Blood Group Antigens
ABO Blood-Group System
Lewis Blood-Group System
Rh-Hr Blood-Group System
Kell Blood-Group System
Kidd Blood-Group System
Duffy Blood-Group System
MNSs Blood-Group System
Blood Group Incompatibility
Blood Grouping and Crossmatching
P Blood-Group System
Lutheran Blood-Group System
I Blood-Group System
Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate
Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte
Molecular Sequence Data
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Amino Acid Sequence
Adhesins, Escherichia coli
Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming
Receptors, Cell Surface
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Antigens, Viral, Tumor
Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell
Linkage relations of locus for X-borne type of Charcot-Marie-Tooth muscular atrophy and that for Xg blood groups. (1/741)The locus for the X-borne type of Charcot-Marie-Tooth muscular atrophy is not close to the Xg locus and probably not within direct measurable distance of it. (+info)
Molecular cloning of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored molecule CDw108. (2/741)CDw108, also known as the John-Milton-Hagen human blood group Ag, is an 80-kDa glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane glycoprotein that is preferentially expressed on activated lymphocytes and E. The molecular characteristics and biological function of the CDw108 were not clarified previously. In this manuscript, we identify the cDNA clone containing the entire coding sequence of the CDw108 gene and report its molecular characteristics. The 1998-base pairs of the open reading frame of the cloned cDNA encoded a protein of 666 amino acids (aa), including the 46 aa of the signal peptide and the 19 aa of the GPI-anchor motif. Thus, the membrane-anchoring form of CDw108 was the 602 aa, and the estimated molecular mass of the unglycosylated form was 68 kDa. The RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) cell attachment sequence and the five potential N-linked glycosylation sites were located on the membrane-anchoring form. Flow cytometric and immunoprecipitation analyses of the CDw108 cDNA transfectants confirmed that the cloned cDNA encoded the native form of CDw108. The CDw108 mRNA was expressed in activated PBMCs as well as in the spleen, thymus, testis, placenta, and brain, but was not expressed in any other tissues tested. Radiation hybrid mapping indicated that the CDw108 gene was located in the middle of the long arm of chromosome 15 (15q23-24). This molecular information will be critical for understanding the biological function of the CDw108 Ag. (+info)
Acquisition of human blood group antigens by Schistosoma mansoni. (3/741)Juvenile forms of Schistosoma mansoni (schistosomula) have been cultured in human blood of various specificities and tested for the presence of blood group substances on their surfaces. The tests employed were survival following transfer into rhesus monkeys immunized against human blood substances, mixed agglutination reactions, and immunofluorescence. A, B, H AND Lewisb+ antigens were expressed at the surface when the parasites were cultured in blood of appropriate specificities. Rhesus, M N S, AND Duffy antigens could not be detected on the parasite surface following culture. The evidence suggests that the expressed blood group antigens are of host origin and are acquired by the parasite during culture, probably in the form of glycolipids or megaloglycolipids. It is likely that these substances are also acquired by parasites in the bloodstream of man. They may serve to mask surface parasite antigens, and so enable schistosomes to evade parasite-specific humoral or cellular immune responses. (+info)
The expression of human blood group antigens during erythropoiesis in a cell culture system. (4/741)Phenotypic analysis of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells has been an invaluable tool in defining the biology of stem cell populations. We use here flow cytometry to examine the expression of human erythroid-specific surface markers during the maturation of early committed erythroid cells derived from cord blood in vitro. The temporal order of the expression of erythroid specific markers was as follows: Kell glycoprotein (gp), Rh gp, Landsteiner Wiener (LW) gp, glycophorin A (GPA), Band 3, Lutheran (Lu) gp, and Duffy (Fy) gp. The time at which some of these markers appeared suggests possible roles for some of these erythroid-specific polypeptides during the differentiation of these committed progenitors. The early appearance of Kell gp raises the possibility that it may have an important role in the early stages of hematopoiesis or cell lineage determination. Kell gp may also be a useful marker for the diagnosis of erythroleukemia. The late expression of Lu gp suggests it may be involved in the migration of erythroid precursors from the marrow. Fy gp is also expressed late consistent with a role as a scavenger receptor for cytokines in the bone marrow and circulation. Rh c antigen appeared before Rh D antigen, and it is suggested that this may reflect a reorganization of the developing erythroid cell membrane involving the Rh polypeptides and other components, including GPA and Band 3. (+info)
The LWb blood group as a marker of prehistoric Baltic migrations and admixture. (5/741)Archaeological findings and historical records indicate frequent migrations and exchange of genetic material between populations in the Baltic Sea area. However, there have so far been very few attempts to trace migrations in this area using genetic markers. We have studied the Baltic populations with respect to exceptional variations in the frequencies of the Landsteiner-Wiener (LW) blood group. The frequency of the uncommon LWb gene was high in the Balts, around 6% among Latvians and Lithuanians, very low among the other western Europeans (0-0.1%) and apparently absent in Asiatic and African populations. From the Baltic region of peak frequency there was a regular decline of LWb incidence (a descending cline) in the neighboring populations: 4.0% in the Estonians, 2.9% in the Finns, 2. 2% in the Vologda Russians, and 2.0% in the Poles. Thus the distribution of LWb suggests considerable and extensive Baltic admixture, especially in the north and northeast direction. In Southern Sweden with an LWb frequency of 0.3%, the Baltic influence appeared slight, while in the population of the Swedish island Gotland in the middle of the Baltic Sea there was a significantly increased LWb frequency of 1.0% compared with that of Western European countries. The distinction of codominantly inherited LW antigenic forms, LWa and LWb (previously Nea), is known to be due to a single base substitution. Based on our population data, it is plausible that the expansion of this point mutation occurred only once during human history. Furthermore, our data indicate that the expansion of the LWb mutation occurred in Balts and that LWb can be considered a 'Baltic tribal marker', its presence in other populations being an indicator of the degree of Baltic genetic influence. (+info)
Studies on the structure and I-blood-group activity of poly(glycosyl)ceramides. (6/741)Employing a modified technique of acetolysis, which allows almost a complete recovery of constituent sugars from poly(glycosyl)ceramides, the glycolipids were found to contain an excess of N-acetylglucosamine over galactose. On the basis of Smith degradation, methylation study, chromium trioxide degradation and the structures of oligosaccharides released from the glycolipids by partial acid hydrolysis, the presence of two types of sugar sequences has been established in poly(glycosyl)ceramides: a) Galbeta1 leads to 4GlcNAcbeta1 leads to 6Gal3 comes from R1 b) Galbeta1 leads to 4GlcNAcbeta1 leads to 4GlcNAc1 leads to R2. The repeating unit of poly(glycosyl)ceramides seems to be the GlcNAcbeta1 leads to 3Gal sequence. The specificity of one anti-I serum (Woj) is directed against the non-reducing ending of the first kind of chain. Three other anti-I sera reacted with inner portions of the oligosaccharide chains of the glycolipids. (+info)
Novel method for evaluation of the oligomeric structure of membrane proteins. (7/741)Assessment of the quaternary structure of membrane proteins by PAGE has been problematic owing to their relatively poor solubility in non-dissociative detergents. Here we report that several membrane proteins can be readily solubilized in their native quaternary structure with the use of the detergent perfluoro-octanoic acid (PFO). Further, PFO can be used with PAGE, thereby providing a novel, accessible tool with which to assess the molecular mass of homo-multimeric protein complexes. (+info)
Interaction between cytochalasin B-treated malarial parasites and erythrocytes. Attachment and junction formation. (8/741)We have previously demonstrated that invasion of erythrocytes (RBCs) by malaria merozoites follows a sequence: recognition and attachment in an apical orientation associated with widespread deformation of the RBC, junction formation, movement of the junction around the merozoite that brings the merozoite into the invaginated RBC membrane, and sealing of the membrane. In the present paper, we describe a method for blocking invasion at an early stage in the sequence. Cytochalasin-treated merozoites attach specifically to host RBCs, most frequently by the apical region that contains specialized organelles (rhoptries) associated with invasion. The parasite then forms a junction between the apical region and the RBC. Cytochalasin blocks movement of this junction, a later step in invasion. Cytochalasin-treated (Plasmodium knowlesi) merozoites attach to Duffy-negative human RBCs, although these RBCs are resistant to invasion by the parasite. The attachment with these RBCs, however, differs from susceptible RBCs in that there is no junction formation. Therefore the Duffy associated antigen appears to be involved in junction formation, not initial attachment. (+info)
Blood group antigens are proteins or carbohydrates that are present on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) and other cells in the body. These antigens are responsible for the different blood types that are commonly classified as A, B, AB, and O. Blood group antigens are recognized by the immune system as foreign substances and can trigger an immune response if they are present in the wrong type of blood. This can lead to the production of antibodies that attack and destroy the RBCs, causing a condition called hemolytic anemia. In medical practice, knowledge of blood group antigens is important for blood transfusions, organ transplantation, and other medical procedures that involve the use of blood or blood products. It is also important for identifying potential donors for bone marrow transplantation and for determining the risk of certain diseases, such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia.
The ABO blood group system is a classification system used to identify different types of human blood. It is based on the presence or absence of certain antigens (proteins) on the surface of red blood cells. There are four main blood groups in the ABO system: A, B, AB, and O. Each blood group is determined by the presence or absence of two specific antigens, A and B. People with blood group A have the A antigen on their red blood cells, while people with blood group B have the B antigen. People with blood group AB have both the A and B antigens, and people with blood group O have neither of these antigens. The ABO blood group system is important in blood transfusions, as people with certain blood types can only receive blood from people with compatible blood types.
Blood group incompatibility refers to a condition where the blood of two individuals has different blood types, resulting in an immune response when the two types are mixed. This immune response can lead to the destruction of red blood cells, which can cause symptoms such as anemia, jaundice, and organ damage. Blood group incompatibility is most commonly associated with Rh incompatibility, where a person with Rh-negative blood reacts to Rh-positive blood, but it can also occur with other blood types and antigens. In severe cases, blood group incompatibility can be life-threatening and may require medical intervention such as blood transfusions or immunosuppressive therapy.
In the medical field, antigens are substances that can trigger an immune response in the body. They are typically proteins or carbohydrates that are found on the surface of cells or viruses, bacteria, and other microorganisms. When the immune system encounters an antigen, it produces antibodies that can recognize and bind to the antigen, marking it for destruction by immune cells. Antigens can be classified into two main categories: 1. Exogenous antigens: These are antigens that come from outside the body, such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins. They can cause an immune response when they enter the body. 2. Endogenous antigens: These are antigens that are produced by the body itself, such as cancer cells or damaged cells. They can also trigger an immune response if they are recognized as foreign by the immune system. Antigens play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to protect the body against infections and diseases. They are also used in medical treatments such as vaccines, where they are introduced into the body to stimulate an immune response and provide protection against future infections.
Fucosyltransferases (FTs) are a family of enzymes that transfer the fucose sugar molecule from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule. In the medical field, FTs play important roles in various biological processes, including cell-cell adhesion, protein folding, and immune response. There are several types of FTs, each with a specific substrate specificity and tissue distribution. For example, some FTs are involved in the synthesis of glycoproteins and glycolipids in the Golgi apparatus, while others are located in the plasma membrane and are involved in cell-cell adhesion. Abnormalities in FT activity have been linked to various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases. For example, some cancer cells overexpress certain FTs, leading to increased production of fucosylated proteins that can promote tumor growth and metastasis. In addition, some autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, have been associated with changes in FT activity. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of FTs is important for developing new therapeutic strategies for various diseases.
Blood grouping and crossmatching is a medical procedure used to determine the compatibility of a patient's blood with potential blood donors. It involves identifying the blood type of both the patient and the donor, and checking for any antibodies or antigens that may cause an immune reaction if the blood is transfused. The blood grouping process involves testing for the presence of A and B antigens on the surface of red blood cells. People with type A blood have A antigens on their red blood cells, while those with type B blood have B antigens. People with type AB blood have both A and B antigens, and those with type O blood have neither A nor B antigens. The crossmatching process involves mixing the patient's blood with a potential donor's blood to check for any antibodies or antigens that may cause an immune reaction. This is done by mixing a small amount of the patient's blood with a small amount of the donor's blood and observing for any agglutination (clumping) of the red blood cells. If agglutination occurs, it indicates that the donor's blood is not compatible with the patient's blood and should not be used for transfusion. Blood grouping and crossmatching is an important step in ensuring the safety and effectiveness of blood transfusions, and is typically performed before any blood is administered to a patient.
Glycophorin is a type of protein found on the surface of red blood cells (erythrocytes) in the human body. It is a member of the sialoprotein family and is composed of two subunits, glycophorin A and glycophorin B. Glycophorin plays an important role in the function of red blood cells, as it helps to regulate the movement of ions and other molecules across the cell membrane. It also plays a role in the attachment of red blood cells to the walls of blood vessels, which is important for maintaining blood flow. In the medical field, glycophorin is often studied in the context of blood transfusions and blood typing. Because glycophorin is present on the surface of all red blood cells, it can be used to identify the blood type of an individual. Additionally, glycophorin has been shown to be involved in certain blood disorders, such as sickle cell disease and thalassemia, and may be a potential target for the development of new treatments for these conditions.
In the medical field, a carbohydrate sequence refers to a linear or branched chain of monosaccharide units that are linked together by glycosidic bonds. These sequences are found in various biological molecules such as glycoproteins, glycolipids, and polysaccharides. Carbohydrate sequences play important roles in many biological processes, including cell recognition, cell signaling, and immune responses. They can also be used as diagnostic markers for various diseases, such as cancer and infectious diseases. The structure and composition of carbohydrate sequences can vary widely, depending on the type of monosaccharide units and the arrangement of the glycosidic bonds. Understanding the structure and function of carbohydrate sequences is important for developing new drugs and therapies for various diseases.
In the medical field, "Antigens, Neoplasm" refers to proteins or other molecules that are produced by cancer cells (neoplasms) and are recognized by the immune system as foreign. These antigens can be used as targets for cancer immunotherapy, which aims to stimulate the immune system to attack and destroy cancer cells. Antigens, neoplasm can also be used as diagnostic markers to identify cancer cells in the body or to monitor the effectiveness of cancer treatment.
In the medical field, antigens are molecules that can trigger an immune response in the body. Surface antigens are antigens that are located on the surface of cells or viruses. They are recognized by the immune system as foreign and can trigger an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies that can neutralize or destroy the antigen. Surface antigens are important for the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate the immune system to produce a protective response against specific diseases. Examples of surface antigens include the spike protein on the surface of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which is the cause of COVID-19, and the antigens on the surface of cancer cells, which can be targeted by cancer vaccines.
In the medical field, "Antigens, Bacterial" refers to substances that are produced by bacteria and can trigger an immune response in the body. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, or nucleic acids that are unique to a particular bacterial species or strain. When bacteria enter the body, the immune system recognizes these antigens as foreign and mounts a defense against them. This response can include the production of antibodies by B cells, which can neutralize the bacteria or mark them for destruction by other immune cells. The immune response to bacterial antigens is an important part of the body's defense against bacterial infections. Bacterial antigens are used in a variety of medical applications, including the development of vaccines to prevent bacterial infections. By introducing a small amount of a bacterial antigen into the body, vaccines can stimulate the immune system to produce a response that will protect against future infections by the same bacteria.
In the medical field, isoantibodies are antibodies that react with specific antigens on red blood cells (RBCs) that are not present on the individual's own RBCs. These antigens are called isoantigens because they are different from the individual's own antigens. Isoantibodies can be produced by the immune system in response to exposure to foreign RBCs, such as during a blood transfusion or pregnancy. When isoantibodies bind to RBCs, they can cause a variety of problems, including hemolysis (the breakdown of RBCs), jaundice, and anemia. There are many different types of isoantibodies, and they can be detected through blood tests. The presence of isoantibodies can be a cause for concern in certain medical situations, such as before a blood transfusion or during pregnancy, and may require special precautions to prevent complications.
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are laboratory-made proteins that can mimic the immune system's ability to fight off harmful pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria. They are produced by genetically engineering cells to produce large quantities of a single type of antibody, which is specific to a particular antigen (a molecule that triggers an immune response). In the medical field, monoclonal antibodies are used to treat a variety of conditions, including cancer, autoimmune diseases, and infectious diseases. They can be administered intravenously, intramuscularly, or subcutaneously, depending on the condition being treated. Monoclonal antibodies work by binding to specific antigens on the surface of cells or pathogens, marking them for destruction by the immune system. They can also block the activity of specific molecules involved in disease processes, such as enzymes or receptors. Overall, monoclonal antibodies have revolutionized the treatment of many diseases, offering targeted and effective therapies with fewer side effects than traditional treatments.
Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate (TAC) are a type of tumor-associated antigen that are composed of carbohydrates. These antigens are found on the surface of cancer cells and are not present on normal cells. They are recognized by the immune system as foreign and can stimulate an immune response against the cancer cells. TAC antigens are being studied as potential targets for cancer immunotherapy, which aims to harness the power of the immune system to fight cancer.
Fucose is a monosaccharide that is commonly found in the cell walls of bacteria, fungi, and plants. In the medical field, fucose is often used as a diagnostic tool to identify certain types of bacteria and fungi. It is also used in the production of certain types of vaccines and antibiotics. Additionally, fucose has been shown to have potential therapeutic applications, such as in the treatment of cancer and inflammatory diseases.
Oligosaccharides are short chains of sugar molecules that are composed of three to ten monosaccharide units. They are also known as "oligos" or "short-chain carbohydrates." In the medical field, oligosaccharides have been studied for their potential health benefits, including their ability to improve gut health, boost the immune system, and reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. Some specific types of oligosaccharides that have been studied in the medical field include: 1. Prebiotics: These are oligosaccharides that selectively stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut, such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli. 2. Galactooligosaccharides (GOS): These are oligosaccharides that are found naturally in breast milk and have been shown to improve gut health and immune function in infants. 3. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS): These are oligosaccharides that are found in many fruits and vegetables and have been shown to improve gut health and reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Overall, oligosaccharides are an important class of carbohydrates that have potential health benefits and are being studied in the medical field for their potential therapeutic applications.
Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte (AE1) is a protein found on the surface of red blood cells (erythrocytes) that plays a crucial role in regulating the transport of chloride ions (Cl-) and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) across the cell membrane. AE1 is also known as band 3 protein or anion exchanger 1 (AE1). AE1 is responsible for maintaining the acid-base balance in the body by regulating the exchange of HCO3- and Cl- ions between the red blood cells and the surrounding extracellular fluid. This exchange is essential for the proper functioning of the respiratory and renal systems, as well as for the maintenance of blood pH. Mutations in the gene encoding AE1 can lead to a group of inherited disorders known as hereditary spherocytosis, which are characterized by the formation of abnormally shaped red blood cells. These disorders can cause anemia, jaundice, and other complications.
Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are a type of complex lipid molecule that are found in the cell membranes of all living organisms. They are composed of a sphingosine backbone, a fatty acid chain, and a carbohydrate (sugar) group. GSLs play important roles in various cellular processes, including cell signaling, cell adhesion, and immune response. They are also involved in the formation of specialized membrane domains, such as lipid rafts, which are important for the proper functioning of many cellular processes. In the medical field, GSLs have been studied for their potential roles in various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases. For example, changes in the levels or composition of GSLs have been observed in many types of cancer, and some GSLs have been identified as potential targets for cancer therapy. Additionally, GSLs have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, and in the development of viral infections.
In the medical field, a trisaccharide is a type of carbohydrate that is composed of three monosaccharide units. Trisaccharides are often found in complex carbohydrates, such as starches and glycogen, and they can also be found in some dietary fibers. They are an important source of energy for the body and are also involved in a variety of biological processes, including the regulation of blood sugar levels and the immune response. Trisaccharides can be further broken down into smaller units by enzymes in the digestive system, allowing the body to absorb and utilize the energy they provide.
Glycolipids are a type of complex lipid molecule that consists of a carbohydrate (sugar) moiety attached to a lipid (fatty acid) moiety. They are found in the cell membrane of all living organisms and play important roles in cell signaling, recognition, and adhesion. In the medical field, glycolipids are of particular interest because they are involved in many diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases. For example, some glycolipids are recognized by the immune system as foreign and can trigger an immune response, leading to inflammation and tissue damage. Other glycolipids are involved in the formation of cancer cells and can be targeted for the development of new cancer therapies. Glycolipids are also used in medical research as markers for certain diseases, such as Gaucher disease, which is caused by a deficiency in an enzyme that breaks down glycolipids. Additionally, glycolipids are used in the development of new drugs and vaccines, as they can modulate immune responses and target specific cells or tissues.
Galactosyltransferases are a group of enzymes that transfer galactose molecules from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule. These enzymes play important roles in the synthesis of various glycoproteins and glycolipids, which are molecules that contain carbohydrates attached to proteins or lipids. In the medical field, galactosyltransferases are of particular interest because they are involved in the production of certain types of cancer cells. For example, the enzyme beta1,4-galactosyltransferase 7 (B4GALT7) has been shown to be overexpressed in many types of cancer, including breast, ovarian, and lung cancer. This overexpression is thought to contribute to the growth and spread of cancer cells. Galactosyltransferases are also important for the proper functioning of the immune system. For example, the enzyme alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase (alpha1,3-GalT) is involved in the synthesis of a molecule called the alpha-gal epitope, which is found on the surface of many types of cells in the body. The alpha-gal epitope is recognized by the immune system as foreign, and it can trigger an immune response that leads to the destruction of cells that display it. This immune response is thought to play a role in the rejection of transplanted organs and the development of certain types of autoimmune diseases.
In the medical field, antigens are substances that can trigger an immune response in the body. Antigens can be found in various forms, including proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, and they can be produced by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms. Viral antigens are specific proteins or other molecules that are produced by viruses and can be recognized by the immune system as foreign. When a virus enters the body, it produces viral antigens, which are then recognized by the immune system as a threat and trigger an immune response. The immune response to viral antigens involves the production of antibodies, which are proteins that can bind to and neutralize the virus. The immune system also produces immune cells, such as T cells and B cells, which can recognize and destroy infected cells. Understanding the properties and behavior of viral antigens is important in the development of vaccines and other treatments for viral infections. By stimulating the immune system to recognize and respond to viral antigens, vaccines can help protect against viral infections and prevent the spread of disease.
N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (NAGT) are a family of enzymes that transfer the N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) residue from UDP-GalNAc to specific acceptor molecules, such as glycoproteins and glycolipids. These enzymes play a crucial role in the biosynthesis of complex carbohydrates, also known as glycans, which are essential for many cellular processes, including cell-cell recognition, signaling, and immune function. In the medical field, NAGTs are of particular interest because defects in these enzymes can lead to a group of rare genetic disorders known as mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs). MPSs are characterized by the accumulation of undegraded glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the lysosomes of cells, leading to a range of symptoms, including skeletal abnormalities, intellectual disability, and organ dysfunction. NAGT deficiencies are responsible for several forms of MPS, including MPS I, MPS II, and MPS VII. In addition to their role in MPSs, NAGTs are also being studied for their potential therapeutic applications in other diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. For example, some researchers are exploring the use of NAGT inhibitors as targeted therapies for cancer, as these enzymes are often upregulated in cancer cells and are involved in processes such as cell proliferation and invasion.
In the medical field, carbohydrate conformation refers to the three-dimensional shape or structure of carbohydrates, which are complex organic molecules made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Carbohydrates play important roles in various biological processes, including energy metabolism, cell signaling, and immune responses. The conformation of carbohydrates is determined by the arrangement of their constituent atoms and the types of chemical bonds between them. There are two main types of carbohydrate conformations: alpha and beta. In alpha conformation, the hydroxyl groups on the carbon atoms are arranged in a specific way, while in beta conformation, the hydroxyl groups are arranged differently. The conformation of carbohydrates can also be influenced by factors such as temperature, pH, and the presence of other molecules. Understanding carbohydrate conformation is important for understanding how carbohydrates interact with other molecules in the body, such as proteins and enzymes, and for developing drugs and other therapeutic agents that target carbohydrate-based biomolecules.
Glycoconjugates are complex molecules that consist of carbohydrates (sugars) covalently attached to other molecules, such as proteins, lipids, or nucleic acids. In the medical field, glycoconjugates play important roles in various biological processes, including cell signaling, immune response, and disease pathogenesis. Glycoconjugates are found on the surface of cells and in the extracellular matrix, and they can be modified in response to various stimuli. For example, changes in the glycosylation patterns of proteins can affect their function and stability, and altered glycosylation has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases. In addition to their biological functions, glycoconjugates are also important targets for drug discovery and development. Many drugs and vaccines target specific glycoconjugates on the surface of cells or viruses, and the development of glycoconjugate-based therapies is an active area of research in the medical field.
Mucins are a family of high molecular weight glycoproteins that are found in mucus, a slimy substance that covers and protects the lining of various organs in the body, including the respiratory, digestive, and reproductive tracts. Mucins are responsible for maintaining the viscosity and elasticity of mucus, which helps to trap and remove foreign particles, such as bacteria and viruses, from the body. Mucins are composed of a central core protein, which is heavily glycosylated, meaning it is heavily modified with sugar molecules. These sugar molecules give mucins their unique properties, such as their ability to bind to other molecules and form a gel-like matrix. Mucins are also involved in a variety of other functions, such as cell signaling, cell adhesion, and immune response. In the medical field, mucins are often studied in the context of diseases that affect the respiratory and digestive tracts, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Mucins are also being studied in the context of cancer, as changes in the expression and function of mucins can be associated with the development and progression of certain types of cancer.
Amino sugars are a type of carbohydrate that contains an amino group (-NH2) attached to a sugar molecule. They are also known as N-acetylneuraminic acid or sialic acid. Amino sugars are found in many biological molecules, including glycoproteins and glycolipids, and play important roles in various biological processes, such as cell signaling, immune function, and viral infection. In the medical field, amino sugars are often used as diagnostic tools or as components of therapeutic agents, such as vaccines and antiviral drugs.
Caliciviridae infections refer to a group of viral infections caused by viruses belonging to the family Caliciviridae. These viruses are highly contagious and can cause a range of illnesses in humans and animals, including norovirus infections, which are a common cause of gastroenteritis (inflammation of the stomach and intestines) and hepatitis E virus infections, which can cause liver inflammation and damage. Other members of the Caliciviridae family include the feline calicivirus, which can cause respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in cats, and the rabbit calicivirus, which can cause respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in rabbits. Symptoms of Caliciviridae infections can vary depending on the specific virus causing the infection, but may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and fatigue. Treatment for Caliciviridae infections typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent dehydration, and may also include antiviral medications in some cases. Prevention of Caliciviridae infections involves good hygiene practices, such as frequent hand washing and avoiding close contact with infected individuals or animals.
Antibody specificity refers to the ability of an antibody to recognize and bind to a specific antigen or foreign substance. Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of an antigen, such as a virus or bacteria. Each antibody is unique and has a specific shape that allows it to recognize and bind to a specific antigen. Antibody specificity is important in the immune response because it ensures that the immune system can distinguish between self and non-self molecules. This helps to prevent the immune system from attacking the body's own cells and tissues, which can lead to autoimmune diseases. Antibody specificity is also important in the development of vaccines. Vaccines contain weakened or inactivated forms of a pathogen or its antigens, which stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies that can recognize and neutralize the pathogen if it is encountered in the future. By selecting antigens that are specific to a particular pathogen, vaccines can help to protect against a wide range of infections.
Bacterial adhesion refers to the process by which bacteria attach themselves to a surface, such as a host tissue or medical device. This process is a critical step in the colonization and infection of a host by bacteria. Bacterial adhesion is facilitated by the presence of adhesins, which are proteins on the surface of bacteria that interact with specific receptors on the host surface. These interactions can be either reversible or irreversible, depending on the strength of the bond between the adhesin and receptor. Bacterial adhesion can have important implications in the medical field, particularly in the context of infections. For example, the ability of bacteria to adhere to medical devices can lead to biofilm formation, which can make infections more difficult to treat. Additionally, bacterial adhesion to host tissues can contribute to the development of chronic infections and tissue damage. Understanding the mechanisms of bacterial adhesion is therefore important for the development of new strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections.
Adhesins are proteins found on the surface of certain bacteria that allow them to adhere to and colonize host cells or tissues. These proteins play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of many bacterial infections, as they enable bacteria to attach to and invade host cells, resist phagocytosis by immune cells, and form biofilms that can protect bacteria from antibiotics and the host immune system. Adhesins are typically classified based on their function and the type of host cell or tissue they bind to. For example, some adhesins are involved in the attachment of bacteria to epithelial cells lining the respiratory, gastrointestinal, or urinary tracts, while others bind to blood cells or the extracellular matrix. The study of adhesins is an important area of research in the medical field, as it can help identify new targets for the development of antibiotics and vaccines, as well as provide insights into the mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis and the development of antibiotic resistance.
CD55 is a protein that is expressed on the surface of many different types of cells in the body, including immune cells, blood cells, and cells in the nervous system. It is also known as decay-accelerating factor (DAF) because it has the ability to accelerate the decay of complement proteins, which are part of the body's immune system. Antigens, CD55 refers to molecules that bind to the CD55 protein on the surface of cells. These antigens can be recognized by the immune system as foreign and can trigger an immune response. In some cases, the immune system may attack cells that express CD55 as a result of an autoimmune disorder, which is a condition in which the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells in the body.
In the medical field, the colon refers to the large intestine, which is the final part of the digestive system. The colon is responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes from the remaining indigestible food matter, forming and storing feces, and eliminating waste from the body. The colon is divided into several sections, including the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum. The colon is an important organ for maintaining overall health and wellbeing, and any issues with the colon can lead to a range of medical conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease, colon cancer, and diverticulitis.
In the medical field, an amino acid sequence refers to the linear order of amino acids in a protein molecule. Proteins are made up of chains of amino acids, and the specific sequence of these amino acids determines the protein's structure and function. The amino acid sequence is determined by the genetic code, which is a set of rules that specifies how the sequence of nucleotides in DNA is translated into the sequence of amino acids in a protein. Each amino acid is represented by a three-letter code, and the sequence of these codes is the amino acid sequence of the protein. The amino acid sequence is important because it determines the protein's three-dimensional structure, which in turn determines its function. Small changes in the amino acid sequence can have significant effects on the protein's structure and function, and this can lead to diseases or disorders. For example, mutations in the amino acid sequence of a protein involved in blood clotting can lead to bleeding disorders.
Glycoproteins are a type of protein that contains one or more carbohydrate chains covalently attached to the protein molecule. These carbohydrate chains are made up of sugars and are often referred to as glycans. Glycoproteins play important roles in many biological processes, including cell signaling, cell adhesion, and immune response. They are found in many different types of cells and tissues throughout the body, and are often used as markers for various diseases and conditions. In the medical field, glycoproteins are often studied as potential targets for the development of new drugs and therapies.
In the medical field, antigens are molecules that can trigger an immune response in the body. Protozoan antigens are antigens that are produced by protozoan parasites, which are single-celled organisms that can cause various diseases in humans and animals. Protozoan antigens can be found in a variety of protozoan parasites, including Plasmodium (which causes malaria), Trypanosoma (which causes African sleeping sickness), Leishmania (which causes leishmaniasis), and Giardia (which causes giardiasis). When the immune system encounters a protozoan antigen, it produces antibodies that can recognize and bind to the antigen. This can help to neutralize the parasite or mark it for destruction by other immune cells. However, some protozoan parasites are able to evade the immune system and continue to cause disease.
Adhesins, Escherichia coli are proteins expressed on the surface of Escherichia coli bacteria that enable them to adhere to and colonize various host tissues. These adhesins interact with specific receptors on the host cells, allowing the bacteria to attach and form biofilms, which can lead to infection and disease. Examples of adhesins in E. coli include FimH (fimbrial adhesin), intimin, and curli. Understanding the mechanisms of adhesion and colonization by E. coli is important for the development of effective treatments for E. coli infections.
In the medical field, a base sequence refers to the specific order of nucleotides (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine) that make up the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of an organism. The base sequence determines the genetic information encoded within the DNA molecule and ultimately determines the traits and characteristics of an individual. The base sequence can be analyzed using various techniques, such as DNA sequencing, to identify genetic variations or mutations that may be associated with certain diseases or conditions.
In the medical field, alleles refer to the different forms of a gene that exist at a particular genetic locus (location) on a chromosome. Each gene has two alleles, one inherited from each parent. These alleles can be either dominant or recessive, and their combination determines the expression of the trait associated with that gene. For example, the gene for blood type has three alleles: A, B, and O. A person can inherit one or two copies of each allele, resulting in different blood types (A, B, AB, or O). The dominant allele is the one that is expressed when present in one copy, while the recessive allele is only expressed when present in two copies. Understanding the different alleles of a gene is important in medical genetics because it can help diagnose genetic disorders, predict disease risk, and guide treatment decisions. For example, mutations in certain alleles can cause genetic diseases such as sickle cell anemia or cystic fibrosis. By identifying the specific alleles involved in a genetic disorder, doctors can develop targeted therapies or genetic counseling to help affected individuals and their families.
Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming are proteins that are produced by certain types of polyomaviruses, which are a group of viruses that can cause cancer in humans and animals. These antigens are produced by the virus after it infects a cell and transforms it into a cancerous cell. The antigens are recognized by the immune system as foreign and can trigger an immune response, which can help to control the growth and spread of the cancerous cells. However, in some cases, the immune system may not be able to effectively recognize and attack the cancerous cells, which can lead to the progression of the cancer.
Colonic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the colon, which is the final part of the large intestine. These growths can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign colonic neoplasms include polyps, which are small, non-cancerous growths that can develop on the inner lining of the colon. Polyps can be further classified as adenomas, which are made up of glandular tissue, or hyperplastic polyps, which are non-glandular. Malignant colonic neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous tumors that can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body. The most common type of colon cancer is adenocarcinoma, which starts in the glandular tissue of the colon. Colonic neoplasms can be detected through various diagnostic tests, including colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and fecal occult blood testing. Treatment options for colonic neoplasms depend on the type, size, and location of the growth, as well as the overall health of the patient. Early detection and treatment of colonic neoplasms can significantly improve the chances of a successful outcome.
Antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins, are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens. Antibodies are designed to recognize and bind to specific molecules on the surface of these foreign substances, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. There are five main classes of antibodies: IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, and IgE. Each class of antibody has a unique structure and function, and they are produced by different types of immune cells in response to different types of pathogens. Antibodies play a critical role in the immune response, helping to protect the body against infection and disease. They can neutralize pathogens by binding to them and preventing them from entering cells, or they can mark them for destruction by other immune cells. In some cases, antibodies can also help to stimulate the immune response by activating immune cells or by recruiting other immune cells to the site of infection. Antibodies are often used in medical treatments, such as in the development of vaccines, where they are used to stimulate the immune system to produce a response to a specific pathogen. They are also used in diagnostic tests to detect the presence of specific pathogens or to monitor the immune response to a particular treatment.
Rhamnose is a type of sugar molecule that is found in many different types of plants and microorganisms. It is a pentose sugar, meaning that it has five carbon atoms in its ring structure. In the medical field, rhamnose is sometimes used as a dietary supplement or as an ingredient in certain medications. It has been studied for its potential health benefits, including its ability to improve digestion, boost the immune system, and reduce inflammation. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of rhamnose supplementation.
In the medical field, "Antigens, Fungal" refers to substances that can trigger an immune response in the body when they are recognized as foreign or harmful. These substances are produced by fungi and can be found in various forms, such as proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids. When the immune system encounters fungal antigens, it produces antibodies and immune cells that can recognize and attack the fungi. This immune response can help to prevent or treat fungal infections, such as candidiasis, aspergillosis, and cryptococcosis. However, in some cases, the immune system may overreact to fungal antigens, leading to an autoimmune response that can cause damage to healthy tissues. This can occur in conditions such as chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, where the immune system becomes hyperactive and attacks the skin and mucous membranes. Overall, understanding the role of fungal antigens in the immune system is important for the diagnosis and treatment of fungal infections and other immune-related conditions.
In the medical field, "Antigens, CD" refers to a group of proteins found on the surface of certain cells in the immune system. These proteins, known as CD antigens, are recognized by other immune cells and play a crucial role in the immune response to infections and diseases. CD antigens are classified into different families based on their structure and function. Some CD antigens are expressed on the surface of immune cells themselves, while others are found on the surface of cells that are targeted by the immune system, such as cancer cells or cells infected with viruses. The identification and characterization of CD antigens has been important for the development of new diagnostic tests and therapies for a variety of diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases. For example, monoclonal antibodies that target specific CD antigens have been used in cancer immunotherapy to help the immune system recognize and attack cancer cells.
In the medical field, a cell line refers to a group of cells that have been derived from a single parent cell and have the ability to divide and grow indefinitely in culture. These cells are typically grown in a laboratory setting and are used for research purposes, such as studying the effects of drugs or investigating the underlying mechanisms of diseases. Cell lines are often derived from cancerous cells, as these cells tend to divide and grow more rapidly than normal cells. However, they can also be derived from normal cells, such as fibroblasts or epithelial cells. Cell lines are characterized by their unique genetic makeup, which can be used to identify them and compare them to other cell lines. Because cell lines can be grown in large quantities and are relatively easy to maintain, they are a valuable tool in medical research. They allow researchers to study the effects of drugs and other treatments on specific cell types, and to investigate the underlying mechanisms of diseases at the cellular level.
Receptors, cell surface are proteins that are located on the surface of cells and are responsible for receiving signals from the environment. These signals can be chemical, electrical, or mechanical in nature and can trigger a variety of cellular responses. There are many different types of cell surface receptors, including ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors, and enzyme-linked receptors. These receptors play a critical role in many physiological processes, including sensation, communication, and regulation of cellular activity. In the medical field, understanding the function and regulation of cell surface receptors is important for developing new treatments for a wide range of diseases and conditions.
In the medical field, "Antigens, Helminth" refers to proteins or other molecules found on the surface of helminths (parasitic worms) that can trigger an immune response in the host. These antigens can be recognized by the host's immune system as foreign and can stimulate the production of antibodies and other immune cells to fight off the infection. Helminth antigens are important in the diagnosis and treatment of helminth infections, as well as in the development of vaccines against these parasites.
In the medical field, cross reactions refer to the phenomenon where an individual's immune system reacts to a substance that it has not been specifically exposed to before, but has a similar molecular structure to a substance that it has previously encountered. This can occur when an individual has been exposed to a substance that triggers an immune response, and then later encounters a similar substance that triggers a similar response. For example, if an individual is allergic to peanuts, their immune system may produce antibodies that react to the proteins in peanuts. If they later encounter a similar protein in a different food, such as tree nuts, their immune system may also produce antibodies that react to the protein in tree nuts, even though they have never been exposed to tree nuts before. This is known as a cross reaction. Cross reactions can occur in a variety of medical contexts, including allergies, autoimmune diseases, and infections. They can also occur with vaccines, where the vaccine contains a small amount of a similar substance to the pathogen that it is designed to protect against. In some cases, cross reactions can be mild and harmless, while in other cases they can be severe and even life-threatening.
Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) is a protein that is produced by certain types of cancer cells, as well as by normal cells in the embryonic stage of development. It is a glycoprotein that is found in the blood and tissues of the body. In the medical field, CEA is often used as a tumor marker, which means that it can be measured in the blood to help diagnose and monitor certain types of cancer. CEA levels are typically higher in people with cancer than in people without cancer, although they can also be elevated in other conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, liver disease, and smoking. CEA is most commonly used as a tumor marker for colorectal cancer, but it can also be used to monitor the response to treatment and to detect recurrence of the cancer. It is also used as a tumor marker for other types of cancer, such as pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, and lung cancer. It is important to note that while elevated CEA levels can be a sign of cancer, they do not necessarily mean that a person has cancer. Other factors, such as age, gender, and family history, can also affect CEA levels. Therefore, CEA should be interpreted in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical information.
Immune sera refers to a type of blood serum that contains antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection or vaccination. These antibodies are produced by B cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune response. Immune sera can be used to diagnose and treat certain infections, as well as to prevent future infections. For example, immune sera containing antibodies against a specific virus or bacteria can be used to diagnose a current infection or to prevent future infections in people who have been exposed to the virus or bacteria. Immune sera can also be used as a research tool to study the immune response to infections and to develop new vaccines and treatments. In some cases, immune sera may be used to treat patients with severe infections or allergies, although this is less common than using immune sera for diagnostic or preventive purposes.
Alpha-N-Acetylgalactosaminidase (α-NAGA) is an enzyme that is involved in the breakdown of a type of sugar called N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc). This enzyme is primarily found in the lysosomes, which are organelles within cells that are responsible for breaking down and recycling cellular waste. In the medical field, α-NAGA is often studied in the context of lysosomal storage disorders, which are a group of rare genetic diseases that result from the accumulation of undigested material within lysosomes. One such disorder is Sanfilippo syndrome, which is caused by mutations in the gene that codes for α-NAGA. In Sanfilippo syndrome, the deficiency of α-NAGA leads to the accumulation of GalNAc within lysosomes, which can cause a range of symptoms including intellectual disability, seizures, and progressive neurodegeneration. α-NAGA is also being studied in the context of cancer research, as it has been found to be overexpressed in certain types of tumors. This overexpression may contribute to the growth and spread of cancer cells, and may be a potential target for cancer therapy.
Helicobacter infections refer to a group of bacterial infections caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). H. pylori is a gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the stomach and upper part of the small intestine. It is estimated that more than half of the world's population is infected with H. pylori, and the majority of infected individuals do not experience any symptoms. H. pylori infections can lead to a range of health problems, including gastritis (inflammation of the stomach lining), peptic ulcers (sores in the lining of the stomach or duodenum), and stomach cancer. In some cases, H. pylori infections can also cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, and vomiting. Diagnosis of H. pylori infections typically involves a combination of tests, including a breath test, stool test, and endoscopy with biopsy. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors, which can help to eliminate the bacteria and reduce inflammation in the stomach. Prevention of H. pylori infections involves good hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly and avoiding close contact with infected individuals. Vaccines for H. pylori are currently being developed, but are not yet available for widespread use.
In the medical field, carrier proteins are proteins that transport molecules across cell membranes or within cells. These proteins bind to specific molecules, such as hormones, nutrients, or waste products, and facilitate their movement across the membrane or within the cell. Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the proper balance of molecules within cells and between cells. They are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including nutrient absorption, hormone regulation, and waste elimination. There are several types of carrier proteins, including facilitated diffusion carriers, active transport carriers, and ion channels. Each type of carrier protein has a specific function and mechanism of action. Understanding the role of carrier proteins in the body is important for diagnosing and treating various medical conditions, such as genetic disorders, metabolic disorders, and neurological disorders.
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of protein that is produced by the immune system in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins. It is the most abundant type of immunoglobulin in the blood and is responsible for the majority of the body's defense against infections. IgG is produced by B cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune response. When a B cell encounters a foreign substance, it produces IgG antibodies that can recognize and bind to the substance, marking it for destruction by other immune cells. IgG antibodies can also be transferred from mother to child through the placenta during pregnancy, providing the baby with some protection against infections during the first few months of life. In addition, some vaccines contain IgG antibodies to help stimulate the immune system and provide protection against specific diseases. Overall, IgG is an important component of the immune system and plays a critical role in protecting the body against infections and diseases.
Lectins are a class of proteins that are found in many plants, animals, and microorganisms. They are characterized by their ability to bind to specific carbohydrates, such as sugars and starches, on the surface of cells. In the medical field, lectins have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications. For example, some lectins have been shown to have antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal properties, and may be useful in the development of new drugs to treat infections. Lectins have also been used as research tools to study cell-cell interactions and to identify specific cell surface markers. In addition, some lectins have been used in diagnostic tests to detect specific diseases or conditions, such as cancer or diabetes. However, it is important to note that not all lectins are safe or effective for medical use, and some may even be toxic. Therefore, the use of lectins in medicine requires careful consideration and testing to ensure their safety and efficacy.
Antigens, viral, tumor are proteins or other molecules that are present on the surface of viruses or cancer cells. These antigens can be recognized by the immune system as foreign and can trigger an immune response to fight off the virus or cancer cells. In the medical field, antigens, viral, tumor are often used as targets for vaccines or cancer treatments, such as immunotherapy.
Gastroenteritis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the lining of the stomach and intestines. It is commonly referred to as "stomach flu" or "gastritis." The inflammation can be caused by a variety of factors, including viral or bacterial infections, food poisoning, or certain medications. Symptoms of gastroenteritis can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, cramping, and loss of appetite. In severe cases, dehydration can occur, which can be life-threatening, especially in young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems. Treatment for gastroenteritis typically involves managing symptoms and preventing dehydration. This may include drinking plenty of fluids, getting plenty of rest, and avoiding solid foods until symptoms improve. In some cases, antibiotics may be prescribed if the cause of the inflammation is bacterial. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen, or if there are signs of dehydration.
In the medical field, carbohydrates are one of the three macronutrients that provide energy to the body. They are made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms and are found in foods such as grains, fruits, vegetables, and dairy products. Carbohydrates are broken down into glucose (a simple sugar) during digestion and are then transported to cells throughout the body to be used as energy. The body can store excess glucose as glycogen in the liver and muscles for later use. There are two main types of carbohydrates: simple and complex. Simple carbohydrates, also known as sugars, are made up of one or two sugar molecules and are quickly digested and absorbed by the body. Complex carbohydrates, on the other hand, are made up of many sugar molecules and take longer to digest and absorb. In the medical field, carbohydrates are often discussed in the context of nutrition and diabetes management. People with diabetes need to carefully monitor their carbohydrate intake to help manage their blood sugar levels.
HLA-DR antigens are a group of proteins that are expressed on the surface of cells of the immune system. They play a crucial role in the recognition and presentation of antigens to T cells, which is a key step in the immune response. HLA-DR antigens are encoded by the HLA-DR gene, which is located on chromosome 6. There are many different HLA-DR antigens, each with a unique sequence of amino acids that determines its specificity for different antigens. HLA-DR antigens are also known as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DR antigens or major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DR antigens.
Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell are a type of immune cell receptors found on the surface of T cells in the immune system. These receptors are responsible for recognizing and binding to specific antigens, which are foreign substances or molecules that trigger an immune response. T-cell receptors (TCRs) are a type of antigen receptor that recognizes and binds to specific antigens presented on the surface of infected or abnormal cells by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. TCRs are highly specific and can recognize a wide variety of antigens, including viruses, bacteria, and cancer cells. Once a TCR recognizes an antigen, it sends a signal to the T cell to become activated and initiate an immune response. Activated T cells can then divide and differentiate into different types of effector cells, such as cytotoxic T cells that can directly kill infected or abnormal cells, or helper T cells that can stimulate other immune cells to mount a more robust response. Overall, T-cell receptors play a critical role in the immune system's ability to recognize and respond to foreign antigens, and are an important target for the development of vaccines and immunotherapies.
In the medical field, binding sites refer to specific locations on the surface of a protein molecule where a ligand (a molecule that binds to the protein) can attach. These binding sites are often formed by a specific arrangement of amino acids within the protein, and they are critical for the protein's function. Binding sites can be found on a wide range of proteins, including enzymes, receptors, and transporters. When a ligand binds to a protein's binding site, it can cause a conformational change in the protein, which can alter its activity or function. For example, a hormone may bind to a receptor protein, triggering a signaling cascade that leads to a specific cellular response. Understanding the structure and function of binding sites is important in many areas of medicine, including drug discovery and development, as well as the study of diseases caused by mutations in proteins that affect their binding sites. By targeting specific binding sites on proteins, researchers can develop drugs that modulate protein activity and potentially treat a wide range of diseases.
Agglutination tests are a type of diagnostic test used in the medical field to detect the presence of specific antigens or antibodies in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids. These tests work by causing the clumping or agglutination of red blood cells or other cells in the presence of specific antibodies or antigens. There are several types of agglutination tests, including direct agglutination tests, indirect agglutination tests, and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) tests. Direct agglutination tests involve mixing a patient's blood or other bodily fluids with a known antigen or antibody, and observing whether the cells clump together. Indirect agglutination tests involve using an intermediate substance, such as an antiserum, to bind the antigen or antibody to the cells, and then observing whether the cells clump together. CIE tests involve separating antibodies and antigens by charge and then observing whether they react with each other. Agglutination tests are commonly used to diagnose a variety of medical conditions, including infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, and blood disorders. They are often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests, such as serological tests and immunofluorescence assays, to provide a more complete picture of a patient's health.
CD15, also known as sialyl Lewis X, is a type of antigen found on the surface of certain cells in the body. It is a carbohydrate molecule that is attached to a protein called sialyltransferase. CD15 is expressed on the surface of many types of cells, including neutrophils, monocytes, and some cancer cells. In the medical field, CD15 is often used as a marker to identify certain types of cancer cells. For example, it is commonly expressed on the surface of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells, a type of blood cancer. CD15 can also be used to identify other types of cancer cells, such as colon cancer and ovarian cancer. In addition to its use in cancer diagnosis, CD15 is also used as a target for certain types of cancer treatment. Monoclonal antibodies, which are laboratory-made molecules that can recognize and bind to specific antigens, can be designed to target CD15 on cancer cells. These antibodies can then be used to deliver chemotherapy drugs directly to the cancer cells, potentially increasing the effectiveness of treatment and reducing side effects.
In the medical field, "Cells, Cultured" refers to cells that have been grown and maintained in a controlled environment outside of their natural biological context, typically in a laboratory setting. This process is known as cell culture and involves the isolation of cells from a tissue or organism, followed by their growth and proliferation in a nutrient-rich medium. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including human or animal tissues, and can be used for a wide range of applications in medicine and research. For example, cultured cells can be used to study the behavior and function of specific cell types, to develop new drugs and therapies, and to test the safety and efficacy of medical products. Cultured cells can be grown in various types of containers, such as flasks or Petri dishes, and can be maintained at different temperatures and humidity levels to optimize their growth and survival. The medium used to culture cells typically contains a combination of nutrients, growth factors, and other substances that support cell growth and proliferation. Overall, the use of cultured cells has revolutionized medical research and has led to many important discoveries and advancements in the field of medicine.
In the medical field, O antigens refer to a type of polysaccharide found on the surface of certain bacteria. These antigens are part of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer that surrounds the bacterial cell membrane and play a role in the bacteria's ability to interact with the host immune system. The O antigens are named based on the chemical structure of the polysaccharide chain, which can vary greatly between different bacterial species. For example, the O antigen of Escherichia coli is composed of a repeating unit of a disaccharide, while the O antigen of Salmonella typhi is composed of a repeating unit of a trisaccharide. The presence of O antigens on the surface of bacteria can be important for the diagnosis and treatment of bacterial infections. For example, the O antigen of E. coli can be used to identify specific strains of the bacteria that are responsible for causing certain types of infections, such as urinary tract infections or food poisoning. Additionally, the O antigens can be used as targets for vaccines to help protect against bacterial infections.
Anton blood group antigen
KX blood-group antigen family
Ii antigen system
Lewis antigen system
MNS antigen system
Duffy antigen system
Hemolytic disease of the newborn (ABO)
Hh blood group
Diego antigen system
ABO blood group system
Lan blood group system
Jeremy David Kark
New York Blood Center
Human red cell antigens
Ray David Owen
Vel blood group
Rh blood group system
Anton blood group antigen - Wikipedia
RHCE Rh blood group CcEe antigens [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI
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- Your blood sample is mixed with antibodies against type A and B blood. (medlineplus.gov)
- If blood cells stick together, it means the blood reacted with one of the antibodies. (medlineplus.gov)
- The liquid part of your blood without cells (serum) is mixed with blood that is known to be type A and type B. People with type A blood have anti-B antibodies. (medlineplus.gov)
- People with type B blood have anti-A antibodies. (medlineplus.gov)
- Type O blood contains both types of antibodies. (medlineplus.gov)
- Antibodies will develop against the donated red blood cells and attack these blood cells. (medlineplus.gov)
- If a person is exposed to blood with different antigens than his or her own, he or she may form antibodies that can result in extravascular and/or intravascular hemolysis when the recipient is reintroduced to the same antigens in a future transfusion. (medscape.com)
- The antibody screening test performed in a clinical laboratory and/or blood bank is designed to detect the presence of unexpected antibodies, especially alloantibodies in the serum to antigens of the non-ABO blood group system: Duffy, Kell, Kidd, MNS, P, and certain Rh types that are considered clinically significant. (medscape.com)
- It is important for providers to maintain an accurate antibody history, as an antibody screen can become negative over time, and individuals with a history of developing antibodies need antigen-negative blood to prevent hemolytic transfusion reactions. (cdc.gov)
- Antibodies that detect Blood Group Lewis A can be used in several scientific applications, including Immunohistochemistry, Immunocytochemistry, Flow Cytometry, ELISA and SDS-PAGE. (thermofisher.com)
- These antibodies target Blood Group Lewis A in Human, Mouse samples. (thermofisher.com)
- Our Blood Group Lewis A monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies are developed in Mouse and Rabbit. (thermofisher.com)
- These antibodies have been verified by Relative expression to confirm specificity to Blood Group Lewis A. Find the Blood Group Lewis A antibody that fits your needs. (thermofisher.com)
- Antibodies with Advanced Verification data have been validated for specificity to ensure that the antibody binds to the antigen stated. (thermofisher.com)
- By using the test, labs can reduce the risk of alloimmunization in patients, where the blood recipient's immune system develops antibodies that can attack and reject the donor red blood cells. (genomeweb.com)
- Cross-reactivity refers to an antibody or population of antibodies binding to epitopes on other antigens. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The multivalency of most antigens and antibodies enables them to interact to form a precipitate. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The specific association of antigens and antibodies is dependent on hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions, electrostatic forces, and Van der Waals forces. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Like antibodies, antigens can be multivalent, either through multiple copies of the same epitope, or through the presence of multiple epitopes that are recognized by multiple antibodies. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Affinity constants can be determined for monoclonal antibodies, but not for polyclonal antibodies, as multiple bond formations take place between polyclonal antibodies and their antigens. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Associations between blood type and disease have been studied since the early 1900s when researchers determined that antibodies and antigens are inherited. (rti.org)
- plasma antibodies, or hemolyzed or fragile RBCs (eg, by overwarming stored blood or contact with hypotonic IV solutions). (msdmanuals.com)
- Antibodies directed against white blood cell (WBC) human leukocyte antigen (HLA) in otherwise compatible donor blood are one possible cause. (msdmanuals.com)
- AHTR usually results from recipient plasma antibodies to donor RBC antigens. (msdmanuals.com)
- Antibodies against blood group antigens other than ABO can also cause AHTR. (msdmanuals.com)
- Structural basis of P[II] rotavirus evolution and host ranges under selection of histo-blood group antigens. (bvsalud.org)
- RVs have diverse host ranges in different human and animal populations determined by host histo- blood group antigen (HBGA) receptor polymorphism, but details governing diversity, host ranges , and species barriers remain elusive. (bvsalud.org)
- The Lewis histo-blood group system comprises a set of fucosylated glycosphingolipids that are synthesized by exocrine epithelial cells and circulate in body fluids. (thermofisher.com)
- X-ray crystal structures revealed that the citrate - from lemon juice or citrate disinfectants - precisely interacts at the binding pocket on the particle that is involved in attaching to host ligands - the so-called histo-blood group antigens. (eurekalert.org)
- Mothers treated at centers that provide extended antigen-negative RBCs (MATCH, five centers) and those that do not (NoMATCH, nine centers) were compared. (mcmaster.ca)
- Red blood cells (RBCs) carry numerous protein and carbohydrate antigens on their surface. (medscape.com)
- Antibody screening is routinely used in conjunction with typing and crossmatch before the administration of blood products, especially RBCs, to avoid transfusion reactions and to prevent notably decreased survival of transfused RBCs. (medscape.com)
- A cautious correction of anemia with packed red blood cells (RBCs) or by exchange transfusion is necessary to prevent circulatory overload. (medscape.com)
- Further transfusion should be delayed until the cause of the reaction is known, unless the need is urgent, in which case type O Rh-negative red blood cells (RBCs) should be used. (msdmanuals.com)
- most hospitals use previously stored, leukoreduced (WBC-depleted RBCs) blood components. (msdmanuals.com)
- ii) Blood-group antigens, red-cell antigens, human-leukocyte antigens, serum enzymes, serum proteins or red-cell enzymes. (delaware.gov)
- In selecting red blood cell (RBC) products for patients receiving regular transfusions, it's important for the clinical team to carefully consider which products emphasize efficacy (hemoglobin response) while also minimizing risk of hemolytic and non-hemolytic transfusion complications. (cdc.gov)
- All others are unexpected and can be divided into alloantibodies (an antibody to an antigen that an individual lacks) and autoantibodies (an antibody to an antigen a person has). (medscape.com)
- The tubes are then spun for 15 seconds at room temperature to facilitate antigen-antibody interaction. (medscape.com)
- LISS is usually added to reduce clustering by Na + and Cl - ions and speed antigen-antibody attraction. (medscape.com)
- The presence of agglutination with the addition of AHG indicates antibody binding to a specific red cell antigen. (medscape.com)
- Now that you know what an antigen and antibody are, let us consider the interaction between them. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The strength of interaction between antibody and antigen at single antigenic sites can be described by the affinity of the antibody for the antigen. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Within each antigenic site, the variable region of the antibody "arm" interacts through weak noncovalent forces with antigen at numerous sites. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Avidity is perhaps a more informative measure of the overall stability or strength of the antibody-antigen complex. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- It is controlled by three major factors: antibody epitope affinity, the valence of both the antigen and antibody, and the structural arrangement of the interacting parts. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Ultimately these factors define the specificity of the antibody, that is, the likelihood that the particular antibody is binding to a precise antigen epitope. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- This can be caused either by low avidity or specificity of the antibody or by multiple distinct antigens having identical or very similar epitopes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- These are of a weak, noncovalent nature, yet some of the associations between antigen and antibody can be quite strong. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The time taken to reach equilibrium is dependent on the rate of diffusion and the affinity of the antibody for the antigen and can vary widely. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The affinity constant for antibody-antigen binding can span a wide range, extending from below 105/mol to above 1012/mol. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Quantitative measurements of antibody affinity for antigen can be made by equilibrium dialysis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The bonds that hold the antigen to the combining site of any antibody are noncovalent, and, hence, they are reversible in nature. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Usually there are multiple bond formations observed, ensuring relatively tight binding between antibody and antigen. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Variant genotypes associated with reduced expression of RhCE antigens among Brazilian blood donors. (nih.gov)
- That is why people with type O blood are called universal blood donors. (medlineplus.gov)
- Immucor's PreciseType HEA can identify 35 red blood cell antigens from 11 blood groups simultaneously, enabling the complete blood typing of patients and donors, and allowing increased transfusion compatibility. (genomeweb.com)
- The PreciseType test also allows users to identify donors with rare or unusual antigens so blood banks can distinguish and save scarce units for special cases. (genomeweb.com)
- The discovery makes it possible to use simple DNA testing to find blood donors for patients who lack the Vel antigen and need a blood transfusion. (expertsvar.se)
- Because there has not previously been any simple way to find these rare donors, there is a global shortage of Vel-negative blood. (expertsvar.se)
- The results of this typing determine their risk for developing alloantibodies and/or autoantibodies and determine the extent to which antigen-matched blood is needed. (cdc.gov)
- The Rh blood group includes this gene which encodes both the RhC and RhE antigens on a single polypeptide and a second gene which encodes the RhD protein. (nih.gov)
- In immunology , blood types are determined by the presence of blood-group antigens. (biologyonline.com)
- Whereas the trisaccharidic head group of Gb 3 defines the specificity of Shiga toxin binding, the lipophilic part composed of sphingosine and different fatty acids is suggested to determine its localization within membranes impacting membrane organisation and protein binding eventually leading to protein internalisation. (springer.com)
- Researchers at Lund University in Sweden have discovered a new protein that controls the presence of the Vel blood group antigen on our red blood cells. (expertsvar.se)
- In the 1950s, the chemical identification of the carbohydrate structure of surface antigens led to the understanding of biosynthetic pathways. (rti.org)
- Immucor and [doctors] who work every day with chronically transfused patients would like nothing better than to see the standard of care change so that molecular matching of patients and donor blood is the rule, rather than the exception as it is today," he added. (genomeweb.com)
- The relationship between expression of epithelial B-like blood group antigen, cell movement and cell proliferation. (ku.dk)
- Immunochemical techniques capitalize upon the extreme specificity, at the molecular level, of each immunoglobulin for its antigen, even in the presence of high levels of contaminating molecules. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Human blood group antigens (HBGAs) have been identified previously as receptors for human and some animal NoVs. (usda.gov)
- The blood type is defined by oligosaccharide structures, which are specific to the antigens, thus, blood group antigens are secondary gene products, while the primary gene products are various glycosyltransferase enzymes that attach the sugar molecules to the oligosaccharide chain. (rti.org)
- To obtain fluorescent Gb 3 derivatives, either fatty acid labelled Gb 3 molecules or head group labelled ones were synthesized. (springer.com)
- BACKGROUND: Red blood cell (RBC) antigen matching policies to prevent alloimmunization in females of childbearing potential (FCP) vary between centers. (mcmaster.ca)
- The AB antigen appears to have evolutionary significance because the frequencies of different ABO blood group types vary across different populations, suggesting that a particular blood type confers a selection advantage (e.g. resistance against an infectious disease) [3,4]. (who.int)
- The primary management of severe anemia in β thalassemia is regular red blood cell transfusions. (cdc.gov)
- The caliciviruses consist of four groups, of which the noroviruses are the most important human pathogen . (bcm.edu)
- It is therefore important to provide a safe and harmless disinfectant against human norovirus," explains Grant Hansman, head of CHS junior research group at the German Cancer Research Center noroviruses and the University of Heidelberg. (eurekalert.org)
- NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - Immucor believes the recent US regulatory approval of its microarray-based PreciseType Human Erythrocyte Antigen test for determining blood compatibility will encourage more customers to introduce the assay in a clinical setting. (genomeweb.com)
- Recent advances in technology, biochemistry, and genetics have clarified the functional classifications of human blood group antigens, the structure of the A, B, H, and Lewis determinants and the enzymes that produce them, and the association of blood group antigens with disease risks. (rti.org)
- IVDs for clinical decisions on diagnosis and treatment, as does screening of blood/blood products for transfusion and human organs/tissues for transplantation. (who.int)
- A process called cross-matching followed by a Coombs test can help detect these minor antigens. (medlineplus.gov)
- Healthcare providers can work with their blood bank partners to develop thalassemia-specific red blood cell transfusion protocols. (cdc.gov)
- Beck L, Blood groups and red cell antigens. (loinc.org)
- Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell capable of producing a specific immune response to unique antigens. (biologyonline.com)
- Immucor expects to expand the market of molecular red cell antigen testing [and] it's educating potential users in a hands-on way," said de Jesus of the company's activities since gaining the approval. (genomeweb.com)
- You'll also have access to all 169 LabCE courses to fulfill Florida license requirements in safety, hematology, blood banking, microbiology, and more. (labce.com)
- The cancer diagnostics market is on the verge of explosion, as the researchers approach major technological breakthroughs in tumor diagnosis and therapy, discover new specific antigens, and unlock the mystery of the genetic basis of the disease. (aarkstore.com)
- Most (12/13, 92%) of the anti-K HDFN cases at MATCH centers had K+ paternal antigen status. (mcmaster.ca)
- Your immune system will see the donated red blood cells as foreign. (medlineplus.gov)
- Cross-reactivity can result in over- or under-estimation of the antigen concentration and is problematic in immunoassays. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The classic description is a quartan (every 72 hours) or tertian (every 48 hours) fever periodicity synchronized with Plasmodium merozoites bursting from red blood cells during malaria's asexual erythrocytic phase. (medscape.com)
- It is also done to see if you have a substance called Rh factor on the surface of your red blood cells. (medlineplus.gov)
- Your blood type is based on whether or not certain proteins are on your red blood cells. (medlineplus.gov)
- Then, the sample is checked to see whether or not the blood cells stick together. (medlineplus.gov)
- They are secondarily absorbed to red blood cells giving rise to their Lewis phenotype. (thermofisher.com)
- A research group at Lund University in Sweden has now developed a method that makes it possible to follow the behaviour of these support cells at close quarters. (expertsvar.se)
- The presence or absence of these antigens in an individual is important, because they determine the type of blood that should be given in case a blood transfusion is necessary. (medscape.com)
- It is also the most polymorphic of the blood groups, with variations due to deletions, gene conversions, and missense mutations. (nih.gov)
- This gene is a member of the fucosyltransferase family, which catalyzes the addition of fucose to precursor polysaccharides in the last step of Lewis antigen biosynthesis. (thermofisher.com)
- Mutations in this gene are responsible for the majority of Lewis antigen-negative phenotypes. (thermofisher.com)
- In microbiology , O antigen renders additional protection from the antimicrobial action of certain antibiotics. (biologyonline.com)
- Blood typing is a method to tell what type of blood you have. (medlineplus.gov)
- Your blood type (or blood group) depends on what types your parents passed down to you. (medlineplus.gov)
- The 2 steps above can accurately determine your blood type. (medlineplus.gov)
- Your blood type must closely match the blood type of the blood you are receiving. (medlineplus.gov)
- You will be told which ABO blood type you have. (medlineplus.gov)
- If you have type A blood, you can only receive types A and O blood. (medlineplus.gov)
- Type O blood can be given to anyone with any blood type. (medlineplus.gov)
- What Type of RBC Antigen Matching is Needed by People with β thalassemia? (cdc.gov)
- The largest known accumulation of this type of blood donor is found in the Swedish county of Västerbotten, which exports Vel-negative blood all over the world. (expertsvar.se)
- ABSTRACT There is strong evidence to suggest that there is an association between ABO blood group and certain diseases. (who.int)
- Further research to identify differences in the biochemical composition of blood group antigens, and the relationship to risks for disease, can be important for the identification of targets for the development of nutritional intervention strategies, or the identification of druggable targets. (rti.org)
- 5. That a Hepatitis B surface antigen test not be performed if the person requesting the test indicates that the test is for a prenatal assessment. (ontario.ca)
- Immucor is now positioning the assay as the "test of record" for molecular blood group typing, meaning that the assay can be used for clinical decision-making purposes by itself, without having to confirm with a second method, as users of its research-use platform had to do in the past. (genomeweb.com)
- Early recognition of symptoms suggestive of a transfusion reaction and prompt reporting to the blood bank are essential. (msdmanuals.com)
- The remainder of the blood product and clotted and anticoagulated samples of the patient's blood should be sent to the blood bank for investigation. (msdmanuals.com)
- The gold-standard diagnostic test for malaria remains direct visualization of the parasite by an experienced microscopist from thick & thin blood smears. (medscape.com)
- The test to determine your blood group is called ABO typing. (medlineplus.gov)
- People see the benefit of an IVD product: they can provide molecularly matched blood to patients while minimizing the regulatory and accreditation risk associated with RUO test use," he added. (genomeweb.com)
- These exosomes are shown to have an important function in brain tumour development, and could be utilised as biomarkers to assess tumour aggressiveness through a blood test. (expertsvar.se)
- Blood typing is very important during pregnancy. (medlineplus.gov)
- Mislabeling the recipient's pretransfusion sample at collection and failing to match the intended recipient with the blood product immediately before transfusion are the usual causes. (msdmanuals.com)
- Similar trends by blood group were seen for the healthy controls although the differences were less marked. (who.int)
- 11 ) "Ethnic or racial group" means, for purposes of genetic testing, a recognized group that an individual identifies as all or part of the individual's ancestry or that is so identified by other information. (delaware.gov)
- A mismatch between blood types A, B, AB, and O. This is the most common form of a mismatch. (medlineplus.gov)
- If they are not detected, you may still have a reaction when receiving certain types of blood, even if the A, B, and Rh antigens are matched. (medlineplus.gov)
- In humas, there are three types of blood-group antigens, namely H antigen , A antigen, and B antigen. (biologyonline.com)
- Analysing the data by blood group showed that the levels of total cholesterol, glucose and systolic/diastolic blood pressure were all significantly higher in male and female patients in blood group O than other groups, with a decreasing trend from group A to B then AB. (who.int)
- Les données ont été recueillies à partir des dossiers de 920 patients atteints de diabète, d'hypertension et d'hypercholestérolémie en consultation dans des hôpitaux, des cliniques et des laboratoires d'analyses de Bagdad, et de 200 témoins en bonne santé. (who.int)
- Group A rotaviruses cause severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, with P[II] genogroup rotaviruses (RVs) responsible for >90% of global cases. (bvsalud.org)