Blood Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the BLOOD.Dental Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the DENTITION.Digestive System and Oral Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM and DENTITION as a whole or of any of its parts.Reproductive and Urinary Physiological Phenomena: Physiology of the human and animal body, male or female, in the processes and characteristics of REPRODUCTION and the URINARY TRACT.Musculoskeletal and Neural Physiological Phenomena: Properties, and processes of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM or their parts.Circulatory and Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Functional processes and properties characteristic of the BLOOD; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.Integumentary System Physiological Phenomena: The properties and relationships and biological processes that characterize the nature and function of the SKIN and its appendages.Sports Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology related to EXERCISE or ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE.Reproductive Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes, factors, properties and characteristics pertaining to REPRODUCTION.Physiological Phenomena: The functions and properties of living organisms, including both the physical and chemical factors and processes, supporting life in single- or multi-cell organisms from their origin through the progression of life.Elder Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of adults aged 65 years of age and older.Urinary Tract Physiological Phenomena: Properties, functions, and processes of the URINARY TRACT as a whole or of any of its parts.Musculoskeletal Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.Virus Physiological Phenomena: Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.Digestive System Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.Ocular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.Nervous System Physiological Phenomena: Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cell Physiological Phenomena: Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Skin Physiological Phenomena: The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Adrenomedullin: A 52-amino acid peptide with multi-functions. It was originally isolated from PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA and ADRENAL MEDULLA but is widely distributed throughout the body including lung and kidney tissues. Besides controlling fluid-electrolyte homeostasis, adrenomedullin is a potent vasodilator and can inhibit pituitary ACTH secretion.Endothelin-1: A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)Pre-Eclampsia: A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.Receptors, Adrenomedullin: G-protein-coupled cell surface receptors for ADRENOMEDULLIN. They are formed by the heterodimerization of CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN and either RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 2 or RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 3.Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced: A condition in pregnant women with elevated systolic (>140 mm Hg) and diastolic (>90 mm Hg) blood pressure on at least two occasions 6 h apart. HYPERTENSION complicates 8-10% of all pregnancies, generally after 20 weeks of gestation. Gestational hypertension can be divided into several broad categories according to the complexity and associated symptoms, such as EDEMA; PROTEINURIA; SEIZURES; abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION and liver functions.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Physical Fitness: The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.Charadriiformes: An order of BIRDS including over 300 species that primarily inhabit coastal waters, beaches, and marshes. They are comprised of shorebirds, gulls, and terns.Eggs: Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.Food Quality: Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.Xanthophylls: Oxygenated forms of carotenoids. They are usually derived from alpha and beta carotene.Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Lutein: A xanthophyll found in the major LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES of plants. Dietary lutein accumulates in the MACULA LUTEA.

Mechanical stimulation regulates voltage-gated potassium currents in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells. (1/429)

Vascular endothelial cells are constantly exposed to mechanical forces resulting from blood flow and transmural pressure. The goal of this study was to determine whether mechanical stimulation alters the properties of endothelial voltage-gated K+ channels. Cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) were isolated from rat ventricular muscle and cultured on thin sheets of silastic membranes. Membrane currents were measured with the use of the whole-cell arrangement of the patch-clamp technique in endothelial cells subjected to static stretch for 24 hours and compared with measurements from control, nonstretched cells. Voltage steps positive to -30 mV resulted in the activation of a time-dependent, delayed rectifier K+current (IK) in the endothelial cells. Mechanically induced increases of 97%, 355%, and 106% at +30 mV were measured in the peak amplitude of IK in cells stretched for 24 hours by 5%, 10%, and 15%, respectively. In addition, the half-maximal voltage required for IK activation was shifted from +34 mV in the nonstretched cells to -5 mV in the stretched cells. Although IK in both groups of CMECs was blocked to a similar extent by tetraethylammonium, currents in the stretched endothelial cells displayed an enhanced sensitivity to inhibition by charybdotoxin. Preincubation of the CMECs with either pertussis toxin or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate during the 24 hours of cell stretch did not prevent the increase in IK. The application of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and static stretch stimulated the proliferation of CMECs. Stretch-induced regulation of K+ channels may be important to control the resting potential of the endothelium and may contribute to capillary growth during periods of mechanical perturbation.  (+info)

Validation of haemodialysis recirculation and access blood flow measured by thermodilution. (2/429)

BACKGROUND: Recirculation (R) and access blood flow (Qac) measurements are considered useful indicators of adequate delivery of haemodialysis. It was the purpose of this study to compare measurements of R and Qac obtained by two different techniques which are based on the same principle of indicator dilution, but which differ because of the characteristics of the injection and detection of the different indicators used. METHODS: Recirculation measured by a thermal dilution technique using temperature sensors (BTM, Fresenius Medical Care) was compared with recirculation measured by a validated saline dilution technique using ultrasonic transducers placed on arterial and venous segments of the extracorporeal circulation (HDM, Transonic Systems, Inc.). Calculated access flows were compared by Bland Altman analysis. Data are given as mean +/- SD. RESULTS: A total of 104 measurements obtained in 52 treatments (17 patients, 18 accesses) were compared. Recirculation measured with correct placement of blood lines and corrected for the effect of cardiopulmonary recirculation using the 'double recirculation technique' was -0.02 +/- 0.14% by the BTM technique and not different from the 0% measured by the HDM technique. Recirculation measured with reversed placement of blood lines and corrected for the effect of cardiopulmonary recirculation was 19.66 +/- 10.77% measured by the BTM technique compared with 20.87 +/- 11.64% measured by the HDM technique. The difference between techniques was small (-1.21 +/- 2.44%) albeit significant. Access flow calculated from BTM recirculation was 1328 +/- 627 ml/min compared with 1390 +/- 657 ml/min calculated by the HDM technique. There was no bias between techniques. CONCLUSION: BTM thermodilution yields results which are consistent with the HDM ultrasound dilution technique with regard to both recirculation and access flow measurement.  (+info)

Surfactant protein A enhances the binding and deacylation of E. coli LPS by alveolar macrophages. (3/429)

Surfactant protein (SP) A and SP-D are involved in multiple immunomodulatory functions of innate host defense partly via their interaction with alveolar macrophages (AMs). In addition, both SP-A and SP-D bind to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To investigate the functional significance of this interaction, we first tested the ability of SP-A and SP-D to enhance the binding of tritium-labeled Escherichia coli LPS to AMs. In contrast to SP-D, SP-A enhanced the binding of LPS by AMs in a time-, temperature-, and concentration-dependent manner. Coincubation with surfactant-like lipids did not affect the SP-A-mediated enhancement of LPS binding. At SP-A-to-LPS molar ratios of 1:2-1:3, the LPS binding by AMs reached 270% of control values. Second, we investigated the role of SP-A in regulating the degradation of LPS by AMs. In the presence of SP-A, deacylation of LPS by AMs increased by approximately 2.3-fold. Pretreatment of AMs with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C had no effect on the SP-A-enhanced LPS binding but did reduce the amount of serum-enhanced LPS binding by 50%, suggesting that a cell surface molecule distinct from CD14 mediates the effect of SP-A. Together the results for the first time provide direct evidence that SP-A enhances LPS binding and degradation by AMs.  (+info)

Long-term culture of human CD34(+) progenitors with FLT3-ligand, thrombopoietin, and stem cell factor induces extensive amplification of a CD34(-)CD14(-) and a CD34(-)CD14(+) dendritic cell precursor. (4/429)

Current in vitro culture systems allow the generation of human dendritic cells (DCs), but the output of mature cells remains modest. This contrasts with the extensive amplification of hematopoietic progenitors achieved when culturing CD34(+) cells with FLT3-ligand and thrombopoietin. To test whether such cultures contained DC precursors, CD34(+) cord blood cells were incubated with the above cytokines, inducing on the mean a 250-fold and a 16,600-fold increase in total cell number after 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. The addition of stem cell factor induced a further fivefold increase in proliferation. The majority of the cells produced were CD34(-)CD1a- CD14(+) (p14(+)) and CD34(-)CD1a-CD14(-) (p14(-)) and did not display the morphology, surface markers, or allostimulatory capacity of DC. When cultured with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-4 (IL-4), both subsets differentiated without further proliferation into immature (CD1a+, CD14(-), CD83(-)) macropinocytic DC. Mature (CD1a+, CD14(-), CD83(+)) DCs with high allostimulatory activity were generated if such cultures were supplemented with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). In addition, p14(-) cells generated CD14(+) cells with GM-CSF and TNF, which in turn, differentiated into DC when exposed to GM-CSF and IL-4. Similar results were obtained with frozen DC precursors and also when using pooled human serum AB+ instead of bovine serum, emphasizing that this system using CD34(+) cells may improve future prospects for immunotherapy.  (+info)

Low-molecular weight heparin restores in-vitro trophoblast invasiveness and differentiation in presence of immunoglobulin G fractions obtained from patients with antiphospholipid syndrome. (5/429)

The present study was designed to investigate the effects of immunoglobulin G obtained from patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) on in-vitro models of trophoblast invasiveness and differentiation. We tested the binding of affinity-purified immunoglobulin G to human primary trophoblast cells. These antibodies affected the invasiveness and differentiation of cytotrophoblast cells after binding to the cell surface. In addition, we determined whether the drugs used to treat APS might be able to restore the trophoblast functions. Low-molecular weight heparin, in a dose-dependent manner, significantly reduced the immunoglobulin G binding to trophoblast cells and restored in-vitro placental invasiveness and differentiation. No effect was observed in the presence of acetylsalicylic acid. These observations may help in understanding the role of these treatments in women with APS.  (+info)

Partial characterization of apoptotic factor in Alzheimer plasma. (6/429)

We have previously demonstrated that a plasma natriuretic factor is present in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but not in multi-infarct dementia (MID) or normal controls (C). We postulated that the natriuretic factor might induce the increased cytosolic calcium reported in AD by inhibiting the sodium-calcium antiporter, thereby activating the apoptotic pathway. To test for a factor in AD plasma that induces apoptosis, we exposed nonconfluent cultured LLC-PK1 cells to plasma from AD, MID, and C for 2 h and performed a terminal transferase-dUTP-nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The plasma from AD increased apoptosis nearly fourfold compared with MID and C. The effect was dose dependent and the peak effect was attained after a 2-h exposure. Additionally, apoptotic morphology was detected by electron microscopy, and internucleosomal DNA cleavage was found. We inhibited apoptosis by removing calcium from the medium, inhibiting protein synthesis with cycloheximide, alternately boiling or freezing and thawing the plasma, and digesting a partially purified fraction with trypsin. Heating AD plasma to 56 degrees C did not deactivate the apoptotic factor. These results demonstrate the presence of an apoptotic factor in the plasma of patients with AD.  (+info)

Delayed ischemic preconditioning is mediated by opening of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the rabbit heart. (7/429)

Cardioprotection from preconditioning reappears 24 h after the initial stimulus. This phenomenon is called the second window of protection (SWOP). We hypothesized that opening of the ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel mediates the protective effect of SWOP. Rabbits were preconditioned (PC) with four cycles of 5-min regional ischemia each followed by 10 min of reperfusion. Twenty-four hours later, the animals were subjected to sustained ischemia for 30 min followed by 180 min of reperfusion (I/R). Glibenclamide (Glib, 0.3 mg/kg ip) or 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD, 5 mg/kg iv) was used to block the KATP channel function. Infarct size was reduced from 41.2 +/- 2. 6% in sham-operated rabbits to 11.6 +/- 1.0% in PC rabbits, a 71% reduction (n = 11, P < 0.01). Treatment with Glib or 5-HD before I/R increased the infarct size to 43.4 +/- 2.6 and 37.8 +/- 1.9%, respectively (P < 0.01 vs. PC group, n = 12/group). Sham animals treated with either Glib or 5-HD had an infarct size of 39.0 +/- 3.4 and 37.8 +/- 1.5%, respectively, which was not different from control (40.0 +/- 3.8%) or sham (41.2 +/- 2.6%) I/R hearts. Monophasic action potential duration (APD) at 50% repolarization significantly shortened by 28.7, 26.6, and 23.3% in sham animals during 10, 20, and 30 min of ischemia. However, no further augmentation in the shortening of APD was observed in PC hearts. Glib and 5-HD significantly suppressed ischemia-induced epicardial APD shortening, suggesting that 5-HD may not be a selective blocker of the mitochondrial KATP channel in vivo. We conclude that SWOP is mediated by a KATP channel-sensitive mechanism that may have occurred because of the opening of the sarcolemmal KATP channel in vivo.  (+info)

Evidence of splanchnic-brain signaling in inhibition of ingestive behavior by middle molecules. (8/429)

Anorexia, nausea, and vomiting are common symptoms of uremic intoxication. Fractions in the middle molecule weight range, isolated from normal urine and uremic plasma ultrafiltrate, inhibit ingestive behavior in the rat. To investigate their site of action and specificity, male rats were injected intraperitoneally, intravenously, or intracerebroventricularly with concentrated fractions of uremic plasma ultrafiltrate or normal urine (molecular weight range: 1.0 to 5.0 kD) and tested for ingestive and sexual behavior. An intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 ml of urine fraction (10:1) or 2.0 ml of uremic plasma ultrafiltrate fraction (25:1) inhibited carbohydrate intake by 76.3 and 45.9%, respectively, but an intravenous injection had no effect. However, intravenous injection of higher doses inhibited carbohydrate ingestion. An intracerebroventricular injection of 5 or 10 microl of urine (20:1) middle molecule fraction inhibited carbohydrate intake by 13.4 and 41.6%, respectively. An injection of 5 or 10 microl of uremic plasma ultrafiltrate (125:1) middle molecule fraction inhibited carbohydrate intake by 22.6 and 49.5%, respectively. Injections of the corresponding fraction from normal plasma ultrafiltrate had no effect. Injection of urine or uremic plasma ultrafiltrate middle molecule fractions did not affect the display of sexual behavior. These results suggest that middle molecule fractions from uremic plasma ultrafiltrate or normal urine act in the splanchnic region and/or brain to inhibit food intake and that the effect is specific for ingestive behavior.  (+info)

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I used Baking Soda / Black strap Molasses Protocol. Mixed 1 Tea SP BS with 1 tea SP Molasses in 125ml water at 110 F or 43C for 5 minutes, added water to 300ml and drink 7AM and 7 PM you can t go mote than a week like that. After I used 1 BC 1 Molasses per day for one more week. After a 4 week break, using one lemon in a glass of water, I started BS again. Now my saliva/urine pH is 7.5. I have a BS in chemistry and know how to play the dangerous game with baking soda. You may consult your doctor ...
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An exercise responsive cardiac pacemaker (1) has a stimulation electrode (3) for introduction into the atrium or ventricle of the heart, a temperature sensor (4) situated in proximity to the electrode (3) for detecting the blood temperature, and a control circuit (8, 9, 10, 11) connected to the electrode (3) and the temperature sensor (4) by which the stimulation rate of the pacemaker is adaptively adjusted depending on the blood temperature. To ensure that the cardiac pacemaker works reliably in all physiological conditions of a patient, the stimulation rate is determined with reference to a field of characteristic curves (K1, K2), the individual characteristic curves constituting distinct algorithms relating heart rate to blood temperature for different physiological conditions of the pacemaker patient. A basic characteristic curve (K2) relates distinct heart rates to absolute blood temperatures under conditions without physical stress on the pacemaker patient. A set of parallel characteristic curves
Homeostatic adaptation In the 1950s British cybernetician W. Ross Ashby introduced the concept of an ultrastable system in his book Design for a Brain. If an organism needs to keep certain essential variables within bounds (e.g., blood temperature, pH) then a system that triggered internal parametrical changes whenever such variables approach or cross a boundary…
Serum stimulation promotes p65 translocation into the nucleus as well as IκBα degradation. (A) p65-dsRed (red staining) and IκBα-EGFP (green staining) were
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blood temperature is monitored by a centre in your brain called the hypothalamus.. in hot conditions, blood vessels in the skin dilate, allowing more bloody to flow through the skin capilleries. this means that more heat is lost from the surface of the skin by radiation. this is called vasodilation.. in cold conditions, blood vessels in the skin constrict, reducing the amount of blood that flows through the skin capilleries. this means that less heat is lost from the surface of the skin by radiation. this is called vasoconstriction.. ...
iwlearn.net is a content management system that supports knowledge sharing in the GEF International Waters portfolio. Digital outputs from GEF IW Conferences, guidance materials and products of GEF IW:LEARN or water-related learning are freely available. Real time GPS tracking app ...
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The inhibiting action of homologous serum on the proliferation of fibroblasts in vitro was increased after the serum had been heated at 56° and 70°C. This action decreased after the serum had been heated at 100°C.. ...
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Constitutive centripetal transport of the actin-based cytoskeleton has been detected in cells spreading on a substrate, locomoting fibroblasts and keratocytes, and non-locomoting serum-deprived fibroblasts. These results suggest a gradient of actin assembly, highest in the cortex at the cytoplasm-membrane interface and lowest in the non-cortical perinuclear cytoplasm. We predicted that such a gradient would be maintained in part by phosphoinositide-regulated actin binding proteins because the intracellular free Ca2+ and pH are low and spatially constant in serum-deprived cells. The cytoplasm-membrane interface presents one surface where the assembly of actin is differentially regulated relative to the non-cortical cytoplasm. Several models, based on in vitro biochemistry, propose that phosphoinositide-regulated actin binding proteins are involved in local actin assembly. To test these models in living cells using imaging techniques, we prepared a new fluorescent analog of actin that bound ...
The wee chick who has clung to deaths door for the last few weeks also seems to be turning a corner. I have sat on the fence when it comes to this chick. I am still undecided if I am battling a case of infectious sinusitis - also known as Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) - or if she simply had Infectious Bronchitis (IB). Regardless, I just didnt have the heart to cull her. She was still eating and drinking, and seemed to be fighting whatever it was. I separated her from the others, and gave her Superbooster (an antibiotic, vitamin treatment). It seems to help, and she does seem to be recovering ...
Although there is no specific treatment for any of the mitochondrial myopathies, physical therapy along with vitamin treatment may extend the range of movement of muscles and improve dexterity.
Sciatica is a common back complaint amongst young people and can be treated I believe with short walks and plenty of rest. Alot of folks have had bad deals with them but I know some folks who swear by them if they are good I can see where they could help maybe get the pressure sciatica treatment in homeopathy the nerve for awhile bringing some relief but again get your tests done and see whats happening before going back that way. Those who are overweight, smoke, dont exercise or even wear high heels can make the pain worse. Common medical treatments for sciatica include pills, physical therapy, injections, and in severe cases, surgery.
... : An introduction to how wood smoke hurts your health.. The body needs internal stability in all functions. It operates best with in a narrow range of acidity, blood pressure, blood temperature and hormone concentrations. It has complex negative feedback systems to achieve this stability. Stability is called homeostasis. We will be examining how and where wood smoke exposure can upset this balance, particularly in the 50 percent of the population that is vulnerable.. We will look at studies linking fine particulate to mortality and illness. We will look at tables to help understand what wood smoke chemicals and micro particulate can do to the body. We will look briefly at some of the functions the body must perform to remain alive, and mechanisms of disease, emphasizing research findings.. The body is truly micro managed. Even our cells have smaller divisions: mitochondria are round to rod shaped objects with a double membrane inside the cell. They are the principal sites of energy ...
doi:10.1182/blood-2004-04-1559. ISSN 0006-4971. PMID 15494428.. *^ Augello, Andrea; Tasso, Roberta; Negrini, Simone Maria; ... There is yet no consensus among biologists on the prevalence and physiological and therapeutic relevance of stem cell ... This phenomenon is referred to as stem cell transdifferentiation or plasticity. It can be induced by modifying the growth ... MSCs have been isolated from placenta, adipose tissue, lung, bone marrow and blood, Wharton's jelly from the umbilical cord,[23 ...
... a strange phenomenon was observed. Binding interactions between the white blood cells and the vessel walls were observed to ... This topic was finally able to be studied thoroughly under physiological shear stress conditions using a typical flow chamber.[ ... Leukocytes use the blood as a transport medium to reach the tissues of the body. Here is a brief summary of each of the four ... IL-1, TNFα and C5a[1] cause the endothelial cells of blood vessels near the site of infection to express cellular adhesion ...
However, the physiological implications of this phenomenon remain unclear. Allosteric regulation Haldane Effect Root effect ... However, when their blood was examined, this was not the case. Humpback whales weighing 41,000 kilograms had an observed Δ log ... The Bohr effect is a physiological phenomenon first described in 1904 by the Danish physiologist Christian Bohr, stating that ... Since carbon dioxide reacts with water to form carbonic acid, an increase in CO2 results in a decrease in blood pH, resulting ...
He also worked extensively on developing accurate methods to measure blood pressure and other physiological phenomena (e.g. ... This law states that "Within physiological limits, the force of contraction is directly proportional to the initial length of ... Gelehrtenkalender 6 (1940/41) 378 A. P. Fishman, D. W. Richards (eds.): Circulation of the blood. New York 1964, pp. 110-113 A ... from 1894 Frank worked as an assistant in Carl von Voit's Physiological Institute in München where he studied cardiac function ...
Examples of physiological regeneration in mammals include epithelial renewal (e.g., skin and intestinal tract), red blood cell ... While reparative regeneration is a rare phenomenon in mammals, it does occur. A well-documented example is regeneration of the ... This type of regeneration is common in physiological situations. Examples of physiological regeneration are the continual ... Similar to the physiological regeneration of hair in mammals, birds can regenerate their feathers in order to repair damaged ...
Hematopoietic stem cells are found in the bone marrow and umbilical cord blood and give rise to all the blood cell types. ... This phenomenon is referred to as stem cell transdifferentiation or plasticity. It can be induced by modifying the growth ... There is yet no consensus among biologists on the prevalence and physiological and therapeutic relevance of stem cell ... Blood. 105 (4): 1815-1822. doi:10.1182/blood-2004-04-1559. ISSN 0006-4971. PMID 15494428. Augello, Andrea; Tasso, Roberta; ...
During compensatory phenomena, many factors of an animal may become subject to change. One of these is the blood volume, which ... Physiological adaptations of aquatic newts (NOTOPHTHALMUS VIRIDESCENS) to a terrestrial environment. Physiological Zoology. 50( ... changes in blood pressure are permitted to allow for changes in blood volume. One hypothesis is that blood pressure is vital ... The blood volume of T. carnifex has a direct relationship with the blood pressure of the animal, and so when there is a change ...
415 Influence of cobra poison in the clotting of blood and the action of Calmette's antivenomous serum on the phenomenon. Myers ... Proceedings of Physiological Society, Journal of Physiology;xxiii On immunity against proteids. Lancet, 1900;ii:98 Myers ... Lancet, 1898;ii:23 The action of cobra poison on the blood: a contribution to the study of passive immunity. In collaboration ... work on blood and its diseases, and on the theory of immunity. Under the scholarship Myers studied in three leading ...
THAD is thought to be a physiological phenomenon resulting from regional variation in the blood supply by the portal vein and/ ...
... may be attributed to incorrect stimuli is because many stimuli have similar physiological symptoms such as increased blood ... 1981) investigated this phenomenon and found that those in an unrelated aroused state will rate an attractive confederate more ... One of the initial studies looking into this phenomenon conducted by Schachter and Singer (1962) was based on the idea that the ... Epinephrine activated the sympathetic nervous system and produced systems such as an elevated heart rate and blood pressure. ...
Examples of physiological regeneration in mammals include epithelial renewal (e.g., skin and intestinal tract), red blood cell ... In order to prevent starvation a planarian will use their own cells for energy, this phenomenon is known as de-growth. Limb ... This type of regeneration is common in physiological situations. Examples of physiological regeneration are the continual ... Similar to the physiological regeneration of hair in mammals, birds can regenerate their feathers in order to repair damaged ...
... s can produce some objective physiological changes, such as changes in heart rate, blood pressure, and chemical activity ... A phenomenon opposite to the placebo effect has also been observed. When an inactive substance or treatment is administered to ... The placebo effect is believed to reduce pain-a phenomenon known as placebo analgesia-in two different ways. One way is by the ... This psychological phenomenon, in which the recipient perceives an improvement in condition due to personal expectations, ...
The Physiological Society was founded in London in 1876 as a dining club. The American Physiological Society (APS) is a ... In 1920, August Krogh won the Nobel Prize for discovering how, in capillaries, blood flow is regulated. In 1954, Andrew Huxley ... work incessantly to produce the phenomena that constitute the life of the individual." In more differentiated organisms, the ... "American Physiological Society > Founders". www.the-aps.org. The American Physiological Society. Tucker, GS (December 1981). " ...
An erection (clinically: penile erection or penile tumescence) is a physiological phenomenon in which the penis becomes firmer ... become engorged with venous blood. This may result from any of various physiological stimuli, also known as sexual stimulation ... This may also become slightly engorged with blood, but less so than the corpora cavernosa. The scrotum may, but not always, ... Erectile dysfunction can occur due to both physiological and psychological reasons, most of which are amenable to treatment. ...
Castillo (1995) states that: "Trance phenomena result from the behavior of intense focusing of attention, which is the key ... The neurophysiological approach is awaiting the development of a mechanism to map physiological measurements to human thought. ... Scientific advancement and new technologies such as computerized EEG, positron emission tomography, regional cerebral blood ... with marked physiological characteristics, in which the body of the subject is thought by certain people to be liable to ...
In the first three months it is known that a woman's body produces a natural surplus of red blood cells, which are well ... Opinions vary greatly; it is regarded as completely unfounded by some and is accepted as a worldwide athletic phenomenon by ... Rumours arose in the 1970s and 1980s that such physiological improvements during pregnancy led to attempts by East German ... own naturally enriched blood and hormones. While abortion doping is officially banned under United States Olympic rules, there ...
... (HPV), also known as the Euler-Liljestrand mechanism, is a physiological phenomenon in which ... New York: Pearson Education.(1) Von Euler, US; Liljestrand, G (1946). "Observations on the pulmonary arterial blood pressure in ... The process might initially seem counterintuitive, as low oxygen levels might theoretically stimulate increased blood flow to ... Physiological Reviews. 92 (1): 367-520. doi:10.1152/physrev.00041.2010. ISSN 1522-1210. PMID 22298659. Post, J. M.; Hume, J. R ...
... describes the physiological phenomenon by which psychosocial stress experienced by a mother ... leading to physiological manifestations of stress such as increased maternal blood pressure (MBP) and maternal heart rate (MHR ... Because of a link in blood supply between a mother and fetus, it has been found that stress can leave lasting effects on a ... Psychosocial stress (or simply social stress) describes the brain's physiological response to perceived social threat. ...
Although the Cushing reflex was primarily identified as a physiological response when blood flow has almost ceased, its ... Cushing reflex (also referred to as the vasopressor response, the Cushing effect, the Cushing reaction, the Cushing phenomenon ... As a result of the now defective regulation of heart rate and blood pressure, the physiologic response is decreased blood flow ... This constriction raises the total resistance of blood flow, elevating blood pressure to high levels, which is known as ...
... crosses the blood-brain barrier and has been implicated in a wide array of physiological phenomena including inhibitory ... Huxtable, RJ (1992). "Physiological actions of taurine". Physiol Rev. 72 (1): 101-63. PMID 1731369. Irving CS, Hammer BE, ... El Idrissi A, Okeke E, Yan X, Sidime F, Neuwirth LS (2013). "Taurine regulation of blood pressure and vasoactivity". Adv. Exp. ... Huxtable RJ (1992). "Physiological actions of taurine". Physiol Rev. 72 (1): 101-163. PMID 1731369. "Opinion on Caffeine, ...
In humans, the blood carbon dioxide contents is shown in the table to the right: CO2 is carried in blood in three different ... He used this phenomenon to illustrate that carbon dioxide is produced by animal respiration and microbial fermentation. In 1772 ... The physiological effects of acute carbon dioxide exposure are grouped together under the term hypercapnia, a subset of ... Bicarbonate ions are crucial for regulating blood pH. A person's breathing rate influences the level of CO2 in their blood. ...
His main interest was physiological research on such subjects as the electrical phenomena accompanying secretion, the action of ... drugs on the circulation and secretion of the kidney, and the innervation of various blood vessels. In 1894 he was elected a ...
... is a physiological phenomenon where the clitoris becomes enlarged and firm. Clitoral erection is the result ... This may result from any of various physiological stimuli, including sexual arousal. During sexual arousal, arterial blood flow ... Any type of motion can increase blood flow to this organ and this results in increased secretions which lubricate the vagina. ... During sexual arousal, arterial blood flow to the clitoris is increased, and within the clitoris, the arteries further branch ...
Variation in the beat-to-beat interval is a physiological phenomenon. The SA node receives several different inputs and the ... This heart rate variation is associated with Mayer waves (Traube-Hering-Mayer waves) of blood pressure and is usually at a ... Heart rate variability (HRV) is the physiological phenomenon of variation in the time interval between heartbeats. It is ... Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use. Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and ...
This phenomenon occurs due to dilation of the blood vessels, probably as a result of withdrawal of sympathetic nervous system ... One account for these physiological responses is the Bezold-Jarisch reflex. Vasovagal syncope may be an evolution response, ... When heart rate slows, blood pressure drops, and the resulting lack of blood to the brain causes fainting. Typical triggers ... The underlying mechanism involves the nervous system slowing the heart rate and dilating blood vessels resulting in low blood ...
A natural physiological reaction to these threshold shifts is vasoconstriction, which will reduce the amount of blood reaching ... Listener fatigue (also known as listening fatigue or ear fatigue) is a phenomenon that occurs after prolonged exposure to an ... eds.). Cochlear Blood Flow Changes With Short Sound Stimulation. Scientific basis of noise-induced hearing loss. New York ... Common groups at risk of becoming victim to this phenomenon include avid listeners of music and others who listen or work with ...
Blood, Muscle and Exercise Responses to Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation. *Sports Nutritional Physiological Phenomena ... Modulation of Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) of Brain Activation ... Blood pressure; Change in Mean Arterial Pressure from low salt diet to high salt diet ... Percent Change in Voxel-wise Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) Including Outliers Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging ...
Blood, Muscle and Exercise Responses to Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation. *Sports Nutritional Physiological Phenomena ... Office or 24h blood pressure measurements. 20. All. 18 Years to 75 Years (Adult, Older Adult). NCT03036748. ENaC activation. ... Improved blood lipids. 400. All. 18 Years and older (Adult, Older Adult). NCT02796313. 1R01HL126578. NOSH. September 25, 2017. ... Modulation of Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) of Brain Activation ...
Blood Pressure / physiology*. Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena. Decerebrate State / physiopathology*. Electric ...
Blood Physiological Phenomena * Epithelium / microbiology * Fimbriae, Bacterial / physiology* * Humans * Male * Microscopy, ...
Blood Pressure / physiology. Brain / physiopathology*. Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena*. Electrophysiology. Exercise / ... Anticipation of exercise resulted in increases in heart rate, blood pressure and ventilation. The greatest neural changes were ... since stimulation of this structure is known to alter blood pressure in awake humans.. ...
Adrenomedullin / blood*. Adult. Blood Pressure. Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena*. Endothelin-1 / blood*. Female. Humans ... CONCLUSION: An alteration in vascular equilibrium between AM and ET-1, favouring AM, may be a reason why the physiological ...
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena*. Ovariectomy. Periodicity. Pituitary Gland / secretion. Progesterone / blood. Sexual ...
Blood Pressure / physiology. Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena. Cardiovascular System / physiopathology*. ... Blood pressure recovery indexes were determined by dividing the systolic blood pressure at 1, 2 and 3 min in recovery to the ... A delayed recovery of systolic blood pressure (SBP) after peak exercise has been found to have diagnostic value and might ... systolic blood pressure at peak exercise. RESULTS: HRR at 1 min (HRR1) of the patients with PCOS were significantly lower than ...
Amino Acids / blood*. Animal Feed / analysis. Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. Animals. Chickens / blood*, ...
Delineating the role that diet plays in blood pressure levels in children is important for guiding dietary recommendations for ... Blood Pressure*. Child. Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena*. Cholesterol, LDL / blood. Data Interpretation, Statistical ... Delineating the role that diet plays in blood pressure levels in children is important for guiding dietary recommendations for ... The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between dietary nutrients and blood pressure in children. Data were ...
Leptin / blood * Leptin / genetics * Male * Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena* * Pregnancy * Prenatal Exposure ...
Digestive System Physiological Phenomena*. Exercise / physiology*. Gastrointestinal Diseases / etiology, physiopathology*. ... Next Document: Body size at birth and blood pressure among children in developing countries.. ... 19577959 - Physiological attributes of triathletes.. 16203049 - Postexercise vo2 "hump" phenomenon as an indicator for ... Up to now, underlying mechanisms are poorly understood although decreased gastrointestinal blood flow, neuro-immuno-endocrine ...
Digestive System Physiological Phenomena*. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Gastrointestinal Hormones / pharmacology*. ... Motilin / blood, pharmacology*. Muscle Contraction / drug effects. Muscle, Smooth / physiology. Opossums. Sphincter of Oddi / ...
Regional Blood Flow * Risk Factors * Sensitivity and Specificity * Skin Absorption / physiology * Skin Physiological Phenomena ... Heart beat rate and ionic concentration in sweat as well as epidermal blood perfusion showed a training effect under regular ...
However, the physiological mechanisms that underlie this maternal effect are poorly understood. Carotenoids are hypothesized to ... Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. Animals. Animals, Wild. Antioxidants / administration & dosage, pharmacology. Birds ... 25140923 - Cord blood immune biomarkers in small for gestational age births.. 8309873 - Ultrasonography as a tool for ... However, the physiological mechanisms that underlie this maternal effect are poorly understood. Carotenoids are hypothesized to ...
Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena / physiology. Random Allocation. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Thyroid Hormones / blood. ... Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena / physiology. Minerals / metabolism*. Pregnancy. Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects ... Next Document: Growth, weaning performance and blood indicators of humoral immunity in Holstein calves fed suppleme.... ...
Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena / physiology. Animals. Chromatography, Gas / veterinary. Circadian Rhythm / ... Fatty Acids / blood*. Fatty Acids, Nonesterified / blood*. Female. Horses / blood, physiology*. Oleic Acid / blood. Physical ... Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein every 4 h, starting at 08:00 hours, for 2 days to assess the concentrations ...
Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. Animals. Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1 / metabolism. Dietary Carbohydrates / ... The histopathology and blood alanine aminotransferase were similar to those seen with the intragastric tube feeding of the same ... The liver histopathology and blood transaminase levels were determined. Rats fed ethanol grew 1 g/day, which was 2 g/day less ... Ethanol / administration & dosage*, blood, urine. Hepatitis, Alcoholic / enzymology, etiology*, pathology. Immunoenzyme ...
Circulatory And Respiratory Physiological Phenomena. Functional processes and properties characteristic of the BLOOD; ...
Carboxylic Acids / blood * Child * Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena * Dietary Supplements* * Double-Blind Method ...
... a strange phenomenon was observed. Binding interactions between the white blood cells and the vessel walls were observed to ... This topic was finally able to be studied thoroughly under physiological shear stress conditions using a typical flow chamber.[ ... Leukocytes use the blood as a transport medium to reach the tissues of the body. Here is a brief summary of each of the four ... IL-1, TNFα and C5a[1] cause the endothelial cells of blood vessels near the site of infection to express cellular adhesion ...
... as well as the blood parameters and the related ... and vitamin E on some physiological parameters and histological ... Skin Physiological Phenomena / drug effects. Vitamin E / administration & dosage, pharmacology*. Vitamin E Deficiency / blood, ... Blood Platelets / drug effects, physiology. Diet*. Female. Glutathione Peroxidase / blood. Heart / drug effects, physiology. ... and vitamin E on some physiological parameters and histological changes in liver, heart, and skin tissues, as well as the blood ...
... which implied that stenosis led to a reduction in blood supply to the myocardium. This was the most important physiological ... Similar phenomenon is named as "branch steal" by Gould et al. [29] to describe the situation when a nonstenotic branch between ... Hence less blood was distributed to the regions downstream the stenosis. However, there was a slight increase of blood flow to ... Numerical Simulation and Clinical Implications of Stenosis in Coronary Blood Flow. Jun-Mei Zhang,1 Liang Zhong,1,2 Tong Luo,3 ...
From a physiological standpoint, this phenomenon makes perfect sense. The body adapts well to repeated training stress, with ... After many thousands of miles, the delivery system of blood to the muscles has expanded and increased. ...
doi:10.1182/blood-2004-04-1559. ISSN 0006-4971. PMID 15494428.. *^ Augello, Andrea; Tasso, Roberta; Negrini, Simone Maria; ... There is yet no consensus among biologists on the prevalence and physiological and therapeutic relevance of stem cell ... This phenomenon is referred to as stem cell transdifferentiation or plasticity. It can be induced by modifying the growth ... MSCs have been isolated from placenta, adipose tissue, lung, bone marrow and blood, Whartons jelly from the umbilical cord,[23 ...
  • But for several reasons, blood glucose meter accuracy is less of a yes-or-no question and more of an 'it depends' scenario. (jdrf.org.uk)
  • This article covers the main factors that can affect blood glucose monitoring system accuracy and gives tips for ensuring you're getting the best quality information to inform your diabetes treatment decisions. (jdrf.org.uk)
  • Traditional fingerstick blood glucose meters measure glucose in capillary blood. (jdrf.org.uk)
  • Changes in glucose levels will be seen more quickly in capillary blood (blood glucose, or BG). (jdrf.org.uk)
  • In 2013, the International Organisation for Standardization published revised quality standards for blood glucose meters in order to improve accuracy and consistency of results. (jdrf.org.uk)
  • For example, when a laboratory test would say 6.0 mmol/L, a blood glucose meter that meets the ISO standard could show anywhere between 5.1 mmol/L and 7.0 mmols/L and still be called accurate. (jdrf.org.uk)
  • MARD for an ISF glucose monitoring device is calculated quite different from blood glucose meter accuracy. (jdrf.org.uk)
  • It's not possible to say a blood glucose meter and an interstitial glucose monitoring device are "equally accurate" because their relative accuracy is assessed differently. (jdrf.org.uk)
  • It's tempting to compare a CGM reading with a blood glucose meter reading to get a sense of whether the CGM is 'right. (jdrf.org.uk)
  • Aren't all blood glucose meters accurate though? (jdrf.org.uk)
  • It's a surprise to most people, including doctors and nurses, that a blood glucose meter doesn't have to be independently assessed to be placed on the market in the EU, including the UK. (jdrf.org.uk)
  • The CE Mark process for blood glucose monitoring systems relies on the manufacturer's own assessments of accuracy being checked over by a Notified Body. (jdrf.org.uk)
  • In 2015, the Diabetes Technology Society, based in the USA, independently tested 18 popular blood glucose monitoring systems. (jdrf.org.uk)
  • A three-variable model of the blood glucose regulatory system is developed and conformed to glucose and insulin measurements from oral glucose tolerance tests. (rice.edu)
  • That's when our fasting blood glucose readings in the morning are higher than when we went to bed. (healthcentral.com)
  • The New Glucose Revolution: What Makes My Blood Glucose Go Up. (healthcentral.com)
  • The result is an increase in blood glucose levels, ensuring a supply of fuel in anticipation of the wakening body's needs. (healthcentral.com)
  • Your blood glucose will rise if you didn't take enough to keep your insulin level up through the night. (healthcentral.com)
  • This makes sense, because several studies in the professional literature clearly show that vinegar can reduce our blood glucose levels. (healthcentral.com)
  • These people kept 24-hour diet records for three days and measured their fasting blood glucose at 7 a.m. for three consecutive days. (healthcentral.com)
  • The result was that when they took the vinegar, they cut their fasting blood glucose by about 5 mg/dl (0.26 mmol/l). (healthcentral.com)
  • And when Dr. Johnston and her associate took a closer look at the data, they found that the vinegar treatment was particularly effective for those people who had a typical fasting blood glucose level of more than 130 mg/dl (7.2 mmol/l). (healthcentral.com)
  • Vinegar helped this group reduce their fasting blood glucose by 6 percent compared with a reduction of 0.7 percent in those people who had a typical fasting blood glucose of less than 130 mg/dl (7.2 mmol/l). (healthcentral.com)
  • Laboratory tests indicated elevated blood glucose (maximum 18 mmol/l), anemia (87 g/l) and hypoproteinemia (24.6 g/l). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Glucose is often one of the most abundant monosaccharides in foods, but it is responsible for browning phenomena during dehydration and long-term storage, mainly due to the Maillard reaction. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, the accurate evaluation of the glucose amount in foods is of the utmost importance in the maintenance of its physiological level in blood of diabetics. (hindawi.com)
  • The Staub-Traugott Phenomenon (or Staub-Traugott Effect) is the premise that a normal subject fed glucose will rapidly return to normal levels of blood glucose after an initial spike, and will see improved reaction to subsequent glucose feedings. (wikipedia.org)
  • A. T. B. Jacobson determined in 1913 that carbohydrate ingestion results in blood glucose fluctuations. (wikipedia.org)
  • This facilitated disposal of a glucose load is known as the Staub-Traugott phenomenon. (wikipedia.org)
  • This phenomenon drew considerable interest as it was demonstrated that the ingested glucose was still being processed by the gut at the same rate while being cleared much more rapidly in the bloodstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is not surprising that when a large amount of readily diffusible glucose is suddenly introduced into the alimentary tract the rate of absorption should exceed the rate at which the tissues can abstract it from the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effects upon the blood sugar of the repeated ingestion of glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • An interpretation of the blood sugar phenomena following the ingestion of glucose, J. Biol. (wikipedia.org)
  • When managing the blood glucose level with insulin injections, this effect is counter-intuitive to insulin users who experience high blood sugar in the morning as a result of an overabundance of insulin at night. (wikipedia.org)
  • A person with type 1 diabetes should balance insulin delivery to manage their blood glucose level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somogyi and others have claimed that if prolonged hypoglycemia is untreated, then stress due to low blood sugar can result in a high blood glucose rebound. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the blood glucose level falls below normal, the body responds by releasing the endocrine hormone glucagon as well as the stress hormones epinephrine, cortisol and growth hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucagon facilitates release of glucose from the liver that raises the blood glucose immediately, and the stress hormones cause insulin resistance for several hours, sustaining the elevated blood sugar. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first line of defense in preventing chronic Somogyi rebound is additional blood glucose testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Continuous blood glucose monitoring is the preferred method to detect and prevent the Somogyi rebound, but this technology is not yet widely used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, testing blood sugar more often, 8 to 10 times daily with a traditional blood glucose meter, facilitates detecting the low blood sugar level before such a rebound occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • While reviewing log data of blood glucose after the fact, signs of Somogyi rebound should be suspected when blood glucose numbers seem higher after the insulin dosage has been raised, particularly in the morning. (wikipedia.org)
  • The "glucostatic theory" developed in the same year by Jean Mayer describes the blood glucose feedback system. (wikipedia.org)
  • page needed] According to this theory the hypothalamus controls the absorption of nutrients via receptors that measure the glucose level in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • 40%) and the blood glucose concentration falls. (wikipedia.org)
  • page needed] A further example illustrates the inherent conflict between these two explanatory approaches: although large amounts of the appetite suppressing hormone leptin are released in obese individuals, they are still afflicted with a ravenous hunger once their blood glucose falls. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is new is that the "Selfish Brain" theory assumes there is another feedback control system that is supraordinate to the blood glucose and fat feedback control systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concentration of glucose in the blood decreases as a result, staying within the normal range even when a large amount of carbohydrates is consumed. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the setting of insulin resistance, there is elevated lipolysis and release of free fatty acids into the blood stream which contributes to further insulin resistance via increasing hepatic gluconeogenesis and preventing insulin dependent glucose uptake in tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under normal physiological conditions, RYR2 mutation has no discernable effect on calcium induced-calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Ryr2 is normally activated by increased cytosolic calcium, but under stressful conditions such as increased beta adrenergic activation, RYR2 is activated by luminal calcium in association with increased SR calcium loading. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Bohr effect is a physiological phenomenon first described in 1904 by the Danish physiologist Christian Bohr, stating that hemoglobin's oxygen binding affinity (see Oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curve) is inversely related both to acidity and to the concentration of carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since carbon dioxide reacts with water to form carbonic acid, an increase in CO2 results in a decrease in blood pH, resulting in hemoglobin proteins releasing their load of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • This review presents model-derived indices that describe cerebrovascular phenomena, the nature of which is both physiological (carbon dioxide reactivity and arterial hypotension) and pathological (cerebral artery stenosis, intracranial hypertension, and cerebral vasospasm). (springer.com)
  • As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth and its concentration in Earth's pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by photosynthetic organisms and geological phenomena. (wikipedia.org)
  • He used this phenomenon to illustrate that carbon dioxide is produced by animal respiration and microbial fermentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the phenomenon where an increased proton or carbon dioxide concentration (lower pH) lowers hemoglobin's affinity and carrying capacity for oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability to detect other stimuli beyond those governed by these most broadly recognized senses also exists, and these sensory modalities include temperature (thermoception), kinesthetic sense (proprioception), pain (nociception), balance (equilibrioception), vibration (mechanoreception), and various internal stimuli (e.g. the different chemoreceptors for detecting salt and carbon dioxide concentrations in the blood, or sense of hunger and sense of thirst). (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional work by the Schwartz group has shown that protective autoimmunity is a naturally occurring physiological phenomenon that takes place spontaneously following a CNS injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the absence of the Root effect, retia will result in the diffusion of some oxygen directly from the arterial blood to the venous blood, making such systems less effective for the concentration of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • These exchangers equalize the temperature between hot arterial blood going out to the extremities and cold venous blood coming back, thus reducing heat loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • The goal has been to study the intracellular transport phenomena in attempt to develop approaches for intracellular targeting of drugs for the treatment of cancer, diabetes, autophagy and obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cardiac autonomic nervous function and thermographic parameters will be assessed in patients with primary and secondary Raynaud's phenomenon and glaucoma as well as in patients diagnosed with autonomic dysfunction such as diabetics and patients with Parkinson's disease in order to compare the function of the cardiac autonomic nervous system and the peripheral response to cold exposure. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Potentially, this will lead to a better understanding of the cardiac autonomic nervous function in Raynaud's phenomenon. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • They participate in the formation of blood cells, bones, in the functioning of the nervous system and the regulation of muscle tonus. (exclusivepapers.com)
  • baseline stimulation from the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system causes constriction of the penile arteries, forcing blood out of the erectile tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this histological tissue, three types of cells are present: erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBCs), leukocytes (white blood cells, WBCs) and thrombocytes (platelets, in mammals). (angelfire.com)
  • In the penis, this tissue engorges with blood during sexual arousal and becomes compressed against the unyielding tunica, creating penile rigidity --a true erection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sleep is one of the most widely observed phenomena in mammals and is recognized to play a vital regulatory role in a number of physiological and psychological systems [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • More often than not, it is used as a way to dissociate the fluctuating metabolic rates seen in some small mammals and birds (e.g. bats and hummingbirds), from those of traditional cold blooded animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Balance disorder Broken escalator phenomenon Chronic subjective dizziness Coriolis effect (perception) Equilibrioception Ideomotor phenomenon Illusions of self-motion Motion sickness Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome Proprioception Seasickness Spatial disorientation The spins, a state of dizziness and disorientation due to intoxication Vertigo "dizziness" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary Dizziness at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Reeves, Alexander G. (wikipedia.org)
  • This psychological phenomenon, in which the recipient perceives an improvement in condition due to personal expectations, rather than the treatment itself, is known as the placebo effect or placebo response. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, psychophysiological research can consist of the study of social, psychological, and/or behavioral phenomena as they are reflected in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1942, Walter Bradford Cannon, MD, now looked to as a forerunner in modern physiological psychology, published a work wherein he postulated the idea that fear could affect a person to the point that their physical condition would deteriorate in response to psychological distress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes a person with diabetes will experience the Somogyi rebound when awake and notice symptoms of the initial low blood sugar or symptoms of the rebound. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alcohol hangover symptoms develop when blood alcohol concentration falls considerably and peak when it returns to almost zero. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is likely that optimal balanced breathing patterns and ability to entrain heart rhythms to breathing reflect physiological efficiency and resilience and that individuals with dysfunctional breathing patterns may have difficulty voluntarily modulating HRV and RSA. (nih.gov)
  • Subsequently, participants applied a brief 5-minute biofeedback protocol, involving breathing and positive emotional focus, to achieve HRV patterns proposed to reflect physiological "coherence" and entrainment of heart rhythm oscillations to other oscillating body systems. (nih.gov)
  • As a useful equivalent of the usual water the coconut water affects positively the human body because it improves blood condition and protects heart from diseases. (exclusivepapers.com)
  • The first of these is directed towards artificial devices which wholly replace the physiological organ and necessitate the actual removal of the heart itself. (google.com)
  • This technical solution has the same drawbacks as described above, the only difference being in the fact that, since removal of the physiological heart is not necessary, it is possible to consider re-establishing the physiological functions of this organ once the critical stage which led to the implantation of the artificial device is overcome. (google.com)
  • In addition to the devices described, "aortic counter-pulsators" are also known, which, apart from requiring the functioning of a vital artery (such as the femoral artery) to be interrupted and thus having limited times of application, are in fact only usable when functioning of the physiological heart remains above a certain minimum level. (google.com)
  • Heart rate variability (HRV) is the physiological phenomenon of variation in the time interval between heartbeats. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is anatomic and physiological evidence for a polyvagal control of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although he participated in a great deal of physiological research early in his career, Dr. Pickering's research in behavioral determinants and consequences of hypertension formed the heart of the program. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Pickering was also a member of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Task Force on Behavioral Medicine, on the Board of Directors of the American Heart Association, and a member of the Committee on Gulf War and Stress of the Institute of Medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later in his career, he worked at the physiological institute at Tübingen, and also in the department of experimental pathology and therapy at the Kerckhoff Institute in Bad Nauheim (now known as the Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research). (wikipedia.org)
  • This rhythm disturbance prevents the heart from pumping blood appropriately. (wikipedia.org)
  • These undergo what has been traditionally called "hibernation": the physiological state where the body temperature drops to near ambient (environmental) temperature, and heart and respiration rates slow drastically. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, they reasoned that just as loss of variability in heart rate indicated patients more likely to be at high risk of dying after a heart attack, this phenomenon might also be an indicator of a healthy control of heart rate in such patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Valves are integral to the normal physiological functioning of the human heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • The metal ring holds, by means of two metal supports, a disc which opens and closes as the heart pumps blood through the valve. (wikipedia.org)
  • The liver histopathology and blood transaminase levels were determined. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Christian de Duve, the chairman of the Laboratory of Physiological Chemistry at the Catholic University of Louvain in Belgium, had been studying the mechanism of action of a pancreatic hormone insulin in liver cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In February 1899 he was elected to the John Lucas Walker Studentship in Pathology, a scholarship given by the University of Cambridge for original pathological research, on the recommendation of Professor Kanthack for Myers' work on blood and its diseases, and on the theory of immunity. (wikipedia.org)