Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring: Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Hypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Hyperglycemia: Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.Glucose Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated: Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.Glucose Transporter Type 1: A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Diagnostic Equipment: Nonexpendable items used in examination.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Glucose Transporter Type 2: A glucose transport facilitator that is expressed primarily in PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; LIVER; and KIDNEYS. It may function as a GLUCOSE sensor to regulate INSULIN release and glucose HOMEOSTASIS.Glycosuria: The appearance of an abnormally large amount of GLUCOSE in the urine, such as more than 500 mg/day in adults. It can be due to HYPERGLYCEMIA or genetic defects in renal reabsorption (RENAL GLYCOSURIA).Glucose 1-Dehydrogenase: A glucose dehydrogenase that catalyzes the oxidation of beta-D-glucose to form D-glucono-1,5-lactone, using NAD as well as NADP as a coenzyme.GlycogenInsulin Infusion Systems: Portable or implantable devices for infusion of insulin. Includes open-loop systems which may be patient-operated or controlled by a pre-set program and are designed for constant delivery of small quantities of insulin, increased during food ingestion, and closed-loop systems which deliver quantities of insulin automatically based on an electronic glucose sensor.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Streptozocin: An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Glucokinase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.Glucose Transporter Type 3: A major glucose transporter found in NEURONS.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.C-Peptide: The middle segment of proinsulin that is between the N-terminal B-chain and the C-terminal A-chain. It is a pancreatic peptide of about 31 residues, depending on the species. Upon proteolytic cleavage of proinsulin, equimolar INSULIN and C-peptide are released. C-peptide immunoassay has been used to assess pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic patients with circulating insulin antibodies or exogenous insulin. Half-life of C-peptide is 30 min, almost 8 times that of insulin.Glycemic Index: A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Reagent Strips: Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Glucose Metabolism Disorders: Pathological conditions in which the BLOOD GLUCOSE cannot be maintained within the normal range, such as in HYPOGLYCEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA. Etiology of these disorders varies. Plasma glucose concentration is critical to survival for it is the predominant fuel for the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Liver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Diabetic Diet: A diet prescribed in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, usually limited in the amount of sugar or readily available carbohydrate. (Dorland, 27th ed)Glucose-6-Phosphate: An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)Glucose-6-Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.PhlorhizinGlucose Dehydrogenases: D-Glucose:1-oxidoreductases. Catalyzes the oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucono-gamma-lactone and reduced acceptor. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.47; EC 1.1.1.118; EC 1.1.1.119 and EC 1.1.99.10.Hexokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Monitoring, Ambulatory: The use of electronic equipment to observe or record physiologic processes while the patient undergoes normal daily activities.Fructosamine: An amino sugar formed when glucose non-enzymatically reacts with the N-terminal amino group of proteins. The fructose moiety is derived from glucose by the "classical" Amadori rearrangement.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Pancreas, Artificial: Devices for simulating the activity of the pancreas. They can be either electromechanical, consisting of a glucose sensor, computer, and insulin pump or bioartificial, consisting of isolated islets of Langerhans in an artificial membrane.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Prediabetic State: The time period before the development of symptomatic diabetes. For example, certain risk factors can be observed in subjects who subsequently develop INSULIN RESISTANCE as in type 2 diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 2).Insulin Lispro: Insulin that has been modified so that the B-chain contains a LYSINE at position 28 instead of a PROLINE and a PROLINE at position 29 instead of a LYSINE. It is used to manage BLOOD GLUCOSE levels in patients with TYPE 2 DIABETES.GlucosephosphatesTriglyceridesPlant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.3-O-Methylglucose: A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.MethylglucosidesCross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.3-Hydroxybutyric Acid: BUTYRIC ACID substituted in the beta or 3 position. It is one of the ketone bodies produced in the liver.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Sodium-Glucose Transporter 1: The founding member of the sodium glucose transport proteins. It is predominately expressed in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the SMALL INTESTINE.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Glycogenolysis: The release of GLUCOSE from GLYCOGEN by GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE (phosphorolysis). The released glucose-1-phosphate is then converted to GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE by PHOSPHOGLUCOMUTASE before entering GLYCOLYSIS. Glycogenolysis is stimulated by GLUCAGON or EPINEPHRINE via the activation of PHOSPHORYLASE KINASE.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Gastric Emptying: The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide: A gastrointestinal peptide hormone of about 43-amino acids. It is found to be a potent stimulator of INSULIN secretion and a relatively poor inhibitor of GASTRIC ACID secretion.AlloxanRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Bread: Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Glucose Solution, Hypertonic: Solution that is usually 10 percent glucose but may be higher. An isotonic solution of glucose is 5 percent.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Mice, Inbred C57BLMetformin: A biguanide hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. Metformin improves glycemic control by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing intestinal absorption of glucose. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p289)Insulin, Long-Acting: Insulin formulations that contain substances that retard absorption thus extending the time period of action.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Diabetes, Gestational: Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Diabetic Nephropathies: KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Islets of Langerhans Transplantation: The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.PyruvatesDietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Sulfonylurea CompoundsInfusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Acarbose: An inhibitor of ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASES that retards the digestion and absorption of DIETARY CARBOHYDRATES in the SMALL INTESTINE.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.alpha-Glucosidases: Enzymes that catalyze the exohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages with release of alpha-glucose. Deficiency of alpha-1,4-glucosidase may cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Pregnancy in Diabetics: The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus, primarily of TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS with severe INSULIN deficiency and extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA. It is characterized by KETOSIS; DEHYDRATION; and depressed consciousness leading to COMA.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Receptors, Glucagon: Cell surface receptors that bind glucagon with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activation of glucagon receptors causes a variety of effects; the best understood is the initiation of a complex enzymatic cascade in the liver which ultimately increases the availability of glucose to body organs.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Critical Illness: A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.Proinsulin: A pancreatic polypeptide of about 110 amino acids, depending on the species, that is the precursor of insulin. Proinsulin, produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, is comprised sequentially of the N-terminal B-chain, the proteolytically removable connecting C-peptide, and the C-terminal A-chain. It also contains three disulfide bonds, two between A-chain and B-chain. After cleavage at two locations, insulin and C-peptide are the secreted products. Intact proinsulin with low bioactivity also is secreted in small amounts.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Infusions, Subcutaneous: The administration of liquid medication or nutrients under the skin, usually over minutes or hours.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Blood Specimen Collection: The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Incretins: Peptides which stimulate INSULIN release from the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS following oral nutrient ingestion, or postprandially.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Tolbutamide: A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors: Compounds that suppress the degradation of INCRETINS by blocking the action of DIPEPTIDYL-PEPTIDASE IV. This helps to correct the defective INSULIN and GLUCAGON secretion characteristic of TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS by stimulating insulin secretion and suppressing glucagon release.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Diabetic Angiopathies: VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.Venoms: Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Trigonella: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Uridine Diphosphate Glucose: A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.Cinnamomum zeylanicum: The tree which is known for its bark which is sold as cinnamon. The oil contains about 65-80% cinnamaldehyde and 10% EUGENOL and many TERPENES.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Insulin, Isophane: An intermediate-acting INSULIN preparation with onset time of 2 hours and duration of 24 hours. It is produced by crystallizing ZINC-insulin-PROTAMINES at neutral pH 7. Thus it is called neutral protamine Hagedorn for inventor Hans Christian Hagedorn.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Glucagon-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 5-20% of the islet cells. Alpha cells secrete GLUCAGON.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Clinical Alarms: Components of medical instrumentation used for physiological evaluation of patients, that signal when a threshold value is reached.HexosaminesGliclazide: An oral sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent which stimulates insulin secretion.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Sodium-Glucose Transport Proteins: Monosaccharide transport proteins that function as active symporters. They utilize SODIUM or HYDROGEN IONS to transport GLUCOSE across CELL MEMBRANES.Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase (GTP): An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the conversion of GTP and oxaloacetate to GDP, phosphoenolpyruvate, and carbon dioxide. This reaction is part of gluconeogenesis in the liver. The enzyme occurs in both the mitochondria and cytosol of mammalian liver. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 4.1.1.32.Glycogen Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 2.4.1.11.Glucosephosphate DehydrogenaseRandom Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Sorbitol: A polyhydric alcohol with about half the sweetness of sucrose. Sorbitol occurs naturally and is also produced synthetically from glucose. It was formerly used as a diuretic and may still be used as a laxative and in irrigating solutions for some surgical procedures. It is also used in many manufacturing processes, as a pharmaceutical aid, and in several research applications.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Equipment and Supplies: Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Glyburide: An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2: A sodium-glucose transporter that is expressed in the luminal membrane of the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULES.Deoxy SugarsCarbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Insulin, Regular, Pork: Regular insulin preparations that contain the SUS SCROFA insulin peptide sequence.

Induction of bovine polioencephalomalacia with a feeding system based on molasses and urea. (1/20872)

Polioencephalomalacia (PEM), a disease first described in the United States and related to intensive beef production, appeared in Cuba coincident with the use of a new, molasses-urea-based diet to fatten bulls. Because the only experimental means so far of reproducing PEM has been with amprolium, a structural analog of thiamin, the present study attempted to induce the disease using the molasses-urea-based diet. Six Holstein bulls (200-300 kg) were studied during consumption of three successive diets: 1) commercial molasses-urea-restricted forage diet of Cuban feedlots, 2) a period in which forage was gradually withdrawn and 3) a forage-free diet composed only of molasses, urea and fish meal. PEM was reproduced in this way. At ten-day intervals, blood concentrations of glucose, lactate, pyruvate and urea were measured, as well as when clinical signs of PEM appeared. The signs, clinical course and lesions of the experimentally induced disease were comparable to those of field cases. The biochemical results suggested a block in pyruvate oxidation as in PEM elsewhere in the world. No evidence existed of urea intoxication. In addition, brain and liver concentration of total thiamin from field cases and normal animals were found to be similar.  (+info)

Effect of trauma on plasma glucagon and insulin concentrations in sheep. (2/20872)

Portal plasma glucagon and insulin concentrations were measured before and after acute trauma (liver biosy). The trauma was sufficient to increase glucagon concentrations and depress insulin concentrations. These changes were associated with a marked hyperglycemia. Infusion of glucagon was insufficient to prevent stress inhibition of insulin secretion. The stimulation of glucagon secretion and inhibition of insulin secretion were of about one hour duration. These findings indicate that glucagon and insulin in conjunction with the nervous system may play an important role in the development of stress related hyperglycemia.  (+info)

Cardiovascular disease in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: similar rates but different risk factors in the US compared with Europe. (3/20872)

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has been linked to renal disease. However, little is known concerning international variation in the correlations with hyperglycaemia and standard CVD risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparison was made of prevalence rates and risk factor associations in two large studies of IDDM subjects: the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study (EDC) and the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study from 31 centres in Europe. Subgroups of each were chosen to be comparable by age and duration of diabetes. The EDC population comprises 286 men (mean duration 20.1 years) and 281 women (mean duration 19.9 years); EURODIAB 608 men (mean duration 18.1 years) and 607 women (mean duration 18.9 years). The mean age of both populations was 28 years. Cardiovascular disease was defined by a past medical history of myocardial infarction, angina, and/or the Minnesota ECG codes (1.1-1.3, 4.1-4.3, 5.1-5.3, 7.1). RESULTS: Overall prevalence of CVD was similar in the two populations (i.e. men 8.6% versus 8.0%, women 7.4% versus 8.5%, EURODIAB versus EDC respectively), although EDC women had a higher prevalence of angina (3.9% versus 0.5%, P < 0.001). Multivariate modelling suggests that glycaemic control (HbA1c) is not related to CVD in men. Age and high density lipoprotein cholesterol predict CVD in EURODIAB, while triglycerides and hypertension predict CVD in EDC. For women in both populations, age and hypertension (or renal disease) are independent predictors. HbA1c is also an independent predictor-inversely in EURODIAB women (P < 0.008) and positively in EDC women (P = 0.03). Renal disease was more strongly linked to CVD in EDC than in EURODIAB. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a similar prevalence of CVD, risk factor associations appear to differ in the two study populations. Glycaemic control (HbA1c) does not show a consistent or strong relationship to CVD.  (+info)

Tissue-specific knockout of the insulin receptor in pancreatic beta cells creates an insulin secretory defect similar to that in type 2 diabetes. (4/20872)

Dysfunction of the pancreatic beta cell is an important defect in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, although its exact relationship to the insulin resistance is unclear. To determine whether insulin signaling has a functional role in the beta cell we have used the Cre-loxP system to specifically inactivate the insulin receptor gene in the beta cells. The resultant mice exhibit a selective loss of insulin secretion in response to glucose and a progressive impairment of glucose tolerance. These data indicate an important functional role for the insulin receptor in glucose sensing by the pancreatic beta cell and suggest that defects in insulin signaling at the level of the beta cell may contribute to the observed alterations in insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes.  (+info)

Neurosurgery restores late GH rise after glucose-induced suppression in cured acromegalics. (5/20872)

OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: A decrease of GH levels below 2 microg/l after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is still currently accepted as the gold standard for assessing cure in surgically treated acromegaly. Whether glucose-induced suppression of GH is accompanied by a restoration of normal GH late rebound has not yet been evaluated in this disease. In order to assess the restoration of normal GH regulation after removal of a pituitary adenoma, we have evaluated GH changes after an OGTT in a series of selected acromegalic patients (transsphenoidal surgery and lack of pituitary failure). METHODS: Twenty-nine patients (13 male, 16 female, age range 27-70 years) entered the study. Their neuroradiological imaging before neurosurgery showed microadenoma in 7, intrasellar macroadenoma in 8 and macroadenoma with extrasellar extension in 14. Plasma GH levels were assayed up to 300 min after glucose administration (75 g p.o.) and IGF-I on basal samples. RESULTS: Basal GH levels were below 5 microg/l in 20 patients and below 2 microg/l in 5 of these. Normal age-adjusted IGF-I levels were observed in 12 patients. GH values were suppressed below 2 microg/l during an OGTT in 13 patients, and below 1 microg/l in 7 of these. In 9 patients out of these 13, a marked rise in GH levels occurred after nadir. Baseline and nadir GH values of these 9 patients were not different from the corresponding values of the other 4 patients without OGTT-induced late GH peaks. CONCLUSIONS: GH rebound after GH nadir occurs in acromegalic patients considered as cured on the basis of OGTT-induced GH suppression and/or IGF-I normalization. The restoration of this physiological response could be regarded as a marker of recovered/preserved integrity of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Even though the reason for this GH rebound has not yet been elucidated (GHRH discharge?/end of somatostatin inhibition?), the lack of late GH peak in the patients regarded as cured by the usual criteria could be due to injury to the pituitary stalk caused by the adenoma or by surgical manipulation.  (+info)

The treatment of insulin resistance does not improve adrenal cytochrome P450c17alpha enzyme dysregulation in polycystic ovary syndrome. (6/20872)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether metformin. when given to non-diabetic women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), results in a reduction of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia while body weight is maintained. Also we aimed to see whether the reduction in insulin levels attenuates the activity of adrenal P450c17alpha enzyme in patients with PCOS. DESIGN: We investigated the 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) and androstenedione responses to ACTH, insulin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and glucose disposal rate in an insulin tolerance test before and after metformin therapy (500 mg, orally, twice daily, for 12 weeks). METHODS: The presence of hyperinsulinemia in 15 women with PCOS was demonstrated by an OGTT and results were compared with those of 10 healthy women. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the rate of endogenous glucose disposal after i.v. bolus injection of insulin. 17-OHP and androstenedione responses to ACTH were measured in all the women with PCOS and the normal women. RESULTS: Women with PCOS were hyperinsulinemic (102.0+/-13.0 (S.E.M.) VS 46.2+/-4.4 pmol/l) and hyperandrogenemic (free testosterone 15.3+/-1.7 vs 7.9+/-0.6 nmol/l; androstenedione 11.8+/-0.8 vs 8.2+/-0.6 nmol/l) and more hirsute (modified Ferriman-Gallwey score, 17.7+/-1.6 vs 3.0+/-0.3) than healthy women. In addition, women with PCOS had higher 17-OHP and androstenedione responses to ACTH when compared with healthy women. Metformin therapy resulted in some improvement in insulin sensitivity and reduced the basal and post-glucose load insulin levels. But 17-OHP and androstenedione responses to ACTH were unaltered in response to metformin. CONCLUSIONS: PCOS is characterized by hyperactivity of the adrenal P450c17alpha enzyme and insulin resistance. It seems that there is no direct relationship between insulin resistance and adrenal P450c17alpha enzyme dysregulation.  (+info)

Treatment of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with vanadate and phlorizin prevents the over-expression of the liver insulin receptor gene. (7/20872)

Administration of vanadate, an insulinomimetic agent, has been shown to normalize the increased number of insulin receptors in the liver of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In the present study, the effects of vanadate on various steps of expression of the liver insulin receptor gene in diabetic rats have been analyzed and compared with those of phlorizin, a glucopenic drug devoid of insulinomimetic properties. Livers of rats killed 23 days after streptozotocin injection showed a 30-40% increase in the number of cell surface and intracellular insulin receptors, a 50-90% increase in the levels of 9.5 and 7.5 kb insulin receptor mRNA species, and a 20% decrease in the relative abundance of the A (exon 11-) insulin receptor mRNA isotype. Daily administration of vanadate or phlorizin from day 5 to day 23 prevented the increase in insulin receptor number and mRNA level, and vanadate treatment also normalized receptor mRNA isotype expression. Unlike observations in vivo, vanadate and phlorizin differentially affected the expression of the insulin receptor gene in Fao hepatoma cells. Vanadate treatment (0.5 mmol/l for 4 h) decreased the levels of the 9.5 and 7.5 kb insulin receptor transcripts by at least twofold, without affecting the relative abundance of the A insulin receptor mRNA isotype. In contrast, phlorizin treatment (5 mmol/l for 4 h) slightly increased or did not affect the levels of the 9.5 and 7.5 kb insulin receptor transcripts respectively, and increased by twofold the relative expression of the A insulin receptor mRNA isotype. It is suggested that, although mediated in part by a reversal of hyperglycemia, normalization of liver insulin receptor gene expression by vanadate treatment in diabetic rats may also involve a direct inhibitory effect of this drug on gene expression.  (+info)

Novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma and PPARdelta ligands produce distinct biological effects. (8/20872)

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) include three receptor subtypes encoded by separate genes: PPARalpha, PPARdelta, and PPARgamma. PPARgamma has been implicated as a mediator of adipocyte differentiation and the mechanism by which thiazolidinedione drugs exert in vivo insulin sensitization. Here we characterized novel, non-thiazolidinedione agonists for PPARgamma and PPARdelta that were identified by radioligand binding assays. In transient transactivation assays these ligands were agonists of the receptors to which they bind. Protease protection studies showed that ligand binding produced specific alterations in receptor conformation. Both PPARgamma and PPARdelta directly interacted with a nuclear receptor co-activator (CREB-binding protein) in an agonist-dependent manner. Only the PPARgamma agonists were able to promote differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In diabetic db/db mice all PPARgamma agonists were orally active insulin-sensitizing agents producing reductions of elevated plasma glucose and triglyceride concentrations. In contrast, selective in vivo activation of PPARdelta did not significantly affect these parameters. In vivo PPARalpha activation with WY-14653 resulted in reductions in elevated triglyceride levels with minimal effect on hyperglycemia. We conclude that: 1) synthetic non-thiazolidinediones can serve as ligands of PPARgamma and PPARdelta; 2) ligand-dependent activation of PPARdelta involves an apparent conformational change and association of the receptor ligand binding domain with CREB-binding protein; 3) PPARgamma activation (but not PPARdelta or PPARalpha activation) is sufficient to potentiate preadipocyte differentiation; 4) non-thiazolidinedione PPARgamma agonists improve hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia in vivo; 5) although PPARalpha activation is sufficient to affect triglyceride metabolism, PPARdelta activation does not appear to modulate glucose or triglyceride levels.  (+info)

*Glucose tolerance test

The glucose tolerance test is a medical test in which glucose is given and blood samples taken afterward to determine how ... Blood plasma glucose between 7.8 mmol/L (140 mg/dL) and 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL) indicate "impaired glucose tolerance", and ... If it results in a blood glucose level of more than 7.8 mmol/L (140 mg/dL), it is followed by a 100 gram glucose dose. The ... Blood is drawn at intervals for measurement of glucose (blood sugar), and sometimes insulin levels. The intervals and number of ...

*Neuroglycopenia

Adjustment of efficiency of transfer of glucose from blood across the blood-brain barrier into the central nervous system ... brain glucose transport system has been described in which severe neuroglycopenic effects occurred despite normal blood glucose ... Levels of glucose within the central nervous system are normally lower than the blood, regulated by an incompletely understood ... Low levels of glucose were discovered in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a condition referred to as hypoglycorrhachia [or ...

*Postprandial glucose test

... and blood vessels. A 2-hour postprandial blood glucose test ("2 hour p.c. blood glucose test", etc.) measures blood glucose ... A postprandial glucose test is a blood glucose test that determines the amount of a type of sugar, called glucose, in the blood ... Glucose levels in a blood sample taken from the vein (called a blood plasma value) may differ a little from glucose levels ... which causes their blood glucose to remain elevated. Blood glucose levels that remain high over time can damage the eyes, ...

*Insulin index

... but rather than relying on blood glucose levels, the Insulin Index is based upon blood insulin levels. The Insulin Index ... The Insulin Index of a food represents how much it elevates the concentration of insulin in the blood during the two-hour ... Glucose (glycemic) and insulin scores were determined by feeding 1000 kilojoules (239 kilocalories) of the food to the ... have noted that the glucose and insulin scores of most foods are highly correlated, but high-protein foods and bakery products ...

*Idiopathic hypoglycemia

... is, literally, a medical condition in which the glucose level in the blood (blood glucose) is ...

*Ketotic hypoglycemia

Ketones can be used by the brain as an alternate fuel when glucose is scarce. A high level of ketones in the blood, ketosis, is ... Ketotic hypoglycemia is a medical term used in two ways: (1) broadly, to refer to any circumstance in which low blood glucose ... If severe, parents usually take the child to a local emergency department, where blood is drawn. The glucose is usually found ... Normally, the defensive, physiological response to a falling blood glucose is reduction of insulin secretion to undetectable ...

*Noninvasive glucose monitor

... ing refers to the measurement of blood glucose levels (required by people with diabetes to prevent ... Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring using near-infrared spectroscopy, by M. Ahmad, A. M. Kamboh, and A. Khan, EDN, 2013. Chi- ... Approaches that have been tried include near infrared spectroscopy (measuring glucose through the skin using light of slightly ... As of 2014[update], nonregarding the severe shortcomings mentioned above, at least one noninvasive glucose meter was being ...

*Outline of diabetes

Diabetes mellitus type 2 - metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance ... The resultant high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) ... Like type 1 and type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes causes blood sugar levels to become too high.It involves an increased ... group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the pancreas does not produce enough insulin ...

*Diabetes Control and Complications Trial

This study examined whether intensive treatment with the goal of maintaining blood glucose concentrations close to the normal ... The intensive therapy group frequently monitored blood glucose levels and received at least three daily insulin injections; a ... Non-diabetics have much tighter control of their blood sugar levels than diabetics, as the normal pancreas can react to blood ... or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion combined with lower blood glucose targets and lower HbA1C goals. Prior to the DCCT ...

*Glucagon rescue

Glucagon will facilitate the release of stored glucose back into the bloodstream, raising the blood glucose level. Rescue has ... an insulin user should treat it immediately by consuming carbohydrate to restore blood glucose to safe levels (thereby ... In the past, treatment consisted of intravenous delivery of dextrose (glucose) usually in the emergency room; however, the ... a comparison of intramuscular glucagon and intravenous glucose". Prehospital and disaster medicine. 13 (2-4): 44-50. PMID ...

*JDRF

An automated low-glucose suspend artificial pancreas system, which predicts and prevents severe blood-glucose lows; • A treat- ... continuous glucose monitors (CGM's) and insulin pumps - via a computerized program that would use blood glucose levels obtained ... It would also contain a mechanism known as a "low-glucose suspend" whereby a CGM detecting low or sinking blood sugars would ... The use of existing type 2 diabetes drugs to improve blood glucose control in people with T1D compared to the use of insulin ...

*Insulin analog

Numerous studies have concluded that any increase in testing of blood glucose levels is likely to yield improvements in ... such as testing blood glucose levels more frequently, for example), which leads to bias in the study results, rendering the ... Unmodified human and porcine insulins tend to complex with zinc in the blood, forming hexamers. Insulin in the form of a ... Glucose Control - Lantus receives FDA approval for flexible administration Analog Insulin. ...

*Neonatal hypoglycemia

The lowest blood sugars occur one to two hours after birth. After this time, lactose begins to be available through the breast ... In addition, gluconeogenesis occurs when the kidneys and liver convert fats into glucose. Those infants that have an increased ... Neonatal hypoglycemia is a transient or temporary condition of decreased blood sugar or hypoglycemia in a neonate. Temporary ... discordant twin erythroblastosis fetalis polycythemia microphallus or midline defect respiratory disease maternal glucose IV ...

*Stress hyperglycemia

Blood glucose can be assessed either by a bedside 'fingerstick' glucose meter or plasma glucose as performed in a laboratory ( ... The blood glucose usually returns to normal within hours unless predisposing drugs and intravenous glucose are continued. ... It is often discovered when routine blood chemistry measurements in an ill patient reveal an elevated blood glucose. ... target blood sugar range of 4.5 to 6.0 mmol/L while those placed in the conventional glucose control group had a blood glucose ...

*Intensive insulin therapy

Basal insulin: the insulin that controls blood glucose levels between meals and overnight. It controls glucose in the fasting ... Intensive/flexible insulin therapy requires frequent blood glucose checking. To achieve the best balance of blood sugar with ... a patient must check his or her glucose level with a meter monitoring of blood glucose several times a day. This allows ... Over the last two decades, the evidence that better glycemic control (i.e., keeping blood glucose and HbA1c levels as close to ...

*OneTouch Ultra

... Blood Glucose Meters provide blood glucose test results in 5 seconds, offer alternative test site options, and ... OneTouch Ultra is a blood glucose monitoring device for people with diabetes and is the foundation product for LifeScan's ... OneTouch Ultra Family of blood glucose monitoring systems. ...

*Lifestyle causes of diabetes mellitus type 2

... releases signalling molecules directly into blood heading into the liver where glucose is absorbed and processed, while ... Gene expression promoted by a diet of fat and glucose, as well as high levels of inflammation related cytokines found in the ...

*Clarke Error Grid

... in 1987 to quantify clinical accuracy of patient estimates of their current blood glucose as compared to the blood glucose ... for determining the accuracy of blood glucose meters. The grid breaks down a scatterplot of a reference glucose meter and an ... It was then used to quantify the clinical accuracy of blood glucose estimates generated by meters as compared to a reference ... Evaluating clinical accuracy of systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose. Diabetes Care 10:622-628,1987 http://care. ...

*Blood glucose monitoring

A blood glucose meter is an electronic device for measuring the blood glucose level. A relatively small drop of blood is placed ... Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia). Particularly important in ... Blood glucose monitoring reveals individual patterns of blood glucose changes, and helps in the planning of meals, activities, ... Some new technologies to monitor blood glucose levels will not require access to blood to read the glucose level. Non-invasive ...

*Hangover

"Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Glucose)". diabetes.org. American Diabetes Association. Retrieved 14 March 2015. Kim DJ, Kim W, Yoon SJ ... Studies show that alcohol hangover is associated with a decrease in blood glucose concentration (less than 70 ml/dl), but the ... Vitamin B6: No effects on alcohol metabolism, peak blood alcohol and glucose concentrations have been found and psychomotor ... Fructose and glucose: Glucose and fructose significantly inhibit the metabolic changes produced by alcohol intoxication, ...

*Acute pancreatitis

55 years white blood cell count > 16000 cells/mm3 blood glucose > 11.1 mmol/L (> 200 mg/dL) serum AST > 250 IU/L serum LDH > ... Blood investigations - Full blood count, renal function tests, liver function, serum calcium, serum amylase and lipase, ... Blood studies are used to identify organ failure, offer prognostic information, determine if fluid resuscitation is adequate, ... The rate of fluid resuscitation should be adjusted based on clinical assessment, hematocrit and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) ...

*Nutrition

This may help lower blood glucose levels because it can slow the absorption of sugar. Additionally, fiber, perhaps especially ... elevated blood sugar, elevated blood pressure, elevated blood triglycerides, and reduced HDL cholesterol. The negative effect ... Benton D, Sargent J (July 1992). "Breakfast, blood glucose and memory". Biol Psychol. 33 (2-3): 207-10. doi:10.1016/0301-0511( ... Traditionally, simple carbohydrates are believed to be absorbed quickly, and therefore to raise blood-glucose levels more ...

*Ranson criteria

John Ranson (1938-1995). At admission: Age in years > 55 years WBC count > 16000 cells/mm3 Blood glucose > 11 mmol/L (> 200 mg/ ... Stands for Glucose, Age, LDH, AST and WBC; Calcium, Hematocrit, Oxygen, BUN, Base, Sequestration. Alternatively, pancreatitis ...

*Insulin pump

... a missed blood glucose test, a new blood glucose test 15 minutes after a low blood glucose test, etc. The alarms are customized ... integration with blood glucose meters: Blood glucose data can be manually entered into the pump to support the bolus wizard for ... The DANA Diabecare IISG insulin pump has a blood glucose meter in it. After a blood glucose check with the integrated ... On waking, they would test their blood glucose level periodically until lunch. Changes in blood glucose level are compensated ...

*Eating disorders and memory

Benton, D., & Sargent, J. (1992). Breakfast, blood glucose and memory. Biological Psychology, 33(2-3), 207-210. Bryan, J., & ... Glucose is the preferred energy source for the brain, accounting for 25% of the body's glucose consumption, despite being only ... Studies have indicated the importance of glucose on memory, showing that reduced levels of glucose in the brain impair an ... The reduced blood flow in the limbic system of individuals with AN is what mostly accounts for their impairment in cognitive ...

*Avid Radiopharmaceuticals

... would cross the blood-brain barrier and attach itself to amyloid protein deposits in the brain. Avid raised $500,000 from ... magnetic resonance imaging scans looking for brain shrinkage and PET scans looking at how glucose was used in the brain, had ...

*Human nutrition

The spike in blood glucose levels after ingestion of simple sugars is thought to be related to some of the heart and vascular ... to glucose and can be used for energy production just as ordinary glucose. By breaking down existing protein, some glucose can ... elevated blood sugar, elevated blood pressure, elevated blood triglycerides, and reduced HDL cholesterol.[medical citation ... Benton, David; Sargent, Julia (1992). "Breakfast, blood glucose and memory". Biological Psychology. 33 (2-3): 207-10. doi: ...
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In a randomized crossover trial the impact of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was tested on the occurrence of low blood glucose values measured by point of care (POC) measurement and on low glucose values measured by CGM in the interstitial fluid. A total of 41 type 1 diabetic patients (age 42.0 ± 11.4 years, diabetes duration 15.3 ± 10.1 years, A1c 8.2 ± 1.4%) used a CGM system (Dexcom SEVEN PLUS system) twice. In first study phase (CGM blind), patients were blind regarding the CGM current glucose levels and were not alerted when critical glucose values were reached. In the second phase (CGM real time), patients had access to current glucose levels and were alerted if critical glucose values were reached. During CGM real time the proportion of hypoglycemic POC blood glucose values were significantly reduced (7.5 ± 5.6% vs 10.1 ± 7.5%; P = .04), whereas the proportion of euglycemic blood glucose values were significantly enhanced (73.7 ± 18.3% vs 68.3 ± 12.1%; P = .01). The duration of low
Despite a strong association between elevated blood glucose levels and increased rates of mortality among patients hospitalised with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the benefit of acutely lowering levels of blood glucose remains controversial. Several questions remain unanswered:. (1) Does normalisation of admission hyperglycaemia improved outcome?. (2) What level of blood glucose is associated with lowest mortality?. (3) Do outcomes differ between patients who spontaneously achieve normalisation of glucose levels as compared to those who require insulin?. In order to address these questions Kosiborod et al retrospectively analyzed data from 7820 hyperglycaemic patients hospitalised for biomarker-confirmed AMI, using a database which received patient data from 40 hospitals across the US over a 6 year period (Jan 2000-Dec 2005). Measurements of blood glucose were divided into 5 levels as shown in the table below. Admission blood glucose level was defined as the initial blood glucose level, and ...
Why would blood glucose levels fluctuate when on LCHF?. Dramatic improvements in blood glucose can be expected within the first days of adopting an LCHF diet. However, its very normal for diabetics not to achieve perfect fasting (morning) blood glucose early on or sometimes ever. Morning fasting blood glucose levels usually continue to remain high, even after adopting a ketogenic LCHF diet and even when blood glucose over the rest of the day is well controlled. This is due to the dawn phenomenon - high morning blood glucose caused by raised concentrations of growth hormone, cortisol, adrenaline and glucagon in the morning.. Achieving good blood glucose control over the rest of the day is what is really important. It takes time and trial and error, with close post-meal blood glucose monitoring to determine exactly which foods affect blood glucose levels and to what extent. This will help find the foods and amounts that help keep blood glucose stable so that the patient can try to eat those as ...
LifeScan, Inc. is recalling all of its OneTouch® Verio®IQ blood glucose meters in the United States, effective immediately. LifeScan is recalling and replacing all of these meters because at extremely high blood glucose levels of 1024 mg/dL and above, the meter will not provide a warning that the blood glucose is extremely high and will shut off, thereby potentially leading to incorrect treatment and delaying proper treatment. The company says the likelihood of experiencing an extremely high blood glucose level of 1024 mg/dL or higher is remote. However, when such a blood glucose level occurs, it is a serious health risk requiring immediate medical attention. Because these products do not provide an appropriate warning at glucose levels of 1024 mg/dL or higher, diagnosis and treatment of extreme hyperglycemia may be delayed or incorrect treatment may be given resulting in potentially serious health risk or death.. Patients who are using the OneTouch® Verio®IQ Meter should contact LifeScan ...
BioAssay record AID 1079667 submitted by ChEMBL: Hypoglycemic activity in over night fasted Wistar albino rat assessed as reduction of blood glucose level at 10 mg/kg, po administered 30 mins before glucose challenge measured after 120 mins by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (Rvb = 101.07 +/- 8.98 mg/dl).
Our aim was to develop a computer simulator program that allows patients to practise insulin dose and dietary adjustment on a day of planned exercise, and shows the resulting blood glucose response in an average diabetic patient. The degree of blood glucose change predicted by the program was determined from changes predicted by five local specialists in seven hypothetical scenarios involving exercise +/- dietary or insulin dose adjustments. The program was then tested against 18 outside specialists responses in 7 different scenarios. The program simulates the 24 h glycaemic response after 45 min mild or moderate exercise starting 2 h after meals, as well as changes to this response induced by alterations in dietary carbohydrate and/or insulin dose. Coefficients of variation of specialists blood glucose predictions were greater for exercise (35% local, 31% outside specialists) than dietary change (7% local, 10% outside specialists; p = 0.002-0.04). The programs predicted change in blood glucose
BioAssay record AID 771912 submitted by ChEMBL: Antidiabetic activity in Sprague-Dawley albino rat assessed as inhibition of blood glucose level at 300 mg/kg, ip administered 10 mins prior to oral glucose challenge measured after 10 mins by glucometer relative to control.
Children undergoing heart surgery are under significant bodily stress, which can lead to higher than normal or lower than normal blood glucose levels. A synthetic form of insulin, a naturally occurring hormone in the body, can be injected into people to normalize blood glucose levels. Insulin is most commonly used to treat people with diabetes, but it is also used in hospitals to control blood glucose levels in patients. Previous studies of adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients have shown that patients whose blood sugar levels are maintained at normal levels with the use of insulin contract fewer infections and are released more quickly from the ICU than patients who do not maintain normal blood glucose levels. This study will use a continuous blood glucose monitoring system to detect changes in blood glucose levels. Intravenous insulin infusions will be used to then safely maintain normal blood glucose levels. The purpose of this study is to determine if maintaining normal blood glucose ...
The development of adequate mathematical models for blood glucose dynamics may improve early diagnosis and control of diabetes mellitus (DM). We have developed a stochastic nonlinear second order differential equation to describe the response of blood glucose concentration to food intake using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data. A variational Bayesian learning scheme was applied to define the number and values of the systems parameters by iterative optimisation of free energy. The model has the minimal order and number of parameters to successfully describe blood glucose dynamics in people with and without DM. The model accounts for the nonlinearity and stochasticity of the underlying glucose-insulin dynamic process. Being data-driven, it takes full advantage of available CGM data and, at the same time, reflects the intrinsic characteristics of the glucose-insulin system without detailed knowledge of the physiological mechanisms. We have shown that the dynamics of some postprandial blood ...
The development of adequate mathematical models for blood glucose dynamics may improve early diagnosis and control of diabetes mellitus (DM). We have developed a stochastic nonlinear second order differential equation to describe the response of blood glucose concentration to food intake using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data. A variational Bayesian learning scheme was applied to define the number and values of the systems parameters by iterative optimisation of free energy. The model has the minimal order and number of parameters to successfully describe blood glucose dynamics in people with and without DM. The model accounts for the nonlinearity and stochasticity of the underlying glucose-insulin dynamic process. Being data-driven, it takes full advantage of available CGM data and, at the same time, reflects the intrinsic characteristics of the glucose-insulin system without detailed knowledge of the physiological mechanisms. We have shown that the dynamics of some postprandial blood ...
Self monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is very crucial for those diabetics who are on insulin or on certain oral anti-diabetic drugs which can cause hypoglycemia. To achieve best glycemic control it is essential to know how your daily blood glucose levels are fluctuating in entire day.. It is easier for a diabetes specialist to adjust drugs or to adjust insulin dose if good SMBG record is maintained by the patient.. Normally we check fasting and 2 hr post prandial blood sugar levels in lab for routine follow up. There is bright chance of sugar excursions in the other post meal readings which gets unnoticed. Even in case of HbA1c or Glycated hemoglobin test we get an average result of blood glucose of last 3 months.. In practice I have seen several patients who had fasting and post prandial blood glucose lab tests in normal range but HbA1c levels below 7 is not achieved because they might have high blood sugars in other post meals which has got unnoticed.. To achieve best blood glycemic control ...
Blood glucose was measured with a portable glucose meter in 907 rabbits, including 238 clinically healthy ones. Blood glucose concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 30.1 mmol/l. Diabetes mellitus was not encountered. No significant effect of sex or sedation was found. Hypoglycaemia was seen in 16 rabbits including one with an insulinoma. There was a significant relationship between blood glucose, food intake, signs of stress and severity of clinical disease. Rabbits showing signs of stress had higher blood glucose than rabbits with no signs and rabbits that were totally anorexic had higher blood glucose values than those that were eating normally or those with reduced food intake. Severe hyperglycaemia (,20 mmol/l) was associated with conditions with a poor prognosis. Rabbits with confirmed intestinal obstruction had a mean blood glucose of 24.7 mmol/l (n=18). This was significantly higher than the rabbits with confirmed gut stasis, which had a mean value of 8.5 mmol/l (n=51). The conclusion of the ...
Better disease care behaviors in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are strongly related to better metabolic control (HbA1c). However, HbA1c results are only available, on average, every three months, and may not accurately capture intricacies of blood glucose fluctuations. Youth then must rely on blood glucose levels obtained throughout the day to determine which disease care behaviors to perform to maintain optimal metabolic control. Youth may have difficulty performing these disease care behaviors properly or consistently, which makes parental monitoring a crucial aspect of the diabetes regimen. Additionally, youth who experience frequent or severe hypoglycemia may develop a fear of hypoglycemia, which may impact their disease care behaviors and blood glucose levels directly. Average blood glucose levels strongly related to HbA1c which verifies HbA1c as a good indicator of average blood glucose levels. The Average Daily Risk Range (ADRR) index had a stronger relation to HbA1c than Mean Amplitude
Our first priority is to safeguard the health and safety of patients, stated Heather Mason, SVP Diabetes Care, Abbott. We are committed to ensuring that our customers are able to continue to test their blood glucose with confidence, and we initiated this voluntary recall to ensure our products continue to meet the highest standards of quality and safety.. The company has determined that at extremely high blood glucose levels of 1024 mg/dL and above, the FreeStyle lnsulinx Meter will display and store in memory an incorrect test result that is 1024 mg/dL below the measured result. For example, at a blood glucose value of 1066 mg/dL, the meter will display and store a value of 42 mg/dL. No other Abbott blood glucose meters are impacted by this issue.. Blood glucose levels at 1024 mg/dL and above are very rare. However, if high blood glucose levels of 1024 mg/dL and above do occur, they are a serious health risk and require immediate medical attention. As the FreeStyle lnsulinx Meter can display ...
The incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) all over the world is alarming, since nearly 7% of the world population and 12% of the population in Pakistan is affected by it. Although allopathic medicine has made tremendous progress, its cost is soaring, side effects are numerous and the control of DM remains unabated. The symptomatic treatment (without proper diagnose of blood glucose/insulin level & HbA1c) through indiscriminate use of allopathic medicine is quite common. The objective of the present study was to show that sweet potato has an impact on blood glucose healthy and diabetic participants. White star (Pakistan) and Beauregard (US) cultivars were analyzed through bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein assay and electophorses to determine true protein and identify protein banding pattern, respectively. In diabetic persons, the mean value of two hours postprandial blood glucose level (mg dL-1) were 296 in glucose-control (T1), which declined to 246 in white star (T2), marginally increased to 301 ...
Blood glucose levels: You should be monitoring your blood glucose level on a daily basis, checking it at least four times a day-before each meal and before bed. You may also need to monitor your blood glucose 1-2 hours after eating a meal. More monitoring will help you have better blood glucose control. Your doctor will instruct you on how many times per day to test your blood glucose level, and he or she will suggest the best method for doing so. You should aim for the following levels during the day ...
A postprandial glucose test is a blood glucose test that determines the amount of a type of sugar, called glucose, in the blood after a meal. Glucose is mainly made from carbohydrate foods. It is the main source of energy used by the body. Normally, blood glucose levels increase slightly after eating. This increase causes the pancreas to release insulin, which assists the body in removing glucose from the blood and storing it for energy. People with diabetes may not produce or respond properly to insulin, which causes their blood glucose to remain elevated. Blood glucose levels that remain high over time can damage the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels. A 2-hour postprandial blood glucose test ("2 hour p.c. blood glucose test", etc.) measures blood glucose exactly 2 hours after eating a meal, timed from the start of the meal. By this point blood sugar has usually gone back down in healthy people, but it may still be elevated in people with diabetes. Thus, it serves as a test of whether a ...
Playing sport is a complex combination of motor skill performance, cognitive processing and reaction time, all of which are influenced by blood glucose levels.. This study found sport skill performance in young athletes was highest when blood glucose levels were in the normal range. The greatest performance deficits were observed during concurrent hypoglycaemia. The authors suggested differences in level of impairment could be related to BGL concentration, BGL drop rate and individual capacity to maintain focus in light of these factors.Although the study did not find a sport skill deficit resulting from hyperglycaemia the authors cite other studies demonstrating cognitive impairment related to hyperglycaemia ,20mmol/L. It was also suggested the failure of this study to observe relative decrements in sport skill performance may have been due to the transient nature of hyperglycaemic episodes where mean blood glucose concentrations were lower (16.9 ± 3.17 mmol/L).. Although not examined in this ...
Insulin resistance is a condition where the body produces insulin but does not use it effectively. When people have insulin resistance, glucose builds up in the blood instead of being absorbed by the cells.. Blood glucose levels (also called blood sugar levels) reflect how well diabetes is being managed and how well the plan of care (healthy eating, exercise, and medication) is working. If the blood glucose levels are consistently under control (with levels near normal), any diabetes complications may be reduced or even prevented.. Hypoglycaemia also known as a hypo, low or low blood glucose, happens when blood glucose levels drops below normal levels.. Hyperglycaemia is high blood glucose. High blood glucose in type 2 diabetes happens when the body has too little insulin or when the body cant use insulin properly.. ...
Carbohydrate has the most profound effect on blood glucose levels. Monitor your carbohydrate intake and use this information to calculate your insulin and/
Treatment for Low Blood Glucose Levels in Sion, Mumbai. Find Doctors Near You, Book Appointment, Consult Online, View Doctor Fees, Address, Phone Numbers and Reviews. Doctors for Low Blood Glucose Levels in Sion, Mumbai | Lybrate
Blood glucose refers to the amount of glucose present in the human blood. The normal glucose level should range between 70 to 99mg/dl at early morning in empty stomach. The level gradually varies after consumption of food. Outside the normal blood sugar level is treated as a medical condition, which is referred as Diabetes mellitus. Here in this blood sugar level chart we have provided the blood glucose level in terms of mg/dl under three categories: normal, per-diabetics and post-diabetics. ...
Normal blood sugar level (the blood glucose level is normal on an empty stomach), being new to this, and someone who does not do things by halves, i have been tracking my glucose levels some 4 or 5 times a day. we randomly test my 4 year old daughters glucose and it has never been under 7 mmol/l. yesterday morning it was 7.8 so we didn. For children who are aged between 5-11, normal blood glucose levels are 70 to 150mg/dl. fasting blood sugars must be close to the lower end of normal sugar level. blood sugar after meals and. A normal fasting blood glucose level for women is the same as that for a man, ranging from 60 to 110 mg/dl. a person with a fasting blood glucose level of 115 to 125 mg/dl may have a condition known as impaired fasting glucose or prediabetes... For a child who is 12 or older, healthy glucose levels are essentially the same as those of adults: near 70 mg/dl when fasting and 150 mg/dl after meals. if the blood sugar before bedtime is below 100 mg/dl, ask your childs doctor ...
Study 1: 24 type 2 diabetics with minimal diabetic retinopathy but varying HbA1c level.. Study 2: 24 type 2 diabetics with minimal diabetic retinopathy. Study 3: 24 type 2 diabetics with minimal diabetic retinopathy.. Plan of trial:. Study 1: Test individuals will be examined at baseline: Prior history of illness, eye examination, blood test, fundusphoto and fullfield-ERG. Afterwards test individuals will take an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) which results in a peak in blood glucose after approx. 2 hours, whereafter the blood glucose level normalizes. Immediately after the sugar intake test individuals will be examined by repeated fullfield-ERGs and blood glucose measurements (every 30 min) until the blood glucose level has been normalized.. Study 2: Test individuals will be examined at baseline: Prior history of illness, eye examination, blood test, fundusphoto and dark adaptation. Afterwards test individuals will take an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) which results in a peak in blood ...
The renal threshold of glucose (RTG) is the blood glucose concentration at which glucose begins to be excreted by the kidneys into the urine. This usually occurs in healthy adults at approximately 9 - 10 mmol/L (162 - 180 mg/dL). In many adults, particularly those with long-standing diabetes, the RTG may increase substantially. therefore, you may have elevated blood glucose levels without glucose being shown in the urine because your blood glucose still under the normal limit of excretion.. Conversely, if youre a teenager or a pregnant female, you may have very low urinary sugar or variable renal thresholds for glucose, and when take a urine test, glucose being present in the urine, even blood test shows normal blood glucose values.. The lowest renal glucose threshold= 7 mmol/L (126 mg/dL ...
In 43 insuline dependent diabetics postprandial serum glucose concentrations as 24-hour glucose excretions have been determined. Their value for a long term metabolic information was compared to that of HbAIc concentrations. A correlation between postprandial serum glucose concentration of the partial correlations. Those excluded the influence of an interrelationship among the individual serum glucose concentrations, at the time of different presentations for metabolic control, on the serum glucose to HbAIc relationship. There was no correlation between the concentrations of HbAIc and the amount of glucose excreted into the urine. The study shows that single determinations of postprandial serum glucose concentrations, as the excretion of small amounts of glucose into the urine are of no use for a long term metabolic information in juvenile diabetics. ...
We would like to clarify one aspect of Comis (1) commentary on glucose control in the intensive care unit and amplify another. First, although the NICE-SUGAR (Normoglycaemia in Intensive Care Evaluation and Survival Using Glucose Algorithm Regulation) (2) control group was stated to have a target glucose level less than 10.0 mmol/L (,180 mg/dL), it was actually much less than that, because insulin infusions were continued until the blood glucose level reached 8.0 mmol/L (144 mg/dL). Indeed, the time-weighted mean blood glucose level in the control group was 8.0 mmol/L (144 mg/dL). Data on the mean glucose levels in patients who received insulin therapy were not provided. Thus, the standard for glucose control seems to be closer to 8.0 mmol/L (144 mg/dL) rather than below 10.0 mmol/L (180 mg/dL) as suggested by Comi ...
Elevated blood glucose at hospital admission, and elevated fasting blood glucose levels during admission, have been shown to predict worse outcome among patients with STEMI, however, the contribution of glucose levels to risk predictive algorithms involving patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) remains unclear.. Admission and fasting glucose levels were available for 13 526 patients enrolled in the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE). This included patients with STEMI, NSTEMI and unstable angina admitted to hospital between April 1999 to December 2005 from 106 hospitals in 14 countries.. In-hospital and 6 month mortality was calculated and correlated against the presence and degree of glucose elevation on admission and in a fasting sample during admission. Researchers found that patients who had higher fasting glucose levels were more often female, had a higher Killip class, and had a history of hypertension, previous stroke / TIA or peripheral vascular disease. 39.7% of ...
A value of 103 milligrams per deciliter is not a low blood glucose level. However, a blood glucose level that falls below 70 milligrams per deciliter is harmful and causes low blood glucose or...
Type 1 diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by a lack of production of pancreatic insulin, consequently leading to high blood glucose concentrations (hyperglycemia). Hyperglycemia has negative health effects in the long term such as eye, nerve, and kidney disease. Exogenous insulin must be injected to keep the blood glucose in the normoglycemic range (approximately 60 - 140 mg/dL, or 3.3 - 8 mmol/L). However, the dosing of exogenous insulin must be done carefully, because low blood glucose concentrations (hypoglycemia) can have immediate and severe consequences like insulin shock, coma, or even death. Currently, insulin administration is performed by the subject with type 1 diabetes based on infrequent glucose measurements (in the form of finger-sticks), often resulting in an unsatisfactory blood glucose control. An artificial pancreas is a medical device that injects exogenous insulin automatically in order to regulate the glucose concentration. Blood glucose measurements are obtained ...
High blood glucose levels for several years is the major factor in the development and progression of microvascular complications in IDDM. Reducing mean blood glucose reduces the risk of progression of diabetic microvascular complications substantially. A curve-linear relationship exists between HbA1c levels and progression of diabetic retinopathy. Recent evidence also points to a close relationship between high blood glucose levels and progression of microvascular complications in NIDDM. The relationship between mean blood glucose and cardiovascular disease in diabetes has been unclear. Recent population-based studies give evidence for a linear association of glycemic control with the risk for cardiovascular disease in patients with NIDDM. However, randomized studies comparing different degrees of glycemic control in NIDDM and their impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are urgently needed.. ...
|p class=MsoNormal| |br style=/| |p class=MsoNormal|Glucose is a type of sugar that travels through the bloodstream. When you eat carbohydrate foods it enters your body as glucose. Normal blood glucose levels are determined by insulin and glucagon. |br/||br/| Insulin is a hormone that is produced by the pancreas and released into the bloodstream when glucose...
TechNavios analysts forecast the Blood Glucose Monitoring Device market in the US to grow at a CAGR of 3.8 percent over the period 2011-2011. One of the key factors contributing to this market growth is the introduction of personal testing kits. The Blood Glucose Monitoring Device market in the US has also witnessed the adoption of continuous glucose monitoring systems. However, the unwillingness of diabetes patients to use blood glucose monitoring devices could pose a challenge to the growth of this market. TechNavios report, the Blood Glucose Monitoring Device Market in the US 2011-2015, has been prepared based on an in-depth analysis of the market with inputs from industry experts. The report focuses on the US market; it also covers the Blood Glucose Test Strips, Blood Glucose Meters, and Lancets market landscape and its growth prospects in the coming years. The report also includes a discussion of the key vendors operating in this market. Key vendors dominating this market space include ...
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to determine whether a group of African Americans who had no diagnosis of type 2 diabetes had elevated blood glucose levels and other risk factors indicative of type 2 diabetes. A convenience sample of 20 African American adults 50 years and older participated in the pilot study. Participants were screened for elevated fasting capillary blood glucose levels and related risk factors such as hypertension, high cholesterol levels, and high body mass index. Frequency data indicated that at least 50% of participants had capillary glucose levels greater than 110 mg/dL. An overwhelming majority of the participants with elevated glucose levels had one or more other risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Evidence-based practice clearly indicates that an early detection and control of type 2 diabetes can prevent complications and also help prevent coronary artery disease.. Early Detection of Type 2 Diabetes Among Older African-Americans ...
Our patients safety is our number one priority," stated Michael Pfeifer, LifeScans chief medical officer. "When we learn that a product does not fully meet our expected standards, we will voluntarily notify our customers and patients and take corrective action. We regret the inconvenience these actions may cause. However, we will always err on the side of caution and make a decision that is in the best interest of our patients.". LifeScan is recalling and replacing the meters because at extremely high blood glucose levels of 1024 mg/dL and above, the meter will not provide a warning that the blood glucose is extremely high and will shut off, thereby potentially leading to incorrect treatment and delaying proper treatment.. The likelihood of experiencing an extremely high blood glucose level of 1024 mg/dL or higher is remote; however, when such a blood glucose level occurs, it is a serious health risk requiring immediate medical attention. Because these products do not provide an appropriate ...
Normal blood sugar levels (non fasting) should not exceed 200 mg/dl. By contrast, normal glucose levels following a lengthy fast should not exceed 126 mg/dl.. Why the big difference between fast and non-fast?. Blood sugar levels normally rise sharply immediately after each meal. This occurs because the body converts carbohydrates into glucose very rapidly. . . . → Read More: Normal Blood Sugar Levels Non Fasting. ...
Myocardial infarction and prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Is increased casual blood glucose at admission a reliable criterion for the diagnosis of diabetes? ...
A blood glucose meter is used to test blood glucose at home and determine whether blood glucose levels are in the target range.
Could you be at risk from developing diabetes? Find out with this glucose test kit Our blood glucose level test kit is a sterile rapid test for determining whether your blood glucose levels are within normal limits.. Why is this Blood Glucose Level test
Globally, the incidence of diabetes patients is rising constantly. So it is essential for patients around the world to have their blood glucose level continuously monitored to avoid the risk of diseases like kidney disorder, cardiovascular diseases, blood disorder, blindness, and other diseases.. Get Free 10% Customization in this Report. Click here for summary of the report with TOC: http://www.renub.com/blood-glucose-device-market-and-forecast-smbg-test-strips-lancet-meter-worldwide-analysis-977-p.php. The incidence of diabetes among adults over 18 years of age have risen from 4.7% in 2012 to 8.5% by 2014 anticipated by World Health Organization. It is also expected that high blood glucose level and diabetes will be the 7th important cause of death by 2030. So Global Blood Glucose Device Market future is bright, it is predicted to be more than US$ 16 Billion by 2020.. Self-monitoring devices are one of the old methods of blood glucose monitoring, as they are used for decades. These devices are ...
RESULTS The mean 24-h free insulin concentrations were similar in both studies (150 ± 12 vs. 162 ± 12 pM, daytime versus nocturnal insulin infusion). The mean 24-h free fatty acid concentration was 18% lower in the nocturnal than in the daytime (309 ± 30 vs. 376 ± 30 μM, P , 0.001) insulin infusion study. The mean 24-h C-peptide concentration was less suppressed if insulin was infused overnight than during the day (1.3 ± 0.2 vs. 1.1 ± 0.2 nM, P , 0.01). The mean 24-h plasma glucose concentrations were identical in both studies (11.1 ±0.6 vs. 11.4 ± 0.7 mM, daytime versus nocturnal insulin infusion). We also searched for factors predicting the decrease in the blood glucose concentration during the nocturnal insulin infusion. The best predictors were a high initial blood glucose concentration at 2200 and a low fasting C-peptide concentration. These factors explained, independent of each other, 50% of the rate of decrease in the plasma glucose concentration.. ...
Looking for Blood glucose test? Find out information about Blood glucose test. The presence of glucose in the blood Explanation of Blood glucose test
Be careful when taking extra insulin to cover for high blood glucose. Take into account any insulin that is still active from your previous dose, as well as any variability in the effect of the correction insulin based on the time of day or other
Hemoglobin A1C is an indicator of average blood glucose control over two to three months and is correlated to an individuals risk of developing diabetic complications such as diseases of the eye, kidney and nerves.. In a pilot study, twenty adults with diabetes who were taking oral diabetes medications were randomly assigned to receive either Diabetinol or a placebo twice per day for three months. Each subject had mildly to moderately elevated cholesterol levels at the start of the study as well.. After 84 days, the group receiving Diabetinol showed a significant 19 percent reduction in glucose intolerance measured as peak changes in blood glucose over the four hours of a standard oral glucose challenge. The placebo group showed no significant improvements in glucose intolerance. A standard glucose challenge involves ingesting 100 grams of glucose and having blood glucose measurements after 30 minutes and hourly for four hours. Neither the investigators nor the volunteers knew who was receiving ...
Figure 1 above shows the effects of a 100g Oral Glucose load or a 40g Oral Fat load on blood glucose level over a period of 360 minutes. Note that subjects are resting during the 360 minutes. As the 100g Oral Glucose load produces a large insulin response (See Figure 2), fat-burning temporarily stops. Therefore, the ~1kcal/minute resting burning rate is derived 100% from carbohydrate. Therefore, the carbohydrate-burning rate is ~0.25g/min. At this rate, it would take ~400 minutes to burn 100g of glucose. However, it actually takes ~180 minutes for blood glucose level to fall from maximum to minimum. Therefore, some of the glucose from the Oral Glucose load is stored (mostly as glycogen in muscles and liver) ...
This article reviews the development of non-invasive optical techniques for determination of blood glucose concentrations in diabetic patients. Early diagnosis and daily management are essential for ensuring the healthy life of diabetic patients. The determination of blood glucose concentration with common devices involves the chemical analysis of blood samples, which are obtained by pricking the finger or extracting blood from the forearm. Pain, discomfort, and inconvenience, associated with current invasive methods, have necessitated the investigation of non-invasive measurement techniques. Non-invasive monitoring of blood glucose level offers several advantages, including absence of pain and biohazard materials, non- exposure to sharp objects, increased testing frequency and consequently, tighter control of glucose concentration. Considering these potential advantages commercialization of non-invasive glucose monitoring devices has become a subject of increasing interest. Several optical technologies
Observations made in a rat model of uncontrolled, insulin-deficient diabetes suggest that the brain has the capacity to lower blood glucose levels via insulin-independent means. Specifically, continuous or repeated daily i.c.v. leptin administration can normalize elevated blood glucose levels in these animals despite persistent, severe insulin deficiency (22-25). Building upon this initial finding, we hypothesized that, since the insulin-independent component of glucose tolerance, GE, is markedly reduced in ob/ob mice, this defect will be remedied by FGF19 (2), because it has potent antidiabetic effects in these animals. We further hypothesized that since FGF19 is effective following either peripheral or low-dose central administration in these animals (6), its effect to increase GE is mediated centrally. Our finding that glucose lowering induced by systemic FGF19 administration in ob/ob mice is attenuated by central administration of an inhibitor of FGF receptors implicates the brain in this ...
In an analysis of the datasets collected in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial, Kilpatrick et al. (1) reported that mean blood glucose was predictive of microvascular complications in patients with type 1 diabetes, while glucose variability did not appear to be a factor in their development. We question their methodology and thereby also the conclusions. They calculated the variability of within-day blood glucose as the SD around the mean of a seven-point glycemic profile measured at each patients quarterly visit. With such a methodology, they have probably not selected major glucose fluctuations, but rather a composite of both major and minor fluctuations, and most of them were likely to be minor. Furthermore, they have probably blunted the contribution of major glucose fluctuations, as it is not likely that the four pre- and interprandial and three postprandial glucose values included in the seven-point profile were in perfect coincidence with the nadirs and peaks of glucose, ...
If you had a fasting blood glucose test, a level between 70 and 100 mg/dL (3.9 and 5.6 mmol/L) is considered normal.. If you had a random blood glucose test, a normal result depends on when you last ate. Most of the time, the blood glucose level will be below 125 mg/dL (6.9 mmol/L).. The examples above show the common measurements for results of these tests. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or may test different specimens. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.. ...
Hebrew University of Jerusalem scientists claim to have identified a potential target that would help in development of novel oral drugs to control blood glucose levels in diabetes patients.
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Intervention. Patients were allocated to 1 of 2 minimally invasive glucose monitoring devices (GlucoWatch Biographer, n = 100; MiniMed Continuous Glucose Monitoring System [CGMS], n = 102), attention control with standard care and nurse feedback (n = 100), or standard care alone (n = 102). All patients continued self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). The GlucoWatch (G2 Biographer, Animas Corporation, West Chester, PA) could be worn anywhere on the body (ideally on the forearm) for ≤ 13 hours and extracted fluid through the skin, displaying glucose values to the patient every 10 minutes. Patients were to wear the GlucoWatch ≥ 4 times per month but ≤ 4 times per week for 12 weeks, and then as desired until 18 months. Diabetes research nurses (DRNs) used data from the GlucoWatch and SMBG to adjust insulin doses at 4, 8, and 12 weeks and at 6, 12, and 18 months. The CGMS (Medtronic, Northridge, CA) was inserted into the abdominal wall; it recorded an average glucose estimation every 5 ...
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 2016; 56(4):541-590. Around 366 million people worldwide have diabetes and this is projected to reach 552 million by 2030. This review clearly shows that dietary components can have significant effects on blood glucose modulation. More prevention, including nutritional advises, might limit this dramatic increase of diabetes and therefore its impact on health and longevity of the population.. Around 366 million people worldwide have diabetes and this is projected to reach 552 million by 2030. Diabetes is a leading cause of death in developed countries and is predicted to become epidemic in newly industrialised nations. Additionally, poorly controlled diabetes is a major factor in several serious disorders including macrovascular disease, vision loss, renal failure, neuropathy and amputations. Nutritional management of blood glucose levels is a strategic target in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To implement such an ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Asymptotic output tracking in blood glucose control. A case study. AU - Kovacs, Levente. AU - Szalay, Peter. AU - Benyo, Balazs. AU - Chase, Geoffrey J.. PY - 2011/12/1. Y1 - 2011/12/1. N2 - Glucose is the primary source of energy for the human body. Keeping the blood glucose level between certain thresholds is essential for the proper energy transport. Insulin plays a key role in maintaining the glucose homeostasis. Because of its great importance, many models were published on either to describe the glucose-insulin interaction in case of patients under Intensive Care Unit (ICU), or to model Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM). Currently for most of the models linear control concepts are used in order to design an appropriate controller. The aim of the current paper is to investigate applicability of nonlinear control theory providing exact mathematical background in the control problem of glucose-insulin interaction. Both ICU and T1DM cases are analyzed on well-known models with ...
The report begins with a market overview and moves on to cover the growth prospects of the Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems market. A detailed segmentation analysis of the Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems market is available in the report. The analysis also covers upstream raw materials, equipment, downstream client survey, marketing channels, industry development trend, and proposals. Furthermore, a business overview, revenue share, and SWOT analysis of the leading players in the Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems market are available in the report.. Geographically, this report is segmented into several key Regions, with production, consumption, revenue (million USD), and market share and growth rate of Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems in these regions, from 2012 to 2023 (forecast), covering North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia, India and its Share (%) and CAGR for the forecasted period 2019 to 2024.. Top Manufacturers Analysis in Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems Market: Blood ...
Blood glucose monitoring - MedHelps Blood glucose monitoring Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for Blood glucose monitoring. Find Blood glucose monitoring information, treatments for Blood glucose monitoring and Blood glucose monitoring symptoms.
Blood sugar levels are measured non-invasively based on temperature measurement. Non-invasively measured blood sugar level values obtained by a temperature measurement scheme are corrected by blood oxygen saturation and blood flow volume, thereby stabilizing the measurement data. If the measured blood sugar level is larger than a warning value, a warning is issued.
By American Diabetes Association Part of Managing Type 2 Diabetes For Dummies Cheat Sheet Checking your blood glucose when you have type 2 diabetes requires pricking your finger and using a blood glucose meter to get a reading. Many people are intimidated by the idea of using a blood glucose meter, especially when theyre first diagnosed. But it takes only seconds once you get the hang of it.. Follow these six simple steps to check your blood glucose:. ...
A study in Cell Stem Cell demonstrates that a gene therapy approach can lead to the long-term survival of functional beta cells as well as normal blood glucose levels for an extended period of time in mice with type 1 diabetes. The researchers used an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector to deliver to the mouse pancreas two proteins, Pdx1 and MafA, which reprogrammed plentiful alpha cells into functional, insulin-producing beta cells.
Type 2 Diabetes is a metabolic disorder associated with insulin resistance and consequent high blood glucose levels. Under normal conditions, in response to high blood glucose levels, pancreatic beta cells produce insulin. The secreted insulin is dis-tributed to tissues thereby stimulating insulin stimulated glucose uptake. However, maximum glucose disposal takes place in skeletal muscle. Thus, studying beta cells and skeletal muscle in respect to diabetes is crucial. Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is one of the major serine/threonine phosphatases belonging to PhosphoProteinPhospha-tase (PPP) family. It constitutes about 80% of all serine/threonine phosphatases. It is regulated by numerous regulatory subunits as well as other substrate molecules and post translational modifications. This alters their localization, activity and its target molecules. Many evidences show the effect of insulin on PP2Ac and its abnormal reg-ulation in conditions of glucolipotoxicity. Thus, studying PP2Ac interaction partners
Moderate exercises can include: If you still experience high blood sugar despite treatment, it may be time to talk to your doctor about increasing your insulin intake. Fish is high in protein, which does not affect blood sugar as much as carbohydrates do. Try it and observe how you feel. Lowering your blood sugar is crucial to both short-term and long-term diabetes management. Diabetes develops when your pancreas can no longer produce insulin in sufficient quantity, or your body becomes less sensitive to the insulin you produce. Add cinnamon to porridge, smoothies and any other dishes to enjoy its remarkable benefits. High blood glucose (hyperglycemia) is most common in type 2 diabetes. Try a 10-minute walk three days a week. Not only does a healthy diet make you feel good, but you can also lower your blood sugar during the what is the best way to stop smoking cigarettes process. On two other days, stretch for 5 minutes. When left untreated, hyperglycemia can cause: Dietary changes are among the ...
There is promising news for the 18 million people in the United States who have been recently diagnosed or have been living with diabetes for years. Advances in research are providing new insights into the management of diabetes. New medications and technology are making it possible for individuals with diabetes to live longer and more productive lives.. Blood glucose monitoring remains the foundation of effective disease management. Consistent monitoring and adherence to a physicians treatment plan are the most effective ways to reduce the risk of serious and sometimes irreversible complications, such as blindness, heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, and nerve damage. Unfortunately, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that only 58% of people with diabetes test their blood glucose levels on a daily basis.. Why Regular Testing Is Important. Testing at the recommended frequency is very important because blood glucose levels may vary from high (hyperglycemia) to low ...
MODEL RELEASED. Blood glucose test. Man about to put blood from his pricked finger onto a blood glucose test strip. This sort of test can help to diagnose diabetes, a metabolic disorder in which unused sugars accumulate in the blood and urine. It is caused because the body either fails to produce the hormone insulin (type I diabetes) or fails to respond to it properly (type II diabetes). In the healthy body, the release of insulin causes glucose in the blood to be converted to starch-like glycogen for storage. Diabetics must control their blood glucose levels through diet, medication and, in some cases, insulin injections. - Stock Image M725/0325
This may occasionally trigger a pulling or stabbing pang in your decrease pelvic space or groin, or a sharp cramp down your aspect. Cell. My BMs are very regular and I solely get constpatied in my first weeks of blood glucose level normal pregnancy pregnant. Pregnancy how soon symptoms anticipation of that momentous transition to mouth feeding, your babys digestive system is all set and able to go. This week the girls focus on Wedding ceremony etiquette with one of the trades high event planners Cassandra Bette. Most ART is finished using the womans own eggs and her companions sperm. We additionally helped a lesbian couple be reimbursed for many of their IVF cycle. Lochia Serosa: Blood glucose level normal pregnancy lochia rubra progressively adjustments colour to brown and then yellow blood glucose level normal pregnancy a interval of a couple of week. Topical how accurate are ultrasound measurements pregnancy could be prescribed to relieve the itching. The concept is to attempt to counter ...
Blood sugar level tester for use by diabetic patients resting on a chart. This device measures the level of glucose in the blood. Diabetes is a disorder in which the production of the hormone insulin, which regulates blood glucose levels, is reduced. Diabetic patients need to regularly check their blood glucose levels and inject themselves with insulin if the level is abnormal. To use this device, the skin must be pricked to release a drop of blood. The chip (protruding from the device) is then held against the blood, and it sucks up the amount required for the test. The blood glucose level is then displayed on an LCD screen (not seen). This is the DEX Glucometer, made by Bayer. - Stock Image M725/0344
Fighting Diabetes: Maintaining a Normal Blood Sugar Level Naturally By Robert L Pugh Diabetes is a condition where the glucose (or sugar) levels in the blood are too high. Many conditions exist that cause high blood glucose levels. The first has to do with the pancreas, which is an important endocrine organ, and the second…
If you are at increased risk of getting diabetes, this program is particularly beneficial to you in many ways.. Keeping blood sugar levels balanced is crucial for normal health, but its even more important for people at risk of diabetes. People with less sensitivity to insulin are prone to sharp rises of blood sugar levels especially after eating foods such as refined carbs. This guide suggests a list of carbohydrates you can eat to prevent such spikes and, therefore, maintain a healthy balance of blood sugar levels.. As with rapid rise of blood sugar levels, rapid drops of glucose in blood can have catastrophic results, such as low energy levels ( with a host of side effects), lack of concentration, mood swings, cravings for sugary things, and many more. The cravings are a result of low blood glucose levels; the body yearns for glucose to restore balance and the typical reaction is to eat foods that are high in starch.. The cycle of sharp spikes of blood glucose then continues until full-blown ...
Non-diabetic hyperglycemia is an elevated blood glucose level not caused by diabetes, says MedicineNet. Random blood glucose levels, where the blood is tested for glucose throughout the day, are...
Healthy eating, physical activity, and blood glucose testing are the basic therapies for type 2 diabetes. People with diabetes must take responsibility for their day-to-day care, and keep blood glucose levels from going too low or too high. Blood glucose monitoring is the main tool you have to check your diabetes control. This check tells you your blood glucose level at any one time. Keeping a log of your results is vital. When you bring this record to your health care provider, you have a good picture of your bodys response to your diabetes care plan. Blood glucose checks let you see what works and what doesnt. This allows you and your doctor, dietitian, or nurse educator to make needed changes. How do blood checks work? You stick your finger with a special needle, called a lancet, to get a drop of blood. With some meters, you can also use your forearm, thigh or fleshy part of your hand. There are spring-loaded lancing devices that make sticking yourself less painful. Before using the lancing ...
The FreeStyle InsuLinx monitoring system is designed for people on insulin. The Jazz Wireless Bluetooth enabled blood glucose monitoring system, from. Blood glucose monitoring can help you understand the link. Clinical Performance of the TRUEresult. System your free meal guide and recipe booklet today packed with more than 60 recipes to help you or your. Blood glucose level pattern changes can alert you and your health professionals to a possible. Blood Glucose Monitoring System Exceeds Minimum Criteria for Accuracy Using ISO. Free Diabetic Recipe Book Get Blood Glucose Monitoring. AgaMatrix, delivers a new and innovative way to get connected with your numbers. ...
Press Release issued Dec 10, 2014: Diabetes refers to a group of metabolic disease characterized by high blood sugar level. Diabetes occurs due to inadequate secretion of insulin inside the pancreas. Some of the common symptoms for diabetes are frequent urination, excessive thirst, increased hunger, weight loss and tiredness. Type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes are three types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease occurred due to high blood glucose level whereas, type 2 diabetes is a lifelong chronic diseases caused due to excess secretion of insulin inside the body. In type 1 diabetes, the immune system is activated against self-insulin producing cells. This results into low production of insulin and also disrupts blood glucose homeostasis. In type 1 diabetes, exposure to viral infection such as mumps and coxsackie viruses results into pancreas damage which results into low insulin secretion. Type 1 diabetes is highly prevalent in young people and children whereas type 2 diabetes is
If youre getting low sugar levels before breakfast, its important to tackle the problem as low blood glucose levels over night can lead to problems including tiredness through the rest of the day and headaches.
In people with impaired glucose tolerance, blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes. Blood glucose levels normally rise after eating a meal then gradually fall as the meal is digested, however in people with impaired glucose tolerance, these levels remain elevated [22]. Elevated glucose levels are commonly known as pre-diabetes. This condition is more common in people who have a family history of Type 2 diabetes and are inactive and overweight. People with pre-diabetes are up to 20 times more likely to be diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes than people with normal blood glucose levels [23] ...
Previous studies have shown that women with diabetes are almost 2.5 times more likely to develop an eating disorder than women without diabetes.. Research also suggests that diabulimia can increase the risk of complications such as foot and vision problems, along with kidney damage, but there has been little research on mortality.. Persons with type 1 diabetes have completely lost the ability to produce their own insulin, the hormone necessary to move glucose into cells, where it is used for energy.. Regular injections of insulin essentially replace what the body used to produce naturally.. But shortchanging insulin doses means glucose levels are not controlled and, as the landmark Diabetes Control and Complications Trial established, persistently high blood glucose levels lead to serious complications, including eye and kidney trouble, and even death.. "Insulin is the hormone that allows the transport of glucose from the bloodstream into cells for use, so either the sugar gets used then and ...
If a cat receives too much insulin, it is possible for the blood sugar level to drop dangerously low. For this reason it is important to be very careful in ensuring the cat receives the correct dose of insulin. This can also happen if your cat does not eat or is vomiting for a prolonged period of time (as quickly as a day or two) but still receives insulin. No food in his/her system = lower blood glucose levels which will drop even lower with the administration of insulin.. The typical signs displayed by a cat with a very low blood sugar level are severe weakness and lethargy, vocalizing, shaking, unsteadiness, acting dazed and confused. The more serious signs include convulsions/seizures, coma and death. If a diabetic cat shows any of the less serious signs it is important to try to offer your cat some canned cat food (Hills A/D, etc) or a special treat to tempt him/her to eat. If you can, try to get a blood glucose at this time so we know if the signs are due to low blood sugar. It is ...
The other main classification of high blood glucose is the long term or chronically elevated numbers that comes with prolonged diabetes that has been controlled fairly well but not perfectly. Basically type-2 diabetes implies a systemic condition where your body doesnt respond well to normal levels of insulin. This may be because your body produces insulin but not enough for your high levels of blood sugar to bring glucose levels down efficiently. It may also be because you are consistently spiking high sugar levels on a daily basis due to the poor food choices you make. In any event if you manage to keep your blood sugar from spiking too high in the short term and end up experiencing somewhat high levels of glucose day after day, month after month and year after year then these slightly elevated levels of glucose in the blood start to take their toll on the body.. Long term chronically high blood sugar levels are usually characterized as an average fasting blood sugar count in the vicinity of ...
Can hemodialysis affect blood glucose level - Can hemodialysis affect blood glucose level? Hemodialysis. Hemodialysis really should not affect your blood sugars. Insulin will last longer in your blood stream as kidneys fail so often Insulin requirements decrease with worsening kidney function. Peritoneal dialysis (where the fluid uses is high is dextrose aka sugar) can raise blood sugar levels.
The pancreas is a large gland, situated in the peritoneal cavity, in the curve of the duodenum. It is the pancreas that is responsible for aiding the bodys endocrine system. (Darlington College 2011). The pancreas releases two endocrine hormones and it is these hormones that ensure the blood glucose levels within the body are constantly controlled. These hormones are glucagon and insulin and they are secreted from tiny clusters of cells within the pancreas, know as the islets of Langerhans. Glucagon is a hyper- glycaemic hormone, secreted by the islets alpha cells. Its main function is to increase the level of glucose in the blood. This is a vital process when blood sugar levels become low. Glucagon stimulates the liver to break down its excess glycogen into glucose. The glucose then passes into the blood stream and the homeostasis of blood glucose level is restored. Insulin is a hypo- glycaemic hormone that is secreted by the islets beta cells, in response to high blood glucose levels. Insulin ...
Self-monitoring of blood glucose has become the modern day pre requisite for diabetes management. SMBG has been recommended for people with diabetes to achieve their desired glycemic targets.. Why monitor blood glucose?. In order to achieve a balanced glycemic target neither hypo nor hyper glycaemia, we require blood glucose monitoring.. Immediate benefits of blood glucose monitoring:. ...
Gastric bypass surgery leads to marked improvements in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in obese type 2 diabetes; the impact on glucose fluxes in response to a physiological stimulus - such as a mixed meal (MTT) - has not been determined. We administered an MTT to 12 obese type 2 diabetic patients (T2D) and 15 obese nondiabetic subjects (ND) before and one year after surgery (10 T2D and 11 ND) using the double-tracer technique and modeling of ß-cell function. In both groups postsurgery, tracer-derived appearance of oral glucose was biphasic, a rapid increase followed by a sharp drop, a pattern that was mirrored by postprandial glucose levels and insulin secretion. In diabetic patients, surgery lowered fasting and postprandial glucose levels; peripheral insulin sensitivity increased in proportion to weight loss (∼30%), ß-cell glucose sensitivity doubled but did not normalize (viz. 21 nonsurgical obese and lean controls). Endogenous glucose production, however, was less suppressed ...
How Is Diabetes Managed? Before the discovery of insulin in 1921, everyone with type 1 diabetes died within a few years after diagnosis. Although insulin is not considered a cure, its discovery was the first major breakthrough in diabetes treatment.. Today, healthy eating, physical activity, and insulin via injection or an insulin pump are the basic therapies for type 1 diabetes. The amount of insulin must be balanced with food intake and daily activities. Blood glucose levels must be closely monitored through frequent blood glucose checking.. Healthy eating, physical activity, and blood glucose testing are the basic management tools for type 2 diabetes. In addition, many people with type 2 diabetes require oral medication and insulin to control their blood glucose levels.. People with diabetes must take responsibility for their day-to-day care. Much of the daily care involves keeping blood glucose levels from going too low or too high. When blood glucose levels drop too low from certain ...
Maintaining a mean blood glucose level within a normal range is essential to your continued good health. In addition to facilitating the management of your...
A new oral drug for Type 2 diabetes, dapagliflozin, has been identified as potentially helpful for people who have problems controlling blood glucose levels just using metformin.In a study of 534 people by researchers at Aston University in Birmingham, when the drug was used in combination with metformin it was found to improve blood glucose control and lower bodyweight, acting independently of insulin.
If you have questions about postprandial, aka post meal, blood glucose levels and whats considered normal, youll find all the answers here.
Aims/Hypothesis: The relationships between smoking and glycaemic variables have not been well explored. We compared HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2 h plasma glucose (2H-PG) in current, ex- and never-smokers. Methods: This meta-analysis used individual data from 16,886 men and 18,539 women without known diabetes in 12 DETECT-2 consortium studies and in the French Data from an Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (DESIR) and Telecom studies. Means of three glycaemic variables in current, ex- and never-smokers were modelled by linear regression, with study as a random factor. The I2 statistic was used to evaluate heterogeneity among studies. Results: HbA1c was 0.10% (95% CI 0.08, 0.12) (1.1 mmol/mol [0.9, 1.3]) higher in current smokers and 0.03% (0.01, 0.05) (0.3 mmol/mol [0.1, 0.5]) higher in ex-smokers, compared with never-smokers. For FPG, there was no significant difference between current and never-smokers (−0.004 mmol/l [−0.03, 0.02]) but FPG was higher in ...
Unlike protein, the effect of fat on blood glucose is not debated: the ingestion of fat delays stomach emptying and increases insulin resistance, which ultimately results in a late rise in blood glucose. Further, these effects may last for several hours after eating. Diabetes professionals agree that minimal fat is actually converted to glucose; the BG-raising effect is due instead to the changes in insulin sensitivity, not due to the creation of glucose from fat.. To illustrate this effect, lets consider the results of an experiment conducted by Howard Wolpert1 and his colleagues using a closed-loop Continuous Glucose Monitor: they compared the insulin requirements of two meals which had equal carb content, but which varied in fat content (60g of fat in the high fat meal versus 10g of fat in the low fat meal). They concluded that "adults with type 1 diabetes require more insulin coverage for higher-fat meals than for lower-fat meals with identical carbohydrate content". Okay, intuitively PWD ...
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a physical condition that interferes with a mans ability to attain and sustain an erection. According to the Canadian Diabetes Association, it is not uncommon for men who have uncontrollable diabetes. As a matter of fact, men who have sought medical attention first for ED often wind up with a dual diagnosis for both ED and diabetes. It is the same elevated blood glucose levels that cause nerve and blood vessel damage in the body that can lead to nerve and blood flow damage to the penis. If the blood glucose levels arent well controlled with diabetes during the illness, the nerve and blood vessel damage will be greater. In addition, the longer a man has had diabetes, the more likely he is to incur ED. Sometimes, prescription medications like Levitra, Cialis and Viagra are used to treat this condition for those who have ED due to diabetes.. Dr. Biljana Musicki of the Brady Urological Institute at John Hopkins has indicated that ED occurs in 50 to 70 percent of men ...
We studied seven well controlled, non-insulin treated, type-2 diabetic patients (mean HbA1 [corrected according to Diabetes Control and Complications Trial] 7·4%, SD 1·0) and seven healthy controls matched for age, sex, and body mass index with a stepped hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemic glucose clamp. Symptoms, cognitive function, and counter-regulatory hormone concentrations were measured at each glucose plateau, and the glucose value at which there was a significant change from baseline was calculated ...
Its possible for people with diabetes - even those with symptoms - to have a normal fasting plasma glucose test. If you fall into this category, you will again be asked to abstain from food and drink (except water) for 8 hours and then drink a liquid containing a known amount of glucose, usually 75 grams.Your blood is drawn before drinking the glucose mixture and 2 hours later. You will be asked to refrain from eating until the test is completed. This test is called an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT).. Your fasting plasma glucose normally is less than 100 mg/dl. Values from 100mg/dl to 126 mg/dl are diagnostic of pre-diabetes. Fasting plasma glucose levels equal or above 126 mg/dl are diagnostic of diabetes.. Two hours after the glucose drink your plasma glucose normally is less than 140 mg/dl. Values from 140mg/dl to 199 mg/dl indicate that you have pre-diabetes. You have diabetes if the plasma glucose levels are equal to or greater than 200 mg/dl. ...
The evidence shows that targeting normal glucose levels of 80 to 110 mg in ICU patients does not lead to better outcomes," said Amir Qaseem, MD, PhD, MHA, FACP, director of clinical policy for ACP. "Some studies showed an increase in death with intensive insulin therapy.". While the evidence is not sufficient to give a narrower range for blood glucose levels, ACP says in the guideline, a target of 140 to 200 mg is a reasonable option in ICU patients because this range is associated with similar mortality outcomes as 80 to 110 mg blood glucose levels and is associated with a lower risk for hypoglycemia.. ACPs recommendations are based on a systematic evidence review of an evidence report sponsored by the Department of Veterans Affairs.. About the American College of Physicians ...
Diets high in simple sugars and refined carbs cause metabolic disorders and Type II diabetes in millions of Americans. But to make matters worse, new evidence suggests that high sugar diets may be even more dangerous than we initially thought. Having too much excess sugar in the bloodstream is never a good thing, and can lead to medical complications such as kidney failure, cardiovascular disease, and eye problems. But could high blood sugar also cause cancer? A Swedish research team addressed this question by tracking over 500,000 patients for 10-25 yeas, and published their results in the December issue of PLoS Medicine.
Percentage or with symptoms of hyperglycemia despite the initial part, the reason for the combination of metformin and insulin therapy is that type 2 diabetes mellitus in February 2016 a disorder interrupts the way that if there is not enough insulin, the organism stops responding to the increase in blood sugar. The rates of type 2 diabetes have increased markedly since 1960 in parallel with patients with obesity at maximum available combinations of oral antidiabetic agents than most diabetes, it is reasonable to initiate therapy. Algorithm for blood glucose reduction therapy in adults with the combination of type 2 insulin and metformin, the treatment for diabetes that 90% of people have. If the blood glucose and / or a1c levels are not reached, the immediate start of the insulin to lower it, depending on the characteristics of other patients, does the combination therapy explain the high sugar content in the morning? Sleeping woman Ways to stabilize your blood sugar. This means that type 2 ...
By: Madison Gohlke, William Nunnelley, Dr. Terry Brandebourg. My research question involved developing a sample handling method that allows human point-of-care glucometer (POCG) to accurately measure circulating blood glucose concentrations in porcine blood. Pigs are an apt biomedical research model for humans, specifically regarding the development of obesity and etabolic disease. As in humans, the accurate measurement of blood glucose concentrations is critical for assessing metabolic status as pigs become progressively obese. Human POCGs are an expedient method for measuring blood glucose in research animals and in clinical practice; the handheld instruments are portable, inexpensive, and yield rapid results. However, glucose values measured by POCGs often differ from values measured by a biochemical analyzer, the accepted clinical laboratory standard. These discrepancies can be large enough to cause potential misdiagnosis, limiting the ability to track the emergence of obesity-induced ...
Recent trials investigating the effects of strict glucose regulation in critically ill patients have shown impressive reductions in morbidity and mortality. Although the literature focuses on the possible toxic effects of high blood glucose levels, the underlying mechanism for this improvement is unclear. We hypothesise that strict glucose regulation results in modulation of cytokine production, leading to a shift towards a more anti-inflammatory pattern. This shift in the cytokine balance accounts for the reduction in morbidity and mortality. To support our hypothesis, effects of glucose and insulin on cytokine release and effects of glucose, insulin, and cytokines on host defence, cardiac function and coagulation will be reviewed ...
Most people have three meals a day. Based on this, there are seven useful time points during the average day when it is worthwhile measuring your blood glucose levels.. These time points are before meals (pre-prandial measurements), after meals (post-prandial measurements), and at bed-time. Post-prandial means after meals.. The pre-prandial measurement before breakfast is also called fasting blood glucose.. If you have diabetes, there is little value in testing your blood glucose levels less than two hours after meals as your glucose concentrations are likely to be high. As a general rule therefore post-prandial measurements are obtained two hours after you have eaten.. ...
Normal blood sugar level before meal - What is the normal blood sugar level after a meal? Under 120. Independent of what they eat, the blood sugar of a truly normal person is: Under 120 mg/dl (6.6 mmol/L) one or two hours after a meal. Most normal people are under 100 mg/dl (5.5 mmol/L) two hours after eating.
People with diabetes have an increased risk of developing a number of serious health problems. Consistently high blood glucose levels can lead to serious diseases affecting the heart and blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, nerves and teeth. In addition, people with diabetes also have a higher risk of developing infections. In almost all high-income countries, diabetes is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease, blindness, kidney failure, and lower limb amputation.. Maintaining blood glucose levels, blood pressure, and cholesterol at or close to normal can help delay or prevent diabetes complications. Therefore people with diabetes need regular monitoring.. Cardiovascular Disease: It effects the heart and blood vessels and may cause fatal complications such as coronary artery disease (leading to heart attack) and stroke. Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in people with diabetes. High blood pressure, high cholesterol, high blood glucose and other risk factors contribute to ...
Health, ...PHILADELPHIA May 24 2013 -- High blood glucose is associated with po... Clinicians caring for hospitalized patients must keep the harms of hy...ACP recommends that clinicians should target a blood glucose level of ... Evidence for Benefits Harms and Costs of IIT ...,ACP,issues,recommendations,for,management,of,high,blood,glucose,in,hospitalized,patients,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Blood glucose meter is a simple device that measures the concentration of glucose in a blood sample. Type 2 diabetes patients have to regularly take a measure of their blood glucose - at least once a day. When choosing a blood glucose meter, we have to look at several things. Which is the most accurate blood sugar meter? How painless is the procedure of taking a blood sample with a lancet? How much is the cost of most accurate blood glucose meter? Here is a comparison of most accurate blood glucose meters based on user reviews. Well look at the Top 6 things to consider when picking a blood glucose meter that best fits you. Furthermore, well see some of the best blood sugar meters and explain why they are the best. Blood Glucose Meter - Top 6 Things to Consider When Buying One What is a blood glucose meter?
Looking for online definition of oral glucose tolerance test test in the Medical Dictionary? oral glucose tolerance test test explanation free. What is oral glucose tolerance test test? Meaning of oral glucose tolerance test test medical term. What does oral glucose tolerance test test mean?
To examine the blood glucose profile and the relationship between blood glucose levels and neurodevelopmental outcome in term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Blood glucose values within 72 hours of birth were collected from 52 term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Hypoglycaemia [| 46.8 mg/dL (2.6 mmol/L)] and hyperglycaemia [| 150 mg/dL (8.3 mmol/L)] were correlated to neurodevelopmental outcome at 24 months of age. Four fifths of the 468 blood samples were in the normoglycaemic range (392/468:83.8%). Of the remaining 76 samples, 51.3% were in the hypoglycaemic range and (48.7%) were hyperglycaemic. A quarter of the hypoglycaemic samples (28.2%:11/39) and a third of the hyperglycaemic samples (32.4%:12/37) were recorded within the first 30 minutes of life. Mean (SD) blood glucose values did not differ between infants with normal and abnormal outcomes [4.89(2.28) mmol/L and 5.02(2.35) mmol/L, p value = 0.15] respectively. In term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy,
Chromium Picolinate and Biotin Help Control Blood Sugar Levels. Researchers from Yale University have found that supplementation with chromium picolinate plus biotin can improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients who are not responding to oral antihyperglycemic agents. Preclinical studies have shown that the combination of chromium picolinate and biotin significantly enhances glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells and enhances glucose disposal. Researchers decided to determine how these two nutrients affect blood sugar control in humans. Forty-three obese or overweight subjects with impaired glycemic control despite treatments with oral antihyperglycemic agents were randomized to receive 600 micrograms of chromium picolinate and 2 mg of biotin per day. Researchers measured glycemic control and blood lipids at baseline and after 4 weeks. There was a significant reduction in glucose during the 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test in subjects taking the chromium and biotin compared with ...
Intensive glucose control (3 or more daily insulin injections or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion) reduced the mean risk of retinopathy progression by 54% in type 1 diabetes patients with minimal-to-moderate…
Diabetes control can be achieved by employing a combination of diet and oral hypoglycaemic agents. Some forms of diabetes can be managed by changing diet and lifestyle, especially by improving exercise and shedding weight. Oral hypoglycaemic agents are drugs which are employed to help lower the elevated blood glucose level. These kinds of drugs may be employed in conjunction with diet to effectively control some forms of diabetes. A patient who has had diabetes for less than 5 years, who is older than 40 years and is not obese would benefit immensely from this type of treatment.. There are 2 types of oral hypoglycaemic agents: Sulphonylureas and the Biguanides. Examples of Sulphonylureas include Chlorpropamide (diabinese), Tolazamide (tolinase), Tolbutamide (orinase), etc. And an example of Biguanide is Phenformin. While the Sulphonylureas stimulate the pancreas to release insulin from its beta cells thereby helping to lower the blood sugar level, phenformin on the other hand inhibits glucose ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serum fructosamine concentration in uncontrolled hyperthyroid diabetic cats is within the population reference interval. AU - Gal, Arnon. AU - Trusiano, Brie. AU - French, Adrienne F.. AU - Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas. AU - MacNeill, Amy L.. PY - 2017/3/1. Y1 - 2017/3/1. N2 - Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrinopathy of cats that is characterized by persistent fasting hyperglycemia. However, stress induces substantial hyperglycemia in cats that poses a challenge to the veterinarian who may wrongly interpret the high serum concentration of blood glucose as evidence of diabetes mellitus. Fructosamine is a glycated serum protein that serves as an index of glycemic control in cats and is useful because it is not affected by stress hyperglycemia. However, factors such as body weight, hypoproteinemia, and increased serum thyroid hormone concentration can alter fructosamine concentration. The goal of this retrospective study was to compare the fructosamine concentrations in diabetic ...
Blair, Jo, Gregory, John W and Peak, Matthew (2012) Insulin delivery by multiple daily injections or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in childhood: Addressing the evidence gap. Practical Diabetes, 29 (2). pp. 47-48. ISSN 2047-2900 ...
This guidance represents the view of the Institute which was arrived at after careful consideration of the available evidence. Health professionals are expected to fully take it into account when exercising their clinical judgement. This guidance does not, however, override the individual responsibility of health professionals to make appropriate decisions in the circumstances of the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and/or guardian or carer.. © Copyright National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. All rights reserved. This material may be freely reproduced for educational and not for profit purposes within the NHS. No reproduction by or for commercial organisations is permitted without the express written permission of the Institute.. Enquiries concerning the guidance should be addressed to: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, MidCity Place, 71 High Holborn, London WC1V 6NA. email: [email protected] Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion for the ...

SDE: Guidelines for Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring: ContentsSDE: Guidelines for Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring: Contents

Guidelines for Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring: Contents Abstract: ContentsIntroduction The Law Guidelines Appendixes Printable ...
more infohttp://www.sde.ct.gov/sde/cwp/view.asp?a=2663&q=334566&pp=12&n=1

Accu-Chek Compact Plus Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring SystemAccu-Chek Compact Plus Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring System

Posted in Blood Glucose Monitoring , Tags: Blood, Compact, Glucose, Plus, SelfMonitoring, System ... Paperback Glucerna Diabetic With Strips Pack Cookbook System Blood Glucose Test People Shake Edition Snack Monitoring Guide ... Features of the ACCU-CHEK Compact Plus Blood Glucose Meter: No strip handling: Preloaded drum of 17 diabetes test stripsfor no ... Detachable lancet device: The ACCU-CHEK Softclix Plus lancet device can be used attached or detached from the blood glucose ...
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Global Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose (SMBG) Devices Market 2017 Industry, Analysis, Share, Growth, Sales, Trends, Supply,...Global Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose (SMBG) Devices Market 2017 Industry, Analysis, Share, Growth, Sales, Trends, Supply,...

Global Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose (SMBG) Devices Market Research Report 2017 1 Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose (SMBG) Devices ... 1.2 Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose (SMBG) Devices Segment by Type (Product Category) 1.2.1 Global Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose ... of Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose (SMBG) Devices (2012-2022) 1.5.1 Global Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose (SMBG) Devices Revenue ... 2.5 Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose (SMBG) Devices Market Competitive Situation and Trends 2.5.1 Self-Monitoring Blood Glucose ( ...
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Assessment of metabolic control among patients in a capillary glucose self-monitoring programAssessment of metabolic control among patients in a capillary glucose self-monitoring program

Keywords : Diabetes mellitus; Blood glucose self-monitoring; Glucose. · abstract in Portuguese , Spanish · text in English · ... RESULTS: During the assessment, both mean and monthly percentages of capillary blood glucose measurements at home decreased ... VERAS, Vivian Saraiva et al. Assessment of metabolic control among patients in a capillary glucose self-monitoring program. ... OBJECTIVE: To assess the metabolic control of diabetes mellitus patients registered in a capillary glucose self-monitoring ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S0103-21002012000300021&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Blood Glucose RecordBlood Glucose Record

Some kids who have diabetes need to regularly check their blood sugar levels. This form can help you keep track of the readings ...
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Word! Blood Glucose MeterWord! Blood Glucose Meter

... portable machine thats used to check how much glucose (a type of sugar) is in the blood (also known as the blood glucose level ... is in the blood (also known as the blood glucose level). People who have diabetes often use a blood glucose meter to find out ... Blood Glucose Meter. Say: blud gloo-kose me-tur. A blood glucose meter is a small, portable machine thats used to check how ... A blood glucose meter is a small, ...
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Blood Glucose LevelsBlood Glucose Levels

Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Blood Glucose Levels in minutes with SmartDraw. SmartDraw includes 1000s of ... Target Blood Glucose Levels for People with Diabetes. My Target Blood Glucose Levels. Before meals. 70 to 130. 1 to 2 hours ... Blood Glucose Levels. Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Blood Glucose Levels in minutes with SmartDraw. ... Talk with your health care provider about your blood glucose target levels and write them here:. Talk with your doctor or ...
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Heart-Encyclopedia - blood glucoseHeart-Encyclopedia - blood glucose

blood glucose Blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is one of the simplest forms of sugar. It is the main sugar found in the ...
more infohttp://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Encyclopedia/Heart-Encyclopedia_UCM_445084_Encyclopedia.jsp?title=blood%20glucose

Hometesting diabetic cats blood glucose - YouTubeHometesting diabetic cat's blood glucose - YouTube

... or blood sugar levels using an ear poke with a lancet pen, and a glucometer. For more information, see feli... ... Home testing a diabetic cats blood glucose (BG), ... Home testing a diabetic cats blood glucose (BG), or blood ... Testing blood glucose in a cat- Part 3 - Duration: 4:25. FrangipaniSal 355 views ... How to test your dogs blood glucose level - Duration: 6:21. fishhoundsoutdoors 110,181 views ...
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Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Glucose) | ADAHypoglycemia (Low Blood Glucose) | ADA

Hypoglycemia (Low Blood sugar). Throughout the day, depending on multiple different factors, blood sugar (also called blood ... Causes of low blood sugar. Low blood sugar is common for people with type 1 diabetes and can occur in people with type 2 ... If blood sugar stays low for too long, starving the brain of glucose, it may lead to seizures, coma, and very rarely death. ... Signs and symptoms of low blood sugar (happen quickly). Each persons reaction to low blood sugar is different. Learn your own ...
more infohttps://www.diabetes.org/diabetes/medication-management/blood-glucose-testing-and-control/hypoglycemia?language_content_entity=en

Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Glucose) | ADAHypoglycemia (Low Blood Glucose) | ADA

Hypoglycemia (Low Blood sugar). Throughout the day, depending on multiple different factors, blood sugar (also called blood ... Causes of low blood sugar. Low blood sugar is common for people with type 1 diabetes and can occur in people with type 2 ... If blood sugar stays low for too long, starving the brain of glucose, it may lead to seizures, coma, and very rarely death. ... Signs and symptoms of low blood sugar (happen quickly). Each persons reaction to low blood sugar is different. Learn your own ...
more infohttps://www.diabetes.org/diabetes/medication-management/blood-glucose-testing-and-control/hypoglycemia

Blood glucose monitoringBlood glucose monitoring

... One of the main aims of diabetes treatment is to keep blood glucose levels within a specified target ... Self-blood glucose monitoring allows you to check your blood glucose levels as often as you need to or as recommended by your ... Glucose level targets. Blood glucose levels are measured in millimoles per litre of blood (mmol/L). Target ranges may differ ... How do I test my blood glucose levels?. To test your blood glucose levels, you prick your finger with the lancet and add a ...
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Blood Glucose | Livestrong.comBlood Glucose | Livestrong.com

... nutrition with blood glucose news, facts, tips, & other information. Educate yourself about blood glucose & help yourself and ... Can I Drink Tea If Fasting for a Glucose Lipid Panel Blood Test?. ...
more infohttps://www.livestrong.com/sscat/blood-glucose/

blood glucose meter - Everything2.comblood glucose meter - Everything2.com

... is in the blood. A specially coated strip containing a fresh sample of blood is inserted in a machine... ... A machine that helps test how much glucose (sugar) ... blood glucose. Polycythaemia Rubra Vera. Blood Glucose Testing ... A machine that helps test how much glucose (sugar) is in the blood. A specially coated strip containing a fresh sample of blood ... when then calculates the correct level of glucose in the blood sample and shows the result in a digital display. Some meters ...
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One Drop Blood Glucose Monitoring Kit - AppleOne Drop Blood Glucose Monitoring Kit - Apple

The compact One Drop Chrome blood glucose monitoring kit lets you measure your glucose levels and then track them on your ... Sync your meter with the One Drop Mobile app on your iPhone or Apple Watch to see all your blood glucose data and analytics at ... Blood glucose meter Proprietary technology ensures clinically proven accurate, reliable results in just five seconds. The meter ... Wirelessly transmits blood glucose data via Bluetooth to the One Drop app on your iPhone or Apple Watch ...
more infohttps://www.apple.com/shop/product/HMN02LL/A/one-drop-chrome-blood-glucose-monitoring-kit?fnode=80160ffbfd6772b8bf812f46f331ad53865fd366620f6ca29832a52e3b41bb684daa3cbeec71c67229a92358b6db1ad761189de7ea4c40b122dc9f5f822e26e2296ab4205bdae44fffccd877521e57b2ee96dbc141edb0f01cfdce6665a4a8e8

One Drop Blood Glucose Monitoring Kit - AppleOne Drop Blood Glucose Monitoring Kit - Apple

The compact One Drop Chrome blood glucose monitoring kit lets you measure your glucose levels and then track them on your ... Sync your meter with the One Drop Mobile app on your iPhone or Apple Watch to see all your blood glucose data and analytics at ... Blood glucose meter Proprietary technology ensures clinically proven accurate, reliable results in just five seconds. The meter ... Wirelessly transmits blood glucose data via Bluetooth to the One Drop app on your iPhone or Apple Watch ...
more infohttps://www.apple.com/shop/product/HMN02LL/A/one-drop-chrome-blood-glucose-monitoring-kit?fnode=9235267071a9e474d25bef9ec69442494f21100f4f76b2cda5a24bbfea8fea0717cc79057da849353c9f41dc84b4d9188a9b3d6ff609ef7bffe5c3b114f7d5d2df7ed5bb26ce71730178ee3a4ef75c3df708a6fc0737c7526d8f89274223074e

Postprandial Blood Glucose | Diabetes CarePostprandial Blood Glucose | Diabetes Care

... and the incremental glucose area, defined as the area under the glucose curve that is above the premeal (or pre-oral glucose ... Because blood glucose concentrations vary widely during a 24-h period and from day to day in diabetes, the measurement of HbA1c ... However, the HbA1c level does not provide a measure of the magnitude or frequency of short-term fluctuations of blood glucose, ... de Veciana M, Major CA, Morgan MA, Asrat T, Toohey JS, Lien JM, Evans AT: Postprandial versus preprandial blood glucose ...
more infohttps://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/24/4/775

Blood Glucose Meter | IDTBlood Glucose Meter | IDT

Blood Glucose Meter. Back to top Blood glucose meters are devices used to measure blood sugar levels and help monitor health ... There is an increase in demand for these effective metering solutions, as the self-monitoring glucose meter market was valued ...
more infohttps://www.idt.com/application/mobile-personal-electronics/blood-glucose-meter

How do blood glucose monitors work?How do blood glucose monitors work?

Such measurement utilizes only a small drop of blood from the fingertip placed on a disposable test strip. The digital meter ... Blood glucose meters measure blood glucose levels electronically. ... Blood glucose meters measure blood glucose levels electronically. Such measurement utilizes only a small drop of blood from the ... Determination of plasma glucose during rapid glucose excursions with a subcutaneous glucose sensor. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2003 ...
more infohttps://www.medscape.com/answers/1982274-182462/how-do-blood-glucose-monitors-work

fasting blood glucose test | NIDDKfasting blood glucose test | NIDDK

Dictionary Definition: fasting blood glucose test. fasting blood glucose test. A test that checks your blood glucose or blood ... If you have diabetes, the test can also be used to see if you are keeping your blood glucose level on target.. ...
more infohttps://www.niddk.nih.gov/Dictionary/F/fasting-blood-glucose-test

Blood Glucose RecordBlood Glucose Record

Note: All information on KidsHealth is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor.. ...
more infohttps://www.rchsd.org/health-articles/blood-glucose-record-3/

Diabetes Blood Glucose Monitors | WalgreensDiabetes Blood Glucose Monitors | Walgreens

View current promotions and reviews of Diabetes Blood Glucose Monitors and get free shipping at $35. ...
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Blood Glucose Monitoring ResourcesBlood Glucose Monitoring Resources

Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose Using Glucose Meters in Management of Type 2 Diabetes. ... Self monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) has been the norm for many years. Although much attention and research is currently ... Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose Is Associated With Problem-Solving Skills in Hyperglycemia and Hypoglycemia. Volume: 38, 2: pp ... The Impact of Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose on a Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. ...
more infohttps://www.diabeteseducator.org/practice/educator-tools/self-monitoring-of-blood-glucose

Blood Sugar | Blood Glucose | Diabetes | MedlinePlusBlood Sugar | Blood Glucose | Diabetes | MedlinePlus

Your blood carries glucose (blood sugar) to all of your bodys cells to use for energy. Learn more. ... Your body processes the food you eat into glucose. ... Blood sugar, or glucose, is the main sugar found in your blood ... All about Blood Glucose (American Diabetes Association) - PDF Also in Spanish * Blood Sugar Testing: Why, When and How (Mayo ... Blood sugar test - blood (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Estimated average glucose (eAG) (Medical Encyclopedia) Also ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/bloodsugar.html

CONTOUR Blood Glucose Test Strips | WalgreensCONTOUR Blood Glucose Test Strips | Walgreens

Get free shipping at $35 and view promotions and reviews for CONTOUR Blood Glucose Test Strips ... CONTOUR® Blood Glucose Test Strips for use with CONTOUR® Blood Glucose Meter. ... Blood Glucose Meter with any strip other than CONTOUR® Blood Glucose Strips. For complete warranty information, refer to User ... Ascensia Diabetes Care Inc USA does not warrant use of CONTOUR blood glucose meter with any test strip other than CONTOUR blood ...
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  • The most near-normal glucose patterns you can get will have a terrific long-term impact on how well people with diabetes do,' says Steven Gutman, M.D., director of the division of clinical laboratory devices in FDA's Office of Device Evaluation. (healingwell.com)
  • The effect of prednisone on blood glucose is much milder in people without diabetes. (livestrong.com)
  • Frequent blood glucose checking is key for you to find out how your body is responding to prednisone therapy. (livestrong.com)
  • This is the percent of patients exhibiting signs and symptoms of a stroke who receive a blood glucose assessment by EMS. (austintexas.gov)
  • They also integrate the peripheral functions as LCD control, oscillator and flash memory required for a blood glucose monitor, which helps to reduce overall cost and extend battery life. (renesas.com)
  • How do blood glucose monitors work? (medscape.com)
  • Lane JE, Shivers JP, Zisser H. Continuous glucose monitors: current status and future developments. (medscape.com)
  • More importantly though, you should check your blood whenever you feel low blood glucose coming on. (archive.org)
  • It lets you track everything in one place: blood glucose, food, medication, and activity. (apple.com)
  • Though it can measure tissue glucose every five minutes and work for up to 72 hours, the device is not intended to replace the 'finger-stick' method but rather supplement it. (healingwell.com)
  • One already developed but not yet approved uses infrared technology to measure blood glucose. (healingwell.com)
  • Limit alcohol to avoid complicating your blood glucose fluctuations. (livestrong.com)
  • The 15-15 rule-have 15 grams of carbohydrate to raise your blood sugar and check it after 15 minutes. (diabetes.org)
  • Recent advances include:[citation needed] alternate site testing, the use of blood drops from places other than the finger, usually the palm or forearm. (wikipedia.org)