The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.
The use of specifically placed small electrodes to deliver electrical impulses across the SKIN to relieve PAIN. It is used less frequently to produce ANESTHESIA.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Accumulation of BILIRUBIN, a breakdown product of HEME PROTEINS, in the BLOOD during the first weeks of life. This may lead to NEONATAL JAUNDICE. The excess bilirubin may exist in the unconjugated (indirect) or the conjugated (direct) form. The condition may be self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) or pathological with toxic levels of bilirubin.
Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.
Yellow discoloration of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA in the NEWBORN. It is a sign of NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Most cases are transient self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) occurring in the first week of life, but some can be a sign of pathological disorders, particularly LIVER DISEASES.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
The part of the face above the eyes.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.
The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.
Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
The outer part of the hearing system of the body. It includes the shell-like EAR AURICLE which collects sound, and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL, the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE, and the EXTERNAL EAR CARTILAGES.
Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
Designated locations along nerves or organ meridians for inserting acupuncture needles.
A reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli.
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
Mutant strains of rats that produce little or no hair. Several different homozygous recessive mutations can cause hairlessness in rats including rnu/rnu (Rowett nude), fz/fz (fuzzy), shn/shn (shorn), and nznu/nznu (New Zealand nude). Note that while NUDE RATS are often hairless, they are most characteristically athymic.
A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.
Continuous recording of the carbon dioxide content of expired air.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
A condition characterized by an abnormal increase of BILIRUBIN in the blood, which may result in JAUNDICE. Bilirubin, a breakdown product of HEME, is normally excreted in the BILE or further catabolized before excretion in the urine.
Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.
A medicated adhesive patch placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication into the bloodstream.
Elements that constitute group 18 (formerly the zero group) of the periodic table. They are gases that generally do not react chemically.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
Methods used to remove unwanted facial and body hair.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
Application of positive pressure to the inspiratory phase when the patient has an artificial airway in place and is connected to a ventilator.
A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.
A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A general term encompassing lower MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and certain MUSCULAR DISEASES. Manifestations include MUSCLE WEAKNESS; FASCICULATION; muscle ATROPHY; SPASM; MYOKYMIA; MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, myalgias, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.
An accumulation of purulent material in the area between the PALATINE TONSIL and its capsule.
Plastic surgery of the eyelid. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
Changes in the observed frequency of waves (as sound, light, or radio waves) due to the relative motion of source and observer. The effect was named for the 19th century Austrian physicist Johann Christian Doppler.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The removal of a limb or other appendage or outgrowth of the body. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The use of focused, high-frequency sound waves to produce local hyperthermia in certain diseased or injured parts of the body or to destroy the diseased tissue.
Treatment of disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians. The placement varies with the disease being treated. It is sometimes used in conjunction with heat, moxibustion, acupressure, or electric stimulation.
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.
Act of listening for sounds within the body.
Use of ultrasound to increase the percutaneous adsorption of drugs.
Common foot problems in persons with DIABETES MELLITUS, caused by any combination of factors such as DIABETIC NEUROPATHIES; PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASES; and INFECTION. With the loss of sensation and poor circulation, injuries and infections often lead to severe foot ulceration, GANGRENE and AMPUTATION.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
The part of a limb or tail following amputation that is proximal to the amputated section.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The design or construction of objects greatly reduced in scale.
That part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT or the air within the respiratory tract that does not exchange OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE with pulmonary capillary blood.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
A species of MORGANELLA formerly classified as a Proteus species. It is found in the feces of humans, dogs, other mammals, and reptiles. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A long, narrow, and flat bone commonly known as BREASTBONE occurring in the midsection of the anterior thoracic segment or chest region, which stabilizes the rib cage and serves as the point of origin for several muscles that move the arms, head, and neck.
Material, usually gauze or absorbent cotton, used to cover and protect wounds, to seal them from contact with air or bacteria. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.
Pain during the period after surgery.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Surgical incision into the chest wall.
A respiratory stimulant that enhances respiration by acting as an agonist of peripheral chemoreceptors located on the carotid bodies. The drug increases arterial oxygen tension while decreasing arterial carbon dioxide tension in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It may also prove useful in the treatment of nocturnal oxygen desaturation without impairing the quality of sleep.
Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.
The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
Respiratory retention of carbon dioxide. It may be chronic or acute.
Either of two fleshy protuberances at the lower posterior section of the trunk or HIP in humans and primate on which a person or animal sits, consisting of gluteal MUSCLES and fat.
A form of acupuncture with electrical impulses passing through the needles to stimulate NERVE TISSUE. It can be used for ANALGESIA; ANESTHESIA; REHABILITATION; and treatment for diseases.
The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
A combustible, gaseous mixture of low-molecular weight PARAFFIN hydrocarbons, generated below the surface of the earth. It contains mostly METHANE and ETHANE with small amounts of PROPANE; BUTANES; and higher hydrocarbons, and sometimes NITROGEN; CARBON DIOXIDE; HYDROGEN SULFIDE; and HELIUM. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
Laws and regulations pertaining to devices used in medicine, proposed for enactment, or enacted by a legislative body.
Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.
Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Drugs used for their effects on the respiratory system.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Common occlusive arterial disease which is caused by ATHEROSCLEROSIS. It is characterized by lesions in the innermost layer (ARTERIAL INTIMA) of arteries including the AORTA and its branches to the extremities. Risk factors include smoking, HYPERLIPIDEMIA, and HYPERTENSION.
The lateral of the two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve. The peroneal (or fibular) nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to parts of the leg and foot.
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
A symptom complex characterized by pain and weakness in SKELETAL MUSCLE group associated with exercise, such as leg pain and weakness brought on by walking. Such muscle limpness disappears after a brief rest and is often relates to arterial STENOSIS; muscle ISCHEMIA; and accumulation of LACTATE.
Ulceration of the skin and underlying structures of the lower extremity. About 90% of the cases are due to venous insufficiency (VARICOSE ULCER), 5% to arterial disease, and the remaining 5% to other causes.
The occupational discipline of the traditional Chinese methods of ACUPUNCTURE THERAPY for treating disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians.
Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A severe condition resulting from bacteria invading healthy muscle from adjacent traumatized muscle or soft tissue. The infection originates in a wound contaminated with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM. C. perfringens accounts for the majority of cases (over eighty percent), while C. noyvi, C. septicum, and C. histolyticum cause most of the other cases.
A term used pathologically to describe BILIRUBIN staining of the BASAL GANGLIA; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM and clinically to describe a syndrome associated with HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Clinical features include athetosis, MUSCLE SPASTICITY or hypotonia, impaired vertical gaze, and DEAFNESS. Nonconjugated bilirubin enters the brain and acts as a neurotoxin, often in association with conditions that impair the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER (e.g., SEPSIS). This condition occurs primarily in neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN), but may rarely occur in adults. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p613)
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
The region of the upper limb between the metacarpus and the FOREARM.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.
Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Inflammation of the tissues around a joint. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
Recirculating, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells containing characteristic racket-shaped granules (Birbeck granules). They are found principally in the stratum spinosum of the EPIDERMIS and are rich in Class II MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecules. Langerhans cells were the first dendritic cell to be described and have been a model of study for other dendritic cells (DCs), especially other migrating DCs such as dermal DCs and INTERSTITIAL DENDRITIC CELLS.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.
Lesion on the surface of the skin of the foot, usually accompanied by inflammation. The lesion may become infected or necrotic and is frequently associated with diabetes or leprosy.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
The systematic and methodical manipulations of body tissues best performed with the hands for the purpose of affecting the nervous and muscular systems and the general circulation.
A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Areas of the earth where hydrocarbon deposits of PETROLEUM and/or NATURAL GAS are located.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.
Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.
CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.
A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)
The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.
Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.
Disorders of sensory information received from superficial and deep regions of the body. The somatosensory system conveys neural impulses which pertain to proprioception, tactile sensation, thermal sensation, pressure sensation, and pain. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and BRAIN DISEASES may be associated with impaired or abnormal somatic sensation.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
The period following a surgical operation.
Thin strands of transparent material, usually glass, that are used for transmitting light waves over long distances.
A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
A non-atherosclerotic, inflammatory thrombotic disease that commonly involves small and medium-sized arteries or veins in the extremities. It is characterized by occlusive THROMBOSIS and FIBROSIS in the vascular wall leading to digital and limb ISCHEMIA and ulcerations. Thromboangiitis obliterans is highly associated with tobacco smoking.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.
RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)
The position or attitude of the body.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more amino groups.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.
A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Hospital facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Techniques for administering artificial respiration without the need for INTRATRACHEAL INTUBATION.
The therapeutic intermittent administration of oxygen in a chamber at greater than sea-level atmospheric pressures (three atmospheres). It is considered effective treatment for air and gas embolisms, smoke inhalation, acute carbon monoxide poisoning, caisson disease, clostridial gangrene, etc. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992). The list of treatment modalities includes stroke.
Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 1. All are CHOLERA-causing strains (serotypes). There are two biovars (biotypes): cholerae and eltor (El Tor).
Proposed anesthetic with possible anticonvulsant and sedative properties.
Paramedical personnel trained to provide basic emergency care and life support under the supervision of physicians and/or nurses. These services may be carried out at the site of the emergency, in the ambulance, or in a health care institution.
The act of blowing a powder, vapor, or gas into any body cavity for experimental, diagnostic, or therapeutic purposes.
A surgical specialty concerned with diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the heart, lungs, and esophagus. Two major types of thoracic surgery are classified as pulmonary and cardiovascular.
Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.

Nasal pressure recording in the diagnosis of sleep apnoea hypopnoea syndrome. (1/205)

BACKGROUND: Nasal pressure tracing is now being used to measure breathing in ambulatory screening devices for sleep apnoea but it has not been compared with other methods of assessment. METHODS: Sleep induced breathing disorders were scored by three different methods of analysis (thermistry, inductive plethysmography, and nasal pressure tracing) in 193 consecutive patients referred to our sleep laboratory. With the conventional thermistry method an apnoea was defined as the absence of oronasal flow on the thermistor signal for >/=10 s and a hypopnoea as a 50% decrease in the sum signal of inductive plethysmography tracing for >/=10 s associated with an arousal and/or a 2% decrease in SaO2. Nasal pressure was measured via nasal prongs connected to a pressure transducer. Using the thermistor signal alone, a hypopnoea was defined as a 50% decrease in the signal for >/=10 s associated with an arousal and/or a 2% decrease in SaO2. A similar definition of apnoea and hypopnoea was used for nasal pressure, the fall in pressure being substituted for the thermistor reading. RESULTS: Impaired nasal ventilation prevented adequate measurements of nasal pressure in 9% of subjects. According to the conventional method of interpretation 107 subjects were identified as having the sleep apnoea hypopnoea syndrome (SAHS). The apnoea + hypopnoea index (AHI) was significantly lower using the thermistry method than with conventional analysis (mean difference -4.3/h, 95% CI -5.3 to -3.2, p<10(-4)); 39% of conventional hypopnoeic events were scored as apnoeas using nasal pressure scoring. Apnoeic and hypopnoeic events could also be observed without any change in thermistor and sum Respitrace signals that resumed with the occurrence of arousals or awakenings. The AHI was significantly higher with nasal pressure scoring than with the conventional method (mean difference 4.5, 95% CI 3.4 to 5.6, p<10(-4)). The mean difference in apnoea index between conventional and nasal pressure scoring was -7.5/h (95% CI -8.9 to -6.1). In the 78 patients who did not have SAHS according to the conventional method of analysis there was a significant positive relationship between the arousal index and AHI measured by nasal pressure tracing (R = 0.51, p<10(-4)). Seventeen of the 78 patients had an AHI of >15/h by the nasal pressure method of analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Nasal pressure recording provides a simple and reliable measurement of nocturnal breathing abnormalities and may identify breathing abnormalities associated with arousals that are missed by other diagnostic methods.  (+info)

Prediction of imminent amputation in patients with non-reconstructible leg ischemia by means of microcirculatory investigations. (2/205)

PURPOSE: We investigated the usefulness of skin microcirculatory investigations to predict imminent major amputation in patients with non-reconstructible critical limb ischemia. METHODS: One hundred eleven patients with non-reconstructible chronic rest pain or small ulcers and an ankle blood pressure of 50 mm Hg or less or an ankle-to-brachial pressure index of 0.35 or less were included. Nailfold capillary microscopy (CM; big toe, sitting), transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcpO2; forefoot, supine; 44 degrees C), and laser Doppler perfusion measurements (LD; pulp of big toe, supine) were performed at rest and during reactive hyperemia. Patients were classified according to their skin microcirculatory status just before the start of the treatment in three groups: those with a "good," "intermediate," or "poor" microcirculation, according to a combination of predefined cutoff values (Poor: capillary density less than 20/mm2, absent reactive hyperemia in CM and LD, TcpO2 less than 10 mm Hg; good: capillary density of 20/mm2 or more, present reactive hyperemia in CM and LD, TcpO 2 of 30 mm Hg or more). Subsequently, patients received maximum conservative therapy from the surgeon, who was unaware of the microcirculatory results. After a follow-up period of as long as 36 months, limb survival and disposing factors were analyzed and compared with the initial microcirculatory status. RESULTS: Cox regression analysis showed a significant prognostic value of the microcirculatory classification (hazard ratio = 0.28, P <.0001), but not of the Fontaine stage, ankle blood pressure, or the presence of diabetes mellitus for the occurrence of an amputation. Positive and negative predictive values were 73% and 67%, respectively. The cumulative limb survival at 6 and 12 months was 42% and 17% in the poor microcirculatory group, 80% and 63% in the intermediate microcirculatory group, and 88% and 88% in the good microcirculatory group ( P <.0001, log-rank). CONCLUSION: Microcirculatory screening and classification is useful in detecting non-reconstructible critical ischemia that requires amputation, which is not detectable by means of the clinical stage or blood pressure parameters. Most of the poor patient group will require amputation. In the intermediate and good groups, nonsurgical treatment appears sufficient for limb salvage.  (+info)

Validity of transcutaneous oxygen/carbon dioxide pressure measurement in the monitoring of mechanical ventilation in stable chronic respiratory failure. (3/205)

The accuracy and precision of transcutaneous pressure measurements of oxygen (Ptc,O2) and carbon dioxide (Ptc,CO2) in the monitoring of nocturnal assisted ventilation in adult patients were evaluated. Transcutaneous measurements obtained with two analysers, Radiometer TINATCM3 (R) and Kontron MicroGas-7650 (K), were compared with arterial blood gases analysed in blood samples withdrawn simultaneously in 10 patients. Sensors were heated to 43 degrees C. Measurements of transcutaneous blood gases and arterial blood gases were collected six times at 1-h intervals. The data obtained with both instruments were similar and did not significantly change over the 5 h test period. Measurement of Ptc,O2 underestimated arterial oxygen tension (Pa,O2) and this underestimation increased with the level of Pa,O2 (p<0.01). Measurements of Ptc,CO2 overestimated arterial carbon dioxide tension (Pa,CO2) and this overestimation increased with the level of Pa,CO2 (p<0.05). These errors suggested an instrumental bias. Mathematical correction of this bias neutralized the error in accuracy and improved the precision (SD of the differences transcutaneous blood gases - arterial blood gases). An additional correction, suppressing the between-subject scattering, improved the actual precision: precision was reduced from 1.9 to 0.8 kPa (14.4 to 5.7 mmHg) (R) and from 1.7 to 0.5 kPa (13.1 to 3.7 mmHg) (K) for oxygen, and from 1.0 kPa (7.8 mmHg) (R) and 0.7 kPa (5.6 mmHg) (K) to 0.4 kPa (3.2 mmHg) for carbon dioxide (R and K). In conclusion, with these two successive corrections, transcutaneous oxygen and carbon dioxide provide a reliable estimation of blood gases to monitor nocturnal ventilation in adults with chronic respiratory failure.  (+info)

Methacholine challenge in preschool children: methacholine-induced wheeze versus transcutaneous oximetry. (4/205)

Tracheal/chest auscultation for wheeze and transcutaneous oximetry have both been suggested as measures of outcome in bronchial provocation tests in young children. This study aimed to compare the sensitivity and safety of these two techniques as end-points for methacholine challenge in children aged <4 yrs. Seventy-two methacholine challenges were performed in 39 children aged <4 yrs with recurrent wheeze. Arterial oxygen saturation (Sa,O2) and transcutaneous oxygen pressure tcPO2 continuously, and the test was terminated when wheeze was heard or at Sa,O2 <91%. tcPO2 was not used as an end-point. Wheeze or desaturation occurred at < or =8 mg x mL(-1) methacholine in every test. One child had transient clinical cyanosis, but no other ill-effects were seen. Fifty-six tests (78%) were terminated for wheeze, seven (10%) for fall in Sa,O2 and nine (12%) showed simultaneous responses in both parameters. Twenty-eight tests (39%) contained a fall in tcPO2 >3 kPa but six of these also showed a significant rise. Fifty-three tests (75%) contained a fall in tcPO2 >15%, but 20 of these also showed a significant rise. Tracheal/chest auscultation with Sa,O2 monitoring is a sensitive and relatively safe end-point for bronchial challenges in preschool children. The erratic pattern of transcutaneous oxygen pressure response in some children casts doubt on its reliability as a proxy measure of bronchial obstruction.  (+info)

Randomised controlled trial of thiopental for intubation in neonates. (5/205)

AIMS: To determine the effects of premedication with thiopental on heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation during semi-elective nasotracheal intubation in neonates. METHODS: A randomised, placebo controlled, non-blinded study design was used to study 30 neonates (mean birthweight 3.27 kg) requiring semi-elective nasotracheal intubation. The babies were randomly allocated to receive either 6 mg/kg of thiopental (study group) or an equivalent volume of physiological saline (control group) one minute before the start of the procedure. Six infants were intubated primarily and 24 were changed from orotracheal to a nasotracheal tube. The electrocardiogram, arterial pressure wave, and transcutaneous oxygen saturation were recorded continuously 10 minutes before, during, and 20 minutes after intubation. Minute by minute measurements of heart rate, heart rate variability, mean blood pressure (MBP) and transcutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) were computed. The differences for all of these between the baseline measurements and those made during and after intubation were determined. Differences in the measurements made in the study and the control groups were compared using Student's t test. RESULTS: During intubation, heart rate increased to a greater degree (12.0 vs -0.5 beats per minute, p < 0.03) and MBP increased to a lesser degree (-2.9 vs 4.4 mm Hg; p < 0.002) in the infants who were premedicated with thiopental. After intubation only the changes in MBP differed significantly between the two groups (-3.8 vs 4.6 mm Hg; p < 0.001). There were no significant changes in the oxygen saturation between the two groups during or after intubation. The time taken for intubation was significantly shorter in the study group (p < 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: The heart rate and blood pressure of infants who are premedicated with thiopental are maintained nearer to baseline values than those of similar infants who receive no premedication. Whether this lessening of the acute drop in the heart rate and increase in blood pressure typically seen during intubation of unmedicated infants is associated with long term advantages to the infants remains to be determined.  (+info)

Optimisation of the non-invasive assessment of critical limb ischaemia requiring invasive treatment. (6/205)

OBJECTIVE: to assess the optimal cut-off values of toe blood pressure (TBP) and transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcpO(2)) in the supine and sitting positions, in order to accurately detect the presence of severe leg ischaemia requiring invasive treatment. METHODS: in 49 consecutive patients (65 legs) with severe ischaemia according to clinical symptoms of Fontaine III or IV and a lowered ankle blood pressure, TBP and TcpO(2)were measured in the supine and sitting positions. Treatment within 6 weeks after the diagnosis was classified as either conservative or invasive (revascularisation or amputation). RESULTS: of the 65 legs, 38 (58%) required invasive treatment. The mean ankle pressure for this group was 70 mmHg. The optimal cut-off value for TBP was 38 mmHg and for TcpO(2)35 mmHg. A TBP of +info)

Use of transcutaneous oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions for assessing indices of gas exchange during exercise testing. (7/205)

The slow response characteristics of the combined transcutaneous electrode have been viewed as a major disadvantage when compared with other types of non-invasive assessment of gas exchange during exercise testing. We have previously shown that by using the highest recommended temperature of 45 degrees C to reduce response times, and combining this with an exercise protocol of gradual work load increments, that this allows changes in arterial blood gases to be closely followed by transcutaneous values. In the present study we have validated the use of a transcutaneous electrode for estimation of alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (AaO2) and dead space to tidal volume ratio (V(D)/V(T)) during exercise, against values calculated from direct arterial blood gas analysis. One hundred measurements were made in 20 patients with various cardiopulmonary disorders who underwent exercise testing. Exercise testing was performed by bicycle ergometry with a specific protocol involving gradual work load increments at 2 min intervals. Transcutaneous gas tensions were measured by a heated combined O2 and CO2 electrode. Arterial blood was sampled at the midpoint of each stage of exercise and transcutaneous tensions noted at the end of each stage. The mean difference of the AaO2 gradient calculated from blood gas tensions obtained by the two methods was 0.14 kPa. The limits of agreement were -0.26 and 0.63 kPa. The same values for V(D)/V(T) calculated from gas tensions measured by the two methods were: mean difference 0001; limits of agreement -0.0242 and 0.0252. For both these parameters there was an even scatter around the mean value on Bland and Altman analysis. The findings of this study suggest that estimation of parameters of gas exchange using transcutaneous values during exercise testing is reliable, provided the electrode is heated to a slightly higher temperature than usual and the work load increments are gradual, allowing for the latency in the response time of the system. This system allows the assessment of the contribution of ventilation/perfusion inequality to breathlessness on exertion in patients, provided an initial arterial or ear lobe capillary sample is obtained for calibration purposes. This technique is particularly valuable in patients undergoing repeat exercise tests as it circumvents the need for arterial cannulation.  (+info)

Pneumothorax in adults with cystic fibrosis dependent on nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV): a management dilemma. (8/205)

The management of pneumothorax in three adult patients with cystic fibrosis dependent on nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation is described.  (+info)

Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is a type of hyperbilirubinemia that occurs in newborns. It is one of the most common medical conditions faced by newborns, affecting approximately 60% of full-term infants and up to 100% of premature infants.

There are several causes of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, including:

* Breastfeeding: Bilirubin levels can become elevated if the baby is not getting enough milk or if there is a problem with milk production.
* Prematurity: Premature babies have immature livers that are not able to process bilirubin as efficiently as those of full-term babies.
* Jaundice: Jaundice is a condition in which the skin and whites of the eyes appear yellow due to elevated bilirubin levels. Neonatal jaundice is common and usually resolves on its own within a week or two, but it can sometimes lead to hyperbilirubinemia.
* Blood type: Some babies may have a higher risk of developing hyperbilirubinemia if their blood type is different from their mother's.
* Rh factor: If a baby has a different Rh factor than their mother, it can increase the risk of hyperbilirubinemia.

Symptoms of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia can include:

* Jaundice (yellow skin and whites of the eyes)
* Lethargy or sleepiness
* Poor feeding
* Vomiting
* Diarrhea
* Abnormal liver function tests

Treatment for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia usually involves phototherapy, which uses blue light to break down bilirubin in the skin and reduce levels in the blood. In severe cases, an exchange transfusion may be necessary, where blood is exchanged with donor blood to remove excess bilirubin.

It is important to monitor bilirubin levels closely in newborns, especially those at higher risk of developing hyperbilirubinemia, and to provide prompt treatment if levels become too high. This can help prevent complications such as kernicterus, which can cause long-term brain damage or even death.

Neonatal jaundice can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Immaturity of the liver and biliary system, which can lead to an inability to process bilirubin properly
* Infection or sepsis
* Breastfeeding difficulties or poor milk intake
* Blood type incompatibility between the baby and mother
* Genetic disorders such as Crigler-Najjar syndrome
* Other medical conditions such as hypothyroidism or anemia

Symptoms of neonatal jaundice may include:

* Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes
* Dark-colored urine
* Pale or clay-colored stools
* Lack of appetite or poor feeding
* Lethargy or irritability

Treatment for neonatal jaundice may include:

* Phototherapy, which involves exposure to blue light to help break down bilirubin in the blood
* Exchange transfusion, which involves replacing some of the baby's blood with fresh blood to lower bilirubin levels
* Medication to stimulate bowel movements and increase the elimination of bilirubin
* Intravenous fluids to prevent dehydration

In some cases, neonatal jaundice may be a sign of a more serious underlying condition, such as a liver or gallbladder disorder. It is important for parents to seek medical attention if they notice any signs of jaundice in their newborn baby, particularly if the baby is feeding poorly or appears lethargic or irritable.

There are several types of respiratory insufficiency, including:

1. Hypoxemic respiratory failure: This occurs when the lungs do not take in enough oxygen, resulting in low levels of oxygen in the bloodstream.
2. Hypercapnic respiratory failure: This occurs when the lungs are unable to remove enough carbon dioxide from the bloodstream, leading to high levels of carbon dioxide in the bloodstream.
3. Mixed respiratory failure: This occurs when both hypoxemic and hypercapnic respiratory failure occur simultaneously.

Treatment for respiratory insufficiency depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, and other supportive care measures. In severe cases, lung transplantation may be necessary. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms of respiratory insufficiency are present, as early intervention can improve outcomes and prevent complications.

There are several possible causes of hypoventilation, including:

1. Respiratory muscle weakness or paralysis: This can be due to a variety of conditions, such as muscular dystrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or spinal cord injury.
2. Chronic respiratory failure: This can be caused by conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), interstitial lung disease, or pulmonary fibrosis.
3. Sleep apnea: Hypoventilation can occur during sleep due to the loss of muscle tone in the diaphragm and other respiratory muscles.
4. Anesthesia-induced hypoventilation: Some anesthetics can suppress the respiratory drive, leading to hypoventilation.
5. Drug overdose or intoxication: Certain drugs, such as opioids and benzodiazepines, can depress the central nervous system and lead to hypoventilation.
6. Trauma: Hypoventilation can occur in patients with severe injuries to the chest or abdomen that impair breathing.
7. Sepsis: Severe infections can cause hypoventilation by suppressing the respiratory drive.
8. Metabolic disorders: Certain metabolic disorders, such as diabetic ketoacidosis, can lead to hypoventilation.

Treatment of hypoventilation depends on the underlying cause and may include oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, and addressing any underlying conditions or complications. In some cases, hypoventilation may be a sign of a more severe condition that requires prompt medical attention to prevent further complications and improve outcomes.

Hypercapnia is a medical condition where there is an excessive amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the bloodstream. This can occur due to various reasons such as:

1. Respiratory failure: When the lungs are unable to remove enough CO2 from the body, leading to an accumulation of CO2 in the bloodstream.
2. Lung disease: Certain lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or pneumonia can cause hypercapnia by reducing the ability of the lungs to exchange gases.
3. Medication use: Certain medications, such as anesthetics and sedatives, can slow down breathing and lead to hypercapnia.

The symptoms of hypercapnia can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

1. Headaches
2. Dizziness
3. Confusion
4. Shortness of breath
5. Fatigue
6. Sleep disturbances

If left untreated, hypercapnia can lead to more severe complications such as:

1. Respiratory acidosis: When the body produces too much acid, leading to a drop in blood pH.
2. Cardiac arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms can occur due to the increased CO2 levels in the bloodstream.
3. Seizures: In severe cases of hypercapnia, seizures can occur due to the changes in brain chemistry caused by the excessive CO2.

Treatment for hypercapnia typically involves addressing the underlying cause and managing symptoms through respiratory support and other therapies as needed. This may include:

1. Oxygen therapy: Administering oxygen through a mask or nasal tubes to help increase oxygen levels in the bloodstream and reduce CO2 levels.
2. Ventilation assistance: Using a machine to assist with breathing, such as a ventilator, to help remove excess CO2 from the lungs.
3. Carbon dioxide removal: Using a device to remove CO2 from the bloodstream, such as a dialysis machine.
4. Medication management: Adjusting medications that may be contributing to hypercapnia, such as anesthetics or sedatives.
5. Respiratory therapy: Providing breathing exercises and other techniques to help improve lung function and reduce symptoms.

It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you or someone else may have hypercapnia, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

There are several possible causes of hyperbilirubinemia, including:

1. Hemolytic anemia: This is a condition where red blood cells are broken down faster than they can be replaced, leading to an accumulation of bilirubin in the blood.
2. Liver dysfunction: The liver plays a crucial role in processing and eliminating bilirubin from the body. If the liver is not functioning properly, bilirubin levels can become elevated.
3. Sepsis: This is a systemic infection that can cause inflammation throughout the body, including the liver, which can disrupt the normal processing of bilirubin.
4. Neonatal jaundice: This is a condition that affects newborn babies and is caused by an immature liver that is unable to process bilirubin quickly enough.

Symptoms of hyperbilirubinemia can include yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice), dark urine, pale or clay-colored stools, and fatigue. In severe cases, hyperbilirubinemia can lead to kernicterus, a condition that can cause brain damage and hearing loss.

Diagnosis of hyperbilirubinemia is typically made through blood tests that measure the level of bilirubin in the blood. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may include blood transfusions, liver function tests, and phototherapy (exposure to light) to help break down bilirubin. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the condition.

There are different types of anoxia, including:

1. Cerebral anoxia: This occurs when the brain does not receive enough oxygen, leading to cognitive impairment, confusion, and loss of consciousness.
2. Pulmonary anoxia: This occurs when the lungs do not receive enough oxygen, leading to shortness of breath, coughing, and chest pain.
3. Cardiac anoxia: This occurs when the heart does not receive enough oxygen, leading to cardiac arrest and potentially death.
4. Global anoxia: This is a complete lack of oxygen to the entire body, leading to widespread tissue damage and death.

Treatment for anoxia depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide oxygen therapy, pain management, and other supportive care. In severe cases, anoxia can lead to long-term disability or death.

Prevention of anoxia is important, and this includes managing underlying medical conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, and respiratory problems. It also involves avoiding activities that can lead to oxygen deprivation, such as scuba diving or high-altitude climbing, without proper training and equipment.

In summary, anoxia is a serious medical condition that occurs when there is a lack of oxygen in the body or specific tissues or organs. It can cause cell death and tissue damage, leading to serious health complications and even death if left untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term disability or death.

There are several potential causes of hyperventilation, including anxiety, panic attacks, and certain medical conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Treatment for hyperventilation typically involves slowing down the breathing rate and restoring the body's natural balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide levels.

Some common signs and symptoms of hyperventilation include:

* Rapid breathing
* Deep breathing
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Chest pain or tightness
* Shortness of breath
* Confusion or disorientation
* Nausea or vomiting

If you suspect that someone is experiencing hyperventilation, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment may involve the following:

1. Oxygen therapy: Providing extra oxygen to help restore normal oxygen levels in the body.
2. Breathing exercises: Teaching the individual deep, slow breathing exercises to help regulate their breathing pattern.
3. Relaxation techniques: Encouraging the individual to relax and reduce stress, which can help slow down their breathing rate.
4. Medications: In severe cases, medications such as sedatives or anti-anxiety drugs may be prescribed to help calm the individual and regulate their breathing.
5. Ventilation support: In severe cases of hyperventilation, mechanical ventilation may be necessary to support the individual's breathing.

It is important to seek medical attention if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of hyperventilation, as it can lead to more serious complications such as respiratory failure or cardiac arrest if left untreated.

1. Muscular dystrophy: A group of genetic disorders that cause progressive muscle weakness and degeneration.
2. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): A progressive neurological disease that affects nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord, leading to muscle weakness, paralysis, and eventually death.
3. Spinal muscular atrophy: A genetic disorder that affects the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movement.
4. Peripheral neuropathy: A condition that causes damage to the peripheral nerves, leading to weakness, numbness, and pain in the hands and feet.
5. Myasthenia gravis: An autoimmune disorder that affects the nerve-muscle connection, causing muscle weakness and fatigue.
6. Neuropathy: A term used to describe damage to the nerves, which can cause a range of symptoms including numbness, tingling, and pain in the hands and feet.
7. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: A group of inherited disorders that affect the peripheral nerves, leading to muscle weakness and wasting.
8. Guillain-Barré syndrome: An autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation and damage to the nerves, leading to muscle weakness and paralysis.
9. Botulism: A bacterial infection that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis by blocking the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
10. Myotonia congenita: A genetic disorder that affects the nerve-muscle connection, causing muscle stiffness and rigidity.

These are just a few examples of neuromuscular diseases, and there are many more conditions that can cause muscle weakness and fatigue. It's important to see a doctor if you experience persistent or severe symptoms to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Peritonsillar abscess can be caused by a variety of bacteria, including Streptococcus and Staphylococcus. It typically occurs when bacteria enter the tonsillitis, which is an infection of the tonsils, and then spread to the surrounding tissues.

Symptoms of peritonsillar abscess may include:

* Severe sore throat
* Swollen and tender lymph nodes in the neck
* Fever
* Difficulty swallowing
* White patches or pus on the tonsils

If left untreated, peritonsillar abscess can lead to serious complications, such as:

* Abscess formation in other parts of the head and neck
* Spread of the infection to other parts of the body (sepsis)
* Airway obstruction or respiratory failure
* Meningitis (infection of the lining of the brain and spinal cord)

Treatment of peritonsillar abscess usually involves antibiotics and drainage of the abscess. In severe cases, surgical removal of the tonsils may be necessary.

There are several types of lung diseases that are classified as obstructive, including:

1. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): This is a progressive condition that makes it hard to breathe and can cause long-term disability and even death. COPD is caused by damage to the lungs, usually from smoking or exposure to other forms of pollution.
2. Emphysema: This is a condition where the air sacs in the lungs are damaged and cannot properly expand and contract. This can cause shortness of breath and can lead to respiratory failure.
3. Chronic bronchitis: This is a condition where the airways in the lungs become inflamed and narrowed, making it harder to breathe.
4. Asthma: This is a condition where the airways in the lungs become inflamed and narrowed, causing wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
5. Bronchiectasis: This is a condition where the airways in the lungs become damaged and widened, leading to thickening of the walls of the airways and chronic infection.
6. Pulmonary fibrosis: This is a condition where the lung tissue becomes scarred and stiff, making it harder to breathe.
7. Lung cancer: This is a malignant tumor that can occur in the lungs and can cause breathing difficulties and other symptoms.

These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including smoking, exposure to air pollution, genetics, and certain occupations or environments. Treatment for obstructive lung diseases may include medications, such as bronchodilators and corticosteroids, and lifestyle changes, such as quitting smoking and avoiding exposure to pollutants. In severe cases, surgery or lung transplantation may be necessary.

It's important to note that these diseases can have similar symptoms, so it's important to see a doctor if you experience any persistent breathing difficulties or other symptoms. A proper diagnosis and treatment plan can help manage the condition and improve quality of life.

There are several types of ischemia, including:

1. Myocardial ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the heart muscle, which can lead to chest pain or a heart attack.
2. Cerebral ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the brain, which can lead to stroke or cognitive impairment.
3. Peripheral arterial ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the legs and arms.
4. Renal ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the kidneys.
5. Hepatic ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the liver.

Ischemia can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment for ischemia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgical interventions.

Gas poisoning, also known as gas inhalation or inhalation injury, occurs when a person breathes in harmful substances that can damage their lungs and other organs. These substances can include chemicals, gases, or vapors released from various sources, such as industrial accidents, car accidents, or exposure to toxic substances in the home or workplace.

Types of Gas Poisoning

There are several types of gas poisoning, including:

1. Carbon monoxide poisoning: This occurs when a person breathes in carbon monoxide, a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that can be produced by faulty heating systems, generators, or other equipment. Carbon monoxide can bind to hemoglobin in the blood, preventing oxygen from reaching organs and tissues, and can cause headaches, dizziness, nausea, and even death.
2. Hydrogen sulfide poisoning: This occurs when a person breathes in hydrogen sulfide gas, which is produced by sewage, manure, or other organic matter. Hydrogen sulfide can cause respiratory problems, eye irritation, and can even cause death at high concentrations.
3. Nitrogen dioxide poisoning: This occurs when a person breathes in nitrogen dioxide gas, which is produced by combustion sources such as cars, factories, or fires. Nitrogen dioxide can irritate the lungs and cause respiratory problems, and long-term exposure has been linked to lung disease.
4. Phosgene poisoning: This occurs when a person breathes in phosgene gas, which was used as a chemical weapon during World War I. Phosgene can cause respiratory failure and death at high concentrations.

Symptoms of Gas Poisoning

The symptoms of gas poisoning can vary depending on the type of gas and the level of exposure, but may include:

1. Respiratory problems: Coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, or chest tightness.
2. Headaches and dizziness.
3. Eye irritation and tearing.
4. Nausea and vomiting.
5. Skin irritation and rashes.
6. Weakness and fatigue.
7. Seizures or convulsions.
8. Unconsciousness or coma.

Treatment of Gas Poisoning

The treatment of gas poisoning depends on the type of gas and the severity of exposure, but may include:

1. Oxygen therapy: Providing oxygen to the person through a mask or nasal tubes can help to overcome the effects of hypoxia (lack of oxygen) caused by the gas.
2. Decontamination: Removing the person from the source of the gas and washing off any contaminated clothing or skin can help to prevent further exposure.
3. Medications: Antidotes, such as atropine for organophosphate poisoning or hydroxocobalamin for cyanide poisoning, may be administered to counteract the effects of the gas.
4. Supportive care: Providing fluids, oxygen, and other supportive care as needed can help to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
5. Monitoring: Closely monitoring the person's vital signs, such as heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation, is important to ensure that their condition does not deteriorate.

Prevention of Gas Poisoning

Preventing gas poisoning requires awareness and preparedness when working with or around potentially hazardous gases. Some measures for prevention include:

1. Proper ventilation: Ensuring that the area is well-ventilated can help to reduce the concentration of gases in the air.
2. Personal protective equipment (PPE): Wearing appropriate PPE, such as gloves, masks, and safety glasses, can prevent skin contact and inhalation of gases.
3. Safe handling and storage: Following proper procedures for handling and storing chemicals can help to prevent spills or leaks that could lead to gas poisoning.
4. Training and education: Providing workers with information about the hazards of the gases they work with and training them on safe handling and emergency procedures can help to prevent accidents.
5. Regular monitoring: Regularly monitoring the levels of gases in the air and taking action when necessary can help to prevent gas poisoning.

Treatment of Gas Poisoning

The treatment of gas poisoning depends on the type of gas and the severity of symptoms. Some general measures for treating gas poisoning include:

1. Fresh air: Moving the person to an area with fresh air can help to reduce their exposure to the gas and relieve symptoms.
2. Oxygen therapy: Providing oxygen through a mask or nasal tubes can help to increase oxygen levels in the blood and improve respiratory function.
3. Supportive care: Providing supportive care, such as fluid replacement, nutritional support, and pain management, can help to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
4. Decontamination: Removing contaminated clothing and washing the person's skin can help to reduce their exposure to the gas.
5. Medication: In severe cases of gas poisoning, medications such as anticholinergics or opioids may be used to manage symptoms.
6. Hospitalization: People with severe gas poisoning may need to be hospitalized for further treatment and monitoring.

Prevention of Gas Poisoning

Preventing gas poisoning requires a combination of measures, including:

1. Proper ventilation: Ensuring that there is proper ventilation in workplaces and homes can help to reduce exposure to gases.
2. Safety procedures: Following safety procedures, such as wearing protective equipment and using warning signs, can help to prevent accidents.
3. Regular maintenance: Regularly maintaining gas appliances and equipment can help to prevent leaks and other hazards.
4. Emergency planning: Having an emergency plan in place can help to ensure that people know what to do in the event of a gas leak or other accident.
5. Public education: Educating the public about the dangers of gases and how to prevent exposure can help to reduce the risk of gas poisoning.

Conclusion

Gas poisoning is a serious health hazard that can cause a range of symptoms, from mild discomfort to severe illness and death. Preventing gas poisoning requires a combination of measures, including proper ventilation, safety procedures, regular maintenance, emergency planning, and public education. If you suspect that you or someone else has been exposed to a gas, it is important to seek medical attention immediately.

There are two main types of acid-base imbalances:

1. Respiratory acidosis: This occurs when the body produces too much carbon dioxide, leading to an increase in blood acidity. Causes include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, and sleep apnea.
2. Metabolic acidosis: This occurs when the body produces too little base, leading to an increase in blood acidity. Causes include diabetic ketoacidosis, kidney failure, and excessive alcohol consumption.

Symptoms of acid-base imbalance can include:

* Fatigue
* Weakness
* Nausea
* Vomiting
* Headaches
* Confusion
* Coma (in severe cases)

Treatment of acid-base imbalance depends on the underlying cause and may involve corrective measures such as:

* Oxygen therapy
* Medications to restore blood pH balance
* Diuretics to remove excess fluids
* Insulin therapy (for metabolic acidosis)
* Hemodialysis (for severe cases of metabolic acidosis)

It is important for healthcare professionals to monitor and maintain acid-base balance in patients, particularly those with pre-existing medical conditions or those undergoing surgical procedures.

Prevention and Treatment of Diabetic Foot
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Preventing diabetic foot is crucial for people with diabetes. Here are some steps you can take:

* Monitor your blood sugar levels regularly and work with your healthcare provider to manage them effectively.
* Take care of your feet by washing them daily, trimming your toenails straight across, and wearing properly fitting shoes.
* Get your feet checked regularly by a healthcare professional.
* Avoid smoking and limit alcohol intake.

If you have diabetic foot, treatment will depend on the severity of the condition. Here are some common treatments:

* Antibiotics for infections
* Pain relief medication
* Wound care to promote healing
* Surgery to remove infected tissue or repair damaged blood vessels and nerves
* Amputation as a last resort

It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you have any of the following symptoms:

* Pain or tenderness in your feet
* Redness, swelling, or ulcers on your skin
* Fever or chills
* Difficulty moving your feet or toes

In conclusion, diabetic foot is a serious complication of diabetes that can lead to infections, amputations, and even death. Preventing diabetic foot is crucial for people with diabetes, and early detection and treatment are essential to prevent long-term damage. If you have any concerns about your feet, it is important to seek medical attention immediately.

There are several different types of pain, including:

1. Acute pain: This type of pain is sudden and severe, and it usually lasts for a short period of time. It can be caused by injuries, surgery, or other forms of tissue damage.
2. Chronic pain: This type of pain persists over a long period of time, often lasting more than 3 months. It can be caused by conditions such as arthritis, fibromyalgia, or nerve damage.
3. Neuropathic pain: This type of pain results from damage to the nervous system, and it can be characterized by burning, shooting, or stabbing sensations.
4. Visceral pain: This type of pain originates in the internal organs, and it can be difficult to localize.
5. Psychogenic pain: This type of pain is caused by psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, or depression.

The medical field uses a range of methods to assess and manage pain, including:

1. Pain rating scales: These are numerical scales that patients use to rate the intensity of their pain.
2. Pain diaries: These are records that patients keep to track their pain over time.
3. Clinical interviews: Healthcare providers use these to gather information about the patient's pain experience and other relevant symptoms.
4. Physical examination: This can help healthcare providers identify any underlying causes of pain, such as injuries or inflammation.
5. Imaging studies: These can be used to visualize the body and identify any structural abnormalities that may be contributing to the patient's pain.
6. Medications: There are a wide range of medications available to treat pain, including analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and muscle relaxants.
7. Alternative therapies: These can include acupuncture, massage, and physical therapy.
8. Interventional procedures: These are minimally invasive procedures that can be used to treat pain, such as nerve blocks and spinal cord stimulation.

It is important for healthcare providers to approach pain management with a multi-modal approach, using a combination of these methods to address the physical, emotional, and social aspects of pain. By doing so, they can help improve the patient's quality of life and reduce their suffering.

Postoperative pain is typically managed with pain medication, which may include opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or other types of medications. The goal of managing postoperative pain is to provide effective pain relief while minimizing the risk of complications such as addiction, constipation, or nausea and vomiting.

In addition to medication, other techniques for managing postoperative pain may include breathing exercises, relaxation techniques, and alternative therapies such as acupuncture or massage. It is important for patients to communicate with their healthcare provider about the severity of their pain and any side effects they experience from medication, in order to provide effective pain management and minimize complications.

Postoperative pain can be categorized into several different types, including:

* Acute pain: This type of pain is intense but short-lived, typically lasting for a few days or weeks after surgery.
* Chronic pain: This type of pain persists for longer than 3 months after surgery and can be more challenging to manage.
* Neuropathic pain: This type of pain is caused by damage to nerves and can be characterized by burning, shooting, or stabbing sensations.
* Visceral pain: This type of pain originates in the internal organs and can be referred to other areas of the body, such as the back or abdomen.

Some common symptoms of respiratory acidosis include:

* Rapid breathing rate
* Shallow breathing
* Fatigue
* Confusion or disorientation
* Headaches
* Muscle weakness
* Numbness or tingling in the hands and feet

If left untreated, respiratory acidosis can lead to serious complications such as seizures, coma, and even death. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the condition, such as surgery for a weakened diaphragm or other breathing muscles, or using mechanical ventilation if necessary.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of respiratory acidosis, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

There are several types of acidosis, including:

1. Respiratory acidosis: This occurs when the lung's ability to remove carbon dioxide from the blood is impaired, leading to an increase in blood acidity.
2. Metabolic acidosis: This type of acidosis occurs when there is an excessive production of acid in the body due to factors such as diabetes, starvation, or kidney disease.
3. Mixed acidosis: This type of acidosis is a combination of respiratory and metabolic acidosis.
4. Severe acute respiratory acidosis (SARA): This is a life-threatening condition that occurs suddenly, usually due to a severe lung injury or aspiration of a corrosive substance.

The symptoms of acidosis can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition. Common symptoms include:

1. Fatigue
2. Weakness
3. Confusion
4. Headaches
5. Nausea and vomiting
6. Abdominal pain
7. Difficulty breathing
8. Rapid heart rate
9. Muscle twitching

If left untreated, acidosis can lead to complications such as:

1. Kidney damage
2. Seizures
3. Coma
4. Heart arrhythmias
5. Respiratory failure

Treatment of acidosis depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Some common treatments include:

1. Oxygen therapy
2. Medications to help regulate breathing and heart rate
3. Fluid and electrolyte replacement
4. Dietary changes
5. Surgery, in severe cases.

In conclusion, acidosis is a serious medical condition that can have severe consequences if left untreated. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect that you or someone else may have acidosis. With prompt and appropriate treatment, it is possible to effectively manage the condition and prevent complications.

A blockage caused by air bubbles in the bloodstream, which can occur after a sudden change in atmospheric pressure (e.g., during an airplane flight or scuba diving). Air embolism can cause a variety of symptoms, including shortness of breath, chest pain, and stroke. It is a potentially life-threatening condition that requires prompt medical attention.

Note: Air embolism can also occur in the venous system, causing a pulmonary embolism (blockage of an artery in the lungs). This is a more common condition and is discussed separately.

1. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA): This is the most common type of sleep apnea, caused by a physical blockage in the throat, such as excess tissue or a large tongue.
2. Central Sleep Apnea (CSA): This type of sleep apnea is caused by a problem in the brain's breathing control center.
3. Mixed Sleep Apnea: This type of sleep apnea is a combination of OSA and CSA.

The symptoms of sleep apnea syndromes can include:

* Loud snoring
* Pauses in breathing during sleep
* Waking up with a dry mouth or sore throat
* Morning headaches
* Difficulty concentrating or feeling tired during the day

If left untreated, sleep apnea syndromes can lead to serious health problems, such as:

* High blood pressure
* Heart disease
* Stroke
* Diabetes
* Depression

Treatment options for sleep apnea syndromes include:

* Lifestyle changes, such as losing weight or quitting smoking
* Oral appliances, such as a mouthpiece to help keep the airway open
* Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, which involves wearing a mask over the nose and/or mouth while sleeping to deliver a constant flow of air
* Bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) therapy, which is similar to CPAP but delivers two different levels of air pressure
* Surgery, such as a tonsillectomy or a procedure to remove excess tissue in the throat.

It's important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have sleep apnea syndromes, as treatment can help improve your quality of life and reduce the risk of serious health problems.

Other definitions:

* Premature birth: A birth that occurs before 37 completed weeks of gestation.
* Preterm birth: A birth that occurs before 37 completed weeks of gestation, but not necessarily before 22 weeks.
* Very preterm birth: A birth that occurs before 28 completed weeks of gestation.
* Extremely preterm birth: A birth that occurs before 24 completed weeks of gestation.

Diseases associated with premature infants:

1. Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS): A condition in which the baby's lungs do not produce enough surfactant, a substance that helps the air sacs in the lungs expand and contract properly.
2. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD): A chronic lung disease that can develop in premature infants who have RDS.
3. Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH): Bleeding in the brain that can occur in premature infants, particularly those with RDS or BPD.
4. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP): A condition that can cause blindness in premature infants due to abnormal blood vessel growth in the retina.
5. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC): A condition that can cause damage to the intestines and other parts of the digestive system in premature infants.
6. Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH): Bleeding in the brain that can occur in premature infants, particularly those with RDS or BPD.
7. Gastrointestinal problems: Premature infants are at risk for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and other gastrointestinal problems.
8. Feeding difficulties: Premature infants may have difficulty feeding, which can lead to weight gain issues or the need for a feeding tube.
9. Respiratory infections: Premature infants are at increased risk for respiratory infections, such as pneumonia and bronchiolitis.
10. Developmental delays: Premature infants may be at risk for developmental delays or learning disabilities, particularly if they experienced significant health problems or required oxygen therapy.

It is important to note that not all premature infants will develop these complications, and the severity of the conditions can vary depending on the individual baby's health and the level of care they receive. However, it is essential for parents and caregivers to be aware of the potential risks and seek prompt medical attention if they notice any signs of distress or illness in their premature infant.

Arteriosclerosis obliterans is often seen as a complication of conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. It can also be caused by other factors such as smoking, high cholesterol levels, and genetic predisposition.

Symptoms of arteriosclerosis obliterans can vary depending on the location and severity of the blockages. They may include:

* Pain or cramping in the legs, feet, or buttocks
* Weakness or fatigue in the affected limbs
* Coldness or numbness in the extremities
* Difficulty healing wounds or ulcers
* Poor circulation in the hands and feet
* High blood pressure
* Heart disease

If you suspect that you may have arteriosclerosis obliterans, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare professional can perform a physical examination and order diagnostic tests such as angiography or ultrasound to determine the extent of the blockages and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Treatment for arteriosclerosis obliterans may include lifestyle modifications such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and managing high blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Medications such as vasodilators and antiplatelet agents may also be prescribed to improve blood flow and reduce the risk of further blockages. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to bypass or remove the blockages.

Preventing arteriosclerosis obliterans involves maintaining a healthy lifestyle, managing any underlying medical conditions, and avoiding risk factors such as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. Regular check-ups with a healthcare professional can also help to identify early signs of the condition and prevent its progression.

The term "intermittent" indicates that the symptoms do not occur all the time, but only during certain activities or situations. This condition can be caused by a variety of factors, such as peripheral artery disease (PAD), arterial occlusive disease, or muscle weakness.

Intermittent claudication can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, making it difficult to perform everyday activities like walking or climbing stairs. Treatment options may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgery, depending on the underlying cause of the condition.

Symptoms of leg ulcers may include:

* Pain or tenderness in the affected area
* Redness or swelling around the wound
* Discharge or oozing of fluid from the wound
* A foul odor emanating from the wound
* Thickening or hardening of the skin around the wound

Causes and risk factors for leg ulcers include:

* Poor circulation, which can be due to conditions such as peripheral artery disease or diabetes
* Injury or trauma to the lower leg
* Infection, such as cellulitis or abscesses
* Skin conditions such as eczema or psoriasis
* Poorly fitting or compression garments
* Smoking and other lifestyle factors that can impair healing

Diagnosis of a leg ulcer typically involves a physical examination and imaging tests, such as X-rays or ultrasound, to rule out other conditions. Treatment may involve debridement (removal of dead tissue), antibiotics for infection, and dressing changes to promote healing. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged blood vessels.

Prevention is key in managing leg ulcers. This includes maintaining good circulation, protecting the skin from injury, and managing underlying conditions such as diabetes or peripheral artery disease. Compression stockings and bandages can also be used to help reduce swelling and promote healing.

Prognosis for leg ulcers varies depending on the severity of the wound and underlying conditions. With proper treatment and care, many leg ulcers can heal within a few weeks to months. However, some may take longer to heal or may recur, and in severe cases, amputation may be necessary.

Overall, managing leg ulcers requires a comprehensive approach that includes wound care, debridement, antibiotics, and addressing underlying conditions. With proper treatment and care, many leg ulcers can heal and improve quality of life for those affected.

Some common examples of respiration disorders include:

1. Asthma: A chronic condition that causes inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): A progressive lung disease that makes it difficult to breathe, caused by exposure to pollutants such as cigarette smoke.
3. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can cause fever, chills, and difficulty breathing.
4. Bronchitis: Inflammation of the airways that can cause coughing and difficulty breathing.
5. Emphysema: A condition where the air sacs in the lungs are damaged, making it difficult to breathe.
6. Sleep apnea: A sleep disorder that causes a person to stop breathing for short periods during sleep, leading to fatigue and other symptoms.
7. Cystic fibrosis: A genetic disorder that affects the respiratory system and digestive system, causing thick mucus buildup and difficulty breathing.
8. Pulmonary fibrosis: A condition where the lungs become scarred and stiff, making it difficult to breathe.
9. Tuberculosis (TB): A bacterial infection that primarily affects the lungs and can cause coughing, fever, and difficulty breathing.
10. Lung cancer: A type of cancer that originates in the lungs and can cause symptoms such as coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.

These are just a few examples of respiration disorders, and there are many other conditions that can affect the respiratory system and cause breathing difficulties. If you are experiencing any symptoms of respiration disorders, it is important to seek medical attention to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

The symptoms of gas gangrene can include sudden onset of severe pain, swelling, redness, and warmth in the affected area. The skin may also be tender to the touch and feel firm or hard. In severe cases, the infection can spread quickly and lead to sepsis, shock, and even death.

Gas gangrene can occur as a result of trauma, such as a wound or injury, or it can be caused by a surgical incision that becomes infected. The infection can also spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream.

Treatment of gas gangrene typically involves antibiotics and surgical debridement (removal of dead tissue) to remove the infected tissue and promote healing. In severe cases, amputation of the affected limb may be necessary. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent serious complications and improve outcomes.

In summary, gas gangrene is a life-threatening bacterial infection that can occur in muscle tissue, causing sudden pain, swelling, and warmth in the affected area. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent serious complications and improve outcomes.

Kernicterus can occur in newborns, especially those with jaundice, and it can also occur in adults with severe liver dysfunction or hemolytic anemia. The condition is often associated with symptoms such as seizures, muscle stiffness, and loss of consciousness.

Diagnosis of kernicterus typically involves a physical examination, blood tests to measure bilirubin levels, and imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scans to evaluate liver function and brain damage. Treatment may involve phototherapy to reduce bilirubin levels, medications to increase liver function, and in severe cases, exchange transfusion to replace the bilirubin-containing blood with fresh blood.

Kernicterus is a serious condition that can result in long-term cognitive and motor impairments, and it can be fatal if left untreated. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent brain damage and improve outcomes for patients with kernicterus.

Symptoms of PVD may include:

* Cramping pain in the legs during exercise or at rest
* Weakness or numbness in the legs
* Coldness in the lower limbs
* Difficulty healing wounds on the feet or legs
* Poor circulation
* Varicose veins

Treatment for PVD depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Some common treatments include:

* Medications to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, or lower cholesterol levels
* Lifestyle changes such as exercise, smoking cessation, and a healthy diet
* Surgical procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to improve blood flow
* Compression stockings to improve circulation

Prevention of PVD includes:

* Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise, a balanced diet, and not smoking
* Managing underlying conditions such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or diabetes
* Regular check-ups with your healthcare provider to monitor your risk factors and detect any early signs of PVD.

Definition: Inflammation of the joints, particularly those near the ends of the bones (peri-articular), often accompanied by pain and stiffness.

Synonyms: Periartritis, Peri-arthritis.

Types:

1. Periarthritis of the shoulder (PAS): A condition characterized by inflammation of the tendons and bursae around the shoulder joint, resulting in pain and limited mobility.
2. Periarthritis of the knee (PAK): A condition similar to PAS but affecting the knee joint instead.

Causes:

1. Overuse or repetitive strain injury.
2. Trauma or injury to the affected joint.
3. Infections such as bacterial or viral infections.
4. Autoimmune disorders like rheumatoid arthritis.
5. Crystal-induced arthritis caused by deposits of uric acid, calcium pyrophosphate, or other crystals in the joints.

Symptoms:

1. Pain and tenderness in the affected joint, especially when moving or bearing weight.
2. Swelling, redness, and warmth around the joint.
3. Limited range of motion and stiffness.
4. Morning stiffness that lasts for hours or even days.
5. Fatigue, fever, and loss of appetite (in severe cases).

Diagnosis:

1. Physical examination to assess joint pain, swelling, and limited mobility.
2. Imaging tests like X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other conditions.
3. Blood tests to check for infection, inflammation, or autoimmune disorders.

Treatment:

1. Rest and avoidance of activities that aggravate the condition.
2. Physical therapy exercises to improve range of motion and strengthen the affected joint.
3. Anti-inflammatory medications, such as NSAIDs or corticosteroids, to reduce pain and inflammation.
4. Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) or biologic agents to slow the progression of the condition.
5. Surgery to repair or replace damaged joints in severe cases.

Prognosis:

The prognosis for osteoarthritis depends on several factors, including age, severity of symptoms, and overall health. With proper treatment and self-care, many people with osteoarthritis can manage their symptoms and maintain an active lifestyle. However, the condition can worsen over time, and joint replacement surgery may be necessary in severe cases.

Lifestyle Modifications:

1. Maintain a healthy weight to reduce stress on the joints.
2. Engage in regular exercise, such as swimming or cycling, to improve joint mobility and strengthen the surrounding muscles.
3. Use assistive devices like canes or walkers to support affected joints during daily activities.
4. Practice good posture and body mechanics to reduce strain on the joints.
5. Manage stress through relaxation techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing exercises.
6. Avoid smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, which can worsen symptoms and slow down recovery.
7. Eat a balanced diet rich in nutrients that support joint health, such as omega-3 fatty acids, glucosamine, and chondroitin.
8. Get enough sleep to help reduce inflammation and promote healing.
9. Consider alternative therapies like acupuncture or massage to complement medical treatment.
10. Stay informed about new treatments and advancements in osteoarthritis research to make informed decisions about your care.

There are several types of foot ulcers, including:

1. Diabetic foot ulcers: These are the most common type of foot ulcer and are caused by nerve damage (neuropathy) and poor circulation that can lead to unnoticed injuries or infections.
2. Venous foot ulcers: These are caused by weakened veins that cannot properly return blood from the feet to the heart, leading to pooling of blood and skin breakdown.
3. Arterial foot ulcers: These are caused by narrowed or blocked arteries that reduce blood flow to the feet, making it difficult for wounds to heal.
4. Pressure foot ulcers: These are caused by constant pressure on the skin, leading to skin breakdown and ulceration.
5. Traumatic foot ulcers: These are caused by direct trauma to the foot, such as a cut or puncture wound.

Symptoms of foot ulcers may include:

* Pain
* Swelling
* Redness
* Warmth
* Discharge
* Foul odor
* Bleeding

Treatment for foot ulcers depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the ulcer. In general, treatment may include:

1. Debridement: Removing dead skin and tissue to promote healing.
2. Dressing: Applying a clean dressing to protect the wound and promote healing.
3. Infection control: Administering antibiotics if the ulcer is infected.
4. Off-loading: Reducing pressure on the affected area to promote healing.
5. Wound care: Managing the wound to promote healing and prevent further complications.

Preventive measures for foot ulcers include:

1. Proper footwear: Wearing shoes that fit properly and provide adequate support.
2. Regular foot examinations: Checking the feet regularly for any signs of injury or infection.
3. Practicing good hygiene: Keeping the feet clean and dry to prevent infection.
4. Avoiding excessive standing or walking: Taking regular breaks to rest the feet and avoid putting excessive pressure on them.
5. Managing underlying conditions: Managing conditions such as diabetes, poor circulation, and nerve damage to prevent foot ulcers from developing.

1. Chronic bronchitis: This condition causes inflammation of the bronchial tubes (the airways that lead to the lungs), which can cause coughing and excessive mucus production.
2. Emphysema: This condition damages the air sacs in the lungs, making it difficult for the body to take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide.

The main causes of COPD are smoking and long-term exposure to air pollution, although genetics can also play a role. Symptoms of COPD can include shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing, particularly during exercise or exertion. The disease can be diagnosed through pulmonary function tests, chest X-rays, and blood tests.

There is no cure for COPD, but there are several treatment options available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These include medications such as bronchodilators and corticosteroids, pulmonary rehabilitation programs, and lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and increasing physical activity. In severe cases, oxygen therapy may be necessary to help the patient breathe.

Prevention is key in avoiding the development of COPD, and this includes not smoking and avoiding exposure to air pollution. Early detection and treatment can also help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. With proper management, many people with COPD are able to lead active and productive lives.

Examples of acute diseases include:

1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.

Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Muscle spasticity can cause a range of symptoms, including:

* Increased muscle tone, leading to stiffness and rigidity
* Spasms or sudden contractions of the affected muscles
* Difficulty moving the affected limbs
* Pain or discomfort in the affected area
* Abnormal postures or movements

There are several potential causes of muscle spasticity, including:

* Neurological disorders such as cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, and spinal cord injuries
* Stroke or other brain injuries
* Muscle damage or inflammation
* Infections such as meningitis or encephalitis
* Metabolic disorders such as hypokalemia (low potassium levels) or hyperthyroidism

Treatment options for muscle spasticity include:

* Physical therapy to improve range of motion and strength
* Medications such as baclofen, tizanidine, or dantrolene to reduce muscle spasms
* Injectable medications such as botulinum toxin or phenol to destroy excess nerve fibers
* Surgery to release or sever affected nerve fibers
* Electrical stimulation therapy to improve muscle function and reduce spasticity.

It is important to note that muscle spasticity can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, affecting their ability to perform daily activities, maintain independence, and engage in social and recreational activities. As such, it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms of muscle spasticity are present to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

People with OHS often experience symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and difficulty sleeping due to lack of oxygen. In severe cases, OHS can lead to respiratory failure, heart failure, and other complications.

Treatment for OHS typically involves weight loss through diet and exercise, as well as mechanical ventilation assistance at night to help improve breathing. Bariatric surgery may also be recommended in some cases. It is important for individuals with OHS to work closely with their healthcare provider to manage their condition and prevent complications.

The term "hypesthesia" comes from the Greek words "hypo," meaning "under," and "aesthesis," meaning "sensation." It is sometimes used interchangeably with the term "hyperesthesia," which refers to an abnormal increase in sensitivity to sensory stimuli.

Hypesthesia can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Neurological disorders such as peripheral neuropathy or multiple sclerosis
* Injury or trauma to the nervous system
* Infections such as Lyme disease or HIV
* Certain medications, such as antidepressants or antipsychotics
* Substance abuse

Symptoms of hypesthesia can vary depending on the individual and the underlying cause, but may include:

* Increased sensitivity to touch, light, or sound
* Exaggerated response to stimuli, such as jumping or startling easily
* Difficulty filtering out background noise or sensory input
* Feeling overwhelmed by sensory inputs

Treatment for hypesthesia depends on the underlying cause and may include:

* Medications to manage pain or inflammation
* Physical therapy to improve sensory integration
* Sensory integration techniques, such as deep breathing or mindfulness exercises
* Avoiding triggers that exacerbate the condition

It is important to note that hypesthesia can be a symptom of an underlying medical condition, and proper diagnosis and treatment are necessary to address any underlying causes. If you suspect you or someone you know may be experiencing hypesthesia, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and treatment.

Some common types of somatosensory disorders include:

1. Peripheral neuropathy: This is a condition that affects the peripheral nerves outside of the central nervous system. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including diabetes, infections, and certain medications.
2. Neuralgia: This is a chronic pain disorder that is characterized by episodes of intense pain, often accompanied by numbness or tingling.
3. Sensory ataxia: This is a condition that affects the sensory nerves and can cause difficulties with balance, coordination, and spatial awareness.
4. Dystonia: This is a movement disorder that can cause involuntary contractions of muscles, leading to abnormal postures or movements.
5. Restless leg syndrome: This is a condition characterized by an uncomfortable sensation in the legs, often described as a creeping or crawling feeling. It can be accompanied by an urge to move the legs to relieve the discomfort.
6. Paresthesia: This is a condition that causes numbness, tingling, or burning sensations in the skin, often in the hands and feet.
7. Hyperesthesia: This is a condition characterized by an increased sensitivity to touch, temperature, or other sensory stimuli.
8. Hypersensitivity to sound or light: This is a condition where individuals may experience discomfort or pain from ordinary sounds or lights that would not normally cause discomfort.
9. Tactile defensiveness: This is a condition where individuals may have an abnormal aversion to certain textures or sensations, such as the feel of clothing or the taste of certain foods.
10. Sensory processing disorder: This is a condition where the brain has difficulty processing and integrating sensory information from the environment, leading to difficulties with sensory integration and motor planning.

It's important to note that these conditions are not mutually exclusive, and individuals may experience overlapping symptoms or multiple conditions at once. It's also worth noting that these conditions can be present in individuals of all ages, genders, and backgrounds.

The exact cause of thromboangiitis obliterans is not well understood, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Risk factors for the condition include smoking, exposure to cold temperatures, and certain medical conditions such as Raynaud's phenomenon.

The symptoms of thromboangiitis obliterans can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

* Pain, tenderness, and swelling in the affected limbs
* Coldness and discoloration of the skin
* Limited mobility and loss of function in the affected limbs
* Ulcers and wounds on the skin

Diagnosis of thromboangiitis obliterans is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as ultrasound and angiography. Treatment for the condition may include medications to dissolve blood clots and improve blood flow, as well as surgery to repair or replace damaged vessels. In severe cases, amputation of the affected limb may be necessary.

Overall, thromboangiitis obliterans is a rare and debilitating condition that can have a significant impact on quality of life. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent complications and improve outcomes for patients with this condition.

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.

What is a Chronic Disease?

A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:

1. Diabetes
2. Heart disease
3. Arthritis
4. Asthma
5. Cancer
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
8. Hypertension
9. Osteoporosis
10. Stroke

Impact of Chronic Diseases

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.

Addressing Chronic Diseases

Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:

1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.

Conclusion

Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.

When the body's CO2 levels are too low, it can cause a range of symptoms including:

1. Dizziness and lightheadedness
2. Headaches
3. Fatigue and weakness
4. Confusion and disorientation
5. Numbness or tingling in the hands and feet
6. Muscle twitching
7. Irritability and anxiety
8. Increased heart rate and blood pressure
9. Sleep disturbances
10. Decreased mental performance and concentration

Hypocapnia can be diagnosed through a series of tests, including blood gas analysis, electroencephalography (EEG), and imaging studies such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause of hypocapnia, but may include breathing exercises, oxygen therapy, medication, and addressing any underlying conditions.

In severe cases, hypocapnia can lead to seizures, coma, and even death. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

Types of Arterial Occlusive Diseases:

1. Atherosclerosis: Atherosclerosis is a condition where plaque builds up inside the arteries, leading to narrowing or blockages that can restrict blood flow to certain areas of the body.
2. Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD): PAD is a condition where the blood vessels in the legs and arms become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain or cramping in the affected limbs.
3. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD): CAD is a condition where the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart, become narrowed or blocked, leading to chest pain or a heart attack.
4. Carotid Artery Disease: Carotid artery disease is a condition where the carotid arteries, which supply blood to the brain, become narrowed or blocked, leading to stroke or mini-stroke.
5. Renal Artery Stenosis: Renal artery stenosis is a condition where the blood vessels that supply the kidneys become narrowed or blocked, leading to high blood pressure and decreased kidney function.

Symptoms of Arterial Occlusive Diseases:

1. Pain or cramping in the affected limbs
2. Weakness or fatigue
3. Difficulty walking or standing
4. Chest pain or discomfort
5. Shortness of breath
6. Dizziness or lightheadedness
7. Stroke or mini-stroke

Treatment for Arterial Occlusive Diseases:

1. Medications: Medications such as blood thinners, cholesterol-lowering drugs, and blood pressure medications may be prescribed to treat arterial occlusive diseases.
2. Lifestyle Changes: Lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and eating a healthy diet can help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.
3. Endovascular Procedures: Endovascular procedures such as angioplasty and stenting may be performed to open up narrowed or blocked blood vessels.
4. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat arterial occlusive diseases, such as bypass surgery or carotid endarterectomy.

Prevention of Arterial Occlusive Diseases:

1. Maintain a healthy diet and lifestyle
2. Quit smoking and avoid exposure to secondhand smoke
3. Exercise regularly
4. Manage high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes
5. Avoid excessive alcohol consumption
6. Get regular check-ups with your healthcare provider

Early detection and treatment of arterial occlusive diseases can help manage symptoms, slow the progression of the disease, and prevent complications such as heart attack or stroke.

Some common types of lung diseases include:

1. Asthma: A chronic condition characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
2. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): A progressive condition that causes chronic inflammation and damage to the airways and lungs, making it difficult to breathe.
3. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi, leading to fever, chills, coughing, and difficulty breathing.
4. Bronchiectasis: A condition where the airways are damaged and widened, leading to chronic infections and inflammation.
5. Pulmonary Fibrosis: A condition where the lungs become scarred and stiff, making it difficult to breathe.
6. Lung Cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the lungs, often caused by smoking or exposure to carcinogens.
7. Cystic Fibrosis: A genetic disorder that affects the respiratory and digestive systems, leading to chronic infections and inflammation in the lungs.
8. Tuberculosis (TB): An infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, which primarily affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body.
9. Pulmonary Embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, often caused by a blood clot that has traveled from another part of the body.
10. Sarcoidosis: An inflammatory disease that affects various organs in the body, including the lungs, leading to the formation of granulomas and scarring.

These are just a few examples of conditions that can affect the lungs and respiratory system. It's important to note that many of these conditions can be treated with medication, therapy, or surgery, but early detection is key to successful treatment outcomes.

RDS is a common condition in premature babies, but it can also occur in full-term babies if they have certain medical conditions or are exposed to substances during pregnancy that can affect lung development. Symptoms of RDS include rapid breathing, grunting, and flared nostrils. The condition can be diagnosed through chest X-rays or blood tests.

Treatment for RDS typically involves providing oxygen therapy and other supportive care to help the baby breathe more easily. In severe cases, a ventilator may be used to assist with breathing. Surfactant replacement therapy may also be given to help the baby's lungs function properly. With appropriate treatment, most babies with RDS can recover and go on to lead healthy lives. However, in some cases, the condition can be fatal if left untreated or if there are complications such as infection or bleeding in the lungs.

Hyperoxia can cause damage to the body's tissues and organs, particularly the lungs and brain. In severe cases, hyperoxia can lead to respiratory failure, seizures, and even death.

There are several ways to diagnose hyperoxia, including:

1. Blood tests: These can measure the levels of oxygen in the blood.
2. Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis: This is a test that measures the amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
3. Pulse oximetry: This is a non-invasive test that measures the amount of oxygen in the blood by shining a light through the skin.

Treatment for hyperoxia depends on the underlying cause, but may include:

1. Oxygen therapy: This involves administering oxygen to the patient through a mask or nasal tubes.
2. Medications: These may be used to treat any underlying conditions that are causing hyperoxia.
3. Mechanical ventilation: In severe cases, this may be necessary to support the patient's breathing.

In summary, hyperoxia is a condition where there is too much oxygen in the body, and it can cause damage to the body's tissues and organs. Diagnosis is typically made through blood tests or other tests, and treatment may involve oxygen therapy, medications, or mechanical ventilation.

Symptoms of pulmonary atelectasis may include chest pain, coughing up bloody mucus, difficulty breathing, fever, and chills. Treatment typically involves antibiotics for bacterial infections, and in severe cases, mechanical ventilation may be necessary. In some cases, surgery may be required to remove the blockage or repair the damage to the lung.
Pulmonary atelectasis is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention to prevent complications such as respiratory failure or sepsis. It can be diagnosed through chest X-rays, computed tomography (CT) scans, and pulmonary function tests.

In the medical field, dyspnea is often evaluated using a numerical rating scale called the Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea scale. This scale rates dyspnea on a scale of 0 to 5, with 0 indicating no shortness of breath and 5 indicating extreme shortness of breath.

Dyspnea can be a symptom of many different conditions, including:

1. Respiratory problems such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pneumonia.
2. Heart conditions such as heart failure and coronary artery disease.
3. Other underlying medical conditions such as anemia, lung disease, and liver failure.
4. Neurological conditions such as stroke and multiple sclerosis.
5. Psychological conditions such as anxiety and depression.

Assessment of dyspnea involves a thorough medical history and physical examination, including listening to the patient's lung sounds and assessing their oxygen saturation levels. Diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays, electrocardiograms (ECGs), and blood tests may also be ordered to determine the underlying cause of dyspnea.

Treatment of dyspnea depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, oxygen therapy, and other interventions such as pulmonary rehabilitation. In some cases, dyspnea may be a symptom of a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention.

Symptoms of cellulitis may include:

* Redness and swelling of the affected area
* Warmth and tenderness to the touch
* Pain or discomfort
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Fever
* Chills

If you suspect you or someone else has cellulitis, it's important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. Antibiotics are usually prescribed to treat the infection, and early treatment can help prevent more serious complications.

Complications of untreated cellulitis may include:

* Abscesses: pockets of pus that form in the skin or underlying tissues
* Blood poisoning (sepsis): a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when bacteria enter the bloodstream
* Infection of the bones or joints
* Scarring

Prevention is key to avoiding cellulitis. Some ways to prevent cellulitis include:

* Practicing good wound care, such as keeping wounds clean and covered
* Avoiding piercings or tattoos with unsterilized equipment
* Avoiding scratches or cuts on the skin
* Keeping the skin moisturized to prevent dryness and cracking
* Avoiding tight clothing that can cause friction and irritation

Early recognition and treatment of cellulitis are essential to prevent more serious complications. If you suspect you or someone else has cellulitis, seek medical attention as soon as possible. With prompt treatment, most people with cellulitis can recover fully.

There are several possible causes of methemoglobinemia, including:

1. Exposure to certain medications or chemicals, such as nitrates or aniline dyes.
2. Genetic disorders that affect the production or function of hemoglobin.
3. Infections, such as bacterial infections of the blood or respiratory tract.
4. Poor nutrition or malnutrition.
5. Certain chronic medical conditions, such as sickle cell anemia or thalassemia.

Methemoglobinemia can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including:

1. Complete blood count (CBC) to measure the levels of methemoglobin in the blood.
2. Blood gas analysis to measure the partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
3. Co-oximetry to measure the levels of methemoglobin and other forms of hemoglobin.
4. Urine tests to check for the presence of abnormal hemoglobin.
5. Genetic testing to identify inherited disorders that may be causing the condition.

Treatment of methemoglobinemia depends on the underlying cause and may include:

1. Administration of oxygen therapy to increase the amount of oxygen in the blood.
2. Use of medications to reduce the levels of methemoglobin and increase the levels of normal hemoglobin.
3. Transfusions of red blood cells to replace abnormal hemoglobin with normal hemoglobin.
4. Management of underlying medical conditions, such as infections or genetic disorders.
5. Dietary changes to address any nutritional deficiencies that may be contributing to the condition.

In severe cases of methemoglobinemia, hospitalization may be necessary to provide oxygen therapy and other treatments. In some cases, patients with methemoglobinemia may require long-term management and follow-up care to prevent complications and manage the underlying cause of the condition.

Example sentence: "The nuchal cord was detected during an ultrasound examination, and further monitoring was recommended to ensure the health and well-being of the fetus."

The signs and symptoms of fetal hypoxia may include:

1. Decreased fetal movement
2. Abnormal fetal heart rate
3. Meconium staining of the amniotic fluid
4. Premature contractions
5. Preterm labor

If left untreated, fetal hypoxia can lead to serious complications such as:

1. Intracranial hemorrhage
2. Cerebral palsy
3. Developmental delays
4. Learning disabilities
5. Memory and cognitive impairments
6. Behavioral problems
7. Autism
8. Seizures
9. Hearing and vision loss

Treatment of fetal hypoxia depends on the underlying cause, but may include:

1. Bed rest or hospitalization
2. Corticosteroids to promote fetal growth and maturity
3. Oxygen supplementation
4. Antibiotics for infections
5. Planned delivery, if necessary

In some cases, fetal hypoxia may be detected through ultrasound examination, which can show a decrease in fetal movement or abnormal heart rate. However, not all cases of fetal hypoxia can be detected by ultrasound, and regular prenatal check-ups are essential to monitor the health of the developing fetus.

Prevention of fetal hypoxia includes proper prenatal care, avoiding harmful substances such as tobacco and alcohol, maintaining a healthy diet, and managing any underlying medical conditions. Early detection and treatment of fetal hypoxia can significantly improve outcomes for both the mother and the baby.

Symptoms of pulmonary edema may include:

* Shortness of breath (dyspnea)
* Coughing up frothy sputum
* Chest pain or tightness
* Fatigue
* Confusion or disorientation

Pulmonary edema can be diagnosed through physical examination, chest x-rays, electrocardiogram (ECG), and blood tests. Treatment options include oxygen therapy, diuretics, and medications to manage underlying conditions such as heart failure or sepsis. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide mechanical ventilation.

Prevention measures for pulmonary edema include managing underlying medical conditions, avoiding exposure to pollutants and allergens, and seeking prompt medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

In summary, pulmonary edema is a serious condition that can impair lung function and lead to shortness of breath, chest pain, and other respiratory symptoms. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and improve outcomes for patients with this condition.

There are several possible causes of airway obstruction, including:

1. Asthma: Inflammation of the airways can cause them to narrow and become obstructed.
2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): This is a progressive condition that damages the lungs and can lead to airway obstruction.
3. Bronchitis: Inflammation of the bronchial tubes (the airways that lead to the lungs) can cause them to narrow and become obstructed.
4. Pneumonia: Infection of the lungs can cause inflammation and narrowing of the airways.
5. Tumors: Cancerous tumors in the chest or throat can grow and block the airways.
6. Foreign objects: Objects such as food or toys can become lodged in the airways and cause obstruction.
7. Anaphylaxis: A severe allergic reaction can cause swelling of the airways and obstruct breathing.
8. Other conditions such as sleep apnea, cystic fibrosis, and vocal cord paralysis can also cause airway obstruction.

Symptoms of airway obstruction may include:

1. Difficulty breathing
2. Wheezing or stridor (a high-pitched sound when breathing in)
3. Chest tightness or pain
4. Coughing up mucus or phlegm
5. Shortness of breath
6. Blue lips or fingernail beds (in severe cases)

Treatment of airway obstruction depends on the underlying cause and may include medications such as bronchodilators, inhalers, and steroids, as well as surgery to remove blockages or repair damaged tissue. In severe cases, a tracheostomy (a tube inserted into the windpipe to help with breathing) may be necessary.

There are several types of alkalosis, including:

1. Respiratory alkalosis: This type is caused by an excessive breathing of carbon dioxide into the lungs, which increases the bicarbonate levels in the blood.
2. Metabolic alkalosis: This type is caused by a decrease in the production of acid in the body, such as in diabetic ketoacidosis or liver disease.
3. Inherited alkalosis: This type is caused by inherited genetic disorders that affect the regulation of acid-base homeostasis.
4. Drug-induced alkalosis: Certain medications, such as antacids and diuretics, can increase bicarbonate levels in the blood.
5. Post-operative alkalosis: This type can occur after surgery, particularly gastrointestinal surgery, due to the release of bicarbonate from damaged tissues.

The symptoms of alkalosis can vary depending on the severity and duration of the condition. They may include:

* Nausea and vomiting
* Abdominal pain
* Headache
* Fatigue
* Muscle weakness
* Tingling sensations in the extremities
* Confusion and disorientation

If left untreated, alkalosis can lead to more severe complications such as:

* Respiratory acidosis (a decrease in blood pH due to a lack of oxygen)
* Cardiac arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats)
* Seizures
* Coma

Diagnosis of alkalosis is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests. Laboratory tests may include:

* Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis to measure the pH and PCO2 levels in the blood
* Serum electrolyte levels to assess the levels of sodium, potassium, and chloride
* Urine testing to assess the levels of bicarbonate and other electrolytes

Treatment of alkalosis depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. General measures may include:

* Correction of any underlying metabolic disorders, such as diabetes or kidney disease
* Discontinuation of medications that may be contributing to the alkalosis
* Fluid and electrolyte replacement to correct dehydration or imbalances
* Oxygen therapy to treat respiratory acidosis

In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the condition. In some cases, medications such as sodium bicarbonate may be prescribed to help restore acid-base balance. Surgery may be required in cases where the alkalosis is caused by a structural problem, such as a hiatal hernia.

Prognosis for alkalosis depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In general, early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes. However, untreated severe alkalosis can lead to complications such as seizures, coma, and cardiac arrhythmias.

Prevention of alkalosis involves identifying and treating underlying conditions that may contribute to the development of the condition. This includes managing chronic diseases such as diabetes and kidney disease, and avoiding medications that may cause alkalosis. Additionally, maintaining a balanced diet and staying hydrated can help prevent electrolyte imbalances that can lead to alkalosis.

In conclusion, alkalosis is a condition characterized by an excess of base in the body, which can lead to respiratory and metabolic disturbances. The diagnosis of alkalosis is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, and may include fluid and electrolyte replacement, medication, and addressing any underlying conditions. Early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes for patients with alkalosis.

Pneumoperitoneum can be caused by several factors, including:

1. Trauma: Blunt force trauma to the abdomen can cause air to enter the peritoneal cavity. This can occur due to car accidents, falls, or other types of injuries.
2. Surgery: During certain types of surgical procedures, such as laparoscopic surgery, gas may enter the peritoneal cavity.
3. Gastrointestinal perforation: A gastrointestinal perforation is a tear or hole in the lining of the digestive tract that can allow air to enter the peritoneal cavity. This can occur due to conditions such as ulcers, appendicitis, or diverticulitis.
4. Inflammatory bowel disease: Inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis can cause air to enter the peritoneal cavity.
5. Intestinal obstruction: An intestinal obstruction can prevent the normal flow of food and gas through the digestive system, leading to a buildup of air in the peritoneal cavity.

The symptoms of pneumoperitoneum can vary depending on the severity of the condition and the location of the air in the abdomen. Common symptoms include:

1. Abdominal pain: Pain in the abdomen is the most common symptom of pneumoperitoneum. The pain may be sharp, dull, or colicky and may be accompanied by tenderness to the touch.
2. Distension: The abdomen may become distended due to the accumulation of air, which can cause discomfort and difficulty breathing.
3. Nausea and vomiting: Patients with pneumoperitoneum may experience nausea and vomiting due to the irritation of the peritoneum and the presence of air in the digestive system.
4. Diarrhea or constipation: Depending on the location of the air, patients may experience diarrhea or constipation due to the disruption of normal bowel function.
5. Fever: Pneumoperitoneum can cause a fever due to the inflammation and infection of the peritoneal cavity.

If you suspect that you or someone else may have pneumoperitoneum, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. A healthcare provider will perform a physical examination and order imaging tests such as a CT scan or X-ray to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment will depend on the underlying cause of the condition, but may include antibiotics for infection, drainage of the air from the peritoneal cavity, and surgery if necessary.

Example sentence: "The patient was diagnosed with lactic acidosis secondary to uncontrolled diabetes and was admitted to the intensive care unit for proper management."

Hyperalgesia is often seen in people with chronic pain conditions, such as fibromyalgia, and it can also be a side effect of certain medications or medical procedures. Treatment options for hyperalgesia depend on the underlying cause of the condition, but may include pain management techniques, physical therapy, and medication adjustments.

In clinical settings, hyperalgesia is often assessed using a pinprick test or other pain tolerance tests to determine the patient's sensitivity to different types of stimuli. The goal of treatment is to reduce the patient's pain and improve their quality of life.

In adults, RDS is less common than in newborns but can still occur in certain situations. These include:

* Sepsis (a severe infection that can cause inflammation throughout the body)
* Pneumonia or other respiratory infections
* Injury to the lung tissue, such as from a car accident or smoke inhalation
* Burns that cover a large portion of the body
* Certain medications, such as those used to treat cancer or autoimmune disorders.

Symptoms of RDS in adults can include:

* Shortness of breath
* Rapid breathing
* Chest tightness or pain
* Low oxygen levels in the blood
* Blue-tinged skin (cyanosis)
* Confusion or disorientation

Diagnosis of RDS in adults is typically made based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays or blood gas analysis. Treatment may involve oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation (a machine that helps the patient breathe), and medications to help increase surfactant production or reduce inflammation in the lungs. In severe cases, a lung transplant may be necessary.

Prevention of RDS in adults includes avoiding exposure to risk factors such as smoking and other pollutants, maintaining good overall health, and seeking prompt medical attention if any respiratory symptoms develop.

There are several types of diabetic neuropathies, including:

1. Peripheral neuropathy: This is the most common type of diabetic neuropathy and affects the nerves in the hands and feet. It can cause numbness, tingling, and pain in these areas.
2. Autonomic neuropathy: This type of neuropathy affects the nerves that control involuntary functions, such as digestion, bladder function, and blood pressure. It can cause a range of symptoms, including constipation, diarrhea, urinary incontinence, and sexual dysfunction.
3. Proximal neuropathy: This type of neuropathy affects the nerves in the legs and hips. It can cause weakness, pain, and stiffness in these areas.
4. Focal neuropathy: This type of neuropathy affects a single nerve, often causing sudden and severe pain.

The exact cause of diabetic neuropathies is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to high blood sugar levels over time. Other risk factors include poor blood sugar control, obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption. There is no cure for diabetic neuropathy, but there are several treatments available to manage the symptoms and prevent further nerve damage. These treatments may include medications, physical therapy, and lifestyle changes such as regular exercise and a healthy diet.

There are several types of asphyxia, including:

1. Respiratory asphyxia: This occurs when the individual's respiratory system is unable to provide enough oxygen to the body due to obstruction or paralysis of the respiratory muscles.
2. Cardiac asphyxia: This occurs when the heart is unable to pump enough blood to the body, leading to a lack of oxygen and nutrients.
3. Cerebral asphyxia: This occurs when the brain does not receive enough oxygen, leading to impaired consciousness, confusion, seizures, and even death.
4. Hypoxic-ischemic asphyxia: This occurs when there is a lack of oxygen and blood flow to the body's tissues, leading to tissue damage and cell death.

Asphyxia can cause a range of symptoms depending on its severity and duration, including:

1. Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
2. Confusion, disorientation, or loss of consciousness
3. Slurred speech or inability to speak
4. Seizures or convulsions
5. Pale or blue-tinged skin
6. Low blood pressure
7. Slow heart rate
8. Decreased level of consciousness

Treatment for asphyxia depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In mild cases, treatment may involve providing oxygen therapy, administering medications to stimulate breathing, or performing other respiratory support measures. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary, and treatment may involve mechanical ventilation or other life-saving interventions.

Prevention of asphyxia is essential, and it can be achieved by avoiding situations that can lead to respiratory distress, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and exposure to toxic substances. It is also important to ensure proper ventilation in enclosed spaces and to use appropriate safety equipment when working with hazardous materials or in confined areas.

In conclusion, asphyxia is a serious condition that can lead to tissue damage and cell death due to a lack of oxygen and blood flow. Prompt recognition and treatment are essential to prevent long-term brain damage and death. Prevention measures include avoiding situations that can lead to respiratory distress and ensuring proper ventilation in enclosed spaces.

Some common types of thoracic diseases include:

1. Heart disease: This includes conditions such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, and arrhythmias.
2. Lung disease: This includes conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and lung cancer.
3. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
4. Pulmonary embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, which can be caused by a blood clot or other foreign matter.
5. Pleurisy: Inflammation of the membranes surrounding the lungs (pleura).
6. Pneumothorax: A collapse of one or both lungs, which can be caused by injury or disease.
7. Thoracic aneurysm: A bulge or ballooning in the wall of a blood vessel in the chest.
8. Esophageal disorders: Conditions that affect the muscles or organs of the esophagus, such as achalasia or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
9. Mediastinal tumors: Tumors that occur in the mediastinum, a region of tissue in the middle of the chest.
10. Chest trauma: Injuries to the chest wall or organs within the chest cavity, such as those caused by car accidents or falls.

Thoracic diseases can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including chest X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and endoscopies. Treatment depends on the specific condition and may include medications, surgery, or other interventions.

There are several types of apnea that can occur during sleep, including:

1. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): This is the most common type of apnea and occurs when the airway is physically blocked by the tongue or other soft tissue in the throat, causing breathing to stop for short periods.
2. Central sleep apnea (CSA): This type of apnea occurs when the brain fails to send the proper signals to the muscles that control breathing, resulting in a pause in breathing.
3. Mixed sleep apnea (MSA): This type of apnea is a combination of OSA and CSA, where both central and obstructive factors contribute to the pauses in breathing.
4. Hypopneic apnea: This type of apnea is characterized by a decrease in breathing, but not a complete stop.
5. Hypercapnic apnea: This type of apnea is caused by an excessive buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood, which can lead to pauses in breathing.

The symptoms of apnea can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition, but may include:

* Pauses in breathing during sleep
* Waking up with a dry mouth or sore throat
* Morning headaches
* Difficulty concentrating or feeling tired during the day
* High blood pressure
* Heart disease

Treatment options for apnea depend on the underlying cause, but may include:

* Lifestyle changes, such as losing weight, avoiding alcohol and sedatives before bedtime, and sleeping on your side
* Oral appliances or devices that advance the position of the lower jaw and tongue
* Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, which involves wearing a mask during sleep to deliver a constant flow of air pressure into the airways
* Bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) therapy, which involves two levels of air pressure: one for inhalation and another for exhalation
* Surgery to remove excess tissue in the throat or correct physical abnormalities that are contributing to the apnea.

The symptoms of pulmonary embolism can vary, but may include shortness of breath, chest pain, coughing up blood, rapid heart rate, and fever. In some cases, the clot may be large enough to cause a pulmonary infarction (a " lung injury" caused by lack of oxygen), which can lead to respiratory failure and death.

Pulmonary embolism can be diagnosed with imaging tests such as chest X-rays, CT scans, and ultrasound. Treatment typically involves medications to dissolve the clot or prevent new ones from forming, and in some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot.

Preventive measures include:

* Avoiding prolonged periods of immobility, such as during long-distance travel
* Exercising regularly to improve circulation
* Managing chronic conditions such as high blood pressure and cancer
* Taking blood-thinning medications to prevent clot formation

Early recognition and treatment of pulmonary embolism are critical to reduce the risk of complications and death.

There are several different types of spinal cord injuries that can occur, depending on the location and severity of the damage. These include:

1. Complete spinal cord injuries: In these cases, the spinal cord is completely severed, resulting in a loss of all sensation and function below the level of the injury.
2. Incomplete spinal cord injuries: In these cases, the spinal cord is only partially damaged, resulting in some remaining sensation and function below the level of the injury.
3. Brown-Sequard syndrome: This is a specific type of incomplete spinal cord injury that affects one side of the spinal cord, resulting in weakness or paralysis on one side of the body.
4. Conus medullaris syndrome: This is a type of incomplete spinal cord injury that affects the lower part of the spinal cord, resulting in weakness or paralysis in the legs and bladder dysfunction.

The symptoms of spinal cord injuries can vary depending on the location and severity of the injury. They may include:

* Loss of sensation in the arms, legs, or other parts of the body
* Weakness or paralysis in the arms, legs, or other parts of the body
* Difficulty walking or standing
* Difficulty with bowel and bladder function
* Numbness or tingling sensations
* Pain or pressure in the neck or back

Treatment for spinal cord injuries typically involves a combination of medical and rehabilitative therapies. Medical treatments may include:

* Immobilization of the spine to prevent further injury
* Medications to manage pain and inflammation
* Surgery to relieve compression or stabilize the spine

Rehabilitative therapies may include:

* Physical therapy to improve strength and mobility
* Occupational therapy to learn new ways of performing daily activities
* Speech therapy to improve communication skills
* Psychological counseling to cope with the emotional effects of the injury.

Overall, the prognosis for spinal cord injuries depends on the severity and location of the injury, as well as the age and overall health of the individual. While some individuals may experience significant recovery, others may experience long-term or permanent impairment. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if symptoms of a spinal cord injury are present.

The term "pulmonary heart disease" is sometimes used interchangeably with "pulmonary hypertension," but they are not exactly the same thing. Pulmonary hypertension refers specifically to high blood pressure in the lungs, while pulmonary heart disease is a broader term that includes both high blood pressure and other conditions that affect the heart and lungs.

Pulmonary heart disease can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Pulmonary embolism (a blood clot in the lungs)
2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
3. Sleep apnea
4. Congenital heart defects
5. Cardiomyopathy (a condition where the heart muscle becomes weakened or enlarged)
6. Heart valve problems
7. Lupus (an autoimmune disease)
8. Rheumatoid arthritis (an autoimmune disease)
9. Scleroderma (a connective tissue disease)
10. Raynaud's phenomenon (a condition that affects blood flow to the fingers and toes)

Symptoms of pulmonary heart disease can include:

1. Shortness of breath
2. Fatigue
3. Dizziness or lightheadedness
4. Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet
5. Chest pain
6. Coughing up pink, frothy liquid (called pulmonary edema)

If you suspect you may have pulmonary heart disease, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare provider can perform tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, and chest X-ray to determine the cause of your symptoms and develop a treatment plan.

Treatment for pulmonary heart disease may include:

1. Medications to lower blood pressure and improve lung function
2. Oxygen therapy to increase oxygen levels in the blood
3. Surgery to repair or replace damaged heart valves
4. Lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and eating a healthy diet

It is important to follow your healthcare provider's treatment plan and attend regular follow-up appointments to monitor your condition and adjust your treatment as needed. With proper treatment and lifestyle changes, many people with pulmonary heart disease are able to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

The symptoms of ALI can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

* Shortness of breath (dyspnea)
* Chest pain or tightness (pleurisy)
* Cough, which may produce mucus or pus
* Fatigue, confusion, or disorientation
* Low oxygen levels in the blood (hypoxia)

If left untreated, ALI can progress to a more severe condition called acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which can be fatal. Treatment for ALI typically involves supportive care, such as mechanical ventilation, medications to manage inflammation and fluid buildup in the lungs, and management of underlying causes. In severe cases, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or lung transplantation may be necessary.

It's important to note that ALI can occur in people of all ages and can be caused by a variety of factors, so it's important to seek medical attention right away if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of the condition.

Pleuropneumonia is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as chest radiographs and bacterial cultures. Treatment usually involves antibiotics and supportive care, such as fluids and oxygen therapy. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to ensure proper care and monitoring.

Prevention of pleuropneumonia is key to minimizing the risk of infection. Vaccination programs are available for sheep and goats, and good husbandry practices such as providing clean water and adequate ventilation can help reduce the risk of transmission. Early detection and treatment are also critical to preventing the spread of the disease and minimizing its impact on animal health and productivity.

In summary, pleuropneumonia is a serious respiratory disease that affects sheep and goats, caused by Pasteurella haemolytica bacteria. It can be diagnosed through physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, and treated with antibiotics and supportive care. Prevention through vaccination programs and good husbandry practices is key to minimizing the risk of infection and its impact on animal health and productivity.

Bendjelid K, Schütz N, Stotz M, Gerard I, Suter PM, Romand JA (2005). "Transcutaneous PCO2 monitoring in critically ill adults ... Blood gas tension refers to the partial pressure of gases in blood. There are several significant purposes for measuring gas ... Blood gas tests (such as arterial blood gas tests) measure these partial pressures. Arterial blood oxygen tension (normal) PaO2 ... Chu YC, Chen CZ, Lee CH, Chen CW, Chang HY, Hsiue TR (2003). "Prediction of arterial blood gas values from venous blood gas ...
Blood Gas Testing Neonatal Monitoring Immunoassay Testing Transcutaneous Monitoring Point-of-Care Data Management Blood ... blood gas analysis, transcutaneous monitoring, immunoassay testing and the related IT management systems. The company was ... Their products are typically used in blood banks, operating rooms, clinics, general practice offices, intensive care units, ... SenDx manufactures medical and industrial instruments and blood analysis systems. Later, in 2013, Radiometer acquired Swedish ...
... non-invasive blood pressure cuff monitoring and temperature. In some cases, arterial blood gas monitoring may be used. ... Non-pharmacological techniques include Lamaze breathing, acupuncture, acupressure, LeBoyer technique, transcutaneous nerve ... Anesthesiologists use safe blood transfusions in certain situations as a therapy for patients with low oxygen carrying capacity ... Based on the basis of patient autonomy, a person who is deemed to have capacity and refuses a blood transfusion for religious ...
Carbon dioxide can be monitored by taking a blood sample (arterial blood gas), through the breath (exhalation), and it can be ... "Transcutaneous carbon dioxide monitoring for the prevention of neonatal morbidity and mortality". The Cochrane Database of ... Because the brain stem regulates breathing by monitoring the level of blood CO2 instead of O2, hypocapnia can suppress ... A low partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood also causes alkalosis (because CO2 is acidic in solution), leading to ...
... oncology Systemsroots Ultrasound Diagnostic ECG Accessories Equipment Software Philips AVENTil Anesthetic gas monitoring Blood ... PACS IntelliSpace portal Multi-measurement servers Neurophedeoiles Pulse oximetry Tasy Temperature Transcutaneous gases ... VISICU was the creator of the eICU concept of the use of Telemedicine from a centralized facility to monitor and care for ICU ... VISICU was the creator of the eICU concept of the use of Telemedicine from a centralized facility to monitor and care for ICU ...
... blood gas monitoring, transcutaneous MeSH E01.450.150.100.105 - blood glucose self-monitoring MeSH E01.450.150.100.110 - blood ... blood gas analysis MeSH E01.370.386.700.100.600 - oximetry MeSH E01.370.386.700.100.600.100 - blood gas monitoring, ... blood gas monitoring, transcutaneous MeSH E01.370.370.380.650 - pulse MeSH E01.370.370.380.710 - radionuclide ventriculography ... blood glucose self-monitoring MeSH E01.370.520.200 - drug monitoring MeSH E01.370.520.215 - esophageal ph monitoring MeSH ...
Carbon dioxide can be monitored by taking a blood sample (arterial blood gas), through the breath (exhalation), and it can be ... "Transcutaneous carbon dioxide monitoring for the prevention of neonatal morbidity and mortality". The Cochrane Database of ... Hypercarbia (too much carbon dioxide in the blood) may contribute to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Monitoring ... Infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia are often treated with diuretics that decrease fluid in the alveoli where gas exchange ...
Essentials in Pressure Monitoring: Blood and Other Body Fluids. B. Tardieu series 144 pages ; publ. by Martinis Nijhoff Co, The ... blood-gas analysers, potentiometric pHmeters and charge-electrometers for diagnostic purposes. Cywinski spent six months in ... Transcutaneous stimulation. Roundtable Chairman, AAMI, 17th annual meeting, San Francisco, May, 1982 J.K. Cywinski, L.M. ... Vol 35, No 4, p.630-634, 2003 Cywinski J. A Device for Pumping of Venous Blood in Legs. US Patent application assigned to Ad ...
The average red blood cell contains 250 million hemoglobin molecules, therefore 1 billion heme sites capable of binding gas. ... Breath CO monitoring offers an alternative to pulse CO-oximetry. Carboxyhemoglobin levels have been shown to have a strong ... Barker SJ, Tremper KK (May 1987). "The effect of carbon monoxide inhalation on pulse oximetry and transcutaneous PO2". ... Hemoglobin is dark in deoxygenated venous blood, but it has a bright red color when carrying blood in oxygenated arterial blood ...
These provide non-invasive or transcutaneous (non-piercing) minimal invasive blood flow assessment. Common examples are, ... Doppler fetal monitors use the Doppler effect to detect the fetal heartbeat during prenatal care. These are hand-held, and some ... If the pulse hits gases or solids, the density difference is so great that most of the acoustic energy is reflected and it ... A power doppler blood flow study is done prior to injection. The blood flow can be destroyed and the node rendered inactive. ...
Gas bubbles within the arterial circulation can block the supply of blood to any part of the body, including the brain, and can ... The curriculum covers a wide range of topics including hyperbaric chamber operations to transcutaneous oxygen monitoring. The ... The disorders are caused by breathing gas at the high pressures encountered at depth, and divers will often breathe a gas ... The gas may then enter the arterial circulation producing arterial gas embolism (AGE), with effects similar to severe ...
Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of invasive blood pressure monitoring equipment IEC ... Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of transcutaneous partial pressure monitoring equipment ... Particular requirements for the basic safety and essential performance of low energy ionized gas haemostasis equipment IEC ... Although In Vitro Diagnostic devices such as blood glucose meters are being used by patients at home, the standard does not ...
Laboratory tests include blood tests for vitamin B-12 levels, a complete blood count, measurement of thyroid stimulating ... A user-friendly, disease-specific, quality-of-life scale can be used to monitor how someone is doing living with the burden of ... Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) therapy is often used to treat various types of neuropathy. A 2010 review of ... impairments in the signals associated with regulation of breathing and gas exchange (central sleep apnea, hypopnea, bradypnea ...
... transfuse packed red blood cells, perform chest thoracostomy, and carry some additional pharmacology specific to major trauma ... cardiac monitoring - basic ECG interpretation and 12-lead ECG, manual defibrillation), drug/fluid administration (intramuscular ... transcutaneous cardiac pacing, continuous positive airway pressure ventilation CPAP, decompression of tension pneumothorax, ... LifeFlight Australia also operates commercial contract helicopters at Surat Gas Aero-Medical Service out of Roma and Toowoomba ...
Oesophageal Doppler monitoring measures the velocity of blood and not true Q, therefore relies on a nomogram based on patient ... Other variations use inert gases as tracers and measure the change in inspired and expired gas concentrations to calculate Q ( ... Accuracy and Efficacy Compared with Flow Probe and Transcutaneous Doppler (USCOM): An Ovine Cardiac Output Validation". ... representing mixed venous blood) the oxygen content of blood from a cannula in a peripheral artery (representing arterial blood ...
... is in the blood. Also called home blood glucose monitoring. See also: Blood glucose monitoring. Shock A severe condition that ... It is in the capillaries that most gas exchange takes place (oxygen out of the blood into the tissues, and carbon dioxide into ... Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) A treatment for painful neuropathy. Trauma Triglyceride Twenty-four hour urine ... is in the blood. Also called self-monitoring of blood glucose. See also: Blood glucose monitoring. Homeostasis the operation of ...
Otherwise an electrocardiogram, blood work to check the heart, and urine testing for signs of muscle breakdown may be performed ... These devices may include a violet wand, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, electrical muscle stimulation, and made- ... Management may involve resuscitation, pain medications, wound management, and heart rhythm monitoring. Electrical injuries ... poison gassing, etc., it has now generally been replaced by lethal injections in states that practice capital punishment. ...
The conclusion is reached that 0.1-0.3 GBq or more absorbed to blood of an adult male is likely to be fatal within 1 month. ... Wearing chemically resistant and intact gloves is a mandatory precaution to avoid transcutaneous diffusion of polonium directly ... the lead-210 is a product of radon-222 gas, much of which appears to originate from the decay of radium-226 from fertilizers ... adequate monitoring, and strict handling procedures to avoid any contamination. Alpha particles emitted by polonium will damage ...
Browsing by Subject "Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U ...
The following tests were also performed: arterial blood gas analysis; 24 hour oesophageal pH monitoring; hyperventilation test ... psychiatric assessment; sleep studies of arterial oxygen saturation and transcutaneous CO2 monitoring (see table 1). ... 1). Airway resistance by body plethysmography was normal, as were histamine PC20 and arterial blood gas tensions. Bronchoscopic ... A hyperventilation test was strongly positive with resting arterial blood gas tensions also indicating alkalosis (hydrogen ion ...
In this last part of my presentation, I will showcase a few selected emerging blood gas monitors. Transcutaneous oxygen sensor ... And I think miniaturized blood gas wearable, which can continuously monitor blood oxygen, can probably help to precisely ... But if you get blood to monitor blood cortisol, it is traumatic, because blood draw itself induces stress. Thats why we can ... So the gold standard for measuring blood gases is arterial blood gas analysis. It measures arterial saturation of oxygen SAO2 ...
Blood Gas Analysis [E01.370.225.124.100.100] * Oximetry [E01.370.225.124.100.100.600] * Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous [ ... Blood Gas Analysis [E01.370.386.700.100] * Oximetry [E01.370.386.700.100.600] * Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous [E01.370. ... Blood Gas Analysis [E05.200.124.100.100] * Oximetry [E05.200.124.100.100.600] * Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous [E05.200. ... Transcutaneous Blood Gas Monitoring Transcutaneous Capnometry Transcutaneous Oximetry NLM Classification #. QY 450. Previous ...
Radiometer develops, manufactures, and markets solutions for blood sampling, blood gas analysis, transcutaneous monitoring, ... Preanalytical blood gas handbook. Hemocues my blood donor app. Blood gas analysis video guides. What is blood gas? ... For reference on specific blood gas testing solutions, immunoassay testing, transcutaneous monitoring, samplers, POC data ... TCM5 FLEX monitor. PeriFlux 6000. AQURE. HemoCue Glucose Systems. HemoCue Hb Systems. Quality Control. ...
E5.200.124.100.100 Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous E1.450.150.100.100.600.100 E1.370.225.124.100.100.600.100 E5.200. ... E5.200.124.100 Blood Coagulation Tests E1.450.375.115 E1.370.225.625.115 E5.200.625.115 Blood Gas Analysis E1.450.150.100.100 ... 124.100.100.600.100 Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring E1.450.150.100.105 E1.370.225.124.100.105 E5.200.124.100.105 Blood Grouping ... E5.200.625.125 Blood Specimen Collection E1.450.865.632.150 E1.370.225.998.110 E4.665.150 E5.200.998.110 Blood Urea Nitrogen ...
Transcutaneous Blood Gas Monitoring. Transcutaneous Capnometries. Transcutaneous Capnometry. Transcutaneous Oximetries. ... Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous - Preferred Concept UI. M0002691. Scope note. The noninvasive measurement or determination ... Oximetry, Transcutaneous Oxygen Partial Pressure Determination, Transcutaneous Transcutaneous Oximetries Transcutaneous ... Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous Entry term(s). Transcutaneous Blood Gas Monitoring Cutaneous Oximetry - Narrower Concept ...
Blood Gas Analysis [E01.370.225.124.100.100] * Oximetry [E01.370.225.124.100.100.600] * Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous [ ... Blood Gas Analysis [E01.370.386.700.100] * Oximetry [E01.370.386.700.100.600] * Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous [E01.370. ... Blood Gas Analysis [E05.200.124.100.100] * Oximetry [E05.200.124.100.100.600] * Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous [E05.200. ... Transcutaneous Blood Gas Monitoring Transcutaneous Capnometry Transcutaneous Oximetry NLM Classification #. QY 450. Previous ...
OBJECTIVES: To assess the quality level of transcutaneous blood gas measurements via SenTec monitor. METHODS: A 12-month ... Nocturnal Transcutaneous Blood Gas Measurements in a Pediatric Neurologic Population: A Quality Assessment. ... Objective: To assess the quality of SpO2 and PCO2 recordings via transcutaneous monitoring in children with neurological ... Transcutaneous PCO2 monitoring is an available technique to measure PCO2. ...
Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous. The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen ... Arm InjuriesFemoral ArteryForelimbKneePeripheral Arterial DiseaseVascular PatencyLeg UlcerFoot DiseasesBlood Gas Monitoring, ... ReplantationVascular Surgical ProceduresDebridementRetrospective StudiesReoperationTreatment OutcomeBlood Gas Monitoring, ... A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS ...
They result in a low blood oxygen level. Cyanosis refers to a bluish color of the skin and ... Checking oxygen level in the blood using an arterial blood gas test or by checking it through the skin with a pulse oximeter ... Transcutaneous oxygen monitor (pulse oximeter). *Echo-Doppler. Treatment. Some infants may need to stay in the hospital after ... This causes poorly oxygenated blood to be pumped out to the body. As a result:. *The blood that is pumped out to the body is ...
The need for development in the field of transcutaneous blood gas monitoring is well acknowledged by stakeholders in both ... Microsystems Technology Research Research projects Transcutaneous blood gas monitoring ... blood gas measurements, which is a technique that analyses the minute amount of gas that diffuses from the blood through the ... Blood gas measurements are a vital tool in monitoring the health of prematurely born children. About three-quarters of all ...
The ability to monitor blood gases, namely oxy-gen and carbon dioxide, in real-time is of critical importance to clinicians in ... Transcutaneous monitors measure the partial pressure of carbon dioxide diffused from the skin. These monitors are noninvasive ... Conventional transcutaneous carbon dioxide monitors require a heating element and large calibration equipment for reliable ... We propose a miniaturized transcutaneous carbon dioxide monitor based on a luminescence sensing film and dual lifetime ...
Checking oxygen level in the blood using an arterial blood gas test or by checking it through the skin with a pulse oximeter ... Transcutaneous oxygen monitor (pulse oximeter). *Echo-Doppler. Treatment. Some infants may need to stay in the hospital after ... This causes poorly oxygenated blood to be pumped out to the body. As a result:. *The blood that is pumped out to the body is ... Arteries carry blood away from the heart while veins carry blood into the heart. The vessels colored blue indicate the ...
The ABL800 FLEX blood gas analyzer is now available in a new PLUS version, after more than 10 years of proven performance. ... For reference on specific blood gas testing solutions, immunoassay testing, transcutaneous monitoring, samplers, POC data ... ABL90 FLEX PLUS blood gas analyzer. Compact blood gas analyzer designed for point-of-care testing in the ED, ICU, NICU. Get ... Guiding your blood gas testing. Through three educational videos, youll experience why blood gas analysis is important in ...
Certainly in sick neonates whether they be term or preterm the drawing of blood gases to monitor ventilation contributes to the ... Transcutaneous pCO2 measurement was introduced in the 1980s. While this technology does allow measurement of pCO2 the variation ... to see the effect on blood sampling. I suspect that one blood gas a day to determine accuracy in a given patient would be ... How effective is it? Did it reduce your blood gas draws or increase them due to unreliability? Have you seen a rise in ...
... immunoassay testing and transcutaneous monitoring. Radiometer is headquartered in Copenhagen, Denmark, but has global presence ... The company takes a holistic solution approach to meet the needs of acute care diagnostics in blood gas testing, ... The company takes a holistic solution approach to meet the needs of acute care diagnostics in blood gas testing, immunoassay ... Radiometer invented the worlds first blood gas analyzer in 1954 in the fight against childhood polio epidemic. Today, five ...
E5.200.124.100.100 Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous E1.450.150.100.100.600.100 E1.370.225.124.100.100.600.100 E5.200. ... E5.200.124.100 Blood Coagulation Tests E1.450.375.115 E1.370.225.625.115 E5.200.625.115 Blood Gas Analysis E1.450.150.100.100 ... 124.100.100.600.100 Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring E1.450.150.100.105 E1.370.225.124.100.105 E5.200.124.100.105 Blood Grouping ... E5.200.625.125 Blood Specimen Collection E1.450.865.632.150 E1.370.225.998.110 E4.665.150 E5.200.998.110 Blood Urea Nitrogen ...
E5.200.124.100.100 Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous E1.450.150.100.100.600.100 E1.370.225.124.100.100.600.100 E5.200. ... E5.200.124.100 Blood Coagulation Tests E1.450.375.115 E1.370.225.625.115 E5.200.625.115 Blood Gas Analysis E1.450.150.100.100 ... 124.100.100.600.100 Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring E1.450.150.100.105 E1.370.225.124.100.105 E5.200.124.100.105 Blood Grouping ... E5.200.625.125 Blood Specimen Collection E1.450.865.632.150 E1.370.225.998.110 E4.665.150 E5.200.998.110 Blood Urea Nitrogen ...
E5.200.124.100.100 Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous E1.450.150.100.100.600.100 E1.370.225.124.100.100.600.100 E5.200. ... E5.200.124.100 Blood Coagulation Tests E1.450.375.115 E1.370.225.625.115 E5.200.625.115 Blood Gas Analysis E1.450.150.100.100 ... 124.100.100.600.100 Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring E1.450.150.100.105 E1.370.225.124.100.105 E5.200.124.100.105 Blood Grouping ... E5.200.625.125 Blood Specimen Collection E1.450.865.632.150 E1.370.225.998.110 E4.665.150 E5.200.998.110 Blood Urea Nitrogen ...
... arterial blood gases, mixed venous oxygen saturation, pulmonary artery pressures, transcutaneous arterial oxygen, pulse ... ventilator support must be removed more gradually and requires individual modulation and careful monitoring of ventilator ... and decreases in blood pressure and cardiac function require further research. In addition, nursing care to complement ... the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) has an interest in research in this area. Applications submitted in ...
TcPCO2 See Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous TDD See Communication Aids for Disabled ...
Biomarkers - blood Birth Weight - Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous - Brain - blood supply Brain - metabolism ... Oxygen - blood Oxygen Consumption - Premature Birth - blood Premature Birth - physiopathology Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared - ... Therefore, blood pressure monitoring during the immediate neonatal transition might be relevant for improving cerebral ... Blood Pressure during the Immediate Neonatal Transition: Is the Mean Arterial Blood Pressure Relevant for the Cerebral Regional ...
Transcutaneous PCO2 monitoring during laparoscopic cholecystectomy in pregnancy.. Bhavani-Shankar K; Steinbrook RA; Mushlin PS ... The status of arterial and mixed venous blood gases in the initial phase of intubation apnea. Studies on the Christiansen- ... Respiratory mechanics and gas exchange in anesthesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy].. Di Sebastiano N; Bonetti L; Boninsegni ... Relationship between physiologic deadspace/tidal volume ratio and gas exchange in infants with acute bronchiolitis on invasive ...
LIVE Connect is a digital performance-monitoring service for hospitals to stay connected and informed. ... For reference on specific blood gas testing solutions, immunoassay testing, transcutaneous monitoring, samplers, POC data ... A digital service to monitor and access analysers. In an increasingly complex point-of-care (POC) environment, high analyser ... A "Web beacon" is a transparent graphic image placed on a Web site, e-mail or advertisement that enables the monitoring of ...
Blood Component Transfusion. *Blood Flow Velocity. *Blood Gas Analysis. *Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous ...
7. An in vivo oximeter which gives a continuous readout of blood oxygen saturation (Edwards Laboratories) 8. A volume monitored ... They are concerned about transcutaneous leads, which they are ordering from Gulf in the U.S. with a design of their own. There ... There is added to the control panel a separate tracing of gas velocity through these channels. The pump which has been ... For some reason they do not seem yet to be very concerned about the fact that this blood is always contaminated. I spoke with ...
  • Two well-known approaches are intensity- and lifetime-based measurements for assessing transcutaneous oxygen. (nsf.gov)
  • They result in a low blood oxygen level. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Blood that is low in oxygen returns from the body to the right side of the heart. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The right side of the heart then pumps the blood to the lungs, where it picks up more oxygen and becomes red. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The oxygen-rich blood returns from the lungs to the left side of the heart. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The blood that is pumped out to the body is lower in oxygen. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The main symptom of cyanosis is a bluish color of the lips, fingers, and toes that is caused by the low oxygen content in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We have demonstrated the entire system's functionality by measuring oxygen concentrations from 0 to 240 mmHg in a controlled gas vessel. (nsf.gov)
  • Luminescent oxygen sensing is employed for measuring the partial pressure of oxygen diffusing through the skin, named transcutaneous oxygen. (nsf.gov)
  • High-resolution lifetime capturing is critical to accurate transcutaneous oxygen measurements from the human body. (nsf.gov)
  • The vessels colored blue indicate the transport of blood with relatively low content of oxygen and high content of carbon dioxide. (mountsinai.org)
  • It is classified as a cyanotic heart defect because the condition leads to cyanosis, a bluish-purple coloration to the skin, and shortness of breath due to low oxygen levels in the blood. (mountsinai.org)
  • Clubbing may result from chronic low blood-oxygen levels. (mountsinai.org)
  • Cyanotic heart disease is a congenital heart defect which results in low oxygen levels in the blood and causes the child's lips, fingers, and toes to look blue (cyanosis). (mountsinai.org)
  • The amount of oxygen in blood is controlled by many variables, e.g. ventilation/perfusion. (radiometeramerica.com)
  • p O 2 is the partial pressure of oxygen in a gas phase in equilibrium with the blood. (radiometeramerica.com)
  • p O 2 only reflects a small fraction (1 - 2 %) of total oxygen in blood that is dissolved in blood plasma [1]. (radiometeramerica.com)
  • The remaining 98 - 99 % of oxygen present in blood is bound to the hemoglobin in the erythrocytes. (radiometeramerica.com)
  • Repeated tissue health assessments included transcutaneous oxygen tension (T(c)PO(2)), interface pressure mapping, and gluteal computed tomography (CT) studies. (omeka.net)
  • When a patient is given 100% oxygen under pressure, hemoglobin is saturated, but the blood can be hyperoxygenated by dissolving oxygen within the plasma. (medscape.com)
  • The gas used to pressurize the vessel is usually 100% oxygen. (medscape.com)
  • A transcutaneous sensor for pulse oximetry is used as well. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Accuracy of Noninvasive Multiwave Pulse Oximetry Compared With Carboxyhemoglobin From Blood Gas Analysis in Unselected Emergency Department Patients. (masimo.ca)
  • For reference on specific blood gas testing solutions, immunoassay testing, transcutaneous monitoring , samplers , POC data management systems, QC and services available in specific markets, please go to your local Radiometer country website. (radiometer.com)
  • The company takes a holistic solution approach to meet the needs of acute care diagnostics in blood gas testing, immunoassay testing and transcutaneous monitoring. (dcbf.dk)
  • Blood Pressure during the Immediate Neonatal Transition: Is the Mean Arterial Blood Pressure Relevant for the Cerebral Regional Oxygenation? (medunigraz.at)
  • 20. [The status of arterial and mixed venous blood gases in the initial phase of intubation apnea. (nih.gov)
  • Blood pressure may be recorded by an automated sphygmomanometer, or an arterial catheter can be used for continuous blood pressure monitoring. (msdmanuals.com)
  • HBOT is instrumental in treating decompression sickness, arterial gas embolisms, and acute carbon monoxide poisoning. (medscape.com)
  • 4] This method does not treat DCS, arterial gas emboli (AGE), or carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. (medscape.com)
  • The ability to monitor blood gases, namely oxy-gen and carbon dioxide, in real-time is of critical importance to clinicians in diagnosing and treating respiratory disorders. (nsf.gov)
  • 11. [Respiratory mechanics and gas exchange in anesthesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy]. (nih.gov)
  • Her vital signs in the ED are heart rate 56 beats/minute, blood pressure 78/53, respiratory rate 24 breaths/min and labored, pain level of 9/10 and temperature 96.9* F orally. (ukessays.com)
  • The potential of routine serum CPK monitoring to predict cardiac or neuromuscular irAE in patients treated with immunotherapy remains unknown. (bvsalud.org)
  • Some specialized cardiac monitors track advanced parameters associated with coronary ischemia, although their clinical benefit is unclear. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Then the cardiac monitor leads are placed, which shows sinus bradycardia;18g IV access is obtained in both arms and blood chemistry, CBC and cardiac enzymes are drawn and sent to the lab. (ukessays.com)
  • This leads to diminished contractility, reduced ejection fraction (the percentage of blood present in the ventricle at end-diastole that is pumped out with each heart beat) and disruption of hemodynamic measurements including persistent hypotension, high filling pressures, such as PAWP, PAP, high CVP and SVR, and most importantly reduced stoke volume and cardiac output. (ukessays.com)
  • METHODS: In this retrospective study between January 2016 and December 2018 at Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, 1151 cancer patients treated with anti-PD-(L)1 immunotherapy were systematically monitored with serum CPK measurements before each immunotherapy cycle. (bvsalud.org)
  • Blood gas measurements are a vital tool in monitoring the health of prematurely born children. (uu.se)
  • This sensor has several unique traits that are ideal for so called transcutaneous, i.e., through the skin, blood gas measurements, which is a technique that analyses the minute amount of gas that diffuses from the blood through the skin. (uu.se)
  • Conventional transcutaneous carbon dioxide monitors require a heating element and large calibration equipment for reliable measurements. (nsf.gov)
  • Satisfactory clinical decisions were taken in 91% of cases.Conclusion: The quality of transcutaneous sensor recordings was acceptable and clinical findings were deemed as satisfactory in the large majority of cases. (bvsalud.org)
  • Transcutaneous monitors measure the partial pressure of carbon dioxide diffused from the skin. (nsf.gov)
  • These monitors are noninvasive and capable of continuously monitoring carbon dioxide. (nsf.gov)
  • We propose a miniaturized transcutaneous carbon dioxide monitor based on a luminescence sensing film and dual lifetime referencing technique to assess the partial pressure of carbon dioxide within the 0-75 mmHg range, covering the clinically relevant range for healthy humans, 35-45 mmHg. (nsf.gov)
  • 1. Higgins C. Parameters that reflect the carbon dioxide content of blood. (radiometeramerica.com)
  • Monitoring usually includes measurement of vital signs (temperature, blood pressure, pulse, and respiration rate), quantification of all fluid intake and output, and often intracranial pressure and/or daily weight. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Radiometer invented the world's first blood gas analyzer in 1954 in the fight against childhood polio epidemic. (dcbf.dk)
  • A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION. (lookformedical.com)
  • Heart valves are found between the heart and the large blood vessels that bring blood to and from the heart. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Other heart defects may include abnormalities in valve development or in the location and connections between blood vessels. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART. (lookformedical.com)
  • They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. (lookformedical.com)
  • The results of this study did not support a significant clinical interest for a systematic routine CPK monitoring in patients amenable to anti-PD-(L)1 immunotherapy. (bvsalud.org)
  • This endogenously produced glucose helps keep blood glucose concentration within normal limits, when dietary-derived glucose is not available, e.g. between meals or during periods of starvation. (radiometeramerica.com)
  • Cardiogenic shock is a major and often fatal complication of a variety of acute and chronic disorders whereby the heart muscle fails to effectively pump blood forward and is unable to maintain adequate tissue perfusion. (ukessays.com)
  • After more than 10 years of proven performance, the ABL800 FLEX blood gas analyzer is now available in a PLUS version. (radiometeramerica.com)
  • The ABL800 FLEX blood gas analyzer allows you to measure a full panel of up to 18 STAT parameters on the same blood sample. (radiometeramerica.com)
  • Significant transcutaneous uptake of warfarin caused many cases of a hemorrhagic syndrome in infants (Martin-Bouyer et al. (inchem.org)
  • 10. Relationship between physiologic deadspace/tidal volume ratio and gas exchange in infants with acute bronchiolitis on invasive mechanical ventilation. (nih.gov)
  • Fresh frozen plasma or whole blood are indicated in cases of acute bleeding. (inchem.org)
  • Death and putrefaction of tissue usually due to a loss of blood supply. (lookformedical.com)
  • As we will describe in the coming sections, narrowing the type of necrotizing soft tissue infections to Group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus (GAS) or clostridial infection may be useful in better defining prognosis and in identifying patients that may benefit from additional treatment options. (antimicrobe.org)
  • Researchers at National Institutes of Health (NIH) have developed a tissue collection and storage container that allows for the direct deposition of tissue into the container while stabilizing the sample for transport in a specific solution and/or gas. (nih.gov)
  • Aortic valve (the valve between the heart and the blood vessel to the rest of the body) is unable to open wide enough. (medlineplus.gov)
  • PMID- 3504194 TI - [Selective, rational, monitored chronic therapy of heart decompensation using vasodilators]. (nih.gov)
  • In a recent comparison of open radical cystectomy (ORC) to LRC there was decreased blood loss, blood transfusion, and time to oral intake in the LRC group, although overall complications were similar. (sls.org)
  • About three-quarters of all patients in neonatal intensive care units are monitored in this way to prevent morbidity and mortality, particularly from hyperoxia and hypoxia. (uu.se)
  • It is produced by skeletal muscle cells, red blood cells (erythrocytes), the brain, and other tissues during anaerobic energy production (glycolysis). (radiometeramerica.com)
  • can facilitate easy blood sampling without the need for repeated peripheral needle sticks, but the risk of complications must be considered. (msdmanuals.com)
  • 16. Transcutaneous PCO2 monitoring during laparoscopic cholecystectomy in pregnancy. (nih.gov)
  • These problems include lack of continuous monitoring, heating of the skin that causes burns, slow response times that cannot detect emergencies. (uu.se)
  • Multiplace chambers treat multiple patients at the same time, generally with a nurse or another inside observer who monitors the patients and assists with equipment manipulation or emergencies (see images below). (medscape.com)
  • the amount of CO 2 in blood is largely controlled by the rate and depth of breathing or ventilation. (radiometeramerica.com)
  • Normally, blood returns from the body and flows through the heart and lungs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Heart defects that children are born with can change the way blood flows through the heart and lungs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These defects can cause less blood to flow to the lungs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Currently, there is no consensual recommendation on a routinely monitored biomarker to early detect irAE. (bvsalud.org)
  • Although frequent blood draws can destroy veins, cause pain, and lead to anemia, ICU patients typically have routine daily blood tests to help detect problems early. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Some monitoring of critical care patients depends on direct observation and physical examination and is intermittent, with the frequency depending on the patient's illness. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Generally, patients need a daily set of electrolytes and a complete blood count (CBC). (msdmanuals.com)
  • p CO 2 is the partial pressure of CO 2 in blood. (radiometeramerica.com)
  • It is a measure of the pressure exerted by that small portion (~5 %) of total CO 2 that remains in the gaseous state, dissolved in the blood plasma. (radiometeramerica.com)
  • The catheter typically contains several ports that can monitor pressure or inject fluids. (msdmanuals.com)
  • If you have pre-eclampsia (high blood pressure). (nth.nhs.uk)
  • Arteries carry blood away from the heart while veins carry blood into the heart. (mountsinai.org)
  • These valves open up enough for blood to flow through. (medlineplus.gov)
  • An ultrasound to check the amount of amniotic fluid around your baby and the blood flow through the umbilical cord from the placenta to your baby. (nth.nhs.uk)
  • These defects force blue blood to mix with red blood through abnormal heart channels. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Tetralogy of Fallot is a birth defect of the heart consisting of four abnormalities that results in insufficiently oxygenated blood pumped to the body. (mountsinai.org)
  • These parameters include continuous ST segment monitoring and heart rate variability. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Other parameters including packed cell volume ( PCV ), total protein ( TP ), and lactate in peripheral blood, provide more critical quantitative estimates of anemia, dehydration, hypovolemia, and poor circulation. (veteriankey.com)
  • 7] An analysis of data from the American College of Surgeons National Trauma Databank (NTDB) found that the majority of blast injuries (56%) resulted from fireworks, gas, or pressurized container explosions. (medscape.com)
  • Other monitoring is ongoing and continuous, provided by complex devices that require special training and experience to operate. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Objective: To assess the quality of SpO2 and PCO2 recordings via transcutaneous monitoring in children with neurological conditions.Methods: Overnight transcutaneous SpO2 and PCO2 were analyzed. (bvsalud.org)
  • signals are usually sent to a central monitoring station by a small radio transmitter worn by the patient. (msdmanuals.com)
  • If more than 24 hours have elapsed since ingestion, decontamination measures are not effective and the patient should be monitored closely using prothrombin time (PT) and plasma thromboplastin time (PTT). (inchem.org)
  • If a different mixture of gas (nitrogen or helium mixture) is desired, the mixture can be given, via the mask, to only the patient, not the employee. (medscape.com)
  • OTT protects, monitors, markets and manages the wide range of NIH discoveries, inventions, and other intellectual property as mandated by the Federal Technology Transfer Act and related legislation. (nih.gov)
  • The need for development in the field of transcutaneous blood gas monitoring is well acknowledged by stakeholders in both industry and healthcare. (uu.se)
  • As part of the holistic customer care package, LIVE Connect intelligently monitors the performance of your analysers while making it easy to troubleshoot. (radiometer.ae)
  • The analyser performance was monitored remotely from that point on to ensure the fault was corrected satisfactorily and saved a phone call and staff time from the lab. (radiometer.ae)
  • Other tests (eg, blood culture for fever, serial CBCs for possible active blood loss]) are done as needed. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The pneumoperitoneum will decrease blood loss and there are less insensible losses due to a closed abdomen resulting decreased fluid shifts. (sls.org)
  • In this context, several studies have shown the possible inverse correlation between the blood levels of CoQ10 and some disease conditions. (bvsalud.org)