A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.
Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
A specialized transport barrier, in the EYE, formed by the retinal pigment EPITHELIUM, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the RETINA. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
The barrier between capillary blood and alveolar air comprising the alveolar EPITHELIUM and capillary ENDOTHELIUM with their adherent BASEMENT MEMBRANE and EPITHELIAL CELL cytoplasm. PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE occurs across this membrane.
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.
Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.
The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.
Those factors, such as language or sociocultural relationships, which interfere in the meaningful interpretation and transmission of ideas between individuals or groups.
A specialized barrier, in the TESTIS, between the interstitial BLOOD compartment and the adluminal compartment of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. The barrier is formed by layers of cells from the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM of the capillary BLOOD VESSELS, to the SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIUM of the seminiferous tubules. TIGHT JUNCTIONS form between adjacent SERTOLI CELLS, as well as between the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.
The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.
Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.
Branches of the vagus (tenth cranial) nerve. The recurrent laryngeal nerves originate more caudally than the superior laryngeal nerves and follow different paths on the right and left sides. They carry efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid and carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A sensory branch of the MANDIBULAR NERVE, which is part of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The lingual nerve carries general afferent fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the mandibular gingivae.
The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.
The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.
The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.
Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)
Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.
Neoplasms which arise from nerve sheaths formed by SCHWANN CELLS in the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM or by OLIGODENDROCYTES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, NEUROFIBROMA, and NEURILEMMOMA are relatively common tumors in this category.
Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
Disease or damage involving the SCIATIC NERVE, which divides into the PERONEAL NERVE and TIBIAL NERVE (see also PERONEAL NEUROPATHIES and TIBIAL NEUROPATHY). Clinical manifestations may include SCIATICA or pain localized to the hip, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of posterior thigh muscles and muscles innervated by the peroneal and tibial nerves, and sensory loss involving the lateral and posterior thigh, posterior and lateral leg, and sole of the foot. The sciatic nerve may be affected by trauma; ISCHEMIA; COLLAGEN DISEASES; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1363)
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.
A MARVEL domain protein that plays an important role in the formation and regulation of the TIGHT JUNCTION paracellular permeability barrier.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
A branch of the facial (7th cranial) nerve which passes through the middle ear and continues through the petrotympanic fissure. The chorda tympani nerve carries taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and conveys parasympathetic efferents to the salivary glands.
The selectively permeable barrier, in the EYE, formed by the nonpigmented layer of the EPITHELIUM of the CILIARY BODY, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the IRIS. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.
The vestibular part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The vestibular nerve fibers arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project peripherally to vestibular hair cells and centrally to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM. These fibers mediate the sense of balance and head position.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The barrier between the perineurium of PERIPHERAL NERVES and the endothelium (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR) of endoneurial CAPILLARIES. The perineurium acts as a diffusion barrier, but ion permeability at the blood-nerve barrier is still higher than at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER.
The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.
A low affinity receptor that binds NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; and neurotrophin 4.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
The use of specifically placed small electrodes to deliver electrical impulses across the SKIN to relieve PAIN. It is used less frequently to produce ANESTHESIA.
Neoplasms which arise from peripheral nerve tissue. This includes NEUROFIBROMAS; SCHWANNOMAS; GRANULAR CELL TUMORS; and malignant peripheral NERVE SHEATH NEOPLASMS. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp1750-1)
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Traumatic injuries to the LARYNGEAL NERVE.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
A 195-kDa zonula occludens protein that is distinguished by the presence of a ZU5 domain at the C-terminal of the molecule.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to the lower extremity. The obturator nerve provides motor innervation to the adductor muscles of the thigh and cutaneous sensory innervation of the inner thigh.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.
The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from the optic nerve or its sheath. OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA is the most common histologic type. Optic nerve neoplasms tend to cause unilateral visual loss and an afferent pupillary defect and may spread via neural pathways to the brain.
Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.
Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.
Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.
The lumbar and sacral plexuses taken together. The fibers of the lumbosacral plexus originate in the lumbar and upper sacral spinal cord (L1 to S3) and innervate the lower extremities.
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Traumatic injuries to the brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, autonomic nervous system, or neuromuscular system, including iatrogenic injuries induced by surgical procedures.
Traumatic injuries to the LINGUAL NERVE. It may be a complication following dental treatments.
A complex network of nerve fibers in the pelvic region. The hypogastric plexus distributes sympathetic fibers from the lumbar paravertebral ganglia and the aortic plexus, parasympathetic fibers from the pelvic nerve, and visceral afferents. The bilateral pelvic plexus is in its lateral extent.
Degeneration of distal aspects of a nerve axon following injury to the cell body or proximal portion of the axon. The process is characterized by fragmentation of the axon and its MYELIN SHEATH.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4, neurotrophin 5. It plays a crucial role in pain sensation and thermoregulation in humans. Gene mutations that cause loss of receptor function are associated with CONGENITAL INSENSITIVITY TO PAIN WITH ANHIDROSIS, while gene rearrangements that activate the protein-tyrosine kinase function are associated with tumorigenesis.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Mutant strains of mice that produce little or no hair.
Pathological processes of the VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE, including the branches of COCHLEAR NERVE and VESTIBULAR NERVE. Common examples are VESTIBULAR NEURITIS, cochlear neuritis, and ACOUSTIC NEUROMA. Clinical signs are varying degree of HEARING LOSS; VERTIGO; and TINNITUS.
Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.
A general term indicating inflammation of a peripheral or cranial nerve. Clinical manifestation may include PAIN; PARESTHESIAS; PARESIS; or HYPESTHESIA.
A claudin subtype that is found localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS in VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. The protein was initially identified as one of several proteins which are deleted in VELOCARDIOFACIAL SYNDROME and may play an important role in maintaining the integrity of the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.
Nerves and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system. The central nervous system structures which regulate the autonomic nervous system are not included.
A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
Disease involving the common PERONEAL NERVE or its branches, the deep and superficial peroneal nerves. Lesions of the deep peroneal nerve are associated with PARALYSIS of dorsiflexion of the ankle and toes and loss of sensation from the web space between the first and second toe. Lesions of the superficial peroneal nerve result in weakness or paralysis of the peroneal muscles (which evert the foot) and loss of sensation over the dorsal and lateral surface of the leg. Traumatic injury to the common peroneal nerve near the head of the FIBULA is a relatively common cause of this condition. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p31)
A large family of transmembrane proteins found in TIGHT JUNCTIONS. They take part in the formation of paracellular barriers and pores that regulate paracellular permeability.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
An azo dye used in blood volume and cardiac output measurement by the dye dilution method. It is very soluble, strongly bound to plasma albumin, and disappears very slowly.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
Diseases of the twelfth cranial (hypoglossal) nerve or nuclei. The nuclei and fascicles of the nerve are located in the medulla, and the nerve exits the skull via the hypoglossal foramen and innervates the muscles of the tongue. Lower brain stem diseases, including ischemia and MOTOR NEURON DISEASES may affect the nuclei or nerve fascicles. The nerve may also be injured by diseases of the posterior fossa or skull base. Clinical manifestations include unilateral weakness of tongue musculature and lingual dysarthria, with deviation of the tongue towards the side of weakness upon attempted protrusion.
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
A neoplasm that arises from SCHWANN CELLS of the cranial, peripheral, and autonomic nerves. Clinically, these tumors may present as a cranial neuropathy, abdominal or soft tissue mass, intracranial lesion, or with spinal cord compression. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, highly vascular, and composed of a homogenous pattern of biphasic fusiform-shaped cells that may have a palisaded appearance. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp964-5)
An integral membrane protein that is localized to TIGHT JUNCTIONS, where it plays a role in controlling the paracellular permeability of polarized cells. Mutations in the gene for claudin-1 are associated with Neonatal Ichthyosis-Sclerosing Cholangitis (NISCH) Syndrome.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Traumatic injuries to the OLFACTORY NERVE. It may result in various olfactory dysfunction including a complete loss of smell.
An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
A thioester hydrolase which acts on esters formed between thiols such as DITHIOTHREITOL or GLUTATHIONE and the C-terminal glycine residue of UBIQUITIN.
Proteins that take part in the formation or structure of TIGHT JUNCTIONS.
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The specialized postsynaptic region of a muscle cell. The motor endplate is immediately across the synaptic cleft from the presynaptic axon terminal. Among its anatomical specializations are junctional folds which harbor a high density of cholinergic receptors.
Diagnosis of disease states by recording the spontaneous electrical activity of tissues or organs or by the response to stimulation of electrically excitable tissue.
Regularly spaced gaps in the myelin sheaths of peripheral axons. Ranvier's nodes allow saltatory conduction, that is, jumping of impulses from node to node, which is faster and more energetically favorable than continuous conduction.
Ulnar neuropathies caused by mechanical compression of the nerve at any location from its origin at the BRACHIAL PLEXUS to its terminations in the hand. Common sites of compression include the retroepicondylar groove, cubital tunnel at the elbow (CUBITAL TUNNEL SYNDROME), and Guyon's canal at the wrist. Clinical features depend on the site of injury, but may include weakness or paralysis of wrist flexion, finger flexion, and ulnar innervated intrinsic hand muscles, and impaired sensation over the ulnar aspect of the hand, fifth finger, and ulnar half of the ring finger. (Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p43)
The removal or interruption of some part of the sympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
A dead body, usually a human body.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
A paravertebral sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical and first thoracic ganglia.
Entrapment of the MEDIAN NERVE in the carpal tunnel, which is formed by the flexor retinaculum and the CARPAL BONES. This syndrome may be associated with repetitive occupational trauma (CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS); wrist injuries; AMYLOID NEUROPATHIES; rheumatoid arthritis (see ARTHRITIS, RHEUMATOID); ACROMEGALY; PREGNANCY; and other conditions. Symptoms include burning pain and paresthesias involving the ventral surface of the hand and fingers which may radiate proximally. Impairment of sensation in the distribution of the median nerve and thenar muscle atrophy may occur. (Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p45)
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
Disease involving a spinal nerve root (see SPINAL NERVE ROOTS) which may result from compression related to INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; SPINAL CORD INJURIES; SPINAL DISEASES; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include radicular pain, weakness, and sensory loss referable to structures innervated by the involved nerve root.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Traumatic injuries to the ACCESSORY NERVE. Damage to the nerve may produce weakness in head rotation and shoulder elevation.
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
Nerve fibers which project from sympathetic ganglia to synapses on target organs. Sympathetic postganglionic fibers use norepinephrine as transmitter, except for those innervating eccrine sweat glands (and possibly some blood vessels) which use acetylcholine. They may also release peptide cotransmitters.
Loss of water by diffusion through the skin and by evaporation from the respiratory tract.

Imaging of intraneural edema by using gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging: experimental compression injury. (1/16)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Compressive and entrapment neuropathies are diseases frequently observed on routine clinical examination. A definitive diagnosis based on clinical symptoms and neurologic findings alone is difficult in many cases, however, and electrophysiologic measurement is used as a supplementary diagnostic method. In this study, we examined to use protein tracers (Evans blue albumin or horseradish peroxidase) and gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging to determine the changes of blood-nerve barrier permeability in compressive neuropathies. METHODS: In dogs, the median nerve was compressed for 1 hour by using five kinds of clips with various strengths (7.5-90-g force). After clip removal, the combined tracers of Evans blue albumin and gadolinium or horseradish peroxidase was administered intravenously as a tracer. After the animals were euthenized, we compared gadolinium-enhanced MR images with Evans blue albumin distribution in the nerve under fluorescence microscopy. The horseradish peroxidase-injected specimens were observed by transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: On enhanced MR imaging, intraneural enhancement was caused by 60- and 90-g-force compression after 1 hour. Marked extravasation of protein tracers in the nerve occurred where there was compression by 60- and 90-g-force compression, and capillaries in the nerve showed the opening of tight junction and an increase of vesicular transport under the electron microscopy. This situation indicated breakdown of the blood-nerve barrier, with consequent edema formation and was seen as enhancement on MR imaging. CONCLUSION: Gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging can detect morphologic and functional changes of blood-nerve barrier in the nerve induced by mechanical compression.  (+info)

Blood-neural barrier: intercellular communication at glio-vascular interface. (2/16)

The blood-neural barrier (BNB), including blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-retinal barrier (BRB), is an endothelial barrier constructed by an extensive network of endothelial cells, astrocytes and neurons to form functional "neurovascular units", which has an important role in maintaining a precisely regulated microenvironment for reliable neuronal activity. Although failure of the BNB may be a precipitating event or a consequence, the breakdown of BNB is closely related with the development and progression of CNS diseases. Therefore, BNB is most essential in the regulation of microenvironment of the CNS. The BNB is a selective diffusion barrier characterized by tight junctions between endothelial cells, lack of fenestrations, and specific BNB transporters. The BNB have been shown to be astrocyte dependent, for it is formed by the CNS capillary endothelial cells, surrounded by astrocytic end-foot processes. Given the anatomical associations with endothelial cells, it could be supposed that astrocytes play a role in the development, maintenance, and breakdown of the BNB. Therefore, astrocytes-endothelial cells interaction influences the BNB in both physiological and pathological conditions. If we better understand mutual interactions between astrocytes and endothelial cells, in the near future, we could provide a critical solution to the BNB problems and create new opportunities for future success of treating CNS diseases. Here, we focused astrocyte-endothelial cell interaction in the formation and function of the BNB.  (+info)

Endothelial cells constituting blood-nerve barrier have highly specialized characteristics as barrier-forming cells. (3/16)

In autoimmune disorders of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) such as Guillain-Barre syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, breakdown of the blood-nerve barrier (BNB) has been considered as a key step in the disease process. Hence, it is important to know the cellular property of peripheral nerve microvascular endothelial cells (PnMECs) constituting the bulk of BNB. Although many in vitro models of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) have been established, very few in vitro BNB models have been reported so far. We isolated PnMECs from transgenic rats harboring the temperature-sensitive SV40 large T-antigen gene (tsA58 rat) and investigated the properties of these "barrier-forming cells". Isolated PnMECs (TR-BNBs) showed high transendothelial electrical resistance and expressed tight junction components and various types of influx as well as efflux transporters that have been reported to function at BBB. Furthermore, we confirmed the in vivo expression of various BBB-forming endothelial cell markers in the endoneurium of a rat sciatic nerve. These results suggest that PnMECs constituting the bulk of BNB have a highly specialized characteristic resembling the endothelial cells forming BBB.  (+info)

Blood-neural barrier: its diversity and coordinated cell-to-cell communication. (4/16)

The cerebral microvessels possess barrier characteristics which are tightly sealed excluding many toxic substances and protecting neural tissues. The specialized blood-neural barriers as well as the cerebral microvascular barrier are recognized in the retina, inner ear, spinal cord, and cerebrospinal fluid. Microvascular endothelial cells in the brain closely interact with other components such as astrocytes, pericytes, perivascular microglia and neurons to form functional 'neurovascular unit'. Communication between endothelial cells and other surrounding cells enhances the barrier functions, consequently resulting in maintenance and elaboration of proper brain homeostasis. Furthermore, the disruption of the neurovascular unit is closely involved in cerebrovascular disorders. In this review, we focus on the location and function of these various blood-neural barriers, and the importance of the cell-to-cell communication for development and maintenance of the barrier integrity at the neurovascular unit. We also demonstrate the close relation between the alteration of the blood-neural barriers and cerebrovascular disorders.  (+info)

The transport of anti-HIV drugs across blood-CNS interfaces: summary of current knowledge and recommendations for further research. (5/16)

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Fingolimod and related compounds in a spontaneous autoimmune polyneuropathy. (6/16)

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Cerebrospinal fluid secretory Ca2+-dependent phospholipase A2 activity: a biomarker of blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier permeability. (7/16)

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Drosophila glia use a conserved cotransporter mechanism to regulate extracellular volume. (8/16)

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Home , Papers , Modeling leukocyte trafficking at the human blood-nerve barrier in vitro and in vivo geared towards targeted molecular therapies for peripheral neuroinflammation. ...
The blood-nerve barrier (BNB) is a dynamic and competent interface between the endoneurial microenvironment and the surrounding extracellular space or blood. It is localised at the innermost layer of the multilayered ensheathing perineurium and endoneurial microvessels, and is the key structure that controls the internal milieu of the peripheral nerve parenchyma. Since the endoneurial BNB is the point of entry for pathogenic T cells and various soluble factors, including cytokines, chemokines and immunoglobulins, understanding this structure is important to prevent and treat human immune mediated neuropathies such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal protein and skin changes) syndrome and a subset of diabetic neuropathy. However, compared with the blood-brain barrier, only limited knowledge has been accumulated regarding the function, cell biology and clinical significance of the BNB. This ...
I read the article by Hackel et al. and then did a PubMed search (perineurium OR perineurial barrier), which identified 1,451 articles going back to the dawn of Medline that discuss a protective blood-nerve barrier for both myelinated and non-myelinated neurons that is similar to the blood-brain barrier. When I added the PubMed search terms AND (analgesia or analgesic), the results showed 63 references going back to 1969. This has not entered into any of the preclinical testing strategies or chemical design issues that Ive worked on during my career in pain medicine, so either Ive been sleeping or this concept has not taken fire until recently. It may also be that inflammation-induced disruption of the blood-nerve barrier provides a suitable entry for hydrophilic drugs to peripheral nerves, so that this barrier does not have much functional or clinical significance under most painful conditions. This would be a greater problem in peripheral pathological pain conditions that are not ...
If patients could recognise themselves, or anyone else could recognise a patient from your description, please obtain the patients written consent to publication and send them to the editorial office before submitting your response [Patient consent forms] ...
The chronic effects of a reshaping nerve electrode, the flat interface nerve electrode (FINE), on sciatic nerve physiology, histology, and blood-nerve barrier (BNB) are presented. The FINE electrode applies a small force to a nerve to reshape the nerve and fascicles into elongated ovals. This increa …
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased endoneurial fluid pressure in experimental lead neuropathy. AU - Low, Phillip A.. AU - Dyck, Peter James. PY - 1977/12/1. Y1 - 1977/12/1. N2 - THE endoneurial compartment of peripheral nerve is relatively inaccessible because of its small size and is maintained in a specialised environment by means of a perineurial barrier1, a blood-nerve barrier2 and a cerebrospinal fluid barrier. We have gained access to the endoneurial compartment of mammalian peripheral nerve by means of small polyethylene matrix (PEM) capsules and have recorded endoneurial fluid pressure (EFP) using an active servo null system3. The solid PEM capsules have pores of approximately 60 μm which facilitate entry of fluid into the interstices and connecting polyethylene tubing, but unlike hollow capsules4, are not invaded by connective tissue. We have used PEM capsules to make serial measurements of EFP in control and lead-fed rats and watched the pathological changes. We did this because of the ...
Peripheral nerves can get the same types of problems as other tissues, inflammation, toxicity, swelling, permeability, etc. However, there are some differences, due to their structural uniqueness. They exist as units of motor neurons with long axons that innervate muscle fibers. Individual nerve fibers contain the nerve axon along with its Schwann cells and protective myelin sheath coating (not all axons are myelinated). The fibers are grouped by the perineural sheath, a connective tissue wrapping containing both myelinated and unmyelinated axons. Regulation of the nerve microenvironment is accomplished by three barriers, the perineural barrier, the blood-nerve barrier, and the nerve-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. When these barriers are penetrated or otherwise dysfunctional, inflammatory cells can infiltrate, causing neuropathies with demyelination, inflammation, pain and atrophy.. Neuropathies include diabetic neuropathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome, post-herpetic neuralgia, and other forms of ...
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement ...
In this study we demonstrate that the placental drug-transporting P-gp can profoundly limit the passage of various potentially toxic or therapeutically beneficial P-gp substrate drugs into the fetus. We further show that this placental P-gp can be completely blocked by orally administered PSC833 or GG918, resulting in greatly increased transplacental passage of drugs into the fetus. Previously, Lankas et al. showed that the absence of Mdr1a P-gp in the placenta of naturally occurring Mdr1a mutant fetuses is associated with increased fetal accumulation and toxicity of the pesticide avermectin (13). Taken together, the data demonstrate that the mouse Mdr1a P-gp makes a major contribution to yet another biologically important protective barrier. The list now includes the blood-brain barrier, the blood-nerve barrier, the blood-testis barrier, the maternal-fetal barrier, and the intestinal barrier (10, 12, 13, 25-28). Thus, P-gp activity protects the central blood circulation and a range of tissue ...
The peripheral nerve disorder Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) accounts for the most common cause of acute acquired paralysis in the Western World. Circulating anti-ganglioside antibodies (Abs) are considered important mediators of this disease. Research conducted in a mouse model of GBS has the revealed the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) as a potential site of anti-ganglioside Ab-binding, due to this structure lying outside the blood-nerve barrier. The ganglioside composition of the neural and glial components of the NMJ determines which of these structures are bound and in the following subjected to complement-mediated injury. Some patients suffering from the acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) forms of GBS recovery very rapidly from paralysis; it has been proposed that in these patients the injury was restricted to the distal motor axons and nerve terminals (NTs), which are able to regenerate over a short time-frame. To test this hypothesis, the mouse model of GBS was combined with in and ex ...
An intercellular cleft is a channel between two cells through which molecules may travel and gap junctions and tight junctions may be present. Most notably, intercellular clefts are found between epithelial cells and the endothelium of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, also helping to form the blood-nerve barrier surrounding nerves. Intercellular clefts are important for allowing the transportation of fluids and small solute matter through the endothelium. The dimensions of intercellular clefts vary throughout the body, however cleft lengths have been determined for a series of capillaries. The average cleft length for capillaries is about 20m/cm2. The depths of the intercellular clefts, measured from the luminal to the abluminal openings, vary among different types of capillaries, but the average is about 0.7 μm. The width of the intercellular clefts is about 20 nm outside the junctional region (i.e. in the larger part of the clefts). In intercellular clefts of capillaries, it has been ...
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In article ,39C5BB9B.99F5EE0 at hotmail.com,, Ro ,lasro_ANTISPAM at hotmail.com, writes: , , Does anyone know where I can find a database of protein secondary ,structure on-line? Ideally, for each protein in the database I would ,find its amino-acid sequence and *known* (not predicted) secondary ,structure. , , Thanks in advance for any replies, , Ro , You could try: http://www.pasteur.fr/cgi-bin/biology/bnb_s.pl?bool=et&english=1&rsc=database&query=second&english=1 http://www.pasteur.fr/cgi-bin/biology/bnb_s.pl?bool=et&english=1&rsc=database&bio=structural+biology in the BioNetbook (http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/BNB/bnb-en.html). -- Catherine Letondal -- Pasteur Institute Computing Center ...
The famous Morse-Thue sequence has the no BBb property: it contains no block of the form b1b2...bnb1b2...bnb1. One hundred years ago Axel Thue showed that the friends of the Morse-Thue sequence, i.e. the members of the Morse Minimal Set, the closure of the orbit of the doubly infinite Morse-Thue sequence under the shift homeomorphism, are precisely the doubly infinite sequences on two symbols having the no BBb property. What if the sequence is wearing a disguise? Here wearing a disguise means that the names of the symbols have been changed using some unknown local rule, local as in cellular automata. How do you determine whether or not the undisguised sequence is a member of the Morse Minimal Set? I will tell you more than you want to know about the Morse-Thue sequence, answer the question above, and perhaps others about substitution minimal sets. This is joint work with Mike Keane (Wesleyan) and Michelle LeMasurier (Hamilton College ...
By: Rokia Hassanein / StreetSense/ Courtesy of INSP.ngo October 31, 2016 The mere idea of allowing refugees into the U.S. has been a polarizing topic around the country. But for some local good Samaritans, hosting refugees in their home is common sense.. Thats why social entrepreneur Amr Arafa founded EmergencyBnB last November. His twist on Airbnb aims to help vulnerable societal segments - such as refugees and domestic violence victims - to find temporary homes offered by their neighbors. Arafa currently hosts people in crisis in his D.C. apartment for free.. We started with refugees and domestic violence victims due to the exigent nature of their need, Arafa says. Statistically, 57 percent of homeless women report that domestic violence was the immediate cause of their homelessness. While governments take serious steps to address these issues, it is time that society considered more creative and even more efficient solutions.. Arafa gave the example that while the government can provide ...
most recent review of La Selvatica Bnb in Modena. Read reviews from 44 Hostelworld.com customers who stayed here over the last 12 months. 188% overall rating on Hostelworld.com. View Photos of La Selvatica Bnb and book B&B online with Hostelworld.com.
FOODPLACE RESTO 101: THE ULTIMATE BUFFET Sto Tomas, Batangas, PH (beside the main highway) may 23, 2014 *first of all I want to say this ...
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Toronto Dominion Bank raised its stake in Gilead Sciences, Inc. (NASDAQ:GILD) by 46.0% during the first quarter, according to its most recent 13F filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission. The firm owned 397,213 shares of the biopharmaceutical companys stock after buying an additional 125,225 shares during the period. Toronto Dominion Banks holdings in Gilead […]
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This study performed a partially observation and analysis on the alteration of FUS/TLS expression, redistribution and dislocation in the spinal cord of SOD1 wild-type and G93A transgenic mice in order to further investigate its mechanism in the pathogenesis of ALS. We found some evidences in the association between the alteration of FUS/TLS and the pathogenesis of ALS. Firstly, our results revealed that the FUS/TLS almost didnt expressed in the adult spinal cord in the SOD1 wild-type transgenic mice and the pre-onset stages of SOD1 G93A transgenic mice, only expressed in the adult spinal cord at the onset and progression stages of the SOD1 G93A transgenic mice, which suggested that the expressive increase of FUS/TLS at the onset and progression stages was one of the pathogenesis of ALS.. Secondly, our results showed that the expressive increase of FUS/TLS mainly occurred in the astrocyte cell, almost wasnt detected the expressive increase in the other neural cells including neuron and ...
Free Online Library: Cerebrospinal fluid secretory [Ca.sup.2+]-dependent phospholipase [A.sub.2] activity is increased in alzheimer disease.(Proteomics and Protein Markers) by Clinical Chemistry;
1BNB: Solution structure of bovine neutrophil beta-defensin-12: the peptide fold of the beta-defensins is identical to that of the classical defensins.
|p>Ludwigshafen, Germany - July 4, 2018 - BASF New Business GmbH (BNB) has acquired all the shares of Advanc3D Materials GmbH in Hamburg and Setup Performance SAS in Lyon. Advanc3D Materials offers advanced, tailor-made plastic powders and formulations for selective laser sintering (SLS) together with process knowhow. Setup Performance, which operates a production site in Lyon, is Advanc3D Materials most important partner in the development and manufacture of SLS materials. BNB is integrating both companies into its subsidiary BASF 3D Printing Solutions GmbH (B3DPS). The acquisition is an important step forward for BASF in its expansion in the field of 3D printing. |/p>
pagebanner,Bed and Breakfast Banner.jpg}} {{traveltopic}} See also the [[Travel accommodation]] article. A Bed and Breakfast (often abbreviated to B&B, B and B, BnB or BB) is an accommodation type that really just modernizes the age-old, world-wide practice of travellers staying at a private residence or boarding house, often with a full breakfast included. The host familys local knowledge is often a tremendous asset in ensuring a rewarding stay. Typically there are just a few rooms and personal contact is much greater than in a hotel or motel setting. Sometimes the B&B is a converted old stately residence with the owners family acting as staff. Bed and breakfast travelling has a loyal following as many find that they get a home away from home experience, often with better value than with hotel or motel stays. ==Amenities== In developed countries today, providing deluxe bed and breakfasts has been raised to a sort of art-form. At the top end, B&Bs obviously compete ...
All of these things sort of collided into one another and actually started making sense. At Jazz Fest, I stopped at a friends party and another friend was there explaining to a handful of people what feathers mean. Feathers are messages from the spirit world. Shes a Candomblé priestess. I listened to her story intently because Id been out at the Fairgrounds and was soaking wet, which gave me this otherworldly feeling as I sat in the living room wearing my friends dry clothes. Coincidentally, other friends from New York surprised me with a gift of feather earrings that were made believe it or not from recycled plastic water bottles. They had come in for the Fest as usual and were staying at an Air BnB run by an artist. Now, its not as if feathers havent enchanted me before now. At the late stages of grief over much loss in my life, I stumbled across three white feathers from an egret (I had guessed) that were on the bayou where I was walking and meditating. I brought them home where they ...
Imagine yourself lost in a dense forest, each tree unique yet the same. Now imagine every tree is a Portal 2 review. That forest is the internet and I have a chainsaw.. Is there any point writing about Portal 2 for Electron Dance? Practically everything that could be written about it already has. Theres an infinite number of monkeys out there, you know who you are. Both Brainy Gamer (shhhpoilers) and RPS revealed tinges of disappointment. Kirk Hamilton felt Valve loved him, loved him personally. Most sites rave about the brilliance of Portal 2.. My Alliance of Awesome neighbours have shared some opinions already. Armand at BnB thought it was excellent. Steerpike of Tap-Repeatedly got angry with the game, but then got angry with himself. Then we all got angry with Steerpike, simply because we love the hating.. Should I ask more social questions of the experience? What does Portal 2 mean in popular culture? Are people singing the new Portal 2 song as much as Still Alive? Do we have a ...
The infamous Bitcoin Obituaries has seen another addition to the long list of deaths since bitcoins oldest death on December 15, 2010. According to the list of articles with 382 deaths to-date, bitcoin was declared dead again on September 4, 2020.. Ever since Satoshi Nakamoto released the decentralized network, a number of people have doubted bitcoin and over the years some individuals have deemed the project dead.. Famous people, journalists, economists, luminaries, and many more have written long-winded essays on why the cryptocurrency is sure to fail. The website 99 Bitcoins maintains a list of Bitcoin Obituaries collected over the years and so far theres been 382 deaths in total.. This past weekend the crypto economy slid in value considerably, as a number of digital currencies lost between 15-35% during the last seven days. Out of the top ten coins in terms of market capitalization, binance coin (BNB) staved off the market rout by only losing 12% and bitcoin (BTC) lost a touch over ...
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
Research with human tissue and cells suggests that genetic variations, in addition to failure to comply with treatment regimens, may account for some failures of an anti-HIV drug to treat and prevent HIV infection.
Despite effective combination therapies that can suppress viral infection, there is an urgent need for the discovery of a new class of anti-HIV drugs...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydrophilic bile acids protect human blood-brain barrier endothelial cells from disruption by unconjugated bilirubin. T2 - An in vitro study. AU - Palmela, Inês. AU - Correia, Leonor. AU - Silva, Rui F M. AU - Sasaki, Hiroyuki. AU - Kim, Kwang Sik. AU - Brites, Dora. AU - Brito, Maria A.. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Ursodeoxycholic acid and its main conjugate glycoursodeoxycholic acid are bile acids with neuroprotective properties. Our previous studies demonstrated their anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in neural cells exposed to elevated levels of unconjugated bilirubin as in severe jaundice. In a simplified model of the blood-brain barrier, formed by confluent monolayers of a cell line of human brain microvascular endothelial cells, unconjugated bilirubin has shown to induce caspase-3 activation and cell death, as well as interleukin-6 release and a loss of blood-brain barrier integrity. Here we tested the preventive and restorative effects of these ...
An intact blood-brain barrier (BBB) serves as a key interface between the blood circulation and the central nervous system (CNS). The primary anatomical component of the BBB is provided by brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) (1, 2) that work in concert with supporting cells, such as astrocytes, pericytes, and neurons, to form the neurovascular unit (1, 3, 4). BMECs are connected by tight junctions and display low levels of vesicular traffic, leading to extremely low vascular permeability. BMECs also express molecular influx and efflux transporters, which regulate the delivery of nutrients from the blood to the brain and removal of compounds from the brain, respectively. A functional BBB prevents most of the small-molecule drugs and nearly all large-molecule biologics from entering the brain (5). Thus, the BBB is a highly efficient barrier that protects the brain and limits CNS drug delivery (6). Moreover, BBB dysfunction has been associated with many CNS disorders, including stroke ...
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This study demonstrates that anti-ganglioside Abs, including experimental mAbs and GBS patient serum, induce sequential nodal and/or axonal injury in a new passive transfer mouse model that recapitulates the salient pathologic features found in axonal GBS (Griffin et al., 1996b). We found that the breakdown of BNB induced by L5SNT was essential for Ab-mediated nerve injury. Furthermore, this anti-ganglioside Abs-mediated neuropathy (injury to intact nerve fibers) depends on activating FcγRs bearing macrophages/microglia-mediated inflammation triggered by ICs formed by anti-ganglioside Abs and their target antigens on the nerves. Notably, we found that the terminal complement complex was not involved in the anti-ganglioside Abs-mediated axonal degeneration in this animal model. Overall, our study supports the notion that cellular elements of innate immunity are required for Ab-mediated nerve injury and involved in the pathogenesis of GBS. The identification of activating FcγRs in ...
The city of Berlin has a dire housing shortage caused by an influx of new residents over the last decade, only modest new housing construction, a disproportionate number of units devoted to short-term rental schemes like Air BNB, and rising rents that make the city increasingly unaffordable for many constituencies. Students were asked to address the housing shortage firstly by identifying a client for their design from the many groups that find it difficult to afford the city today.
This group existed from the early 60s to the late 70s or early 80s (according to Norm). The alumni get together about each year for a reunion hike and have been since about 1986. The 2006 trip may be in the Cascades; some Oregon BnB folks expressed an interest in such a trip and Id love to go if somebody else plans it ...
Jin has added a hacking phlegm filled cough to his tonsillitis. Poor little fucker. Hes on the couch with food and juice, out for the count.. Today is my only proper day off this week and next. Im going to spend it getting myself ready for the week, catching up on eMail backlog that Ive been ignoring since Tuesday and getting the blog and Trivia Q&A started for next week. Trivia first.. So Jin and I booked Anna-Maria, Scott and my Paris adventure Korean Air Tickets today. Also found five choices for Air BnB places to stay, now they get to choose which one they like best. Its getting VERY fricken real right now. YAY! We are off to Paris in APRIL!. 7.30pm and Im feeling sweaty and unglamorous. The day has been wasted looking for Paris shit and Ive hardly done a thing for REAL work. GRRR! Going to have a quick, cool bath and come back to the desk refreshed.. Nope, had dinner, walked dogs. Its now 11pm and Im about to start Trivia Q&A. What a wasted day.. It was nice to hang with sick old ...
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Synonyms for blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. 1 word related to blood-brain barrier: barrier. What are synonyms for blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier?
Gap junctions (GJs) are expressed in most cell types of the nervous system, including neuronal stem cells, neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, cells of the blood brain barrier (endothelial cells and astrocytes) and under inflammatory conditions in microglia/macrophages. GJs connect cells by the docking of two hemichannels, one from each cell with each hemichannel being formed by 6 proteins named connexins (Cx). Unapposed hemichannels (uHC) also can be open on the surface of the cells allowing the release of different intracellular factors to the extracellular space. GJs provide a mechanism of cell-to-cell communication between adjacent cells that enables the direct exchange of intracellular messengers, such as calcium, nucleotides, IP(3), and diverse metabolites, as well as electrical signals that ultimately coordinate tissue homeostasis, proliferation, differentiation, metabolism, cell survival and death. Despite their essential functions in physiological conditions, relatively little is ...
Prerequisite: Must be advanced to candidacy (G5). Major portion of research will take place outside of the United States and/or U.S. provinces. Domestic students have the option of the health plan and may also enroll in MEDEX. International students who are in their home country are not covered by mandatory health plan and must contact the Insurance Office for the insurance charge to be removed. International students who are not in their home country are charged for the mandatory health insurance. If they are to be covered by another insurance plan they must file a waiver be second week of classes. The charge will only be removed if other plan is deemed comparable.. All international students must received clearance from an International Advisor. Spring, 1-9 credits, S/U grading May be repeated for credit. ...
Explore the research topics touched on by this project. These labels are generated based on the underlying awards/grants. Together they form a unique fingerprint ...
hasnt fallen to undetectable levels within three to six months of starting HIV treatment, then your doctor will talk to you about your current treatment. They may ask some detailed questions about how and when you take your anti-HIV drugs and whether you have taken any other drugs - including prescription, over-the-counter, herbal or recreational drugs --- at the same time. This is because not taking treatment regularly, or interactions with other drugs, can cause the levels of anti-HIV drugs in your body to be too low to work. You may have a blood test to look at the level of anti-HIV drugs in your blood and to see if your HIV has developed resistance ...
During the main study, participants will receive aldesleukin under the skin twice daily for 5 consecutive days every 8 weeks for 3 cycles, then as needed to maintain CD4 counts at or above a goal level; in addition, this group will also take HAART for 3 days prior to the start of each aldesleukin cycle, throughout the 5-day aldesleukin cycle, and for 2 days after the end of each aldesleukin cycle (for a maximum of 10 days with each aldesleukin cycle). Patients did not receive aldesleukin during the extension phase ...
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details ...
It does not cross the blood-brain barrier.[citation needed] In the case of the pufferfish host, at least (see below), their ... It is a potent neurotoxin that shuts down electrical signaling in nerves; it acts via interaction with components of the sodium ...
An important property of neurotoxins is that they are not usually able to cross the blood-brain barrier. Instead of this, they ... At first, the venom will cause weakness as a consequence of the nerve transmission blocking. The first real symptoms of ... The reason for this is that the ocular muscles are more susceptible, in comparison with other muscles, for the nerve ... block the nerve transmission in the body. α-Cobratoxin is a post-synaptic neurotoxin, which reversibly blocks the nicotinic ...
... nerves and blood vessels) may also be termed compartments. Generally, the spread of infection is determined by barriers such as ... Other contents such as salivary glands, blood vessels, nerves and lymph nodes are dependent upon the location of the space. ... Each masticator space also contains the sections of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve and the internal maxillary ...
Some speculate that SGCs in the autonomic ganglia have a similar role to the blood-brain barrier as a functional barrier to ... Allen DT; Kiernan JA (April 1994). "Permeation of proteins from the blood into peripheral nerves and ganglia". Neuroscience. 59 ... Ten Tusscher MP; Klooster J; Vrensen GF (June 1989). "Satellite cells as blood-ganglion cell barrier in autonomic ganglia". ... First, after a period of nerve cell injury, SGCs are known to up-regulate GFAP and to undergo cell division. They have the ...
All capillaries in the central nervous system with a functional blood-brain barrier express glucose transporters (GLUT1). These ... The name of the SCO comes from its location beneath the posterior commissure, a bundle of nerve fibers interconnecting parts of ... Hypendymal cells and ependymal cells both are secretory in nature; their processes project to local blood vessels and also to ... The circumventricular organs that are known to have leaky barrier capillaries were stained by fibronectin antibodies but not by ...
... the blood-brain barrier permeability increases. A neuropathy due to peripheral nerve lesion, without visible external burns, ... Four years later, denervation of median nerve, ulnar nerve, and radial nerve in both arms was shown on an electromyography test ... Electromyography discovered denervation in the median nerve, ulnar nerve, and radial nerve on both arms. Severe reduction of ... nerves, and blood vessels may be significantly damaged. Sensory nerves are particularly sensitive to such damage; cases of ...
... the pineal gland is not isolated from the body by the blood-brain barrier system; it has profuse blood flow, second only to the ... Nerve fibers then relay the daylight information from the SCN to the paraventricular nuclei (PVN), then to the spinal cord and ... Further, some nerve fibers penetrate into the pineal gland via the pineal stalk (central innervation). Also, neurons in the ... Light sensitive nerve cells in the retina detect light and send this signal to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), synchronizing ...
The CNS is usually protected by the blood-brain barrier, but holes in the cribriform plate let bacteria get through the barrier ... An ethmoid fracture can also sever the olfactory nerve. This injury results in anosmia (loss of smell). A reduction in the ... The blood-brain barrier makes it extremely difficult to treat such infections, because only certain drugs can cross into the ...
... and Dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve. Nesfatin-1 can cross the blood-brain barrier without saturation. The receptors within the ... Pan, Weihong; Hsuchou, Hung; Kastin, Abba J. (2007). "Nesfatin-1 crosses the blood-brain barrier without saturation". Peptides ...
Due to its lipophilic nature and small molecular size, lomerizine is able to cross the blood brain barrier. For delivery in ... By blocking these channels and preventing Ca2+ release, lomerizine increases circulation in the optic nerve head. These effects ... especially for treatment of the optic nerve, is oral. In a clinical study, long-term lomerizine usage was shown to be both safe ... "Limited restoration of visual function after partial optic nerve injury; a time course study using the calcium channel blocker ...
The toxicity of carfentanil has been compared to that of nerve gas. A lipophilic chemical that can easily cross the blood-brain ... barrier, carfentanil has a very rapid onset of action but is shorter acting than fentanyl. For pain relief, a unit of ...
... and reduces the number of inflammatory cells that cross the blood brain barrier. Overall, therapy with interferon beta leads to ... Moreover, it is also thought to increase the production of nerve growth factor and consequently improve neuronal survival. In ... Interferon-beta can also reduce numbers of white blood cells (leukopenia), lymphocytes (lymphopenia) and neutrophils ( ... Nevertheless, recommendation is that all patients should be monitored through laboratory blood analyses, including liver ...
... also helping to form the blood-nerve barrier surrounding nerves. Intercellular clefts are important for allowing the ... Intercellular clefts also play a role in the formation of the blood-heart barrier (BHB). The intercellular cleft between ... The organization of the endocardial endothelium and the intercellular cleft help to establish the blood-heart barrier by ... Blood plasma without the plasma proteins, red blood cells, and platelets pass through the intercellular cleft and into the ...
As the infection progresses, the virus crosses the blood-brain barrier and spreads to the brain parenchyma leading to severe ... These findings confirmed the neurotropism of this virus, which means that this virus is capable of infecting nerve cells. ... that the invasion of the central nervous system by the oropouche virus can be performed by a previous blood-brain barrier ... OROV was first described in Trinidad in 1955 when the prototype strain was isolated from the blood of a febrile human patient ...
They also remove excess choline from the neurons back to blood. CTL1s occur only on the blood side of the barrier, but also on ... nerve fibers. Choline is also in demand for the production of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which can influence the ... but transport choline together via the blood-brain barrier. Only CTL2s occur on the brain side of the barrier. ... Choline uptake into the brain is controlled by a low-affinity transporter located at the blood-brain barrier. Transport occurs ...
The meninges provide a barrier to chemicals dissolved in the blood, protecting the brain from most neurotoxins commonly found ... These 12 nerves exist in the head and neck region and are called cranial nerves. Cranial nerves bring information to the CNS to ... In vertebrates the CNS also includes the retina and the optic nerve (cranial nerve II), as well as the olfactory nerves and ... Two pairs of cranial nerves; the olfactory nerves and the optic nerves are often considered structures of the CNS. This is ...
... in 1983 which outlined mechanisms by which cytokines produced following infection could cross the blood-brain barrier, and ... which "launched a new concept of immune to brain signaling". In a 1996 paper, he proposed a role for the vagus nerve in fever ... reporting that it related to circulation of cooled blood rather than a nervous response. From 1961 to 1962 he was a National ...
... bilateral symmetry bile duct biology bipolar cells of the retina bitemporal heminopia blastomere blood blood brain barrier body ... cranial cranial autonomic ganglia cranial bone cranial nerve ganglia cranial nerve lesion cranial nerve nuclei cranial nerves ... abducens nerve abducens nucleus abducent abducent nerve abduction accessory bone accessory cuneate nucleus accessory nerve ... palatine canal greater palatine foramen greater palatine nerve greater petrosal nerve greater superficial petrosal nerve ...
The transfer of drugs to the brain from the blood circulation is normally hindered by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which is ... The nerve cells of the olfactory epithelium project into the olfactory bulb of the brain, which provides a direct connection ... The olfactory transfer of drugs into the brain is thought to occur by either slow transport inside the olfactory nerve cells to ... However, if drug substances can be transferred along the olfactory nerve cells, they can bypass the BBB and enter the brain ...
One obstacle for drug delivery to the brain is the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The small size of nanomaterials, however, allows ... Scaffolds using a silk fibroin peptide (SF16) have also shown promise in nerve repair due to silk's biologically compatibility ... The main barrier to recovery from a SCI arises from the absence of tissue regeneration ability, specifically in damage to a ... Whereas previous research has attempted to graft nerve tissue to the optic tract and resulted in complications (leg ...
... traverses the blood-brain barrier and exhibits anticonvulsive effects, Dominique Kavvadias et al, British Journal of ... Hispidulin inhibits the release of glutamate in rat cerebrocortical nerve terminals. Lin TY1, Lu CW, Wang CC, Lu JF, Wang SJ. ...
... the trafficking of substances from blood and brain and that signalling molecules in the blood contribute to vascular barrier ... and communication pathways between nerve networks and blood vessels needed to control brain energy supply in health and disease ... Lauritzen studies the mechanism of brain blood vessels, and the regulation of the cerebral circulation and the blood-brain ... and extravascular compartment to the blood-brain barrier. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018;115(40):E9429-E38. Mathiesen Janiurek ...
... the authors clung to the idea that the material was intricately connected to the blood-brain barrier and failed to see the ... material surrounding nerve cells. This PAS-positive material was suspected of being composed of negatively charged substances, ... PNNs compartmentalize the neuronal surface and act as lateral diffusion barriers for AMPARs, limiting synaptic exchange. This ...
There are several proposed mechanism for TBEV breaching the blood-brain barrier (BBB): 1)The "Trojan Horse" mechanism, whereby ... Via retrograde transport along peripheral nerves to the CNS; 5) Infection of the cells that make up part of the BBB. CNS ... TBEV in the blood of the host infects the tick through the midgut, from where it can pass to the salivary glands to be passed ... Infection of the vector begins when a tick takes a blood meal from an infected host. This can occur at any part of the tick's ...
However, given that NK1Rs are unprotected by a blood brain barrier in the area postrema just adjacent to neuronal structures in ... Substance P is released from the terminals of specific sensory nerves. It is found in the brain and spinal cord and is ... Blood. 92 (9): 3148-51. doi:10.1182/blood.V92.9.3148. PMID 9787150. Mantyh CR, Gates TS, Zimmerman RP, Welton ML, Passaro EP, ... Substance P and other sensory neuropeptides can be released from the peripheral terminals of sensory nerve fibers in the skin, ...
... primarily along the olfactory nerve crossing the brain blood barrier to the olfactory lobe in the brain, where dense ... ISBN 978-0-07-148127-4. Oxytocin can be delivered to humans via nasal spray following which it crosses the blood-brain barrier ... after which it reliably crosses the blood-brain barrier and exhibits psychoactive effects in humans. No serious adverse effects ... These maternal events have been reported: Subarachnoid hemorrhage Increased blood pressure Cardiac arrhythmia including ...
Active transport of cytokines in the blood to bypass the Blood Brain Barrier. Activation of endothelial cells lining the ... Cytokines binding receptors on peripheral afferent nerves which then conduct a message to the central nervous system in ... "File:Blood-brain barrier transport en.png", Wikipedia, retrieved 2020-11-17 Mathews, Herbert L.; Janusek, Linda Witek (2011-01- ... Passing through more leaky areas of the blood brain barrier, near the circumventricular organs. ...
He also demonstrated that the OP antiChe's damage the blood-brain barrier. These studies contributed to the understanding of ... In the 1940s Karczmar proposed the existence of a nerve growth factor on the basis of his demonstration of the quantitative ... The role of amputation and nerve resection in the regressing limbs of urodele larvae. J. Exper. Zool. 11013: 401-426. Karczmar ...
At this time, the Florey Group led by McKinley showed the site of Verney's osmoreceptor was outside the blood-brain-barrier in ... 9th and 10th cranial nerves as a chronological sequence contriving gratification. Neuroimaging has shown also a novel mechanism ... Initially, mean blood pressure of both groups was characteristic of agricultural society (circa 120/50 mm of Hg) but with the ... In effect, the parotid fistula (1-4l/day) represented a tap on the blood stream letting out sodium. Many animal preparations ...
Banks, W. A.; Kastin, A. J.; Gutierrez, E. G. (1994). "Penetration of interleukin-6 across the murine blood-brain barrier". ... "Interleukin-1beta in immune cells of the abdominal vagus nerve: A link between the immune and nervous systems?". The Journal of ... However, in the 1960s, it was shown that animals produced a blood-carried factor X that acted upon the brain to cause sickness ... In the 1980s, the blood-borne factor was shown to be proinflammatory cytokines produced by activated leukocytes in the immune ...
A 2015 study of users in the United States also found elevated blood lead levels in 40 percent of those tested. Other concerns ... Spinal manipulation aims to treat "vertebral subluxations" which are claimed to put pressure on nerves. Chiropractic was ... "Patient Perspectives: Barriers to Complementary and Alternative Medicine Therapies Create Problems for Patients and Survivors" ...
... given that NK1Rs are unprotected by a blood brain barrier in the area postrema just adjacent to neuronal structures in the ... with an amidation at the C-terminus.[4] Substance P is released from the terminals of specific sensory nerves. It is found in ... "Blood chemicals link' to eczema". Health. BBC NEWS. 2007-08-26. Retrieved 2008-11-01.. ... When the innervation to substance P nerve terminals is lost, post-synaptic cells compensate for the loss of adequate ...
Neurological (consciousness, awareness, brain, vision, cranial nerves, spinal cord and peripheral nerves) ... After examination for signs and interviewing for symptoms, the doctor may order medical tests (e.g. blood tests), take a biopsy ... may place barriers on accessing expensive services.[14] ... Vital signs including height, weight, body temperature, blood ... "Chairman's Reflections: Traditional Medicine Among Gulf Arabs, Part II: Blood-letting". Heart Views. 5 (2): 74-85 [80]. 2004. ...
Talk:Blood-brain barrier. *Talk:Body hair. *Talk:Body of femur. *Talk:Body of humerus ... Talk:Accessory obturator nerve. *Talk:Accessory spleen. *Talk:Accessory visual structures. *Talk:Accompanying artery of ...
"Physiologists divide nerve-fibers, which form the nerves, into two classes, afferent and efferent. Impressions are made on the ... A significant and continuing barrier to scientific progress within chiropractic are the anti-scientific and pseudo-scientific ... high blood pressure, and vision conditions.[123] Other reviews have found no evidence of significant benefit for asthma,[124][ ... Thus, nerves carry impulses outward and sensations inward. The activity of these nerves, or rather their fibers, may become ...
Most of the brain is separated from the blood by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which exerts a restrictive control as to which ... Optic nerve sheath meningioma, Pediatric ependymoma, Pilocytic astrocytoma, Pinealoblastoma, Pineocytoma, Pleomorphic ... The cells in the blood vessel walls are joined tightly, forming the blood-brain barrier which protects the brain from toxins ... Chemotherapy: is a treatment option for cancer, however, it is not always used to treat brain tumors as the blood-brain barrier ...
Blood * sw:Blood. Blues * sw:Blues. Bogotá * sw:Bogotá. Book * sw:Book. Botany * sw:Botany. Brahmagupta * sw:Brahmagupta. Brain ... Nerve * sw:Nerve. Nervous system * sw:Nervous system. Netherlands * sw:Netherlands. New York City * sw:New York City. New ... Great Barrier Reef * sw:Great Barrier Reef. Great Depression * sw:Great Depression. Great Lakes * sw:Great Lakes. Great Wall of ...
... are released into the peripheral circulation system and can pass through the blood brain barrier where they can interact with ... CRH and vasopressin are released from neurosecretory nerve terminals at the median eminence. CRH is transported to the anterior ... ACTH is transported by the blood to the adrenal cortex of the adrenal gland, where it rapidly stimulates biosynthesis of ... Release of CRH from the hypothalamus is influenced by stress, physical activity, illness, by blood levels of cortisol and by ...
Injuries and cataracts affect the eye itself, while abnormalities such as optic nerve hypoplasia affect the nerve bundle that ... Sack RL, Lewy AJ, Blood ML, Keith LD, Nakagawa H (July 1992). "Circadian rhythm abnormalities in totally blind people: ... However, many people are uncomfortable with communicating with the blind, and this can cause communication barriers. One of the ... which a measurement of blood glucose or sugar level.[43] In fact, as A1C increases, people tend to be at greater risk of ...
This demonstrated that the blood-brain barrier was broken by cerebral blood vessels, thus interfering with white matter ... Cranial nerve palsies occur in some unusual cases.[6] ... the penetration of the blood-brain barrier by fluids.[15] This ... It appears to be a vasogenic edema (fluid penetration of the blood-brain barrier), although cytotoxic edema (cellular retention ... Patients with HACE have an elevated white blood cell count, but otherwise their blood count and biochemistry are normal. If a ...
Assists in functionality of muscle construction and nerve impulses - Calcium regulates the transmutation of nerve impulses for ... Acts as a barrier to bacteria and infection - Vitamin A assists in the maintenance and promotion of healthy growth of skin and ... Strong impulses allow for fast recognition of stimulus and allow for muscle contraction (Deen & Hark 2007). Helps with blood ... Work cooperatively with each other to form haemoglobin for the transport of oxygen on red blood cells (Deen & Hark, 2007) ...
"for his discovery of human blood groups"[۴۲] ۱۹۳۱ اتو واربورگ[۱] آلمان "for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of ... "for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"[۴۴] ۱۹۴۴ جوزف ارلنگر[۱] United States "for their ... "for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena ... "for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release ...
... warning blood banks not to accept blood from people taking the drug, and adding a warning to the label advising women to start ... Barrier methods by themselves (e.g., condoms) are not considered adequate due to the unacceptable failure rates of ... It is also used for treatment of neuroblastoma, a form of nerve cancer. ... After an orally-administered, 80 mg dose of liquid suspension 14C-isotretinoin, 14C-activity in blood declines with a half-life ...
Swelling, bruising or bleeding at the generator site, especially if the patient is taking blood thinners.[24] ... and there continue to be legal and regulatory barriers to widespread adoption of medical device reuse.[61] ... the pacemaker and causes the leads to be removed from their intended location and causes possible stimulation of other nerves. ... Insert a new set of leads without removing the current leads (not recommended as it provides additional obstruction to blood ...
Nerve fibers are the result of cell processes and the outgrowths of nerve cells. (Several axons are bound together to form one ... Haemodynamic response the rapid delivery of blood to active neuronal tissues. Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent signal (BOLD), ... A barrier to transmission exists at the site of contact between two neurons that may permit transmission. (Synapse) ... Several nerve fibrils then form one large nerve fiber. Myelin, an electrical insulator, forms around selected axons. ...
... not to be confused with a second-line physical or chemical barrier, such as the blood-brain barrier, which protects the ... Action potentials transmitted via the vagus nerve to spleen mediate the release of acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter that ... Anatomical barriers include physical, chemical and biological barriers. The epithelial surfaces form a physical barrier that is ... A scanning electron microscope image of normal circulating human blood. One can see red blood cells, several knobby white blood ...
... also suggesting the distribution of these receptors may drive AEA directional transport through the blood-brain barrier and ... dependent modulation of type 1 cannabinoid receptors in nerve cells". Journal of Neuroscience Research. 81 (2): 275-283. doi: ... "Regulation by cannabinoid receptors of anandamide transport across the blood-brain barrier and through other endothelial cells" ... Bojesen, Inge N.; Hansen, Harald S. (2005). "Membrane transport of anandamide through resealed human red blood cell membranes ...
"Gelatinase B modulates selective opening of the blood-brain barrier during inflammation". Department of Neurology, University ... "Peripheral nerve regeneration". Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Eastern Virginia Medical School; Liuzzi FJ, Tedeschi B ... "Effects of matrix metalloproteinase-9 gene knock-out on the proteolysis of blood-brain barrier and white matter components ... "Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced gelatinase B causes delayed opening of the blood-brain barrier: an expanded therapeutic ...
While it is an inhibitory neurotransmitter, its ability to cross the blood brain barrier is limited. There is a lot of ... Proper myelination is critical for carrying electrical signals, or data, from one nerve cell to the next. When myelin becomes ... thus explaining why accumulation of extra blood or fluid would appear bright on a T2 image. Another explanation for signal ...
Rh blood type incompatibility can cause the mother's immune system to attack the baby's red blood cells.[1] ... These may be environmental barriers to participation such as architectural barriers, lack of relevant assistive technology and ... "Bell's Palsy (Facial Nerve Problems): Symptoms, Treatment & Contagious".. *^ "Cerebral Palsy: a Guide for Care". Archived from ... Barriers can exist on three levels: micro, meso and macro.[127] First, the barriers at the micro level involve the person.[127] ...
... the inferior alveolar nerve. The mylohyoid nerve is a branch of the inferior alveolar nerve. The mylohyoid nerve emerges to ... An area of herniation of the sublingual gland, blood vessels, or fat, may be present, with studies reporting this in 10-50% of ... or alternatively penetrate the mylohyoid which is a poor barrier to the spread of infection. Because the attachment of ... Nerve. Mylohyoid nerve, from inferior alveolar branch of mandibular nerve. Actions. Raises oral cavity floor, elevates hyoid, ...
... however it also houses blood vessels and nerves within loose connective tissue.[6] Mechanical loads that are placed on the ... The junctional epithelium provides a specialised protective barrier to microorganisms residing around the gingival sulcus.[4] ... Therefore, red blood cells have a pivotal role in maintaining the health of the periodontium, meaning haematological disorders ... Nutrition is provided from dietary consumption of the host for supra-gingival biofilm organisms and from blood and GCF for the ...
... blood-brain barrier) என்னும் அமைப்பின் மூலம் இரத்த மண்டத்திலிருந்தும், இரத்தம் மூலம் பரவும் நோய்களில் இருந்தும் தீங்குறாமல் ... Marner L, Nyengaard JR, Tang Y, Pakkenberg B. (2003Marked loss of myelinated nerve fibers in the human brain with age. J Comp ...
Rapidly hydrolysed to 6-acetylmorphine and then to morphine after crossing the blood-brain barrier which in turn activates the ... differ from neurotoxic amphetamine derivatives in their mode of action at 5-HT nerve endings in vitro". Journal of ... Higher potential for abuse compared to other opioids due to its rapid penetration of the blood-brain barrier. ... Blood thinning; mild-to-moderate pain; fever; rheumatic fever; migraine; rheumatoid arthritis; Kawasaki's disease. GI bleeds; ...
Tight junctions that form the blood retinal barrier separate the subretinal space from the blood supply, thus protecting it ... The optic nerve carries the ganglion cell axons to the brain, and the blood vessels that supply the retina. The ganglion cells ... Blood supply[edit]. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn ... Nerve fiber layer (NFL) Ganglion cell axons travelling towards the optic nerve ...
Minegar, Alireza (2003). "Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption in Multiple Sclerosis". Multiple Sclerosis Journal. Sage Journals. 9 ( ... can also result in nerve demyelination.[2] Chronic neuroleptic exposure may cause demyelination.[3] Vitamin B12 deficiency may ... because the demyelinating inflammation can affect the optic nerve or spinal cord. Many are idiopathic. Both myelinoclastic and ... This damage impairs the conduction of signals in the affected nerves. In turn, the reduction in conduction ability causes ...
Dopamine does not cross the blood-brain barrier, so it cannot be taken as a medicine to boost the brain's depleted levels of ... Muscles and nerves that control the digestive process may be affected by PD, resulting in constipation and gastroparesis (food ... Only 5-10% of levodopa crosses the blood-brain barrier. Much of the remainder is metabolized to dopamine elsewhere in the body ... Levodopa and proteins use the same transportation system in the intestine and the blood-brain barrier, thereby competing for ...
In addition, five major nerves run from the nerve ring down the length of the body beneath each of the ambulacral areas.[10] ... Indeed, the blood itself is essentially identical with the coelomic fluid that bathes the organs directly, and also fills the ... Overfishing of sea cucumbers in the Great Barrier Reef is threatening their population.[51] Their popularity as luxury seafood ... A descriptive passage in American novelist and MacArthur Fellow Cormac McCarthy's 1985 anti-Western Blood Meridian likens ...
It does not readily cross the blood-brain barrier of mammals due to the presence of P-glycoprotein,[51] (the MDR1 gene mutation ... The drug binds to glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) in the membranes of invertebrate nerve and muscle cells, causing ... the risk of increased absorption past the blood-brain barrier exists when ivermectin is administered along with other CYP3A4 ... ivermectin can cross the blood-brain barrier in tortoises, often with fatal consequences. ...
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... all the nerves outside of the central nervous system -- are protected by the blood-nerve barrier. This is a tight covering of ... or electric cables within the nerves, from the blood circulation system. ... endothelial cells that maintains the microenvironment within the nerves by restricting the amounts or types of water, ions, ... Human peripheral nerves -- all the nerves outside of the central nervous system -- are protected by the blood-nerve barrier. ...
This barrier -- a tight covering of endothelial cells -- maintains the microenvironment of peripheral nerves. Knowledge of the ... transcriptome will aid research in peripheral nerve disease. ... the normal human transcriptome of the blood-nerve barrier. ... Human peripheral nerves -- all the nerves outside of the central nervous system -- are protected by the blood-nerve barrier. ... A blueprint for future blood-nerve barrier and peripheral nerve disease research Researchers have detailed, for the first time ...
... blood nerve barrier include A Simple Approach to Induce Experimental Autoimmune Neuritis in C57BL/6 Mice for Functional and ... Blood-Nerve Barrier: The barrier between the perineurium of Peripheral nerves and the endothelium (Endothelium, Vascular) of ... The perineurium acts as a diffusion barrier, but ion permeability at the blood-nerve barrier is still higher than at the Blood- ... brain barrier. A Simple Approach to Induce Experimental Autoimmune Neuritis in C57BL/6 Mice for Functional and ...
... blood-nerve barrier explanation free. What is blood-nerve barrier? Meaning of blood-nerve barrier medical term. What does blood ... Looking for online definition of blood-nerve barrier in the Medical Dictionary? ... Related to blood-nerve barrier: Blood brain barrier. blood-nerve barrier. A physiological barrier between nerves and ... medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/blood-nerve+barrier,blood-nerve barrier,/a,. *Facebook ...
Eroboghene Ubogu, M.D.Human peripheral nerves - all the nerves outside of the central nervous system - are protect... ... the normal human transcriptome of the blood-nerve barrier. ... A blueprint for future blood-nerve barrier and peripheral nerve ... the normal human transcriptome of the blood-nerve barrier. Eroboghene Ubogu, M.D.Human peripheral nerves - all the nerves ... The UAB team isolated RNA transcripts from the blood-nerve barrier forming microvessels directly from the frozen sural nerve ...
What is blood-nerve barrier? Meaning of blood-nerve barrier as a finance term. What does blood-nerve barrier mean in finance? ... Definition of blood-nerve barrier in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Blood-nerve barrier financial definition of blood-nerve barrier https://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/blood-nerve+ ... Barrier. (redirected from blood-nerve barrier). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Encyclopedia.. Related to ...
... all the nerves outside of the central nervous system - are protected by the blood-nerve barrier. This... ... A blueprint for future blood-nerve barrier and peripheral nerve disease research Written by Jeff Hansen ... all the nerves outside of the central nervous system - are protected by the blood-nerve barrier. This is a tight covering of ... The UAB team isolated RNA transcripts from the blood-nerve barrier forming microvessels directly from the frozen sural nerve ...
The blood-nerve barrier (BNB) is a dynamic and competent interface between the endoneurial microenvironment and the surrounding ... Biology of the blood-nerve barrier and its alteration in immune mediated neuropathies ... Biology of the blood-nerve barrier and its alteration in immune mediated neuropathies ... However, compared with the blood-brain barrier, only limited knowledge has been accumulated regarding the function, cell ...
It is much much in transport mechanisms of tryptophan in blood cells nerve cells and at the blood brain barrier that we can ... 93; but as the transport mechanisms of tryptophan in blood cells nerve cells and at the blood brain barrier of height criteria ... One should also beautifully a transport mechanisms of tryptophan in blood cells nerve cells and at the blood brain barrier ... 93; Further, his transport mechanisms of tryptophan in blood cells nerve cells and at the blood brain barrier proceedings and ...
Home , Papers , Modeling leukocyte trafficking at the human blood-nerve barrier in vitro and in vivo geared towards targeted ... Modeling leukocyte trafficking at the human blood-nerve barrier in vitro and in vivo geared towards targeted molecular ... Modeling leukocyte trafficking at the human blood-nerve barrier in vitro and in vivo geared towards targeted molecular ...
One treatment for epilepsy is to wear vagal nerve stimulators which send light electronic pulses to the nerve, akin to a ... A similarly dynamic barrier lies between the brain and the rest of the body: the blood-brain barrier. Since the brain is the ... Why the Blood-Brain Barrier Is So Critical (and How to Maintain It) Posted By Mark Sisson. On November 1, 2016 @ 8:02 am In ... Think of the blood-brain barrier like the cordon of guards keeping the drunken rabble from spilling over into the VIP room in a ...
Endogenous Antibodies Promote Rapid Myelin Clearance and Effective Axon Regeneration after Nerve Injury - Proceedings of the ... Tagged: blood-brain barrier. Infectious Emotions?. March 18th, 2011 in Uncategorized 2 comments ... Tagged Avastin, BBB, blood-brain barrier, cancer, glia, glioblastoma, mannitol, neurosurgery, surgery, Ted Kennedy, tumor ... The well known blood-brain barrier concurs with this separation in responses, as it is understood to be impermeable to large ...
12/10/2018 Brain and Nerves Computers can spot the difference between healthy brains and the brains of people with ... The blood-brain barrier is the layer of cells that line the blood vessels of the brain. The inner cell layer that lines vessels ... The researchers hope to conduct further studies of how FGPs interact with blood vessels and the blood-brain barrier. The ... Within the blood vessels of the brain, endothelial cells and other adjacent cells form a tight barrier that helps to prevent ...
12/10/2018 Brain and Nerves Computers can spot the difference between healthy brains and the brains of people with ... To open the blood-brain barrier, the magnetic nanoparticles are sent to the surface of the blood-brain barrier at a desired ... of therapeutic molecules are also unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. "The barrier is temporary opened at a desired ... This barrier runs inside almost all vessels in the brain and protects it from elements circulating in the blood that may be ...
Modeling leukocyte trafficking at the blood-nerve barrier using a reliable human in vitro model and potential intravital ... there are currently no specific therapies that modulate pathogenic peripheral nerve inflammation. ... Peripheral neuroinflammation is characterized by hematogenous mononuclear leukocyte infiltration into peripheral nerves. ... Orte C, Lawrenson J, Finn T, Reid A, Allt G. A comparison of blood-brain barrier and blood-nerve barrier endothelial cell ...
Cerebral tissues possess highly selective and dynamic protection known as blood brain barrier (BBB) that regulates brain ... Brain Nerve. 2009;61(9):1003-12.PubMedGoogle Scholar. *. 72.. Anderson JL. Development and evaluation of anisoylated ... Rapid transferrin efflux from brain to blood across the blood-brain barrier. J Neurochem. 2001;76:1597-600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Measurement of blood-brain and blood-tumor barrier permeabilities with (14C)-labeled tracers. Methods Mol Med. 2003;89:177-90. ...
5.1.1. 1- Blood Brain Barrier. 5.1.2. 2- Cranial Nerves: Clinical Perspective I. 5.1.2.1. revision!! ... cranial nerves 3,7,6. 4.2.2. 2- Cerebrovascular Disease. 4.2.2.1. section of the brain with something red or black? hemorrhage ... 4.1.6. 6- Cranial Nerve Organization. 4.1.7. 7- Lower Brainstem Functions. 4.1.8. 8- Introduction to Brainstem. 4.2. BCS theme ... 1.2.1. 1- Spinal cord and spinal nerves. 1.2.2. 2- Reflexes and cutaneous sensation. 1.2.2.1. reflex arc ...
establishment of blood-nerve barrier IEA Inferred from Electronic Annotation. more info ...
Blood-Brain Barrier.. Histology of Nervous System.. Spinal Cord & its Lesions.. Brown-Sequard Syndrome (BSS).. Nerve supply to ... Trochlear Nerve and its Clinical Correlates.. Abducent Nerve and its Clinical Correlates.. Facial Nerves.. Facial Nerve & ... Trochlear Nerve and its Clinical Correlates.. Abducent Nerve and its Clinical Correlates.. Facial Nerves.. Facial Nerve & ... Blood-Brain Barrier.. Histology of Nervous System.. Spinal Cord & its Lesions.. Brown-Sequard Syndrome (BSS).. Nerve supply to ...
Multifocal motor neuropathy: A blood-nerve barrier disease?. Posted on April 23, 2014. by Steve Vucic, Web Editor ... Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) is a rare autoimmune disorder of the peripheral motor nerves leading to muscle weakness, ...
... claudin-11 is responsible for the formation of specific parallel TJ strands of the blood-testis barrier (BTB). Concerning the ... Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism* * Phosphoproteins / metabolism * Seminiferous Epithelium / cytology * Seminiferous ... In mouse testis, claudin-11 is responsible for the formation of specific parallel TJ strands of the blood-testis barrier (BTB ... Claudin-11 Is Over-Expressed and Dislocated From the Blood-Testis Barrier in Sertoli Cells Associated With Testicular ...
The increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) induced by ischemia/hypoxia is generally correlated with alteration ... BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid- ... Blood-nerve Barrier. The barrier between the perineurium of PERIPHERAL NERVES and the endothelium (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR) of ... The perineurium acts as a diffusion barrier, but ion permeability at the blood-nerve barrier is still higher than at the BLOOD- ...
Sera from patients with multifocal motor neuropathy disrupt the blood-nerve barrier Fumitaka Shimizu, Masatoshi Omoto, Yasuteru ... Blood-brain barrier destruction determines Fisher/Bickerstaff clinical phenotypes: an in vitro study Kazuyuki Saito, Fumitaka ... Vascular pathology in multiple sclerosis: reframing pathogenesis around the blood-brain barrier Jonathan I Spencer, Jack S Bell ...
... the cerebrospinal fluid in the central nervous system and constitutes a blood-nerve barrier similar to the blood-brain barrier ... List of nerves of the human body Nerve injury Nervous system Neuropathy Peripheral nerve injury Peripheral nerve injury ... ISBN 978-0-8053-5909-1. Kanda, T (Feb 2013). "Biology of the blood-nerve barrier and its alteration in immune mediated ... Nerves are bundled and often travel along with blood vessels, since the neurons of a nerve have fairly high energy requirements ...
Fingolimod promotes blood-nerve barrier properties in vitro.. Nishihara H, Maeda T, Sano Y, Ueno M, Okamoto N, Takeshita Y, ... Clinical Outcomes Depending on Acute Blood Pressure After Cerebral Hemorrhage.. Toyoda K, Koga M, Yamamoto H, Foster L, Palesch ... Early Achievement of Blood Pressure Lowering and Hematoma Growth in Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Stroke Acute Management ... Brain Nerve. 2018 Apr;70(4):395-403. doi: 10.11477/mf.1416201012. Japanese. ...