of hemoglobin molecules has on average 3.3 pyridoxal and 5.0 polyoxyethylene units per tetramer. A portion of the tetramers are linked by POE crosslinks. The hemoglobin tetramers retain their ability to dissociate into dimer pairs and only a small percentage of the dimer pairs are not modified with POE. The SDS-PAGE profile exhibits the ladder-like appearance commonly associated with polyethylene glycol-modified proteins. The isoelectric focusing profile is broad, demonstrating a pI range of 5.0-6.5. The hydrodynamic size of PHP was determined to be approximately 7.2 nm by dynamic light scattering. Soluble red blood cell proteins, such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, and carbonic anhydrase, are present in PHP and are also modified by POE.  (+info)

The reduction of the allogenic transfusion requirement in aortic surgery with a hemoglobin-based solution. (7/255)

OBJECTIVE: Because of allogenic red blood cell (RBC) availability and infection problems, novel alternatives, including hemoglobin-based oxygen-carrying solutions (HBOC), are being explored to minimize the perioperative requirement of RBC transfusions. This study evaluated HBOC-201, a room-temperature stable, polymerized, bovine-HBOC, as a substitute for allogenic RBC transfusion in patients undergoing elective infrarenal aortic operations. METHODS: In a single blind, multicenter trial, 72 patients were prospectively randomized two-to-one to HBOC (n = 48) or allogenic RBC (n = 24) at the time of the first transfusion decision, either during or after elective infrarenal aortic reconstruction. Patients randomized to the HBOC group received 60 g of HBOC for the initial transfusion and had the option to receive three more doses (30 g each) within 96 hours. In this group, any further blood requirement was met with allogenic RBCs. Patients randomized to the allogenic RBC group received only standard RBC transfusions. The efficacy analysis was a means of assessing the ability of HBOC to eliminate the requirement for any allogenic RBC transfusions from the time of randomization through 28 days. Safety was evaluated by means of standard clinical trial methods. RESULTS: The two treatment groups were comparable for all baseline characteristics. Although all patients in the allogenic RBC group required at least one allogenic RBC transfusion, 13 of 48 patients (27%; 95% CI, 15% to 42%) in the HBOC group did not require any allogenic RBC transfusions. The only significant changes documented were a 15% increase in mean arterial pressure and a three-fold peak increase in serum urea nitrogen concentration after HBOC. The complications were similar in both groups, with no allergic reactions. There were two perioperative deaths (8%) in the allogenic RBC group and three perioperative deaths (6%) in the HBOC group (P = 1.0). CONCLUSION: HBOC significantly eliminated the need for any allogenic RBC transfusion in 27% of patients undergoing infrarenal aortic reconstruction, but did not reduce the median allogenic RBC requirement. HBOC transfusion was well tolerated and did not influence morbidity or mortality rates.  (+info)

Haemodynamic effects of diaspirin crosslinked haemoglobin (DCLHb) given before abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery. (8/255)

We studied 34 patients undergoing elective repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm under combined general anaesthesia and epidural block to evaluate the acute effects of diaspirin crosslinked haemoglobin (DCLHb) 50, 100 and 200 mg kg-1 i.v. Haemodynamic variables were measured continuously using pulmonary and radial artery catheters, and oxygen delivery and consumption were calculated at regular intervals. DCLHb was shown to be vasoactive, producing an increase in mean arterial pressure of approximately 25% with each dose, with small decreases in cardiac index and calculated oxygen delivery. These effects persisted beyond the end of infusion and provided a degree of cardiovascular stability during the operative procedure. The effects of DCLHb on oxygen consumption at these doses were minimal.  (+info)

In the US today, blood transfusion is safer than ever. Nevertheless, the century-old quest for a suitable blood substitute persists. The elimination of unwanted side effects, especially transfusion-transmitted diseases, the problems and high cost factor involved in collecting and storing human blood, the pending worldwide shortages, and the need for compatibility testing are the driving forces contributing towards the development of blood substitutes. The leading research is focusing on hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs), which are limited in clinical application due to the pressor effect they induce. In this study, the mechanisms through which HBOCs affect mean arterial pressure (MAP), arteriolar diameter, and nitric oxide levels in the microcirculation were investigated, using Oxyglobin (HBOC-301), a third generation glutaraldehyde-polymerized bovine hemoglobin. The spinotrapezius muscle of female Sprague-Dawley rats was exteriorized for microcirculatory observations. HBOC in doses of 0.1, 1.0,
Effects of the haemoglobin-based oxygen carrier Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine) on intestinal perfusion and oxygenation in a canine hypovolaemia ...
Developing blood substitutes is in urgent demand for chronic blood shortage all over the world. In this connection, the oxygen binding behavior of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) is one of the most important characteristics. However, present methods available for estimating oxygen binding behavior have need of expensive apparatus, and also are not suitable for high-throughput and the time-course analysis. To overcome these problems, we proposed a simple analysis method for the time-course oxygen binding behavior of HBOCs, which employs a general UV-Vis microplate reader and a common reagent, sodium dithionite, as a reductant for HBOCs and an oxygen scavenger. Our method enabled time-course oxygen binding behavior analysis of HBOCs in a simple manner, and obtained data corresponding with those by the conventional method. Thus, our developed method will accelerate the development of HBOCs due to easy oxygen binding analysis.. ...
phdthesis{96f74e7f-45b8-4292-b3ea-6b8b3607bc92, abstract = {Blood transfusion is a clinically significant and crucial process, which saves millions of lives every year. However,,br/,shortage of donated blood and the risk of virus transmission through transfusible blood seriously affect the,br/,availability of the blood. Hemoglobin (Hb), owing to its oxygen carrying capacity, has been studied as a starting,br/,material for the development of artificial blood substitutes/Hb-based oxygen carrier (HBOC). Several kinds of,br/,HBOC products have been developed and tested for their safety at different stages of clinical trials with minimal,br/,success. The failure of such products is mainly associated with intrinsic toxicity of cell-free Hb which damages,br/,lipids, proteins, DNA and surrounding tissues. This thesis describes two approaches aiming to gain further,br/,knowledge of potential side effects of Hb molecules on genetic material. Additionally, genetic engineering,br/,approach was used as an ...
In todays society, heart surgery directly or indirectly affects nearly all individuals, yet most are unaware that a blood substitute is often responsible for delivering oxygen to the patients body during the procedure. Specifically, a blood substitute known as Fluosol DA has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use during coronary angioplasty [5]. It is representative of perfluorocarbons (PFCs), the second class of blood substitutes. Fluorocarbons are straight chain molecules that consist of carbon and fluorine [8]. They are known for their capacity to carry both oxygen and carbon dioxide without actually binding to the gas molecules. Thus, their application extends from solely delivering oxygen to also carrying waste to the lungs for removal from the body [5]. Fluosol DA serves as one of the original PFCs, and it is comprised of 20 percent fluorocarbon [6]. A group of PFCs referred to as the new perflourochemicals has recently been developed. They include compounds such as ...
Growing up in Trinidad, Andre Palmer, PhD 98, liked chemistry and math. Chemical engineering was a natural career choice for Palmer, who in August 2015 was named chair of the William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at The Ohio State Universitys College of Engineering.. Beyond his teaching prowess (he received the engineering schools Harrison Faculty Award for Excellence in Engineering Education in 2012), Palmer has made a name for himself developing novel hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers with applications in transfusion medicine and tissue engineering.. The materials Im making, such as artificial red blood cells and artificial plasma, are to be used when blood is not available, Palmer says. So if there is a natural disaster, war or a terrorist attack, and you exhaust your current blood supply, these materials are supposed to give the patient enough time to get a proper blood transfusion. They also could be used for patients whose religious beliefs prohibit ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Complement-mediated acute effects of liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin. AU - Szebeni, J.. AU - Alving, Carl R.. PY - 1999/1. Y1 - 1999/1. N2 - Recent studies on liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) have indicated that this potential blood substitute can activate the complement (C) system of rats, pigs and man. The reaction can involve both the classical and the alternative pathways, and is mediated, in part, by the binding of natural anti-lipid antibodies to the lipid membrane of liposomes. The significance of these discoveries lies in the fact that C activation appears to be the primary cause of the acute physiological, hematological and laboratory changes that have been observed previously in rats and pigs following the administration of LEH or liposomes, which changes include pulmonary vasoconstriction with decreased cardiac output. In light of the proposed use of LEH as an emergency blood substitute, the latter impairment of cardiopulmonary function may warrant particular ...
Blood Substitute Blood, Red blood cell, White blood cell, Platelet, Blood plasma, Bone marrow, Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers. Biology Dict (2011-06-09) - ISBN-13: 978-613-6-65775-2 ...
Blood Substitute Blood, Red blood cell, White blood cell, Platelet, Blood plasma, Bone marrow, Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers. Biyoloji Dict (2011-06-09) - ISBN-13: 978-613-6-65775-2 ...
Jun 13, 2005 6:00 PM. SALT LAKE CITY - Utahs two major trauma centers for adult patients, University of Utah Hospital and LDS Hospital, have begun a period of public comment on their anticipated participation in a national clinical trial to test a new synthetic blood product in the treatment of trauma patients.. The Utah facilities are among 20 major trauma centers across the nation expected to participate in the one-year study, which will evaluate the safety and efficacy of PolyHeme?, a hemoglobin-based, oxygen-carrying blood substitute, to increase survival of critically injured and bleeding patients.. The clinical trial is being conducted under an informed consent waiver from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that allows for clinical research in emergency settings where it is impossible for a patient to give permission for treatment, such as in the aftermath of a motor vehicle accident.. Both the FDA and the Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) of both hospitals (responsible for ...
Reduced P50-Free hemoglobin in plasma has a lower P50 than hemoglobin contained in RBCs. Functionally, the difference can be thought of as a left shift in the hemoglobin dissociation curve, where free hemoglobin holds more tightly to oxygen at a given O2 tension and will only release O2 if the O2 tension is very low. Hemoglobin contained in RBCs has a P50 of 26-28 mm Hg. Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) have reduced P50 of 10-16 mm Hg. Hemoglobin dimers, which are spontaneous split products of free hemoglobin, lose the cooperative binding properties of the hemoglobin tetramer. These dimers have a hemoglobin dissociation curve similar to that of myoglobin, and will only release oxygen at O2 tensions as low as 5 mm Hg. ...
Background: Machine perfusion (MP) has been implemented either under hypothermic and anoxic conditions or under normothermia with full oxygenation using blood as perfusate. This is the first pre-clinical large animal series using MP under subnormothermic conditions with a new hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier solution in a dual pressure system for liver preservation. Methods: Two groups of 6 Landrace pigs underwent orthotopic liver transplantation after CIT=9 hours where cold static preservation (CSP) was compared to MP. The MP allografts were continuously perfused by pulsatile and continuous pressures under full oxygenation at 21°C. Both groups had extensive graft and perfusate analysis during the preservation time. The MP group had continuous gasometry of the perfusate and tissue oximetry analysis. Mitochondrial function was analyzed in both groups. All tissues were blindly analyzed through standard histology, immunohistochemistry and electronic microscopy. Results: The CSP group had a ...
A blood substitute or blood extender is prepared by chemically coupling hemoglobin with a polysaccharide material selected from dextran and hydroxyethyl starch, and having a molecular weight of from about 5,000 to about 2,000,000, to form a covalently bonded chemical complex. The complex has similar oxygen transporting abilities to hemoglobin, and has a much lower rate of renal excretion.
Solutions producing osmotic diuresis | I.v. solutions | Blood substitutes and perfusion solutions Brokerage service for pharmaceutical and parapharmaceutical products active ingredients and precursors..
Although the blood supply in many countries is very safe, this is not the case for all parts of the world. Blood transfusion is the second largest source of new HIV infections in Nigeria. In certain regions of southern Africa, it is believed that as much as 40% of the population has HIV/AIDS, although testing is not financially feasible. A disease-free source of blood substitutes would be incredibly beneficial in these regions.[1] ...
The need for blood substitutes Risks associated with blood transfusions have been minimised with the development of highly sensitive tests for blood-bor...
Explore the science and understand more clearly the Blood Substitutes topic by reading the best articles made from Experts, Scientific and Academics!
A process for preparing a stroma-free hemoglobin solution is provided. The process includes washing blood cells to remove noncellular components to obtain a mixture of erythrocytes and leukocytes. The leukocytes are removed from the mixture and the erythrocytes are lysed to form a mixture of stroma and hemoglobin. The stroma is precipitated from the hemoglobin by treating the stroma-hemoglobin mixture with a polyvalent cation; a polysulfate, and a polyvalent anion. The supernatant hemoglobin solution is separated and dialyzed to obtain a substantially pure hemoglobin solution.
TY - CONF. T1 - Improvement of oxygen carrying ability of hemoglobin vesicles by H 2O 2 elimination system. AU - Atoji, Tomoyasu. AU - Aihara, Motonari. AU - Takeoka, Shinji. AU - Tsuchida, Eishun. PY - 2005/12/1. Y1 - 2005/12/1. N2 - Oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) of Hb-based oxygen carriers reacts with hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2) to convert metHb and loses its oxygen binding ability. We have developed Hb-vesicles which encapsulate concentrated Hb with phospholipids bilayer membrane. Here, we constructed a suppression system of metHb formation within Hb vesicles using the peroxidase activity of metHb with L-Tyr. We could suppress the metHb formation of the oxyHb in the Hb vesicles by coencapsulating metHb and L-Tyr on the experiment of stepwise addition of H 2O 2 and autoxidation condition. Furthermore, this system was also effective in vivo. We concluded that H 2O 2 was effectively eliminated by the metHb/L-Tyr system in the Hb vesicles, and oxygen carrying ability was successfully prolonged.. AB - ...
Researchers have developed a line immortal stem cells that allow them to generate an unlimited supply of artificial red blood cells on demand. If these artificial blood cells pass clinical trials, theyll be far more efficient for medical use than current red blood cell products, which have to be generated from donor blood - and would be a huge deal for patients with rare blood types, who often struggle to find matching blood donors. The idea isnt for these immortal stem cells to replace blood donation altogether - when it comes to regular blood transfusions, donated blood still does the trick.
I am currently researching for a fictional novel I wish to write. Part of the basis for this story revolves around a human trial study of an artificial blood that is stable at room temperature for extended periods, and substitutes for any blood type. A key point in the novel will be the ability of the blood substitute to cross the blood-brain barrier, and deposit in the brain where it will cause a reaction due to a set of circumstances. Right now I am considering making the blood on a sugar base, in order to pass into the brain, where it will react when endorphins reach a certain level (an unplanned effect). I am looking for information and comments as to the feasability of this idea, as well as specifics on artificial blood and the FDA requirements to get a drug to market. This is my first novel, and I am trying to keep all scientific aspects as real as possible. All assistance I recieve will be fully credited. If anyone can help, or point me in the right direction, it will be greatly ...
Background: The development of cerebral infarction after transient ischemia is attributed to postischemic delayed hypoperfusion in the microvascular region. In the present study, we assessed the microvascular perfusion capacity of infused liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) in a therapeutic approach for transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Methods: Two-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion rats were immediately subjected to intra-arterial infusion of LEH (LEH group) or saline (vehicle group) or no treatment (control group), and then to recanalization. Neurological findings, infarct and edema progression, microvascular endothelial dysfunction, and inflammatory reactions were compared between the 3 groups after 24 hours of reperfusion. Microvascular perfusion in the early phase of reperfusion was evaluated by hemoglobin immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. Results: The LEH group achieved significantly better results in all items evaluated than the other ...
Stroma-free hemoglobin cross-linked with reagents that mimic 2,3 diphosphoglycerate and transform stroma-free hemoglobin into a physiologically competent oxygen carrier which is retained in vivo for adequate periods of time and thus can be used in fluids for transporting oxygen; reagents for cross-linking stroma-free hemoglobin and method for cross-linking stroma-free hemoglobin.
There is the possibility of Liquid Breathing, however it is unlikely that the liquid would be haemoglobin and still be breathable, as haemoglobin is quite viscous (this is why it is contained within red blood cells).. On the other hand, in the unlikely event that a planet was completely covered by an ocean of some largely colourless oxygen saturated liquid such as a flurocarbon at ~37°C, then, yes, humans could in theory breathe this liquid. It is probable that if such a planet existed, it would have been manufactured by some powerful civilisation.. However, free-breathing fluorocarbons is exhausting due to the mass of fluid involved and the amount of oxygen that could be saturated in it. Were humans to spend any length of time in such an environment, it is likely that they would need some sort of mechanical breathing assistance to prevent exhaustion.. Finally, fluorocarbons are up to twice as dense as water. This means that a human would float on the surface of a fluorocarbon sea to a greater ...
Hemoglobin vesicles (HbVs) are artificial oxygen (O2) carriers that encapsulate concentrated hemoglobin (Hb) solution in phospholipid vesicles (liposomes). Recent reports on cytoprotective effects of exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) urged us to test infusion of CO-bound HbV (CO-HbV) and red blood cell …
Emergency medicine experts from Stellenbosch University (SU) are embarking on a large, multi-institutional clinical trial in partnership with the United States Department of Defence, to evaluate the use of synthetic blood-products for the resuscitation of trauma victims before arrival at hospital.. The Division of Emergency Medicine at SUs Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences will be the coordinating centre for the study, which includes 21 hospitals and 27 ambulance bases across South Africa. These include public and private academic institutions and healthcare facilities. For this study, SU is also partnering with the Universities of Cape Town (UCT), KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN), Witwatersrand (Wits) and Pretoria (UP), collectively representing the body of academic emergency medicine in South Africa.. The study will evaluate the use of the haemoglobin-based oxygen carrier Hemopure (HbO2 Therapeutics LLC) together with Bioplasma FDP (National Biologics Institute), a freeze-dried plasma, to ...
Background: Hemoglobin based oxygen carriers (HBOC) offer a potential adjunct to improve early re-oxygenation of ischemic tissue. However, the optimal oxygen content and oxygen affinity of the HBOC solution to optimize myocardial re-oxygenation is not known. Our objective was to compare myocardial recovery following reperfusion with 3 unique HBOC solutions, each with different oxygen affinity.. Methods: 3 HBOC solutions were prepared to a standard concentration of 2.5g/dL in modified Krebs Henseleit buffer, and oxygenated with either room air (RA) or with 100% oxygen (O2). Hearts isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 25 min of global ischemia and then were reperfused for the first 10 min with one of the HBOCs; 1) HBOCR, (polymerized bovine hemoglobin fixed in relaxed, deoxygenated state) P50 = 2.4 mm Hg, n=8, 2) HBOCT (polymerized bovine hemoglobin fixed in tense, oxygenated state) P50 = 48 mm Hg, n=8, or 3) HgbB (isolated bovine hemoglobin) P50 = 29 mm Hg, n=8. All hearts were ...
Modified cell-free hemoglobin derivatives have been under study as potential red cell substitutes for nearly three decades (Winslow 1992). These derivatives are prepared by treatment of hemoglobin...
TY - JOUR. T1 - O2 release from Hb vesicles evaluated using an artificial, narrow O2-permeable tube. T2 - Comparison with RBCs and acellular Hbs. AU - Sakai, Hiromi. AU - Suzuki, Yoji. AU - Kinoshita, Megumi. AU - Takeoka, Shinji. AU - Maeda, Nobuji. AU - Tsuchida, Eishun. PY - 2003/12. Y1 - 2003/12. N2 - A phospholipid vesicle that encapsulates a concentrated hemoglobin (Hb) solution and pyridoxal 5′-phosphate as an allosteric effector [Hb vesicle (HbV) diameter, 250 nm] has been developed to provide an O2 carrying ability to plasma expanders. The O2 release from flowing HbVs was examined using an O2-permeable, fluorinated ethylenepropylene copolymer tube (inner diameter, 28 μm) exposed to a deoxygenated environment. Measurement of O2 release was performed using an apparatus that consisted of an inverted microscope and a scanning-grating spectrophotometer with a photon-count detector, and the rate of O2 release was determined based on the visible absorption spectrum in the Q band of Hb. HbVs ...
BACKGROUND: We have shown in a previous work that HBOC-201 is able to reverse anaerobic metabolism at low volumes in a porcine model of controlled hemorrhage. On the basis of these..
Scientists have tried to develop synthetic red blood cells that mimic the favorable properties of natural ones, such as flexibility, oxygen transport and long circulation times. But so far, most artificial red blood cells have had one or a few, but not all, key features of the natural versions. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Nano have made…
WATCH: HOW TO PRODUCE HAEMOGLOBIN FROM SUGAR BEETS. Previously, it has been presumed that certain plants produce this iron protein only when stressed, such as in drought or frost, because it has been seen that this is the case for certain other plants. However, we have shown that haemoglobin is produced even in a normal state, said Nélida Leiva, a doctoral student of applied biochemistry at Lund University, who has just presented the findings in a doctoral thesis.. Nélida Leivas supervisor, Professor Leif Bülow, has spent many years conducting research on the production of human haemoglobin, primarily with the help of bacteria, because haemoglobin from blood donors is far from sufficient to cover the needs of society.. The process of extracting haemoglobin from sugar beets is not much more complicated than extracting sugar, according to the researchers. The challenge lies in obtaining sufficient volumes. However, Nélida Leiva and Leif Bülow believe there is good reason to think that ...
A blood product is any therapeutic substance prepared from human blood. This includes: whole blood; blood components; and plasma derivatives. Whole blood is not commonly used in transfusion medicine. Blood components include: red blood cell concentrates or suspensions; platelets produced from whole blood or via apheresis; plasma; and cryoprecipitate. Plasma derivatives are plasma proteins prepared under pharmaceutical manufacturing conditions, these include: albumin; coagulation factor concentrates; and immunoglobulins. Blood products may also be called blood-based products to differ from blood substitutes, which generally refer to artificially produced products. Also, although many blood products have the effect of volume expansion, the group is usually distinguished from volume expanders, which generally refer to artificially produced substances and are thereby within the scope of blood substitutes. Cryoprecipitate Cryosupernatant Fresh frozen plasma PF24 Platelet transfusion Red blood cells ...
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Zothecula (1870348) writes According to the World Health Organization, over 107 million blood donations are collected around the globe every year, most of which goes on to help save lives. However, while the need for blood is global, much of that which is donated is not accessible to many who need i...
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. European patent application No. 87 300 248.9 (publication number 0 231 070) was refused by the examining division.. II. The examining division issued the communication under Rule 51(4) EPC, informing the appellants of the text in which it intended to grant a European patent and requesting the applicants approval of such notified text within a set period. The text had been agreed upon during the oral proceedings held on 18 May 1993.. In a letter received on 14 June 1993, which crossed with the Rule 51(4) communication (8 June 1993), the appellants requested that the sets of claims proposed for grant be replaced by two new sets of claims, one for all the contracting states except AT and ES and the second for AT and ES, each comprising two additional dependent claims, namely claims 3 and 4. In the accompanying comments, the applicants erroneously indicated that the new claims merely repeated the subject-matter of original claim 2, although they actually meant ...
The naturally occurring mineral ilmenite, FeTiO3, has been examined as oxygen carrier for chemical-looping combustion. NiO-based particles have been used as an additive, in order to examine if it is possible to utilize the catalytic properties of metallic Ni to facilitate decomposition of hydrocarbons into more reactive combustion intermediates such as CO and H2. Firstly, ilmenite was examined by oxidation and reduction experiments in a batch fluidized-bed reactor. These experiments indicated moderate reactivity between ilmenite and CH4, which was used as reducing gas. However, adding 5 wt.% of NiO-based particles to the ilmenite improved the conversion of CH4 greatly, resulting in an increase in combustion efficiency with a factor of 3. Secondly, 83 h of chemical-looping combustion experiments were conducted in a small circulating fluidized-bed reactor, using ilmenite as oxygen carrier and natural gas as fuel. A wide range of process parameters and different levels of NiO addition were examined.
We investigated the toxicity of hemoglobin/myoglobin on endothelial cells under oxidative stress conditions that include cellular hypoxia and reduced antioxidant capacity. Bovine aorta endothelial cells (BAECs), grown on microcarrier beads, were subjected to cycles of hypoxia and reoxygenation in a small volume of medium, and endothelial cell monolayers were depleted of their intracellular glutathione (GSH) by treatment with buthionine sulfoximine. Incubation of diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin (DBBF-Hb) or horse skeletal myoglobin (Mb) with BAECs subjected to 3 h of hypoxia caused transient oxidation of the hemoproteins to the ferryl form (Fe(4+)). Formation of the ferryl intermediate was decreased in a concentration-dependent manner by the addition of L-arginine, a substrate of NO synthase, after 3 h of hypoxia. Optimal inhibition of ferryl formation, possibly due to the antioxidant action of NO, was achieved with 900 microM L-arginine. Addition of hydrogen peroxide to GSH-depleted cells in the
The use of hemoglobin-polymer conjugates to enhance antitumor therapy in mammals is disclosed. The methods include administering an effective amount of an antitumor therapy such as radiation in combination with hemoglobin conjugated to a substantially non-antigenic polymer.
An isolated brain is a brain kept alive in vitro, either by perfusion by a blood substitute, often an oxygenated solution of various salts, or by submerging the brain in oxygenated artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It is the biological counterpart of brain in a vat. A related concept, attaching the brain or head to the circulatory system of another organism, is called a head transplant. An isolated brain however is more typically attached to an artificial perfusion device rather than a biological body. The brains of many different organisms have been kept alive in-vitro for hours, or in some cases days. The central nervous system of invertebrate animals is often easily maintained as they need less oxygen and to a larger extent get their oxygen from CSF; for this reason their brains are more easily maintained without perfusion. Mammalian brains on the other hand have a much lesser degree of survival without perfusion and an artificial blood perfusate is usually used. For methodological ...
A method for analyzing the ADME/PK properties of a mixture of compounds is (1) perfusing an animal or organ with a perfluorocarbon emulsion blood substitute, (2) administering the mixture of test compounds, (3) withdrawing an aliquot of the perfusate, (4) disrupting the emulsion, and (5) analyzing the aqueous phase of the perfusate for the concentration of test compounds.
The oxygen carrier is reduced in a combustion reaction with coal and recycled to the air reactor. Flue gas from the fuel reactor contains H2O and CO2, and can be used to drive a turbine before being separated by cryogenic means.. The reactions occur typically at 1173.15-1573.15 K.50 Different metal oxides (such as Fe2O3/CuO and MgAl2O4, nickel, manganese and calcium oxides) can be used as the oxygen carrier.51,52. The advantage of chemical looping combustion is that no air separation unit is required, and flue gas contains primarily CO2 and H2O, with CO2 available at 31wt% in the flue gas, which is higher than conventional PC power plant flue gas.25. The current disadvantage of chemical looping is the high investment cost required for the technology, which deters research and implementation. Another fundamental challenge to implementation is choosing an ideal oxygen carrier. Current studies show the conversion rate under oxidising conditions, using conventional oxygen carriers to be very fast ...
Dr. Crumbliss is interested in the function, reactivity and control of transition metals in biological systems. A major emphasis is investigations related to the biochemistry of iron. Through application of in vitro and ex vivo biophysical techniques the Crumbliss group is investigating iron trafficking mediated by proteins and low molecular weight iron carriers (siderophores) in bacterial and mammalian cells. This research is relevant to understanding iron bioavailability, oxidative stress, and the relationship between iron and human health and disease. The redox behavior of various native, mutant and engineered hemoglobins is also under investigation with respect to their role in oxidative stress, signaling and cooperative oxygen transport, and potential application as cell free blood substitutes.. ...
Dr. Crumbliss is interested in the function, reactivity and control of transition metals in biological systems. A major emphasis is investigations related to the biochemistry of iron. Through application of in vitro and ex vivo biophysical techniques the Crumbliss group is investigating iron trafficking mediated by proteins and low molecular weight iron carriers (siderophores) in bacterial and mammalian cells. This research is relevant to understanding iron bioavailability, oxidative stress, and the relationship between iron and human health and disease. The redox behavior of various native, mutant and engineered hemoglobins is also under investigation with respect to their role in oxidative stress, signaling and cooperative oxygen transport, and potential application as cell free blood substitutes.. ...
Proteoheparan sulphate can be adsorbed to a methylated silica surface in a monomolecular layer via its transmembrane hydrophobic protein core domain. As a result of electrostatic repulsion, its anionic glycosaminoglycan side chains are stretched out into the blood substitute solution, thereby representing one receptor site for specific lipoprotein binding through basic amino acid-rich residues within their apolipoproteins. The binding process was studied by ellipsometric techniques suggesting that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) has a high binding affinity and a protective effect on interfacial heparan sulphate proteoglycan layers with respect to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and Ca2+ complexation. Low-density lipoprotein was found to deposit strongly at the proteoheparan sulphate-coated surface, particularly in the presence of Ca2+, apparently through complex formation proteoglycan-LDL-calcium. This ternary complex build-up may be interpreted as arteriosclerotic nanoplaque formation on the ...
Rate This Movie SYNOPSIS: Set in a not-too-distant future in which a synthetic blood substitute, dispensed by the Romanian government, allows humans and vampires to potentially co-exist. REVIEW: So the premise for True Bloodthirst (previously known as Vampyre Nation) is not exactly an innovative one, but I certainly felt that it was an exciting and interesting watch - and thats …. Read More » ...
Darkness Vlad Tepes, a young Englishman who has been living as a vampire for the last 13 years, says he is regularly bullied for his different lifestyle and just wants to be treated as a normal person.. He might not be affected by garlic and sunlight, but the 25-year-old who changed his name by deed poll a few years ago calls himself a vampire. He sleeps in a custom made-to-measure wooden coffin, wears eyeliner for a darker look and regularly consumes cow and and pig blood, as well as a human blood substitute. To be a vampire is to believe that I have a living body but a dead soul, Darkness says. But I think theres a lot of preconceptions about being a vampire from films and books like Twilight or Dracula. Read More ». ...
The demand for blood is always more than its supply. Also with risk of blood borne infections, efforts for finding an artificial substitute for human blood is going on.
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Looking for online definition of artificial blood in the Medical Dictionary? artificial blood explanation free. What is artificial blood? Meaning of artificial blood medical term. What does artificial blood mean?
New material for creating artificial blood vessels Blocked blood vessels can quickly become dangerous. It is often necessary to replace a blood vessel - either by another vessel taken from the body or even by artificial vascular prostheses. Researchers have developed artificial blood vessels made from a special elastomer material,. Over time, these artificial blood vessels are replaced by endogenous material a natural, fully functional vessel is once again. The method has already been used successfully ...
Looking for online definition of diaspirin in the Medical Dictionary? diaspirin explanation free. What is diaspirin? Meaning of diaspirin medical term. What does diaspirin mean?
Stable emulsions of highly fluorinated organic compounds for use as oxygen transport agents, artificial bloods or red blood cell substitutes and as contrast agents for biological imaging. The emulsions comprise a highly fluorinated organic compound, an oil that is not substantially surface active and not significantly soluble in water, a surfactant and water.
The high surface-area-to-volume ratio, superior heat and mass transfer, controlled reagent mixing and improved reaction rates make microfluidics an attractive approach for multiphase processes, reactions, and material synthesis. My lab investigates the dynamics of emulsion droplets and bubbles in microfluidics and develops emulsion-based approaches to produce artificial red blood cells and functional microbubbles for drug and oxygen delivery and biomedical imaging. In addition, we identified, for the first time, the regulatory roles of flow in the anodic growth of TiO2 nanotubes and demonstrated that flow not only controls the diameter, length, and crystal orientations of TiO2 nanotubes but also regulates the spatial distribution of nanotubes inside microfluidic devices and orientation on silicon substrates. Our approach provides a promising strategy to integrate silicon with hierarchical TiO2 nanotube arrays that may find applications in nanoelectronics, silicon-based photonics, and ...
About post titles: The original headlines for the articles in this archive appear after the name of the original publisher and date. Those titles often do not contain enough identifying information as they are often written for local audiences and limited by space constraints. I initially just used the original article headline as my title for the post entry. However, after about a year I realized those headlines are inadequate. I began to create my own titles for each entry, which serves two purposes. My own titles, which appear at the top of the entry in red font, contain more specific information from the article, making it easier to categorize and search for. Many of my own titles also contain an editorial slant that serves as my own brief commentary on the subject matter ...
Lying unconscious on a helicopter stretcher with a lacerated liver suffered after his car spun out of control and hit a bridge, Erick Silkworth was hardly in the position to give his consent to
Development of a microfluidic chip as artificial blood capillary vessel with integrated impedance sensors for applications in cancer ...
Patented artificial blood platelets developed by a Case Western Reserve University researcher, which have already proven to significantly reduce bleeding in mice and pigs, are getting another boost with a $1 million U.S. Department of Defense grant.. Anirban Sen Gupta, associate professor of biomedical engineering, has received three patents for the artificial platelet designs, which also can be customized to deliver drugs to break up clots in treating heart attack and stroke.. That means the artificial platelets can be programmed to perform seemingly contradictory functions-to either stop bleeding or re-establish blood flow.. Our hypothesis was that we could make artificial platelets from modular design components and mix and match these components that change their purpose and function, depending on the target disease or injury, Sen Gupta said.. Sen Gupta has worked to develop and test these designs with researchers at the University of Pittsburgh, University of California Santa Barbara, ...
Home Research Business - Innovations - Technology (BIT of WUT) Artificial blood vessels or how to help patients with ischaemic heart disease
Scientists at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston have used stem cells to create artificial blood vessels that can survive in the body for nine months. The study, published this week in the Proceedings of the Natural Academy of Sciences (PNAS), is the first of its kind to produce working vessels that prove durable when implanted into a living host.
Yadav VR, Rao G, Houson H, Hedrick A, Awasthi S, Roberts PR, Awasthi V. Nanovesicular liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) prevents multi-organ injuries in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2016 Oct 10;93:97-106. doi: 10.1016/j.ejps.2016.08.010. PubMed [citation] PMID: 27503458, PMCID: PMC5035221 Rao G, Yadav VR, Awasthi S, Roberts PR, Awasthi V. Effect of liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin resuscitation on proteostasis in small intestinal epithelium after hemorrhagic shock. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016 Jul 1;311(1):G180-91. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00157.2016. PubMed. Meng X, Rose L, Han Y, Deng J, Xiang Y. Vaccinia virus A6 is a two-domain protein requiring a cognate N-terminal domain for full viral membrane assembly activity. J Virol. 2017 Mar 8. doi:pii: JVI.02405-16. 10.1128/JVI.02405-16. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed [citation] PMID: 28275183 Walgama C, Al Mubarak ZH, Zhang B, Akinwale M, Pathiranage A, Deng J, Berlin KD, Benbrook DM, Krishnan S. Label-Free ...
The present invention relates to storage stable hemoglobin solutions which contain partially deoxygenated and surprisingly low amounts of reducing agents. Methods for preparing such storage stable hemoglobin solutions are also provided as well as a systems for storing the solutions.
Decreased cerebellar volume is associated with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in very preterm infants and may be a principal component in neurodevelopmental impairment. Cerebellar deposition of blood products from the subarachnoid space has been suggested as a causal mechanism in cerebellar underdevelopment following IVH. Using the preterm rabbit pup IVH model, we evaluated the effects of IVH induced at E29 (3 days prior to term) on cerebellar development at term-equivalent postnatal day 0 (P0), term-equivalent postnatal day 2 (P2), and term-equivalent postnatal day 5 (P5). Furthermore, the presence of cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) in cerebellar tissue was characterized, and cell-free Hb was evaluated as a causal factor in the development of cerebellar damage following preterm IVH. IVH was associated with a decreased proliferative (Ki67-positive) portion of the external granular layer (EGL), delayed Purkinje cell maturation, and activated microglia in the cerebellar white matter. In pups with ...
Starting from the 1970s, the world clinical practice switched the transfusion and infusion therapy priorities from the use of donor blood towards the use of blood substitute solutions. This circumstance is determined by a number of factors: the high therapeutic effectiveness of products, the lack of need to select drugs by group antigens and rhesus factor, good tolerance, almost no allergenic properties, low cost of products and, most importantly, the exception of the infectious diseases transmission risk (viral hepatitis, infectious mononucleosis, syphilis, AIDS, etc.).. In a healthy person the quantitative composition of blood varies slightly with age but it is significantly changed by various diseases. The violation of balance between the qualitative and quantitative composition of inorganic salts of intracellular and extracellular fluids takes place, i.e. the violation of water-electrolytic balance.. Infusions of various solutions solve a wide range of tasks from the introduction of ...
Pharmacotherapeutic group: Blood substitutes and plasma proteins, albumin (ATC code: B05AA01) Characteristics Human Albumin Grifols 5% is a solution that contains 50 g/l of protein of which at least 95% is human albumin (*donors from the Slovak Republic).
Heres a recent article by tissue engineering pioneer Dr. Anthony Atala. He makes a great point that printing tissue is beneficial not just so doctors can replace parts, but also so that drugs can be put through better testing.. He writes: [I]n collaboration with five other institutions, we are working to print miniature hearts, lungs, blood vessels and livers onto chips that will be connected with a blood substitute. Called a body on a chip, the system has the potential to speed up the development of new drugs because it could potentially replace testing in animals, which can be slow, expensive and not always accurate.. Awesome.. ...
To begin with, macromolecules consisting of poly(amido)amine dendrimers(PAMAM),polyglycidol,hyperbranched poly(amido)amine (HYPAM) were synthesized and characterized extensively. Porphyrins were also synthesized, characterized and modified in line with respective studies. Hereafter, surface modified TRIS PAMAM dendrimers and its analogs (hyperbranched polymers, hyperbranched PAMAMs) as potential drug delivery systems were studied with the use of model drugs (Ibuprofen and Porphyrin). Analogs of the model drugs were used to investigate the role of secondary interactions for high drug loading(s). UV-Vis Spectroscopy was utilized for studying and determining the maximum loading of the macromolecules under investigation. Further ahead, non-covalent approaches to improve dendrimer-protein binding were used by introducing amino acid chains as targeting groups on the dendrimer surface. Surface modified carboxylate PAMAM dendrimers were studied for their ability to bind with zinc metallated porphyrin. ...
శరీర అవయవాలన్నింటికీ ఆక్సిజన్‌ సరఫరా చేసేందుకు కావాల్సిన రక్తనాళాలను కృత్రిమంగా తయారు చేయడంలో విజయం సాధించారు బ్రిటిష్‌ కొలంబియా యూనివర్సిటీ శాస్త్రవేత్తలు. మూలకణాల సాయంతో పరిశోధన శాలలో తయారైన ఈ కృత్రిమ రక్తకణాలు సమీప భవిష్యత్తులో∙గుండెపోటు, కేన్సర్, మధుమేహం వంటి అనేక వ్యాధులకు సమర్థమైన చికిత్స అందించేందుకు వీలు కల్పిస్తుందని అంచనా. మధుమేహాన్నే ఉదాహరణగా తీసుకుంటే ఈ
Does Initial Hematocrit Predict Shock?. Everything you know is WRONG!. The classic textbook teaching is that trauma patients bleed whole blood. And that if you measure the hematocrit (or hemoglobin) on arrival, it will approximate their baseline value because not enough time has passed for equilibration and hemodilution. As Ive said before, youve got to be willing to question dogma!. The trauma group at Ryder in Miami took a good look at this assumption. They drew initial labs on all patients requiring emergency surgery within 4 hours of presentation to the trauma center. They also estimated blood loss in the resuscitation room and OR and compared it to the initial hematocrit. They also compared the hematocrit to the amount of crystalloid and blood transfused in those areas.. Patients with lower initial hematocrits had significantly higher blood loss and fluid and blood replacement during the initial treatment period. Some of this effect may be due to the fact that blood loss was ...
Precise determination of hemoglobin sequence and subunit quantitation from human blood for diagnosis of hemoglobin-based diseases.
Wnt5a Does Not Support Hematopoiesis in Stroma-Free, Serum-Free Cultures. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
This paper experimentally demonstrates the feasibility of a novel gas switching combustion (GSC) reactor as an alternative to the traditional chemical looping combustion (CLC) process for power production with integrated CO2 capture. Whereas the CLC process circulates an oxygen carrier material between two fluidized bed reactors, where it is exposed to separate fuel and air streams, the GSC concept employs a single dense fluidized bed reactor where the oxygen carrier is periodically exposed to fuel and air streams. A lab-scale GSC reactor was operated autothermally (without any external temperature supply) to continuously convert cold feed gases into hot product gases, which would be suitable for driving a downstream power cycle. A parametric study was carried out to further investigate the behavior of the GSC concept. The reactor achieved a high CO2 capture efficiency (97.2%) and purity (98.2%) even without the use of a purging stage between the oxidation and reduction stages. A small amount of ...
The over-all management of bowel obstructions including early diagnosis, has been improved considerably during the past 10 years. Early restoration of fluid and electrolyte losses, blood replacement,...
At times, while going from Srinagar to Leh, you might need to work out few things if there have been some tensions in taxi unions of Kargil and Leh. In order to settle it out, what they do is that they make a transit point just before Fotu La while going to Leh from Kargil. All Leh taxis stop there and kargil taxis too. They exchange passengers and move back in respective directions. Leh taxis take passengers to Leh coming from Srinagar/Kargil and Kargil guys take passengers to Srinagar/kargil coming from Leh. But, that happens only when there is an issue.. For the list of good restaurants in Leh - Ladakh or eateries or food joints where food is enjoyed by many travellers including me, you can check the link here: List of Good Restaurants in Leh - Ladakh , Restaurant Reviews. Check the list of things to carry for Leh - Ladakh or other trip including basic medical kit, clothing, must haves etc. at the link here: List of Things to Carry for Leh - Ladakh trip.. To know about AMS and acclimatization ...
Transport of biological available oxygen in vertebrates is performed by two different principles: physical solution in plasma and chemical binding to the haemoglobin molecule. According to these...
Red blood cells. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of human red blood cells (erythrocytes). Red blood cells are biconcave, giving them a large surface area for gas exchange, and highly elastic, enabling them to pass through narrow capillary vessels. The nucleus and other organelles are lost as the cells mature. The cells interior is packed with haemoglobin, a red iron-containing pigment that has an oxygen-carrying capacity. The main function of red blood cells is to distribute oxygen to body tissues and to carry waste carbon dioxide back to the lungs. Magnification: x3,225 when printed at 10 centimetres wide. - Stock Image C002/9746
generic metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets Walker says the robot has about 60 to 70 percent of the function of a human. It stands six-and-a-half feet tall and can step, sit and stand with the help of a Rex walking machine thats used by people whove lost the ability to walk due to a spinal injury. It also has a functioning heart that, using an electronic pump, beats and circulates artificial blood, which carries oxygen just like human blood. An artificial, implantable kidney, meanwhile, replaces the function of a modern-day dialysis unit ...
Professor Julie Campbell is a vascular biologist whose research has focused on the cell biology of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. Her team has developed a method of growing artificial blood vessels in the peritoneal cavity of an animal into which it will be later grafted.
unless there is bacterial infection, or the infarct has caused necrosis of all the cells in a portion of the brain). Inflammatory cells enter the infarct by the first day, and become plentiful over the next several days. Big Robbins lists several observations about infarcts that are worth reviewing. Although they may seem obvious, they are important to remember in clinical medicine. (1) The effects of vascular narrowing or occlusion will probably be worse if the blood already lacks oxygen-carrying capacity (i.e., the patient is anemic) or the heart isnt pumping well (heart failure, shock). (2) Slowly-developing occlusion of an artery (i.e., over months or years) is well-tolerated in organs with collateral circulation, since it allows for development of more and bigger collaterals (3) Remember that different cells tolerate ischemia for different lengths of time. Because of their importance, its worth mentioning DECUBITUS ULCERS here once again. Body weight always prevents blood from flowing ...
In the body, iron primarily functions as an oxygen carrier within the blood and muscles. It also contributes to a healthy immune system, efficient metabolism and cognitive development. When the body ...
Here you can shop for quality, convenient wheelchair accessories that include a wide variety of wheelchair bags, trays, cup holders, oxygen carriers, rim covers and more...
Anemia is defined as an absolute reduction in the quantity of the oxygen-carrying pigment hemoglobin (Hgb) in the circulating blood. Anemia is further broadly subcategorized into acute and chronic.
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STEP Solutions Group LLC, a Chicago-based insurance processing software as a service provider, announced today that it launched a newly designed website to promote and educate insurance carriers on the ...
Dating, waxaan ku soo maray dhammaan taariikhaha wanaagsan qaar ka mid ah, qaar ka mid ah kuwa daymada / Gaariisa, qaar ka mid ah kuwa qiimo leh dhiibi xun iyo rajeynayaa qaar ka mid ah kuwa wanaagsan / aad u xiiso badan. Sidaas waxa
"The long quest to create artificial blood may soon be over". NBC News. Retrieved 2017-01-25. "ErythroMer Blood Substitute , ... ErythroMer is a red blood substitute in development funded by the National Institutes of Health and U.S. Department of Defense ... This opens up the possibility of eventual stockpiling of ErythoMer making it easier to supply blood in large amounts to those ... ErythroMer is a reddish blood powder composed from hemoglobin from humans. By coating it with a synthetic polymer, it is able ...
Artificial cell Blood substitute Oxycyte Synthetic biology Robert A. Freitas Jr. (1998). "Exploratory Design in Medical ... Blood Substitutes, and Immobil. Biotech. (26): 411-430. "RESPIROCYTES - IMPROVING UPON NATURE'S DESIGN: BREATHE EASY WITH ... Respirocytes were proposed by Robert A. Freitas Jr in his 1998 paper "A Mechanical Artificial Red Blood Cell: Exploratory ... Respirocytes are hypothetical, microscopic, artificial red blood cells that are intended to emulate the function of their ...
It is an ingredient of Perftoran, a blood substitute that also contains perfluoro-N-(4-methylcyclohexyl)-piperidine along with ... Blood Substitutes, and Biotechnology. 33 (1): 37-46. doi:10.1081/BIO-200046654. PMID 15768564. S2CID 39902507. King, A. T.; ... an artificial blood product developed by Green Cross Corporation in the 1980s. It is also being studied for use in liquid ...
Blood Substitutes, and Biotechnology. 32 (1): 67-75. doi:10.1081/BIO-120028669. PMID 15027802. S2CID 21897676. Gomezhens, A; ... In this case the vesicles act as sinks to scavenge the drug in the blood circulation and prevent its toxic effect. Another ... Studies have also shown that PEGylated liposomes elicit anti-IgM antibodies, thus leading to an enhanced blood clearance of the ... "Anti-PEG IgM elicited by injection of liposomes is involved in the enhanced blood clearance of a subsequent dose of PEGylated ...
... may refer to: Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers; a type of oxygen-carrying blood substitute Hereditary breast-ovarian ...
Banana bag Blood substitutes Blood transfusion Bolus (medicine) Dialysis Drip chamber Fluid warmer Hypodermic needle Life ... A blood product (or blood-based product) is any component of blood which is collected from a donor for use in a blood ... Blood transfusions can be used in massive blood loss due to trauma, or can be used to replace blood lost during surgery. Blood ... Substances that may be infused intravenously include volume expanders, blood-based products, blood substitutes, medications and ...
Human hemoglobin chemically modified with maleimide-polyethylene glycol is a blood substitute called MP4. Maleimide and its ...
Carmilla further tells Laura she will not engage in blood fetishism any more, as it is a substitute for self-injury. Carmilla ... She came to the town in which Karen and her family lived and began an affair with her, which involved blood fetishism and ... Troy beat both women when he found that they were engaging in blood fetishism. He blamed Karen's mysterious ailment and ... and he instead substitutes the fantasy of vampirism. Troy was originally designed to be more of an explicit villain, but Katt ...
Blood products of human origin and plasma substitutes[edit]. Blood and blood components[edit]. ... 11 Blood products of human origin and plasma substitutes *11.1 Blood and blood components ... Plasma substitutes[edit]. *Dextran 70[note 67]. Cardiovascular medicines[edit]. Antianginal medicines[edit]. *Bisoprolol[note ...
Due to the injuries she sustained, he had to amputate her wings and was able to create a substitute blood serum that keeps ... But his spilled blood drove Vampirella into a feeding frenzy and she broke her bonds. She drank much of the Queen's blood, and ... Blood Lust (reprints Vampirella: Blood Lust #1-2) Harris Comics, 2006 Vampirella: Masters Series Volume 1: Grant Morrison & ... Vampirella & The Blood Red Queen of Hearts at the Grand Comics Database. Vampirella of Drakulon at the Grand Comics Database. ...
... blood substitutes MeSH D27.505.954.502.140.500 - plasma substitutes MeSH D27.505.954.502.270 - coagulants MeSH D27.505.954.502. ... fat substitutes MeSH D27.720.368.355 - food coloring agents MeSH D27.720.368.385 - food preservatives MeSH D27.720.400.800 - ... hormone substitutes, and hormone antagonists MeSH D27.505.696.399.450 - hormone antagonists MeSH D27.505.696.399.450.050 - ...
The practitioners use sleight of hand techniques to produce blood or blood-like fluids, animal tissue or substitutes, and/or ... The blood is either animal blood or red dye. Two "psychic surgeons" provided testimony in a Federal Trade Commission trial that ... Blood can also be passed to the surgeon in red balloons hidden in cotton the psychic surgeon is using, the cotton and its ... The blood that further disguises the true movement of the fingers and adds drama to the proceedings can come from two sources. ...
Blood-based product. *Whole blood. *PF24/Fresh frozen plasma (Cryosupernatant + Cryoprecipitate). Blood substitute. *Hemoglobin ... Blood pressure should not be taken on the arm with a PICC,[6] which is a problem if there are reasons not to take pressure on ... Side effects include blood clots and infection.[2] Other complications may include catheter occlusion, phlebitis and bleeding. ... Blood pressure readings on legs are often 10-20% higher than those on the brachial artery.[7] ...
Blood-based product. *Whole blood. *PF24/Fresh frozen plasma (Cryosupernatant + Cryoprecipitate). Blood substitute. *Hemoglobin ... Large amounts may result in fluid overload, swelling, acidosis, and high blood sodium.[1][2] In those with long-standing low ... It has a slightly higher degree of osmolarity (i.e. more solute per litre) than blood (However, if you take into account the ... NS is typically the first fluid used when hypovolemia is severe enough to threaten the adequacy of blood circulation, and has ...
Blood-based product. *Whole blood. *PF24/Fresh frozen plasma (Cryosupernatant + Cryoprecipitate). Blood substitute. *Hemoglobin ... Blood clots[edit]. Chronic IV access leaves a foreign body in the vascular system, and blood clots on this IV line are common.[ ... Because all of the baby's nourishment comes from the mother's blood stream, the doctor must properly calculate the dosage of ... and blood (nutrient levels) to determine conscious feelings of hunger.[15] In cases of TPN, the taste, smell and physical ...
Blood-based product. *Whole blood. *PF24/Fresh frozen plasma (Cryosupernatant + Cryoprecipitate). Blood substitute. *Hemoglobin ... The National Advisory Committee on Blood and Blood Products of Canada (NAC) and Canadian Blood Services have also developed ... "www.blood.gov.au. Retrieved 14 November 2019.. *^ a b c d e f "Hizentra EPAR". European Medicines Agency (EMA). Retrieved 2 May ... "www.blood.gov.au. Retrieved 14 November 2019.. *^ "Access to Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIg) , National Blood Authority". www ...
Blood-based product. *Whole blood. *PF24/Fresh frozen plasma (Cryosupernatant + Cryoprecipitate). Blood substitute. *Hemoglobin ... Side effects may include allergic reactions, high blood potassium, volume overload, and high blood calcium.[2] It may not be ... It is used for replacing fluids and electrolytes in those who have low blood volume or low blood pressure.[2] It may also be ... He hoped to identify the substances in blood that would allow the isolated heart to beat normally for a time.[17] The use of ...
... "blood substitutes". The blood substitutes currently available are chiefly polymerized haemoglobin solutions or haemoglobin- ... Blood transfusion begins by the withdrawal of 1 to 4 units of blood (1 unit = 450 ml of blood) several weeks before competition ... Blood doping can be achieved by making the body produce more red blood cells itself using drugs, giving blood transfusions ... or by using blood substitutes. Many methods of blood doping are illegal, particularly in professional sports where it is ...
Meanwhile, Wolf and scientist Franken Stein (who created Akim) try to find a substitute to keep Fuyumi from fading. After Wolf ... The Blood Lad dark comedy anime adapts Yūki Kodama's manga "Vampire Comedy Anime Blood Lad's 2nd Promo Streamed". Anime News ... One of his abilities is to manipulate blood.Ch. 27 Liz T. Blood (ブラッド・T・リズ, Buraddo Tī Rizu) Voiced by: Yūka Nanri (Japanese); ... Anime official website (archive) (in Japanese) Blood Lad at Kadokawa Shoten (in Japanese) Blood Lad (manga) at Anime News ...
... s may also be called blood-based products to differ from blood substitutes, which generally refer to artificially ... A blood product is any therapeutic substance prepared from human blood. This includes whole blood; blood components; and plasma ... Whole blood is not commonly used in transfusion medicine. Blood components include: red blood cell concentrates or suspensions ... Cryoprecipitate Cryosupernatant Fresh frozen plasma PF24 Platelet transfusion Red blood cells The Clinical Use of Blood ...
Perfluorinated alkanes are used as blood substitutes. Inhaler propellant[edit]. Fluorocarbons are also used as a propellant for ... Perfluorodecalin has been demonstrated as a blood substitutes, transporting oxygen to the lungs. ... Illustrative of fluorous technology is the use of fluoroalkyl-substituted tin hydrides for reductions, the products being ... Fluorine-substituted ethers are volatile anesthetics, including the commercial products methoxyflurane, enflurane, isoflurane, ...
Salt substitutes are low-sodium table salt alternatives marketed to circumvent the risk of high blood pressure and ... Salt substitutes can also be further enriched with the essential nutrients. A salt substitute can, analogously to the problem ... Sugar substitute Milk substitute Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) Salt and Health (PDF) Lifton, R. P. (1995-09 ... The leading salt substitutes are non-sodium table salts, which have their tastes as a result of compounds other than sodium ...
... but concerns about batch-to-batch variations in FBS have led to the development of serum substitutes. Blood serum and plasma ... Serum (/ˈsɪərəm/) is the fluid and solute component of blood which does not play a role in clotting. It may be defined as blood ... To obtain serum, a blood sample is allowed to clot (coagulation). The sample is then centrifuged to remove the clot and blood ... Serum does not contain white blood cells (leukocytes), red blood cells (erythrocytes), platelets, or clotting factors. The ...
"Artificial blood: an update on current red cell and platelet substitutes". Proceedings. 14 (2): 158-61. PMC 1291332 . PMID ... red blood cell replacement, antler regeneration and hair cycling.[70][71] Male deer lose their antlers annually during the ... and blood vessels grow with the regenerated limb, and reestablish the connections that were present prior to amputation. The ... their subsequent circulation for around 90 days in the blood stream, and their eventual cell-death in the spleen.[87] Another ...
The use of blood plasma as a substitute for whole blood and for transfusion purposes was proposed as early as 1918, in the ... A blood bank is a center where blood gathered as a result of blood donation is stored and preserved for later use in blood ... Several types of blood transfusion exist: Whole blood, which is blood transfused without separation. Red blood cells or packed ... For blood donation agencies in various countries, see List of blood donation agencies and List of blood donation agencies in ...
Elena tries to comfort her, but her blood lust causes her to run to the bathroom. She vomits all the blood Damon gave her all ... Damon can only guess Elena's Doppelganger side will not allow her to drink a substitute. Though this supports Damon's theory of ... Stefan and Elena want her to drink animal blood while Damon thinks she should drink human blood from the vein. After she tries ... Not surprised, Damon takes her into the bathroom and feeds her his blood, though he warns her not to tell Stefan, as he would ...
... substituting for blood. Throughout the play, at the back of the stage, a huge marble wolf can be seen from which feed Romulus ... note the use of red ribbons as a stylised substitute for blood ... The 1973 horror comedy film Theatre of Blood, directed by ... Titus is described as wearing blood soaked rags and carrying a butcher knife dripping with blood.[154] ... The Times, for example, felt that the juxtaposition of the blood tragedy and the frothy comedy was "ill-conceived".[167] ...
... but the BrAC results of certain machines have been judicially deemed presumptively accurate substitutes for blood testing when ... Arterial blood distributes oxygen throughout the body. Breath alcohol concentrations are generally lower than blood alcohol ... Breath analyzers do not directly measure blood alcohol content or concentration, which requires the analysis of a blood sample ... South Dakota had previously relied solely on blood tests to ensure accuracy, but has implemented evidential blood alcohol ...
Perfluorinated alkanes are used as blood substitutes.. Teflon structure. Chlorinated or fluorinated alkenes undergo ... Fluorine-substituted ethers are volatile anesthetics, including the commercial products methoxyflurane, enflurane, isoflurane, ... In the presence of a base, haloalkanes alkylate alcohols, amines, and thiols to obtain ethers, N-substituted amines, and ... Haloalkane or alkyl halides are the compounds which have the general formula "RX" where R is an alkyl or substituted alkyl ...
The Substitute (Le Substitut) V.5.5 (5-30): Thirsty for Blood (L'Avènement Du Sanguinaire) V.5.6 (5-31): The Sentries (Les ...
... bodies are elevated in the blood (ketosis) after fasting, including a night of sleep; in both blood and urine in ... the less-substituted kinetic enolate is generated selectively, while conditions that allow for equilibration (higher ... temperature, base added to ketone, using weak or insoluble bases, e.g., NaOEt in EtOH, or NaH) provides the more-substituted ...
A 2015 study of users in the United States also found elevated blood lead levels in 40 percent of those tested. Other concerns ... those used as a substitute for standard care. ... Until a decade ago or so, "complementary and alternative medicine" could be ... and testimonials do not substitute for evidence."[12] ...
Sodium is an essential nutrient that regulates blood volume, blood pressure, osmotic equilibrium and pH; the minimum ... 4) cation that can itself be substituted similarly; while stibonium (SbH+. 4) itself is not known, some of its organic ... Pure potassium metal is not often used, but its alloys with sodium may substitute for pure sodium in fast breeder nuclear ... Like rubidium, caesium tends to substitute potassium in the body, but is significantly larger and is therefore a poorer ...
The relatively poor oral bioavailability and blood-brain barrier penetration of CX-717 ultimately led to Cortex abandoning ... "Substituted benzoxazinones as potent positive allosteric AMPA receptor modulators: Part II". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry ... blood pressure or other cardiovascular side effects". In April 2007 Cortex Pharmaceuticals submitted two large data packages to ...
... of blood samples examined at Calcutta hospitals during the peak period, November-December 1944.[207] Statistics for malaria ... Unfamiliar and indigestible grains were often substituted for rice, causing intestinal distress that frequently resulted in ...
Since this activated carbon has no effect on blood clotting factors, heparin or most other anticoagulants [11] this allows a ... Activated is sometimes substituted with active. ... rivaroxaban and edoxaban from blood plasma samples.[10] For ... Hemoperfusion is a treatment technique in which large volumes of the patient's blood are passed over an adsorbent substance in ...
"The glycemic index (GI) factor is a ranking of foods based on their overall effect on blood sugar levels. The diet based around ... A 2009 review found that existing limited evidence suggested that encouraging water consumption and substituting energy-free ... During prolonged fasting or very low calorie diets the reduction of blood glucose, the preferred energy source of the brain, ...
... is often used as part of the mixture that goes into creating fake blood for films and television. Blood mixtures ...
While not a substitute for long-term counseling, this one-time support group showed that sing-alongs can be powerful in ... The infants' average blood pressure typically decreases after the music therapy sessions, as well. Although there are ... According to a 2013 Cochrane review, listening to music may improve heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure in those ...
Ginseng, popular tea in China and Korea, commonly used as a stimulant and as a caffeine substitute.[16][unreliable medical ... Roasted wheat, used in Postum, a coffee substitute. *Rooibos (Red Bush), reddish plant used to make an infusion and grown in ...
Substituting equation (5) into equation (4), we have. 0. =. k. 3. [. I. ]. K. m. [. ES. ]. [. S. ]. −. k. −. 3. [. EI. ]. {\ ... MPTP is able to cross the blood brain barrier and enter acidic lysosomes.[13] MPTP is biologically activated by MAO-B, an ... At this point, substitute equation (5) and equation (6) into equation (1): ... "Competitive Inhibition of Mushroom Tyrosinase by 4-Substituted Benzaldehydes". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 49 ( ...
Methylated spirits are sometimes used by alcoholics as a desperate and cheap substitute for regular ethanol alcoholic beverages ... Sack RL, Lewy AJ, Blood ML, Keith LD, Nakagawa H (July 1992). "Circadian rhythm abnormalities in totally blind people: ... which a measurement of blood glucose or sugar level.[43] In fact, as A1C increases, people tend to be at greater risk of ...
Blood concentrations of minerals[edit]. Minerals are present in a healthy human being's blood at certain mass and molar ... Thus Ce, Pr, and Nd may be substituted for La without ill effects for organisms using La, and the smaller Sm, Eu, and Gd may ... Reference ranges for blood tests, sorted logarithmically by mass above the scale and by molarity below. ... Needed for muscle, heart and digestive system health, builds bone, supports synthesis and function of blood cells Dairy ...
In man, an oral dose of 50 mg produced no effects on blood pressure. Later studies by Lands and Grant on the effects of racemic ... Application to the preparation of β-arylalkylamines and 3-substituted 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines." J. Org. Chem. 49 4107- ... caused a rise in blood pressure of 38 mm Hg lasting 3-10 minutes. This effect was described as being ~ 1/200 x that produced by ... caused a maximum rise in blood pressure of 26 mm Hg. Additional experiments by these investigators showed that racemic N- ...
a b CHAPTER 2004-256 Committee Substitute for Senate Bill No. 1118 Archived 2011-07-23 at the Wayback Machine State of Florida ... A TB blood test for baseline testing does not require two-step testing. If the skin test method is used to test HCP upon hire, ... The CDC recommends either a blood test, also known as an interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA), or a skin test, also known as a ... All other scenarios, with the exception of programs using blood tests, the recommended testing is a two-step TST ...
... substituted ingredients, completely misrepresented, or sold with a false brand name.[6] Otherwise, legitimate drugs that have ... 149 Americans died from a contaminated blood thinner called Heparin that was legally imported into the United States.[19] ... and cases where the claimed active ingredients are substituted by something cheaper (e.g., when methamphetamine is sold as ... the treatment of anemia and Neupogen is an injectable drug used by cancer patients to stimulate the production of white blood ...
The arrival of quantities of the new drug atabrine allowed this more effective drug to be substituted for quinine. The ... Brooks, Brenton (December 2013). "The Carnival of Blood in Australian Mandated Territory". Sabretache. Military Historical ... and substituted the capture of Milne Bay,[43] which was codenamed Operation RE, and scheduled for the middle of August.[44] ... cancelled Boston on 11 June and substituted Milne Bay.[15] Milne Bay was given the codename "Fall River".[17] The use of place ...
Rituximab may be substituted for cyclophosphamide to induce remission since it is similarly effective and has a comparable side ... It is a form of vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessels) that affects small- and medium-size vessels in many organs but most ... Classic microscopic features of GPA include inflammation of blood vessels associated with poorly formed granulomas, necrosis, ... a type of white blood cell) are associated with GPA.[11] Involvement of the ears, nose, and throat is more common in ...
Crile is now formally recognized as the first surgeon to have succeeded in a direct blood transfusion.[85] ... To abdicate from the rule of reason and substitute for it an authentication of belief by the intentness and degree of ...
Notable effects of adrenaline and noradrenaline include increased heart rate and blood pressure, blood vessel constriction in ... dopamine being used in this pathology as an inadequate substitute.[5][6] ... Anatomy photo:40:04-0202 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Posterior Abdominal Wall: Blood Supply to the Suprarenal ... The adrenal medulla consists of irregularly shaped cells grouped around blood vessels. These cells are intimately connected ...
In blood vessels Endothelium-Derived Hyperpolarizing Factor or EDHF is proposed to be a substance and/or electrical signal that ... Different endothelial mediators or pathways involved in EDHF-mediated relaxation may also work simultaneously and/or substitute ... In female mice, the deletion of eNOS and COX-1 did not affect mean arterial blood pressure, while males become hypertensive[1] ... Recently, EDHF has been implicated in gender-related differences in blood pressure control. The generation of animals that lack ...
No substitute goods: A monopoly sells a good for which there is no close substitute. The absence of substitutes makes the ... as well as rising awareness of blood diamonds that forced De Beers to "avoid the risk of bad publicity" by limiting sales to ... A pure monopoly is an industry in which there is only one supplier of a product for which there are no close substitutes and in ... If there is a single seller in a certain market and there are no close substitutes for the product, then the market structure ...
Further information: Blood product, Blood transfusion, and Blood substitute. A blood product (or blood-based product) is any ... Blood substitutes (also called 'artificial blood' or 'blood surrogates') are artificial substances aiming to provide an ... Early blood transfusions consisted of whole blood, but modern medical practice commonly uses only components of the blood, such ... Substances that may be infused intravenously include volume expanders, blood-based products, blood substitutes, medications and ...
Blood or plasma MDPV concentrations are expected to be in a range of 10-50 μg/L in persons using the drug recreationally, >50 ... In the UK, following the ACMD's report on substituted cathinone derivatives, MDPV is a Class B drug under The Misuse of Drugs ... MDPV is the 3,4-methylenedioxy ring-substituted analog of the compound pyrovalerone, developed in the 1960s, which has been ... MDPV may be quantified in blood, plasma or urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography-mass ...
... heat therapy which dilates blood vessels to the tumor site), blood substitutes that carry increased oxygen, hypoxic cell ... The blood feeding the tumor will carry the microspheres directly to the tumor enabling a more selective approach than ... Solid tumors can outgrow their blood supply, causing a low-oxygen state known as hypoxia. Oxygen is a potent radiosensitizer, ... They are often due to damage of blood vessels and connective tissue cells. Many late effects are reduced by fractionating ...
Beneficial effects on blood lipids and insulin resistance are due to the weight loss, not to the change in caloric composition ... There is only poor-quality evidence of the effect of different diets on reducing or preventing high blood pressure, but it ... This concept classifies foods according to the rapidity of their effect on blood sugar levels - with fast-digesting simple ... 2018). "Comparative effects of different dietary approaches on blood pressure in hypertensive and pre-hypertensive patients: A ...
Lowering the temperature may prolong the lifespan of cold blooded animals. Mice, which are warm blooded, have been engineered ... blood pressure, improved lipid profile, low serum T3 concentration, and decreased resting heart rate and whole-body resting ... and lower fasting blood glucose levels were factors associated with fewer disorders of aging and with improved survival rates.[ ...
... with non-blood family friends commonly accorded the status and titles of blood relations. This broader, more African concept of ... eschewing trans fats in favor of natural vegetable oils and substituting smoked turkey for fatback and other, cured pork ... Others, separated from blood kin, formed close bonds based on fictive kin; play relations, play aunts, cousins, and the like. ...
Blood. 100 (9): 3063-3067. doi:10.1182/blood-2002-03-0996. Schey, S.A. (15 August 2004). "Phase I Study of an Immunomodulatory ... Substitutes larger than diethoxy at the X2-X3 position had decreased activity. The effects of these substitutions seem to be ... This explains the effect of thalidomide when given to ENL patients, as they commonly have high levels of TNF-α in their blood ... Substituted amides that were larger than methylamide (CONHCH3) decrease PDE4 inhibition activity. Using a carboxylic acid as a ...
Epinephrine relieves airway swelling and obstruction, and improves blood circulation; blood vessels are tightened and heart ... Natural food substitutes. *Cheese analogues. *Coffee substitutes. *Egg substitutes. *Meat analogues *bacon ... Blood testing is another way to test for allergies; however, it poses the same disadvantage and only detects IgE allergens and ... Secreted IgE circulates in the blood and binds to an IgE-specific receptor (a kind of Fc receptor called FcεRI) on the surface ...
Risks associated with blood transfusions have been minimised with the development of highly sensitive tests for blood-bor... ... Fake Blood. blood. Beer. blood transfusion. The Prince of Blood. Hepatitis. blood blister. My tongue, every atom of my blood, ... Qualities of an effective blood substitute *The ideal blood substitute would have the correct affinity for O2, strong enough to ... The need for blood substitutes Risks associated with blood transfusions have been minimised with the development of highly ...
T 0529/94 (Blood substitutes/D.LONG) of 9.10.1997. European Case Law Identifier:. ECLI:EP:BA:1997:T052994.19971009. ...
Blood substitutes are often used in blood transfusions where real blood is not available. Losing a lot of blood can mean there ... Blood substitute (also called blood surrogate) is the name for a number of substances that can perform some functions of blood ... Blood substitutes can be used without immune reactions.. *Blood substitutes can be stored for much longer than transfusable ... There are two basic types of blood substitutes: *Liquids that act as blood thinners, but that do not have any physiological ...
Haemoglobin as a blood substitute. Following an accident, it is important that additional haemoglobin is quickly supplied to ... It is especially important to get hold of these substitutes in emergency situations where safe blood transfusions are of vital ... "The Ebola epidemic in Africa is a current example where these blood substitutes could save lives", he added.. ... 12/09/2017 Blood, Heart and Circulation Clinical trial reveals risky clot busters do not benefit most patients suffering from ...
... Chakane, Sandeep LU (2017) *Mark ... material for the development of artificial blood substitutes/Hb-based oxygen carrier (HBOC). Several kinds of. HBOC products ... material for the development of artificial blood substitutes/Hb-based oxygen carrier (HBOC). Several kinds of. HBOC products ... shortage of donated blood and the risk of virus transmission through transfusible blood seriously affect the. availability of ...
University, LDS Hospitals Seek Public Comment on Trial of New Blood Substitute for Trauma Patients. ... University, LDS Hospitals Seek Public Comment on Trial of New Blood Substitute for Trauma Patients. Jun 13, 2005 6:00 PM ... Half of them will receive the blood substitute (assigned randomly) and half will receive traditional therapy. ... will begin using the blood substitute, PolyHeme?, to treat patients in hemorrhagic shock at the scene of the injury, continuing ...
2). In fact, because all blood substitutes lack a red blood cell membrane, they do not contain blood group antigens (which are ... In recent years, Americas blood shortage has propelled the biotechnology of blood substitutes. Artificial blood does not ... In response to impending blood shortages, scientists and engineers have begun a quest to discover an ideal blood substitute. ... In the quest to find the perfect blood substitute, human innovation and collaboration will address the impending blood shortage ...
A blood substitute or blood extender is prepared by chemically coupling hemoglobin with a polysaccharide material selected from ... US4064118A - Blood substitute based on hemoglobin - Google Patents. Blood substitute based on hemoglobin Download PDF Info. ...
... Susan J Brunskill, Chris Prowse, Magnus Garrioch, Ravi Gill, Paul ...
Explore the science and understand more clearly the Blood Substitutes topic by reading the best articles made from Experts, ... Blood Substitutes, and other areas. Recent rapid advances in modified hemoglobin Blood Substitutes have resulted in advance ... Blood Substitutes are oxygen-carrying fluids that aim to provide an alternative to the transfusion of Blood. Strategies for ... An appreciation of what stakeholders perceive to be the benefits and risks of the receipt of Blood and Blood Substitutes will ...
Modified cell-free hemoglobin derivatives have been under study as potential red cell substitutes for nearly three decades ( ... Chang, T.M.S., and R. Geyer(eds.) Proceedings of II International Symposium on Blood Substitutes.Biomater. Artif. Cells Artif. ... In: Winslow R.M., Vandegriff K.D., Intaglietta M. (eds) Blood Substitutes. Birkhäuser Boston. * DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/978 ... Winslow, R.M. Hemoglobin-based red cell substitutes. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.Google Scholar ...
... perfusing an animal or organ with a perfluorocarbon emulsion blood substitute, (2) administering the mixture of test compounds ... A variety of blood substitutes are taught in the literature and/or are commercially available. An appropriate blood substitute ... a) perfusing said isolated organ with a blood substitute, wherein said blood substitute is a fluorocarbon emulsion; ... The term "blood substitute" refers to a fluid which may be used to replace the blood of a test animal, or may be used to ...
begingroup$ Yes, in this case liquid atmosphere == an ocean of blood (or blood substitute) $\endgroup$ - coderworks Feb 17 15 ... Could humans breathe on a planet that had a liquid hemoglobin (or some artificial blood substitute) atmosphere?. Ask Question ... or some artificial blood substitute.. I am not sure yet if the planet could have any kind of ocean. So perhaps instead of an ... If it did, wed drown to death in our own red blood cells. In your situation, youd have hemoglobin in the aveoli from the ...
Artificial Cells, Blood Substitutes, and Biotechnology (journal) Blood plasma substitute (disambiguation) Blood transfusion ... A blood substitute (also called artificial blood or blood surrogate) is a substance used to mimic and fulfill some functions of ... Perfluorocarbon-based blood substitutes are completely man-made; this provides advantages over blood substitutes that rely on ... This blood will also serve as a blood donor to all common blood types. Pharmed blood may be used in human trials in 2013. ...
A blood plasma substitute may refer to: An artificially made substance designed to have one or more of the vast amount of ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Blood plasma substitute. If an internal link led you here, ... functions of the contents of the blood plasma Volume expander (although providing volume is only one of many functions of blood ...
Blood Substitute Solutions. Br Med J 1956; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.4988.354 (Published 11 August 1956) Cite this ...
A government researcher said Monday that experimental blood substitutes are linked to an increased risk of heart attack and ... Expert: Human tests on experimental blood substitutes should be halted. * In clinical trials, blood substitutes increased risk ... Blood substitutes could prove invaluable on the battlefield, where fresh blood supplies can be limited. ... Watch more on blood substitutes ». Even before human trials began, animal trials showed evidence that the product causes ...
... especially when whole blood is in short supply. ... The development of a safe and effective blood substitute would ... especially when whole blood is in short supply.. One type of artificial blood substitute that scientists have studied ... Hemoglobin-based blood substitutes and the treatment of sickle cell disease: more harm than help?. Alayash AI ... The development of a safe and effective blood substitute would greatly improve the emergency treatment of accident victims and ...
By reducing the sodium content of your diet youll promote a lower blood pressure. Salt substitutes can plan a useful role as ... Lower Blood Pressure with Salt Substitutes. by Lisa Nelson, RD, LN Health Professional. November 15, 2010. ... By reducing the sodium content of your diet youll promote a lower blood pressure. Salt substitutes can plan a useful role as ... What are salt substitutes?. Salt substitutes are foods low in sodium, but that still provide the flavor of salt. Salt ...
Flow cytometric characterization of blood and blood substitutes. Artificial blood substitutes have a high potential to improve ... These parameters are also needed for quality assurance in fabrication of the artificial blood substitute.. Subsequently, the ... In this project, haemoglobin microparticles are investigated, which are suitable as artificial blood substitutes.. The ... Quantification of these parameters is essential for the intended approval as blood substitute. ...
Blood substitute draws praise, fire. Ethicists, lawmakers question consent process, but 1 man credits PolyHeme with saving his ... Erick Silkworth was hardly in the position to give his consent to being treated with an experimental blood substitute. ... Half of the patients, like Silkworth, receive PolyHeme; the other half gets saline at accident scenes or donated blood in the ... Although it will not be officially reported until later this year whether PolyHeme worked any better than saline or real blood ...
Synthetic Blood Substitutes and Blood Products Market is driven by Increase in incidence of disease seeking medical ... Synthetic blood substitute or artificial blood is a replacement for blood. It generally replicates and fulfills some functions ... and rise in blood related disorders are the major drivers of the synthetic blood substitutes and blood products market. Advent ... and sheeps blood were used as blood substitutes. Experimentation over the years led to the invention of new type of blood ...
... cancelled a meeting to consider a proposed clinical trial by the Navy of Biopures investigational blood substitute. The ...
BioWorld Online is the news service of record for the biotechnology industry and is updated every business morning. BioWorld Online will keep you up to date on all of the industrys business, science and regulatory news -- mergers and collaborations, FDA hearings and results, breakthroughs in research and much more.
As blood-pressure drug recall widens, doctors say patients should pay attention, but warned against dropping a medication ... Doctors: Blood pressure drug substitutes are available for patients affected by recalls. As blood-pressure drug recall widens, ... Doctors: Blood pressure drug substitutes are available for patients affected by recalls As blood-pressure drug recall widens, ... Doctors: Blood pressure drug substitutes are available for patients affected by recalls. Ken Alltucker, USA TODAY Published 10: ...
They are more worried than excited or enthusiastic about healthy people using synthetic blood, and six-in-ten would not want it ... For the biomedical world, synthetic blood is a not a new concept. Research into substitutes for human blood ramped up in the ... Lab-manufactured synthetic blood, sometimes called "super blood," would replicate the oxygen-carrying capabilities of red blood ... synthetic blood could help alleviate blood shortages, given that it could be used regardless of blood type. But it could also ...
... of announcing that one of its physician researchers has canceled a planned report about a controversial blood substitute at a ... PolyHeme is one of several experimental blood substitutes being tested as an alternative to donated blood. ... did not receive all the data he needed from the manufacturer to make a presentation on the blood substitute PolyHeme, which is ... that PolyHeme was unlikely to have been the cause of 10 heart attacks and two deaths in patients receiving the blood substitute ...
Self blood pressure monitoring: a worthy substitute for ambulatory blood pressure?. McGowan N1, Padfield PL. ... There was no difference in mean blood pressure (BP): SBPM 142/87 mm Hg, daytime average ABPM 141/86 mm Hg. The intra-class ... have published guidelines for self-monitoring of blood pressure (SBPM). We aimed to demonstrate the equivalence of SBPM with ... ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in the assessment of hypertension. A total of 87 consecutive subjects referred from ...
Blood Volume Substitutes / HES Login required for. Blood Volume Substitutes / HES. Please note that due to the German ...
Sweeteners and sugar substitutes have one thing in common: compared to sugar they have little (sugar substitutes) or no ( ... The hormone insulin maintains blood sugar on a more or less constant level. The level of blood sugar normally increases after ... and transmitted into the blood stream. In healthy bodies, when the blood sugar level increases, insulin is secreted which then ... Their blood sugar level may vary considerably, depending on their diet, so they have to maintain a very balanced diet (and ...
For a blood substitute to work, it must be able to mimic the ability of red blood cells to carry oxygen. Most of the human ... blood substitute products in advanced-phase clinical trials are derivatives of hemoglobin and are called hemoglobin-based ... There is currently no substitute for human blood, despite more than 70 years of research. ... For a blood substitute to work, it must be able to mimic the ability of red blood cells to carry oxygen. Most of the human ...
In this case the platelet substitute and the hydroxylower alkyl amine can be omitted from the coating solution. ... and a platelet substitute. The solid support can be a solid organic polymer, such as polystyrene, which can be coated directly ... Procedures for preparing a brain extract which is a platelet substitute by extracting warm blooded mammalian brain tissue are ... Immunoassay with solid phase having coating containing blood platelet substitute. US 4360358 A ...
Bioartificial fabrication of regenerating blood vessel substitutes: requirements and current strategies. Mathias Wilhelmi* ... Tissue-engineered blood vessel for adult arterial revascularization. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 1451-1453.CrossrefGoogle Scholar ... Human tissue-engineered blood vessels for adult arterial revascularization. Nat Med 2006; 12: 361-365.CrossrefGoogle Scholar ... Tissue-engineered blood vessels with endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2008; 85: ...
In this case, that hare-brained idea was using milk as a substitute for blood, and the practice became fairly popular in 19th- ... In order to get around the need to transfuse others with blood, some doctors resorted to using a blood substitute: Milk. ... Dont use blood at all but use a blood substitute. Milk seemed like the perfect choice. ... By this time, around 1884, the promise of milk as a perfect blood substitute had been thoroughly disproved. By the turn of the ...
Associate professor Jacob Elmer says the critters may hold the secret to a viable and sustainable replacement for human blood ... to create blood substitutes have been based on purified human hemoglobin but clinical trials show that blood substitutes based ... But seasonal shortages in donations to blood banks and limitations on blood preservation mean physicians often lack the blood ... many blood substitutes have failed in the past because theyve relied on a process of extracting hemoglobin from red blood ...
Adults who are following the DASH-style eating pattern to lower their blood pressure can expand their protein options to ... Study: DASH diet can substitute lean pork for chicken or fish to reduce blood pressure. ... diet retains effectiveness to reduce blood pressure when lean pork is substituted for chicken and fish as the predominant ... diet retains effectiveness to reduce blood pressure when lean pork is substituted for chicken and fish as the predominant ...
... an investigational oxygen-carrying blood substitute designed to increase survival of critically injured and bleeding trauma ... he or she will not receive the blood substitute. Use of the blood substitute can be stopped at anytime during the trial based ... In contrast, the blood substitute carries oxygen, has a long shelf life and is compatible with all blood types," said Gamelli, ... Because blood is not currently carried in ambulances, the use of the blood substitute in these settings has the potential to ...
If Your Blood Pressure Medication was Recalled, Substitutes are Available. If Your Blood Pressure Medication was Recalled, ... If you take blood pressure medication, or any necessary medication, you need a backup plan in case yours is recalled. Its not ... The recalled drugs are used to treat high blood pressure and heart failure. They are in a class of drugs called angiotensin II ... In any event, do not stop taking your blood pressure medication without getting a new drug from your doctor or pharmacist, even ...
  • Risks associated with blood transfusion s have been minimised with the development of highly sensitive tests for blood -borne pathogen s such as hepatitis and the immunodeficiency virus . (everything2.com)
  • These often use blood transfusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood transfusion is the second largest source of new HIV infections in Nigeria . (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood transfusion is a clinically significant and crucial process, which saves millions of lives every year. (lu.se)
  • Blood Substitutes are oxygen-carrying fluids that aim to provide an alternative to the transfusion of Blood . (idexlab.com)
  • Blood transfusion is a remarkably safe, routine procedure in clinical medicine. (idexlab.com)
  • It is pertinent to ask (i) what key stakeholder groups know about transfusion, (ii) how safe they perceive Blood / Blood products to be, (iii) how the latter information might influence their own and others' perceptions of risk linked to transfusion, and (iv) the extent to which approved Blood Substitutes might be preferred over autologous or donor Blood . (idexlab.com)
  • In the US today, blood transfusion is safer than ever. (vcu.edu)
  • The elimination of unwanted side effects, especially transfusion-transmitted diseases, the problems and high cost factor involved in collecting and storing human blood, the pending worldwide shortages, and the need for compatibility testing are the driving forces contributing towards the development of blood substitutes. (vcu.edu)
  • So if there is a natural disaster, war or a terrorist attack, and you exhaust your current blood supply, these materials are supposed to give the patient enough time to get a proper blood transfusion. (osu.edu)
  • As the substitute would lack red blood cells (RBC), there would be no surface antigens to match, thereby eliminating another step in the processing. (everything2.com)
  • Ideally it needs to last long enough for the body to replace the artificial blood with new blood cells . (everything2.com)
  • Also, in comparison, natural replenishment of lost red blood cells usually takes months, so an oxygen-carrying blood substitute can perform this function until blood is naturally replenished. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dried blood is better for first aid during combat than whole blood or packed red cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • to that of patients who receive the current standard of care, which is allogenic blood or red blood cells and saline solution. (utah.edu)
  • Artificial blood does not contain the plasma, red and white cells, or platelets of human blood, but functions to transport and deliver oxygen to the body's tissues until the recipient's bone marrow has regenerated the missing red blood cells. (usc.edu)
  • While HBOCs utilize hemoglobin, an actual component of red blood cells, PFCs rely solely on synthetic chemical processes. (usc.edu)
  • It is instead designed to imitate the oxygen-carrying capacity of the red blood cells. (usc.edu)
  • Artificial blood will only serve as a temporary substitute until the recipient's own body has enough time to reproduce the necessary blood cells to compensate for lost blood [3]. (usc.edu)
  • In all red blood cells, a molecule known as hemoglobin binds oxygen from the lungs and carries it to the tissues of the body. (usc.edu)
  • Figure 1: A hemoglobin molecule wors from within red blood cells to release oxygen to body tissues. (usc.edu)
  • A cofactor called 2,3-diphosphoglycera​te (2,3-DPG) is located in all red blood cells, and without it, the hemoglobin could not readily release oxygen to the body's tissues [3]. (usc.edu)
  • A further step is the preparation of nanodimension artificial red Blood cells that contain hemoglobin and all the enzymes present in red Blood cells. (idexlab.com)
  • If it did, we'd drown to death in our own red blood cells. (stackexchange.com)
  • There is the possibility of Liquid Breathing , however it is unlikely that the liquid would be haemoglobin and still be breathable, as haemoglobin is quite viscous (this is why it is contained within red blood cells). (stackexchange.com)
  • They are useful to maintain basal levels of oxygen in the body in virtual absence of red blood cells. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • SAN DIEGO - It may be a decade yet before it becomes a reality, but there was a buzz here today about artificial blood cells that could be used for trauma patients. (medscape.com)
  • They are one-fiftieth the size of red blood cells, so what are the implications of that? (medscape.com)
  • HbVs and fresh human red blood cells (RBCs) were mixed in various volume ratios at a Hb concentration of 10 g/dl in isotonic saline that contained 5 g/dl albumin, and the suspension was perfused at the centerline flow velocity of 1 mm/s through the narrow tube. (elsevier.com)
  • The materials I'm making, such as artificial red blood cells and artificial plasma, are to be used when blood is not available," Palmer says. (osu.edu)
  • The two principle categories of blood substitutes are known as hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs). (usc.edu)
  • Blood substitutes are often used in blood transfusions where real blood is not available. (wikipedia.org)
  • In battlefields it is often impossible to give rapid blood transfusions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxygen-carrying blood substitutes also would become an alternative for those patients that refuse blood transfusions for religious or cultural reasons, such as Jehovah's Witnesses . (wikipedia.org)
  • In just over a year, the researchers will start testing the haemoglobin from plants in animal experiments with researchers at University College London, who have world-leading expertise on blood transfusions. (healthcanal.com)
  • It is especially important to get hold of these substitutes in emergency situations where safe blood transfusions are of vital importance, according to Leif Bülow. (healthcanal.com)
  • In addition to carrying oxygen, such compounds can be sterilized against infectious diseases and used in patients whose religious beliefs prevent them from accepting blood transfusions. (usc.edu)
  • They also could be used for patients whose religious beliefs prohibit acceptance of blood transfusions. (osu.edu)
  • a hemoglobin-based, oxygen-carrying blood substitute, to increase survival of critically injured and bleeding patients. (utah.edu)
  • Current blood substitutes are either hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs) or perfluorocarbons (PFCs). (usc.edu)
  • Dr Doctor will report on the development of the new artificial blood substitute, known as ErythroMer, at a session on December 5 (abstract 1027 ), but gave a brief preview at today's press briefing. (medscape.com)
  • In recent years, America's blood shortage has propelled the biotechnology of blood substitutes. (usc.edu)
  • Strategies for developing such Substitutes have involved the production of materials based on the naturally occurring respiratory pigment, haemoglobin (Hb), or synthetic, chemically inert, fluorinated liquids called perfluorochemicals (PFCs). (idexlab.com)
  • An important potential use of PFC s is for patients whose religion does not allow the use of animal blood products and their derivatives. (everything2.com)
  • Since oxygen therapeutics are not yet widely available, the United States Army is experimenting with varieties of dried blood, which take up less room, weigh less and can be used much longer than blood plasma . (wikipedia.org)
  • Nélida Leiva's supervisor, Professor Leif Bülow, has spent many years conducting research on the production of human haemoglobin, primarily with the help of bacteria, because haemoglobin from blood donors is far from sufficient to cover the needs of society. (healthcanal.com)
  • If the demand for blood remains at the current per capita level in elderly patients and rates of donation do not change, a significant shortage of approximately 4 million units of blood will occur by the year 2030 (US). (everything2.com)
  • However, shortage of donated blood and the risk of virus transmission through transfusible blood seriously affect the availability of the blood. (lu.se)
  • Scientists and engineers are replying to the same need, developing a blood substitute to combat the threat of catastrophic blood shortage. (usc.edu)
  • Developing blood substitutes is in urgent demand for chronic blood shortage all over the world. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The first goal of oxygen carrying blood substitutes is just to mimic blood's oxygen transport capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unfortunately, oxygen transport, one function that distinguishes real blood from other "volume expanders", has been very difficult to reproduce. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood substitutes allow for immediate full capacity oxygen transport, as opposed to transfused blood which can require about 24 hours to reach full oxygen transport capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In response to impending blood shortages, scientists and engineers have begun a quest to discover an ideal blood substitute. (usc.edu)
  • The ideal blood substitute would have the correct affinity for O2 , strong enough to bind it in the lung s, and weak enough to release it to the tissue s. (everything2.com)
  • Blood substitute (also called blood surrogate ) is the name for a number of substances that can perform some functions of blood . (wikipedia.org)
  • SALT LAKE CITY - Utahs two major trauma centers for adult patients, University of Utah Hospital and LDS Hospital, have begun a period of public comment on their anticipated participation in a national clinical trial to test a new synthetic blood product in the treatment of trauma patients. (utah.edu)
  • The product is a nanoparticle, about one-fiftieth the size of a red blood cell, and it has a synthetic polymer artificial membrane that is encoded with wet-ware that manipulates the oxygen affinity of the particle to imitate that of a red blood cell," Dr Doctor explained. (medscape.com)
  • Therefore, the tetrameric molecule has served as a focal point in the search for a blood substitute. (usc.edu)
  • He currently serves on the International Scientific Advisory Committee on Blood Substitutes and is a member of the Academic Advisory board for Howard University's Department of Chemical Engineering. (osu.edu)
  • Hemoglobin (Hb), owing to its oxygen carrying capacity, has been studied as a starting material for the development of artificial blood substitutes/Hb-based oxygen carrier (HBOC). (lu.se)
  • Thus far, the hemoglobin used in the development of this product has been obtained from donated blood that has passed its use-by date, but to avoid the risk of viral contamination, work is underway to enable possible future production with recombinant hemoglobin genetically engineered in yeast (developed in partnership with the Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg, Sweden). (medscape.com)
  • After the attacks on September 11, 2001, over 500,000 Americans responded to the need for blood donations [1]. (usc.edu)
  • Blood substitutes can be used without immune reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also with risk of blood borne infections, efforts for finding an artificial substitute for human blood is going on. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • He sleeps in a custom made-to-measure wooden coffin, wears eyeliner for a darker look and regularly consumes cow and and pig blood, as well as a human blood substitute. (odditycentral.com)
  • The heme group is responsible for attaching oxygen to the red blood cell [5]. (usc.edu)
  • Hemoglobin retains its capacity to bind to oxygen even when it is outside of a red blood cell [5]. (usc.edu)
  • Hemoglobin is extracted by removing the red blood cell membrane, forming stroma-free hemoglobin [4]. (usc.edu)
  • Artificial cell or bioencapsulation has been developed for use in bioartificial organs, drug delivery, Blood Substitutes , and other areas. (idexlab.com)
  • What are the various types of red cell substitutes? (pediatriconcall.com)
  • In a red blood cell, this is done by a complex set of enzymes," he said. (medscape.com)
  • Recent rapid advances in modified hemoglobin Blood Substitutes have resulted in advance stages of Phase III clinical trials. (idexlab.com)
  • Blood substitutes can be stored for much longer than transfusable blood, and can be kept at room temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • The populations of developed nations are aging, and since most donor blood goes to people over the age of 65 for surgery , the ratio of donor blood requirements to population is increasing. (everything2.com)
  • Donor blood is very expensive - $ NZ 200 per unit. (everything2.com)
  • Donor blood also presents logistical difficulties, when considering refrigerated transport - it is not practical to have supplies of donor blood at the front line of a war for example. (everything2.com)
  • Donor blood only has a shelf life of 3 weeks, due to diminishing clinical effectiveness and bacterial contamination . (everything2.com)
  • Most haemoglobin-based oxygen carriers in trials today carry a shelf life of between 1 and 3 years, [1] compared to 42 days for donated blood, which needs to be kept refrigerated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent studies on liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) have indicated that this potential blood substitute can activate the complement (C) system of rats, pigs and man. (elsevier.com)