Blood Transfusion, Autologous
Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive
Labor Stage, Third
Fibrin Tissue Adhesive
Blood Volume Determination
Operative Blood Salvage
Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives
Central Venous Pressure
Blood Coagulation Disorders
Surgical Procedures, Elective
Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal
Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted
Fracture Fixation, Internal
Urologic Surgical Procedures
Surgical Procedures, Operative
Gelatin Sponge, Absorbable
Deamino Arginine Vasopressin
Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation
Partial Thromboplastin Time
Conversion to Open Surgery
Tissue and Organ Harvesting
Blood Coagulation Factors
Lymph Node Excision
Fracture Fixation, Intramedullary
Blood Component Transfusion
Labor Stage, Second
Osteotomy, Le Fort
Bloodless Medical and Surgical Procedures
Blood Grouping and Crossmatching
Use of high-intensity focused ultrasound to control bleeding. (1/1113)OBJECTIVE: High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been shown to be effective in controlling hemorrhage from punctures in blood vessels. The objective of the current study was to investigate the capability of HIFU to stop bleeding after a more severe type of vascular injury, namely longitudinal incisions of arteries and veins. METHODS: The superficial femoral arteries, common femoral arteries, carotid arteries, and jugular veins of four anesthetized pigs were exposed surgically. A longitudinal incision, 2 to 8 mm in length, was produced in the vessel. HIFU treatment was applied within 5 seconds of the onset of the bleeding. The HIFU probe consisted of a high-power, 3.5-MHz, piezoelectric transducer with an ellipsoidal focal spot that was 1 mm in cross section and 9 mm in axial dimension. The entire incision area was scanned with the HIFU beam at a rate of 15 to 25 times/second and a linear displacement of 5 to 10 mm. A total of 76 incisions and HIFU treatments were performed. RESULTS: Control of bleeding (major hemosatsis) was achieved in all 76 treatments, with complete hemostasis achieved in 69 treatments (91%). The average treatment times of major and complete hemostasis were 17 and 25 seconds, respectively. After the treatment, 74% of the vessels in which complete hemostasis was achieved were patent with distal blood flow and 26% were occluded. The HIFU-treated vessels showed a consistent coagulation of the adventitia surrounding the vessels, with a remarkably localized injury to the vessel wall. Extensive fibrin deposition at the treatment site was observed. CONCLUSION: HIFU may provide a useful method of achieving hemostasis for arteries and veins in a variety of clinical applications. (+info)
Prolonged continuous or intermittent vascular inflow occlusion during hemihepatectomy in pigs. (2/1113)OBJECTIVE: To assess ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury in a hemihepatectomy model in pigs after prolonged continuous or intermittent vascular inflow occlusion in the liver. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Massive intraoperative blood loss during liver resections can be prevented by temporary vascular inflow occlusion, consequently leading to ischemia and reperfusion injury in the remnant liver. Previously, in a pig liver resection model in which only limited I/R injury was induced during brief (90 min) vascular inflow occlusion, the authors demonstrated reduced I/R injury after continuous (CNT) occlusion, compared to intermittent (INT). This liver resection study on pigs was undertaken to assess I/R injury after prolonged (120 min) CNT or INT occlusion. METHODS: In pigs (37.0 +/- 1.5 kg), liver ischemia during 2 hours was CNT (n = 6) or INT (n = 6) (eight subsequent periods of 12 min ischemia and 3 min recirculation), followed by 6 hours of reperfusion. A left hemihepatectomy (45.5% +/- 1.4%) was performed within the first 12 minutes of ischemia. No hepatic pedicle clamping or liver resection was performed in control experiments (n = 6). Microvascular damage was assessed by hyaluronic acid (HA) uptake capacity of the liver (parameter of early sinusoidal endothelial cell damage) and restoration of intrahepatic tissue pO2 during reperfusion. Hepatocellular damage was tested by plasma concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). RESULTS: Hyaluronic acid uptake after 6 hours of reperfusion, compared to preischemic uptake, was unaltered in the control group, but was significantly reduced in both resection groups. However, more HA was taken up after INT occlusion, compared to CNT (60.4% +/- 5.6% and 39.5% +/- 3.7%, respectively; ANOVA: p = 0.001). Intrahepatic tissue pO2 distribution after 6 hours of reperfusion more closely returned to preischemic configuration in the INT group than in the CNT group, indicating reduced microcirculatory disturbances after INT occlusion. Release of AST and LDH after 6 hours of reperfusion was significantly increased in both CNT and INT groups. Lower AST levels, however, were found after INT occlusion than after CNT occlusion (267.0 +/- 74.7 U/l and 603.3 +/- 132.4 U/l, respectively; p = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent hepatic vascular inflow occlusion during prolonged liver ischemia in pigs resulted in less microcirculatory and hepatocellular injury, compared to continuous occlusion. Intermittent clamping is preferable when prolonged periods of vascular inflow occlusion are applied during liver resections. (+info)
Simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty in a single procedure. (3/1113)Eighty-eight consecutive patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) were reviewed retrospectively and divided into two groups. Group I (64 patients) had both knees replaced simultaneously by one team in a single procedure while Group II (24 patients) had 2 operations staged about 7 days apart. The blood loss, operative time, knee functional score, period of hospitalisation and complications were documented in order to compare the 2 groups. Performing simultaneous bilateral TKA (Group I) did not increase the incidence of operative or post-operative complications. Equally, the functional score and mean intra- and post-operative blood loss were not influenced. The operative time and duration of hospitalisation were significantly shorter in Group I than in Group II. On the basis of the results of this study, it appears that simultaneous bilateral TKA is beneficial. (+info)
Non-invasive aortic blood flow measurement in infants during repair of craniosynostosis. (4/1113)We have assessed the potential clinical benefit of a new echo-Doppler device (Dynemo 3000) which provides a continuous measure of aortic blood flow (ABF) using an aortic flowmeter and a paediatric oesophageal probe, during repair of craniosynostosis in infants under general anaesthesia. The data recorded included: ABFi (i = indexed to body surface area), stroke volume (SVi), systemic vascular resistance (TSVRi), pre-ejection period (PEP), left ventricular ejection time (LVET), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and central venous pressure (CVP). Data were collected: before (T1) and 3 min after skin incision (T2), at the time of maximal haemorrhage (T3) and at the end of the procedure (T4). Twelve infants (aged 7.0 (range 6-12) months) were included. ABFi, MAP and CVP were significantly lower at T3 compared with T1 (2.0 (0.8) vs 3.0 (0.8) litre min-1 m-2, 46.1 (5.8) vs 65.2 (8.9) mm Hg and 2.8 (1.6) vs 5.2 (2.1) mm Hg; P < 0.05). PEP/LVET ratio was significantly lower at T2 compared with T1 (0.25 (0.05) vs 0.30 (0.06)) and increased at T4 (0.36 (0.04); P < 0.05). These preliminary results suggest that this non-invasive ABF echo-Doppler device may be useful for continuous haemodynamic monitoring during a surgical procedure associated with haemorrhage in infants. (+info)
Effect of infiltration with ropivacaine on blood loss during reduction mammoplasty. (5/1113)Ropivacaine is a new aminoamide local anaesthetic agent. Unlike other agents in its class, such as bupivacaine, it has been found to be vasoconstrictive. We have sought to investigate if this property is clinically useful and may reduce surgical blood loss. Reduction mammoplasty is a procedure in which considerable blood loss may occur. We have compared pre-incision infiltration of ropivacaine 75 mg in 0.9% saline 60 ml with the current practice of infiltration with bupivacaine 75 mg in 0.9% saline 60 ml and epinephrine (adrenaline) 5 micrograms ml-1. We studied five subjects; each received both solutions by infiltration, one to each breast, in random order and both the operating surgeon and anaesthetist were blind to the solution given. For data analysis, blood loss was expressed in ml/kg of tissue excised. There was no significant difference between the two regimens for duration of surgery or amount of tissue excised; however, ropivacaine was associated with markedly greater intraoperative blood loss than bupivacaine (median 696 (range 305-1366) ml kg-1 vs 300 (169-608) ml kg-1; P = 0.04, Wilcoxon rank sum test). Postoperative blood loss was not significantly different between groups (116 (14-173) ml kg-1 vs 98 (13-332) ml kg-1; P = 0.69, Wilcoxon rank sum test). We conclude that the vasoconstrictive properties of ropivacaine were not sufficiently great to merit its use as a sole agent for infiltration before reduction mammoplasty. (+info)
Randomised controlled trial of effect of terbutaline before elective caesarean section on postnatal respiration and glucose homeostasis. (6/1113)AIM: To determine if terbutaline given to mothers before elective caesarean section facilitates neonatal respiration and metabolism. METHODS: A randomised controlled trial of 25 full term infants delivered by elective caesarean section was conducted. The mothers received a continuous infusion of terbutaline or saline 120-0 minutes before birth. Umbilical artery blood was collected at birth and analysed for blood gases and catecholamines. The lung function of each infant was assessed two hours after birth, and blood pressure, heart rate, blood glucose and body temperature were monitored until 24 hours of age. RESULTS: The infants of the treated mothers (n = 13) had significantly higher dynamic lung compliance (p < 0.001), lower airway resistance (p < 0.001), and respiratory frequency than control infants (n = 12). Blood glucose and adrenaline concentrations were significantly higher in the treated group (p = 0.0014 and p < 0.01). None of these infants had any clinical respiratory difficulties; there were two cases of transient tachypnoea in the control group. No negative side effects due to the terbutaline treatment were seen among the infants. The mothers felt no discomfort caused by the terbutaline infusion, although they bled more during surgery (p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Stimulation of the beta adrenoceptors in utero with terbutaline infusion to the mothers promotes neonatal respiratory and metabolic adaptation after elective caesarean section. (+info)
Haemodynamic assessment of hypovolaemia under general anaesthesia in pigs submitted to graded haemorrhage and retransfusion. (7/1113)We have compared the value of different variables used in the assessment of blood loss during progressive hypovolaemia and resuscitation under general anaesthesia in anaesthetized pigs. We measured mean arterial pressure (MAP), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), the negative component of the systolic arterial pressure variation (delta Down) and left ventricular end-diastolic area (LVEDa) using echocardiography. Blood was progressively withdrawn (up to 35 ml kg-1 in seven steps) and then reinfused after the same pattern. Regression coefficient (r) and normalized slope (nS) of the regression relationship between each variable and amount of blood loss were determined. The difference between the withdrawal and reinfusion curves was assessed by the area between the curves. We also estimated the minimal loss of blood volume which induced significant changes in each variable compared with that under control conditions during withdrawal of blood (minWBV) and maximal loss in blood volume which induced no significant changes in a variable compared with control conditions during retransfusion (maxRBV). During haemorrhage, MAP decreased (from mean 74 (SD 9) to 31 (5) mm Hg; P < 0.001), delta Down increased (from 1.2 (1.4) to 11.4 (4.2) mm Hg; P < 0.001), PCWP decreased (from 6.2 (2.1) to 0.3 (1.0) mm Hg; P < 0.001) and LVEDa decreased (from 13.8 (2.0) to 5.1 (2.0) cm2; P < 0.01). The highest r values were obtained with MAP and LVEDa, and the highest nS value with delta Down. The least difference between withdrawal and reinfusion was with LVEDa, the lowest values of minWBV were with PCWP and LVEDa, and the highest value of maxRBV was obtained with PCWP. During progressive haemorrhage under general anaesthesia, LVEDa was an accurate variable for assessment of blood volume loss, delta Down contributed no further information compared with MAP, and PCWP was the most reliable variable for assessing return to baseline blood volume. (+info)
Do obese patients bleed more? A prospective study of blood loss at total hip replacement. (8/1113)This study compares blood loss at total hip replacement in obese and non-obese patients. We made a prospective study of intra-operative and postoperative blood loss in 80 consecutive primary cemented hip replacements. Patients' obesity was classified according to body mass index (BMI). Overall mean total blood loss was 1050 ml. Obese patients (BMI > 30) bled significantly more (P < 0.0001) than those of optimal weight (BMI < 26), whereas those overweight (BMI 26-30) did not. The mean excess blood loss in obese patients was 380 ml (95% confidence interval, 200-560 ml). At a time when the prevalence of obesity is increasing, this study quantifies the risks of greater blood loss with respect to obesity and aids informed consent. (+info)
In general, surgical blood loss is considered excessive if it exceeds 10-20% of the patient's total blood volume. This can be determined by measuring the patient's hemoglobin levels before and after the procedure. A significant decrease in hemoglobin levels post-procedure may indicate excessive blood loss.
There are several factors that can contribute to surgical blood loss, including:
1. Injury to blood vessels or organs during the surgical procedure
2. Poor surgical technique
3. Use of scalpels or other sharp instruments that can cause bleeding
4. Failure to control bleeding with proper hemostatic techniques
5. Pre-existing medical conditions that increase the risk of bleeding, such as hemophilia or von Willebrand disease.
Excessive surgical blood loss can lead to a number of complications, including:
1. Anemia and low blood counts
2. Hypovolemic shock (a life-threatening condition caused by excessive fluid and blood loss)
3. Infection or sepsis
4. Poor wound healing
5. Reoperation or surgical intervention to control bleeding.
To prevent or minimize surgical blood loss, surgeons may use a variety of techniques, such as:
1. Applying topical hemostatic agents to the surgical site before starting the procedure
2. Using energy-based devices (such as lasers or ultrasonic devices) to seal blood vessels and control bleeding
3. Employing advanced surgical techniques that minimize tissue trauma and reduce the risk of bleeding
4. Monitoring the patient's hemoglobin levels throughout the procedure and taking appropriate action if bleeding becomes excessive.
1. Injury to blood vessels during surgery
2. Poor suturing or stapling techniques
3. Bleeding disorders or use of anticoagulant medications
4. Infection or hematoma (a collection of blood outside the blood vessels)
5. Delayed recovery of blood clotting function
Postoperative hemorrhage can range from mild to severe and life-threatening. Mild bleeding may present as oozing or trickling of blood from the surgical site, while severe bleeding can lead to hypovolemic shock, organ failure, and even death.
To diagnose postoperative hemorrhage, a physical examination and medical history are usually sufficient. Imaging studies such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be ordered to evaluate the extent of bleeding and identify any underlying causes.
Treatment of postoperative hemorrhage depends on the severity and location of the bleeding. Mild bleeding may be managed with dressings, compression bandages, and elevation of the affected limb. Severe bleeding may require interventions such as:
1. Surgical exploration to locate and control the source of bleeding
2. Transfusion of blood products or fresh frozen plasma to restore clotting function
3. Use of vasopressors to raise blood pressure and perfuse vital organs
4. Hemostatic agents such as clotting factors, fibrin sealants, or hemostatic powder to promote clot formation
5. In some cases, surgical intervention may be required to repair damaged blood vessels or organs.
Prevention of postoperative hemorrhage is crucial in reducing the risk of complications and improving patient outcomes. Preventive measures include:
1. Proper preoperative evaluation and preparation, including assessment of bleeding risk factors
2. Use of appropriate anesthesia and surgical techniques to minimize tissue trauma
3. Conservative use of hemostatic agents and blood products during surgery
4. Closure of all bleeding sites before completion of the procedure
5. Monitoring of vital signs, including pulse rate and blood pressure, during and after surgery
6. Preoperative and postoperative management of underlying conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, and coagulopathies.
Early recognition and prompt intervention are critical in effectively managing postoperative hemorrhage. In cases of severe bleeding, timely and appropriate interventions can reduce the risk of complications and improve patient outcomes.
Postpartum hemorrhage can be caused by various factors, including:
1. Uterine atony: This occurs when the uterus fails to contract properly after delivery, leading to excessive bleeding.
2. Lacerations or tears in the genital tract: Tears in the vaginal tissues, cervix, or uterus can cause bleeding.
3. Placenta accreta or placenta praevia: These conditions occur when the placenta attaches abnormally to the uterine wall, causing bleeding during delivery.
4. Cervical insufficiency: This occurs when the cervix is unable to support the weight of the baby, leading to bleeding.
5. Blood coagulopathy disorders: These are rare conditions that affect the body's ability to form blood clots, leading to excessive bleeding.
Symptoms of PPH may include:
1. Heavy bleeding within the first 24 hours post-delivery
2. Soaking more than two pads per hour
3. Pale or clammy skin
4. Weak or rapid pulse
5. Shallow breathing
6. Confusion or disorientation
Treatment for PPH may include:
1. Observation and monitoring of vital signs
2. Administration of oxytocin to stimulate uterine contractions
3. Use of a blood transfusion to replace lost blood volume
4. Surgical intervention, such as suturing or repairing any lacerations or tears
5. Management of underlying causes, such as blood coagulopathy disorders
Prevention of PPH includes:
1. Proper prenatal care and monitoring of the mother's health during pregnancy
2. Use of cesarean delivery if necessary
3. Avoidance of excessive forceps or vacuum extraction during delivery
4. Use of oxytocin and other medications to stimulate uterine contractions
5. Close monitoring of the mother's vital signs after delivery
It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the risk factors and symptoms of PPH, as well as the appropriate treatment and prevention strategies, in order to provide optimal care for mothers at risk of developing this condition.
Example sentence: The patient had a hemorrhage after the car accident and needed immediate medical attention.
Causes of Menorrhagia
There are several potential causes of menorrhagia, including:
1. Hormonal imbalance: Hormonal changes can lead to an imbalance in the uterus, causing excessive bleeding.
2. Uterine fibroids: These noncancerous growths in the uterus can cause heavy bleeding during menstruation.
3. Adenomyosis: This condition occurs when tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows into the muscle of the uterus, leading to heavy bleeding.
4. Endometrial polyps: These are growths that can develop on the lining of the uterus and cause heavy bleeding.
5. Thyroid disorders: Both hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) and hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) can cause menorrhagia.
6. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): This is an infection of the reproductive organs that can cause scarring and lead to heavy bleeding.
7. IUDs: Intrauterine devices (IUDs) can cause heavy bleeding, especially during the first few months after insertion.
8. Medications: Certain medications such as anticoagulants and anti-inflammatory drugs can increase the risk of menorrhagia.
9. Bleeding disorders: Women with bleeding disorders, such as von Willebrand disease or platelet dysfunction, may experience heavy menstrual bleeding.
10. Cancer: In rare cases, menorrhagia can be a symptom of uterine cancer.
Symptoms of Menorrhagia
The primary symptom of menorrhagia is heavy menstrual bleeding that lasts for more than 7 days or bleeds that are heavier than usual. Other symptoms may include:
1. Soaking through sanitary products every hour or two
2. Using double sanitary products (e.g., a pad and a tampon) to control bleeding
3. Bleeding that lasts for more than 7 days
4. Menstrual blood clots larger than a quarter
5. Painful menstruation (dysmenorrhea)
6. Passing large blood clots during bowel movements or urination
7. Fatigue, dizziness, or fainting due to anemia
8. Weakness or shortness of breath
Diagnosis and Treatment of Menorrhagia
If you experience any of the symptoms of menorrhagia, it is important to see a healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment. The healthcare provider will perform a physical examination and may order one or more of the following tests to determine the cause of heavy menstrual bleeding:
1. Complete Blood Count (CBC) to check for anemia and other blood abnormalities
2. Blood smear examination to look for abnormal cells or blood clotting disorders
3. Ultrasound to evaluate the uterus and ovaries
4. Endometrial biopsy to examine the lining of the uterus
5. Hysteroscopy to visualize the inside of the uterus
6. Laparoscopy to evaluate the pelvic organs
Treatment for menorrhagia depends on the underlying cause and may include:
1. Medications such as hormonal contraceptives, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or iron supplements to control bleeding and anemia
2. Surgical procedures such as endometrial ablation or hysterectomy in severe cases that do not respond to other treatments
3. Lifestyle changes such as avoiding caffeine, alcohol, and spicy foods, as well as taking regular exercise and maintaining a healthy diet
4. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to regulate hormonal imbalances
5. Platelet transfusions or blood transfusions in cases of severe bleeding
It's important to note that menorrhagia can be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition, so it's essential to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following:
1. Prolonged or heavy menstrual bleeding (more than 7 days)
2. Bleeding between periods or after sex
3. Painful periods or difficulty using tampons
4. Fever, chills, or vomiting during menstruation
5. Unusual vaginal discharge or odor
6. Abdominal pain or bloating
Early diagnosis and treatment can help manage symptoms and prevent complications of menorrhagia, such as anemia, fatigue, and infertility.
1. Infection: Bacterial or viral infections can develop after surgery, potentially leading to sepsis or organ failure.
2. Adhesions: Scar tissue can form during the healing process, which can cause bowel obstruction, chronic pain, or other complications.
3. Wound complications: Incisional hernias, wound dehiscence (separation of the wound edges), and wound infections can occur.
4. Respiratory problems: Pneumonia, respiratory failure, and atelectasis (collapsed lung) can develop after surgery, particularly in older adults or those with pre-existing respiratory conditions.
5. Cardiovascular complications: Myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac failure can occur after surgery, especially in high-risk patients.
6. Renal (kidney) problems: Acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease can develop postoperatively, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal impairment.
7. Neurological complications: Stroke, seizures, and neuropraxia (nerve damage) can occur after surgery, especially in patients with pre-existing neurological conditions.
8. Pulmonary embolism: Blood clots can form in the legs or lungs after surgery, potentially causing pulmonary embolism.
9. Anesthesia-related complications: Respiratory and cardiac complications can occur during anesthesia, including respiratory and cardiac arrest.
10. delayed healing: Wound healing may be delayed or impaired after surgery, particularly in patients with pre-existing medical conditions.
It is important for patients to be aware of these potential complications and to discuss any concerns with their surgeon and healthcare team before undergoing surgery.
The term "melena" comes from the Greek word for "black," and it is used to describe the characteristic dark color of the stools in these patients. The stools may be black, tarry, and have a distinctive odor, and they may also be accompanied by symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever.
The diagnosis of melena is typically made through a physical examination and laboratory tests, such as a complete blood count (CBC) and a fecal occult blood test (FOBT). Imaging studies, such as an upper endoscopy or a colonoscopy, may also be performed to identify the site of the bleeding.
Treatment of melena depends on the underlying cause of the bleeding, and it may involve medications, endoscopic therapy, or surgery. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the patient. Prognosis for melena is generally good if the underlying cause is identified and treated promptly, but it can be life-threatening if left untreated.
Some common examples of intraoperative complications include:
1. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding during surgery can lead to hypovolemia (low blood volume), anemia (low red blood cell count), and even death.
2. Infection: Surgical wounds can become infected, leading to sepsis or bacteremia (bacterial infection of the bloodstream).
3. Nerve damage: Surgery can sometimes result in nerve damage, leading to numbness, weakness, or paralysis.
4. Organ injury: Injury to organs such as the liver, lung, or bowel can occur during surgery, leading to complications such as bleeding, infection, or organ failure.
5. Anesthesia-related complications: Problems with anesthesia can include respiratory or cardiac depression, allergic reactions, or awareness during anesthesia (a rare but potentially devastating complication).
6. Hypotension: Low blood pressure during surgery can lead to inadequate perfusion of vital organs and tissues, resulting in organ damage or death.
7. Thromboembolism: Blood clots can form during surgery and travel to other parts of the body, causing complications such as stroke, pulmonary embolism, or deep vein thrombosis.
8. Postoperative respiratory failure: Respiratory complications can occur after surgery, leading to respiratory failure, pneumonia, or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
9. Wound dehiscence: The incision site can separate or come open after surgery, leading to infection, fluid accumulation, or hernia.
10. Seroma: A collection of serous fluid that can develop at the surgical site, which can become infected and cause complications.
11. Nerve damage: Injury to nerves during surgery can result in numbness, weakness, or paralysis, sometimes permanently.
12. Urinary retention or incontinence: Surgery can damage the bladder or urinary sphincter, leading to urinary retention or incontinence.
13. Hematoma: A collection of blood that can develop at the surgical site, which can become infected and cause complications.
14. Pneumonia: Inflammation of the lungs after surgery can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi and can lead to serious complications.
15. Sepsis: A systemic inflammatory response to infection that can occur after surgery, leading to organ dysfunction and death if not treated promptly.
It is important to note that these are potential complications, and not all patients will experience them. Additionally, many of these complications are rare, and the vast majority of surgeries are successful with minimal or no complications. However, it is important for patients to be aware of the potential risks before undergoing surgery so they can make an informed decision about their care.
The severity of GIH can vary widely, ranging from mild to life-threatening. Mild cases may resolve on their own or with minimal treatment, while severe cases may require urgent medical attention and aggressive intervention.
Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Symptoms:
* Vomiting blood or passing black tarry stools
* Hematemesis (vomiting blood)
* Melena (passing black, tarry stools)
* Rectal bleeding
* Abdominal pain
* Weakness and dizziness
Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Causes:
* Peptic ulcers
* Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
* Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
* Diverticulosis and diverticulitis
* Cancer of the stomach, small intestine, or large intestine
* Vascular malformations
Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Diagnosis:
* Physical examination
* Medical history
* Laboratory tests (such as complete blood count and coagulation studies)
* Endoscopy (to visualize the inside of the gastrointestinal tract)
* Imaging studies (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI)
Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Treatment:
* Medications to control bleeding and reduce acid production in the stomach
* Endoscopy to locate and treat the site of bleeding
* Surgery to repair damaged blood vessels or remove a bleeding tumor
* Blood transfusions to replace lost blood
Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Prevention:
* Avoiding alcohol and spicy foods
* Taking medications as directed to control acid reflux and other gastrointestinal conditions
* Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
* Reducing stress
* Avoiding smoking and excessive caffeine consumption.
The symptoms of hemorrhagic shock may include:
* Pale, cool, or clammy skin
* Fast heart rate
* Shallow breathing
* Confusion or loss of consciousness
* Decreased urine output
Treatment of hemorrhagic shock typically involves replacing lost blood volume with IV fluids and/or blood transfusions. In severe cases, medications such as vasopressors may be used to raise blood pressure and improve circulation. Surgical intervention may also be necessary to control the bleeding source.
The goal of treatment is to restore blood flow and oxygenation to vital organs, such as the brain, heart, and kidneys, and to prevent further bleeding and hypovolemia. Early recognition and aggressive treatment of hemorrhagic shock are critical to preventing severe complications and mortality.
* Thoracic scoliosis: affects the upper back (thoracic spine)
* Cervical scoliosis: affects the neck (cervical spine)
* Lumbar scoliosis: affects the lower back (lumbar spine)
Scoliosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Genetics: inherited conditions that affect the development of the spine
* Birth defects: conditions that are present at birth and affect the spine
* Infections: infections that affect the spine, such as meningitis or tuberculosis
* Injuries: injuries to the spine, such as those caused by car accidents or falls
* Degenerative diseases: conditions that affect the spine over time, such as osteoporosis or arthritis
Symptoms of scoliosis can include:
* An uneven appearance of the shoulders or hips
* A difference in the height of the shoulders or hips
* Pain or discomfort in the back or legs
* Difficulty standing up straight or maintaining balance
Scoliosis can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including:
* X-rays: images of the spine that show the curvature
* Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): images of the spine and surrounding tissues
* Computed tomography (CT) scans: detailed images of the spine and surrounding tissues
Treatment for scoliosis depends on the severity of the condition and can include:
* Observation: monitoring the condition regularly to see if it progresses
* Bracing: wearing a brace to support the spine and help straighten it
* Surgery: surgical procedures to correct the curvature, such as fusing vertebrae together or implanting a metal rod.
It is important for individuals with scoliosis to receive regular monitoring and treatment to prevent complications and maintain proper spinal alignment.
In hypochromic anemia, the RBCs are smaller than normal and have a lower concentration of hemoglobin. This can lead to a decrease in the amount of oxygen being carried to the body's tissues, which can cause fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
There are several possible causes of hypochromic anemia, including:
1. Iron deficiency: Iron is essential for the production of hemoglobin, so a lack of iron can lead to a decrease in hemoglobin levels and the development of hypochromic anemia.
2. Vitamin deficiency: Vitamins such as vitamin B12 and folate are important for the production of red blood cells, so a deficiency in these vitamins can lead to hypochromic anemia.
3. Chronic disease: Certain chronic diseases, such as kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer, can lead to hypochromic anemia.
4. Inherited disorders: Certain inherited disorders, such as thalassemia and sickle cell anemia, can cause hypochromic anemia.
5. Autoimmune disorders: Autoimmune disorders, such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia, can cause hypochromic anemia by destroying red blood cells.
Hypochromic anemia is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as complete blood counts (CBCs) and serum iron studies. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the anemia and may include dietary changes, supplements, medication, or blood transfusions.
1. Dumping syndrome: This occurs when food moves too quickly through the small intestine, causing symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and dizziness.
2. Gastric band erosion: The gastric band can erode into the stomach wall, causing pain, inflammation, and infection.
3. Gastric dilatation-volvulus: This occurs when the stomach expands and twists, causing a blockage that can lead to vomiting, abdominal pain, and difficulty breathing.
4. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): This is a condition in which stomach acid flows back up into the esophagus, causing heartburn, chest pain, and difficulty swallowing.
5. Hiatal hernia: This occurs when the stomach bulges up through the diaphragm and into the chest cavity, causing symptoms such as heartburn, regurgitation, and difficulty swallowing.
6. Malabsorption: This occurs when the body is unable to properly absorb nutrients from food, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, weight loss, and malnutrition.
7. Nutrient deficiencies: These can occur due to malabsorption or a limited ability to consume certain foods, leading to deficiencies in vitamins and minerals.
8. Obstruction: This occurs when there is a blockage in the digestive tract that can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, vomiting, and constipation.
9. Ulcers: These are open sores that can occur in the stomach or small intestine, causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting.
10. Vitamin deficiencies: These can occur due to malabsorption or a limited ability to consume certain foods, leading to deficiencies in vitamins such as vitamin B12 and iron.
It's important to note that some of these conditions can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, diet, allergies, and other medical conditions. If you suspect you have a gastrointestinal disorder, it's important to speak with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Types of Blood Coagulation Disorders:
1. Hemophilia A: A genetic disorder that affects the blood's ability to clot, leading to prolonged bleeding after injury or surgery.
2. Hemophilia B: Similar to hemophilia A, but caused by a deficiency of factor IX instead of factor VIII.
3. Von Willebrand Disease (VWD): A bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency of von Willebrand factor, which is needed for blood clotting.
4. Platelet Disorders: These include conditions such as low platelet count (thrombocytopenia) or abnormal platelet function, which can increase the risk of bleeding.
5. Coagulopathy: A general term for any disorder that affects the body's blood coagulation process.
Symptoms and Diagnosis:
Blood coagulation disorders can cause a range of symptoms, including easy bruising, frequent nosebleeds, and prolonged bleeding after injury or surgery. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood clotting factor assays and platelet function tests.
Treatment and Management:
Treatment for blood coagulation disorders depends on the specific condition and its severity. Some common treatments include:
1. Infusions of clotting factor concentrates to replace missing or deficient factors.
2. Desmopressin, a medication that stimulates the release of von Willebrand factor and platelets.
3. Platelet transfusions to increase platelet count.
4. Anticoagulation therapy to prevent blood clots from forming.
5. Surgery to repair damaged blood vessels or joints.
Prevention and Prognosis:
Prevention of blood coagulation disorders is often challenging, but some steps can be taken to reduce the risk of developing these conditions. These include:
1. Avoiding trauma or injury that can cause bleeding.
2. Managing underlying medical conditions such as liver disease, vitamin deficiencies, and autoimmune disorders.
3. Avoiding medications that can interfere with blood clotting.
The prognosis for blood coagulation disorders varies depending on the specific condition and its severity. Some conditions, such as mild hemophilia A, may have a good prognosis with appropriate treatment, while others, such as severe hemophilia B, can have a poor prognosis without proper management.
Complications and Comorbidities:
Blood coagulation disorders can lead to a range of complications and comorbidities, including:
1. Joint damage and chronic pain due to repeated bleeding into joints.
2. Infection and sepsis from bacteria entering the body through bleeding sites.
3. Arthritis and other inflammatory conditions.
4. Nerve damage and neuropathy from bleeding into nerve tissue.
5. Increased risk of bleeding during surgery or trauma.
6. Emotional and social challenges due to the impact of the condition on daily life.
7. Financial burden of treatment and management costs.
8. Impaired quality of life, including reduced mobility and activity levels.
9. Increased risk of blood clots and thromboembolic events.
10. Psychological distress and anxiety related to the condition.
Blood coagulation disorders are a group of rare and complex conditions that can significantly impact quality of life, productivity, and longevity. These disorders can be caused by genetic or acquired factors and can lead to a range of complications and comorbidities. Diagnosis is often challenging, but prompt recognition and appropriate treatment can improve outcomes. Management strategies include replacing missing clotting factors, using blood products, and managing underlying conditions. While the prognosis varies depending on the specific condition and its severity, early diagnosis and effective management can improve quality of life and reduce the risk of complications.
1. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2019). Uterine Fibroids. Retrieved from
2. Mayo Clinic. (2020). Uterine fibroids. Retrieved from
3. National Institutes of Health. (2019). Uterine Fibroids. Retrieved from
Leiomyomas are the most common type of gynecologic tumor and affect up to 80% of women at some point in their lifetime. They are more common in women who have a family history of leiomyomas or who are obese.
There are several different types of leiomyomas, including:
1. Submucosal leiomyomas: These tumors grow into the uterine cavity and can cause bleeding and other symptoms.
2. Intramural leiomyomas: These tumors grow within the muscle of the uterus and can cause pelvic pain and heavy menstrual bleeding.
3. Pedunculated leiomyomas: These tumors are attached to the uterine wall by a stalk-like structure and can be felt during a pelvic exam.
4. Broad ligament leiomyomas: These tumors grow on the broad ligament, which is a band of tissue that connects the uterus to the pelvis.
Leiomyomas are typically diagnosed through a combination of pelvic examination, ultrasound, and hysteroscopy (a procedure in which a small camera is inserted into the uterus to examine the inside of the organ). Treatment options for leiomyomas depend on the size and location of the tumors, as well as the severity of symptoms. Treatment may include watchful waiting, medications to regulate hormones or shrink the tumors, or surgery to remove the tumors.
In some cases, leiomyomas can be associated with other conditions such as endometriosis or adenomyosis, and it is important for women with these tumors to receive ongoing care from a healthcare provider to monitor for any changes in their condition.
Symptoms of a uterine hemorrhage may include:
* Vaginal bleeding that may be heavy or light in flow
* Pain in the lower abdomen
* Pain during sexual activity
* Spotting or bleeding between menstrual periods
* Unusual discharge from the vagina
If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. Uterine hemorrhages can be diagnosed through a physical examination and imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the bleeding, but may include medications to control bleeding, surgery to remove fibroids or polyps, or hysterectomy in severe cases.
It is important to note that while uterine hemorrhages can be managed with appropriate medical care, they can also be life-threatening if left untreated. Seeking prompt medical attention and following the advice of your healthcare provider are crucial to preventing complications and ensuring a successful outcome.
An abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, back pain, and difficulty breathing if it ruptures. It can also be diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment options for an abdominal aortic aneurysm include watchful waiting (monitoring the aneurysm for signs of growth or rupture), endovascular repair (using a catheter to repair the aneurysm from within the blood vessel), or surgical repair (open surgery to repair the aneurysm).
Word Origin and History
The word 'aneurysm' comes from the Greek words 'aneurysma', meaning 'dilation' and 'sma', meaning 'a vessel'. The term 'abdominal aortic aneurysm' was first used in the medical literature in the late 19th century to describe this specific type of aneurysm.
Prevalence and Incidence
Abdominal aortic aneurysms are relatively common, especially among older adults. According to the Society for Vascular Surgery, approximately 2% of people over the age of 65 have an abdominal aortic aneurysm. The prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysms increases with age, and men are more likely to be affected than women.
Several risk factors can increase the likelihood of developing an abdominal aortic aneurysm, including:
* High blood pressure
* Atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries)
* Family history of aneurysms
* Previous heart attack or stroke
* Marfan syndrome or other connective tissue disorders.
Symptoms and Diagnosis
Abdominal aortic aneurysms can be asymptomatic, meaning they do not cause any noticeable symptoms. However, some people may experience symptoms such as:
* Abdominal pain or discomfort
* Back pain
* Weakness or fatigue
* Shortness of breath
If an abdominal aortic aneurysm is suspected, several diagnostic tests may be ordered, including:
* Computed tomography (CT) scan
* Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Treatment and Management
The treatment of choice for an abdominal aortic aneurysm depends on several factors, including the size and location of the aneurysm, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include:
* Watchful waiting (for small aneurysms that are not causing any symptoms)
* Endovascular repair (using a stent or other device to repair the aneurysm from within the blood vessel)
* Open surgical repair (where the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen to repair the aneurysm)
In some cases, emergency surgery may be necessary if the aneurysm ruptures or shows signs of impending rupture.
Complications and Risks
Abdominal aortic aneurysms can lead to several complications and risks, including:
* Rupture (which can be life-threatening)
* Blood clots or blockages in the blood vessels
* Kidney damage
* Heart problems
There is no guaranteed way to prevent an abdominal aortic aneurysm, but several factors may reduce the risk of developing one. These include:
* Maintaining a healthy lifestyle (including a balanced diet and regular exercise)
* Not smoking
* Managing high blood pressure and other medical conditions
* Getting regular check-ups with your healthcare provider
Prognosis and Life Expectancy
The prognosis for abdominal aortic aneurysms depends on several factors, including the size of the aneurysm, its location, and whether it has ruptured. In general, the larger the aneurysm, the poorer the prognosis. If treated before rupture, many people with abdominal aortic aneurysms can expect a good outcome and a normal life expectancy. However, if the aneurysm ruptures, the survival rate is much lower.
In conclusion, abdominal aortic aneurysms are a serious medical condition that can be life-threatening if left untreated. It is important to be aware of the risk factors and symptoms of an aneurysm, and to seek medical attention immediately if any are present. With proper treatment, many people with abdominal aortic aneurysms can expect a good outcome and a normal life expectancy.
1. Endometrial carcinoma (cancer that starts in the lining of the uterus)
2. Uterine papillary serous carcinoma (cancer that starts in the muscle layer of the uterus)
3. Leiomyosarcoma (cancer that starts in the smooth muscle of the uterus)
4. Adenocarcinoma (cancer that starts in the glands of the endometrium)
5. Clear cell carcinoma (cancer that starts in the cells that resemble the lining of the uterus)
6. Sarcoma (cancer that starts in the connective tissue of the uterus)
7. Mixed tumors (cancers that have features of more than one type of uterine cancer)
These types of cancers can affect women of all ages and are more common in postmenopausal women. Risk factors for developing uterine neoplasms include obesity, tamoxifen use, and a history of endometrial hyperplasia (thickening of the lining of the uterus).
Symptoms of uterine neoplasms can include:
1. Abnormal vaginal bleeding (heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding, spotting, or postmenopausal bleeding)
2. Postmenopausal bleeding
3. Pelvic pain or discomfort
4. Vaginal discharge
5. Weakness and fatigue
6. Weight loss
7. Pain during sex
8. Increased urination or frequency of urination
9. Abnormal Pap test results (abnormal cells found on the cervix)
If you have any of these symptoms, it is essential to consult your healthcare provider for proper evaluation and treatment. A diagnosis of uterine neoplasms can be made through several methods, including:
1. Endometrial biopsy (a small sample of tissue is removed from the lining of the uterus)
2. Dilation and curettage (D&C; a surgical procedure to remove tissue from the inside of the uterus)
3. Hysteroscopy (a thin, lighted tube with a camera is inserted through the cervix to view the inside of the uterus)
4. Imaging tests (such as ultrasound or MRI)
Treatment for uterine neoplasms depends on the type and stage of cancer. Common treatments include:
1. Hysterectomy (removal of the uterus)
2. Radiation therapy (uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells)
3. Chemotherapy (uses drugs to kill cancer cells)
4. Targeted therapy (uses drugs to target specific cancer cells)
5. Clinical trials (research studies to test new treatments)
It is essential for women to be aware of their bodies and any changes that occur, particularly after menopause. Regular pelvic exams and screenings can help detect uterine neoplasms at an early stage, when they are more treatable. If you experience any symptoms or have concerns about your health, talk to your healthcare provider. They can help determine the cause of your symptoms and recommend appropriate treatment.
What does angiodysplasia mean? What are the symptoms of angiodysplasia? How is angiodysplasia diagnosed and treated?
Types of Spinal Neoplasms:
1. Benign tumors: Meningiomas, schwannomas, and osteochondromas are common types of benign spinal neoplasms. These tumors usually grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body.
2. Malignant tumors: Primary bone cancers (chordoma, chondrosarcoma, and osteosarcoma) and metastatic cancers (cancers that have spread to the spine from another part of the body) are types of malignant spinal neoplasms. These tumors can grow rapidly and spread to other parts of the body.
Causes and Risk Factors:
1. Genetic mutations: Some genetic disorders, such as neurofibromatosis type 1 and tuberous sclerosis complex, increase the risk of developing spinal neoplasms.
2. Previous radiation exposure: People who have undergone radiation therapy in the past may have an increased risk of developing a spinal tumor.
3. Family history: A family history of spinal neoplasms can increase an individual's risk.
4. Age and gender: Spinal neoplasms are more common in older adults, and males are more likely to be affected than females.
1. Back pain: Pain is the most common symptom of spinal neoplasms, which can range from mild to severe and may be accompanied by other symptoms such as numbness, weakness, or tingling in the arms or legs.
2. Neurological deficits: Depending on the location and size of the tumor, patients may experience neurological deficits such as paralysis, loss of sensation, or difficulty with balance and coordination.
3. Difficulty with urination or bowel movements: Patients may experience changes in their bladder or bowel habits due to the tumor pressing on the spinal cord or nerve roots.
4. Weakness or numbness: Patients may experience weakness or numbness in their arms or legs due to compression of the spinal cord or nerve roots by the tumor.
5. Fractures: Spinal neoplasms can cause fractures in the spine, which can lead to a loss of height, an abnormal curvature of the spine, or difficulty with movement and balance.
1. Medical history and physical examination: A thorough medical history and physical examination can help identify the presence of symptoms and determine the likelihood of a spinal neoplasm.
2. Imaging studies: X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, or PET scans may be ordered to visualize the spine and detect any abnormalities.
3. Biopsy: A biopsy may be performed to confirm the diagnosis and determine the type of tumor present.
4. Laboratory tests: Blood tests may be ordered to assess liver function, electrolyte levels, or other parameters that can help evaluate the patient's overall health.
1. Surgery: Surgical intervention is often necessary to remove the tumor and relieve pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots.
2. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy may be used before or after surgery to kill any remaining cancer cells.
3. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy may be used in combination with radiation therapy or as a standalone treatment for patients who are not candidates for surgery.
4. Supportive care: Patients may require supportive care, such as physical therapy, pain management, and rehabilitation, to help them recover from the effects of the tumor and any treatment-related complications.
The prognosis for patients with spinal neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type and location of the tumor, the extent of the disease, and the patient's overall health. In general, the prognosis is better for patients with slow-growing tumors that are confined to a specific area of the spine, as compared to those with more aggressive tumors that have spread to other parts of the body.
The survival rates for patients with spinal neoplasms vary depending on the type of tumor and other factors. According to the American Cancer Society, the 5-year survival rate for primary spinal cord tumors is about 60%. However, this rate can be as high as 90% for patients with slow-growing tumors that are confined to a specific area of the spine.
There are no specific lifestyle modifications that can cure spinal neoplasms, but certain changes may help improve the patient's quality of life and overall health. These may include:
1. Exercise: Gentle exercise, such as yoga or swimming, can help improve mobility and strength.
2. Diet: A balanced diet that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein can help support overall health.
3. Rest: Getting enough rest and avoiding strenuous activities can help the patient recover from treatment-related fatigue.
4. Managing stress: Stress management techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing exercises, can help reduce anxiety and improve overall well-being.
5. Follow-up care: Regular follow-up appointments with the healthcare provider are crucial to monitor the patient's condition and make any necessary adjustments to their treatment plan.
In conclusion, spinal neoplasms are rare tumors that can develop in the spine and can have a significant impact on the patient's quality of life. Early diagnosis is essential for effective treatment, and survival rates vary depending on the type of tumor and other factors. While there are no specific lifestyle modifications that can cure spinal neoplasms, certain changes may help improve the patient's overall health and well-being. It is important for patients to work closely with their healthcare provider to develop a personalized treatment plan and follow-up care to ensure the best possible outcome.
Postoperative pain is typically managed with pain medication, which may include opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or other types of medications. The goal of managing postoperative pain is to provide effective pain relief while minimizing the risk of complications such as addiction, constipation, or nausea and vomiting.
In addition to medication, other techniques for managing postoperative pain may include breathing exercises, relaxation techniques, and alternative therapies such as acupuncture or massage. It is important for patients to communicate with their healthcare provider about the severity of their pain and any side effects they experience from medication, in order to provide effective pain management and minimize complications.
Postoperative pain can be categorized into several different types, including:
* Acute pain: This type of pain is intense but short-lived, typically lasting for a few days or weeks after surgery.
* Chronic pain: This type of pain persists for longer than 3 months after surgery and can be more challenging to manage.
* Neuropathic pain: This type of pain is caused by damage to nerves and can be characterized by burning, shooting, or stabbing sensations.
* Visceral pain: This type of pain originates in the internal organs and can be referred to other areas of the body, such as the back or abdomen.
There are several types of kyphosis, including:
1. Postural kyphosis: This type of kyphosis is caused by poor posture and is often seen in teenagers.
2. Scheuermann's kyphosis: This type of kyphosis is caused by a structural deformity of the spine and is most common during adolescence.
3. Degenerative kyphosis: This type of kyphosis is caused by degenerative changes in the spine, such as osteoporosis or degenerative disc disease.
4. Neuromuscular kyphosis: This type of kyphosis is caused by neuromuscular disorders such as cerebral palsy or muscular dystrophy.
Symptoms of kyphosis can include:
* An abnormal curvature of the spine
* Back pain
* Difficulty breathing
* Difficulty maintaining posture
* Loss of height
* Tiredness or fatigue
Kyphosis can be diagnosed through a physical examination, X-rays, and other imaging tests. Treatment options for kyphosis depend on the type and severity of the condition and can include:
* Physical therapy
It is important to seek medical attention if you or your child is experiencing any symptoms of kyphosis, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent further progression of the condition and improve quality of life.
Uterine inertia is a condition where the uterus is unable to contract and expel the fetus or placenta during delivery, leading to prolonged labor or other complications. It can be caused by various factors such as prior cesarean section, multiple pregnancy, fetal macrosomia, or abnormal presentation of the fetus.
Treatment options for uterine inertia depend on the underlying cause and may include oxytocin augmentation, manual removal of the placenta, or vacuum extraction. In some cases, a cesarean section may be necessary to ensure the safe delivery of the baby. It is essential to promptly diagnose and manage uterine inertia to prevent complications such as postpartum hemorrhage, infection, or maternal and fetal distress.
* Pale, cool, or clammy skin
* Weak or irregular pulse
* Shortness of breath
* Confusion or loss of consciousness
Treatment typically involves fluid resuscitation, vasopressor therapy (to increase blood pressure), and management of any underlying causes. In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to repair damaged tissues or organs. Prompt recognition and treatment of surgical shock are crucial to prevent long-term complications or mortality.
There are many different types of anemia, each with its own set of causes and symptoms. Some common types of anemia include:
1. Iron-deficiency anemia: This is the most common type of anemia and is caused by a lack of iron in the diet or a problem with the body's ability to absorb iron. Iron is essential for making hemoglobin.
2. Vitamin deficiency anemia: This type of anemia is caused by a lack of vitamins, such as vitamin B12 or folate, that are necessary for red blood cell production.
3. Anemia of chronic disease: This type of anemia is seen in people with chronic diseases, such as kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer.
4. Sickle cell anemia: This is a genetic disorder that affects the structure of hemoglobin and causes red blood cells to be shaped like crescents or sickles.
5. Thalassemia: This is a genetic disorder that affects the production of hemoglobin and can cause anemia, fatigue, and other health problems.
The symptoms of anemia can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include fatigue, weakness, pale skin, shortness of breath, and dizziness or lightheadedness. Anemia can be diagnosed with a blood test that measures the number and size of red blood cells, as well as the levels of hemoglobin and other nutrients.
Treatment for anemia depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, dietary changes or supplements may be sufficient to treat anemia. For example, people with iron-deficiency anemia may need to increase their intake of iron-rich foods or take iron supplements. In other cases, medical treatment may be necessary to address underlying conditions such as kidney disease or cancer.
Preventing anemia is important for maintaining good health and preventing complications. To prevent anemia, it is important to eat a balanced diet that includes plenty of iron-rich foods, vitamin C-rich foods, and other essential nutrients. It is also important to avoid certain substances that can interfere with the absorption of nutrients, such as alcohol and caffeine. Additionally, it is important to manage any underlying medical conditions and seek medical attention if symptoms of anemia persist or worsen over time.
In conclusion, anemia is a common blood disorder that can have significant health implications if left untreated. It is important to be aware of the different types of anemia, their causes, and symptoms in order to seek medical attention if necessary. With proper diagnosis and treatment, many cases of anemia can be successfully managed and prevented.
There are several causes of hypotension, including:
1. Dehydration: Loss of fluids and electrolytes can cause a drop in blood pressure.
2. Blood loss: Losing too much blood can lead to hypotension.
3. Medications: Certain medications, such as diuretics and beta-blockers, can lower blood pressure.
4. Heart conditions: Heart failure, cardiac tamponade, and arrhythmias can all cause hypotension.
5. Endocrine disorders: Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) and adrenal insufficiency can cause low blood pressure.
6. Vasodilation: A condition where the blood vessels are dilated, leading to low blood pressure.
7. Sepsis: Severe infection can cause hypotension.
Symptoms of hypotension can include:
1. Dizziness and lightheadedness
2. Fainting or passing out
3. Weakness and fatigue
4. Confusion and disorientation
5. Pale, cool, or clammy skin
6. Fast or weak pulse
7. Shortness of breath
8. Nausea and vomiting
If you suspect that you or someone else is experiencing hypotension, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment will depend on the underlying cause of the condition, but may include fluids, electrolytes, and medication to raise blood pressure. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
Prevalence: Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most common nutritional disorders worldwide, affecting approximately 1.6 billion people, with women being more likely to be affected than men.
Causes: The main cause of iron deficiency anemia is a diet that does not provide enough iron. Other causes include:
* Poor absorption of iron from the diet
* Increased demand for iron due to growth or pregnancy
* Blood loss due to menstruation, internal bleeding, or surgery
* Chronic diseases such as kidney disease, cancer, and rheumatoid arthritis
Signs and symptoms: The signs and symptoms of iron deficiency anemia may include:
* Fatigue and weakness
* Pale skin
* Shortness of breath
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Cold hands and feet
Diagnosis: Iron deficiency anemia is diagnosed based on a physical exam, medical history, and laboratory tests, including:
* Complete blood count (CBC) to check for low red blood cell count and low hemoglobin level
* Serum iron and transferrin tests to check for low iron levels
* Ferritin test to check for low iron stores
Treatment: Treatment of iron deficiency anemia involves correcting the underlying cause, which may include:
* Dietary changes to increase iron intake
* Iron supplements to replenish iron stores
* Addressing any underlying causes such as bleeding or malabsorption
Complications: Iron deficiency anemia can lead to complications such as:
* Heart failure
* Increased risk of infections
* Poor cognitive function and development in children
Prevention: Preventing iron deficiency anemia involves consuming enough iron through a balanced diet, avoiding foods that inhibit iron absorption, and addressing any underlying causes. It is also important to maintain good overall health, including managing chronic conditions such as bleeding or malabsorption.
Liver neoplasms, also known as liver tumors or hepatic tumors, are abnormal growths of tissue in the liver. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant liver tumors can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or metastatic, meaning they spread to the liver from another part of the body.
There are several types of liver neoplasms, including:
1. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer and arises from the main cells of the liver (hepatocytes). HCC is often associated with cirrhosis and can be caused by viral hepatitis or alcohol abuse.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: This type of cancer arises from the cells lining the bile ducts within the liver (cholangiocytes). Cholangiocarcinoma is rare and often diagnosed at an advanced stage.
3. Hemangiosarcoma: This is a rare type of cancer that originates in the blood vessels of the liver. It is most commonly seen in dogs but can also occur in humans.
4. Fibromas: These are benign tumors that arise from the connective tissue of the liver (fibrocytes). Fibromas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.
5. Adenomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the glandular cells of the liver (hepatocytes). Adenomas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.
The symptoms of liver neoplasms vary depending on their size, location, and whether they are benign or malignant. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasound, and a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells.
Treatment options for liver neoplasms depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgery may be an option for some patients with small, localized tumors, while others may require chemotherapy or radiation therapy to shrink the tumor before surgery can be performed. In some cases, liver transplantation may be necessary.
Prognosis for liver neoplasms varies depending on the type and stage of the cancer. In general, early detection and treatment improve the prognosis, while advanced-stage disease is associated with a poorer prognosis.
Symptoms of Kidney Neoplasms can include blood in the urine, pain in the flank or abdomen, weight loss, fever, and fatigue. Diagnosis is made through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as CT scans or ultrasound, and tissue biopsy. Treatment options vary depending on the type and stage of the neoplasm, but may include surgery, ablation therapy, targeted therapy, or chemotherapy.
It is important for individuals with a history of Kidney Neoplasms to follow up with their healthcare provider regularly for monitoring and check-ups to ensure early detection of any recurrences or new tumors.
The symptoms of a femoral fracture may include:
* Severe pain in the thigh or groin area
* Swelling and bruising around the affected area
* Difficulty moving or straightening the leg
* A visible deformity or bone protrusion
Femoral fractures are typically diagnosed through X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs. Treatment for these types of fractures may involve immobilization with a cast or brace, surgery to realign and stabilize the bone, or in some cases, surgical plate and screws or rods may be used to hold the bone in place as it heals.
In addition to surgical intervention, patients may also require physical therapy to regain strength and mobility in the affected leg after a femoral fracture.
1. Poor surgical technique
2. Inadequate mobilization of the bowel segments
3. Insufficient blood supply to the anastomosis
4. Presence of adhesions or scar tissue in the abdomen
6. Leakage of the sutures or staples
7. Use of suboptimal surgical materials
8. Delayed recovery from anesthesia
1. Abdominal pain and tenderness
3. Nausea and vomiting
4. Diarrhea or constipation
5. Peritonitis (inflammation of the lining of the abdominal cavity)
6. Sepsis (systemic infection)
7. Abscess formation
1. Physical examination and medical history
2. Imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans
3. Endoscopy or laparoscopy to visualize the anastomosis
4. Blood tests to check for signs of infection or inflammation
5. Surgical exploration and inspection of the anastomosis
1. Conservative management with antibiotics, fluid replacement, and bowel rest
2. Surgical intervention to repair the leak, which may involve opening the abdomen and revising the anastomosis
3. Use of surgical drainage devices to remove any abscess or infected fluid
4. Management of underlying infections or sepsis
5. Supportive care to maintain vital organ function and prevent complications.
1. Proper surgical technique and meticulous dissection during the initial surgery
2. Use of appropriate sutures and staples for anastomosis
3. Adequate hemostasis and control of bleeding
4. Proper postoperative care, including close monitoring and early detection of any complications
5. Patient education on signs of infection and the need for prompt medical attention if they experience any symptoms.
There are several types of hip fractures, including:
1. Femoral neck fracture: A break in the thin neck of the femur just above the base of the thigh bone.
2. Subtrochanteric fracture: A break between the lesser trochanter (a bony prominence on the upper end of the femur) and the neck of the femur.
3. Diaphyseal fracture: A break in the shaft of the femur, which is the longest part of the bone.
4. Metaphyseal fracture: A break in the area where the thigh bone meets the pelvis.
Hip fractures can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Osteoporosis: A condition that causes brittle and weak bones, making them more susceptible to fractures.
2. Trauma: A fall or injury that causes a direct blow to the hip.
3. Overuse: Repetitive strain on the bone, such as from sports or repetitive movements.
4. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as osteopenia (low bone density) or Paget's disease (a condition that causes abnormal bone growth), can increase the risk of hip fractures.
Treatment for hip fractures typically involves surgery to realign and stabilize the bones. This may involve inserting plates, screws, or rods to hold the bones in place while they heal. In some cases, a total hip replacement may be necessary. After surgery, physical therapy is often recommended to help regain strength and mobility in the affected limb.
Preventive measures for hip fractures include:
1. Exercise: Regular exercise, such as weight-bearing activities like walking or running, can help maintain bone density and reduce the risk of hip fractures.
2. Diet: A diet rich in calcium and vitamin D can help support bone health.
3. Fall prevention: Taking steps to prevent falls, such as removing tripping hazards from the home and using handrails, can help reduce the risk of hip fractures.
4. Osteoporosis treatment: If you have osteoporosis, medications or other treatments may be recommended to help strengthen your bones and reduce the risk of hip fractures.
Symptoms of hypovolemia may include:
* Decreased blood pressure
* Tachycardia (rapid heart rate)
* Tachypnea (rapid breathing)
* Confusion or disorientation
* Pale, cool, or clammy skin
* Weakness or fatigue
Treatment of hypovolemia typically involves fluid resuscitation, which may involve the administration of intravenous fluids, blood transfusions, or other appropriate interventions to restore blood volume and pressure. In severe cases, hypovolemia can lead to sepsis, organ failure, and death if left untreated.
It is important for medical professionals to quickly identify and treat hypovolemia in order to prevent complications and improve patient outcomes.
There are several types of shock, including:
1. Hypovolemic shock: This type of shock occurs when there is a significant loss of blood or fluid from the body, leading to a decrease in blood volume and pressure. It can be caused by injuries, surgery, or internal bleeding.
2. Septic shock: This type of shock occurs when an infection causes inflammation throughout the body, leading to a drop in blood pressure and organ dysfunction.
3. Anaphylactic shock: This type of shock is caused by an allergic reaction and can be life-threatening. Symptoms include difficulty breathing, rapid heartbeat, and a drop in blood pressure.
4. Neurogenic shock: This type of shock occurs when there is damage to the nervous system, leading to a drop in blood pressure and loss of autonomic functions.
5. Adrenal insufficiency: This type of shock occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol and aldosterone hormones, leading to a decrease in blood pressure and metabolism.
Symptoms of shock include:
* Pale, cool, or clammy skin
* Fast or weak pulse
* Shallow breathing
* Confusion or loss of consciousness
* Low blood pressure
Treatment of shock depends on the underlying cause and may include fluids, medications, oxygen therapy, and other supportive measures to maintain blood pressure and organ function. In severe cases, hospitalization in an intensive care unit may be necessary.
Symptoms of an aortic rupture may include sudden and severe chest pain, difficulty breathing, and coughing up blood. Diagnosis is typically made through imaging tests such as CT scans or echocardiograms. Treatment options range from medication to stabilize blood pressure to surgical repair of the aorta.
If left untreated, an aortic rupture can lead to catastrophic consequences, including bleeding to death, cardiac arrest, and stroke. Therefore, prompt medical attention is essential if symptoms of an aortic rupture are present.
Some common types of uterine diseases include:
1. Endometriosis: A condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus, causing pain, inflammation, and infertility.
2. Fibroids: Noncancerous growths that develop in the uterus, often causing heavy menstrual bleeding, pelvic pain, and infertility.
3. Adenomyosis: A condition where tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows into the muscle wall of the uterus, leading to heavy menstrual bleeding, pain, and infertility.
4. Uterine polyps: Growths that develop on the inner lining of the uterus, often causing abnormal bleeding or spots on the uterine lining.
5. Uterine cancer: Cancer that develops in the cells of the uterus, often caused by factors such as obesity, hormonal imbalances, or family history of cancer.
6. Endometrial hyperplasia: A condition where the lining of the uterus becomes thicker than normal, often due to hormonal imbalances or excessive estrogen exposure.
7. Asherman's syndrome: Scar tissue that develops inside the uterus, often after a D&C procedure, leading to infertility and irregular menstrual bleeding.
8. Uterine septum: A congenital condition where a wall of tissue divides the uterus into two compartments, often causing irregular menstrual bleeding and fertility problems.
9. Endometrial cysts: Fluid-filled sacs that develop on the inner lining of the uterus, often causing abnormal bleeding or pelvic pain.
10. Uterine tuberculosis: A rare condition where the uterus becomes infected with tuberculosis bacteria, often caused by poor sanitation and hygiene.
These are just a few of the many conditions that can affect the uterus and cause abnormal bleeding. It's important to consult with a healthcare provider if you experience any unusual or persistent vaginal bleeding to determine the underlying cause and receive proper treatment.
There are different types of spondylosis, including:
1. Cervical spondylosis: affects the neck area
2. Thoracic spondylosis: affects the chest area
3. Lumbar spondylosis: affects the lower back
4. Sacroiliac spondylosis: affects the pelvis and lower back
Spondylosis can be caused by a variety of factors such as:
1. Aging - wear and tear on the spine over time
2. Injury - trauma to the spine, such as a fall or a car accident
3. Overuse - repetitive strain on the spine, such as from heavy lifting or bending
4. Genetics - some people may be more prone to developing spondylosis due to their genetic makeup
5. Degenerative conditions - conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and degenerative disc disease can contribute to the development of spondylosis.
Symptoms of spondylosis can vary depending on the location and severity of the condition, but may include:
1. Pain - in the neck, back, or other areas affected by the condition
2. Stiffness - limited mobility and reduced flexibility
3. Limited range of motion - difficulty moving or bending
4. Muscle spasms - sudden, involuntary contractions of the muscles
5. Tenderness - pain or discomfort in the affected area when touched
Treatment for spondylosis depends on the severity and location of the condition, but may include:
1. Medications - such as pain relievers, anti-inflammatory drugs, and muscle relaxants
2. Physical therapy - exercises and stretches to improve mobility and reduce pain
3. Lifestyle changes - such as regular exercise, good posture, and weight management
4. Injections - corticosteroid or hyaluronic acid injections to reduce inflammation and relieve pain
5. Surgery - in severe cases where other treatments have not been effective.
It's important to note that spondylosis is a degenerative condition, which means it cannot be cured, but with proper management and treatment, symptoms can be effectively managed and quality of life can be improved.
Achlorhydria can be caused by various factors, such as:
1. Atrophic gastritis: This is a condition where the stomach lining becomes thin and inflamed, leading to a decrease in HCl production.
2. Autoimmune disorders: Conditions such as pernicious anemia and autoimmune gastritis can damage the stomach lining and lead to achlorhydria.
3. Medications: Certain medications, such as antacids and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), can reduce acid production in the stomach.
4. Gastric surgery: Surgical procedures that remove part or all of the stomach can lead to achlorhydria.
5. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection: H. pylori bacteria can damage the stomach lining and reduce acid production.
Symptoms of achlorhydria may include:
1. Heartburn and regurgitation
2. Difficulty swallowing
3. Nausea and vomiting
4. Abdominal pain and bloating
5. Weight loss and malnutrition
If left untreated, achlorhydria can lead to complications such as:
1. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
2. Peptic ulcers
3. Infections of the stomach and small intestine
4. Malnutrition and weight loss
5. Precancerous changes in the stomach lining
Treatment for achlorhydria usually involves addressing the underlying cause, such as eradicating H. pylori infection or replacing lost enzymes with supplements. In severe cases, medications that stimulate acid production or prostaglandin analogs may be prescribed to help protect the stomach lining. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine H2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs) are commonly used to reduce gastric acid production.
In summary, achlorhydria is a condition characterized by a lack of hydrochloric acid in the stomach, which can lead to various symptoms and complications. Treatment depends on identifying and addressing the underlying cause, and may involve medications to stimulate acid production or protect the stomach lining.
The risk of developing osteoarthritis of the knee increases with age, obesity, and previous knee injuries or surgery. Symptoms of knee OA can include:
* Pain and stiffness in the knee, especially after activity or extended periods of standing or sitting
* Swelling and redness in the knee
* Difficulty moving the knee through its full range of motion
* Crunching or grinding sensations when the knee is bent or straightened
* Instability or a feeling that the knee may give way
Treatment for knee OA typically includes a combination of medication, physical therapy, and lifestyle modifications. Medications such as pain relievers, anti-inflammatory drugs, and corticosteroids can help manage symptoms, while physical therapy can improve joint mobility and strength. Lifestyle modifications, such as weight loss, regular exercise, and avoiding activities that exacerbate the condition, can also help slow the progression of the disease. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace the damaged joint.
Some common types of spinal diseases include:
1. Degenerative disc disease: This is a condition where the discs between the vertebrae in the spine wear down over time, leading to pain and stiffness in the back.
2. Herniated discs: This occurs when the gel-like center of a disc bulges out through a tear in the outer layer, putting pressure on nearby nerves and causing pain.
3. Spinal stenosis: This is a narrowing of the spinal canal, which can put pressure on the spinal cord and nerve roots, causing pain, numbness, and weakness in the legs.
4. Spondylolisthesis: This is a condition where a vertebra slips out of place, either forward or backward, and can cause pressure on nearby nerves and muscles.
5. Scoliosis: This is a curvature of the spine that can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, injury, or disease.
6. Spinal infections: These are infections that can affect any part of the spine, including the discs, vertebrae, and soft tissues.
7. Spinal tumors: These are abnormal growths that can occur in the spine, either primary ( originating in the spine) or metastatic (originating elsewhere in the body).
8. Osteoporotic fractures: These are fractures that occur in the spine as a result of weakened bones due to osteoporosis.
9. Spinal cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can form in the spine, either as a result of injury or as a congenital condition.
10. Spinal degeneration: This is a general term for any type of wear and tear on the spine, such as arthritis or disc degeneration.
If you are experiencing any of these conditions, it is important to seek medical attention to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
The hip joint is a ball-and-socket joint that connects the thigh bone (femur) to the pelvis. In a healthy hip joint, the smooth cartilage on the ends of the bones allows for easy movement and reduced friction. However, when the cartilage wears down due to age or injury, the bones can rub together, causing pain and stiffness.
Hip OA is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It is more common in older adults, but it can also occur in younger people due to injuries or genetic factors. Women are more likely to develop hip OA than men, especially after the age of 50.
The symptoms of hip OA can vary, but they may include:
* Pain or stiffness in the groin or hip area
* Limited mobility or range of motion in the hip joint
* Cracking or grinding sounds when moving the hip joint
* Pain or discomfort when walking, standing, or engaging in other activities
If left untreated, hip OA can lead to further joint damage and disability. However, there are several treatment options available, including medications, physical therapy, and surgery, that can help manage the symptoms and slow down the progression of the disease.
Hemorrhoids are caused by increased pressure on the veins in the rectum and anus, which can be due to a variety of factors such as constipation, pregnancy, childbirth, obesity, and aging. The pressure causes the veins to swell and become irritated, leading to symptoms such as:
* Painless bleeding during bowel movements
* Pain or discomfort during bowel movements
* Itching or irritation in the anal area
* A lump near the anus
* Difficulty passing stool
There are several methods for treating hemorrhoids, including:
* Dietary changes: Eating a high-fiber diet can help soften stools and reduce pressure on the veins in the rectum and anus.
* Medications: Over-the-counter medications such as hydrocortisone creams and suppositories can help reduce itching and inflammation.
* Internal hemorrhoids: Self-care measures, such as increasing fiber intake and drinking plenty of fluids, may be sufficient to treat internal hemorrhoids. However, if symptoms persist or worsen, medical treatment may be necessary.
* External hemorrhoids: Treatment for external hemorrhoids may include warm compresses, elevation of the affected area, and pain management with medication. In severe cases, surgery may be required.
It is important to note that while hemorrhoids are not dangerous, they can be uncomfortable and disrupt daily life. If symptoms persist or worsen, it is important to seek medical attention to rule out other conditions and receive proper treatment.
In placenta accreta, the placenta grows into the myometrium (the muscle layer of the uterus) and/or the decidua (the lining of the uterus), rather than just attaching to the surface of the uterus. This can lead to a higher risk of bleeding during pregnancy, labor, and delivery, as well as other complications such as preterm labor and low birth weight.
Placenta accreta is a relatively rare condition, affecting about 1 in 2,500 to 1 in 5,000 births. However, the risk of placenta accreta increases with age, with women over the age of 35 being more likely to experience this condition. Other factors that may increase the risk of placenta accreta include:
* Previous uterine surgery or trauma
* Multiple gestations (twins or triplets)
* History of previous placental abruption (where the placenta separates from the uterus before delivery)
* Family history of placenta accreta
* Certain medical conditions such as high blood pressure or diabetes
There are several ways to diagnose placenta accreta, including:
* Ultrasound: This is the most common method used to diagnose placenta accreta. During an ultrasound, the technician will look for abnormalities in the placement and growth of the placenta.
* Doppler imaging: This test uses sound waves to examine blood flow through the placenta and can help identify any abnormalities.
* Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): This test uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the uterus and placenta.
* Placental biopsy: In this test, a small sample of tissue is taken from the placenta and examined under a microscope for signs of accreta.
There are several ways to treat placenta accreta, including:
* Expectant management: In some cases, the condition may be monitored closely during pregnancy with frequent ultrasound exams and other tests. If the condition is not severe, the pregnancy may be allowed to continue to term and the baby delivered via cesarean section.
* Blood transfusions: If the placenta accreta is causing bleeding, blood transfusions may be necessary to treat anemia.
* Corticosteroids: These medications can help speed up fetal lung maturity in case of preterm delivery.
* Cesarean section: This is often the preferred method of delivery for women with placenta accreta, as it reduces the risk of complications during labor and delivery.
* Hysterectomy: In severe cases, a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) may be necessary to control bleeding and save the life of the mother.
It is important to note that placenta accreta can be a serious condition and requires close monitoring and careful management by a healthcare provider. Women who have had placenta accreta in a previous pregnancy are at increased risk for recurrence in future pregnancies.
Symptoms of spondylolisthesis may include:
* Back pain
* Stiffness and limited mobility in the lower back
* Pain or numbness in the buttocks, thighs, or legs
* Difficulty maintaining a straight posture
* Muscle spasms
Spondylolisthesis can be diagnosed through physical examination, imaging tests such as X-rays or MRIs, and other diagnostic procedures. Treatment for the condition may include:
* Conservative methods such as physical therapy, exercise, and pain management
* Medications such as muscle relaxants or anti-inflammatory drugs
* Spinal fusion surgery to stabilize the spine and correct the slippage
* Other surgical procedures to relieve pressure on nerves or repair damaged tissue.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience persistent back pain or stiffness, as early diagnosis and treatment can help to manage symptoms and prevent further progression of the condition.
Rectal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that occur in the rectum, which is the lower part of the digestive system. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).
Types of Rectal Neoplasms:
There are several types of rectal neoplasms, including:
1. Adenoma: A benign growth that is usually found in the colon and rectum. It is a common precursor to colorectal cancer.
2. Carcinoma: A malignant tumor that arises from the epithelial cells lining the rectum. It is the most common type of rectal cancer.
3. Rectal adenocarcinoma: A type of carcinoma that originates in the glandular cells lining the rectum.
4. Rectal squamous cell carcinoma: A type of carcinoma that originates in the squamous cells lining the rectum.
5. Rectal melanoma: A rare type of carcinoma that originates in the pigment-producing cells (melanocytes) of the rectum.
Causes and Risk Factors:
The exact causes of rectal neoplasms are not known, but several factors can increase the risk of developing these growths. These include:
1. Age: The risk of developing rectal neoplasms increases with age, with most cases occurring in people over the age of 50.
2. Family history: Having a family history of colorectal cancer or polyps can increase the risk of developing rectal neoplasms.
3. Inflammatory bowel disease: People with inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are at higher risk of developing rectal neoplasms.
4. Diet: A diet high in fat and low in fiber may increase the risk of developing rectal neoplasms.
5. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, obesity, and lack of physical activity may also increase the risk of developing rectal neoplasms.
The symptoms of rectal neoplasms can vary depending on the type and location of the growth. Some common symptoms include:
1. Blood in the stool
2. Changes in bowel movements (such as diarrhea or constipation)
3. Abdominal pain or discomfort
4. Weakness and fatigue
5. Loss of appetite
To diagnose rectal neoplasms, a doctor may perform several tests, including:
1. Digital rectal exam (DRE): A doctor will insert a gloved finger into the rectum to feel for any abnormalities.
2. Colonoscopy: A flexible tube with a camera and light on the end is inserted through the anus and into the rectum to examine the inside of the rectum and colon for polyps or other abnormalities.
3. Imaging tests: Such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans to visualize the growth and determine its location and size.
4. Biopsy: A sample of tissue is removed from the rectum and examined under a microscope for cancer cells.
The treatment of rectal neoplasms depends on the type, location, and stage of the growth. Some common treatments include:
1. Polypectomy: Removal of polyps through a colonoscopy or surgery.
2. Local excision: Surgical removal of the tumor and a small amount of surrounding tissue.
3. Radiation therapy: High-energy beams are used to kill cancer cells.
4. Chemotherapy: Drugs are used to kill cancer cells.
5. Immunotherapy: A treatment that uses the body's immune system to fight cancer.
The prognosis for rectal neoplasms depends on the type, location, and stage of the growth. In general, the earlier the diagnosis and treatment, the better the prognosis. However, some types of rectal neoplasms can be more aggressive and difficult to treat, and may have a poorer prognosis.
There is no sure way to prevent rectal neoplasms, but there are several screening tests that can help detect them early, including:
1. Colonoscopy: A test in which a flexible tube with a camera and light on the end is inserted into the rectum and colon to examine for polyps or cancer.
2. Fecal occult blood test (FOBT): A test that checks for blood in the stool.
3. Flexible sigmoidoscopy: A test similar to a colonoscopy, but only examines the lower part of the colon and rectum.
4. Digital rectal exam (DRE): An examination of the rectum using a gloved finger to feel for any abnormalities.
It is important to talk to your doctor about your risk for rectal neoplasms and any screening tests that may be appropriate for you. Early detection and treatment can improve the prognosis for these types of growths.
There are several types of traumatic shock, including:
1. Hypovolemic shock: This type of shock occurs when there is a significant loss of blood or fluid from the body, leading to a decrease in blood volume and pressure.
2. Septic shock: This type of shock occurs when an infection causes inflammation throughout the body, leading to a drop in blood pressure and organ failure.
3. Anaphylactic shock: This type of shock is caused by an allergic reaction and can lead to a rapid drop in blood pressure and difficulty breathing.
4. Neurogenic shock: This type of shock occurs when there is damage to the nervous system, leading to a decrease in blood pressure and other symptoms.
5. Adrenal insufficiency shock: This type of shock occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol and aldosterone hormones, leading to a decrease in blood pressure and other symptoms.
The symptoms of traumatic shock can vary depending on the underlying cause, but common signs include:
1. Pale, cool, or clammy skin
2. Fast heart rate
3. Shallow breathing
4. Confusion or loss of consciousness
5. Low blood pressure
6. Decreased urine output
7. Increased risk of organ failure and death
Traumatic shock is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment. Treatment may include fluid replacement, oxygen therapy, medication to raise blood pressure, and other interventions to support the body's vital functions. In severe cases, traumatic shock may require surgical intervention or other advanced life-saving measures.
Pelvic neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign pelvic tumors are typically not life-threatening, but they can cause symptoms such as pain, bleeding, and infertility. Malignant pelvic tumors are cancerous and can be more serious, potentially spreading to other parts of the body (metastasizing) if left untreated.
There are several types of pelvic neoplasms, including:
1. Uterine fibroids: benign growths in the uterus that are common in women of childbearing age.
2. Endometrial polyps: benign growths in the lining of the uterus.
3. Ovarian tumors: including benign cysts and malignant ovarian cancer.
4. Cervical dysplasia: abnormal cell growth in the cervix that can potentially develop into cervical cancer if left untreated.
5. Vaginal tumors: rare, but can be either benign or malignant.
6. Rectal tumors: including benign polyps and malignant rectal cancer.
7. Bladder tumors: including benign tumors such as transitional cell carcinoma and malignant bladder cancer.
The symptoms of pelvic neoplasms can vary depending on the location and type of tumor, but may include:
1. Abnormal vaginal bleeding
2. Pain in the pelvis or lower abdomen
3. Difficulty urinating or defecating
4. Persistent pelvic pain
5. Unusual discharge from the vagina
6. Changes in bowel movements or bladder function
Diagnosis of pelvic neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scans and MRI scans, along with a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for pelvic neoplasms depend on the type and location of the tumor, but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy or a combination of these.
Symptoms of spinal tuberculosis may include:
* Back pain
* Weakness or numbness in the arms or legs
* Difficulty walking or maintaining balance
* Fever, fatigue, and weight loss
* Loss of bladder or bowel control
If left untreated, spinal tuberculosis can lead to severe complications such as paralysis, nerve damage, and infection of the bloodstream. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and surgery to remove infected tissue.
Spinal TB is a rare form of TB, but it is becoming more common due to the increasing number of people living with HIV/AIDS, which weakens the immune system and makes them more susceptible to TB infections. Spinal TB can be difficult to diagnose as it may present like other conditions such as cancer or herniated discs.
The prognosis for spinal tuberculosis is generally good if treated early, but the condition can be challenging to treat and may require long-term management.
There are several types of thrombosis, including:
1. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A clot forms in the deep veins of the legs, which can cause swelling, pain, and skin discoloration.
2. Pulmonary embolism (PE): A clot breaks loose from another location in the body and travels to the lungs, where it can cause shortness of breath, chest pain, and coughing up blood.
3. Cerebral thrombosis: A clot forms in the brain, which can cause stroke or mini-stroke symptoms such as weakness, numbness, or difficulty speaking.
4. Coronary thrombosis: A clot forms in the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle, leading to a heart attack.
5. Renal thrombosis: A clot forms in the kidneys, which can cause kidney damage or failure.
The symptoms of thrombosis can vary depending on the location and size of the clot. Some common symptoms include:
1. Swelling or redness in the affected limb
2. Pain or tenderness in the affected area
3. Warmth or discoloration of the skin
4. Shortness of breath or chest pain if the clot has traveled to the lungs
5. Weakness, numbness, or difficulty speaking if the clot has formed in the brain
6. Rapid heart rate or irregular heartbeat
7. Feeling of anxiety or panic
Treatment for thrombosis usually involves medications to dissolve the clot and prevent new ones from forming. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot or repair the damaged blood vessel. Prevention measures include maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, avoiding long periods of immobility, and managing chronic conditions such as high blood pressure and diabetes.
There are several subtypes of RCC, including clear cell, papillary, chromophobe, and collecting duct carcinoma. The most common subtype is clear cell RCC, which accounts for approximately 70-80% of all RCC cases.
RCC can be difficult to diagnose as it may not cause any symptoms in its early stages. However, some common symptoms of RCC include blood in the urine (hematuria), pain in the flank or abdomen, weight loss, and fatigue. RCC is typically diagnosed through a combination of imaging studies such as computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) scans, along with a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells.
Treatment for RCC depends on the stage and location of the cancer. Surgery is the primary treatment for localized RCC, and may involve a partial or complete nephrectomy (removal of the affected kidney). For more advanced cases, treatment may involve a combination of surgery and systemic therapies such as targeted therapy or immunotherapy. Targeted therapy drugs, such as sunitinib and pazopanib, work by blocking specific molecules that promote the growth and spread of cancer cells. Immunotherapy drugs, such as checkpoint inhibitors, work by stimulating the body's immune system to attack cancer cells.
The prognosis for RCC is generally good if the cancer is detected early and treated promptly. However, the cancer can be aggressive and may spread to other parts of the body (metastasize) if left untreated. The 5-year survival rate for RCC is about 73% for patients with localized disease, but it drops to about 12% for those with distant metastases.
There are several risk factors for developing RCC, including:
* Age: RCC is more common in people over the age of 50.
* Gender: Men are slightly more likely to develop RCC than women.
* Family history: People with a family history of RCC or other kidney diseases may be at increased risk.
* Chronic kidney disease: Patients with chronic kidney disease are at higher risk for developing RCC.
* Hypertension: High blood pressure is a common risk factor for RCC.
* Smoking: Smoking may increase the risk of developing RCC.
* Obesity: Being overweight or obese may increase the risk of developing RCC.
There are several complications associated with RCC, including:
* Metastasis: RCC can spread to other parts of the body, such as the lymph nodes, liver, and bones.
* Hematuria: Blood in the urine is a common complication of RCC.
* Pain: RCC can cause pain in the flank or abdomen.
* Fatigue: RCC can cause fatigue and weakness.
* Weight loss: RCC can cause weight loss and loss of appetite.
There are several treatment options for RCC, including:
* Surgery: Surgery is often the first line of treatment for RCC that is localized and has not spread to other parts of the body.
* Ablation: Ablation therapies, such as cryotherapy or radiofrequency ablation, can be used to destroy the tumor.
* Targeted therapy: Targeted therapies, such as sunitinib or pazopanib, can be used to slow the growth of the tumor.
* Immunotherapy: Immunotherapies, such as checkpoint inhibitors, can be used to stimulate the immune system to attack the tumor.
* Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy may be used in combination with other treatments or as a last resort for patients with advanced RCC.
The prognosis for RCC varies depending on the stage and location of the cancer, but in general, the earlier the cancer is detected and treated, the better the outcome. According to the American Cancer Society, the 5-year survival rate for RCC is about 73% for patients with localized disease (cancer that has not spread beyond the kidney) and about 12% for patients with distant disease (cancer that has spread to other parts of the body).
Metrorrhagia can be diagnosed through a pelvic exam, ultrasound or hysteroscopy. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause of the condition, and may include medications to regulate hormones or shrink fibroids, or surgery to remove polyps or fibroids. It is important for women who experience metrorrhagia to consult a healthcare provider for proper diagnosis and treatment to rule out any serious underlying conditions such as endometrial cancer.
Word origin: Greek "metro" meaning month + "rhagia" meaning flow.
Contusions are bruises that occur when blood collects in the tissue due to trauma. They can be painful and may discolor the skin, but they do not involve a break in the skin. Hematomas are similar to contusions, but they are caused by bleeding under the skin.
Non-penetrating wounds are typically less severe than penetrating wounds, which involve a break in the skin and can be more difficult to treat. However, non-penetrating wounds can still cause significant pain and discomfort, and may require medical attention to ensure proper healing and minimize the risk of complications.
Examples of Non-Penetrating Wounds
* Contusions: A contusion is a bruise that occurs when blood collects in the tissue due to trauma. This can happen when someone is hit with an object or falls and strikes a hard surface.
* Hematomas: A hematoma is a collection of blood under the skin that can cause swelling and discoloration. It is often caused by blunt trauma, such as a blow to the head or body.
* Ecchymoses: An ecchymosis is a bruise that occurs when blood leaks into the tissue from damaged blood vessels. This can happen due to blunt trauma or other causes, such as injury or surgery.
Types of Non-Penetrating Wounds
* Closed wounds: These are injuries that do not involve a break in the skin. They can be caused by blunt trauma or other forms of injury, and may result in bruising, swelling, or discoloration of the skin.
* Open wounds: These are injuries that do involve a break in the skin. They can be caused by penetrating objects, such as knives or gunshots, or by blunt trauma.
Treatment for Contusions and Hematomas
* Rest: It is important to get plenty of rest after suffering a contusion or hematoma. This will help your body recover from the injury and reduce inflammation.
* Ice: Applying ice to the affected area can help reduce swelling and pain. Wrap an ice pack in a towel or cloth to protect your skin.
* Compression: Using compression bandages or wraps can help reduce swelling and promote healing.
* Elevation: Elevating the affected limb above the level of your heart can help reduce swelling and improve circulation.
* Medication: Over-the-counter pain medications, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen, can help manage pain and inflammation.
* Wear protective gear: When engaging in activities that may cause injury, wear appropriate protective gear, such as helmets, pads, and gloves.
* Use proper technique: Proper technique when engaging in physical activity can help reduce the risk of injury.
* Stay fit: Being in good physical condition can help improve your ability to withstand injuries.
* Stretch and warm up: Before engaging in physical activity, stretch and warm up to increase blood flow and reduce muscle stiffness.
* Avoid excessive alcohol consumption: Excessive alcohol consumption can increase the risk of injury.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following symptoms:
* Increasing pain or swelling
* Difficulty moving the affected limb
* Fever or chills
* Redness or discharge around the wound
* Deformity of the affected limb.
Some common types of adrenal gland neoplasms include:
1. Adrenocortical carcinoma: A rare and aggressive malignancy that arises in the outer layer of the adrenal cortex.
2. Adrenocortical adenoma: A benign tumor that arises in the outer layer of the adrenal cortex.
3. Pheochromocytoma: A rare tumor that arises in the inner part of the adrenal medulla and produces excessive amounts of hormones such as epinephrine and norepinephrine.
4. Paraganglioma: A rare tumor that arises in the sympathetic nervous system, often near the adrenal glands.
Symptoms of adrenal gland neoplasms can include:
* Weight gain or weight loss
* High blood pressure
* Abdominal pain
* Nausea and vomiting
Diagnosis of adrenal gland neoplasms typically involves imaging tests such as computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) scans, as well as hormone level assessments. Treatment options vary depending on the type and size of the tumor, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, and hormone therapy.
Symptoms of spinal stenosis may include:
* Pain in the neck, back, or legs that worsens with walking or standing
* Numbness, tingling, or weakness in the arms or legs
* Difficulty controlling bladder or bowel functions
* Muscle weakness in the legs
Treatment for spinal stenosis may include:
* Pain medications
* Physical therapy to improve mobility and strength
* Injections of steroids or pain relievers
* Surgery to remove bone spurs or decompress the spinal cord
It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms of spinal stenosis worsen over time, as untreated condition can lead to permanent nerve damage and disability.
There are many different types of liver diseases, including:
1. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD): A condition caused by excessive alcohol consumption that can lead to inflammation, scarring, and cirrhosis.
2. Viral hepatitis: Hepatitis A, B, and C are viral infections that can cause inflammation and damage to the liver.
3. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A condition where there is an accumulation of fat in the liver, which can lead to inflammation and scarring.
4. Cirrhosis: A condition where the liver becomes scarred and cannot function properly.
5. Hemochromatosis: A genetic disorder that causes the body to absorb too much iron, which can damage the liver and other organs.
6. Wilson's disease: A rare genetic disorder that causes copper to accumulate in the liver and brain, leading to damage and scarring.
7. Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma): Cancer that develops in the liver, often as a result of cirrhosis or viral hepatitis.
Symptoms of liver disease can include fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, dark urine, pale stools, and swelling in the legs. Treatment options for liver disease depend on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle changes, medication, or surgery. In severe cases, a liver transplant may be necessary.
Prevention of liver disease includes maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, getting vaccinated against hepatitis A and B, and managing underlying medical conditions such as obesity and diabetes. Early detection and treatment of liver disease can help to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes for patients.
1. Ulcerative colitis: This is a chronic condition that causes inflammation and ulcers in the colon. Symptoms can include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding.
2. Crohn's disease: This is a chronic condition that affects the digestive tract, including the colon. Symptoms can include abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, and weight loss.
3. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): This is a common condition characterized by recurring abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel movements.
4. Diverticulitis: This is a condition where small pouches form in the colon and become inflamed. Symptoms can include fever, abdominal pain, and changes in bowel movements.
5. Colon cancer: This is a type of cancer that affects the colon. Symptoms can include blood in the stool, changes in bowel movements, and abdominal pain.
6. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): This is a group of chronic conditions that cause inflammation in the digestive tract, including the colon. Symptoms can include abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, and weight loss.
7. Rectal cancer: This is a type of cancer that affects the rectum, which is the final portion of the colon. Symptoms can include blood in the stool, changes in bowel movements, and abdominal pain.
8. Anal fissures: These are small tears in the skin around the anus that can cause pain and bleeding.
9. Rectal prolapse: This is a condition where the rectum protrudes through the anus. Symptoms can include rectal bleeding, pain during bowel movements, and a feeling of fullness or pressure in the rectal area.
10. Hemorrhoids: These are swollen veins in the rectum or anus that can cause pain, itching, and bleeding.
It's important to note that some of these conditions can be caused by other factors as well, so if you're experiencing any of these symptoms, it's important to see a doctor for an accurate diagnosis and treatment.
The severity and impact of pancreatic fistula can vary depending on factors such as the size and location of the fistula, the extent of the pancreatectomy, and the overall health status of the individual. Treatment options for pancreatic fistula may include conservative management with supportive care, surgical repair or revision of the pancreatectomy, or other interventional procedures to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
Examples of penetrating wounds include:
1. Gunshot wounds: These are caused by a bullet entering the body and can be very serious, potentially causing severe bleeding, organ damage, and even death.
2. Stab wounds: These are caused by a sharp object such as a knife or broken glass being inserted into the skin and can also be very dangerous, depending on the location and depth of the wound.
3. Puncture wounds: These are similar to stab wounds but are typically caused by a sharp point rather than a cutting edge, such as a nail or an ice pick.
4. Impaling injuries: These are caused by an object being pushed or thrust into the body, such as a broken bone or a piece of wood.
Penetrating wounds can be classified based on their severity and location. Some common classifications include:
1. Superficial wounds: These are wounds that only penetrate the skin and do not involve any underlying tissue or organs.
2. Deep wounds: These are wounds that penetrate deeper into the body and may involve underlying tissue or organs.
3. Critical wounds: These are wounds that are potentially life-threatening, such as gunshot wounds to the head or chest.
4. Non-critical wounds: These are wounds that are not immediately life-threatening but may still require medical attention to prevent infection or other complications.
The treatment of penetrating wounds depends on the severity and location of the injury, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments for penetrating wounds include:
1. Wound cleaning and irrigation: The wound is cleaned and irrigated to remove any debris or bacteria that may be present.
2. Debridement: Dead tissue is removed from the wound to promote healing and prevent infection.
3. Stitches or staples: The wound is closed with stitches or staples to bring the edges of the skin together and promote healing.
4. Antibiotics: Antibiotics may be prescribed to prevent or treat infection.
5. Tetanus shot: If the patient has not had a tetanus shot in the past 10 years, they may receive one to prevent tetanus infection.
6. Pain management: Pain medication may be prescribed to manage any discomfort or pain associated with the wound.
7. Wound dressing: The wound is covered with a dressing to protect it from further injury and promote healing.
It is important to seek medical attention if you have sustained a penetrating wound, as these types of injuries can be serious and potentially life-threatening. A healthcare professional will be able to assess the severity of the wound and provide appropriate treatment.
IVDD can occur due to various factors such as trauma, injury, degenerative disc disease, or genetic predisposition. The condition can be classified into two main types:
1. Herniated Disc (HDD): This occurs when the soft, gel-like center of the disc bulges out through a tear in the tough outer layer, putting pressure on nearby nerves.
2. Degenerative Disc Disease (DDD): This is a condition where the disc loses its water content and becomes brittle, leading to tears and fragmentation of the disc.
Symptoms of IVDD can include:
* Back or neck pain
* Muscle spasms
* Weakness or numbness in the legs or arms
* Difficulty walking or maintaining balance
* Loss of bladder or bowel control (in severe cases)
Diagnosis of IVDD is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI. Treatment options for IVDD vary depending on the severity of the condition and can range from conservative approaches such as pain medication, physical therapy, and lifestyle modifications to surgical interventions in severe cases.
In summary, Intervertebral Disc Displacement (IVDD) is a condition where the soft tissue between two adjacent vertebrae in the spine is displaced or herniated, leading to pressure on nearby nerves and potential symptoms such as back pain, muscle spasms, and weakness. It can be classified into two main types: Herniated Disc and Degenerative Disc Disease, and diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests. Treatment options vary depending on the severity of the condition and can range from conservative approaches to surgical interventions.
Surgical wound infections can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Poor surgical technique: If the surgeon does not follow proper surgical techniques, such as properly cleaning and closing the incision, the risk of infection increases.
2. Contamination of the wound site: If the wound site is contaminated with bacteria or other microorganisms during the surgery, this can lead to an infection.
3. Use of contaminated instruments: If the instruments used during the surgery are contaminated with bacteria or other microorganisms, this can also lead to an infection.
4. Poor post-operative care: If the patient does not receive proper post-operative care, such as timely changing of dressings and adequate pain management, the risk of infection increases.
There are several types of surgical wound infections, including:
1. Superficial wound infections: These infections occur only in the skin and subcutaneous tissues and can be treated with antibiotics.
2. Deep wound infections: These infections occur in the deeper tissues, such as muscle or bone, and can be more difficult to treat.
3. Wound hernias: These occur when the intestine bulges through the incision site, creating a hernia.
4. Abscesses: These occur when pus collects in the wound site, creating a pocket of infection.
Surgical wound infections can be diagnosed using a variety of tests, including:
1. Cultures: These are used to identify the type of bacteria or other microorganisms causing the infection.
2. Imaging studies: These can help to determine the extent of the infection and whether it has spread to other areas of the body.
3. Physical examination: The surgeon will typically perform a physical examination of the wound site to look for signs of infection, such as redness, swelling, or drainage.
Treatment of surgical wound infections typically involves a combination of antibiotics and wound care. In some cases, additional surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged structures.
Prevention is key when it comes to surgical wound infections. To reduce the risk of infection, surgeons and healthcare providers can take several steps, including:
1. Proper sterilization and disinfection of equipment and the surgical site.
2. Use of antibiotic prophylaxis, which is the use of antibiotics to prevent infections in high-risk patients.
3. Closure of the incision site with sutures or staples to reduce the risk of bacterial entry.
4. Monitoring for signs of infection and prompt treatment if an infection develops.
5. Proper wound care, including keeping the wound clean and dry, and changing dressings as needed.
6. Avoiding unnecessary delays in surgical procedure, which can increase the risk of infection.
7. Proper patient education on wound care and signs of infection.
8. Use of biological dressings such as antimicrobial impregnated dressings, which can help reduce the risk of infection.
9. Use of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) which can help to promote wound healing and reduce the risk of infection.
10. Proper handling and disposal of sharps and other medical waste to reduce the risk of infection.
It is important for patients to follow their healthcare provider's instructions for wound care and to seek medical attention if they notice any signs of infection, such as redness, swelling, or increased pain. By taking these precautions, the risk of surgical wound infections can be significantly reduced, leading to better outcomes for patients.
There are several types of hemorrhagic disorders, including:
1. Hemophilia: A genetic disorder that affects the blood's ability to clot and stop bleeding. People with hemophilia may experience spontaneous bleeding or bleeding after injury or surgery.
2. von Willebrand disease: A mild bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency of a protein called von Willebrand factor, which is important for blood clotting.
3. Platelet disorders: Disorders that affect the platelets, such as thrombocytopenia (low platelet count) or thrombocytosis (high platelet count).
4. Bleeding and clotting disorders caused by medications or drugs.
5. Hemorrhagic stroke: A type of stroke that is caused by bleeding in the brain.
6. Gastrointestinal bleeding: Bleeding in the digestive tract, which can be caused by a variety of factors such as ulcers, inflammation, or tumors.
7. Pulmonary hemorrhage: Bleeding in the lungs, which can be caused by a variety of factors such as pneumonia, injury, or tumors.
8. Retinal hemorrhage: Bleeding in the blood vessels of the retina, which can be caused by high blood pressure, diabetes, or other eye disorders.
Symptoms of hemorrhagic disorders can vary depending on the specific condition and the location of the bleeding. Common symptoms include bruising, petechiae (small red spots on the skin), nosebleeds, gum bleeding, and heavy menstrual periods. Treatment for hemorrhagic disorders depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, blood transfusions, or surgery.
1. Types of Hookworms: There are two main types of hookworms that can infect humans: Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. A. duodenale is more common in temperate climates, while N. americanus is found in tropical and subtropical regions.
2. Transmission: Hookworms are typically spread through contact with contaminated feces or soil. This can happen when someone ingests food or water that has been contaminated with hookworm eggs or larvae. In rare cases, hookworms can also be transmitted through blood transfusions or organ transplants.
3. Symptoms: The symptoms of hookworm infections can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the number of worms present. Common symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, and anemia. In severe cases, hookworms can cause inflammation of the intestines, which can lead to complications such as bowel obstruction or perforation.
4. Diagnosis: Hookworm infections are typically diagnosed through a stool sample or blood test. A doctor may also perform a physical examination and take a medical history to help determine the presence of hookworms.
5. Treatment: Hookworm infections can be treated with antiparasitic medications, such as albendazole or mebendazole. These medications work by killing the worms in the intestines, which helps to relieve symptoms and prevent complications. In some cases, treatment may also involve addressing any underlying conditions that have been exacerbated by the hookworm infection, such as anemia or malnutrition.
6. Prevention: The best way to prevent hookworm infections is to practice good hygiene and avoid contact with contaminated feces or soil. This includes washing your hands frequently, especially after using the bathroom or before handling food. Additionally, wearing shoes when outdoors can help reduce the risk of contracting a hookworm infection through contact with contaminated soil.
Ischemic optic neuropathy
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- This type of minimally invasive surgery provides faster recovery times - same-day checkouts compared with as long as five days in the hospital - lowers blood loss, decreases the possibility of surgical infections and has resulted in greater patient satisfaction and outcomes compared with traditional open procedures, according to a certificate of need document Hawaii Pacific Health filed with the State Health Planning and Development Agency. (staradvertiser.com)
- The present study aimed to compare the surgical outcomes of staple closure using a reinforcing stapler (RS) and transection using an ultrasonic dissector followed by hand-sewn (HS) closure in a fish-mouth manner in pure L-DP and to determine independent perioperative risk factors for clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula (CR-POPF). (lww.com)
- Random effects meta-analyses were used to pool all outcomes of interest (estimated blood loss, transfusion requirements, and postoperative thromboembolism). (nih.gov)
- 3-5] Procedures that have the potential to 19 have poorer outcomes (surgical and COVID). (who.int)
- 11. Pregnancy outcomes following different surgical approaches of myomectomy. (nih.gov)
- Participants consumed their usual daily diet within 10 hours and experienced moderate weight loss, and, in some cases, lower blood pressure, lower blood glucose levels, and other improved outcomes. (nih.gov)
- The result is maximum balance and function of the joint, which translates to the best surgical outcomes for patients. (northshore.org)
- The varied treatment options for total joint replacement provided to our patients creates a customized surgical experience best suited to their individual needs and condition, resulting in the most successful outcomes. (northshore.org)
- The rate of percutaneous blood and body fluid (BBF) exposures in the operating room (OR) remains high despite various attempts to reduce the rate of these outcomes. (cdc.gov)
- The importance of our study is that a weight loss of 20% or greater-double the previous standard-results in better clinical outcomes and is achievable without surgical or pharmacologic intervention," says lead researcher Stephen P. Messier at Wake Forest University. (nih.gov)
- With the assistance of the da Vinci Surgical System, surgeons can now operate using only 1-2 cm incisions but with greater precision and control than ever before. (utmedicalcenter.org)
- The purported benefits of surgical staples is that they may facilitate surgical incisions by averting wound edges, but many of the devices have been found to be allegedly defective, posing a significant health risk to patients treated with the devices. (schmidtandclark.com)
- We specialize in minimally invasive surgical procedures, including the latest advancements in robotic surgery, which may offer smaller incisions, less blood loss and shorter recovery periods. (orlandohealth.com)
- Minimally Invasive Surgery Orlando Health South Lake Hospital's minimally invasive surgical options include robotic-assisted technology, offering you the benefits of smaller incisions, less pain and an overall faster recovery, so you can get back to what matters to you. (orlandohealth.com)
- This approach uses shorter incisions, which minimizes surgical trauma to healthy muscles and tissues surrounding the replaced joint. (northshore.org)
- Ventral hernia: A bulge in any area of the abdominal wall, often forming at a site of past surgical incisions. (dignityhealth.org)
- She was evacuated to Kenya, where she underwent bilateral below-the-knee amputations and multiple blood transfusions. (cdc.gov)
- Hip fracture patients on OACs experience increased surgical blood loss and higher risk of red blood cell transfusions. (nih.gov)
- In this study, standard hemostasis with Vitagel was found to reduce blood transfusions following primary total knee arthroplasty as compared to standard hemostasis alone (electrocautery). (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
- The Sarasota Memorial Bloodless Surgery program uses specialized equipment and blood-management techniques as alternatives to blood transfusions during surgical procedures. (smh.com)
- Thanks to the latest evolution in surgical technology, physicians now have an effective alternative to traditional open surgery and laparoscopy that allows them to provide patients with the best of both approaches: robotic surgery. (utmedicalcenter.org)
- Laparoscopy uses a smaller surgical cut than open surgery. (nih.gov)
- Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw in Surgical Laparoscopy Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques. (lww.com)
- Minimally invasive surgical techniques include laparoscopy, single site surgery, and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. (hindawi.com)
- Laparoscopy has proved to be less traumatic for the patient, with minimal operative blood loss, less postoperative pain, accelerated recovery, and excellent cosmesis. (hindawi.com)
- From March 1993 through June 1994, trained nurse observers at the three hospitals systematically recorded information about the nature and frequency of all PIs and the number and type of suture needles used during gynecologic surgical procedures (laparoscopy and dilation and curettage procedures were excluded from the study). (cdc.gov)
- In the univariate analysis of risk factors for CR-POPF, the pancreatic thickness at the transection site, procedure for stump closure, and estimated blood loss were associated with a significantly higher rate of CR-POPF. (lww.com)
- We present our experience in managing large hiatal hernia with the surgical procedure. (sages.org)
- Our surgical procedure for large hiatal hernia includes transection of the hernia sac at the level of the crus and leaving distal sac as it is. (sages.org)
- Loss of blood during a surgical procedure. (nih.gov)
- Despite similar weight loss, teens who had gastric bypass surgery were significantly more likely to have remission of both type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure , compared to adults who had the same procedure. (nih.gov)
- It is a surgical procedure in which degenerated intervertebral discs in the spinal column are replaced with artificial disc implants in the lumbar or cervical spine. (sierraregionalspine.com)
- Moreover, 5 years after weight-loss surgery, researchers compared the results for teens in the study to results for adults who had the same procedure. (nih.gov)
- Introduced less than a decade ago, this innovative surgical procedure involves accessing the joint from the front (anterior) of the hip versus from the traditional, side or back (posterior) position. (northshore.org)
- This study included and assessment of surgical procedure characteristics that modify the risk of BBF exposures and evaluation of efforts to reduce the risk of BBF exposures in the OR. (cdc.gov)
- We used a social network measure of "past collaboration" found in the sociological literature, but never before used to study safety in the operating room, to produce a quantitative score for each team assembled for each surgical procedure. (cdc.gov)
- BBF exposure rates increased with estimated patient blood loss, number of personnel working in the surgical field during the procedure, and procedure duration. (cdc.gov)
- Research team members Matt Johnson and Laura Brattain test their new medical device on an artificial model of human tissue and blood vessels. (mit.edu)
- The version of the device shown here is optimized to locate the femoral blood vessels. (mit.edu)
- Surgical and mechanical methods apply direct pressure on blood vessels to reduce uterine blood flow. (cochrane.org)
- Blood flow can also be stopped by tying off or blocking the blood vessels that feed the uterus. (cochrane.org)
- One study (23 women) compared using imaging to block the blood vessels to the uterus (uterine artery embolisation) with surgical techniques to cut off the blood supply and compress the uterus but found little to no effect. (cochrane.org)
- 10. Laparoscopic Myomectomy with Temporary Bilateral Uterine Artery and Utero-Ovarian Vessels Occlusion Compared with Traditional Surgery for Uterine Fibroids: Blood Loss and Recurrence. (nih.gov)
- The Aquamantys system to reduce blood loss and seal blood vessels in soft tissue and bone during surgery. (smh.com)
- Surgical staplers are medical devices used to cut and seal blood vessels and tissue during gynecologic, colorectal, vascular, and gastrointestinal surgery. (schmidtandclark.com)
- Retinopathy of prematurity develops when abnormal blood vessels grow and spread throughout the retina, the nerve tissue that lines the back of the eye. (nih.gov)
- The scarring and bleeding caused by the excess growth of these blood vessels can lead to retinal detachment, resulting in vision loss. (nih.gov)
- The most effective proven treatments for severe ROP are cryotherapy and laser therapy, which usually will stop the growth of abnormal blood vessels and prevent retinal detachment. (nih.gov)
- The infants in the studyfell into two groups - those whose moderate ROP was complicated with dilated eye bloodvessels, and those whose blood vessels were not dilated. (nih.gov)
- This finding needs to beconfirmed with additional research before we can recommend modest supplemental oxygen asa treatment for infants with moderate ROP without dilated blood vessels. (nih.gov)
- The vessels transport blood to and from the muscle, supplying oxygen and nutrients and removing carbon dioxide and other wastes. (britannica.com)
- A study from the National Institutes of Health describes the immune response triggered by COVID-19 infection that damages the brain’s blood vessels and may lead to short- and long-term neurological symptoms. (nih.gov)
- Da Vinci Surgical System provides minimally invasive surgery used for hysterectomy, gastric bypass, urologic surgery, cardiac and thoracic applications, protatectomy and more medical conditions. (utmedicalcenter.org)
- The da Vinci Surgical System is powered by state-of-the-art robotic surgery technology. (utmedicalcenter.org)
- If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with a condition that may require surgery, you owe it to yourself to learn about all of your medical options, including the most effective, least invasive surgical treatments available. (utmedicalcenter.org)
- Surgery with the da Vinci Surgical System may not be appropriate for every individual. (utmedicalcenter.org)
- There is less blood loss with laparoscopic surgery and less pain after surgery. (nih.gov)
- The Queen's Medical Center and Tripler Army Medical Center, which is primarily for military patients, have used the machines in recent years for everything from head and neck surgeries to prostate and urological procedures, lung and gastrointestinal operations, heart valve repairs and weight-loss surgery. (staradvertiser.com)
- The surgery time and estimated blood loss were not significantly different between the two groups. (lww.com)
- The impact of appropriate, timely OAC reversal on blood conservation and expedited surgery in anticoagulated hip fracture patients warrants urgent evaluation. (nih.gov)
- 6. Myomectomy associated blood transfusion risk and morbidity after surgery. (nih.gov)
- Our hemostasis portfolio includes VitagelTM Surgical Hemostat, a proprietary, collagen-based matrix that controls bleeding and facilitates healing, and Vitasure Absorbable Hemostat, a plant-based product that can be deployed quickly throughout surgery. (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
- We understand that choosing not to have blood transfusion during surgery is a personal decision. (smh.com)
- Minimally invasive and robotic surgery, which use meticulous surgical techniques to minimize blood loss. (smh.com)
- Cell savers, which recycle blood lost during surgery. (smh.com)
- The SMH Bloodless Surgery team features highly skilled surgeons, anesthesiologists, hematologists, nurses and other medical specialists with experience in 'no blood' medical management. (smh.com)
- The aim of this study is the experimental in silico investigation of a conceptual model of a surgical remote control interface for modular miniature robots that can be used in minimally invasive surgery. (hindawi.com)
- Type 2 diabetes declined in both groups, but teens with type 2 diabetes before surgery were 27% more likely than adults to have controlled blood glucose (blood sugar) without the use of diabetes medications. (nih.gov)
- Before surgery, 57% of teens and 68% of adults used blood pressure medications. (nih.gov)
- Five years after surgery, 11% of teens and 33% of adults used blood pressure medications. (nih.gov)
- Among those with high blood pressure before surgery, teens were 51% more likely than adults to no longer have high blood pressure or take blood pressure medication. (nih.gov)
- While weight loss was substantial and similar between the two groups, teens with type 2 diabetes before surgery were more likely than adults to have their diabetes resolve after surgery without diabetes medications. (nih.gov)
- Teens were also more likely than adults to no longer have high blood pressure after surgery or take blood pressure medications. (nih.gov)
- Our board-certified surgeons and staff are trained to provide every kind of surgical service from trauma to elective surgery. (orlandohealth.com)
- Orlando Health South Lake's outpatient surgery center is specially designed for same-day surgical procedures. (orlandohealth.com)
- After joint replacement surgery, patients usually experience less pain and less blood loss, which helps get them get back on their feet for a quicker recovery. (northshore.org)
- Using the precise model allows the surgeon to create a customized surgical plan prior to surgery, and also aids in maximum precision alignment of the joint replacement. (northshore.org)
- This well-coordinated team effort involves surgery and anesthesia, and augmenting minimally invasive surgical techniques and individually tailored pain management regimens. (northshore.org)
- Delivering this type of care is complex, and key interventions require inserting a needle and catheter into a central blood vessel, through which fluids, medications, or other aids can be given. (mit.edu)
- This review considers evidence from randomised controlled trials on using mechanical and surgical interventions for stopping severe bleeding after giving birth. (cochrane.org)
- We did not find sufficient high-quality evidence to determine the effectiveness and safety of mechanical and surgical interventions for treating primary PPH. (cochrane.org)
- There is currently insufficient evidence from RCTs to determine the relative effectiveness and safety of mechanical and surgical interventions for treating primary PPH. (cochrane.org)
- After the training interventions, more midwives used more than one method to estimate blood loss and higher doses of oxytocin to control haemorrhage. (who.int)
- Following training, more women were admitted to hospital in a stable condition and recovered and were discharged (P = 0.002), and fewer had surgical interventions (P = 0.007). (who.int)
- 12. Impact of a Blood Conservation Bundle Checklist on Perioperative Transfusion Rates during Myomectomy. (nih.gov)
- At Sarasota Memorial, patients can choose from a growing menu surgical services that are transfusion-free. (smh.com)
- A 36-year-old woman acquired severe human granulocytic anaplasmosis after blood transfusion following a cesarean section. (cdc.gov)
- Disease caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection was confirmed in 1 blood donor and in the transfusion recipient. (cdc.gov)
- We report a case of severe HGA acquired from blood transfusion. (cdc.gov)
- Compared with patients with other war-related injuries, amputees require nearly three times as many units of blood and four times as many surgical procedures (6). (cdc.gov)
- The addition of the surgical robot will provide greater access to higher quality specialized surgical services to all pediatric and obstetric patients through greater access. (staradvertiser.com)
- The data of 493 in patients were documented in the predesigned patient profile form and the prescribing practice of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis for clean and clean-contaminant surgical procedures was compared and analyzed two months' prior (period A) and post (period B) the implementation of antibiotic stewardship program. (nature.com)
- Estimated blood loss was higher among patients presenting with OACs compared to those not anticoagulated (mean difference 31.0 mL, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.2-55.7). (nih.gov)
- Clinical records of all patients who underwent surgical repair of large hiatal hernia in our hospital from April 2011 to March 2016 were reviewed. (sages.org)
- According to the FDA, two patients sustained serious injuries in connection to the surgical staples. (schmidtandclark.com)
- Hydroxyurea works by increasing the concentration of fetal hemoglobin (the predominant form of hemoglobin at birth that typically drops to very low levels by 6 months of age) in the red blood cells of patients with SCD, thus diluting the concentration of sickled red cells. (nih.gov)
- While many people qualify for this surgical option, pelvic deformities or weight and size may not allow for this approach in all patients. (northshore.org)
- Intentional Weight Loss for Overweight and Obese Knee Osteoarthritis Patients: Is More Better? (nih.gov)
- Costs also are reduced because of the shorter patient surgical recovery time and length of stay in the hospital. (staradvertiser.com)
- The da Vinci Surgical System has been successfully used in tens of thousands of minimally invasive procedures worldwide. (utmedicalcenter.org)
- During 1994-1996, he underwent seven surgical procedures to save his lower left leg. (cdc.gov)
- The patient has since undergone several surgical procedures for reconstruction of her face. (cdc.gov)
- The minimally invasive procedures speed recovery and reduce blood loss. (staradvertiser.com)
- Cancelling elective clinical consultations and surgical procedures was instrumental in assisting hospitals prepare for the COVID-19 crisis. (who.int)
- Consequently, paediatric units may be at the forefront of implementing reintroduction of patient-centred elective clinical and surgical procedures. (who.int)
- They are the first paediatric guidelines in the literature to propose a strategy to reintroduce elective surgical procedures. (who.int)
- Modular surgical interfaces may improve the handling and the dexterity of modular miniature robots during minimally invasive procedures. (hindawi.com)
- PIs have been reported during 1%-15% of surgical procedures, mostly associated with suturing (1,2). (cdc.gov)
- Preventing blood and body fluid exposures during surgical procedures. (cdc.gov)
- The intervention included an institutional policy requiring the implementation of a hands-free neutral passing zone to avoid hand to hand passing of surgical instruments during procedures, the promotion of blunt suture needles use for certain suturing tasks, and the promotion of double gloving. (cdc.gov)
- patient identifiers were used to link injury events to surgical procedures during which they occurred. (cdc.gov)
- These data included 2,113 BBF exposure events and 333,073 surgical procedures. (cdc.gov)
- The overall rate of reported BBF exposures was 6.3 per 1,000 surgical procedures (2.9 per 1,000 surgical hours). (cdc.gov)
- Electrosurgery Devices or Desiccators, are frequently used during surgical operations helping to prevent blood loss in operating rooms and outpatient procedures. (mohawkmedicalmall.com)
- This autotransfusion system, with its advanced technology, helps hospitals to recover a patient's blood during surgical procedures with the potential for medium-to-high blood loss. (zacks.com)
- History of any surgical procedures in the gastrointestinal tract. (nih.gov)
- Teen-LABS clinical centers had specialized experience in the surgical evaluation and management of young people with severe obesity, and both studies were funded primarily by NIH's National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). (nih.gov)
- Paediatric units, and especial y dedicated paediatric hospitals, about the necessity of reintroducing essential elective surgical cases. (who.int)
- Infections with bloodborne pathogens resulting from exposures to blood through percutaneous injuries (PIs) (e.g., needlestick injuries and cuts with sharp objects) are an occupational hazard for health-care workers (HCWs) (1). (cdc.gov)
- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently announced a sweeping overhaul of the safety protocol involved with the handling of medical surgical stapler devices, which have been linked to more than 41,000 severe injury reports since 2011. (schmidtandclark.com)
- In August 2019, Ethicon recalled two of their internal surgical staplers which were designed to create connections between structures during gastrointestinal surgeries. (schmidtandclark.com)
- IDA is characterized by low hemoglobin concentrations, and decreases in hematocrit (the proportion of red blood cells in blood by volume) and mean corpuscular volume (a measure of erythrocyte size) [ 2 , 10 ]. (nih.gov)
- However, about 1,100-1,500 infants annually develop ROP that is severe enough to require surgical treatment. (nih.gov)
- A study funded by the National Institutes of Health found that biomarkers present in the blood on the day of a traumatic brain injury (TBI) can accurately predict a patient’s risk of death or severe disability six months later. (nih.gov)
- While you are deep asleep and pain-free under general anesthesia, the doctor makes a half-inch (1.25 centimeters) surgical cut in the skin below the belly button. (nih.gov)
- Other Cochrane Reviews consider the use of drugs that promote blood clotting or contractions of the uterus. (cochrane.org)
- Benefits include precise cuts with limited blood loss. (mohawkmedicalmall.com)
- These include complete user control with a "Manual Mode" option, expanded wash volumes adjustable to the Association for the Advancement of Blood & Biotherapies (AABB) recommended levels, and enhanced emergency options. (zacks.com)
- 1. Technique to reduce blood loss during open abdominal myomectomy: transverse or vertical incision? (nih.gov)
- However, the degree of surgical delay did not mitigate this risk, and there was no difference in postoperative thromboembolism. (nih.gov)
- The Food and Drug Administration in March 2019 sent a letter to healthcare providers stating that it is reevaluating the safety of surgical staplers, and may choose to place them in another category which would grant the agency greater authority in testing and restricting the devices. (schmidtandclark.com)
- Surgical revision of the source of the blooding was performed, and she received 6 units of packed erythrocytes and 2 units of fresh frozen plasma, originating from 6 donors. (cdc.gov)
- AI-GUIDE automates nearly every step of the process to locate and insert a needle, guidewire, and catheter into a blood vessel to facilitate life-saving treatment. (mit.edu)
- Surgical treatment focuses on the release of the contracted, fibrous bands. (medscape.com)
- Indications for surgical treatment in adults should be based on symptoms of neck or shoulder girdle pain, as well as limitations in activities of daily living (ADLs). (medscape.com)
- Local problems with the skin and soft tissues preclude surgical treatment. (medscape.com)
- In 80% of cases of postpartum haemorrhage, women receive substandard care (10), underestimation of blood loss, delayed diagnosis and management of haemorrhage treatment failures (11), lack of easy-to-use local protocols (active management of the third stage of labour), lack of adequate education and training, and poor communication. (who.int)
- Hemostatic drug therapy, which uses medication to assist with blood clotting. (smh.com)
- The device verifies that the needle has penetrated the blood vessel, and then prompts the user to advance an integrated guidewire, a thin wire inserted into the body to guide a larger instrument, such as a catheter, into a vessel. (mit.edu)
- Once the catheter is securely in the blood vessel, the device withdraws the needle and the user can remove the device. (mit.edu)
- The condom catheter may result in increased blood loss, but no other important effects were seen in either study. (cochrane.org)
- The results suggested that the modified suture may reduce blood loss and the risk of hysterectomy. (cochrane.org)
- He suffered facial lacerations and a fracture of the left upper arm and lost an estimated 1500 cc of blood. (cdc.gov)
- The machine will improve the quality by providing better dexterity, visualization, precision and control when using the robotic surgical system,' Hawaii Pacific Health said. (staradvertiser.com)
- The two companies produce 4 out of 5 surgical staplers used in U.S. hospitals. (schmidtandclark.com)
- This was compared to external pressure with stitches in one study (13 women) and it was found that Bakri balloon may reduce blood loss but no other effects were seen. (cochrane.org)
- The prospective, double-blind, randomized 100-patient study evaluated the ability of Vitagel Surgical Hemostat (Vitagel), a microfibrillar collagen, thrombin and autologous plasma composite hemostatic agent, to reduce blood loss during primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty. (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
- Rarely, a hernia can cause a serious complication called strangulation, wherein tissue gets trapped inside the hernia and gets cut off from its blood supply. (dignityhealth.org)
- The ACC/AHA guidelines define resistant hypertension as failure of blood-pressure control despite full doses of an appropriate three-drug regimen including a diuretic. (medscape.com)
- [ 66 ] The ESC defines it as failure to achieve target blood pressure despite use of four drug classes, including a diuretic and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist in appropriate doses, in cases where another form of secondary hypertension is unlikely. (medscape.com)
- He experienced profound memory loss and has been under psychiatric and neurologic care since his injury. (cdc.gov)
- Surgical release of the deltoid contractures aims to restore natural scapulothoracic kinematics to avoid rotator cuff injury or worsening of rotator cuff pathology and impingement. (medscape.com)
- Seated comfortably at the da Vinci console, your surgeon views a magnified, high-resolution 3D image of the surgical site. (utmedicalcenter.org)
- Maintaining low cholesterol and low blood pressure is essential to controlling diabetes. (ucsd.edu)
- More is known about the genetics of the blood than about any other human tissue. (britannica.com)
- A third and more recent front of research involves the measurement of blood flow in the brain, which is a fairly direct indicator of functional activity in brain tissue. (britannica.com)
- region comprises three compartments: air, blood, and tissue. (britannica.com)