Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Platelet Adhesiveness: The process whereby PLATELETS adhere to something other than platelets, e.g., COLLAGEN; BASEMENT MEMBRANE; MICROFIBRILS; or other "foreign" surfaces.Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.Platelet Factor 4: A CXC chemokine that is found in the alpha granules of PLATELETS. The protein has a molecular size of 7800 kDa and can occur as a monomer, a dimer or a tetramer depending upon its concentration in solution. Platelet factor 4 has a high affinity for HEPARIN and is often found complexed with GLYCOPROTEINS such as PROTEIN C.Thrombin: An enzyme formed from PROTHROMBIN that converts FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Platelet Transfusion: The transfer of blood platelets from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex: Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex important for platelet adhesion and aggregation. It is an integrin complex containing INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB and INTEGRIN BETA3 which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present on several adhesive proteins. As such, it is a receptor for FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; FIBRONECTIN; VITRONECTIN; and THROMBOSPONDINS. A deficiency of GPIIb-IIIa results in GLANZMANN THROMBASTHENIA.Platelet Glycoprotein GPIb-IX Complex: Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex essential for normal platelet adhesion and clot formation at sites of vascular injury. It is composed of three polypeptides, GPIb alpha, GPIb beta, and GPIX. Glycoprotein Ib functions as a receptor for von Willebrand factor and for thrombin. Congenital deficiency of the GPIb-IX complex results in Bernard-Soulier syndrome. The platelet glycoprotein GPV associates with GPIb-IX and is also absent in Bernard-Soulier syndrome.Megakaryocytes: Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.beta-Thromboglobulin: A platelet-specific protein which is released when platelets aggregate. Elevated plasma levels have been reported after deep venous thrombosis, pre-eclampsia, myocardial infarction with mural thrombosis, and myeloproliferative disorders. Measurement of beta-thromboglobulin in biological fluids by radioimmunoassay is used for the diagnosis and assessment of progress of thromboembolic disorders.Platelet Activation: A series of progressive, overlapping events, triggered by exposure of the PLATELETS to subendothelial tissue. These events include shape change, adhesiveness, aggregation, and release reactions. When carried through to completion, these events lead to the formation of a stable hemostatic plug.Blood Platelet Disorders: Disorders caused by abnormalities in platelet count or function.Thrombocytopenia: A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.Platelet Activating Factor: A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.Platelet Function Tests: Laboratory examination used to monitor and evaluate platelet function in a patient's blood.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Prostanoic Acids: 2-Octylcyclopentaneheptanoic acids. The family of saturated carbon-20 cyclic fatty acids that represent the parent compounds of the prostaglandins.P-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.von Willebrand Factor: A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.Adenine NucleotidesAspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Thrombopoiesis: The process of generating thrombocytes (BLOOD PLATELETS) from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS in the BONE MARROW via the MEGAKARYOCYTES. The humoral factor with thrombopoiesis-stimulating activity is designated THROMBOPOIETIN.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Blood Cell Count: The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.Thromboxane A2: An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).Blood Coagulation: The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.Hemostasis: The process which spontaneously arrests the flow of BLOOD from vessels carrying blood under pressure. It is accomplished by contraction of the vessels, adhesion and aggregation of formed blood elements (eg. ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION), and the process of BLOOD COAGULATION.Antigens, Human Platelet: Human alloantigens expressed only on platelets, specifically on platelet membrane glycoproteins. These platelet-specific antigens are immunogenic and can result in pathological reactions to transfusion therapy.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Thrombopoietin: A humoral factor that stimulates the production of thrombocytes (BLOOD PLATELETS). Thrombopoietin stimulates the proliferation of bone marrow MEGAKARYOCYTES and their release of blood platelets. The process is called THROMBOPOIESIS.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Alphaprodine: An opioid analgesic chemically related to and with an action resembling that of MEPERIDINE, but more rapid in onset and of shorter duration. It has been used in obstetrics, as pre-operative medication, for minor surgical procedures, and for dental procedures. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1067)Thromboxanes: Physiologically active compounds found in many organs of the body. They are formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides and cause platelet aggregation, contraction of arteries, and other biological effects. Thromboxanes are important mediators of the actions of polyunsaturated fatty acids transformed by cyclooxygenase.Ergoloid Mesylates: A mixture of the mesylates (methane sulfonates) of DIHYDROERGOCORNINE; DIHYDROERGOCRISTINE; and the alpha- and beta-isomers of DIHYDROERGOCRYPTINE. The substance produces a generalized peripheral vasodilation and a fall in arterial pressure and has been used to treat symptoms of mild to moderate impairment of mental function in the elderly.Mopidamol: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor which inhibits platelet aggregation. Formerly used as an antineoplastic.Blood Preservation: The process by which blood or its components are kept viable outside of the organism from which they are derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Photinia: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE. The common names of chokeberry or chokecherry are also used for some species of PRUNUS.Afibrinogenemia: A deficiency or absence of FIBRINOGEN in the blood.Bleeding Time: Duration of blood flow after skin puncture. This test is used as a measure of capillary and platelet function.CycloheptanesErgotamine: A vasoconstrictor found in ergot of Central Europe. It is a serotonin agonist that has been used as an oxytocic agent and in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.Iprindole: A tricyclic antidepressant that has actions and uses similar to those of AMITRIPTYLINE, but has only weak antimuscarinic and sedative effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p257)Receptors, Thromboxane: Cell surface proteins that bind THROMBOXANES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Some thromboxane receptors act via the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Platelet Membrane Glycoprotein IIb: Platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb is an integrin alpha subunit that heterodimerizes with INTEGRIN BETA3 to form PLATELET GLYCOPROTEIN GPIIB-IIIA COMPLEX. It is synthesized as a single polypeptide chain which is then postranslationally cleaved and processed into two disulfide-linked subunits of approximately 18 and 110 kDa in size.Epoprostenol: A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).Arachidonic AcidsCell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Platelet Factor 3: A phospholipid from the platelet membrane that contributes to the blood clotting cascade by forming a phospholipid-protein complex (THROMBOPLASTIN) which serves as a cofactor with FACTOR VIIA to activate FACTOR X in the extrinsic pathway of BLOOD COAGULATION.Imipramine: The prototypical tricyclic antidepressant. It has been used in major depression, dysthymia, bipolar depression, attention-deficit disorders, agoraphobia, and panic disorders. It has less sedative effect than some other members of this therapeutic group.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Organoids: An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.Blood Coagulation Disorders: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of abnormalities in blood coagulation due to a variety of factors such as COAGULATION PROTEIN DISORDERS; BLOOD PLATELET DISORDERS; BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS or nutritional conditions.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Prostaglandins: A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Arachidonic Acid: An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.Isonipecotic AcidsReceptors, Thrombopoietin: Cell surface receptors that are specific for THROMBOPOIETIN. They signal through interaction with JANUS KINASES such as JANUS KINASE 2.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Methysergide: An ergot derivative that is a congener of LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE. It antagonizes the effects of serotonin in blood vessels and gastrointestinal smooth muscle, but has few of the properties of other ergot alkaloids. Methysergide is used prophylactically in migraine and other vascular headaches and to antagonize serotonin in the carcinoid syndrome.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Receptors, Purinergic P2Y12: A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ADP binding and are coupled to GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT, GI. The P2Y12 purinergic receptors are found in PLATELETS where they play an important role regulating PLATELET ACTIVATION.Receptors, Prostaglandin: Cell surface receptors that bind prostaglandins with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their relative affinities for the endogenous prostaglandins. They include those which prefer prostaglandin D2 (DP receptors), prostaglandin E2 (EP1, EP2, and EP3 receptors), prostaglandin F2-alpha (FP receptors), and prostacyclin (IP receptors).Stilbenes: Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Platelet Storage Pool Deficiency: Disorder characterized by a decrease or lack of platelet dense bodies in which the releasable pool of adenine nucleotides and 5HT are normally stored.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Ristocetin: An antibiotic mixture of two components, A and B, obtained from Nocardia lurida (or the same substance produced by any other means). It is no longer used clinically because of its toxicity. It causes platelet agglutination and blood coagulation and is used to assay those functions in vitro.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Thrombasthenia: A congenital bleeding disorder with prolonged bleeding time, absence of aggregation of platelets in response to most agents, especially ADP, and impaired or absent clot retraction. Platelet membranes are deficient in or have a defect in the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex (PLATELET GLYCOPROTEIN GPIIB-IIIA COMPLEX).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Actinin: A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Purpura, Thrombocytopenic: Any form of purpura in which the PLATELET COUNT is decreased. Many forms are thought to be caused by immunological mechanisms.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Pseudopodia: A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Crotalid Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.Reserpine: An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Endothelium: A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Thrombocytosis: Increased numbers of platelets in the peripheral blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)TritiumPeptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Blood Coagulation Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, that are involved in the blood coagulation process.Platelet-Rich Plasma: A preparation consisting of PLATELETS concentrated in a limited volume of PLASMA. This is used in various surgical tissue regeneration procedures where the GROWTH FACTORS in the platelets enhance wound healing and regeneration.Thromboxane B2: A stable, physiologically active compound formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides. It is important in the platelet-release reaction (release of ADP and serotonin).Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Prostaglandin Endoperoxides, Synthetic: Synthetic compounds that are analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides and that mimic their pharmacologic and physiologic activities. They are usually more stable than the naturally occurring compounds.Alkaloids: Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Bernard-Soulier Syndrome: A familial coagulation disorder characterized by a prolonged bleeding time, unusually large platelets, and impaired prothrombin consumption.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Dimethyl Sulfoxide: A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Receptors, Thrombin: A family of proteinase-activated receptors that are specific for THROMBIN. They are found primarily on PLATELETS and on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. Activation of thrombin receptors occurs through the proteolytic action of THROMBIN, which cleaves the N-terminal peptide from the receptor to reveal a new N-terminal peptide that is a cryptic ligand for the receptor. The receptors signal through HETEROTRIMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. Small synthetic peptides that contain the unmasked N-terminal peptide sequence can also activate the receptor in the absence of proteolytic activity.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Serotonin Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate serotonin receptors, thereby blocking the actions of serotonin or SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Plateletpheresis: The preparation of platelet concentrates with the return of red cells and platelet-poor plasma to the donor.Apyrase: A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. EC 3.6.1.5.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid: A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)Indium: A metallic element, atomic number 49, atomic weight 114.82, symbol In. It is named from its blue line in the spectrum. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Receptors, Collagen: Collagen receptors are cell surface receptors that modulate signal transduction between cells and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. They are found in many cell types and are involved in the maintenance and regulation of cell shape and behavior, including PLATELET ACTIVATION and aggregation, through many different signaling pathways and differences in their affinities for collagen isoforms. Collagen receptors include discoidin domain receptors, INTEGRINS, and glycoprotein VI.Receptors, Drug: Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Hemorheology: The deformation and flow behavior of BLOOD and its elements i.e., PLASMA; ERYTHROCYTES; WHITE BLOOD CELLS; and BLOOD PLATELETS.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic: Thrombocytopenia occurring in the absence of toxic exposure or a disease associated with decreased platelets. It is mediated by immune mechanisms, in most cases IMMUNOGLOBULIN G autoantibodies which attach to platelets and subsequently undergo destruction by macrophages. The disease is seen in acute (affecting children) and chronic (adult) forms.Thrombospondins: A family of related, adhesive glycoproteins which are synthesized, secreted, and incorporated into the extracellular matrix of a variety of cells, including alpha granules of platelets following thrombin activation and endothelial cells. They interact with a number of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS and anticoagulant factors. Five distinct forms have been identified, thrombospondin 1, -2, -3, -4, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). They are involved in cell adhesion, platelet aggregation, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, tumor metastasis, VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE growth, and tissue repair.Gray Platelet Syndrome: A rare, inherited platelet disorder characterized by a selective deficiency in the number and contents of platelet alpha-granules. It is associated with THROMBOCYTOPENIA, enlarged platelets, and prolonged bleeding time.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.

Values of three coagulation screening tests of precolostral calves. (1/11030)

Prothrombin times, partial thromboplastin times and platelet counts were performed to determine normal values and to screen for coagulation defects of precolostral calves. The precolostral calves were in two groups: one group of a few calves was tested two years before the second larger group. The results for both groups were similar. The tests were performed on postcolostral calves and on mature cows to compare their values with those of precolostral calves. The mean values of prothrombin times and partial thromboplastin times of precolostral calves in the first group were 18.8 seconds and 54.8 seconds respectively. The mean values of prothrombin times and partial thromboplastin times of precolostral calves in the second group were 18.8 seconds and 50.8 seconds respectively. The mean platelet count was 422,400/cmm for the first group and 482,800/cmm for the second group.  (+info)

Enhanced myocardial glucose use in patients with a deficiency in long-chain fatty acid transport (CD36 deficiency). (2/11030)

CD36 is a multifunctional, 88 kDa glycoprotein that is expressed on platelets and monocytes/macrophages. CD36 also has high homology with the long-chain fatty acid (LFA) transporter in the myocardium. Although platelet and monocyte CD36 levels can indicate a CD36 deficiency, they cannot predict specific clinical manifestations in the myocardium of a given person. We examined the hypothesis that a deficiency in LFA transport augments myocardial glucose uptake in patients with a type I CD36 deficiency. METHODS: Seven fasting patients with a type I CD36 deficiency and 9 controls were assessed by cardiac radionuclide imaging using beta-methyl-p-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) as a LFA tracer and by PET with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). RESULTS: None of the patients with a CD36 deficiency showed myocardial uptake of BMIPP. The percentage dose uptake of BMIPP in these subjects was significantly lower than that in normal controls (1.31+/-0.24 versus 2.90+/-0.2; P < 0.005). PET studies revealed that myocardial FDG accumulation was substantially increased in patients with a CD36 deficiency. Quantitative analysis showed that the percentage dose uptake of FDG in patients with a CD36 deficiency was significantly higher than that in normal controls (1.28+/-0.35 versus 0.43+/-0.22; P< 0.01). CONCLUSION: CD36 functions as a major myocardial LFA transporter and its absence may cause a compensatory upregulation of myocardial glucose uptake.  (+info)

Tyrosine phosphorylation of SLP-76 is downstream of Syk following stimulation of the collagen receptor in platelets. (3/11030)

Collagen-related peptide (CRP), a collagen homologue, induces platelet activation through a tyrosine kinase-dependent pathway, leading to sequential tyrosine phosphorylation of Fc receptor (FcR) gamma-chain, Syk, and phospholipase C-gamma2. Here we report that CRP and the platelet low affinity immune receptor FcgammaRIIA stimulate tyrosine phosphorylation of the T cell adapter SLP-76, whereas the G protein-coupled receptor agonist thrombin induces only minor tyrosine phosphorylation. This suggests that SLP-76 has a specific role downstream of receptors that signal via an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif. Immunoprecipitation studies demonstrate association of SLP-76 with SLAP-130, Vav, Fyn, Lyn, and the FcR gamma-chain in CRP-stimulated platelets. Several of these proteins, including SLP-76, undergo tyrosine phosphorylation in in vitro kinase assays performed on SLP-76 immunoprecipitates. Tyrosine phosphorylation of all of these proteins in the in vitro kinase assay was abrogated by the Src family kinase inhibitor PP1, suggesting that it is mediated by either Fyn or Lyn. The physiological significance of this is uncertain, however, since tyrosine phosphorylation of SLP-76 in vivo is not altered in either Fyn- or Lyn-deficient platelets. CRP stimulation of Syk-deficient platelets demonstrated that in vivo tyrosine phosphorylation of SLP-76 is downstream of Syk. The absence of Syk in the SLP-76 immunoprecipitates raises the possibility that another protein is responsible for bringing SLP-76 to Syk. Candidates for this include those proteins that co-immunoprecipitate with SLP-76, including the FcR gamma-chain. Tyrosine phosphorylation of PLC-gamma2 and Ca2+ mobilization is markedly attenuated in SLP-76-deficient platelets following CRP stimulation, suggesting that the adapter plays a critical role in the regulation of the phospholipase. The increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of SLAP-130 in response to CRP is also inhibited in SLP-76-deficient platelets, placing it downstream of SLP-76. This work identifies SLP-76 as an important adapter molecule that is regulated by Syk and lies upstream of SLAP-130 and PLC-gamma2 in CRP-stimulated platelets.  (+info)

Changes in haematological parameters and iron metabolism associated with a 1600 kilometre ultramarathon. (4/11030)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate haematological variations and iron related changes in the serum of participants in a 1600 kilometre ultramarathon run. PARTICIPANTS: Seven male and two female participants in a 1600 km foot race. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from the participants before, after four and 11 days of running, and at the end of the event. Samples were analysed by standard methods for haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total red cell count, mean red cell volume, mean red cell haemoglobin, total white cell count and differential, platelets, reticulocytes, iron, ferritin, total iron binding capacity, percentage transferrin saturation, haptoglobin, and bilirubin and corrected for changes in plasma volume. RESULTS: The following variables decreased during the event (p < 0.05): haemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean red cell volume, percentage lymphocytes, percentage monocytes, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, and percentage transferrin saturation. Increases (p < 0.05) were found in plasma volume, total red cell count (day 4 only), total white cell count, percentage and absolute numbers of neutrophils and reticulocytes, absolute numbers of lymphocytes and monocytes (day 4 only), absolute numbers of eosinophils (day 11 and race end), absolute numbers of basophils (race end only), platelets, ferritin, haptoglobin, and bilirubin (day 4 only). CONCLUSION: Ultramarathon running is associated with a wide range of changes in haematological parameters, many of which are related to the normal acute phase response to injury. These should not be confused with indicators of disease.  (+info)

The Megakaryocyte/Platelet-specific enhancer of the alpha2beta1 integrin gene: two tandem AP1 sites and the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade. (5/11030)

The alpha2beta1 integrin, a collagen receptor on platelets and megakaryocytes, is required for normal platelet function. Transcriptional regulation of the alpha2 integrin gene in cells undergoing megakaryocytic differentiation requires a core promoter between bp -30 and -92, a silencer between bp -92 and -351, and megakaryocytic enhancers in the distal 5' flank. We have now identified a 229-bp region of the distal 5' flank of the alpha2 integrin gene required for high-level enhancer activity in cells with megakaryocytic features. Two tandem AP1 binding sites with dyad symmetry are required for enhancer activity and for DNA-protein complex formation with members of the c-fos/c-jun family. The requirement for AP1 activation suggested a role for the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in regulating alpha2 integrin gene expression. Inhibition of the MAP kinase cascade with PD98059, a specific inhibitor of MAPK kinase 1, prevented the expression of the alpha2 integrin subunit in cells induced to become megakaryocytic. We provide a model of megakaryocytic differentiation in which expression of the alpha2 integrin gene requires signaling via the MAP kinase pathway to activate two tandem AP1 binding sites in the alpha2 integrin enhancer.  (+info)

Activation of stimulus-specific serine esterases (proteases) in the initiation of platelet secretion. I. Demonstration with organophosphorus inhibitors. (6/11030)

The effect of organophosphorus inhibitors of serine esterases (proteases) on secretion from washed rabbit platelets was examined. Five noncytotoxic stimuli were employed: collagen, thrombin, heterologous anti-platelet antibody (in the absence of complement), rabbit C3 bound to zymosan, and platelet activating factor derived from antigen-stimulated, IgE-sensitized rabbit basophils. Diisoprophyl phosphofluoridate, three series of p-nitrophenyl ethyl phosphonates, and a series of cyclohexyl phenylalkylphosphonofluridates were all found to be inhibitory to the platelet secretion. These are irreversible inhibitors of serine proteases but in this system were only inhibitory if added to the platelets concurrently with the stimuli. Pretreatment of either the platelets or the stimuli with the inhibitors followed by washing, was without effect on the subsequent reaction. This suggested the involvement of stimulus-activatable serine proteases in the secretory process. The concept was supported by finding that nonphosphorylating phosphonates or hydrolyzed phosphonates or phosphonofluoridates were without inhibitory action. The effect of a series of phosphonates or phosphonoflouridates in inhibiting each stimulus exhibited a unique activity-structure profile. The demonstration of such unique profiles with four series of inhibitors for each of the five stimuli was interpreted as demonstrating that a specific activatable serine protease was involved in the platelet secretory response to each stimulus.  (+info)

Glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX-transfected cells roll on a von Willebrand factor matrix under flow. Importance of the GPib/actin-binding protein (ABP-280) interaction in maintaining adhesion under high shear. (7/11030)

Adhesion of platelets to sites of vascular injury is critical for hemostasis and thrombosis and is dependent on the binding of the vascular adhesive protein von Willebrand factor (vWf) to the glycoprotein (GP) Ib-V-IX complex on the platelet surface. A unique but poorly defined characteristic of this receptor/ligand interaction is its ability to support platelet adhesion under conditions of high shear stress. To examine the structural domains of the GPIb-V-IX complex involved in mediating cell adhesion under flow, we have expressed partial (GPIb-IX), complete (GPIb-V-IX), and mutant (GPIbalpha cytoplasmic tail mutants) receptor complexes on the surface of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and examined their ability to adhere to a vWf matrix in flow-based adhesion assays. Our studies demonstrate that the partial receptor complex (GPIb-IX) supports CHO cell tethering and rolling on a bovine or human vWf matrix under flow. The adhesion was specifically inhibited by an anti-GPIbalpha blocking antibody (AK2) and was not observed with CHO cells expressing GPIbbeta and GPIX alone. The velocity of rolling was dependent on the level of shear stress, receptor density, and matrix concentration and was not altered by the presence of GPV. In contrast to selectins, which mediate cell rolling under conditions of low shear (20-200 s-1), GPIb-IX was able to support cell rolling at both venous (150 s-1) and arterial (1500-10,500 s-1) shear rates. Studies with a mutant GPIbalpha receptor subunit lacking the binding domain for actin-binding protein demonstrated that the association of the receptor complex with the membrane skeleton is not essential for cell tethering or rolling under low shear conditions, but is critical for maintaining adhesion at high shear rates (3000-6000 s-1). These studies demonstrate that the GPIb-IX complex is sufficient to mediate cell rolling on a vWf matrix at both venous and arterial levels of shear independent of other platelet adhesion receptors. Furthermore, our results suggest that the association between GPIbalpha and actin-binding protein plays an important role in enabling cells to remain tethered to a vWf matrix under conditions of high shear stress.  (+info)

Activation of G12/G13 results in shape change and Rho/Rho-kinase-mediated myosin light chain phosphorylation in mouse platelets. (8/11030)

Platelets respond to various stimuli with rapid changes in shape followed by aggregation and secretion of their granule contents. Platelets lacking the alpha-subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein Gq do not aggregate and degranulate but still undergo shape change after activation through thromboxane-A2 (TXA2) or thrombin receptors. In contrast to thrombin, the TXA2 mimetic U46619 led to the selective activation of G12 and G13 in Galphaq-deficient platelets indicating that these G proteins mediate TXA2 receptor-induced shape change. TXA2 receptor-mediated activation of G12/G13 resulted in tyrosine phosphorylation of pp72(syk) and stimulation of pp60(c-src) as well as in phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) in Galphaq-deficient platelets. Both MLC phosphorylation and shape change induced through G12/G13 in the absence of Galphaq were inhibited by the C3 exoenzyme from Clostridium botulinum, by the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 and by cAMP-analogue Sp-5,6-DCl-cBIMPS. These data indicate that G12/G13 couple receptors to tyrosine kinases as well as to the Rho/Rho-kinase-mediated regulation of MLC phosphorylation. We provide evidence that G12/G13-mediated Rho/Rho-kinase-dependent regulation of MLC phosphorylation participates in receptor-induced platelet shape change.  (+info)

*Sphingosine kinase

Stoffel W, Heimann G, Hellenbroich B (1973). "Sphingosine kinase in blood platelets". Hoppe-Seyler's Z. Physiol. Chem. 354 (5 ...

*12-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid

Nugteren, D. H. (1975). "Arachidonate lipoxygenase in blood platelets". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 380 (2): 299-307. doi: ... Sub-primate mammals, such as the mouse, rat, rabbit, cow, and pig, express platelet type 12-lipoxygenase but also a leukocyte ... It was first found as a product of arachidonic acid metabolism made by human and bovine platelets through their 12S- ... Thus, the production of hepoxilins from 12(S)-HpETE may result from the intrinsic activity of platelet or leukocyte type 12- ...

*ALOX12

Based predominantly on the presence of its mRNA, human ALOX12 is distributed predominantly in blood platelets and leukocytes ... Nugteren DH (February 1975). "Arachidonate lipoxygenase in blood platelets". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 380 (2): 299-307. ... "Immunocytochemical localization of platelet-type arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase in mouse blood cells". The Journal of ... regulate regional blood flow, and contribute to the regulation of blood pressure in animal models (see Hepoxilins). Far more ...

*Fibrin

When the lining of a blood vessel is broken, platelets are attracted forming a platelet plug. These platelets have thrombin ... Blood platelets: biochemistry and physiology]". Hamostaseologie (in German). 23 (4): 149-58. PMID 14603379. doi:10.1267/ ... the blockage of a vessel by an agglutination of red blood cells, platelets, polymerized fibrin and other components. ... TGW1916.net, Defibrinated blood harvested from sheep (video) Fibrin: Molecule of the Month, by David Goodsell, RCSB Protein ...

*Vesicular monoamine transporter

It is also expressed blood platelets. VMAT2 is also co-expressed in chromaffin cells. Expression of the two transporters in ... Activated heterotrimeric G-protein Gαq downregulates VMAT2 mediated serotonin transport in blood platelets, but this is not the ... May 2003). "The vesicular monoamine content regulates VMAT2 activity through Galphaq in mouse platelets. Evidence for ...

*Copper deficiency

Thrombocytopenia (low blood platelets) is unusual. The peripheral blood and bone marrow aspirate findings in copper deficiency ... The characteristic hematological (blood) effects of copper deficiency are anemia (which may be microcytic, normocytic or ... Bone marrow aspirate in both conditions may show dysplasia of blood cell precursors and the presence of ring sideroblasts ( ... The deficiency in copper can cause many hematological manifestations, such as myelodysplasia, anemia, low white blood cell ...

*Helge Stormorken

Thaulow, E; Erikssen, J; Sandvik, L; Stormorken, H; Cohn, PF (August 1991). "Blood platelet count and function are related to ... Holmsen, H; Day, HJ; Stormorken, H (1969). "The blood platelet release reaction". Scandinavian Journal of Haematology. ... Gogstad, GO; Stormorken, H; Solum, NO (15 July 1983). "Platelet alpha 2-antiplasmin is located in the platelet alpha-granules ... Day, HJ; Stormorken, H; Holmsen, H (1973). "Subcellular localization of platelet factor 3 and platelet factor 4". Scandinavian ...

*Anagrelide

... or overproduction of blood platelets. It also has been used in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. Anagrelide controlled ... Anagrelide works by inhibiting the maturation of platelets from megakaryocytes. The exact mechanism of action is unclear, ... age over 60 years platelet count over 1000×109/L a history of thrombosis According to a 2005 Medical Research Council ...

*Monoamine oxidase

MAO-B is mostly found in blood platelets. MAO-A appears at roughly 80% of adulthood levels at birth, increasing very slightly ... Domino EF, Khanna SS (March 1976). "Decreased blood platelet MAO activity in unmedicated chronic schizophrenic patients". The ... Schildkraut JJ, Herzog JM, Orsulak PJ, Edelman SE, Shein HM, Frazier SH (April 1976). "Reduced platelet monoamine oxidase ... Oreland L (January 2004). "Platelet monoamine oxidase, personality and alcoholism: the rise, fall and resurrection". ...

*Gaseous signaling molecules

CO inhibits blood platelet aggregation and adhesion. CO may play a role as potential therapeutic agent. In mammals, carbon ... It lowers blood pressure and slows hypertensive remodeling of blood vessels, especially thickening of their intima. It also ... Bicarbonate ions are crucial for regulating blood pH. A person's breathing rate influences the level of CO2 in their blood. ... Carbon dioxide is one of the mediators of local autoregulation of blood supply. If its levels are high, the capillaries expand ...

*Biological functions of carbon monoxide

CO inhibits blood platelet aggregation and adhesion. CO may play a role as potential therapeutic agent. In mammals, carbon ... Thus, carbon monoxide may have a physiological role in the body, such as a neurotransmitter or a blood vessel relaxant. Because ... a major source of carbon monoxide in the blood, several times more than natural production) increases the risk from 4 to 6 ...

*Propylthiouracil

A decrease in blood platelets (thrombocytopenia) also may occur. Since platelets are important for the clotting of blood, ... One possible side effect is agranulocytosis, a decrease of white blood cells in the blood. Symptoms and signs of ... Other severe side effects include liver problems and low blood cell counts. Use during pregnancy may harm the baby. ...

*Asim Duttaroy

... discovered that an extract from tomato had a positive effect in the prevention of blood platelet aggregation. Platelets play an ... ISBN 978-3-319-38802-1. Duttaroy, Asim K. (June 2018). Human Blood Platelet Function: Applications in Cardiovascular Health. ... Specalliy isloated aqueous extracts can inhibit platelet hyperactivity in multiple pathways and thus may reduce the platelet ... Dutta-Roy, Asim K. (2009). "Dietary components and human platelet activity". Platelets. 13 (2): 67-75. doi:10.1080/ ...

*Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 8

Thromboxane A2 functions to activate more platelets, and this leads to a greater chance for blood clots to form. There is also ... in human blood platelets". J. Lipid Res. 40 (10): 1925-30. PMID 10508213. D'Arcangelo G, Homayouni R, Keshvara L, Rice DS, ... ApoER2 is thought to play a key role in the process of platelet binding. β2GPI has the proper binding site for interaction with ... Reduced expression of ApoER2 in peripheral blood lymphocytes can contribute to major depressive disorder (MDD) in some patients ...

*CD63

It may function as a blood platelet activation marker. Deficiency of this protein is associated with HermanskyPudlak syndrome. ... Blood. United States. 99 (12): 4413-4421. doi:10.1182/blood.V99.12.4413. ISSN 0006-4971. PMID 12036870. Hammond, C; Denzin L K ... 1993). "The protein CD63 is in platelet dense granules, is deficient in a patient with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, and appears ...

*Cavalier King Charles Spaniel

Platelets, or thrombocytes, are disk-shaped blood elements which aid in blood clotting. Excessively low numbers are the most ... The platelets in the blood of many Cavalier King Charles Spaniels are a combination of those of normal size for dogs and others ... "Blood Platelets in Cavaliers: Too Few (Thrombocytopenia) and Too Large (Macrothrombocytopenia)". CavalierHealth.org. Retrieved ... an abnormally low number of platelets in the blood, according to recent studies in Denmark and the United States. ...

*Apheresis

NIH American Society for Apheresis Apheresis in Blood Platelet Donation WebPath Apheresis page. WebPath Blood Donation and ... blood platelets. Plateletpheresis is the collection of platelets by apheresis while returning the RBCs, WBCs, and component ... The end product in most cases is the classic sedimented blood sample with the RBC's at the bottom, the buffy coat of platelets ... To stop the blood from coagulating, anticoagulant is automatically mixed with the blood as it is pumped from the body into the ...

*Serotonin

In blood, serotonin is collected from plasma by platelets, which store it. It is thus active wherever platelets bind in damaged ... If serotonin is released in the blood faster than the platelets can absorb it, the level of free serotonin in the blood is ... There, it is actively taken up by blood platelets, which store it. When the platelets bind to a clot, they release serotonin, ... Biochemically derived from tryptophan, serotonin is primarily found in the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), blood platelets, ...

*Adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitor

The P2Y12 receptor is a surface bound protein found on blood platelets. They belong to G protein-coupled purinergic receptors ( ... Activation of platelets and the subsequent aggregation of platelets has a crucical role maintaining normal haemostasis. ... When a vessel is damaged ADP is released from damaged cells and activated platelets, inducing further platelet aggregation. The ... "Pharmacology of emerging novel platelet inhibitors". American Heart Journal. Platelet Inhibitor Therapy: Current Perspectives ...

*Protein precipitation

June 2005). "Quantitative validation of different protein precipitation methods in proteome analysis of blood platelets". ... in the biotechnology industry protein precipitation is used to eliminate contaminants commonly contained in blood. The ...

*Blodplättar

In Swedish, the word may also be used to refer to blood platelets. Picture of Finnish veriohukainen. ... Blodplättar, or blood pancakes (veriohukainen, verilätty or verilettu in Finnish), are a dish served in Finland, Sweden and ... Norway made of whipped blood and other ingredients. It is similar to black pudding, but is thinner and crispier. Blodplättar ...

*Miltefosine

More severe side effects may include Stevens-Johnson syndrome or low blood platelets. Use during pregnancy appears to cause ...

*Tyrosine kinase 2

1997). "Thrombopoietin and thrombin induce tyrosine phosphorylation of Vav in human blood platelets". Blood. 89 (8): 2789-98. ... Blood. 86 (8): 2948-56. PMID 7579387. Domanski P, Yan H, Witte MM, et al. (1995). "Homodimerization and intermolecular tyrosine ...

*Thymidine phosphorylase

... blood platelet-derived endothelial cell, growth factors, blood platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor, deoxythymidine ... Desgranges C, Razaka G, Rabaud M, Bricaud H (July 1981). "Catabolism of thymidine in human blood platelets: purification and ... Thymidine phosphorylase has been determined to be almost identical to the platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD- ... Finnis C, Dodsworth N, Pollitt CE, Carr G, Sleep D (February 1993). "Thymidine phosphorylase activity of platelet-derived ...

*Vandread

The data is read out: "Blood platelets, white blood cells, red blood cells..." Their alien enemies kills human beings and ...

*Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2

... particularly prostacyclin which is found in blood vessel lining. Prostacyclin relaxes or unsticks platelets, so selective COX-2 ... It sticks platelets together and promotes clotting; inhibiting this helps prevent heart disease. On the other hand, PTGS2 (COX- ...
In this study, we show that the platelet surface expression of glycoprotein (GP) V is regulated by two independent mechanisms. While confirming that both thrombin and neutrophil elastase proteolyse GPV, we show that neutrophil cathepsin G, thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP), and a combination of ADP and epinephrine can each result in a decrease in the platelet surface expression of GPV by a nonproteolytic mechanism: a cytoskeletal-mediated redistribution of platelet surface GPV to the surface-connected canalicular system (SCCS). Four independent lines of evidence documented the nonproteolytic nature of this decrease in the platelet surface expression of GPV. First, flow cytometric studies showed that cathepsin G, TRAP, and ADP/epinephrine decreased the platelet surface expression of GPV without changing the total platelet content of GPV. Second, immunoelectron microscopy directly demonstrated translocation of GPV from the platelet surface to the SCCS. Third, the cathepsin G-, TRAP-, and ADP
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of rheologic changes and platelet-neutrophil interactions on cell filtration in sepsis. AU - Kirschenbaum, Linda A.. AU - Aziz, Mohammed. AU - Astiz, Mark E.. AU - Saha, Dhanonjoy C.. AU - Rackow, Eric C.. PY - 2000/1/1. Y1 - 2000/1/1. N2 - We examined the role of erythrocyte (red blood cell; RBC) aggregation and deformability, neutrophil (polymorphonuclear neutrophil; PMN) deformability, whole-blood viscosity, and platelet-neutrophil interactions on cell filtration in subjects who were critically ill with sepsis (CIS), critically ill noninfected subjects (CINS), and healthy controls (C). We assessed cell deformability by filtration through filters of 5-μm pore size. Whole blood, RBC, PMN, and combinations of PMN and RBC were studied. Viscometry was done on isolated RBC. Platelet-PMN interactions were assessed with monoclonal antibodies to CD41 and activated CD53 platelet receptors, and to CD66b PMN receptors. Filtration pressure (Pi) for CIS was significantly greater ...
Approach and Results-To model standard antiplatelet therapy, platelets were treated in vitro with aspirin, the P2Y12 receptor blocker prasugrel active metabolite, and aspirin plus prasugrel active metabolite. Different proportions of uninhibited platelets were then introduced. Light transmission aggregometry analysis demonstrated clear positive associations between proportions of drug-free platelets and percentage platelet aggregation in response to a range of platelet agonists. Using differential platelet labeling coupled with advanced flow cytometry and confocal imaging, we found aggregates formed in mixtures of aspirin-inhibited platelets and drug-free platelets were characterized by intermingled platelet populations. This distribution is in accordance with the ability of drug-free platelets to generate thromboxane A2 and so drive secondary platelet activation. Conversely, aggregates formed in mixtures of prasugrel active metabolite-inhibited or aspirin plus prasugrel active ...
Introduction: S100A1 is a member of the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins. S100A1 controls Ca2+ dynamics in cardiomyocytes and plays an important role in heart failure. S100A1 is also strongly expressed in mouse platelets, but its role in platelet biology has not been investigated.. Goal: To determine the role of S100A1 in platelet activation and thrombosis.. Methods and Results: Platelet activation in response to threshold levels of convulxin, a specific agonist for the collagen receptor GPVI, showed significantly increased activation of αIIbβ3 integrin and α-granule release in S100A1-deficient (SKO) platelets compared with wild-type (WT) platelets. Consistently, SKO platelets also showed a more robust aggregation response to convulxin and collagen. In contrast, SKO platelets responded normally to stimulation with PAR4 receptor-activating peptide or ADP. Adhesion of SKO platelets to collagen under flow conditions was not significantly different to that of WT platelets. However, we ...
Oxidized LDL and platelets play a central role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and ischemic cardiovascular diseases. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a thrombogenic substance that accumulates in mildly-oxidized LDL and in human atherosclerotic lesions, and is responsible for the initial platelet activation, shape change, induced by mildly-oxidized LDL and extracts of lipid-rich atherosclerotic plaques (Siess et al., 1999 Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999). LPA directly induced platelet shape change in blood and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) obtained from all blood donors. Albumin was one of the main inhibiting factors of platelet shape change in plasma. Interestingly LPA, at concentrations slightly above plasma levels, induced platelet shape change and aggregation in blood. 1-alkyl-LPA (16:0) was almost 20-fold more potent than 1-acyl-LPA (16:0). LPA-stimulated platelet aggregation in blood and PRP was donor-dependent. LPA-induced aggregation in blood could be completely blocked by the ADP- ...
A method for determining platelet activation by utilizing numeric counts of platelets before a sample of platelets has been activated and after the activatable platelets are activated with a platelet activation agonist and using the difference between such counts as an, indication of the platelet activity of the sample. There is also disclosed a method for using the electronic impedance cell counting technique for determining platelet activation wherein EDTA is used as a preservative by counting the platelets in an EDTA preserved sample using an electronic impedance cell counting technique and subtracting from that number the number of platelets remaining after the activatable platelets in a second sample have been activated with a platelet agonist in the absence of EDTA and using that difference as a measure of platelet activity.
human platelet receptor for type III collagen: MW 68-72 kDa; platelet receptor involved in platelet interaction with type III collagen, localized within platelet lipid rafts where it could interact with other platelet receptors for collagen (GP VI and alpha2beta1 integrin) for efficient platelet activation
Reuters) - Scientists have for the first time created blood platelet cells by reprogramming stem cells derived from adult cells, offering the potential for a renewable supply of the fragile blood component.. Researchers at the Center for iPS Cell Research and Application at Kyoto University in Japan presented data here at a meeting of the American Society of Hematology showing they were able to create the cells in the laboratory and confirm they had the same life span as normal human platelets when infused in mice.. "The next step will be to conduct a trial to determine whether our platelets can function in the human body and potentially provide a stable supply of platelets at a predefined quality and quantity that can then be used for transfusion therapy," D. Koji Eto, professor at the Kyoto center and senior author of the study, said in a statement.. Induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPS cells, are produced by manipulating ordinary human skin or blood cells back to a state in which they are ...
inbook{d2d8fceb-9b60-4916-ad95-3b1f6f9113f7, abstract = {,p,Many pathogenic bacteria have been reported to interact with human platelets to mediate platelet activation and aggregation. The importance of these interactions to the immune response or pathogenesis of bacterial infection has not been clarified. It may therefore be valuable to assess platelet responses mediated by diverse strains of bacteria. Here, I describe a method to study platelet integrin activation and granule release using flow cytometry, and a complementary method to study platelet aggregation using a dedicated platelet aggregometer. The combination of these methods represents a rapid and cost-effective strategy to provide mechanistic insight on the type of platelet response mediated by the bacteria.,/p,}, author = {Shannon, Oonagh}, issn = {10643745}, keyword = {Bacteria,Coagulation,Flow cytometry,Platelets,Streptococci}, language = {eng}, pages = {267--273}, publisher = {Humana Press}, series = {Methods in Molecular ...
The present study demonstrates that in type 2 DM patients with CAD receiving maintenance aspirin and clopidogrel therapy, the presence of moderate/severe CKD is associated with higher degrees of platelet reactivity compared with patients with normal renal function/mild CKD. In particular, after adjustment for potential confounders, patients with creatinine clearance ,60 ml/min had an almost 4-fold increase in the likelihood of showing high platelet reactivity after ADP stimuli and over a 2-fold increase in high platelet reactivity after collagen stimuli. Importantly, these patients with high platelet aggregability also have increased markers of platelet activation. Overall, these findings are indicative not only of dysfunctional purinergic signaling mediated ADP receptors but also of the presence of a hyper-reactive platelet phenotype with upregulation of multiple signaling pathways. Therefore, these pharmacodynamic observations might explain the elevated prevalence of ischemic complications, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Four types of human platelet lysate, including one virally inactivated by solvent-detergent, can be used to propagate Wharton jelly mesenchymal stromal cells. AU - Chen, Ming Sheng. AU - Wang, Tsung Jen. AU - Lin, Hsiu Chen. AU - Thierry, Burnouf. PY - 2019/3/25. Y1 - 2019/3/25. N2 - There is accumulating experimental evidence that human platelet lysate (HPL) made from platelet concentrates can replace fetal bovine serum (FBS) as a xeno-free clinical-grade supplement of growth media to expand mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). However, uncertainties exist in regard to impacts that various manufacturing methods of HPL can exert on the expansion and differentiation capacity of MSCs. In particular, there is a need to evaluate the possibility of implementing virus-inactivation treatment during HPL production to ensure optimal safety of industrial HPL pools. Expired human platelet concentrates from four different donors were pooled and subjected to freeze-thaw cycles (-80/+37 °C), ...
The typical reconstruction model of an unstimulated human platelet is presented. It shows a strict spatial order of organelles and enodmembrane systems. The surface-connected vesicle system is predominantly found in the periphery. The dense tubules constitute a continuous, interconnected system found just under the surface of the platelet. They are particularly pronounced in the vicinity of the marginal microtubules. All organelles are in contact with the dense tubular system (DTS). Granules, vesicles and plasmalemma fuse into the tubules. The platelet organelles are centrally located. Lysosomal granules are primarily shperical and all of them contain a nucleoid. This speaks in favor of a single type of storage organelle in the platelet. The dense bodies and their remnants (large, solitary vesicles) are not joined by the other endomembrane systems, as in the case of the granules. A particular pathways for the release of substances from these organelles is now morphologically plausible. Mitochondria are
The frequency and severity of bacteremic infections has increased over the last decade and bacterial endovascular infections (i.e., sepsis or endocarditis) are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Bacteria or secreted bacterial products modulate platelet function and, as a result, affect platelet accumulation at sites of vascular infection and inflammation. However, whether bacterial products regulate synthetic events in platelets is not known. In the present study, we determined if prolonged contact with staphylococcal α-toxin signals platelets to synthesize B-cell lymphoma (Bcl-3), a protein that regulates clot retraction in murine and human platelets. We show that α-toxin induced αIIbβ3-dependent aggregation (EC50 2.98 µg/mL ± 0.64 µg/mL) and, over time, significantly altered platelet morphology and stimulated de novo accumulation of Bcl-3 protein in platelets. Adherence to collagen or fibrinogen also increased the expression of Bcl-3 protein by platelets. α-toxin altered Bcl-3
Methods were developed for measuring changes in platelet sensitivity to a release-inducing stimulus and in platelet cyclic AMP in fresh whole blood samples from rabbits. These techniques permitted detection of the effects of exogenous and endogenous prostacyclin on circulating platelets. In these methods, rabbit platelets were labeled in vitro by incubation with [14C]serotonin and [3H]adenine and then transfused into other rabbits. Release of platelet [14C]serotonin by a standard dose of synthetic platelet-activating factor (40 pmol/ml) and the platelet cyclic [3H]AMP levels were then measured in citrated blood from the conscious animals within 2 min of arterial puncture. Bolus intravenous injections of prostacyclin (1-10 nmol/kg) caused concentration-dependent increases in platelet cyclic AMP after 2 min, which decreased approximately 75% by 5 min, and disappeared after 30 min. Significant inhibition of the platelet release reaction was detected 2 min but not 5 min after injection of 10 nmol of ...
Release: Dec. 3, 1999. UI participates in multi-center study testing new platelet sterilizing strategy. IOWA CITY, Iowa The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics is participating in a multi-center trial testing the efficacy and safety of a new way to cleanse infectious organisms from donated platelets before the blood product is administered to patients.. The UI department of pathology has received a one-and-half-year grant from health care companies Baxter and Cerus for the study titled Determination of the therapeutic efficacy and safety of photochemically treated platelets in thrombocytopenic patients.. Thrombocytopenia is a condition characterized by low blood platelet counts. Platelets are the clotting particles in blood.. The new photochemical strategy attempts to sterilize donated platelets against bacteria and viruses, which may be present in blood products. The goal of the study is to establish that the platelets are not damaged from the sterilization process. Preliminary data ...
The TEMPLATE study design will enable unbiased comparison of the effects of TIC versus TIC + ASP on platelet activity in patients with coronary artery disease. It will also enable a longitudinal comparison of the effects TIC and TIC + ASP with the effects of ASP alone in the same patients. The laboratory tests selected for this study will enable measurement of functional platelet responses to a panel of activating agonists using LTA, flow cytometry and flow chamber tests, selected to measure the extent of inhibition of the multiple platelet activation pathways. We will also measure the extent of baseline platelet activity by testing unstimulated platelets by flow cytometry and with the soluble platelet activation biomarker tests. Together, these data will provide a comprehensive description of the overall pharmacodynamic effects of the different antiplatelet treatments. This information has not been reported previously in cohorts of patients with coronary artery disease receiving TIC or TIC + ...
The normal circulating platelet count is maintained within relatively narrow limits (150,000-450,000 platelets/μL in Northern Europeans and 90,000-300,000 platelets/μL in people of Mediterranean descent). This difference is related to an inherited slight variation in individual platelet volume (size). The platelet volume is inversely related to the platelet count, so the mass of circulating platelets is the same for these 2 populations. Approximately one-third of platelets are sequestered in the spleen at any one time. Splenic sequestration of platelets can increase dramatically with splenomegaly. Since a platelet has a lifespan of approximately 9-10 days, some 15,000-45,000 platelets/μL must be produced each day to maintain a steady state. New platelet production is the responsibility of the megakaryocyte, a very large multinucleated cell (10,750 fL) found in relatively small numbers in the marrow (0.1% of marrow cells) (Figure 31-1). As with other hematopoietic cells, megakaryocytes are ...
Research in the Laboratory for Hemostasis and Platelet Biology, led by Dr. Andrew Johnson, focuses on understanding genetic and genomic underpinnings of this individual variability in therapeutically targeted CVD pathways ...
Although tumor dormancy is highly prevalent, the underling mechanisms are still mostly unknown. It is unclear which lesions will progress and become a disseminated cancer, and which will remain dormant and asymptomatic. Yet, an improved ability to predict progression would open the possibility of timely treatment and improvement in outcomes. We have recently described the ability of platelets to selectively uptake angiogenesis regulators very early in tumor growth, and proposed their use as an early marker of malignancy. In this review we will summarize current knowledge about these processes and will discuss the possibility of using platelet content to predict presence of occult tumors.
OBJECTIVES: We sought to examine whether patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) have increased platelet reactivity and an enhanced propensity to form monocyte-platelet aggregates. BACKGROUND: Platelet-dependent thrombosis and leukocyte infiltration into the vessel wall are characteristic cellular events seen in atherosclerosis. METHODS: Anticoagulated peripheral venous blood from 19 patients with stable CAD and 19 normal control subjects was incubated with or without various platelet agonists and analyzed by whole blood flow cytometry. RESULTS: Circulating degranulated platelets were increased in patients with CAD compared with control subjects (mean [+/- SEM] percent P-selectin-positive platelets: 2.1 +/- 0.2 vs. 1.5 +/- 0.2, p andlt; 0.01) and were more reactive to stimulation with 1 micromol/liter of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (28.7 +/- 3.9 vs. 16.1 +/- 2.2, p andlt; 0.01), 1 micromol/liter of ADP/epinephrine (51.4 +/- 4.6 vs. 37.5 +/- 3.8, p andlt; 0.05) or 5 micromol/liter of thrombin
Our data clearly show that human platelets can both bind and degrade full-length rhTPO. The affinity constants derived from the binding data indicate that rhTPOs affinity for platelet receptors was similar to that for the cloned c-Mpl receptor construct, gD-Mpl. The binding constants were also similar for rhTPO binding to PRP at 37°C and WP at 22°C. These data show that platelets bind rhTPO, likely via c-Mpl with high affinity (∼350 pmol/L), and that this binding is saturable. Scatchard analysis predicted a low number of (∼23 to 224) binding sites per platelet. However, this estimate may be low, because c-Mpl binding sites on circulating platelets are likely partially occupied by endogenous circulating TPO.9,10 If we assume the number of available c-Mpl receptors is ∼25 to 200 per platelet and that the approximate number of platelets per liter of blood in humans is 200 × 109, then the predicted binding capacity would be ∼8 to 64 pmol per liter of blood. This approximation suggests ...
Subjects for all study groups will be male and between the ages of 25 and 65. Hypertension & Depression Group: Hypertension controlled with an ACE-inhibitor anti-hypertensive; no co-morbid medical conditions known to influence psychological functioning or platelet calcium responses including uncontrolled diabetes, MI or CVA within 6 months of enrollment, secondary hypertension; depression as diagnosed by structured interview and HDRS score of 18; no active participation in another clinical trial; no current suicidal/ homicidal ideation. Hypertension Group: Hypertension controlled with an ACE-inhibitor anti-hypertensive; no co-morbid medical conditions known to influence psychological functioning or platelet calcium responses including uncontrolled diabetes, MI or CVA within 6 months of enrollment, secondary hypertension; no active participation in another clinical trial; no current suicidal/ homicidal ideation. Depression Group: No co-morbid medical conditions known to influence psychological ...
Platelets may interact directly with their targets and perform its killing function. For example, platelets may bind and wrap bacteria (Youssefian et al., 2002) or induce their aggregation (OBrien et al., 2002), leading to degranulation. During malaria infection, platelets have also been described to perform the direct killing of plasmodium parasites in their blood stage forms in a PF4-dependent manner (McMorran et al., 2009, 2012), leading to the general perception that platelets play protective roles during an infection. However, a recent in vivo study in mice paradoxically found that platelet depletion did not lead to higher parasitemia levels (Gramaglia et al., 2017). Instead, links were found between the presence of platelets and malarial pathogenesis via CD40 interactions. Because about two thirds (Jadhav et al., 2004) of malarial infections are accompanied by thrombocytopenia, it thus remains a quandary for clinicians to decide if they should be boosting or inhibiting platelet function ...
1. A new fixing solution is described, which preserves the platelets and prevents contact hemolysis of the erythrocytes, so that counts of both corpuscles may be made in the same preparation.. 2. Comparative counts of platelets in arteries and veins show that arterial blood contains a larger number of platelets than venous blood. This difference is accentuated under experimental conditions that cause a reduction in the number of platelets. It is concluded that new platelets are added to the blood in the capillary areas of the lungs, and that there is a corresponding destruction of platelets as the blood passes through the capillary areas of the systemic circulation.. 3. Perfusion of the lungs with a platelet-preserving solution, compared with that of other organs, gives evidence of the existence of a source of platelet material in the lungs.. 4. Histological examination of the lungs with a technique adequate to give a differential staining of platelet material demonstrates the presence of giant ...
New studies in mice suggest that blood platelets can destroy deadly malaria parasites, but a single dose of aspirin may be enough to thwart their killing power., , , , The findings could have important im...
ANTICOAGULANTS AND THROMBOLYTIC DRUGSHaemostasisVascular injury results firstly in vasoconstriction and formation of platelet plug at the site of injury (primary haemostasis). The platelet plug is then stabilized by the formation of a fibrin meshwork, resulting from activation of the coagulation cascade.Fibrin is eventually cleared through digestion by fibrinolytic enzymes.Primary HaemostasisWhen endothelial integrity is breached, platelets adhere to exposed subendothelial collagen. The adherent platelets become activated result in;1) Exposure of fibrinogen receptors, allowing fibrinogen to bind and cross-link adjacent platelets. The process is known as platelet aggregation. The platelet fibrinogen receptor consists of a complex of glycoproteins IIb and IIIa on the platelet membrane.2) Release of contents of secretory granules including substances such as adenosine diphosphate (ADP) which promote further platelet activation.3) Synthesis of thromboxane A2 which also acts to promote further ...
As conventional tissue biopsies have several drawbacks, much effort has been directed toward the development of minimal-invasive liquid biopsy platforms for detecting and profiling cancer.. Platelets are the second most abundant cells in blood and have very versatile functions both in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. When exposed to tumors and their environment, platelets exchange biomolecules with tumor cells changing the platelets RNA profile, resulting in tumor-mediated education of the platelets. Our research group and collaborators have previously shown that platelets sequester material while in circulation and with that ability accumulate cancer specific information. Platelet RNA profiles or detection of tumor-derived biomarkers within them may provide insight into ongoing cancer-related processes in a patient, allowing for implementation of personalized therapy strategies.. This thesis evaluates whether circulating platelets could have a potential role (as a liquid biopsy ...
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (thromb- + -cyte, blood clot cell), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to stop bleeding by clumping and clotting blood vessel injuries. Platelets have no cell nucleus: they are fragments of cytoplasm that are derived from the megakaryocytes of the bone marrow, and then enter the circulation. These unactivated platelets are biconvex discoid (lens-shaped) structures, 2-3 µm in greatest diameter. Platelets are found only in mammals, whereas in other animals (e.g. birds, amphibians) thrombocytes circulate as intact mononuclear cells. On a stained blood smear, platelets appear as dark purple spots, about 20% the diameter of red blood cells. The smear is used to examine platelets for size, shape, qualitative number, and clumping. The ratio of platelets to red blood cells in a healthy adult is 1:10 to 1:20. The main function of platelets is to contribute to hemostasis: the process of stopping bleeding at the site of ...
Fig.10 Design of CREKA-Lipo-T nanoparticles and their proposed antimetastatic mechanism within tumor tissues. (A) Proposed mechanism of action of CREKA-Lipo-T nanoparticles. Normally, tumor growth factor (TGF)-b secreted by platelets induces transition of tumor cells to a mesenchymal-like phenotype (I). Platelets can also protect tumor cells against attack from natural killer (NK) cells (II). At distant sites, platelets assist metastatic cells to cross the local endothelium by secreting numerous cytokines. Following treatment, CREKA-Lipo-T actively targets microthrombi in tumor vessel walls and releases ticagrelor slowly and locally. Ticagrelor binds to tumor-associated platelets and inhibits their functions. The release of TGF-b from platelets and the interaction between platelets and tumor cells are abolished, leading to decreased epithelial-mesenchymal-like transition of tumor cells and thus inhibiting their invasion capacity. When tumor cells are present in circulation, compromised platelets ...
Cooper, N., Heddle, N. M., de Haas, M., Reid, M. E., Lesser, M. L., Fleit, H. B., Woloski, B. M. R. and Bussel, J. B. (2004), Intravenous (IV) anti-D and IV immunoglobulin achieve acute platelet increases by different mechanisms: modulation of cytokine and platelet responses to IV anti-D by FcγRIIa and FcγRIIIa polymorphisms. British Journal of Haematology, 124: 511-518. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2141.2004.04804.x ...
Tortuous blood vessels are often seen in humans in association with thrombosis, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and aging. Vessel tortuosity can cause high fluid shear stress, likely promoting thrombosis. However, the underlying physical mechanisms and microscale processes are poorly understood. Accordingly, the objectives of this study were to develop and use a new computational approach to determine the effects of venule tortuosity and fluid velocity on thrombus initiation. The transport, collision, shear-induced activation, and receptor-ligand adhesion of individual platelets in thrombus formation were simulated using discrete element method. The shear-induced activation model assumed that a platelet became activated if it experienced a shear stress above a relative critical shear stress or if it contacted an activated platelet. Venules of various levels of tortuosity were simulated for a mean flow velocity of 0.10 cm s−1 , and a tortuous arteriole was simulated for a mean velocity of 0.47 ...
Article see p 476. As megakaryocytes form platelets, they transfer STAT3 to proplatelet tips. Consequently, STAT3 is found in platelets that circulate in the bloodstream (Figure). The presence of STAT3 in platelets raises the question of whether it regulates functional responses in platelets or is simply a vestigial remnant of megakaryocytes. An argument for the "leftover without function" hypothesis is the anucleate status of platelets: simply stated, with no nucleus and no nuclear DNA there is no place for STAT3 to stick in platelets. The problem with this argument is that "simple" is no longer a common word used to describe platelets. Moreover, why would platelets expend energy to carry a protein that they do not need, especially since previous studies have shown that STAT3 undergoes signal-dependent phosphorylation in these anucleate cytoplasts?4 Well, any doubt regarding why STAT3 is present in platelets has been cleared up. Using a combination of pharmacological and genetic based tools, ...
Majid Ali, M.D. Children are invited to use the text and photographs (such as those below) on this web site for preparing competition essays and school science projects. Blood Platelet Clump Due to Oxidative Stress. Dissociation of Platelet Aggregates by Vitamin C Figure 15 (top) shows patterns of aggregation of platelets induced by…
When I tell people I study platelets, I am not often met with excitement. Most people know platelets as those tiny things that form clots, and if they have a fully functional clotting cascade, they arent bothered that much about them. When I mention that I study how platelets play a role in the immune system, the reaction usually turns to confusion - clotting isnt related to the immune response, is it? Well, not really. It turns out that platelets play several roles in the body, and during my postdoctoral fellowship at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, I aim to learn more about how they work in the immune system in the specific context of HIV infection.. So, what even are platelets? To my understanding, they are very small cells. Many make the assertion that platelets arent truly cells because they lack a nucleus and are much smaller than most cells. However, (mammalian) red blood cells also lack a nucleus, and they have "cell" right in their name! Additionally, if red blood ...
T cells are isolated from a patients blood and retrained, or "primed," to recognise tumour cells. They are then injected back into the patients bloodstream where they can now hunt and fight cancer.. There was some evidence that platelets might make cancer worse. For example, patients who have excessive clotting related to their cancer almost always have a worse prognosis, according to Li.. "Over the years, it has become appreciated that platelets are doing more than just clotting," says Li.. The first clue that cancer-fighting T cells might be suppressed by the bodys own clotting system came when the researchers gave melanoma to mice with genetically defective platelets.. Melanoma tumours grew much more slowly and primed T cells were much more active than in mice with normal platelets.. Next, the team isolated platelets and T cells from blood drawn from humans and mice.. In both cases, platelets with activated clotting activity suppressed T cell response.. It then used mass spectrometry to ...
Thrombocytes, commonly known as blood platelets are an important part of the blood. Their quantity is quite essential to maintain in blood. The Thrombocyte are also known as platelets, they need to be maintained in the blood with a certain quantity failing which the mammals can face the various health disorders. The Thrombocytes main purpose is the Hemostasis, as they are used to stop bleeding and at the site causing the interrupted endothelium. There are three stages of the Hemostasis, and we have discussed them below: Adhesion: In the first step the platelets gets attached outside surface of the uninterrupted endothelium. Activation: They start changing their shapes, turns on the receptors and start secreting the chemical messengers. Aggregation: The platelets start connecting to each other through receptor bridges. It clearly displays how the platelets function in stopping the bleeding so that blood should not freely flow from the body if any injury happens. The Thrombocyte have a structure too,
1. Platelets containing adenine nucleotides labelled with3H and14C in vitro were aggregated biphasically with ADP and adrenaline. Amounts of ATP and ADP as well as the radioactivity of ATP, ADP, AMP, IMP, hypoxanthine and adenine were determined in platelets and plasma at different stages of aggregation. 2. ATP and ADP were released during the second aggregation phase and had a low specific radioactivity compared with the ATP and ADP retained by the cells. The specific radioactivity of intracellular nucleotides increased during release. The parameters observed with ADP and adrenaline as release inducers were the same as for collagen and thrombin. 3. Release induced by all four inducers was accompanied by conversion of cellular [3H]ATP into extracellular [3H]-hypoxanthine. By variation of temperature, inducer concentration, time after blood withdrawal and use of acetylsalicylic acid, the aggregation pattern caused by adrenaline and ADP could be made mono- or bi-phasic. Release or second-phase ...
Id say no, for several reasons. These people would argue that a disabled little one doesnt get to totally take pleasure in life and creates a huge burden on their caregivers, and society in general, who must provide far more than they do for youngsters without disabilities. Consultants say women ought to wait 5 to 10 days after their period is officially late earlier than taking the take a look at to make sure accuracy. We can carry out genetic testing on the dividing embryo on the third day of blood platelets low count and pregnancy and examine for the most typical genetic abnormalities that result in infertility and blood platelets low count and pregnancy being pregnant loss. This typically cause from the modifications of your physique exhibit for producing house in your body for brand spanking new born. P07-fifty four. Typically i feel theres one thing unsuitable with me or him, however i assume hes just actually good at pulling out lol. Its surprisingly frequent to have break-though ...
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Clearsate.jpg CLEARSATE IS:A potent platelet lysate product to be used as a media supplement alternative to fetal bovine serum (FBS)Produced from expired human platelets and able to be used without an anticoagulantTriple-filter
in Intensive Care Medicine Experimental (2017), 5(1), 32. Background: Platelets have been involved in both surveillance and host defense against severe infection. To date, whether platelet phenotype or other hemostasis components could be associated with ... [more ▼]. Background: Platelets have been involved in both surveillance and host defense against severe infection. To date, whether platelet phenotype or other hemostasis components could be associated with predisposition to sepsis in critical illness remains unknown. The aim of this work was to identify platelet markers that could predict sepsis occurrence in critically ill injured patients. Results: This single-center, prospective, observational, 7-month study was based on a cohort of 99 non-infected adult patients admitted to ICUs for elective cardiac surgery, trauma, acute brain injury and post-operative prolonged ventilation and followed up during ICU stay. Clinical characteristics and severity score (SOFA) were recorded on admission. ...
If you just went for your annual physical and your doctor told you that you have platelet or thrombocyte issues, you probably have no idea what he was talking about! However, having issues with your blood platelets or thrombocytes can be serious if left untreated.
The invention provides a method of monitoring platelet function in a mammal by passing blood removed from the body of the mammal through a passageway to contact an obstruction or irregularity in the passageway to generate a platelet mass in the passageway, and monitoring the flow or composition of the blood in the passageway to detect the platelet mass. The flow and composition change in response to the formation of a platelet mass in the passageway. Devices, articles, and kits for performing the methods are also disclosed.
Platelets. Coloured Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM) of clusters of platelet cells adhering to the inside wall of a blood vessel. This blood vessel has been cut open to reveal its inside wall (lower left). The white streaks on the wall are clusters of minute platelets. Platelets play a vital role in blood clotting and in the repair of damage to blood vessel walls. When activated (by physical damage, turbulence or chemical factors) they change shape into spiky cells that mesh together in a clot. Clots of platelets help to seal ruptures in the wall of blood vessels, preventing leakage of blood. Magnification x120 at 35mm size. - Stock Image P256/0029
On Monday the 10th of April 2017 at 4.00 pm College will host two interesting seminars on blood platelets organised by A Balduini of the Department of...
New targets for antiplatelet therapy have been identified on the basis of a better understanding of the processes that lead to platelet-rich thrombus formation. Once endothelial damage occurs, platelet thrombus formation advances in three steps: 1) platelet adhesion, 2) platelet activation by the various agonists or activators from damaged endothelium and from within activated platelets and 3) the resulting aggregation. The final step in thrombus formation is mediated exclusively by the GPIIb/IIIa receptor. Arterial thrombosis has been shown to be associated with various pathological conditions, including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular thromboembolic disorders, such as unstable angina, myocardial infarction, transient ischemic attack, stroke and atherosclerosis (Fitzgerald et al., 1986; Fusteret al., 1985; Hamm et al., 1987). The contribution of platelets to these disease processes stems from their ability to form aggregates, or platelet thrombi, as a consequence of arterial injury ...
Variability of platelet response to drug therapy has been studied intensely in recent years, though the underlying causes and appropriate actions remain unclear (1,2). It appears that both patient-specific and medication-specific factors contribute to the variability of platelet activity and response. Clopidogrel and its conversion to an active metabolite appear to follow a Gaussian distribution-the classic bell-shaped curve-in which most patients respond just fine, but at either extreme there may be patients who are hypo- or hyper-responders (3). In theory, such outliers may be prone to ischemic or bleeding complications and, therefore, identification of these patients has been thought to carry potential clinical utility (4). Superimposed on variability due to drug metabolism is the variation in platelet activity that may occur in clinical situations such as acute coronary syndromes or other states that may cause heightened platelet activity. Low levels of platelet inhibition after antiplatelet ...
The accumulation of blood borne tissue factor within a blood clot is thought to be important for normal fibrin generation and may cause propagation of the blood clot into an occlusive thrombus. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), the primary inhibitor of tissue factor activity, is present in platelets where it may have an important role in down regulating the activity of circulating tissue factor. Western blot analysis of gel filtered platelet lysates demonstrates the presence of full-length, 43 kDa TFPI. The lower molecular weight, C-terminally truncated forms of TFPI present in plasma are not present in platelet lysates suggesting that full length TFPI is selectively adsorbed from plasma or that TFPI is synthesized within megakaryocytes. Real time PCR analysis of cDNA produced from highly purified platelet mRNA demonstrates transcripts for both TFPI and TFPI-beta, a truncated form of TFPI produced by alternative splicing. TFPI mRNA is about 3000-fold more abundant than TFPI-beta mRNA. TFPI ...
According to the Platelet Disorder Support Association, a change in diet can help build up blood platelets. An organic diet rich in nutrients can have a beneficial effect on someones platelet...
List of causes of Dark circles under eyes and Low blood platelet level in pregnancy and Skin color changes, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
List of 28 causes for Knuckle rash and Low blood platelet level in pregnancy, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
List of causes of Cough and Low blood platelet level and Mouth symptoms, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
List of causes of Leg symptoms and Low blood platelet level, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
When you cut yourself, blood platelets gather at the site of the injury and initiate the process of blood clotting to stop the bleeding. The omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil can decrease platelet ...
Overall platelet response is defined as either a durable platelet response or transient platelet response.. Durable platelet response was defined as weekly platelet count ≥ 50 x 10^9/L for 6 or more times during week 18 to week 25 measurements. Participants may not have had a weekly response within 4 weeks after receiving any rescue medication.. Transient platelet response was defined as weekly platelet count ≥ 50 x 10^9/L for 4 or more times during week 2 to week 25 measurements but without durable platelet response. Participants may not have had a weekly response within 4 weeks after receiving any rescue medications. ...
Platelets. Coloured Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM) of a cluster of platelet cells adhering to the inside wall of a blood vessel. Platelets play a vital role in blood clotting and in the repair of damage to blood vessel walls. When activated (by physical damage, turbulence or chemical factors) they change shape into spiky cells that mesh together in a clot. Clots of platelets help to seal ruptures in the wall of blood vessels, preventing leakage of blood. Magnification x1000 at 35mm size. - Stock Image P256/0031
A team of Japanese researchers has worked out a method to produce a large volume of cells from which blood platelets can be derived outside the human body, using artificially created stem cells.
Although the interrelationship between the two messengers Ca2+ and cyclic AMP in platelet function is well documented, its mechanism of action still remains to be established. We investigated here the question of the regulation of platelet Ca(2+)-ATPases by cyclic AMP through the phosphorylation of the Rap1 protein using a pathological model. We first found experimental conditions where Ca(2+)-transport by platelet membrane vesicles appeared to be dependent on the phosphorylation of the Rap1 protein. Then, we studied platelets of patients with congestive heart failure for their expression of the potential 97 kDa Ca(2+)-ATPase target of regulation through the Rap1 protein as well as the phosphorylation of the Rap1 protein using the catalytic subunit of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (C. Sub.). In the first patients studied, we found no significant modification in the expression of the 97 kDa Ca(2+)-ATPase by Western blotting using the PL/IM 430 monoclonal antibody which specifically ...
Platelets are anucleate, discoid cell fragments measuring 1.5 to 3.0 μM in diameter. They are derived from bone-marrow megakaryocytes that are normally maintained in a nonadhesive state, whereby they circulate freely in blood. Anucleate platelets are unique to mammals, with nonmammalian vertebrates (such as zebrafish) possessing nucleated thrombocytes. In 1865, a German anatomist Max Schultze (1825-1874) first described platelets as "spherules" much smaller than red blood cells. A few years later, in 1882, Giulio Bizzozero (1846-1901) found that platelets played a role in coagulation because they could clump and form a blood clot at the site of vessel wall injury. It was not until 1961, however, that the platelet aggregating effect of adenosine diphosphate was discovered (1) and, in the following year, that a machine for measuring aggregation (an aggregometer) was developed (2). The most important breakthroughs surrounded the discovery of proaggregatory platelet thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and ...
Professor Karlheinz Peter from the Baker Institiute is researching the role of blood platelets - FXB381410 The Age, News, 07/02/2019. Photo by Justin McManus. Professor Karlheinz Peter from the Baker Institiute has done some research showing platelets in your blood - which we target to bust strokes/heart attacks - also clot to tumours. His research could be used for novel new cancer therapies.
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Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) results from thrombus formation at the site of ruptured or eroded atherosclerotic plaques, which restricts coronary blood flow resulting in myocardial ischemia and injury. Thrombosis is initiated by the exposure of tissue factor and collagen to the circulating blood, which leads simultaneously to local triggering of the coagulation cascade and activation and adhesion of platelets. Activated platelets release secondary agonists, including thromboxane and ADP, which recruit additional waves of platelet adhesion that facilitate thrombus growth. Given their central pathogenic importance, pharmacological inhibition of both platelet activation and thrombin generation have long been cornerstone treatments for the full spectrum of ACS.. Current European and North America guidelines provide a class I recommendation for the administration of dual antiplatelet therapy to patients presenting with non-ST elevation ACS consisting of aspirin to inhibit platelet thromboxane ...
A natural and safe cell therapy to relieve the pain of joint disease or injury, promote healing and reduce recovery time using your dogs own blood.. What are platelets?. Platelets are found in blood and promote clotting.. They contain and variety of growth factors that enhance wound healing and induce tissue regeneration.. What is Platelet Enhancement Therapy?. V-PET concentrates platelets (PLT), white blood cells (WBC- some of which are stem cells), and their associated growth factors from a small volume of your dogs own blood for use as a cell therapy.. How can V-PET help?. Tendon and ligament injuries, and joint disease like osteoarthritis, are often difficult to heal, but treatment with V-PET can help. The cell therapy is injected directly into the injured area. Platelets are activated at the site of injury, releasing growth factors.. ...
A novel method using platelets as a biosensor was developed to study which cytochromes P450 convert the important antiplatelet drugs clopidogrel and prasugrel to their active metabolites in vitro. Generation of the AM of the thienopyridine in situ in the presence of platelets increases the likelihood that more of the AM formed would be captured by the P2Y12 platelet receptor before being lost through nonproductive side reactions. The method is not dependent on separation of the numerous stereoisomers (four enantiomeric pairs have been identified for clopidogrel and prasugrel) generated by cytochrome P450 oxidation and ring opening of the thienopyridine (Pereillo et al., 2002; Hasegawa et al., 2005) and allowed us to study in finer detail the cytochrome P450 requirements for this multistep transformation.. Conditions were found whereby the thienopyridine, purified P450 Baculosomes, and washed platelets could be incubated together without changes in the ADP-induced aggregation of these platelets ...
Platelets show decreased glycolytic rate in asthma.(A) Extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) trace in asthmatic (filled squares) and healthy controls (open sq
The research is a five-year collaboration between University of Bristol researchers Dr Andrew Mumford in the Bristol Heart Institute and Dr Stuart Mundell, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and Professor Steve Watson and Dr Paul Gissen, University of Birmingham and Dr Martina Daly, University of Sheffield.. Platelets are small cells in the bloodstream that become activated and clump together at areas of injury to prevent excessive bleeding. When this happens in diseased blood vessels, it can cause a heart attack or stroke, which together are the leading cause of death in the western world. Understanding the process of platelet activation better will help scientists to design new anti-platelet drugs that could prevent heart attacks and strokes.. One approach is to study people with rare disorders that stop their platelets from activating properly. These patients can experience dangerous excessive bleeding after injury or surgery, as well as day-to-day issues like easy bruising and severe ...
Although platelets can contribute to atherosclerosis and its thromboembolic complications in the nondiabetic population, the role of platelets in enhanced vascular disease in the diabetic population remains unclear. Most studies indicate that platelet function in vitro is enhanced in platelets from people and animals with diabetes, and the mechanisms are being identified. There remains some controversy about whether platelet changes occur before, and therefore could contribute to, vascular complications or whether they are secondary to vascular disease. It is possible that only intervention trials to determine if inhibiting platelet function limits the progression of vascular disease in diabetic patients will definitively answer this question. The earlier premise that enhanced activity of the arachidonate pathway is responsible for the hypersensitivity of platelets from diabetic humans needs to be modified to recognize that additional mechanisms are involved in platelet activation and are ...
I was diagnosed with celiac disease in August and have been managing well with the information and support from this forum. Recently, I have also been diagnosed with petechiae - which is superficial bleeding into the skin, usually on the legs - caused by low blood platelets. Have any of you ever ...
To determine the number of blood platelets using a blood test.Hold it at any clinic or laboratory equipped with the necessary equipment.. The analysis must take into account the childs age.Keep in mind that if platelets are determined, the rate of children under one year, namely its lower boundary is quite low.Panicking is only in the case if the lower rate of less than 100. indications for certain cells are prolonged bleeding or, conversely, overly rapid formation of blood clots.. As mentioned above, if the platelets are determined, the rate of children may slightly vary depending on the method of calculation.If you are using an automated counting upper limit of normal is slightly higher than the manual count.This is due to the fact that the machine takes even small blood clots several blood clots, and the man in the calculation - how one cell.. In addition to determining the number of cells can be assessed, and their functional activity.To do this, appointed by other research - coagulation.It ...
How to Increase Platelets. Platelets are small plate-shaped cellular bodies that circulate through the bloodstream, playing an important role in healing, blood clot formation, and other essential bodily processes. Sufferers of a medical...
Background Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between IPF and vascular disease. The recognised role of platelets in vascular disease and their profibrotic potential led us to investigate platelet reactivity in IPF. We previously reported increased platelet reactivity due to a plasma factor in IPF. In this study we investigate platelet-endothelial adhesion.. Method. Blood was collected from 10 IPF patients and 10 controls to prepare platelet poor plasma. Washed control platelets were suspended in autologous plasma, allogeneic control plasma or IPF patient plasma and labelled with antiCD42b, stimulated with ADP and incubated with HUVEC. The percentage of endothelial cells with one or more adherent platelet(s) were identified by flow cytometry.. Results. Platelet-endothelial adhesion was significantly greater following incubation in IPF plasma compared with autologous and allogeneic control plasma at basal levels (0.86±0.03%, 0.09±0.03% and 0.15±0.03% respectively. P ,0.05) ...
ContextVariants in the CYP2C19 gene influence the pharmacologic and clinical response to the standard 75-mg daily maintenance dose of the antiplatelet drug clop
... are conditions that prevent clotting elements in the blood, called platelets, from working as they should. Platelets help the blood clot. Congenital means present from birth.
Platelets play a central role in stopping bleeding (haemostasis) and causing blockages in arteries (arterial thrombosis), particularly in coronary artery disease. At sites of blood vessel damage, they rapidly form aggregates or clumps which are stabilized by the local production of an enzyme called thrombin and generation of a clot of fibrin (a type of protein). Platelets coordinate this local clotting process by exposing a certain type of lipid (fat) called phosphatidylserine (PS) on their cell surface, allowing recruitment of the components of the clotting system that lead to the generation of a clot. This is called a procoagulant surface. The procoagulant activity therefore depends upon the surface area of membrane with exposed PS. In a paper published today in Circulation, Professor Alastair Poole of Bristols School of Physiology and Pharmacology and colleagues show that this surface area is enhanced substantially by the formation of balloon structures from platelets, with subsequent ...
Who can donate Platelets? Though the need for platelets is great, eligible donors have to meet several requirements. Find out more
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Lili Zhao, Guoyuan Lu, Qing Zhao, Mingyi Zhang, Mengxing Chen, Jiansheng Zhang, Kesheng Dai].
irreversibly inhibits the enzyme COX, resulting in reduced platelet production of TXA2 (thromboxane - powerful vasoconstrictor which lowers cyclic AMP and initiates the platelet release reaction ...
In a discovery that upends a longstanding tenet of human biology, University of Utah School of Medicine researchers have shown that a key process in gene regulation can occur in human platelets, unique cells that are unusual because they dont have a nucleus (anucleate). Scientists long have thought the transformation of pre-mRNA into mature mRNA--called splicing--happens only in a cells nucleus.
BAMBI (BMP and Activin Membrane Bound Inhibitor) is considered to influence TGFβ and Wnt signaling, and thereby fibrosis. Recent basic science studies have shown that this molecule might be important in the role of fibrosis and how can manipulate fibrosis. In zebrafish a role for BAMBI was identified in platelet-endothelial interaction and thrombus formation after endothelial injury. Prior studies in liver cirrhosis and connection with TGF-B, studies have shown that BAMBI downregulation leads to enhanced profibrotic effects of TGF-B. So in other words, BAMBI is a check point and perhaps a gatekeeper for TGF-Bd pro fibrosis ...
I went to the doctor yesterday for a routine visit and I got good news and bad news. My blood sugars are looking great (thanks to my diet) and I dont have to be put on medication to regulate. I just have to get my fasting blood sugar tested at my next few appointments and we should be fine. Bad news is my blood platelets are low again. If you recall, I had low counts with Ford which required me to be put fully under during my surgery and Jon couldnt be with me. Long story short, there is nothing I can do about it right now because the shelf life of platelets is just a few days so we will test in a few weeks right before my surgery. If they are low, we will come up with a plan, either steroids or a possible blood transfusion, in hopes of bumping them up so I can be awake during my surgery. Even though Ive been through this before, I feel sad and discouraged because there was only a 1% chance of it happening to me again. I know whatever happens is in Gods will for me, I am praying Jon can be ...
I am performing a series of RT-PCR reactions on RNA from human platelets. In order to asuure myself that my platelet preps arent contaminated with RNA from leukocytes I am looking for a molecule expressed on monocytes, lymphocytes and PMNs that is not expressed in platelets that I could use as a negative control. I intend to design PCR primers to that molecule so low levels of expression will also be picked up. I might have to use several sets of primers for each cell type but a single molecule would be ideal. Any suggestions? Thanks George ...
Platelet protein expression of CD226 (a), PRDX4 (b), and transferrin (c) in NR and R patients (R: empty box-plots; NR: dark box-plots).
There is always an urgent need for whole blood; but you may not be aware that there is always the same need for platelets as well. Find out about Blood platelet donation.
People with diabetes have a "sticky" platelets. Platelets - the blood cells that help to begin the process of blood clotting to prevent bleeding. Blood that clots too quickly, because platelets are too sticky, can lead to heart disease and stroke. If a blood vessel is thickened plaque, very sticky platelets can create a blood clot, which can then cause a heart attack. https://drsusiedillon.com/article/article.php?id=1913 ...
To further explore the topic, we had a chance to talk about platelet management with many of the blood bankers at AABB. What they told us only validated what we learned in the survey - with patient safety always at the forefront, blood bankers need a better way to both (1) assure temperature compliance and (2) preserve precious platelet supplies. A temperature indicator would monitor platelet "temperature history" for the entire period it is out of blood bank control.. ...
GPVI activates platelets through an ITAM pathway by activation of Src and Syk kinases leading to activation of PLC\(_y\)2. CLEC-2 has been shown to activate platelets using an ITAM-like sequence in its cytoplasmic tail that is also dependent on Src and Syk kinases, but shows a partial rather than an absolute dependence on adapter SLP-76 for activation of PLC\(_y\)2. The aim of this thesis is to understand some of the key differences in these signalling pathways. GPVI is in complex with FcRwhich contains the ITAM sequence (Yxx(L/I)x\(_{6-12}\)Yxx(L/I)). These two tyrosines provide a docking site for the tandem-SH2 domains of Syk. In this thesis I show that CLEC-2 signalling through Syk is mediated by phosphorylation of the CLEC-2 YxxL sequence, receptor dimerisation and cross-linking by the Syk SH2 domains. I also show that the differential requirement for SLP-76 is not mediated by Gads. Both signalling pathways also show partial dependency for LAT. I also show that a novel protein, G6f, is ...
Thrombocyte. A disclike cytoplasmic blood component that plays a key role in blood clotting. Below are eight vital facts about thrombocytes.
Thrombocyte: Thrombocyte,, a small, nucleated, spindle-shaped cell of nonmammalian vertebrates that plays a role in the clotting of blood; or a blood platelet, a small, non-nucleated, cytoplasmic body found in the blood of mammals, which similarly plays a role in the clotting of blood. See also
in Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (in press). Background: Clinical and experimental evidence support a role for inflammation in the development of colorectal cancer, though the mechanisms are not fully understood. Beyond thrombosis and hemostasis ... [more ▼]. Background: Clinical and experimental evidence support a role for inflammation in the development of colorectal cancer, though the mechanisms are not fully understood. Beyond thrombosis and hemostasis, platelets are key actors of inflammation; they also have been involved in cancer. However, whether platelets participate in the link between inflammation and cancer is unknown. Objective: To investigate the contribution of platelets and platelet-derived proteins to inflammation-elicited colorectal tumor development. Methods: We used a clinically relevant mouse model of colitis-associated cancer. Platelet secretion and their reactivity to thrombin were assessed at each stage of carcinogenesis. We conducted an unbiased proteomic ...
Dr. Paul Gurbel, of Inova Heart and Vascular Institute in Fairfax, VA talks about identifying the mechanisms leading to a heightened responsiveness to platelet agonists in type 2 diabetes., TV Network
Dear Billy, I understand that falling platelets can be concerning. Cirrhosis care is key. I would check with your doctors to make sure that you are getting screened for liver cancer every 6...
From Pat B: here is a common Cavalier condition (in probably 30-40% of Cavaliers) called idiopathic (because they dont know the cause) symptomless thrombocytopenia. The key word here is symptomless. These Cavaliers do not need any treatment! Here are some articles to print out to give your vet. Your vet can also do a simple clotting test to feel reassured before he performs the neutering. http://ackcsc.org/health/cavalierplateletissues.pdf This is from the above article, and
Ask questions regarding Transfusion Alternatives and Patient Blood Management. Share your facts, opinions and personal experience. Discover the best answers chosen by Healthcare Professionals and the Public.
In his technology, Johnson says a fluid, such as blood or water, is mixed with chemicals. It is then pumped through the hoses of the instrument. The fluid is illuminated, using light from an LED. A dye is added to the fluid, which allows Johnson to pinpoint the microorganisms hes specifically interested in detecting. When the microorganisms are illuminated with the ultra-bright LED light, the microorganisms glow. A camera, which is part of the instrument, captures video frames of that fluid flow. A computer can analyze those frames to count the number of glowing particles in the images. It then determines the number of particles per volume in the fluid flow. This process allows the physician to determine the level of infection ...
PRP Kit contains tools for concentrating and extracting blood platelets and adjusting blood plasma levels. Our kit is for separating plasma and enriching it with high concentrations of platelets.. Dr. PRP is a medical device exclusively designed for PRP separation. Highly concentrated platelets by Dr. PRP kit release a large amount of growth factors which are normally inside the platelets. The large amount of released growth factors induces the therapy of damaged connective tissue rapidly and robustly. These growth factors may lead to stable regeneration of the damaged area by collecting the cells capable of wound therapy induction.. ...
The binding properties of p-[125I]iodoclonidine [( 125I]PIC) to human platelet membranes and the functional characteristics of PIC are reported. [125I]PIC bound rapidly and reversibly to platelet membranes, with a first-order association rate constan
Background: Coated-platelets, a subset of activated platelets observed with dual-agonist stimulation with collagen and thrombin, represent 30% of the platelet population in normal controls. In recently published work, we have shown that elevated coated-platelet levels (,45%) are predictive of stroke in asymptomatic carotid stenosis. We now investigate if platelet count and mean platelet volume (MPV) are related to coated-platelet levels.. Methods: Coated-platelet levels were measured in a cohort of asymptomatic outpatients referred for carotid ultrasound studies. Platelet count and mean platelet volume for each subject were recorded from the VA electronic medical record at the closest possible time period (within ≤6 months) to the date of coated-platelet sample. Correlations between each parameter and coated-platelet levels were determined and those reaching significance at p≤0.1 were included in a multiple regression model with LDL and systolic blood pressure (SBP), variables previously ...
Platelet storage pool deficiency is a type of coagulopathy characterized by defects in the granules in platelets, particularly a lack of granular non-metabolic ADP. Individuals with ADP deficient storage pool disease present a prolonged bleeding time due to impaired aggregation response to fibrillar collagen.[citation needed] The presentation (signs/symptoms) of an individual with platelet storage pool deficiency is as follows: Unusual bleeding(after surgical procedure) Anemia Decrease mean platelet volume Myelodysplasia The condition of platelet storage pool deficiency can be acquired or inherited(genetically passed on from the individuals parents).Some of the causes of platelet storage pool deficiency when acquired are: Hairy-cell leukemia Cardiovascular bypass In terms of the pathophysiology of platelet storage pool deficiency one must consider several factors including the human bodys normal function prior to such a deficiency, such as platelet alpha-granules[citation needed] one of three ...
MalaCards based summary : Mean Platelet Volume/count Quantitative Trait Locus 5, is also known as mean platelet volume qtl5. An important gene associated with Mean Platelet Volume/count Quantitative Trait Locus 5 is MPVQTL5 (Mean Platelet Volume QTL5 ...
Effects of the leaf extract Ginkgo biloba, ginkgolides A and B, and the amino acid taurine (2-aminoethane sulfonic acid) on platelet aggregation was studied. All potential anitcoagulants were incubated in day one platelet-rich plasma and subjected to various agonist-induced clotting and tests and other measures of platelet viability. G. biloba extract and its respective ginkgolides had no effect on platelet aggregation in response to ADP and thrombin, while taurine exhibited prolongation of thrombin time (TT) and reduced thrombin-induced aggregation by 10%. Taurine prolonged time of initial clot formation on thrombolestographic tests, but overall clot viability remained unaffected. These data suggest that G. biloba and its active ginkgolides do not inhibit platelet aggregation induced by ADP and thrombin, while taurine mildly inhibits thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. These findings correlate with taurines osmoregulatory and cryoprotective properties and indicate a role as a hemostasis stabilizer
Looking for online definition of platelet glycoprotein Ib alpha chain in the Medical Dictionary? platelet glycoprotein Ib alpha chain explanation free. What is platelet glycoprotein Ib alpha chain? Meaning of platelet glycoprotein Ib alpha chain medical term. What does platelet glycoprotein Ib alpha chain mean?
BACKGROUND: Many acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients are switched from prasugrel to clopidogrel within the first year of treatment. AIM: To assess the consequence of switching from prasugrel to clopidogrel on platelet inhibition and clinical outcomes.. METHODS: Platelet reactivity was prospectively evaluated using the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay in a cohort of 300 ACS patients treated by a maintenance dose of prasugrel 10 mg. Patients at high risk of bleeding and/or with high level of platelet inhibition (HPI, PRU,30) were switched to clopidogrel 75 mg and platelet reactivity was reassessed 1 month later. High on-treatment platelet reactivity (HPR) was defined as PRU,208. Bleeding events defined according to the BARC classification and ischemic events were collected at 1 month.. RESULTS: Our population was a high-risk ACS population including two thirds of patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. The other patients were mainly diabetic patients who presented with non ST-elevation ...
BACKGROUND: Eltrombopag is an oral, non-peptide, thrombopoietin-receptor agonist that stimulates thrombopoiesis, leading to increased platelet production. This study assessed the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of once daily eltrombopag 50 mg, and explored the efficacy of a dose increase to 75 mg. METHODS: In this phase III, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, adults from 63 sites in 23 countries with chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), platelet counts less than 30 000 per muL of blood, and one or more previous ITP treatment received standard care plus once-daily eltrombopag 50 mg (n=76) or placebo (n=38) for up to 6 weeks. Patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio of eltrombopag:placebo by a validated randomisation system. After 3 weeks, patients with platelet counts less than 50 000 per microL could increase study drug to 75 mg. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving platelet counts 50 000 per microL or more at day 43. All participants who
TY - JOUR. T1 - Platelets and Factor VIII in von Willebrands Disease. AU - Green, D.. AU - Potter, E. V.. PY - 1977/6/9. Y1 - 1977/6/9. N2 - To the Editor: In his excellent review, Jaffe1 asks, "What happens to the factor VIII antigen content of the two platelet pools when patients with von Willebrands disease of severe degree are given transfusions of plasma factor VIII?" We have performed in vitro and in vivo studies to answer his question. Immunofluorescent staining of platelets of patients with von Willebrands disease incubated with normal plasma indicated that factor VIII antigen did not become platelet bound unless aggregation was induced by ristocetin.2 Likewise, platelets obtained from such patients after cryoprecipitate infusion showed minimal or no staining before but intense staining. No extract is available for articles shorter than 400 words.. AB - To the Editor: In his excellent review, Jaffe1 asks, "What happens to the factor VIII antigen content of the two platelet pools when ...
Treatment of thrombocytopenia varies according to the cause. If thrombocytopenia is drug-induced, then removal of the offending agents should correct the condition.. Corticosteroids may be used to increase platelet production. Lithium carbonate or folate may also be used to stimulate the bone marrow production of platelets. Platelet transfusions may be used to stop episodic abnormal bleeding caused by a low platelet count. However, if platelet destruction results from an immune disorder, platelet infusions may have only a minimal effect and may be reserved for life-threatening bleeding.. Splenectomy may be necessary to correct thrombocytopenia caused by platelet destruction. A splenectomy should significantly reduce platelet destruction because the spleen acts as the primary site of platelet removal and antibody production.. Patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura may require high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin. Patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura will probably require ...

A novel assay for the detection of anti-human platelet antigen antibodies (HPA-1a) based on peptide aptamer technology |...A novel assay for the detection of anti-human platelet antigen antibodies (HPA-1a) based on peptide aptamer technology |...

Platelets are the cellular components of the blood coagulation system. Among the proteins found at the surface of platelet ... 2003) Platelet storage solution improves the in vitro function of preserved platelet concentrate. Vox Sang 85(4):262-6. ... Current diagnostic assays rely on the availability of pools of human platelets that vary according to donors and blood centers ... 1994) Frozen platelet plates for platelet antibody detection and cross-match. Vox Sang 67(1):52-7. ...
more infohttp://www.haematologica.org/content/97/5/696

The analysis of the polymorphism of human platelet antigen genes in Han population,Guizhou,China--《Chinese Journal of Blood...The analysis of the polymorphism of human platelet antigen genes in Han population,Guizhou,China--《Chinese Journal of Blood...

Methods By adopting the method of PCR-SSP to 700 unrelatedhealthy blood donors for HPA-1 ~ 5,15 systems genotyping. The gene ... Polymorphism of human platelet antigens 1 to 16 in Zhejiang Han population[J];Chinese Journal of Blood Transfusion;2007-06. ... platelet alloantigen system in Chinese Han population[J];Chinese Journal of Blood Transfusion;2006-02. ... Applications of Platelet Antigen Gene Typing and Matching in the Platelet Transfusion[J];Journal of Experimental Hematology; ...
more infohttp://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTotal-BLOO201406014.htm

autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura Disease Ontology Browser - DOID:8924autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura Disease Ontology Browser - DOID:8924

Definition: A primary thrombocytopenia that involves relatively few platelets in blood as a result of autoantibodies. ...
more infohttp://www.informatics.jax.org/disease/188030

Fixed-dried blood platelets | RTIFixed-dried blood platelets | RTI

... platelet aggregating factor) in human and animal blood plasma areeffected using a reagent of blood platelets and snake venom ... The reagent andtests may also suitably employ dried blood platelets. The reagentmay comprise dried platelets and either ... in human and animal blood plasma areeffected using a reagent of blood platelets and snake venom havinga positive platelet ... The reagent andtests may also suitably employ dried blood platelets. The reagentmay comprise dried platelets and either ...
more infohttps://www.rti.org/publication/fixed-dried-blood-platelets

Low Blood Platelets - Celiac.comLow Blood Platelets - Celiac.com

... caused by low blood platelets. Have any of you ever ... ... Low Blood Platelets By kschmitz, January 25, 2005. in Related ... caused by low blood platelets. Have any of you ever had this diagnosis? Low platelets can be the result of an autoimmune ... Just wondering how the platelets and petechaia turned out -- still there? How low are your platelets? ... Blood? Same. Since that period I have ordered re-tests on all three types of tests, this time from different companies, and ...
more infohttps://www.celiac.com/forums/topic/4737-low-blood-platelets/

Low blood platelet symptomsLow blood platelet symptoms

Platelets allow blood to clot, so the main symptoms of low blood platelets include bruising, an inability to stop bleeding from ... Low blood platelets can be a dangerous condition. ... Platelets are cells in the blood that help the blood to clot, ... Low blood platelets can be a dangerous condition. Platelets allow blood to clot, so the main symptoms of low blood platelets ... There are several treatments available for people with low blood platelets. If your low blood platelet count is due to ITP, you ...
more infohttp://www.ehow.co.uk/about_5085106_low-blood-platelet-symptoms.html

Blood Platelets - DrugBankBlood Platelets - DrugBank

This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (award #111062), Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions, and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Alberta, Genome British Columbia, and Genome Canada, a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canadas national genomics strategy with funding from the federal government. Maintenance, support, and commercial licensing is provided by OMx Personal Health Analytics, Inc. Designed by Educe Design & Innovation Inc. ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/indications/DBCOND0027988

Blood Platelets Can Kill Malaria Parasites  |  WebWireBlood Platelets Can Kill Malaria Parasites | WebWire

New studies in mice suggest that blood platelets can destroy deadly malaria parasites, but a single dose of aspirin may be ... Platelets are well known for their role in blood clotting and blood vessel repair. Previous studies have shown that platelets ... We believe that s because platelets bind to infected red blood cells and are taken out of circulation because of that, Foote ... New studies in mice suggest that blood platelets can destroy deadly malaria parasites, but a single dose of aspirin may be ...
more infohttps://www.webwire.com/ViewPressRel.asp?aId=86586

The Cytoskeleton of Human Blood Platelets | SpringerLinkThe Cytoskeleton of Human Blood Platelets | SpringerLink

Blood platelets are deceptively simple cells. They circulate in the form of flattened disks, dwarfed by the larger erythrocytes ... The Cytoskeleton of Human Blood Platelets. In: Harris J.R. (eds) Megakaryocytes, Platelets, Macrophages, and Eosinophils. Blood ... White, J. G., and Sauk, J. J., 1984, Microtubule coils in spread blood platelets, Blood 64: 470-478.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Actin Filament Human Platelet Detergent Extraction Parallel Bundle Human Blood Platelet These keywords were added by machine ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-9531-8_5

Thrombocytopenia (Low Blood Platelets) in Dogs - PetPlaceThrombocytopenia (Low Blood Platelets) in Dogs - PetPlace

Transfusion of whole blood, which contains plasma and all blood cell types including red blood cells and platelets, or packed ... Thrombocytopenia refers to an abnormally low blood-concentration of platelets, which are blood cells that promote blood ... Dogs with blood platelet concentrations of less than 40,000 per microliter of blood are at risk for spontaneous bleeding. ... Low Blood Platelets) in Dogs. Treatment for thrombocytopenia depends on the underlying cause of the low platelet count. ...
more infohttps://www.petplace.com/article/dogs/pet-health/thrombocytopenia-low-blood-platelets-in-dogs/

How Do You Build up Blood Platelets? | Reference.comHow Do You Build up Blood Platelets? | Reference.com

... a change in diet can help build up blood platelets. An organic diet rich in nutrients can have a beneficial effect on someones ... What Is the Normal Blood Platelet Level?. A: In healthy adults, the normal blood platelet count is 150,000 to 400,000 platelets ... What Are High Blood Platelets a Sign Of?. A: Having too many platelets in the blood is a sign of either thrombocytosis or ... What Is the Easiest Way to Raise Blood Platelets?. A: The easiest way of increasing the level of blood platelets is by eating ...
more infohttps://www.reference.com/health/build-up-blood-platelets-642f23556aebe015

HealthBoards - View Single Post -  low  blood plateletHealthBoards - View Single Post - low blood platelet

Re: low blood platelet you should for sure ask about itp i also had it when i was younger and low platelet count is the biggest ...
more infohttps://www.healthboards.com/boards/4041703-post3.html

Blood platelet disorders | healthdirectBlood platelet disorders | healthdirect

Trusted information about blood platelet disorders from leading Australian health organisations, including links to thrombotic ... Platelet count - Lab Tests Online AU. Why and when to get tested for platelets ... Follow the links below to find trusted information about blood platelet disorders. ...
more infohttps://www.healthdirect.gov.au/blood-platelet-disorders

Novel method for diagnostics of blood platelet disordersNovel method for diagnostics of blood platelet disorders

Lets say the armrest is broken in your vintage car. As things stand, you would need a lot of luck and persistence to find the right spare part. But in the world of Industrie 4.0 and production with batch sizes of one, you can simply scan the armrest and print it out. This is made possible by the first ever 3D scanner capable of working autonomously and in real time. The autonomous scanning system will be on display at the Hannover Messe Preview on February 6 and at the Hannover Messe proper from April 23 to 27, 2018 (Hall 6, Booth A30). ...
more infohttp://www.innovations-report.com/html/reports/technology-offerings/method-diagnostics-blood-platelet-disorders-135806.html

Pharmacological receptors on blood platelets. | Pharmacological ReviewsPharmacological receptors on blood platelets. | Pharmacological Reviews

Pharmacological receptors on blood platelets. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Pharmacological ... Pharmacological receptors on blood platelets.. S M Hourani and N J Cusack ... Pharmacological receptors on blood platelets.. S M Hourani and N J Cusack ... Pharmacological receptors on blood platelets.. S M Hourani and N J Cusack ...
more infohttp://pharmrev.aspetjournals.org/content/43/3/243

Blood platelet - definition of blood platelet by The Free DictionaryBlood platelet - definition of blood platelet by The Free Dictionary

blood platelet synonyms, blood platelet pronunciation, blood platelet translation, English dictionary definition of blood ... n. any of the minute, nonnucleated cellular elements in mammalian blood essential for coagulation. Noun 1. blood platelet - ... blood platelet. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. blood platelet. n.. See platelet. ... blood platelet - tiny bits of protoplasm found in vertebrate blood; essential for blood clotting. platelet, thrombocyte ...
more infohttps://www.thefreedictionary.com/blood+platelet

The blood platelet in transfusion therapy (Book, 1978) [WorldCat.org]The blood platelet in transfusion therapy (Book, 1978) [WorldCat.org]

The blood platelet in transfusion therapy. [Tibor J Greenwalt; G A Jamieson; American National Red Cross.;] ... Blood platelets--Transfusion a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Blood platelets--Transfusion"@en ;. . ... Blood platelets--Transfusion a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Blood platelets--Transfusion"@en ;. . ... The blood platelet in transfusion therapy. Author:. Tibor J Greenwalt; G A Jamieson; American National Red Cross.. ...
more infohttp://www.worldcat.org/title/blood-platelet-in-transfusion-therapy/oclc/4495656

THE PRODUCTION OF BLOOD PLATELETS IN THE LUNGS | JEMTHE PRODUCTION OF BLOOD PLATELETS IN THE LUNGS | JEM

2. Comparative counts of platelets in arteries and veins show that arterial blood contains a larger number of platelets than ... It is concluded that new platelets are added to the blood in the capillary areas of the lungs, and that there is a ... THE PRODUCTION OF BLOOD PLATELETS IN THE LUNGS. W. H. Howell, D. D. Donahue ... venous blood. This difference is accentuated under experimental conditions that cause a reduction in the number of platelets. ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/65/2/177

Genetic septet in control of blood platelet clotting - ScienceBlog.comGenetic septet in control of blood platelet clotting - ScienceBlog.com

... which is an energy molecule released by platelets into the blood to attract and clump with other platelets; epinephrine, a ... Lewis Becker says the teams next steps are to test various platelet antagonists, or blood-thinning agents, like aspirin, the ... Reporting in the issue of Nature Genetics online June 7, researchers tested the platelet stickiness in blood samples from ... to develop tests that could help us identify people more at risk for blood clots and for whom certain blood-thinning drugs may ...
more infohttps://scienceblog.com/35675/genetic-septet-in-control-of-blood-platelet-clotting/

Blood Platelets, SEM - Stock Image - C028/3804 - Science Photo LibraryBlood Platelets, SEM - Stock Image - C028/3804 - Science Photo Library

SEM image of Human blood platelets in the process of clotting. This sample was taken from the root of a tooth from an 18 year ... SEM image of Human blood platelets in the process of clotting. This sample was taken from the root of a tooth from an 18 year ...
more infohttps://www.sciencephoto.com/media/711053/view/blood-platelets-sem

How do you raise your blood platelet level naturally? | Reference.comHow do you raise your blood platelet level naturally? | Reference.com

To raise blood platelet levels naturally, avoid problem foods such as aspartame and alcohol, and consume whole grains, beans ... and vegetables, states the Platelet Disorder Support Association. Reduce... ... What causes high platelet levels in the blood?. A: A high platelet level in the blood can be essential thrombocythemia or ... What is the easiest way to raise blood platelets?. A: The easiest way of increasing the level of blood platelets is by eating ...
more infohttps://www.reference.com/health/raise-blood-platelet-level-naturally-72d89170b097e5b2

Whole Blood Platelet Aggregation and Release Reaction Testing in Uremic PatientsWhole Blood Platelet Aggregation and Release Reaction Testing in Uremic Patients

We employed whole blood platelet aggregation analysis based on impedance as well as determination of ATP release from platelet ... Whole blood platelet analysis detected platelet dysfunction which may be associated with bleeding and thrombotic risks in ... Whole Blood Platelet Aggregation and Release Reaction Testing in Uremic Patients. Jay Zeck,1 Jason Schallheim,1 Susie Q. Lew,2 ... Platelet function analysis utilizing platelet-rich plasma and optical density based aggregometry fails to identify patients at ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/486290/abs/

Blood platelets for transfusion - Stock Image - C005/6482 - Science Photo LibraryBlood platelets for transfusion - Stock Image - C005/6482 - Science Photo Library

Platelets (thrombocytes) are blood cell fragments and are essential for blood clotting. ... Blood platelets ready for transfusion during surgery. Platelets (thrombocytes) are blood cell fragments and are essential for ... Blood platelets ready for transfusion during surgery. ...
more infohttps://www.sciencephoto.com/media/120136/view/blood-platelets-for-transfusion

Thrombocytosis (High Blood Platelets) | Healthhype.comThrombocytosis (High Blood Platelets) | Healthhype.com

Functions of platelets. When the inner lining of blood vessels (endothelium) is damaged, platelets are one of the first blood ... Platelets are an important component of blood and is an integral factor in the blood clotting process. Most cases of ... Platelets cell fragments that are normally irregularly shaped. The platelets attach to the damaged part of the blood vessel and ... Abnormal platelet count. In thrombocytosis, the number of platelets produced is higher than normal and these platelets have a ...
more infohttps://www.healthhype.com/thrombocytosis-high-blood-platelets.html

Premature babies with low levels of blood platelets have increased risk of blindnessPremature babies with low levels of blood platelets have increased risk of blindness

... in their blood run a greatly increased risk of being afflicted with a severe variation of retinopathy of prematurity, an eye ... Premature babies with low levels of platelets (thrombocytes) ... Premature babies with low levels of blood platelets have ... Premature babies with low levels of platelets (thrombocytes) in their blood run a greatly increased risk of being afflicted ... Tags: Antibodies, Bleeding, Blindness, Blood, Blood Vessels, Children, Eye, Eye Disease, Hospital, Medical School, ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/news/20181011/Premature-babies-with-low-levels-of-blood-platelets-have-increased-risk-of-blindness.aspx
  • If your low blood platelet count is due to ITP, you will likely be treated with immunosuppressants, which hinder the immune system from destroying platelets. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Corticosteroids (cortisone-like drugs) are often used to stop the immune system from destroying platelets. (petplace.com)
  • According to Becker, three of the seven genes had been previously reported as having some role in platelet aggregation, but "it was not until now that we put together all the major pieces of the genetic puzzle that will help us understand why some people's blood is more or less prone to clot than others and how this translates into promoting healing and stalling disease progression. (scienceblog.com)
  • Platelet aggregation to low-dose ristocetin revealed an exaggerated response (20.9 ± 18.7 ohms, reference range: 0-5 ohms). (hindawi.com)
  • The U researchers, who report their findings in the Aug. 12 edition of Cell, also identified the pre-mRNA in blood platelets that codes for Interleukin 1â (IL-1â), a key protein in an ancient molecular system that plays major roles in inflammation, defense against infection, organ development, and disease. (eurekalert.org)
  • Body-wide abnormalities in coagulation (disseminated intravascular coagulation) can result in massive consumption of platelets. (petplace.com)
  • Our results give us a clear set of new molecular targets, the proteins produced from these genes, to develop tests that could help us identify people more at risk for blood clots and for whom certain blood-thinning drugs may work best or not," says co-senior study investigator and cardiologist Lewis Becker, M.D. (scienceblog.com)
  • Platelets are more like parts of cells than full cells, but they are very important for initiating blood clots. (sfgate.com)
  • New studies in mice suggest that blood platelets can destroy deadly malaria parasites, but a single dose of aspirin may be enough to thwart their killing power. (webwire.com)
  • To ensure that their original observation was not due to other genetic changes caused by knocking out the Mpl gene, the researchers eliminated platelets by giving the mice aspirin, which inactivates platelets. (webwire.com)
  • Although there is more work to do, the researchers believe that the aspirin is preventing some sort of anti-malarial effect produced by the platelets. (webwire.com)
  • And when aspirin was added, the platelets no longer held back the parasites. (webwire.com)
  • Platelet samples came from another 2,000 similar participants, including 800 blacks, enrolled in the Genetic Study of Aspirin Responsiveness (GeneSTAR) under way at Johns Hopkins since 2002 and led by Becker's wife and study co-investigator Diane Becker, M.P.H., Sc.D., a professor at the both Hopkins' School of Medicine and the University's Bloomberg School of Public Health. (scienceblog.com)
  • Lewis Becker says the teams' next steps are to test various platelet antagonists, or blood-thinning agents, like aspirin, the most common drug treatment in heart and vascular diseases, to find out precisely which hereditary factors may distinguish people who are so-called aspirin-resistant or not, and why the medication works for most but not all. (scienceblog.com)
  • Diminished ATP release to arachidonic acid (an aspirin-like defect) in uremic patients may result in platelet associated bleeding. (hindawi.com)
  • after meeting all inclusion and exclusion criteria during the screening visit, those patients on aspirin for primary prevention of CV events will be asked to stop it for 2 weeks prior to blood collection for baseline data. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • 3. Perfusion of the lungs with a platelet-preserving solution, compared with that of other organs, gives evidence of the existence of a source of platelet material in the lungs. (rupress.org)
  • Reporting in the issue of Nature Genetics online June 7, researchers tested the platelet "stickiness" in blood samples from some 5,000 American men and women and compared the results to some 2.5 million single possible changes in the human genetic code to see which genes stood out across the entire group as speeding up or slowing down platelet clumping. (scienceblog.com)
  • Each megakaryocyte can produce anywhere between 5,000 to 10,000 platelets. (healthhype.com)
  • In extreme cases of ITP, a splenectomy may be an option for treatment, as the spleen is responsible for destroying platelets. (ehow.co.uk)
  • When the body needs new platelets to restore normal levels, the spleen is essentially squeezed to release its platelet stores. (healthhype.com)
  • If your low platelet count is caused by the treatment for hepatitis C or by chemotherapy, a doctor will likely reduce the amount you are receiving and monitor platelets carefully. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Screening tests and bioassay of von Willebrand's factor(platelet aggregating factor) in human and animal blood plasma areeffected using a reagent of blood platelets and snake venom havinga positive platelet aggregating cofactor effect. (rti.org)
  • Platelet-rich plasma is difficult to prepare and is not widely available for dogs. (petplace.com)
  • Platelet function analysis utilizing platelet-rich plasma and optical density based aggregometry fails to identify patients at risk for uremia associated complications. (hindawi.com)
  • In experiments on mice, injections of blood platelets reduce the pathological development of retinal vessels. (news-medical.net)
  • This study, published in the February 6, 2009 issue of the journal Science, is the first to demonstrate that platelets can kill parasites in the Petri dish and in mice. (webwire.com)
  • During those studies, they discovered that platelet-deficient mice were much more likely to die of malaria than mice with normal platelets. (webwire.com)
  • When these platelet-deficient mice were infected with Plasmodium chabaudi, a rodent version of the malaria parasite, half of the females and all of the males died of malaria. (webwire.com)
  • The experimental parts of the study, conducted at Harvard Medical School in Boston, indicate that the pathological vascular development in the retina of young mice increased by 30 percent when platelet levels were lowered by means of antibodies. (news-medical.net)
  • When platelets from adult mice were introduced instead, the pathological vascular development declined by 19 percent. (news-medical.net)
  • Similarly, if you bruise easily and always have, it may be due to another harmless condition of your body's blood. (ehow.co.uk)
  • SALT LAKE CITY -- In a discovery that upends a longstanding tenet of human biology, University of Utah School of Medicine researchers have shown that a key process in gene regulation can occur in human platelets, unique cells that are unusual because they don't have a nucleus (anucleate). (eurekalert.org)
  • In humans, Arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO, 12-LOX, ALO12, or platelet type 12-lipoxygenase) is encoded by the ALOX12 gene and expressed primarily in platelets and skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low platelets can be the result of an autoimmune problem, so I was wondering if petechiae could be another disorder from celiac. (celiac.com)
  • Do Iron Supplements Thicken Blood Platelets? (sfgate.com)
  • however, iron supplements may increase the number of platelets and enhance their function, causing them to form clumps. (sfgate.com)
  • Menstruating women who are looking to help their bodies replenish blood lost during menstruation might also take these supplements. (sfgate.com)
  • http://healthyeating.sfgate.com/iron-supplements-thicken-blood-platelets-8152.html. (sfgate.com)
  • Dietary supplements (Vitamin e and fish oil) known to affect platelet function will be assessed and patients on those will be asked to discontinue these. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • As a consequence of that mutation, the mouse produced just one-tenth the normal amount of platelets. (webwire.com)
  • If a specific cause can be treated successfully, the blood platelet concentration soon returns to normal. (petplace.com)
  • What Is the Normal Blood Platelet Level? (reference.com)
  • In this way the quantity of circulating platelets is maintained within a normal range. (healthhype.com)
  • A study published in a 2012 issue of "Plos One" found that giving supplemental iron to patients with anemia due to inflammatory bowel disease lowered the number of platelets in their blood to normal levels. (sfgate.com)
  • The idea that blood platelets could make proteins without having a nucleus had been thought heretical," said Zimmerman, who also heads the U's Program in Human Molecular Biology and Genetics at the Eccles Institute of Human Genetics. (eurekalert.org)
  • To find that splicing takes place outside the nucleus has potential implications beyond the platelet. (eurekalert.org)
  • The method comprises coating a solid support which has an organic polymer surface with a coating solution containing the immunologically active agent, e.g., an antibody or antigen, a hydroxy lower alkyl amine, preferably tris(hydroxymethyl) amino methane, and a platelet substitute. (google.com)
  • It is concluded that new platelets are added to the blood in the capillary areas of the lungs, and that there is a corresponding destruction of platelets as the blood passes through the capillary areas of the systemic circulation. (rupress.org)
  • This leads to high levels of platelets in the circulation. (healthhype.com)
  • A 1999 study published in the journal "Circulation" found that iron was able to interact with platelets and cause them to become activated. (sfgate.com)
  • Blood will be drawn via venopuncture for laboratory studies (WBPa, platelet factor 4, beta thromboglobulin and VWF antigen levels and activity). (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • This excellent volume, recording the proceedings of the International Symposium on the Blood Platelets held at the Henry Ford Hospital, March 17, 18, 19, 1960, consists of 50 papers divided into 15 sections. (annals.org)
  • In addition, consuming food in which you are allergic or sensitive to can lessen platelet levels. (reference.com)
  • We think that platelets are one of the major factors that prevent people from dying early on in a malarial infection. (webwire.com)
  • But Foote s research presents a different picture--showing that platelets actively fight malaria infection. (webwire.com)
  • That accidental finding led Foote and his colleagues to ask whether platelets had a direct role in malarial infection. (webwire.com)
  • Platelets are key to fighting infection and sealing wounds and, adversely, can speed up cardiovascular diseases that can lead to potentially fatal heart attacks or strokes. (scienceblog.com)