'Blood Protein Disorders' refer to conditions characterized by an abnormal amount, structure, or function of proteins present in the blood, including immunoglobulins, coagulation factors, complement components, and transport proteins, which can lead to various clinical manifestations such as immune dysfunction, bleeding disorders, or metabolic imbalances.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
The narrow tube connecting the YOLK SAC with the midgut of the EMBRYO; persistence of all or part of it in post-fetal life produces abnormalities, of which the commonest is MECKEL DIVERTICULUM.
Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders resulting from abnormalities or deficiencies of coagulation proteins.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Electrophoresis applied to BLOOD PROTEINS.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.
Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.

Inherited prothrombotic risk factors and cerebral venous thrombosis. (1/102)

Fifteen patients with cerebral venous thrombosis were ascertained retrospectively. Their case notes were reviewed, and stored or new blood was assayed for factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation, prothrombin gene mutation 20201A, and 5,10 methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T mutation. A clinical risk factor was identified in 13 patients--the oral contraceptive pill (5), puerperium (1), HRT (1), mastoiditis (1), dehydration (1), lumbar puncture and myelography (1), carcinoma (1), lupus anticoagulant (2). In addition, two patients had the FVL mutation and five (one of whom also had the FVL mutation) were homozygous for the MTHFR mutation. The latter showed a higher than expected frequency compared to 300 healthy controls from South Wales (OR 3.15.95% Cl 1.01-9.83). No patient had the prothrombin 20201A mutation. Two patients died and three had a monocular visual deficit following anticoagulation (13) or thrombolytic (2) treatment, but there was no association between the presence of a primary prothrombotic risk factor and outcome. These results confirm the importance of investigating patients for both clinical predisposing factors and primary prothrombotic states.  (+info)

Coordinate augmentation in expression of genes encoding transcription factors and liver secretory proteins in hypo-oncotic states. (2/102)

BACKGROUND: In the nephrotic syndrome (NS) proteins of intermediate size (40 to 200 kD) are lost into the urine resulting in a decrease in plasma albumin concentration and as a consequence a reduction in plasma colloid osmotic pressure (pi). Plasma pi has also been reported to be reduced in the condition of hereditary analbuminemia. The liver, in an apparent compensatory response, increases synthesis of a group of secreted proteins defending plasma pi. Regulation of several of these proteins, including both positive and negative acute phase proteins, is at the transcriptional level. This is the only known condition in which transcription of both positive and negative acute phase proteins (APPs) are increased simultaneously. The specific transcription factor(s) that might regulate this cascade is not defined. METHODS: RNA was extracted from livers of 5 rats with hereditary analbuminemia (the Nagase analbuminemic rat, NAR), 5 rats with NS induced by adriamycin (Adria), 5 rats with NS caused by passive Heymann nephritis (NS) and 5 control animals. The concentrations of mRNAs encoding four secreted proteins (albumin, transferrin, fibrinogen, and apo A-1), five transcription factors, early growth response factor 1 (EGRF-1), HNF-4, NGFI-C, EGR-3, and Krox20 relative to two housekeeping genes, beta actin and GAPDH were determined simultaneously using kinetic reverse transcriptase polymerase chain methodology (kRT-PCR). RESULTS: The levels of all mRNAs encoding secreted proteins except for albumin (which was reduced in NAR) were increased in NS and NAR and correlated significantly with one another. mRNA encoding EGRF 1 was increased fivefold in NS and NAR, and correlated significantly with mRNAs encoding Apo A-1, transferrin and albumin in the two NS groups. HNF-4 mRNA was increased approximately twofold in both NS groups and correlated with albumin (R = 0.881, P < 0.001), transferrin (R = 0.563, P = 0.012) and apo A-1 (R = 0.644, P = 0. 003). While fibrinogen mRNA correlated with that of each of the other secreted proteins, it did not correlate with either HNF-4 or EGRF-1 mRNA. Krox20, EGR3 and NGF1C were expressed at nearly undetectable levels. CONCLUSIONS: The hepatic response in conditions characterized by reduced plasma pi include increased levels of mRNAs encoding a group of secreted proteins, including the negative APPs albumin, transferrin and apo A-1, and the positive APP fibrinogen. Levels of mRNAs encoding negative APPs and fibrinogen correlate with one another, suggesting that they are coordinately controlled. Both EGRF-1 and HNF-4 may regulate the expression of the negative APPs, which have increased transcription in hypo-oncotic states.  (+info)

Complement fixation by rheumatoid factor. (3/102)

The capacity for fixation and activation of hemolytic complement by polyclonal IgM rheumatoid factors (RF) isolated from sera of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and monoclonal IgM-RF isolated from the cryoprecipitates of patients with IgM-IgG mixed cryoglobulinemia was examined. RF mixed with aggregated, reduced, and alkylated human IgG (Agg-R/A-IgG) in the fluid phase failed to significantly reduce the level of total hemolytic complement, CH50, or of individual complement components, C1, C2, C3, and C5. However, sheep erythrocytes (SRC) coated with Agg-R/A-IgG or with reduced and alkylated rabbit IgG anti-SRC antibody were hemolyzed by complement in the presence of polyclonal IgM-RF. Human and guinea pig complement worked equally well. The degree of hemolysis was in direct proportion to the hemagglutination titer of the RF against the same coated cells. Monoclonal IgM-RF, normal human IgM, and purified Waldenstrom macroglobulins without antiglobulin activity were all inert. Hemolysis of coated SRC by RF and complement was inhibited by prior treatment of the complement source with chelating agents, hydrazine, cobra venom factor, specific antisera to C1q, CR, C5, C6, or C8, or by heating at 56 degrees C for 30 min. Purified radiolabeled C4, C3, and C8 included in the complement source were bound to hemolysed SRC in direct proportion to the degree of hemolysis. These data indicate that polyclonal IgM-RF fix and activate complement via the classic pathway. The system described for assessing complement fixation by isolated RF is readily adaptable to use with whole human serum.  (+info)

Sialoproteinaemia: lack of correlation with inhibition of in vitro lymphoblastosis induced by phytohaemagglutinin or alloantigen. (4/102)

Elevation of serum-bound sialic acid concentration in different disease states fails to correlate significantly with suppressive serum actions in mixed allogeneic lymphocyte cultures or phyto-haemagglutinin cultures. Heat-decomplemented serum from patients with abnormal levels of bound sialic acid was added to parallel cultures containing similar blood lymphocyte populations derived from normal humans. Wide fluctuations of the rate of incorporation of tritiated thymidine into nucleoprotein indicated presence of suppressive elements other than sialoprotein in the added serum components. Serum with rising sialyl concentration derived from patients with cancer showed slight tendency to augment mixed lymphocyte and phytohaemagglutinin responses. The findings suggest that the previously documented nonspecific suppressive action of serum sialoprotein on human host lymphoblastic response to neuraminidase-treated cancer cells represents a mechanism unique to that culture system rather than a manifestation of a general immunoregulatory function of serum sialoprotein.  (+info)

Hypoalbuminaemia due to protein loss from gastric carcinoma. (5/102)

In a patient suffering from carcinoma of the stomach generalized oedema was the presenting symptom. It is suggested that this was due to excessive loss of protein from the stomach.  (+info)

STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF HUMAN 7S GAMMA-GLOBULIN (G IMMUNOGLOBULIN). FURTHER OBSERVATIONS OF A NATURALLY OCCURRING PROTEIN RELATED TO THE CRYSTALLIZABLE (FAST) FRAGMENT. (6/102)

1. Detailed physical, chemical, and immunologic studies of a protein closely related to the Fc fragment and heavy chain of G immunoglobulin (IgG), and elaborated by a subject with a lymphoproliferative disorder are presented. 2. The protein, which has a molecular weight of 51,000, was cleaved into two half molecules by reduction and alkylation. 3. The protein has few if any of the antigenic determinants of the antigen-binding (Fab) papain fragment of IgG, and has a striking similarity in its antigenic properties to the Fc fragment. 4. Fingerprint patterns resemble those of the crystallizable (Fc) fragment, and lack several peptides found in the heavy chain. 5. These findings suggest that the Fc fragment may be a real structural unit of IgG, and raise the possibility of the existence of three different types of polypeptide chains in G immunoglobulin.  (+info)

METABOLISM AND FUNCTION OF GAMMA GLOBULIN IN ALEUTIAN DISEASE OF MINK. (7/102)

Aleutian disease-affected mink, which are markedly hypergammaglobulinemic, show a decreased half-life of the serum gamma globulin indicating that the hyperglobulinemia is due to increased production. No evidence that the gamma globulin was antibody to the infectious agent, to autologous or isologous tissues, or to antigens the animal was responding to prior to development of the disease was obtained. The increased gamma globulin was found to be of the 6.4S variety, and gamma globulin containing protein-protein complexes of 9S to 17S and 22S to 25S classes were observed in serums of affected mink. The findings are most consistent with the Aleutian disease virus acting as a direct and somewhat selective stimulus to plasma cell proliferation. There is no evidence that the arterial and glomerular lesions of Aleutian disease have an immunologic pathogenesis. It seems possible that these vascular changes may be directly caused by the viral agent, or may be the result of the increased gamma globulin levels.  (+info)

AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE IN NZB/BL MICE. I. PATHOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS OF A MODEL SYSTEM OF SPONTANEOUS GLOMERULONEPHRITIS. (8/102)

This study, based upon 528 laboratory examinations and 16 complete autopsies of NZB/Bl mice, deals with autoimmune manifestations (as shown by hypergammaglobulinemia, Coombs positive hemolytic anemia, and the occasional presence of lupus- and rheumatoid-like factors) and mainly with the pathology and the pathogenesis of glomerulonephritis in these mice, a model system of membranous glomerulonephritis with spontaneous and insidious onset, progression through chronic stages, and almost certainly induced by immunological, and autoimmune, mechanisms. The earliest and lasting histological change was hyaline thickening of the capillary walls and adjacent intercapillary regions of the glomerular tufts, corresponding in location to polysaccharide-rich capillary basement membrane and mesangial materials. Distributed focally and diffusely in the glomerular tuft and eventually sparing no glomerulus, hyaline, granular, and fibrillar ("spongy fiber") materials produced narrowing of capillary lumens by concentric or eccentric encroachment upon them. In the later stages hyaline lobulation and sclerosis of the glomerular tufts occurred. Thus the lesions corresponded to those seen in human focal and diffuse membranous, chronic lobular, and lastly (intracapillary) sclerosing glomerulonephritis. In all instances of glomerulonephritis the glomerular tufts contained selective localizations of mouse immunoglobulins corresponding in distribution to that of the hyaline and (PAS-positive) polysaccharide-rich materials in the focal and diffuse membranous and lobular lesions and in amounts increasing with the severity of glomerular disease. The mouse immunoglobulins were extracted from frozen sections of glomerulonephritic kidneys and were then capable of recombination with glomerular tufts in sections of autologous or isologous glomerulonephritic kidneys from which in vivo localized immunoglobulins had been extracted. The pattern of recombination with glomerular tufts was similar to that of in invo localized immunoglobulins. The extracted immunoglobulins did not show affinity for mouse red cells (in the indirect Coombs test) nor for autologous or isologous cell nuclei (in the immunofluorescence test). The serum of mice with severe glomerulonephritis contained immunoglobulins with in vitro affinity for extracted autologous or isologous glomerular tufts. Thus circulating as well as localized antibodies were demonstrated. The immunogenic materials (autoantigens) may have been formed in the glomerular tufts or accumulated in them from some other source, such as the circulating plasma; however they corresponded in location to polysaccharide-rich capillary basement membrane and mesangial materials. The spleen was identified at the cellular level as the main site of formation of autoantibodies to red cells, as well as the main site of red cell destruction. Some evidence was brought forth suggesting that these autoantibodies were "heavy" or gammaM-globulins. More studies are in progress.  (+info)

Blood protein disorders refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the production or function of proteins in the blood. These proteins are crucial for maintaining the proper functioning of the body's immune system, transporting nutrients, and preventing excessive bleeding. Some examples of blood protein disorders include:

1. Hemophilia: A genetic disorder caused by a deficiency or absence of clotting factors in the blood, leading to prolonged bleeding and poor clot formation.
2. Von Willebrand disease: A genetic disorder characterized by abnormal or deficient von Willebrand factor, which is necessary for platelet function and proper clotting.
3. Dysproteinemias: Abnormal levels of certain proteins in the blood, such as immunoglobulins (antibodies) or paraproteins, which can indicate underlying conditions like multiple myeloma or macroglobulinemia.
4. Hypoproteinemia: Low levels of total protein in the blood, often caused by liver disease, malnutrition, or kidney disease.
5. Hyperproteinemia: Elevated levels of total protein in the blood, which can be caused by dehydration, inflammation, or certain types of cancer.
6. Hemoglobinopathies: Genetic disorders affecting the structure and function of hemoglobin, a protein found in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. Examples include sickle cell anemia and thalassemia.
7. Disorders of complement proteins: Abnormalities in the complement system, which is a group of proteins involved in the immune response, can lead to conditions like autoimmune disorders or recurrent infections.

Treatment for blood protein disorders varies depending on the specific condition and its severity but may include medications, transfusions, or other medical interventions.

Blood proteins, also known as serum proteins, are a group of complex molecules present in the blood that are essential for various physiological functions. These proteins include albumin, globulins (alpha, beta, and gamma), and fibrinogen. They play crucial roles in maintaining oncotic pressure, transporting hormones, enzymes, vitamins, and minerals, providing immune defense, and contributing to blood clotting.

Albumin is the most abundant protein in the blood, accounting for about 60% of the total protein mass. It functions as a transporter of various substances, such as hormones, fatty acids, and drugs, and helps maintain oncotic pressure, which is essential for fluid balance between the blood vessels and surrounding tissues.

Globulins are divided into three main categories: alpha, beta, and gamma globulins. Alpha and beta globulins consist of transport proteins like lipoproteins, hormone-binding proteins, and enzymes. Gamma globulins, also known as immunoglobulins or antibodies, are essential for the immune system's defense against pathogens.

Fibrinogen is a protein involved in blood clotting. When an injury occurs, fibrinogen is converted into fibrin, which forms a mesh to trap platelets and form a clot, preventing excessive bleeding.

Abnormal levels of these proteins can indicate various medical conditions, such as liver or kidney disease, malnutrition, infections, inflammation, or autoimmune disorders. Blood protein levels are typically measured through laboratory tests like serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) and immunoelectrophoresis (IEP).

The Vitelline Duct, also known as the Yolk Stalk or the Omphalomesenteric Duct, is a vestigial structure in human embryonic development. It is a canal that connects the midgut of the developing fetus to the yolk sac, which provides nutrients during early stages of embryonic growth.

In normal development, this duct usually obliterates or closes off completely by the end of the 8th week of gestation. If it fails to do so, it can result in various congenital abnormalities. These may include Meckel's diverticulum (a pouch protruding from the wall of the intestine), omphalocele (a defect where the intestines and other organs protrude through the belly button), or persistent vitellointestinal duct, which can lead to infections and bowel obstructions.

Coagulation protein disorders are a group of medical conditions that affect the body's ability to form blood clots properly. These disorders can be caused by genetic defects or acquired factors, such as liver disease or vitamin K deficiency.

The coagulation system is a complex process that involves various proteins called clotting factors. When there is an injury to a blood vessel, these clotting factors work together in a specific order to form a clot and prevent excessive bleeding. In coagulation protein disorders, one or more of these clotting factors are missing or not functioning properly, leading to abnormal bleeding or clotting.

There are several types of coagulation protein disorders, including:

1. Hemophilia: This is a genetic disorder that affects the clotting factor VIII or IX. People with hemophilia may experience prolonged bleeding after injuries, surgery, or dental work.
2. Von Willebrand disease: This is another genetic disorder that affects the von Willebrand factor, a protein that helps platelets stick together and form a clot. People with this condition may have nosebleeds, easy bruising, and excessive bleeding during menstruation or after surgery.
3. Factor XI deficiency: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the clotting factor XI. People with this condition may experience prolonged bleeding after surgery or trauma.
4. Factor VII deficiency: This is a rare genetic disorder that affects the clotting factor VII. People with this condition may have nosebleeds, easy bruising, and excessive bleeding during menstruation or after surgery.
5. Acquired coagulation protein disorders: These are conditions that develop due to other medical factors, such as liver disease, vitamin K deficiency, or the use of certain medications. These disorders can affect one or more clotting factors and may cause abnormal bleeding or clotting.

Treatment for coagulation protein disorders depends on the specific condition and severity of symptoms. In some cases, replacement therapy with the missing clotting factor may be necessary to prevent excessive bleeding. Other treatments may include medications to control bleeding, such as desmopressin or antifibrinolytic agents, and lifestyle changes to reduce the risk of injury and bleeding.

Serum albumin is the most abundant protein in human blood plasma, synthesized by the liver. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the oncotic pressure or colloid osmotic pressure of blood, which helps to regulate the fluid balance between the intravascular and extravascular spaces.

Serum albumin has a molecular weight of around 66 kDa and is composed of a single polypeptide chain. It contains several binding sites for various endogenous and exogenous substances, such as bilirubin, fatty acids, hormones, and drugs, facilitating their transport throughout the body. Additionally, albumin possesses antioxidant properties, protecting against oxidative damage.

Albumin levels in the blood are often used as a clinical indicator of liver function, nutritional status, and overall health. Low serum albumin levels may suggest liver disease, malnutrition, inflammation, or kidney dysfunction.

A protein database is a type of biological database that contains information about proteins and their structures, functions, sequences, and interactions with other molecules. These databases can include experimentally determined data, such as protein sequences derived from DNA sequencing or mass spectrometry, as well as predicted data based on computational methods.

Some examples of protein databases include:

1. UniProtKB: a comprehensive protein database that provides information about protein sequences, functions, and structures, as well as literature references and links to other resources.
2. PDB (Protein Data Bank): a database of three-dimensional protein structures determined by experimental methods such as X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
3. BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool): a web-based tool that allows users to compare a query protein sequence against a protein database to identify similar sequences and potential functional relationships.
4. InterPro: a database of protein families, domains, and functional sites that provides information about protein function based on sequence analysis and other data.
5. STRING (Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins): a database of known and predicted protein-protein interactions, including physical and functional associations.

Protein databases are essential tools in proteomics research, enabling researchers to study protein function, evolution, and interaction networks on a large scale.

Protein sequence analysis is the systematic examination and interpretation of the amino acid sequence of a protein to understand its structure, function, evolutionary relationships, and other biological properties. It involves various computational methods and tools to analyze the primary structure of proteins, which is the linear arrangement of amino acids along the polypeptide chain.

Protein sequence analysis can provide insights into several aspects, such as:

1. Identification of functional domains, motifs, or sites within a protein that may be responsible for its specific biochemical activities.
2. Comparison of homologous sequences from different organisms to infer evolutionary relationships and determine the degree of similarity or divergence among them.
3. Prediction of secondary and tertiary structures based on patterns of amino acid composition, hydrophobicity, and charge distribution.
4. Detection of post-translational modifications that may influence protein function, localization, or stability.
5. Identification of protease cleavage sites, signal peptides, or other sequence features that play a role in protein processing and targeting.

Some common techniques used in protein sequence analysis include:

1. Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA): A method to align multiple protein sequences to identify conserved regions, gaps, and variations.
2. BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool): A widely-used tool for comparing a query protein sequence against a database of known sequences to find similarities and infer function or evolutionary relationships.
3. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs): Statistical models used to describe the probability distribution of amino acid sequences in protein families, allowing for more sensitive detection of remote homologs.
4. Protein structure prediction: Methods that use various computational approaches to predict the three-dimensional structure of a protein based on its amino acid sequence.
5. Phylogenetic analysis: The construction and interpretation of evolutionary trees (phylogenies) based on aligned protein sequences, which can provide insights into the historical relationships among organisms or proteins.

Proteins are complex, large molecules that play critical roles in the body's functions. They are made up of amino acids, which are organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins. Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs. They are essential for the growth, repair, and maintenance of body tissues, and they play a crucial role in many biological processes, including metabolism, immune response, and cellular signaling. Proteins can be classified into different types based on their structure and function, such as enzymes, hormones, antibodies, and structural proteins. They are found in various foods, especially animal-derived products like meat, dairy, and eggs, as well as plant-based sources like beans, nuts, and grains.

Hemoglobin (Hb or Hgb) is the main oxygen-carrying protein in the red blood cells, which are responsible for delivering oxygen throughout the body. It is a complex molecule made up of four globin proteins and four heme groups. Each heme group contains an iron atom that binds to one molecule of oxygen. Hemoglobin plays a crucial role in the transport of oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues, and also helps to carry carbon dioxide back to the lungs for exhalation.

There are several types of hemoglobin present in the human body, including:

* Hemoglobin A (HbA): This is the most common type of hemoglobin, making up about 95-98% of total hemoglobin in adults. It consists of two alpha and two beta globin chains.
* Hemoglobin A2 (HbA2): This makes up about 1.5-3.5% of total hemoglobin in adults. It consists of two alpha and two delta globin chains.
* Hemoglobin F (HbF): This is the main type of hemoglobin present in fetal life, but it persists at low levels in adults. It consists of two alpha and two gamma globin chains.
* Hemoglobin S (HbS): This is an abnormal form of hemoglobin that can cause sickle cell disease when it occurs in the homozygous state (i.e., both copies of the gene are affected). It results from a single amino acid substitution in the beta globin chain.
* Hemoglobin C (HbC): This is another abnormal form of hemoglobin that can cause mild to moderate hemolytic anemia when it occurs in the homozygous state. It results from a different single amino acid substitution in the beta globin chain than HbS.

Abnormal forms of hemoglobin, such as HbS and HbC, can lead to various clinical disorders, including sickle cell disease, thalassemia, and other hemoglobinopathies.

Blood protein electrophoresis (BPE) is a laboratory test that separates and measures the different proteins in the blood, such as albumin, alpha-1 globulins, alpha-2 globulins, beta globulins, and gamma globulins. This test is often used to help diagnose or monitor conditions related to abnormal protein levels, such as multiple myeloma, macroglobulinemia, and other plasma cell disorders.

In this test, a sample of the patient's blood is placed on a special gel and an electric current is applied. The proteins in the blood migrate through the gel based on their electrical charge and size, creating bands that can be visualized and measured. By comparing the band patterns to reference ranges, doctors can identify any abnormal protein levels or ratios, which may indicate underlying medical conditions.

It's important to note that while BPE is a useful diagnostic tool, it should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and laboratory tests for accurate diagnosis and management of the patient's condition.

Computational biology is a branch of biology that uses mathematical and computational methods to study biological data, models, and processes. It involves the development and application of algorithms, statistical models, and computational approaches to analyze and interpret large-scale molecular and phenotypic data from genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and other high-throughput technologies. The goal is to gain insights into biological systems and processes, develop predictive models, and inform experimental design and hypothesis testing in the life sciences. Computational biology encompasses a wide range of disciplines, including bioinformatics, systems biology, computational genomics, network biology, and mathematical modeling of biological systems.

Protein folding is the process by which a protein molecule naturally folds into its three-dimensional structure, following the synthesis of its amino acid chain. This complex process is determined by the sequence and properties of the amino acids, as well as various environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and the presence of molecular chaperones. The final folded conformation of a protein is crucial for its proper function, as it enables the formation of specific interactions between different parts of the molecule, which in turn define its biological activity. Protein misfolding can lead to various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.

Protein conformation refers to the specific three-dimensional shape that a protein molecule assumes due to the spatial arrangement of its constituent amino acid residues and their associated chemical groups. This complex structure is determined by several factors, including covalent bonds (disulfide bridges), hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and ionic bonds, which help stabilize the protein's unique conformation.

Protein conformations can be broadly classified into two categories: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures. The primary structure represents the linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. The secondary structure arises from local interactions between adjacent amino acid residues, leading to the formation of recurring motifs such as α-helices and β-sheets. Tertiary structure refers to the overall three-dimensional folding pattern of a single polypeptide chain, while quaternary structure describes the spatial arrangement of multiple folded polypeptide chains (subunits) that interact to form a functional protein complex.

Understanding protein conformation is crucial for elucidating protein function, as the specific three-dimensional shape of a protein directly influences its ability to interact with other molecules, such as ligands, nucleic acids, or other proteins. Any alterations in protein conformation due to genetic mutations, environmental factors, or chemical modifications can lead to loss of function, misfolding, aggregation, and disease states like neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

The proteome is the entire set of proteins produced or present in an organism, system, organ, or cell at a certain time under specific conditions. It is a dynamic collection of protein species that changes over time, responding to various internal and external stimuli such as disease, stress, or environmental factors. The study of the proteome, known as proteomics, involves the identification and quantification of these protein components and their post-translational modifications, providing valuable insights into biological processes, functional pathways, and disease mechanisms.

An algorithm is not a medical term, but rather a concept from computer science and mathematics. In the context of medicine, algorithms are often used to describe step-by-step procedures for diagnosing or managing medical conditions. These procedures typically involve a series of rules or decision points that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care.

For example, an algorithm for diagnosing a particular type of heart disease might involve taking a patient's medical history, performing a physical exam, ordering certain diagnostic tests, and interpreting the results in a specific way. By following this algorithm, healthcare professionals can ensure that they are using a consistent and evidence-based approach to making a diagnosis.

Algorithms can also be used to guide treatment decisions. For instance, an algorithm for managing diabetes might involve setting target blood sugar levels, recommending certain medications or lifestyle changes based on the patient's individual needs, and monitoring the patient's response to treatment over time.

Overall, algorithms are valuable tools in medicine because they help standardize clinical decision-making and ensure that patients receive high-quality care based on the latest scientific evidence.

I am not aware of a widely accepted medical definition for the term "software," as it is more commonly used in the context of computer science and technology. Software refers to programs, data, and instructions that are used by computers to perform various tasks. It does not have direct relevance to medical fields such as anatomy, physiology, or clinical practice. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help with those instead!

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Molecular models are three-dimensional representations of molecular structures that are used in the field of molecular biology and chemistry to visualize and understand the spatial arrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule. These models can be physical or computer-generated and allow researchers to study the shape, size, and behavior of molecules, which is crucial for understanding their function and interactions with other molecules.

Physical molecular models are often made up of balls (representing atoms) connected by rods or sticks (representing bonds). These models can be constructed manually using materials such as plastic or wooden balls and rods, or they can be created using 3D printing technology.

Computer-generated molecular models, on the other hand, are created using specialized software that allows researchers to visualize and manipulate molecular structures in three dimensions. These models can be used to simulate molecular interactions, predict molecular behavior, and design new drugs or chemicals with specific properties. Overall, molecular models play a critical role in advancing our understanding of molecular structures and their functions.

Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a mental health condition that causes extreme mood swings that include emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows (depression). When you become depressed, you may feel sad or hopeless and lose interest or pleasure in most activities. When your mood shifts to mania or hypomania (a less severe form of mania), you may feel euphoric, full of energy, or unusually irritable. These mood swings can significantly affect your job, school, relationships, and overall quality of life.

Bipolar disorder is typically characterized by the presence of one or more manic or hypomanic episodes, often accompanied by depressive episodes. The episodes may be separated by periods of normal mood, but in some cases, a person may experience rapid cycling between mania and depression.

There are several types of bipolar disorder, including:

* Bipolar I Disorder: This type is characterized by the occurrence of at least one manic episode, which may be preceded or followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes.
* Bipolar II Disorder: This type involves the presence of at least one major depressive episode and at least one hypomanic episode, but no manic episodes.
* Cyclothymic Disorder: This type is characterized by numerous periods of hypomania and depression that are not severe enough to meet the criteria for a full manic or depressive episode.
* Other Specified and Unspecified Bipolar and Related Disorders: These categories include bipolar disorders that do not fit the criteria for any of the other types.

The exact cause of bipolar disorder is unknown, but it appears to be related to a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurochemical factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy, and lifestyle changes to help manage symptoms and prevent relapses.

Tertiary protein structure refers to the three-dimensional arrangement of all the elements (polypeptide chains) of a single protein molecule. It is the highest level of structural organization and results from interactions between various side chains (R groups) of the amino acids that make up the protein. These interactions, which include hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, van der Waals forces, and disulfide bridges, give the protein its unique shape and stability, which in turn determines its function. The tertiary structure of a protein can be stabilized by various factors such as temperature, pH, and the presence of certain ions. Any changes in these factors can lead to denaturation, where the protein loses its tertiary structure and thus its function.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

A mental disorder is a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior. It's associated with distress and/or impaired functioning in social, occupational, or other important areas of life, often leading to a decrease in quality of life. These disorders are typically persistent and can be severe and disabling. They may be related to factors such as genetics, early childhood experiences, or trauma. Examples include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. It's important to note that a diagnosis should be made by a qualified mental health professional.

Anxiety disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or anxiety that interfere with daily activities. They include several different types of disorders, such as:

1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): This is characterized by chronic and exaggerated worry and tension, even when there is little or nothing to provoke it.
2. Panic Disorder: This is characterized by recurring unexpected panic attacks and fear of experiencing more panic attacks.
3. Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD): Also known as social phobia, this is characterized by excessive fear, anxiety, or avoidance of social situations due to feelings of embarrassment, self-consciousness, and concern about being judged or viewed negatively by others.
4. Phobias: These are intense, irrational fears of certain objects, places, or situations. When a person with a phobia encounters the object or situation they fear, they may experience panic attacks or other severe anxiety responses.
5. Agoraphobia: This is a fear of being in places where it may be difficult to escape or get help if one has a panic attack or other embarrassing or incapacitating symptoms.
6. Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD): This is characterized by excessive anxiety about separation from home or from people to whom the individual has a strong emotional attachment (such as a parent, sibling, or partner).
7. Selective Mutism: This is a disorder where a child becomes mute in certain situations, such as at school, but can speak normally at home or with close family members.

These disorders are treatable with a combination of medication and psychotherapy (cognitive-behavioral therapy, exposure therapy). It's important to seek professional help if you suspect that you or someone you know may have an anxiety disorder.

Mood disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by significant and persistent changes in mood, affect, and emotional state. These disorders can cause disturbances in normal functioning and significantly impair an individual's ability to carry out their daily activities. The two primary types of mood disorders are depressive disorders (such as major depressive disorder or persistent depressive disorder) and bipolar disorders (which include bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, and cyclothymic disorder).

Depressive disorders involve prolonged periods of low mood, sadness, hopelessness, and a lack of interest in activities. Individuals with these disorders may also experience changes in sleep patterns, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem. In severe cases, they might have thoughts of death or suicide.

Bipolar disorders involve alternating episodes of mania (or hypomania) and depression. During a manic episode, individuals may feel extremely elated, energetic, or irritable, with racing thoughts, rapid speech, and impulsive behavior. They might engage in risky activities, have decreased sleep needs, and display poor judgment. In contrast, depressive episodes involve the same symptoms as depressive disorders.

Mood disorders can be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Proper diagnosis and treatment, which may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both, are essential for managing these conditions and improving quality of life.

November 2014). "Applications of blood-based protein biomarker strategies in the study of psychiatric disorders". Progress in ... such as autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder. ... "Schizoaffective disorder merges schizophrenia and bipolar disorders as one disease-there is no schizoaffective disorder". ... and social withdrawal in social anxiety disorder, avoidant personality disorder and schizotypal personality disorder. ...
Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Blood proteins, Blood disorders). ... Hyperproteinemia is the state of having overly high levels of protein in the blood. This can occur due to monoclonal ...
This is expressed in DNA, blood groups, serum proteins and genetic disorders (Filon 1996; Hammer et al. 1998; Krings et al. ... Blood typing on ancient Egyptian mummies is scant. A study published in 1982 found that blood typing of dynastic mummies found ... ABO blood group distribution shows that the Egyptians form a sister group to North African populations including Berbers, ... as well to research for pathological features including potential inherited disorders and infectious diseases. In 2012, Hawass ...
Baxter's BioScience business produces recombinant and blood plasma proteins to treat hemophilia and other bleeding disorders; ... Feldman, EA; Bayer R (1999). Blood feuds: AIDS, blood, and the politics of medical disaster. Oxford University Press. pp. 49-50 ... "Contaminant Found in Blood Thinner", Washington Post (Online edition), March 5, 2008 "Baxter probe focuses on US-owned China ... In 1939 the company developed a vacuum-type collection container, extending the shelf life of blood from hours to weeks. In ...
For severe bleeding, for example from bleeding disorders, recombinant factor VIIa-a protein that assists blood clotting-may be ... If blood products are needed, a greater use of fresh frozen plasma and platelets instead of only packed red blood cells has ... Other tests should be performed to get a baseline measurement of their current blood chemistry, such as an arterial blood gas ... "309.81 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder". Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 1994. pp. 424-29. {{cite book ...
This can lead to misdiagnosis or over-diagnosis of blood clotting disorders as many proteins exist at levels during stages of ... The haemostatic (blood clotting) system involves the interaction of proteins in the blood, the blood vessel wall and the flow ... Protein C is active in anticoagulation (anti-clotting) and breaking down blood clots. A newborn form of protein C has been ... There are differences in the concentration, structure and activity of many proteins involved in blood clotting. These changes ...
Red blood cell disorders, Membrane transport protein disorders). ... This disorder can be treated with phlebotomy therapy or iron ... Blood. 89 (6): 2159-66. doi:10.1182/blood.V89.6.2159. PMID 9058740. Hagen, TM; Huang, S; Curnutte, J; Fowler, P; Martinez, V; ... Blood. 105 (10): 4096-102. doi:10.1182/blood-2004-11-4502. PMID 15692071. Bantu siderosis at NIH's Office of Rare Diseases ( ... Blood. 106 (3): 1092-7. doi:10.1182/blood-2005-02-0561. PMID 15831700. Schimanski, LM; Drakesmith, H; Merryweather-Clarke, AT; ...
March 2022). "Blood GFAP as an emerging biomarker in brain and spinal cord disorders". Nature Reviews. Neurology. 18 (3): 158- ... "Disease-specific alterations in frontal cortex brain proteins in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder ... Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a protein that is encoded by the GFAP gene in humans. It is a type III intermediate ... GFAP can polymerize with other type III proteins. GFAP and other type III IF proteins cannot assemble with keratins, the type I ...
... function Detecting microorganisms Biomarker detection Protein engineering detection Diagnosis of health disorders such as blood ... Blood. 103 (7): 2677-82. doi:10.1182/blood-2003-06-2070. PMID 14630824. S2CID 1984056. Zhu, Dongmei; Song, Wen; Yang, Kun; Cao ... particularly fluorescent proteins like as green fluorescent protein (GFP) or similar variations. This enables scientists to ... Concentrations of a protein of interest in the samples can be obtained by comparing the fluorescent signals to those of a ...
... a blood disorder that reduces the production of the iron-containing protein hemoglobin which carries oxygen to cells and which ... The amount of Hb Lepore in the patients blood ranged from 8 to 30%, the remainder being fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) which is ...
Tests of protein levels in the blood help screen for both kidney and liver disorders. Serum total protein (TP) Human serum ... Serum glucose Calcium Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) Creatinine Electrolyte levels and the balance among them are tightly regulated ... Typically, the patient fasts for ten or twelve hours before the blood is drawn for the test-this is particularly important for ... The comprehensive metabolic panel, or chemical screen (CMP; CPT code 80053), is a panel of 14 blood tests that serves as an ...
Blood. 95 (5): 1788-96. doi:10.1182/blood.V95.5.1788.005k15_1788_1796. PMID 10688839. "Entrez Gene: CEP110 centrosomal protein ... "FGFR1 is fused to the centrosome-associated protein CEP110 in the 8p12 stem cell myeloproliferative disorder with t(8;9)(p12; ... Centriolin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CNTRL gene. It was previously known as CEP110. This gene encodes a ... 2003). "A novel human protein of the maternal centriole is required for the final stages of cytokinesis and entry into S phase ...
... a blood disorder Tristetraprolin, a protein Terrorist Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures used by terrorists, studied by cyber ...
... a therapy for people suffering from a rare and life-threatening blood disorder known as protein C deficiency. Research at OMRF ... to assist research involving intracellular Ca2+ measurements and protein-protein interactions. OMRF is funded through grants ... Esmon's research has led to the development of two FDA-approved drugs: Xigris, a treatment for severe sepsis (blood poisoning ... Study participation involves completing paperwork and donating a one-time blood sample. In 1956, OMRF established its Sir ...
... a blood-derived protein product used to treat some bleeding disorders Cryotherapy, medical treatment using cold Cryoablation, ... a technique that fires beams of electrons at proteins that have been frozen in solution, to deduce the biomolecules' structure ...
... blood panels can also be used to form differential diagnoses between hyperammonemia caused by urea cycle disorders and other ... Protein toxicity has many causes, including urea cycle disorders, genetic mutations, excessive protein intake, and insufficient ... Whether it is due to high protein intake, pathological disorders lead to the accumulation of protein waste products, the no ... High protein intake can lead to high protein waste, and this is different from protein poisoning since the issue relates to the ...
... rare acquired clonal disorder of red blood cell surface proteins) Direct physical damage to RBCs Microangiopathic hemolytic ... Hematologic diseases are disorders which primarily affect the blood & blood-forming organs. Hematologic diseases include rare ... destruction of red blood cells) Genetic disorders of RBC membrane Hereditary spherocytosis Hereditary elliptocytosis Congenital ... increase in the number of white blood cells) Thrombocytosis (increase in the number of platelets) Myeloproliferative disorder ...
... rare acquired clonal disorder of red blood cell surface proteins) Liver disease Drug induced hemolysis has large clinical ... Alloimmune hemolytic blood transfusion reactions (i.e., from a non-compatible blood type) Drug induced immune mediated ... It occurs when drugs actively provoke red blood cell destruction. It can be divided in the following manner:[citation needed] ... Malaria Babesiosis Sepsis Membrane disorders Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria ( ...
... lack of blood supply to the heart muscles) Speech disorders Haemoglobin decrease Proteinuria (protein in the urine; usually ... of blood vessels) Confusion Coordination disturbance Miosis Sleep disorder Rash Hypertonia Abdominal pain Weight loss Visual ... high blood pressure) Allergic reactions (e.g. dyspnoea (shortness of breath), bronchospasm, wheezing, angioneurotic oedema) ...
... an allowance of fluid and protein normally contained within the blood to pass) and disordered blood clotting. These changes ... less blood circulates in the blood vessels, and the blood pressure becomes so low that it cannot supply sufficient blood to ... low levels of blood platelets and blood plasma leakage, or into dengue shock syndrome, where dangerously low blood pressure ... The white blood cells respond by producing several signaling proteins, such as cytokines and interferons, which are responsible ...
... white blood cell Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, rare and usually fatal disorder Promyelocytic leukemia protein, ... tumor suppressor protein Pine Mountain Lake, California, Groveland, US This disambiguation page lists articles associated with ...
... blood coagulation disorders, inherited MeSH C15.378.100.425.037 - activated protein c resistance MeSH C15.378.100.425.056 - ... coagulation protein disorders MeSH C15.378.100.141.036 - activated protein c resistance MeSH C15.378.100.141.072 - ... protein c deficiency MeSH C15.378.147.890 - protein s deficiency MeSH C15.378.190.196 - anemia, aplastic MeSH C15.378.190.196. ... protein c deficiency MeSH C15.378.925.800 - protein s deficiency MeSH C15.378.925.850 - purpura, thrombotic thrombocytopenic ...
This seemingly paradoxical propensity to develop thrombosis in a disorder causing a decrease in a critical protein for blood ... make small amounts of this critical coagulation protein, blood levels of fibrinogen are low, and individuals with the disorder ... Congenital hypofibrinogenemia must be distinguished from: a) congenital afibrinogenemia, a rare disorder in which blood ... Individuals with this disorder are usually less symptomatic than patients with other fibrinogen disorders because their ...
In some inflammatory conditions and in paraprotein disorders like multiple myeloma, high levels of protein in the blood may ... Blood is composed of a fluid portion, called plasma, and a cellular portion that contains red blood cells, white blood cells ... may raise suspicion of a myeloproliferative disorder or lymphoproliferative disorder. Examination of the CBC results and blood ... which interferes with red blood cell measurements by causing white blood cells to be counted as red cells). Red and white blood ...
Reduced synthesis, and blood levels, may be a factor in chronic bile acid diarrhea and in certain metabolic disorders. The ... The orthologous protein in mouse is FGF15, which shares about 50% amino acid identity and has similar functions. Together they ... Fibroblast growth factor 19 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FGF19 gene. It functions as a hormone, regulating ... September 2015). "Quantitative Proteomic Verification of Membrane Proteins as Potential Therapeutic Targets Located in the ...
... suffered a stroke following their game against Richmond Kickers caused by Protein S deficiency which is a rare blood disorder ...
... his work in transgenic proteins to treat hemophilia and other blood-related disorders, as well as contributions in ... and private companies that treated blood-borne disorders, most recently as chief scientific officer at Inspiration ... He was known for his commitment to improving blood safety, ... and was a member of the Scientific Steering Committee for Blood ... investigating mad cow disease in the blood supply. His career included positions with the National Cancer Institute, the ...
... measure Epstein-Barr virus genome load in peripheral blood of pediatric transplant patients with lymphoproliferative disorders ... Viral LMP2A mRNA is frequently detected in peripheral blood B lymphocytes and the protein is often present in tumor biopsies ... Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 2 (LMP2) are two viral proteins of the Epstein-Barr virus. LMP2A/LMP2B are ... "The Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 2A PY motif recruits WW domain-containing ubiquitin-protein ligases". Virology. ...
The name of the disorder refers to an excess of proteins after serum protein electrophoresis (found in the gammaglobulin region ... All that is known is that there is an excess of IgM in the blood, with normal levels of the other immunoglobulins. The exact ... The protein that is encoded by this gene is called Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AICDA) and functions as a DNA-editing ... When a person is homozygous for the mutation in the AICDA gene, the protein fails to function, and thus somatic hypermutation, ...
The blood types of humans are due to variations in surface glycoproteins of red blood cells. Disorders of the proteins in these ... Blood can be given as a whole product or the red blood cells separated as packed red blood cells. Blood is often transfused ... Packed red blood cells (pRBC) are red blood cells that have been donated, processed, and stored in a blood bank for blood ... Several blood tests involve red blood cells. These include a RBC count (the number of red blood cells per volume of blood), ...
Protein Disorders Causing Bruising or Bleeding - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals ... Conditions that cause an abnormal protein or an abnormal amount of certain normal proteins in the blood can cause blood vessels ... proteins in the blood clump together when blood cools (for example, when it flows through the arms and legs). These abnormal ... In hypergammaglobulinemic purpura, blood vessels are damaged (vasculitis Overview of Vasculitis Vasculitic disorders are caused ...
... test measures the level of a hormone in the blood, called parathyroid hormone-related protein. ... Hormones and disorders of mineral metabolism. In: Melmed S, Auchus, RJ, Goldfine AB, Koenig RJ, Rosen CJ, eds. Williams ... This test is done to find out whether a high blood calcium level is caused by an increase in PTH-related protein. ... The parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH-rP) test measures the level of a hormone in the blood, called parathyroid hormone- ...
... is a common inherited blood disorder in the United States, affecting an estimated 70,000 to 100,000 Americans. SCD can lead to ... Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of inherited red blood cell disorders. Red blood cells contain hemoglobin, a protein that ... Healthy red blood cells are round, and they move through small blood vessels to carry oxygen to all parts of the body. In ... Also, when they travel through small blood vessels, they get stuck and clog the blood flow. This can cause pain and other ...
... which are a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders associated with an elevated risk of venous thromboembolism. ... Congenital protein C deficiency is one of several inherited thrombophilias, ... Protein C deficiency is a congenital or acquired condition that leads to increased risk for thrombosis. ... Neonatal purpura fulminans: a genetic disorder related to the absence of protein C in blood. Blood. 1985 Jan. 65(1):15-20. [ ...
November 2014). "Applications of blood-based protein biomarker strategies in the study of psychiatric disorders". Progress in ... such as autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder. ... "Schizoaffective disorder merges schizophrenia and bipolar disorders as one disease-there is no schizoaffective disorder". ... and social withdrawal in social anxiety disorder, avoidant personality disorder and schizotypal personality disorder. ...
Protein C, protein S, or other known blood clotting disorders or * Stroke, active or history of or ... Your risk for these serious problems is even greater if you have high blood pressure, high cholesterol in your blood, diabetes ... Using this medicine may increase your risk for having blood clots, strokes, or heart attacks. This risk may continue even after ... Blood clots (eg, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism), active or history of or ...
Blood Protein Disorders. Hematologic Diseases. Hemorrhagic Disorders. Lymphoproliferative Disorders. Immunoproliferative ... Adults (age ≥ 18 years at the time of signing the ICD) with documented diagnosis of MM and measurable disease (serum M-protein ... All subjects must agree to refrain from donating blood while on study therapy and for 28 days after discontinuation from this ... Hemoglobin , 8 g/dL (, 4.9 mmol/L; prior red blood cell transfusion or recombinant human erythropoietin use is permitted) ...
... tested during the first three months of pregnancy to look for proteins in the blood that suggest certain chromosomal disorders ... will look for extra fluid which may suggest a birth defect of the heart or chromosomal disorder. A second trimester ultrasound ...
The research themes rank around molecular mechanisms matrix proteins and fibers exert in disorders affecting blood vessels, ... Keywords: Extracellular matrix; cell-matrix interactions; genetic disorders; mutations; protein function; protein assembly; ... Latent transforming growth factor beta-binding protein 1 interacts with fibrillin and is a microfibril-associated protein. J ... 2014). Microfibril-associated disorders: fibrillinopathies. J Glaucoma 23: S34-S35. Abstract. Sabatier L, Djokic J, Hubmacher D ...
... is a blood test that looks at how long it takes for blood to clot. It can help tell if you have a bleeding problem. ... Disorder in which the proteins that control blood clotting become over active (. disseminated intravascular coagulation. ) ... The PTT test looks at some of the proteins or factors involved in this process and measures their ability to help blood clot. ... Bleeding disorders. , a group of conditions in which there is a problem with the bodys blood clotting process ...
... is the first recombinant protein product for preventive or on-demand enzyme replacement therapy for people with the blood ... to treat adults and children who have a rare and life-threatening blood clotting disorder called congenital thrombotic ... Cite this: FDA Approves First Drug for Rare, Deadly Clotting Disorder - Medscape - Nov 10, 2023. ... which makes an enzyme that regulates blood clotting. Patients with the congenital TTP typically receive prophylactic plasma- ...
... which showed that infusing spike proteins led to blood disorders in mice. ... "Spike protein incubated with human blood in vitro also caused blood clot development which was resistant to fibrinolysis" - a ... "The potential for blood clotting disorders and the potential for sterilization are only part of the story," Dr. Seneff said. " ... There have been 795 reports related to blood clotting disorders as of April 9th in the VAERS reporting system, 338 of these ...
Von Willebrand disease, a blood disorder marked by insufficient levels of clotting protein in the blood ... Intervertebral disc disease, a clinical disorder that manifests in pain and paralysis of the hind limbs ...
BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS); lymphatic diseases include disorders relating to lymph, lymph nodes, and lymphocytes. ... BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS); lymphatic diseases include disorders relating to lymph, lymph nodes, and lymphocytes.. ... BL blood. CF cerebrospinal fluid. CI chemically induced. CL classification. CN congenital. CO complications. DG diagnostic ... Hemic diseases include disorders involving the formed elements (e.g., ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION, INTRAVASCULAR) and chemical ...
Consequently, its a much-needed protein for people with hemophilia and other blood-clotting disorders. ... Blood from plants. Plants offer a safe, cost effective and unlimited supply of human blood proteins.. Photo courtesy of Pacific ... can be transferred in blood products. Using plants to produce human blood proteins eliminates the possibility of transmitting ... One such solution is a human blood protein now being cultivated in a genetically-modified tobacco plant. ...
... certain rare blood disorders and protein C deficiency.. In his lab, Prescott studied diacylglycerol kinases, or DGKs, enzymes ... He also helped invent a method of screening for agents that regulate the shedding of membrane-bound proteins by enhancing or ... a biotechnology company that provides accessible genetic testing for children with autism spectrum disorder and developmental ...
In the U.S., just over 20,000 people have hemophilia, an inherited disorder that leaves them without key proteins in the blood ... New blood pressure guidelines for "silent, deadly health crisis" 03:18 When it stopped making Vioxx, Merck was facing thousands ... Blood buildup in the joints can damage them and cause pain.. "Without other options, opioids are often the next step" after ... Thats for disorders affecting fewer than 200,000 Americans, and comes with benefits, including tax credits on testing costs ...
... 2018 - ResearchByMarkets.com - published on openPR.com ... tyrosine protein kinases and phosphodiesterases. Companies operating in this pipeline space include Gmax Biopharm, Actelion ... and blood vessels. Most people with high blood pressure have no signs or symptoms, even if blood pressure readings reach ... "Blood Pressure Disorders Drug Development Pipeline Review, 2018". Summary. This report provides an overview of the pipeline ...
... a blood clotting disorder), with one of those being an elevated protein called fibrinogen. Those are the people who die young ... My career was going along just fine until I had a blood test about twenty-five years ago. The results were alarming. My blood ... We often hear about blood pressure rising with age, but it doesnt. My blood pressure has not changed in twenty-five years. I ... When I turned 60.i was diagnosed with hig cholesterol and high blood pressure. I got the blood pressure meds, but not the ...
A blood test can be done to see how much of this protein you have in your blood. ... Protein S is a normal substance in your body that prevents blood clotting. ... Disorder in which the proteins that control blood clotting become over active (. disseminated intravascular coagulation. ) ... Protein S helps control blood clotting. A lack of this protein or problem with the function of this protein may cause blood ...
... some of them for relatively common disorders, such as cystic fibrosis, and others for very rare diseases. A genetic test is ... as well as to measure your risk of developing a disease or of passing along a genetic disorder to a child.Today, there are ... A blood disorder caused by a mutation in the gene that expresses the hemoglobin protein. The disease is characterized by anemia ... X-linked recessive disorders characterized by low levels or absence of one of two essential blood-clotting proteins. About ...
Veterans with severe PTSD symptoms had lower levels of the S1PR3 protein in their blood than peers without the disorder.. Read ... Receptor protein in brain promotes resilience to stress. S1PR3, a receptor found on the surface of brain cells, may play a key ...
The main focus of his laboratory research is to understand the role of complement (immune protein) in various blood disorders ... Red blood cell disorders: hemolytic anemia, red blood cell membrane, enzyme disorders ... Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center. Egleston Hospital, 1405 Clifton Road NE Atlanta, GA 30322 Get Directions 404-785-3240 ... Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center. Scottish Rite Hospital, 1001 Johnson Ferry Road NE Atlanta, GA 30342 Get Directions ...
... a disorder in which protein fibers infiltrate the blood vessels in the brain and make them fragile and at risk of hemorrhaging ... caused by a blood clot in the brain - was due to the little hole in his heart. They argue that the catheterization was not ... the low-molecular-weight heparin that thins the blood, was taken by a consensus of Hadassah physicians of the various ... and that it was needed to prevent a recurrent and much more devastating ischemic stroke than that caused by the initial blood ...
Blood Protein Disorders, Venous Thrombosis, Neoplasms, Internal Medicine, Anticoagulants, Administration, Oral, Heparin Lyase, ... Blood, Blood Coagulation, Internal Medicine, Blood Physiological Phenomena, Bone Marrow, Bone Marrow Transplantation, Multiple ... Sleep Wake Disorders, Rehabilitation, Medical Oncology, Neoplasms, Internal Medicine, Autonomic Nervous System, Motor Neuron ... Blood Coagulation, Health Care Coordination and Monitoring, Thrombophilia, Nephritis, Hereditary, Adaptive Immunity, Immune ...
... the protein in red blood cells that carry oxygen from the lungs to the bodys tissues. ... Sickle cell disease is a hereditary blood disorder which causes abnormal haemoglobin - ... Sickle cell disease is a hereditary blood disorder which causes abnormal haemoglobin - the protein in red blood cells that ... Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hereditary blood disorder which causes abnormal haemoglobin - the protein in red blood cells ...
34] The most prevalent protein of the blood plasma.. [35] Fluid accumulation in the lungs, collected in air sacs, which makes ... to identify patients with multiple myeloma and other serum protein disorders.. [30] A cancer of plasma cells that usually ... 11] High blood pressure.. [12] A form of anaemia with normal amounts of haemoglobin within normal-sized red blood cells, but a ... 29] A test to determine the levels of some types of proteins in blood, ...
... the protein that carries oxygen in the blood. It is caused by mutations in the genes that control the production of hemoglobin ... Thalassemia is a group of inherited blood disorders that affect the production of hemoglobin, ... Thalassemia is a group of inherited blood disorders that affect the production of hemoglobin, the protein that carries oxygen ... In summary, alpha thalassemia and beta thalassemia are two types of inherited blood disorders that affect the production of ...
... and develop new treatments for disorders involving blood cells and proteins.. Some facts about thrombosis and bleeding:. * ... and autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. We study cellular, biochemical, and biophysical mechanisms that mediate blood ... In addition, abnormal blood clotting contributes to the pathophysiology of many diseases, including cancer, infection, ... UNC Blood Research Center. 8008 Mary Ellen Jones Building, CB7035. Chapel Hill, NC 27599 ...
They cause the Glut1 protein to lose its function in the cell membrane: the protein no longer transports glucose from the blood ... Life sciences/Biochemistry/Biomolecules/Proteins/Mutant proteins * /Life sciences/Biochemistry/Protein functions/Protein ... Stray proteins cause genetic disorders Misaddressed proteins are mislocalized, with possibly fatal consequences for the cell ... Stray proteins cause genetic disorders. Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association ...
  • Protein C deficiency is a congenital or acquired condition that leads to increased risk for thrombosis. (medscape.com)
  • Congenital protein C deficiency is one of several inherited thrombophilias, which are a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders associated with an elevated risk of venous thromboembolism. (medscape.com)
  • Causes of acquired protein C deficiency are also addressed. (medscape.com)
  • A deficiency of aPC disturbs the delicate balance between procoagulant and anticoagulant proteins and engenders a prothrombotic environment. (medscape.com)
  • This may explain, in part, why protein C deficiency appears to be associated primarily with venous thrombosis. (medscape.com)
  • Heterozygous protein C deficiency is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, however, in families with individuals with complete deficiency, the mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive. (medscape.com)
  • [ 9 ] These mutations are divided into 2 types-type I and type II-on the basis of whether they cause a quantitative (type I) or functional (type II) deficiency of protein C. (medscape.com)
  • Type I protein C deficiency refers to a quantitative deficiency in the plasma protein C concentration. (medscape.com)
  • There is marked phenotypic variation among families with heterozygous type I protein C deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Type II protein C deficiency is less common than type I disease and is associated with decreased functional activity and normal immunologic levels of protein C. A number of point mutations within the protein C gene giving rise to this disorder have been described. (medscape.com)
  • Under his leadership, the foundation discovered three drugs that are now used worldwide to treat sickle cell disease, certain rare blood disorders and protein C deficiency. (asbmb.org)
  • Iron Deficiency Anemia Iron deficiency anemia results from low or depleted stores of iron, which is needed to produce red blood cells. (merckmanuals.com)
  • The test is also used to screen relatives of people who are known to have protein S deficiency . (ucsfbenioffchildrens.org)
  • A lack (deficiency) of protein S can lead to excess clotting. (ucsfbenioffchildrens.org)
  • A protein S deficiency may be inherited. (ucsfbenioffchildrens.org)
  • She searched databases and found a patient with Glut1 deficiency syndrome in whom the protein region contained a mutation creating the dileucine motif. (eurekalert.org)
  • thus, PIGA mutations lead to a deficiency of GPI-anchored proteins, such as complement decay-accelerating factor (also known as CD55) and CD59 glycoprotein (CD59), which are both complement inhibitors. (medscape.com)
  • Red blood cells contain hemoglobin, a protein that carries oxygen. (cdc.gov)
  • In someone who has SCD, the hemoglobin is abnormal, which causes the red blood cells to become hard and sticky and look like a C-shaped farm tool called a "sickle. (cdc.gov)
  • Thalassemia is a group of inherited blood disorders that affect the production of hemoglobin, the protein that carries oxygen in the blood. (tutorialspoint.com)
  • Alpha thalassemia is caused by mutations in the genes that control the production of alpha globin, one of the two types of protein chains that make up hemoglobin. (tutorialspoint.com)
  • Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disorder that cause the abnormal formation of the hemoglobin protein in red blood cells (Nih). (benjaminbarber.org)
  • Hemoglobin is an essential protein that resides within the red blood cells supplying oxygen to the entire body. (benjaminbarber.org)
  • The results showed, in group 2, a nonsignificant statistically difference in body weight, a significant decrease of red blood cells and hemoglobin rate, a moderate increase in the lymphocytes, and a strong immune response, whereas in groups 3 and 4, hematological parameters have been restored. (springer.com)
  • Sickle cell disease is a group of inherited blood disorders that affects hemoglobin (the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The name of the disorder is a descriptive term for the clinical consequence of red blood cell (RBC) breakdown with release of hemoglobin into the urine, which manifests most prominently as dark-colored urine in the morning (see image below). (medscape.com)
  • Dr. Lindsay noted that "all of the [COVID vaccine] gene therapies are causing" blood clots , as well. (lifesitenews.com)
  • Spike protein incubated with human blood in vitro also caused blood clot development which was resistant to fibrinolysis" - a process that stops the growth of clots. (lifesitenews.com)
  • You may need this test if you have an unexplained blood clot, or a family history of blood clots. (ucsfbenioffchildrens.org)
  • A lack of this protein or problem with the function of this protein may cause blood clots to form in veins. (ucsfbenioffchildrens.org)
  • This medication may rarely cause serious problems from blood clots (such as heart attacks, strokes, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism). (alberta.ca)
  • Conditions that cause an abnormal protein or an abnormal amount of certain normal proteins in the blood can cause blood vessels to become fragile. (msdmanuals.com)
  • When these fragile blood vessels break, people develop red or purple bruises (purpura) on the skin. (msdmanuals.com)
  • causes the protein amyloid to be deposited within blood vessels in the skin and subcutaneous tissues, which may increase the fragility of the blood vessels, causing purpura, usually on the arms. (msdmanuals.com)
  • When cryoglobulins clump together in blood vessels, the vessels may leak, leading to bruises and reddish sores on the skin. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Overview of Vasculitis Vasculitic disorders are caused by inflammation of the blood vessels (vasculitis). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Henoch-Schonlein purpura) is inflammation mainly of small blood vessels that occurs primarily in children. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Healthy red blood cells are round, and they move through small blood vessels to carry oxygen to all parts of the body. (cdc.gov)
  • Also, when they travel through small blood vessels, they get stuck and clog the blood flow. (cdc.gov)
  • The research themes rank around molecular mechanisms matrix proteins and fibers exert in disorders affecting blood vessels, bone, skin and adipose tissue. (mcgill.ca)
  • Many factors can affect blood pressure, including hormone levels, water and salt levels in the body and the condition of the kidneys, nervous system, and blood vessels. (openpr.com)
  • Collagen is a protein that is important in maintaining strong blood vessels in the body. (merckmanuals.com)
  • When collagen is abnormal or abnormal substances in the blood get into vessel walls, the vessels weaken and bleeding can develop. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Fragile blood vessels cause bleeding under the skin, leading to tiny red, purple or brown spots on the skin (petechiae), slightly larger spots that look like bruises (purpura), or still larger areas of bruising (ecchymoses). (merckmanuals.com)
  • Most disorders caused by fragile blood vessels do not cause serious blood loss. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia is a hereditary disorder in which blood vessels are malformed, making them fragile and prone to bleeding. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Dilated blood vessels (telangiectasia) are present. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum Pseudoxanthoma elasticum is a rare hereditary disorder of connective tissue that causes abnormalities in the skin, eyes, and blood vessels. (merckmanuals.com)
  • When these fragile blood vessels break, people. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Immunoglobulin A-Associated Vasculitis Immunoglobulin A-associated vasculitis (formerly called Henoch-Schönlein purpura) is inflammation of mainly small blood vessels that most often occurs in children. (merckmanuals.com)
  • an inflammation of small blood vessels that is common during childhood. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Usually, doctors can determine whether bleeding is due to abnormal blood vessels based on symptoms and an examination. (merckmanuals.com)
  • This inflammation can damage blood vessels, which consist of connective tissue. (upmc.com)
  • Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome) - affects cells in the blood vessels of the lungs, gastrointestinal track, skin, and nerves. (upmc.com)
  • Microscopic polyangiitis - affects cells in the blood vessels in organs throughout the whole body. (upmc.com)
  • Scleroderma - causes scar tissue to form in the skin, internal organs, and small blood vessels. (upmc.com)
  • Regular follow-up with your doctor to check the health of your heart and blood vessels. (upmc.com)
  • ETH Zurich researchers have shown for the first time that microvehicles can be steered through blood vessels in the brains of mice using ultrasound. (phys.org)
  • [ 7 , 8 ] The gene for protein C is located on the long arm of chromosome 2 and nearly 200 pathogenic mutations of this gene have been described. (medscape.com)
  • Most genetic conditions are the result of mutations in the DNA, which alter the instructions for making a given protein. (healthywomen.org)
  • Leonard, in collaboration with O'Shea, then demonstrated that the protein that is defective in XSCID associates with JAK3, and that humans with mutations in JAK3 have a form of immunodeficiency clinically similar to XSCID. (nih.gov)
  • Clinical manifestations of PNH occur when a HSC clone carrying somatic PIGA mutations acquires a growth advantage and differentiates, generating mature blood cells that are deficient of GPI-anchored proteins. (medscape.com)
  • People inherit hereditary connective tissue disorders from one of their parents. (upmc.com)
  • Individuals who are homozygous or compound heterozygous for a mutation or other genetic defect affecting the protein C, typically due to the inheritance of abnormal alleles from both parents, can experience neonatal purpura fulminans, intracranial thromboembolism, and thrombosis. (medscape.com)
  • The diagnosis of schizophrenia, a psychotic disorder, is based on criteria in either the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, or the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemic diseases include disorders involving the formed elements (e.g. (bvsalud.org)
  • lymphatic diseases include disorders relating to lymph, lymph nodes, and lymphocytes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Genetic testing is used to confirm the presence of genetic diseases, as well as to measure your risk of developing a disease or of passing along a genetic disorder to a child.Today, there are hundreds of genetic tests, some of them for relatively common disorders, such as cystic fibrosis, and others for very rare diseases. (healthywomen.org)
  • In addition, abnormal blood clotting contributes to the pathophysiology of many diseases, including cancer, infection, and autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. (unc.edu)
  • In one-fifth of all genetic diseases, according to the scientist, the protein structure doesn't appear to be damaged at all. (eurekalert.org)
  • The implication of MT protein dysfunction has far-reaching implications for many diseases including Alzheimer's, eating disorders encountered in premature infants and a host of psychiatric disorders. (biowaves.com)
  • Professor Bellotti is based in the Centre for Amyloidosis and Acute Phase Proteins at the Royal Free Hospital and his research on TTR has a direct clinical link to sufferers of these types of progressive diseases. (keele.ac.uk)
  • A team of chemists, microbiologists and physicists at the University of Cambridge in the U.K. has developed a way to use solid-state nanopores and multiplexed DNA barcoding to identify misfolded proteins such as those involved in neurodegenerative disorders in blood samples. (phys.org)
  • A new study, led by Keele University in collaboration with the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) in Grenoble, France, has uncovered the behaviour of a disease involving an abnormal protein that causes organ failure and neurodegenerative disorders. (keele.ac.uk)
  • [ 13 ] The presence of a second thrombophilic mutation such as factor V Leiden has been associated with a more severe phenotype in some protein C-deficient kindreds. (medscape.com)
  • Now tiny Tremeau Pharmaceuticals is working to bring back it back, to treat severe joint pain caused by the bleeding disorder hemophilia. (cbsnews.com)
  • Although a few people with early-stage high blood pressure may have dull headaches, dizzy spells or a few more nosebleeds than normal, these signs and symptoms typically do not occur until high blood pressure has reached a severe stage. (openpr.com)
  • If something goes wrong with an essential protein, the consequences can be severe. (healthywomen.org)
  • Veterans with severe PTSD symptoms had lower levels of the S1PR3 protein in their blood than peers without the disorder. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Miniscule changes in previously little-noticed flexible segments of the Glut1 protein could lead to severe cellular disturbances - other genetic disorders might be caused by the same mechanism. (eurekalert.org)
  • Subsequent studies carried out at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), in collaboration with the NIAMS, showed that genetic defects in JAK3 can cause severe combined immunodeficiency. (nih.gov)
  • Dementia is a group of disorders characterized by severe memory loss ultimately impairing daily life activities. (alzheimer-europe.org)
  • It is a hard disorder to diagnose since bipolar disorder involves a wide range of severe symptoms. (doctorshealthpress.com)
  • Bipolar I disorder will include manic episodes that last about a week, and the attacks may be severe enough to require immediate hospitalization. (doctorshealthpress.com)
  • When you bleed, a series of actions involving many different proteins (clotting factors) take place in the body that helps the blood clot. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • For the study, the researchers examined 272 different proteins in 288 patient blood samples. (doctorshealthpress.com)
  • The team found 73 different proteins among the four study groups, and six markers were significantly different between bipolar I disorder and the control. (doctorshealthpress.com)
  • Consequently, it's a much-needed protein for people with hemophilia and other blood-clotting disorders. (valentine.gr)
  • People with hemophilia have low amounts of either factor VIII (eight) or factor IX (nine), key factors responsible for normal blood clotting. (cdc.gov)
  • In people with hemophilia, there is a mutation (difference from normal) in either the gene for the factor VIII protein or the gene for the factor IX protein. (cdc.gov)
  • Only two symptoms are required for a diagnosis of schizophrenia, resulting in different presentations for the same disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnosis − The diagnosis is based on the examination of a smear of blood that shows very small red blood cells. (tutorialspoint.com)
  • Diagnosis − Beta thalassemia is diagnosed by looking for hemolytic anemia by examining a red blood cell smear under the microscope. (tutorialspoint.com)
  • bPRIDE will generate and validate blood tests for early and specific diagnosis of the major dementia types. (alzheimer-europe.org)
  • The current diagnosis process for bipolar disorder is based on an interview. (doctorshealthpress.com)
  • Sometimes brain scans and blood tests can help rule out other conditions, but they cannot diagnosis bipolar disorder. (doctorshealthpress.com)
  • The principal studies used to establish the diagnosis of PNH are flow cytometry of peripheral blood and bone marrow analysis. (medscape.com)
  • Sjögren Syndrome Sjögren syndrome is a common autoimmune connective tissue disorder and is characterized by excessive dryness of the eyes, mouth, and other mucous membranes. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Systemic lupus erythematosus is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory connective tissue disorder that can involve joints, kidneys, skin, mucous membranes, and blood vessel walls. (msdmanuals.com)
  • These are a form of autoimmune disorder called paraneoplastic syndrome. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Most connective tissue disorders fall under two main types: hereditary and autoimmune. (upmc.com)
  • Doctors don't know the exact cause of autoimmune connective tissue disorders. (upmc.com)
  • PAH is a type of high blood pressure that occurs in the right side of the heart and in the arteries that supply blood to the lungs. (openpr.com)
  • For example, a protein called alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) clears the lungs of a caustic agent called neutrophil elastase. (healthywomen.org)
  • PE, which develops when part of a blood clot breaks loose and travels to the lungs, is fatal in 30% of cases. (lightgreenstairs.com)
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the biologic Adzynma ( ADAMTS13, recombinant-krhn , Takeda Pharmaceuticals) to treat adults and children who have a rare and life-threatening blood clotting disorder called congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). (medscape.com)
  • Laboratory evaluation of hemostatic and thrombotic disorders. (ucsfbenioffchildrens.org)
  • Dr. Chonat is the site investigator for various clinical and translational research projects, focused on rare red blood disorders, such as pyruvate kinase disease, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. (choa.org)
  • In the U.S., just over 20,000 people have hemophilia, an inherited disorder that leaves them without key proteins in the blood needed for clotting. (cbsnews.com)
  • Hemophilia is a bleeding disorder in which blood does not clot properly. (cdc.gov)
  • Thus, if a male has a hemophilia allele on his only X chromosome, he will have the disorder. (cdc.gov)
  • Hormones and disorders of mineral metabolism. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Results: GO, KEGG, and COG/KOG functional enrichment analysis results showed the differentially expressed proteins participated in autophagy, autophagosome formation, cofactor binding, JAK-STAT signaling pathway, and coenzyme transport and metabolism. (bvsalud.org)
  • The elevation of blood glucose leads to the development of abnormalities in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and electrolytes. (who.int)
  • This project aims to translate the known biology of bipolar disorder, enhance the accessibility of the latest discoveries and interpret the meaning and relevance to individuals with bipolar disorder, their families, carers and health professionals that are not research active. (hrb.ie)
  • An extensive range of tests is indicated, because bipolar disorder encompasses both depression and mania and because a significant number of medical causes for each state exists. (medscape.com)
  • Bipolar disorder is a brain and nervous system disorder that is also called manic depression or manic-depressive illness. (doctorshealthpress.com)
  • People with bipolar disorder experience the most manic highs and most depressive lows. (doctorshealthpress.com)
  • As a result, bipolar disorder can have a devastating effect on jobs, relationships, and friendships. (doctorshealthpress.com)
  • This can be difficult since bipolar disorder will overlap with other conditions, including schizophrenia, unipolar depression, and other personality disorders. (doctorshealthpress.com)
  • The potential of having a biological test to help accurately diagnose bipolar disorder would make a huge difference to medical practice," explained lead study author Dr. Mark Frye, who is the head of psychology and psychiatry at Mayo Clinic. (doctorshealthpress.com)
  • Previous research published in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry in February found that high C-reactive protein is linked in bipolar disorder patients. (doctorshealthpress.com)
  • Brain-derived nerve growth factors are also linked with bipolar disorder. (doctorshealthpress.com)
  • Could protein levels help diagnose bipolar disorder? (doctorshealthpress.com)
  • Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of inherited red blood cell disorders. (cdc.gov)
  • The sickle cells die early, which causes a constant shortage of red blood cells. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2022, researchers supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) conducted a health care spending analysis that recognized the hefty medical costs of living with sickle cell disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Congenital TPP affects fewer than 1000 people in the United States and is caused by a mutation in the ADAMTS13 gene, which makes an enzyme that regulates blood clotting. (medscape.com)
  • If only one copy of a given gene has a mutation, you are a healthy carrier of the disorder. (healthywomen.org)
  • In such cases, she says, the mutation occurs in flexible loops in the proteins, which until recently were thought to have no function because they lack a defined structure. (eurekalert.org)
  • An example is a mutation in the gene for the Glut1 protein that causes two specific building blocks of protein, namely leucines, to lie next to one another, creating a so-called dileucine motif. (eurekalert.org)
  • Could it be that in people affected by this mutation the Glut1 protein is not defective but has instead ended up in the wrong place in the cell? (eurekalert.org)
  • In normal biological function, TTR is produced in the liver and transports a thyroid hormone and vitamin A in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. (keele.ac.uk)
  • We tested various specimens (blood, cerebrospinal fluid, intraocular fluid, serum, and tissues) from the organ donor and recipients by serology, RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, metagenomic next-generation sequencing, and host gene expression, and conducted a traceback of blood transfusions received by the organ donor. (cdc.gov)
  • It can help tell if you have a bleeding problem or if your blood does not clot properly. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • You may need this test if you have problems with bleeding or your blood does not clot properly. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • Low serum protein levels found in patients who are depressed may be a result of not eating. (medscape.com)
  • Antibodies One of the body's lines of defense ( immune system) involves white blood cells (leukocytes) that travel through the bloodstream and into tissues, searching for and attacking microorganisms and. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Treatment of the underlying disorder may reduce these symptoms. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Most people with high blood pressure have no signs or symptoms, even if blood pressure readings reach dangerously high levels. (openpr.com)
  • In other cases, where two alleles are missing, there are some symptoms such as smaller than normal red blood cells (microcytic anemia). (tutorialspoint.com)
  • There are more than 200 different types of connective tissue disorders, with different causes and symptoms. (upmc.com)
  • Symptoms of connective tissue disorders vary based on the specific type you have. (upmc.com)
  • The role of aPC and other anticoagulant proteins in this balance appears to be especially important in the slow-flowing venous circulation, in which procoagulant proteins and platelet phospholipids have prolonged exposure to the vessel wall. (medscape.com)
  • A poor anticoagulant response to activated protein C (APC) in an activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) assay (APC resistance) was recently reported to be a cause of familial thrombophilia. (nih.gov)
  • Some people require blood transfusions. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Sometimes a stem cell transplant while the fetus is in utero can cure them, or else the patient will need lifelong transfusions and potentially chelation therapy to remove excess iron from the blood. (tutorialspoint.com)
  • Treatment may require blood transfusions, and chelation therapy to remove excess iron due to the transfusions, and in some cases, spleen removal is needed. (tutorialspoint.com)
  • A pair of separate studies suggest the experimental drug luspatercept can help improve red blood cell production, reducing the need for transfusions in patients with anemia arising from different causes. (hematology.org)
  • Lindsay cited a paper published in the Journal of Hematology & Oncology in 2020, which showed that infusing spike proteins led to blood disorders in mice. (lifesitenews.com)
  • San Diego, December 1, 2018) - Today during the 60th American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting and Exposition in San Diego, researchers will present the results of four large trials that evaluate promising new treatment options for patients with several types of malignant and non-cancerous blood disorders. (hematology.org)
  • Unlike biologic treatments for rheumatoid arthritis - which are also DMARDs and target immune system proteins - tofacitinib is a pill, not an infusion or an injection. (nih.gov)
  • C-reactive protein is associated with the immune system and inflammation. (doctorshealthpress.com)
  • Ehlers-Danlos Syndromes Ehlers-Danlos syndromes are rare hereditary disorders of connective tissue that result in unusually flexible joints, very elastic skin, and fragile tissues. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Connective tissue disorders are a weakening of the blood vessel walls and other tissues. (upmc.com)
  • The experts at the UPMC Heart and Vascular Institute use the latest treatments to help people manage connective tissue disorders. (upmc.com)
  • What Is a Connective Tissue Disorder? (upmc.com)
  • Connective tissue disorders cause inflammation in collagen and elastin, two main types of protein that keep connective tissues strong. (upmc.com)
  • People with a family history of connective tissue disorders may have a higher risk. (upmc.com)
  • Each type of connective tissue disorder requires a specific treatment. (upmc.com)
  • Dr. Brian Hooker is the man who's been working on cultivating the factor VIII protein. (valentine.gr)
  • by inflammation related to high levels of immunoglobulins in the blood. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Doctors treat the joint pain caused by the blood vessel inflammation with pain medications. (msdmanuals.com)
  • He also helped invent a method of screening for agents that regulate the shedding of membrane-bound proteins by enhancing or inhibiting the activity of DGK-delta, as well as methods of regulating inflammation and cell growth and division by applying these agents, which can be useful for treating cancer. (asbmb.org)
  • In 1993, shortly after O'Shea and his team discovered the JAK3 protein and established its role in inflammation, O'Shea learned that scientists at Pfizer were searching for drug targets to tackle autoimmunity and transplant rejection. (nih.gov)
  • Frye and colleagues took an important first step in this process by analyzing 7.5 ml blood samples from patients diagnosed with unipolar depression (n=52), bipolar II disorder (n=49), and bipolar I disorder (n=46) as well as 141 control subjects. (medscape.com)
  • The study included 46 bipolar I disorder patients, 49 bipolar II disorder patients, 52 unipolar depression patients, and 141 individuals without a mood disorder who acted as the control for the trial. (doctorshealthpress.com)
  • If you are taking any blood-thinning medicines, you will be watched for signs of bleeding. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • Researchers are synthesizing human coagulation factor VIII, an ingredient in human blood that helps stop bleeding. (valentine.gr)
  • This test is used to find the cause of too much bleeding (decreased blood clotting). (ucsfbenioffchildrens.org)
  • leading to an increased risk of bleeding in these disorders. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Blood contains many proteins, called clotting factors, that can help to stop bleeding after injury or surgery. (cdc.gov)
  • Dr. Chonat specializes in the care of children and young adults with nonmalignant rare blood disorders by using a variety of clinical and research-based tools. (choa.org)
  • This disorder primarily affects women. (msdmanuals.com)
  • These include a protein in the blood that isn't usually there, called monoclonal gammopathies, a rare form of myeloma that affects the bones, lymphoma and the rare disease amyloidosis. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Heart disease is a term for any type of disorder that affects the heart. (benjaminbarber.org)
  • Ehlers-Danlos syndrome - can affect the skin, joints, and blood vessel walls. (upmc.com)
  • Using plants to produce human blood proteins eliminates the possibility of transmitting disease along with lifesaving treatments. (valentine.gr)
  • Its activation into the serine-protease-like enzyme, activated protein C (aPC), is catalyzed by thrombin when it is bound to the endothelial proteoglycan thrombomodulin. (medscape.com)
  • Adzynma is the first recombinant protein product for preventive or on-demand enzyme replacement therapy for people with the blood clotting condition. (medscape.com)
  • A number of reasons exist for obtaining selected laboratory studies in patients with bipolar affective disorder, or manic-depressive illness (MDI). (medscape.com)
  • A complete blood count (CBC) with differential is used to rule out anemia as a cause of depression in bipolar affective disorder, or manic-depressive illness (MDI). (medscape.com)
  • Schizophrenia occurs along with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) considerably more often than could be explained by chance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low blood pressure, or hypotension, occurs when blood pressure during and after each heartbeat is much lower than usual. (openpr.com)
  • It occurs when a blood clot forms inside a deep vein , often in the legs. (lightgreenstairs.com)
  • White blood cells can infiltrate. (msdmanuals.com)
  • We are interested how extracellular matrix proteins instruct cells to differentiate, migrate, and proliferate, and how cells sense normal and pathologically altered extracellular matrix. (mcgill.ca)
  • These factors currently are made from human blood plasma or by painstakingly cultivating mammalian cells. (valentine.gr)
  • And, unlike human blood donors or mammalian cells, plants provide a stable production source and yield much higher amounts of the desired blood factors. (valentine.gr)
  • The genes on the chromosomes are responsible for making proteins, which direct our biological development and the activity of about 100 trillion cells in our bodies. (healthywomen.org)
  • Our goal is to advance understanding of molecular mechanisms that regulate normal biology, identify mechanisms that are altered in disease, and develop new treatments for disorders involving blood cells and proteins. (unc.edu)
  • DLBCL is a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, a cancer of the white blood cells, that tends to grow quickly. (hematology.org)
  • An 11 to 13 week ultrasound, which creates a picture of the baby, will look for extra fluid which may suggest a birth defect of the heart or chromosomal disorder. (cdc.gov)
  • This means the heart, brain, and other parts of the body do not get enough blood. (openpr.com)
  • Kidney and heart transplants may also effectively treat this disorder. (cancer.net)
  • Some cardiologists, mainly those who do not have access to Sharon's medical records, argue that it was not certain that his initial stroke - caused by a blood clot in the brain - was due to the little hole in his heart. (jpost.com)
  • Autonomic nerves that control functions such as blood pressure, sweating, heart rate, digestion and bladder function. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Drugs to slow your heart rate or block the production of certain proteins in your body. (upmc.com)
  • An arrhythmia is when your heart cannot pump blood effectively. (benjaminbarber.org)
  • Measurements include psychological and physiological measures [eg, heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure, C-reactive protein)] obtained at three time intervals. (cdc.gov)
  • The main focus of his laboratory research is to understand the role of complement (immune protein) in various blood disorders through pre-clinical animal models, patient samples and research laboratory-based methods. (choa.org)
  • Complications of abnormal blood clotting are the leading killer of Americans today. (unc.edu)
  • Many cellular processes are based on such interactions between proteins. (eurekalert.org)
  • This study aimed to assess the effects of green vegetable cocktail juice (GVCJ) made of carrot, beetroot, celery, and radish on benzene-induced hematologic and immunologic disorders in rats. (springer.com)
  • Doctors may do a blood test to look for the amyloid substance in the blood and also examine a sample of fat from the abdominal wall or of tissue from any affected organ to confirm amyloidosis. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A liver transplant can also be an effective treatment for certain types of hereditary amyloidosis , a rare protein disorder that may be associated with some blood cancers. (cancer.net)
  • The catalytic activity of aPC is greatly enhanced by the vitamin K-dependent cofactor protein S. (medscape.com)
  • The mother's blood can be tested during the first three months of pregnancy to look for proteins in the blood that suggest certain chromosomal disorders, such as Down syndrome. (cdc.gov)
  • Dr. Lindsay warned that the vaccines could hinder production of syncytin, a crucial protein for fertility and pregnancy, and negatively impact pregnancy outcomes as a result. (lifesitenews.com)
  • Besides preventing pregnancy, birth control pills may make your periods more regular, decrease blood loss and painful periods, decrease your risk of ovarian cysts, and also treat acne. (bidrx.com)
  • From the abstract: 'A blood test done in early pregnancy that measures cell-free DNA methylation could represent a novel way to predict the risk of preterm pre-eclampsia. (cdc.gov)
  • Preeclampsia is a serious pregnancy disorder marked by elevated blood pressure and the presence of proteins in urine. (cdc.gov)
  • All gene therapy vaccines direct the body to make the spike protein," she said. (lifesitenews.com)
  • This is one of the proteins in the body that helps the blood clot. (ucsfbenioffchildrens.org)
  • Protein S is a normal substance in your body that prevents blood clotting. (ucsfbenioffchildrens.org)
  • DNA is a chemical message to produce a protein, which has a specific function in the body. (healthywomen.org)
  • If the body has an alteration in the gene that makes the protein AAT, the AAT protein may not be made correctly or at all. (healthywomen.org)
  • Unhealthy dietary choices made by people with alcohol use disorder, also known as alcoholism, and poor absorption of vitamins can lead to low amounts of essential vitamins in the body. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Bone marrow disorders. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Treatment, especially with certain anticonvulsants, may depress the bone marrow-hence the need to check the red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) counts for signs of bone marrow suppression. (medscape.com)
  • bone marrow analysis differentiates classic PNH from PNH secondary to other bone marrow disorders. (medscape.com)
  • Appropriate supplementation as indicated by hair analysis, blood and urine testing or Bio-Resonance evaluation. (biowaves.com)
  • In tests on cell cultures Meyer showed that the mutated Glut1 protein was no longer present on the cell surface, where it takes up glucose. (eurekalert.org)
  • Meyer was able to confirm her hypothesis: When she blocked this process, the Glut1 protein found its way back to the cell surface and resumed glucose uptake. (eurekalert.org)
  • In addition, atypical antipsychotics have been associated with weight gain and problems with blood glucose regulation in patients with diabetes, therefore, a baseline fasting glucose should be obtained. (medscape.com)
  • Molecular targets acted on by products in development for blood pressure disorders include angiotensin receptors, tyrosine protein kinases and phosphodiesterases. (openpr.com)
  • Researchers and clinicians have long sought biological indicators for mental disorders, particularly for affective disorders. (medscape.com)
  • We study cellular, biochemical, and biophysical mechanisms that mediate blood coagulation using state-of-the-art technologies including in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro models. (unc.edu)
  • The characterization of susceptible proteins will increase our un-derstanding of the mechanisms of oxidative toxicity, and may prove useful as early indicators of oxidative protein damage. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition to the obvious health benefits, we expect the cost of synthesizing blood factors in transgenic or genetically modified plants to be 10 times cheaper than current methods,' said Brian Hooker, a biochemical engineer at Pacific Northwest. (valentine.gr)
  • In addition to studying genes, genetic testing in a broader sense includes biochemical tests for the presence or absence of key proteins that signal aberrant gene function. (healthywomen.org)
  • Hypertension, also referred to as high blood pressure, is a condition in which the arteries have persistently elevated blood pressure. (openpr.com)
  • and GDF-15, HPX, HPN, RBP-4 and TTR proteins were all significantly different in BP-I vs controls. (medscape.com)
  • One way to look at this is that as a result of high blood sugar or high oxidized lipids-which can occur as a result of eating industrial seed oils, especially in fried foods, for example-those arteries can get damaged. (westonaprice.org)