The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.
The use of specifically placed small electrodes to deliver electrical impulses across the SKIN to relieve PAIN. It is used less frequently to produce ANESTHESIA.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Accumulation of BILIRUBIN, a breakdown product of HEME PROTEINS, in the BLOOD during the first weeks of life. This may lead to NEONATAL JAUNDICE. The excess bilirubin may exist in the unconjugated (indirect) or the conjugated (direct) form. The condition may be self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) or pathological with toxic levels of bilirubin.
Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.
Yellow discoloration of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA in the NEWBORN. It is a sign of NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Most cases are transient self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) occurring in the first week of life, but some can be a sign of pathological disorders, particularly LIVER DISEASES.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
The part of the face above the eyes.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.
The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.
Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
The outer part of the hearing system of the body. It includes the shell-like EAR AURICLE which collects sound, and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL, the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE, and the EXTERNAL EAR CARTILAGES.
Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
Designated locations along nerves or organ meridians for inserting acupuncture needles.
A reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli.
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
Mutant strains of rats that produce little or no hair. Several different homozygous recessive mutations can cause hairlessness in rats including rnu/rnu (Rowett nude), fz/fz (fuzzy), shn/shn (shorn), and nznu/nznu (New Zealand nude). Note that while NUDE RATS are often hairless, they are most characteristically athymic.
A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.
Continuous recording of the carbon dioxide content of expired air.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
A condition characterized by an abnormal increase of BILIRUBIN in the blood, which may result in JAUNDICE. Bilirubin, a breakdown product of HEME, is normally excreted in the BILE or further catabolized before excretion in the urine.
Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.
A medicated adhesive patch placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication into the bloodstream.
Elements that constitute group 18 (formerly the zero group) of the periodic table. They are gases that generally do not react chemically.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
Methods used to remove unwanted facial and body hair.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
Application of positive pressure to the inspiratory phase when the patient has an artificial airway in place and is connected to a ventilator.
A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.
A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An accumulation of purulent material in the area between the PALATINE TONSIL and its capsule.
Plastic surgery of the eyelid. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
Changes in the observed frequency of waves (as sound, light, or radio waves) due to the relative motion of source and observer. The effect was named for the 19th century Austrian physicist Johann Christian Doppler.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The removal of a limb or other appendage or outgrowth of the body. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The use of focused, high-frequency sound waves to produce local hyperthermia in certain diseased or injured parts of the body or to destroy the diseased tissue.
Treatment of disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians. The placement varies with the disease being treated. It is sometimes used in conjunction with heat, moxibustion, acupressure, or electric stimulation.
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.
Act of listening for sounds within the body.
Use of ultrasound to increase the percutaneous adsorption of drugs.
Common foot problems in persons with DIABETES MELLITUS, caused by any combination of factors such as DIABETIC NEUROPATHIES; PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASES; and INFECTION. With the loss of sensation and poor circulation, injuries and infections often lead to severe foot ulceration, GANGRENE and AMPUTATION.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
The part of a limb or tail following amputation that is proximal to the amputated section.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The design or construction of objects greatly reduced in scale.
That part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT or the air within the respiratory tract that does not exchange OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE with pulmonary capillary blood.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
A species of MORGANELLA formerly classified as a Proteus species. It is found in the feces of humans, dogs, other mammals, and reptiles. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A long, narrow, and flat bone commonly known as BREASTBONE occurring in the midsection of the anterior thoracic segment or chest region, which stabilizes the rib cage and serves as the point of origin for several muscles that move the arms, head, and neck.
Material, usually gauze or absorbent cotton, used to cover and protect wounds, to seal them from contact with air or bacteria. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.
Pain during the period after surgery.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Surgical incision into the chest wall.
A respiratory stimulant that enhances respiration by acting as an agonist of peripheral chemoreceptors located on the carotid bodies. The drug increases arterial oxygen tension while decreasing arterial carbon dioxide tension in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It may also prove useful in the treatment of nocturnal oxygen desaturation without impairing the quality of sleep.
Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.
The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
Respiratory retention of carbon dioxide. It may be chronic or acute.
Either of two fleshy protuberances at the lower posterior section of the trunk or HIP in humans and primate on which a person or animal sits, consisting of gluteal MUSCLES and fat.
A form of acupuncture with electrical impulses passing through the needles to stimulate NERVE TISSUE. It can be used for ANALGESIA; ANESTHESIA; REHABILITATION; and treatment for diseases.
The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
A combustible, gaseous mixture of low-molecular weight PARAFFIN hydrocarbons, generated below the surface of the earth. It contains mostly METHANE and ETHANE with small amounts of PROPANE; BUTANES; and higher hydrocarbons, and sometimes NITROGEN; CARBON DIOXIDE; HYDROGEN SULFIDE; and HELIUM. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
Laws and regulations pertaining to devices used in medicine, proposed for enactment, or enacted by a legislative body.
Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.
Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Drugs used for their effects on the respiratory system.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Common occlusive arterial disease which is caused by ATHEROSCLEROSIS. It is characterized by lesions in the innermost layer (ARTERIAL INTIMA) of arteries including the AORTA and its branches to the extremities. Risk factors include smoking, HYPERLIPIDEMIA, and HYPERTENSION.
The lateral of the two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve. The peroneal (or fibular) nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to parts of the leg and foot.
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
A symptom complex characterized by pain and weakness in SKELETAL MUSCLE group associated with exercise, such as leg pain and weakness brought on by walking. Such muscle limpness disappears after a brief rest and is often relates to arterial STENOSIS; muscle ISCHEMIA; and accumulation of LACTATE.
Ulceration of the skin and underlying structures of the lower extremity. About 90% of the cases are due to venous insufficiency (VARICOSE ULCER), 5% to arterial disease, and the remaining 5% to other causes.
The occupational discipline of the traditional Chinese methods of ACUPUNCTURE THERAPY for treating disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians.
Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A severe condition resulting from bacteria invading healthy muscle from adjacent traumatized muscle or soft tissue. The infection originates in a wound contaminated with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM. C. perfringens accounts for the majority of cases (over eighty percent), while C. noyvi, C. septicum, and C. histolyticum cause most of the other cases.
A term used pathologically to describe BILIRUBIN staining of the BASAL GANGLIA; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM and clinically to describe a syndrome associated with HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Clinical features include athetosis, MUSCLE SPASTICITY or hypotonia, impaired vertical gaze, and DEAFNESS. Nonconjugated bilirubin enters the brain and acts as a neurotoxin, often in association with conditions that impair the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER (e.g., SEPSIS). This condition occurs primarily in neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN), but may rarely occur in adults. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p613)
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
The region of the upper limb between the metacarpus and the FOREARM.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.
Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Inflammation of the tissues around a joint. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
Recirculating, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells containing characteristic racket-shaped granules (Birbeck granules). They are found principally in the stratum spinosum of the EPIDERMIS and are rich in Class II MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecules. Langerhans cells were the first dendritic cell to be described and have been a model of study for other dendritic cells (DCs), especially other migrating DCs such as dermal DCs and INTERSTITIAL DENDRITIC CELLS.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.
Lesion on the surface of the skin of the foot, usually accompanied by inflammation. The lesion may become infected or necrotic and is frequently associated with diabetes or leprosy.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
The systematic and methodical manipulations of body tissues best performed with the hands for the purpose of affecting the nervous and muscular systems and the general circulation.
A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Areas of the earth where hydrocarbon deposits of PETROLEUM and/or NATURAL GAS are located.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.
Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.
CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.
A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)
The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.
The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.
Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.
Disorders of sensory information received from superficial and deep regions of the body. The somatosensory system conveys neural impulses which pertain to proprioception, tactile sensation, thermal sensation, pressure sensation, and pain. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and BRAIN DISEASES may be associated with impaired or abnormal somatic sensation.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
The period following a surgical operation.
Thin strands of transparent material, usually glass, that are used for transmitting light waves over long distances.
A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
A non-atherosclerotic, inflammatory thrombotic disease that commonly involves small and medium-sized arteries or veins in the extremities. It is characterized by occlusive THROMBOSIS and FIBROSIS in the vascular wall leading to digital and limb ISCHEMIA and ulcerations. Thromboangiitis obliterans is highly associated with tobacco smoking.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.
RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)
The position or attitude of the body.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more amino groups.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.
A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Hospital facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Techniques for administering artificial respiration without the need for INTRATRACHEAL INTUBATION.
The therapeutic intermittent administration of oxygen in a chamber at greater than sea-level atmospheric pressures (three atmospheres). It is considered effective treatment for air and gas embolisms, smoke inhalation, acute carbon monoxide poisoning, caisson disease, clostridial gangrene, etc. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992). The list of treatment modalities includes stroke.
Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 1. All are CHOLERA-causing strains (serotypes). There are two biovars (biotypes): cholerae and eltor (El Tor).
Proposed anesthetic with possible anticonvulsant and sedative properties.
Paramedical personnel trained to provide basic emergency care and life support under the supervision of physicians and/or nurses. These services may be carried out at the site of the emergency, in the ambulance, or in a health care institution.
The act of blowing a powder, vapor, or gas into any body cavity for experimental, diagnostic, or therapeutic purposes.
A surgical specialty concerned with diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the heart, lungs, and esophagus. Two major types of thoracic surgery are classified as pulmonary and cardiovascular.
Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.

Nasal pressure recording in the diagnosis of sleep apnoea hypopnoea syndrome. (1/205)

BACKGROUND: Nasal pressure tracing is now being used to measure breathing in ambulatory screening devices for sleep apnoea but it has not been compared with other methods of assessment. METHODS: Sleep induced breathing disorders were scored by three different methods of analysis (thermistry, inductive plethysmography, and nasal pressure tracing) in 193 consecutive patients referred to our sleep laboratory. With the conventional thermistry method an apnoea was defined as the absence of oronasal flow on the thermistor signal for >/=10 s and a hypopnoea as a 50% decrease in the sum signal of inductive plethysmography tracing for >/=10 s associated with an arousal and/or a 2% decrease in SaO2. Nasal pressure was measured via nasal prongs connected to a pressure transducer. Using the thermistor signal alone, a hypopnoea was defined as a 50% decrease in the signal for >/=10 s associated with an arousal and/or a 2% decrease in SaO2. A similar definition of apnoea and hypopnoea was used for nasal pressure, the fall in pressure being substituted for the thermistor reading. RESULTS: Impaired nasal ventilation prevented adequate measurements of nasal pressure in 9% of subjects. According to the conventional method of interpretation 107 subjects were identified as having the sleep apnoea hypopnoea syndrome (SAHS). The apnoea + hypopnoea index (AHI) was significantly lower using the thermistry method than with conventional analysis (mean difference -4.3/h, 95% CI -5.3 to -3.2, p<10(-4)); 39% of conventional hypopnoeic events were scored as apnoeas using nasal pressure scoring. Apnoeic and hypopnoeic events could also be observed without any change in thermistor and sum Respitrace signals that resumed with the occurrence of arousals or awakenings. The AHI was significantly higher with nasal pressure scoring than with the conventional method (mean difference 4.5, 95% CI 3.4 to 5.6, p<10(-4)). The mean difference in apnoea index between conventional and nasal pressure scoring was -7.5/h (95% CI -8.9 to -6.1). In the 78 patients who did not have SAHS according to the conventional method of analysis there was a significant positive relationship between the arousal index and AHI measured by nasal pressure tracing (R = 0.51, p<10(-4)). Seventeen of the 78 patients had an AHI of >15/h by the nasal pressure method of analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Nasal pressure recording provides a simple and reliable measurement of nocturnal breathing abnormalities and may identify breathing abnormalities associated with arousals that are missed by other diagnostic methods.  (+info)

Prediction of imminent amputation in patients with non-reconstructible leg ischemia by means of microcirculatory investigations. (2/205)

PURPOSE: We investigated the usefulness of skin microcirculatory investigations to predict imminent major amputation in patients with non-reconstructible critical limb ischemia. METHODS: One hundred eleven patients with non-reconstructible chronic rest pain or small ulcers and an ankle blood pressure of 50 mm Hg or less or an ankle-to-brachial pressure index of 0.35 or less were included. Nailfold capillary microscopy (CM; big toe, sitting), transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcpO2; forefoot, supine; 44 degrees C), and laser Doppler perfusion measurements (LD; pulp of big toe, supine) were performed at rest and during reactive hyperemia. Patients were classified according to their skin microcirculatory status just before the start of the treatment in three groups: those with a "good," "intermediate," or "poor" microcirculation, according to a combination of predefined cutoff values (Poor: capillary density less than 20/mm2, absent reactive hyperemia in CM and LD, TcpO2 less than 10 mm Hg; good: capillary density of 20/mm2 or more, present reactive hyperemia in CM and LD, TcpO 2 of 30 mm Hg or more). Subsequently, patients received maximum conservative therapy from the surgeon, who was unaware of the microcirculatory results. After a follow-up period of as long as 36 months, limb survival and disposing factors were analyzed and compared with the initial microcirculatory status. RESULTS: Cox regression analysis showed a significant prognostic value of the microcirculatory classification (hazard ratio = 0.28, P <.0001), but not of the Fontaine stage, ankle blood pressure, or the presence of diabetes mellitus for the occurrence of an amputation. Positive and negative predictive values were 73% and 67%, respectively. The cumulative limb survival at 6 and 12 months was 42% and 17% in the poor microcirculatory group, 80% and 63% in the intermediate microcirculatory group, and 88% and 88% in the good microcirculatory group ( P <.0001, log-rank). CONCLUSION: Microcirculatory screening and classification is useful in detecting non-reconstructible critical ischemia that requires amputation, which is not detectable by means of the clinical stage or blood pressure parameters. Most of the poor patient group will require amputation. In the intermediate and good groups, nonsurgical treatment appears sufficient for limb salvage.  (+info)

Validity of transcutaneous oxygen/carbon dioxide pressure measurement in the monitoring of mechanical ventilation in stable chronic respiratory failure. (3/205)

The accuracy and precision of transcutaneous pressure measurements of oxygen (Ptc,O2) and carbon dioxide (Ptc,CO2) in the monitoring of nocturnal assisted ventilation in adult patients were evaluated. Transcutaneous measurements obtained with two analysers, Radiometer TINATCM3 (R) and Kontron MicroGas-7650 (K), were compared with arterial blood gases analysed in blood samples withdrawn simultaneously in 10 patients. Sensors were heated to 43 degrees C. Measurements of transcutaneous blood gases and arterial blood gases were collected six times at 1-h intervals. The data obtained with both instruments were similar and did not significantly change over the 5 h test period. Measurement of Ptc,O2 underestimated arterial oxygen tension (Pa,O2) and this underestimation increased with the level of Pa,O2 (p<0.01). Measurements of Ptc,CO2 overestimated arterial carbon dioxide tension (Pa,CO2) and this overestimation increased with the level of Pa,CO2 (p<0.05). These errors suggested an instrumental bias. Mathematical correction of this bias neutralized the error in accuracy and improved the precision (SD of the differences transcutaneous blood gases - arterial blood gases). An additional correction, suppressing the between-subject scattering, improved the actual precision: precision was reduced from 1.9 to 0.8 kPa (14.4 to 5.7 mmHg) (R) and from 1.7 to 0.5 kPa (13.1 to 3.7 mmHg) (K) for oxygen, and from 1.0 kPa (7.8 mmHg) (R) and 0.7 kPa (5.6 mmHg) (K) to 0.4 kPa (3.2 mmHg) for carbon dioxide (R and K). In conclusion, with these two successive corrections, transcutaneous oxygen and carbon dioxide provide a reliable estimation of blood gases to monitor nocturnal ventilation in adults with chronic respiratory failure.  (+info)

Methacholine challenge in preschool children: methacholine-induced wheeze versus transcutaneous oximetry. (4/205)

Tracheal/chest auscultation for wheeze and transcutaneous oximetry have both been suggested as measures of outcome in bronchial provocation tests in young children. This study aimed to compare the sensitivity and safety of these two techniques as end-points for methacholine challenge in children aged <4 yrs. Seventy-two methacholine challenges were performed in 39 children aged <4 yrs with recurrent wheeze. Arterial oxygen saturation (Sa,O2) and transcutaneous oxygen pressure tcPO2 continuously, and the test was terminated when wheeze was heard or at Sa,O2 <91%. tcPO2 was not used as an end-point. Wheeze or desaturation occurred at < or =8 mg x mL(-1) methacholine in every test. One child had transient clinical cyanosis, but no other ill-effects were seen. Fifty-six tests (78%) were terminated for wheeze, seven (10%) for fall in Sa,O2 and nine (12%) showed simultaneous responses in both parameters. Twenty-eight tests (39%) contained a fall in tcPO2 >3 kPa but six of these also showed a significant rise. Fifty-three tests (75%) contained a fall in tcPO2 >15%, but 20 of these also showed a significant rise. Tracheal/chest auscultation with Sa,O2 monitoring is a sensitive and relatively safe end-point for bronchial challenges in preschool children. The erratic pattern of transcutaneous oxygen pressure response in some children casts doubt on its reliability as a proxy measure of bronchial obstruction.  (+info)

Randomised controlled trial of thiopental for intubation in neonates. (5/205)

AIMS: To determine the effects of premedication with thiopental on heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation during semi-elective nasotracheal intubation in neonates. METHODS: A randomised, placebo controlled, non-blinded study design was used to study 30 neonates (mean birthweight 3.27 kg) requiring semi-elective nasotracheal intubation. The babies were randomly allocated to receive either 6 mg/kg of thiopental (study group) or an equivalent volume of physiological saline (control group) one minute before the start of the procedure. Six infants were intubated primarily and 24 were changed from orotracheal to a nasotracheal tube. The electrocardiogram, arterial pressure wave, and transcutaneous oxygen saturation were recorded continuously 10 minutes before, during, and 20 minutes after intubation. Minute by minute measurements of heart rate, heart rate variability, mean blood pressure (MBP) and transcutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) were computed. The differences for all of these between the baseline measurements and those made during and after intubation were determined. Differences in the measurements made in the study and the control groups were compared using Student's t test. RESULTS: During intubation, heart rate increased to a greater degree (12.0 vs -0.5 beats per minute, p < 0.03) and MBP increased to a lesser degree (-2.9 vs 4.4 mm Hg; p < 0.002) in the infants who were premedicated with thiopental. After intubation only the changes in MBP differed significantly between the two groups (-3.8 vs 4.6 mm Hg; p < 0.001). There were no significant changes in the oxygen saturation between the two groups during or after intubation. The time taken for intubation was significantly shorter in the study group (p < 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: The heart rate and blood pressure of infants who are premedicated with thiopental are maintained nearer to baseline values than those of similar infants who receive no premedication. Whether this lessening of the acute drop in the heart rate and increase in blood pressure typically seen during intubation of unmedicated infants is associated with long term advantages to the infants remains to be determined.  (+info)

Optimisation of the non-invasive assessment of critical limb ischaemia requiring invasive treatment. (6/205)

OBJECTIVE: to assess the optimal cut-off values of toe blood pressure (TBP) and transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcpO(2)) in the supine and sitting positions, in order to accurately detect the presence of severe leg ischaemia requiring invasive treatment. METHODS: in 49 consecutive patients (65 legs) with severe ischaemia according to clinical symptoms of Fontaine III or IV and a lowered ankle blood pressure, TBP and TcpO(2)were measured in the supine and sitting positions. Treatment within 6 weeks after the diagnosis was classified as either conservative or invasive (revascularisation or amputation). RESULTS: of the 65 legs, 38 (58%) required invasive treatment. The mean ankle pressure for this group was 70 mmHg. The optimal cut-off value for TBP was 38 mmHg and for TcpO(2)35 mmHg. A TBP of +info)

Use of transcutaneous oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions for assessing indices of gas exchange during exercise testing. (7/205)

The slow response characteristics of the combined transcutaneous electrode have been viewed as a major disadvantage when compared with other types of non-invasive assessment of gas exchange during exercise testing. We have previously shown that by using the highest recommended temperature of 45 degrees C to reduce response times, and combining this with an exercise protocol of gradual work load increments, that this allows changes in arterial blood gases to be closely followed by transcutaneous values. In the present study we have validated the use of a transcutaneous electrode for estimation of alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (AaO2) and dead space to tidal volume ratio (V(D)/V(T)) during exercise, against values calculated from direct arterial blood gas analysis. One hundred measurements were made in 20 patients with various cardiopulmonary disorders who underwent exercise testing. Exercise testing was performed by bicycle ergometry with a specific protocol involving gradual work load increments at 2 min intervals. Transcutaneous gas tensions were measured by a heated combined O2 and CO2 electrode. Arterial blood was sampled at the midpoint of each stage of exercise and transcutaneous tensions noted at the end of each stage. The mean difference of the AaO2 gradient calculated from blood gas tensions obtained by the two methods was 0.14 kPa. The limits of agreement were -0.26 and 0.63 kPa. The same values for V(D)/V(T) calculated from gas tensions measured by the two methods were: mean difference 0001; limits of agreement -0.0242 and 0.0252. For both these parameters there was an even scatter around the mean value on Bland and Altman analysis. The findings of this study suggest that estimation of parameters of gas exchange using transcutaneous values during exercise testing is reliable, provided the electrode is heated to a slightly higher temperature than usual and the work load increments are gradual, allowing for the latency in the response time of the system. This system allows the assessment of the contribution of ventilation/perfusion inequality to breathlessness on exertion in patients, provided an initial arterial or ear lobe capillary sample is obtained for calibration purposes. This technique is particularly valuable in patients undergoing repeat exercise tests as it circumvents the need for arterial cannulation.  (+info)

Pneumothorax in adults with cystic fibrosis dependent on nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV): a management dilemma. (8/205)

The management of pneumothorax in three adult patients with cystic fibrosis dependent on nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation is described.  (+info)

1. We studied the relationship between trans-cutaneous oxygen tension at the foot and local arteriovenous pressure difference in 15 normal men and women; arteriovenous pressure difference was varied by changing the height of the foot with respect to the heart and by applying external pressure to the foot.. 2. Control transcutaneous oxygen tension was 67 ± 9 sd mmHg (8.9 ± 1.2 kPa) at a control arteriovenous pressure difference of 80 ± 6 sd mmHg (10.6 ± 0.8 kPa).. 3. In every subject transcutaneous oxygen tension fell non-linearly with a decrease in arteriovenous pressure difference; transcutaneous oxygen tension was relatively insensitive to changes in arteriovenous pressure difference when arteriovenous pressure difference was high, but always fell sharply to zero at some positive arteriovenous pressure difference [range 13-34 mmHg (1.7-4.5 kPa)].. 4. An analysis of the data indicated that transcutaneous oxygen tension varied with arteriovenous pressure difference approximately as the ...
Investigators evaluate the effect of patient position (Trendelenburg and reverse Trendelenburg) on arterial, end-tidal and transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure is assessed intermittently before, during, and after pneumoperitoneum. End-tidal and transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure are continuously monitored ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transcutaneous measurement of frequency dispersion in the regional pulse wave velocity. AU - Kanai, Hiroshi. AU - Umezawa, Atsuko. AU - Koiwa, Yoshiro. PY - 2000/12/1. Y1 - 2000/12/1. N2 - The pulse wave velocity (PWV) is the propagation speed of the pulsation along the artery due to the heartbeat; its measurement is being reported to estimate the elasticity of the arterial wall for noninvasive diagnosis of arteriosclerosis. It is important for advanced diagnosis, to determine the PWV for each frequency and for each instance in time during the cardiac cycle. Using a phased tracking method developed, the movement of the arterial wall is accurately tracked and small velocity signals at multiple points in the human carotid artery along a linear-type probe are all simultaneously measured with sub-micrometer accuracy. By applying a spatial autoregressive (AR) modeling to the measured signals after using the Hilbert transform, the regional PWV of each frequency component was determined ...
The lack of subcutaneous partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) rise in response to high fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), called the oxygen challenge test (OCT), was associated with higher morbidity and mortality in human subjects. Patients had negative O2 challenge test results, indicating that flow-dependent O2 consumption might have been present. Recent reports using the noninvasive transcutaneous PO2 (PtO2) and transcutaneous partial pressure of carbon dioxide probes have observed a relationship between low oxygen challenge test values to mortality and organ failure. The OCT values provides an accessible noninvasive method of detecting early shock.. To date,these studies of OCT in the ICU patients are rarely. No one has quantified OCT to CI, DO2I ScvO2.. This study explored:. ...
This study supports an association between the incidence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity and the duration of exposure to arterial oxygen levels of 80 mm Hg or higher, measured transcutaneously.
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject areas.
We compared previously calculated global correction factors for oxygen and carbon dioxide arterial/transcutaneous ratios with individual in vivo calibrations from the first arterial sample. In infants beyond the neonatal period and older children in vivo calibration confers little benefit over the use of a global calibration correction factor for transcutaneous carbon dioxide, and may reduce the precision with which arterial oxygen can be estimated from transcutaneous oxygen.. ...
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN This study was designed to test the hypothesis that initial TcPO2 helps predict clinical outcome in vascular patients treated with spinal cord stimulation. A randomized-controlled study with one year follow-up was made in 86 Fontaine stage IV patients with endstage peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) undergoing 21 day intravenous prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) therapy for nonhealing ulcers. MATERIALS AND METHODS All patients had arteriosclerosis, 13 also diabetes mellitus. Entry criteria included: non-reconstructible PAOD as proven by intra-arterial angiography or patient condition, ankle systolic pressure | 50 mmHg, severe rest pain despite analgetic medication, and presence of nonhealing foot ulcers or dry gangrene. One week after the start of PGE1 therapy, patients were randomized into receiving SCS plus PGE1 (n = 45 patients), or just PGE1 (n = 41 patients). Follow-up examinations were done at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. BASELINE: There were no significant differences between
Methods. Serial TcPCO2 and PaCO2 measurements were taken in stable patients undergoing postoperative monitoring after major abdominal, vascular, or thoracic surgery. Patients were enrolled ≥12 hours after extubation. Exclusion criteria were pulmonary dysfunction, hemodynamic instability, or anemia. Linear regression, mixed models, and Bland-Altman analyses were used to compare accuracy and correlation between the two variables. Data are presented as means (95% confidence intervals ...
In this issue of Circulation, Powell et al17 report on the safety and bioactivity profile of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) plasmid injection for critical limb ischemia (CLI). In the double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalating, multicenter HGF-STAT Trial, 104 patients with rest pain or tissue loss due to severe lower-extremity ischemia were assigned to receive injections of placebo or 1 of 3 dosing regimens of HGF plasmid into the ischemic leg muscle. A unique, prespecified analysis plan allowed the investigators to identify an increase in transcutaneous oxygen tension (TcPo2) in the high-dose group that was not present in other treatment groups, thus providing objective evidence for bioactivity. Other end points, such as amputation, wound healing, and ankle/brachial or toe/brachial index, did not reveal differences between treatment groups.. The results of this study and another recent report28 provide a degree of optimism for patients with CLI. They also illustrate the challenges ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transcutaneous oxygen and carbon dioxide monitoring in patients undergoing surgical removal of wisdom teeth.. AU - Kraut, R. A.. PY - 1985/4/1. Y1 - 1985/4/1. UR - UR - M3 - Article. C2 - 3859939. AN - SCOPUS:0022051368. VL - 6. SP - 30. EP - 41. JO - SAAD digest. JF - SAAD digest. SN - 0049-1160. IS - 2. ER - ...
This case study presents an industry perspective on medical innovation. Introduced as a scientific breakthrough in the late 1970s, transcutaneous oxygen monitoring was rapidly adopted for routine use in neonatal intensive care. But plagued by technical problems, it was within a decade being replaced by pulse oximetry, a still more recent...
COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; NMD: neuromuscular disease; PaCO2: arterial carbon dioxide pressure; PaO2: arterial oxygen pressure; PSV: pressure support ventilation; tcCO2: transcutaneous carbon dioxide; HR: heart rate; mSpO2: mean blood oxygen saturation; PS: pressure support; MV: minute ventilation.. ...
Intraoperative Course. I. Monitoring. 1. Would you insert an arterial catheter? Explain.. 2. Do transcutaneous oximetry and end-tidal CO2 measurement obviate the need for arterial blood gas analysis? Explain.. 3. Would you monitor serum or urine glucose? Explain.. 4. What are your goals for glucose control?. II. Anesthesia. 1. Is regional anesthesia a good choice? Explain.. 2. What is the effect on pulmonary function?. 3. The patient prefers to be asleep. Is spinal anesthesia plus a hypnotic agent satisfactory?. 4. The patient refuses spinal anesthesia. Is it safe to use thiopental?. 5. Does thiopental promote bronchospasm?. 6. What is the mechanism?. 7. Is halothane/nitrous oxide satisfactory for maintenance?. 8. What if aminophylline is given overnight?. 9. Is enflurane a better choice?. 10. Is nitrous oxide contraindicated in bowel surgery?. III. Wheezing. 1. Wheezing is heard via esophageal stethoscope just after tracheal intubation and before incision. What is your differential ...
The care and efficacy of treatment for chronic wounds is typically determined by observing and measuring the wounds response to a given treatment protocol. The traditional measures of wound morphology typically include photographs taken over time, alginates for determining wound volume, and rulers or concentric circles to estimate a wounds diameter. Although the traditional wound morphology measures are generally non-invasive, they are subjective and non-repeatable. Information on tissue response is generally limited to gross metabolic measurements acquired through standard diagnostic testing, bacteriological information from biopsied material and transcutaneous oximetry taken at the periphery of the wound. Information related to tissue response is generally acquired using invasive techniques. This paper describes a non-invasive method for assessing wound morphology and response being used to assess and study chronic wounds at the USAF Medical Center at Wright-Patterson AFB. This new technique ...
Transcutaneous oximetry test developed by scientists may be able to predict patients who are most likely to experience wound-healing complications.
The present invention relates generally to systems and methods for measuring an analyte in a host. More particularly, the present invention relates to systems and methods for transcutaneous measurement of glucose in a host. In some embodiments, a device is provided for monitoring glucose concentration in a host, including a continuous glucose sensor and an integrated receiver including a single point glucose monitor. In some embodiments, a computer system is provided that determines a rate of change of continuous analyte sensor data.
Abstract of the Disclosure The present invention relates generally to systems and methods for measuring an analyte in a host. More particularly, the present invention relates to systems and methods for transcutaneous measurement of glucose in a host.
Learn more about tcpO2/tcpCO2 calibration tube Transcutaneous. View specifications, download support documents and discover related products.
This trial is a randomised, single-centre, open-label, parallel trial with target sample size of 52 in total. Eligible participants will be randomly allocated to the PCRA group (group R) or the PCIA group (group I) after admission. Participants in group R will receive ultrasound-guided subgluteal sciatic catheterisation, followed by continuous PCRA infusion (0.2% ropivacaine 15 mL as loading dose, 8 mL/hour as background with a patient-controlled bolus of 6 mL). Participants in group I will receive PCIA (morphine is given in boluses of 1 mg as needed, background infusion at 1 mg/hour). Data will be collected at baseline (T0), 2 hours before revascularisation treatment (T1) and 2 hours before discharge (T2). The primary outcomes include the Numerical Rating Scale pain score at T1 and T2. The secondary outcomes include the perioperative transcutaneous oxygen pressure, the Tissue Haemoglobin Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at T1 and T2; the Patient Global Impression of Change and ...
Shmarlouski, Anatoli, Daniel Schock-Kusch, Yury Shulhevich, Volker Buschmann, Tino Rohlicke, Deborah Herdt, Matthias Radle, Jürgen Hesser, and Dzmitry Stsepankou. 2015. A Novel Analysis Technique For Transcutaneous Measurement Of Glomerular Filtration Rate With Ultra-Low Dose Marker Concentrations.. Ieee Transactions On Bio-Medical Engineering PP (99). Ieee Transactions On Bio-Medical Engineering: 1 - 1. ...
Shmarlouski, Anatoli, Daniel Schock-Kusch, Yury Shulhevich, Volker Buschmann, Tino Rohlicke, Deborah Herdt, Matthias Radle, Jürgen Hesser, and Dzmitry Stsepankou. 2015. A Novel Analysis Technique For Transcutaneous Measurement Of Glomerular Filtration Rate With Ultra-Low Dose Marker Concentrations.. Ieee Transactions On Bio-Medical Engineering PP (99). Ieee Transactions On Bio-Medical Engineering: 1 - 1. ...
From: vwarwar at (vitor warwar) , Subject: OXYGEN MEASUREMENT, Help! , Date: 28 Jun 1994 04:45:17 GMT , Im trying to measure the consuption of oxygen in a enzymatic , reaction. Im using a Clarke-type electrode. The problem is , that this stuff is very unstable. It only works well every blue , mon, making impossible to do any serious kinetics work. , Any advise? Is there any other way to measure free O2 in , solution? , Vitor Maybe you need to KNOW the kinetics (to be able to slow them down) in order to FIND the kinetics. ;-) But what is the real problem: working well every blue moon suggests not simply instability, but uncontrolled instability. How fast is it, anyway, and what is it, and maybe I know how to find as many blue moons as you need. Rob rapr at ...
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A medical device is provided, comprising a first unit and a releasably attachable second unit. The first unit comprises a mounting surface adapted for application to the skin of a subject, and a transcutaneous device comprising a distal pointed end adapted to penetrate the skin of the subject, wherein the transcutaneous device has a first position in which the distal end is retracted relative to the mounting surface, and a second position in which the distal end projects relative to the mounting surface. The second unit comprises actuatable driving means adapted to move the transcutaneous device from the first position to the second position when the driving means is actuated with the second unit attached to the first unit. By this arrangement the first unit can be applied to the skin of the subject using the second unit as a gripping and handling means, whereafter the driving means can be actuated for insertion of the transcutaneous device.
Conference (2015, July 15). The assessment of an infants condition at birth or during resuscitation remains mostly clinical and can be a challenge for practitioners [1-3]. In 2005, the addition of the transcutaneous oxygen ... [more ▼]. The assessment of an infants condition at birth or during resuscitation remains mostly clinical and can be a challenge for practitioners [1-3]. In 2005, the addition of the transcutaneous oxygen saturation monitoring was suggested in the European guidelines [4] only to become part of AAP and ERC recommendations in 2010 [5, 6] By contrast, in the NICU, data from multimodal monitoring systems are generally integrated to the clinical evaluation to optimize newborn infants intensive care. Thus, respiratory mechanic informations given by the ventilator provides useful informations on pressure, volume, leaks and respiratory function of the intubated infant [7]. While ventilation is the main intervention to support difficult transition to extra-uterine life, ...
Transcutaneous monitor, commonly, is a non-invasive monitoring system which is continuously used to monitor the oxygenation and ventilation.
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data ossi; length tx $8; input tx$ n @@; do i=1 to n; input y m @@; output; end; drop i; datalines; Control 18 8 8 9 9 7 9 0 5 3 3 5 8 9 10 5 8 5 8 1 6 0 5 8 8 9 10 5 5 4 7 9 10 6 6 3 5 Control 17 8 9 7 10 10 10 1 6 6 6 1 9 8 9 6 7 5 5 7 9 2 5 5 6 2 8 1 8 0 2 7 8 5 7 PHT 19 1 9 4 9 3 7 4 7 0 7 0 4 1 8 1 7 2 7 2 8 1 7 0 2 3 10 3 7 2 7 0 8 0 8 1 10 1 1 TCPO 16 0 5 7 10 4 4 8 11 6 10 6 9 3 4 2 8 0 6 0 9 3 6 2 9 7 9 1 10 8 8 6 9 PHT+TCPO 11 2 2 0 7 1 8 7 8 0 10 0 4 0 6 0 7 6 6 1 6 1 7 ; data ossi; set ossi; array xx{3} x1-x3; do i=1 to 3; xx{i}=0; end; pht = 0; tcpo = 0; if (tx=TCPO) then do; xx{1} = 1; tcpo = 100; end; else if (tx=PHT) then do; xx{2} = 1; pht = 60; end; else if (tx=PHT+TCPO) then do; pht = 60; tcpo = 100; xx{1} = 1; xx{2} = 1; xx{3}=1; end; run ...
Advanced Respirometer Compact analyzer, with very low maintenance and user friendly operation Direct oxygen measurements from a maintenance
There is, as yet, no controlled trial evidence that any of the invasive or non-invasive techniques used to monitor oxygenation in the neonatal period have any measurable impact on clinical outcome.1 We do not even know what level of arterial oxygen tension we should be aiming for. Because mortality went undocumented in the first of the large trials of oxygen administration, we do not even know if there is a price to be paid for controlling administration strictly enough to minimise the risk of severe retinopathy.1 Once equipment for monitoring transcutaneous oxygen tension became widely available, it became standard practice to aim for an oxygen tension of 6-10 kPa,11 (limits that were slightly lower than those generally used during the years when regular arterial sampling had been the main means of minimising the risk of hyperoxia12) and common to set the alarm limits at 5 and 11 kPa. However, when pulse oximeters first became available, policy became more diverse. Saturation monitors are ...
Results. A total of 1 331 consecutive patients with CLI were treated using BTK PTA and 135 (10.1%) were approached with the pedal-plantar loop technique in order to recanalize the foot arteries. Target lesions were mostly occlusive and diffusely diseased, involving in most cases the tibial arteries as well as the in-flow and out-flow vessels. Acute success was achieved for tibial PTA in 100% of the cases, with ability to position and inflate the balloon and achieve adequate angiographic results without peri-procedural complications in all, whereas acute success for the pedal-plantar loop technique was 85%. Clinical improvement in functional status was obtained and maintained after an average of 12 months, with a significant improvement of transcutaneous oxygen tension after 15 days, 59±16 mmHg in the group of patients in which the foot arteries revascularization was successfully feasible, versus 42±12 mmHg in patients achieving patency of two BTK vessels at the ankle level with partial ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of fibroblast growth factor NV1FGF on amputation and death: a randomised placebo-controlled trial of gene therapy in critical limb ischaemia. AU - Belch, Jill. AU - Hiatt, William R.. AU - Baumgartner, Iris. AU - Driver, I. Vickie. AU - Nikol, Sigrid. AU - Norgren, Lars. AU - Van Belle, Eric. AU - TAMARIS Comm Investigators. PY - 2011/6/4. Y1 - 2011/6/4. N2 - Background Patients with critical limb ischaemia have a high rate of amputation and mortality. We tested the hypothesis that non-viral 1 fibroblast growth factor (NV1FGF) would improve amputation-free survival.Methods In this phase 3 trial (EFC6145/TAMARIS), 525 patients with critical limb ischaemia unsuitable for revascularisation were enrolled from 171 sites in 30 countries. All had ischaemic ulcer in legs or minor skin gangrene and met haemodynamic criteria (ankle pressure ,70 mm Hg or a toe pressure ,50 mm Hg, or both, or a transcutaneous oxygen pressure ,30 mm Hg on the treated leg). Patients were randomly ...
Cutaneous methods for measurement of substrates in mammalian subjects are disclosed. A condition of the skin is used to measure a number of important substances which diffuse through the skin or are present underneath the skin in the blood or tissue. According to the technique, an enzyme whose activity is specific for a particular substance or substrate is placed on, in or under the skin for reaction. The condition of the skin is then detected by suitable means as a measure of the amount of the substrate in the body. For instance, the enzymatic reaction or by-product of the reaction is detected directly through the skin as a measure of the amount of substrate. Polarographic electrodes or enzyme electrodes are employed as skin-contact analyzers in the transcutaneous measurement of oxygen or hydrogen peroxide to quantitatively determine blood substances such as glucose and alcohol. In a preferred quantitative technique, the skin is arterialized, i.e., heated or otherwise treated to arterialize the skin
Methods A total number of 390 infants were recruited in the study. Infants who were born in our hospital (n=340) were followed by daily transcutaneus CO and capillary bilirubin measurements starting from birth to discharge. Remaning 50 infants were admitted for hyperbilirubinemia treatment after 72 hours of life. Transcutaneous CO measurements were done by Masimo pulse oxymeter.. ...
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Everything you need to know about transcutaneous stimulation (tens) . What is (transcutaneous stimulation (tens)) y en qué consiste?
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I believe this problem is under appreciated in the use of the external (transcutaneous) pacer. Ineffective pacemaker discharges create an electrical artifact. As the deflection returns to baseline it resembles a QRS complex (false capture). To complicate things further, the skeletal muscle twitch caused by the pacers impulse may be mistaken for a pulse. Heres a post from EMS 12-Lead which illustrates a case of false capture and provides some troubleshooting tips. Heres another post (from the 12-Lead ECG blog) which adds another troubleshooting tip: using capnography! ...
I wanted to really love this record, and Ive tried, but I only love two-thirds of it: specifically, the two-thirds that conform to two of the three significant periods of Brian Enos career. Sadly, theyve left out the first phase of Eno, and thats where the whole thing breaks down.Let me explain...
Find out all of the information about the Allied Healthcare Products product: oxygen pressure regulator 23002 . Contact a supplier or the parent company directly to get a quote or to find out a price or your closest point of sale.
Ive seen posts about this for stimulating the spinal cord, without surgery, and it leading to some voluntary movements. how does this differ from e-stim? are there any devices for home use?
Method and apparatus for transcutaneously pacing the heart with background stimuli occurring in the intervals between pacing stimuli to reduce patient discomfort during pacing.
Objective: Chronic neural implants require energy and signal supply. The objective of this work was to evaluate a multichannel transcutaneous coupling approach in an ex vivo split-concept study, which minimizes the invasiveness of such an implant by externalizing the processing... Read more ...
"Transcutaneous PCO2 monitoring in critically ill adults: clinical evaluation of a new sensor". Crit Care Med. 33 (10): 2203-6. ... Blood gas tension refers to the partial pressure of gases in blood.[1] There are several significant purposes for measuring gas ... Chu YC, Chen CZ, Lee CH, Chen CW, Chang HY, Hsiue TR (2003). "Prediction of arterial blood gas values from venous blood gas ... Blood gas tests (such as arterial blood gas tests) measure these partial pressures. ...
Essentials in Pressure Monitoring: Blood and Other Body Fluids. B. Tardieu series 144 pages ; publ. by Martinis Nijhoff Co, The ... blood-gas analysers, potentiometric pHmeters and charge-electrometers for diagnostic purposes. Cywinski spent six months in ... Transcutaneous stimulation. Roundtable Chairman, AAMI, 17th annual meeting, San Francisco, May, 1982 J.K. Cywinski, L.M. ... Vol 35, No 4, p.630-634, 2003 Cywinski J. A Device for Pumping of Venous Blood in Legs. US Patent application assigned to Ad ...
These provides non-invasive or transcutaneous (non-piecing) minimal invasive blood flow assessment. Common examples are, ... The Doppler fetal monitor is commonly referred to simply as a Doppler or fetal Doppler. Doppler fetal monitors provide ... If the pulse hits gases or solids, the density difference is so great that most of the acoustic energy is reflected and it ... A blood flow study is done prior to the injection, by power doppler. The blood flow can be destroyed and the node become ...
The conclusion is reached that 0.1-0.3 GBq or more absorbed to blood of an adult male is likely to be fatal within 1 month. ... Wearing chemically resistant and intact gloves is a mandatory precaution to avoid transcutaneous diffusion of polonium directly ... the lead-210 is a product of radon-222 gas, much of which appears to originate from the decay of radium-226 from fertilizers ... adequate monitoring, and strict handling procedures to avoid any contamination. Alpha particles emitted by polonium will damage ...
Laboratory tests include blood tests for vitamin B-12 levels, a complete blood count, measurement of thyroid stimulating ... A user-friendly, disease-specific, quality-of-life scale can be used to monitor how someone is doing living with the burden of ... Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) therapy is often used to treat various types of neuropathy. A 2010 review of ... impairments in the signals associated with regulation of breathing and gas exchange (central sleep apnea, hypopnea, bradypnea ...
... is in the blood. Also called home blood glucose monitoring. See also: Blood glucose monitoring. Shock A severe condition that ... It is in the capillaries that most gas exchange takes place (oxygen out of the blood into the tissues, and carbon dioxide into ... Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) A treatment for painful neuropathy. Trauma Triglyceride Twenty-four hour urine ... is in the blood. Also called self-monitoring of blood glucose. See also: Blood glucose monitoring. Homeostasis the operation of ...
... transfuse packed red blood cells, perform chest thoracostomy, and carry some additional pharmacology specific to major trauma ... cardiac monitoring - basic ECG interpretation and 12-lead ECG, manual defibrillation), drug/fluid administration (intramuscular ... LifeFlight also operates commercial contract helicopters at Surat Gas Aero-Medical Service out of Roma and Toowoomba, which can ... transcutaneous cardiac pacing, continuous positive airway pressure ventilation CPAP, decompression of tension pneumothorax, ...
These provides non-invasive or transcutaneous (non-piecing) minimal invasive blood flow assessment. Common examples are, ... The Doppler fetal monitor is commonly referred to simply as a Doppler or fetal Doppler. Doppler fetal monitors provide ... If the pulse hits gases or solids, the density difference is so great that most of the acoustic energy is reflected and it ... Hemodynamics (blood circulation)Edit. Blood velocity can be measured in various blood vessels, such as middle cerebral artery ...
Blood pressure monitor: The blood pressure monitor is a machine that's connected to a small cuff which wrapped around the arm ... vital signs monitors, transcutaneous monitors, ventilators, infusion pumps etc. This type of care is provided by skilled nurses ... Arterial blood gas. *Catheter *Arterial line. *Central venous catheter. *Pulmonary artery catheter ... in addition to administering pulmonary surfactant and stabilizing the blood sugar, blood salts, and blood pressure. ...
... with the remaining blood suffering significant plasma loss, making the blood more concentrated.[2] Poor blood flow to organs ... or transcutaneous nerve stimulation may be used to aid with itching.[16] Antihistamines, however, are only effective for this ... formal fluid resuscitation and monitoring should follow.[9][53][54] This should be begun pre-hospital if possible in those with ... Scalding is caused by hot liquids or gases and most commonly occurs from exposure to hot drinks, high temperature tap water in ...
shunt from blood vessel to blood vessel. systemic circulation to pulmonary artery shunt Blalock-Taussig shunt. SVC to the right ... Holter monitor. Implantable loop recorder. Cardiac stress test Bruce protocol. Electrophysiology study. Cardiac imaging. ... Both use straps around the chest, LUCAS uses a gas driven piston and motor driven constricting band. ... shunt from heart chamber to blood vessel. atrium to pulmonary artery Fontan procedure. left ventricle to aorta Rastelli ...
... and nerves depend on adequate blood flow. The first pathological change in the small blood vessels is narrowing of the blood ... Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and interferential current (IFC) use a painless electric current and the ... This leads to bloating, gas and diarrhea. Urinary symptoms include urinary frequency, urgency, incontinence and retention. ... Blood vessel opening agents (e.g., ACE inhibitors, α1-antagonists) can lead to substantial improvements in neuronal blood flow ...
Transcutaneous" , "Blood Gas Monitors, Carbon Dioxide" , "Blood Gas Monitors, Oxygen" , "Blood Gas Monitors, Transcutaneous ... Transcutaneous" , "Carbon Dioxide Monitors, Transcutaneous" , "Carbon Dioxide Monitors" , "Transcutaneous Blood Gas Monitors ... Monitors, Bedside, Blood Gas, Transcutaneous. Definition : Bedside monitors designed to continuously measure the partial ... "Transcutaneous Monitors, Oxygen" , "Transcutaneous Monitors, Carbon Dioxide" , "OR Monitors" , "Operating Room Monitors" , " ...
... blood gas measurement [1] can be considered the standard method in the field of neonatology worldwide [2, 3]. In the beginning ... Huch, A., R.Huch, J.F.Lueey (eds.): Continuous Transcutaneous Blood Gas Monitoring. R. Liss, New York (1979)Google Scholar ... Huch, R., A.Huch (eds.): Continuous Transcutaneous Blood Gas Monitoring. M.Dekker, New York (1983)Google Scholar ... Transcutaneous (tc) blood gas measurement [1] can be considered the standard method in the field of neonatology worldwide [2, 3 ...
21 days of computer-recorded transcutaneous oxygen (TcPO2) data were compared in 31 infants with stage 3 or greater ROP and 38 ... Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous* * Female * Humans * Infant, Newborn * Infant, Premature / blood* * Logistic Models ... Transcutaneous oxygen levels in retinopathy of prematurity Lancet. 1995 Dec 2;346(8988):1464-5. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(95) ... 21 days of computer-recorded transcutaneous oxygen (TcPO2) data were compared in 31 infants with stage 3 or greater ROP and 38 ...
Capillary Blood Gas. *This gives an indication of pH and PCO2 only and is not accurate. ... Transcutaneous Monitor (TcPO2 and TcPCO2). These may be useful in complementing SpO2 monitoring, but are less reliable and more ... regular blood gases should be done. The frequency of these varies with the clinical situation (discuss this with medical staff ... Oxygen therapy and monitoring in neonates. This document is only valid for the day on which it is accessed. Please read our ...
Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous * Breathing Exercises* * Carbon Dioxide / metabolism* * Child * Disability Evaluation ...
Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous. Surgery. Additional relevant MeSH terms: Vascular Diseases. Peripheral Vascular Diseases ... Procedure: Exercise test with Transcutaneous oxygene pressure Procedure: Ankle and arm pressure values ... Intervention Details: Procedure: Exercise test with Transcutaneous oxygene pressure Ce marked devices ... Transcutaneous oxygen pressure recording before during and after exercise Ankle and brachial pressure measurements. Neurologic ...
Measurement of transcutaneous oxygen pressure (tcpO2) is of interest in critical limb ischemia at rest and also during exercise ... Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous / instrumentation*. Computer Simulation. Equipment Design. Exercise Test*. Female. Follow- ... AIM: Measurement of transcutaneous oxygen pressure (tcpO2) is of interest in critical limb ischemia at rest and also during ... CONCLUSIONS: Our observations underline the limits of the clinical in vivo comparison of 2 transcutaneous devices. Despite the ...
... monitor) designed to be attached to the body, as for example, to the skin of the patient. The monitor is designed to detect ... The monitor is then able to perform an action appropriate to the sensed condition and the specific implementation. ... Having knowledge of the operation of the implanted medical device, the monitor may then deduce, or decode, the physiologic ... An external physiologic or implanted device monitor / controller ( ...
... and transcutaneous oxygen tension (TcPO2) in a large group of patients with Leriche stage II intermittent claudication. METHOD ... Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous / statistics & numerical data. Blood Pressure*. Brachial Artery. Chronic Disease. Exercise ... Intermittent Claudication / blood, diagnosis*, physiopathology. Male. Middle Aged. Oxygen / blood*. Rest / physiology*. ... Comparative diagnostic value of ankle-to-brachial index and transcutaneous oxygen tension at rest and after exercise in ...
Transcutaneous blood gas monitoring during peritoneal dialysis in the neonate.. Jenkins JG, Lim JH, Bell A, Savage JM. ... Prediction of blood pressure from plasma renin activity in reflux nephropathy.. Jardim H, Shah V, Savage JM, Barratt TM, Dillon ... Five year prospective study of plasma renin activity and blood pressure in patients with longstanding reflux nephropathy. ...
Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous. The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen ... A new way of monitoring mechanical ventilation by measurement of particle flow from the airways using Pexa method in vivo and ... A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow ...
"Transcutaneous PCO2 monitoring in critically ill adults: clinical evaluation of a new sensor". Crit Care Med. 33 (10): 2203-6. ... Blood gas tension refers to the partial pressure of gases in blood.[1] There are several significant purposes for measuring gas ... Chu YC, Chen CZ, Lee CH, Chen CW, Chang HY, Hsiue TR (2003). "Prediction of arterial blood gas values from venous blood gas ... Blood gas tests (such as arterial blood gas tests) measure these partial pressures. ...
This report analyzes the worldwide markets for Blood Gas and Electrolyte Analyzers in Units and US$ Thousand by the following ... Transcutaneous Monitors. 3. BLOOD GAS ANALYZERS - PRODUCT OVERVIEW. Introduction to Blood Gas Analyzers. Blood Gas Analyzers ... Review of Blood Gas Monitoring Equipment Market. Invasive Vs. Non-Invasive Blood Gas Monitoring. Blood Gas Monitoring Market ... Blood Gas Monitoring and Analysis Functions. Evolution of Blood Analysis & Blood Gas Analysis. Blood Analysis. Blood Gas ...
A first aperture is positioned between the first gas-communication pathway and the liquid collection chamber to allow gaseous ... A second aperture is positioned between the second gas-communication pathway and the liquid collection chamber to allow gaseous ... A liquid-collection canister includes a liquid collection chamber defined by at least one wall and a first and second gas- ... communication between the liquid collection chamber and the second gas-communication pathway. A first and a second liquid-air ...
System for combined transcutaneous blood gas monitoring and vacuum assisted wound closure. ... The reduced pressure conduit 112 may represent any conduit tubing, line, or path through which a gas, liquid, gel, or other ... Method and device to enhance skin blood flow. US20060100586. Jul 14, 2005. May 11, 2006. Boehringer Laboratories, Inc.. Tube ... Pulsating pressure chamber and method for enhanced blood flow. WO2004018020A1. Dec 20, 2002. Mar 4, 2004. Hill-Rom Services, ...
System for combined transcutaneous blood gas monitoring and vacuum assisted wound closure. ... Cryopreservation of human red blood cells. US20060153816. 22 Dec 2005. 13 Jul 2006. Laura Brown. Soft tissue repair and ... In various embodiments, the adipose-containing tissue is washed to remove any residual cryoprotectants, red blood cells, and/or ... and blood samples were taken at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 weeks after implantation. There was no herniation in any of the ...
System for combined transcutaneous blood gas monitoring and vacuum assisted wound closure. ... At step 240, algorithm 150 monitors and updates control of the vacuum pump(s) 105 and 107, and vent solenoid 120. At step 241, ... a pressure monitoring and control system 1100 comprises a direct current (D.C.) power supply 1101 (e.g., 12 Volts), a diaphragm ... Pressure monitoring and leak detection method and apparatus. US4469092. Sep 27, 1982. Sep 4, 1984. Marshall Walter D. Scalp ...
In addition, the present invention is configured to operate in conjunction with blood gas monitoring systems operating with the ... as well as ancillary therapy and monitoring systems applied concurrently with RPWT systems. The blood detection monitor ... Wound fluid blood detection systems and methods are described that are operable in conjunction with reduced pressure wound ... operates by optically characterizing the content of wound fluids to the extent of identifying percentage blood content. This ...
In the transcutaneous measurement technique, the PO2is polarographically determined on the intact skin after hyperemia has been ... blood flow, viscosity, and acid base state. In: Huch, Huch, Lucey (Eds.): Continuous transcutaneous blood gas monitoring. ... In: Huch, Huch (Eds.): Continuous Transcutaneous Blood Gas Monitoring. Marcel Dekker, New York (1983) 745-760Google Scholar ... In: Huch, Huch, Lucey (Eds.): Continuous transcutaneous blood gas monitoring. Original Article Series: Birth Defects. The ...
System for combined transcutaneous blood gas monitoring and vacuum assisted wound closure. August, 2002. Johnson. ... An arc between the cathode 274 and anode 273 ionizes the gas and causes the gas to dissociate and form a plasma stream 275, ... a plasma coating unit 270 receives a gas 272 and passes the gas 272 between a nozzle that includes a cathode 274 and anode 273 ... Gases in the fluid stream may be pulled upward around the baffle 156 to exit the canister body 142 at the vent portion 160. ...
Blood [‎10]‎. Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous [‎1]‎. Blood Substitutes [‎12]‎. Blood Vessels [‎1]‎. ...
Find any required new, refurbished or used Breathing Monitor Equipment or device. ... used Breathing Monitor Equipment for sale or auction. ... Blood Gas Monitor, Transcutaneous , Blood Gas Monitor, Oxygen ... Transcutaneous Monitor, Carbon Dioxide , Oxygen Monitor, Transcutaneous , Transcutaneous Blood Gas Monitor , Oxygen Monitor , ... OR Monitor , Operating Room Monitor , Electrode, Transcutaneous, Oxygen , Carbon Dioxide/Oxygen Monitor, Transcutaneous , ...
Check out our extensive catalog of New & Used SensorMedics MicroGas 7650 Breathing Monitor devices. More than 200,000 items of ... Blood Gas Monitor, Transcutaneous , Blood Gas Monitor, Oxygen , Blood Gas Monitor, Carbon Dioxide , Transcutaneous pO2, pCO2 ... Transcutaneous Monitor, Carbon Dioxide , Oxygen Monitor, Transcutaneous , Transcutaneous Blood Gas Monitor , Oxygen Monitor , ... OR Monitor , Operating Room Monitor , Electrode, Transcutaneous, Oxygen , Carbon Dioxide/Oxygen Monitor, Transcutaneous , ...
Capillary Blood Gas. *This gives an indication of pH and PCO2 only and is not accurate. ... Transcutaneous Monitor (TcPO2 and TcPCO2). *These may be useful in complementing SpO2 monitoring, but are less reliable and ... Monitoring. Pulse Oximetry (SpO2). *Any baby receiving oxygen therapy (except chronic babies prior to discharge) should have ... Supplemental oxygen must always be monitored.. *There are risks of too little or too much oxygen. *Preterm infants are at risk ...
... specializes in treating infants born premature or infants that need extra care and monitoring in the neonatal period or longer. ... Transcutaneous monitoring is a non-invasive method where a sensor is applied to the skin and continuously measures blood gases ... Preanalytical blood gas handbook. Hemocues my blood donor app. Blood gas analysis video guides. What is blood gas? ... Combining blood gas testing and transcutaneous monitoring for better outcomes in the neonatal intensive care unit ...
Transcutaneous Blood Gas Monitoring for Neonates and Pediatric Patients. Ventilation: Noninvasive Assisted. Ventilation: ... Arterial Blood Gas Interpretation. Arterial Blood Gas Interpretation: Pediatric. Arterial Catheter Insertion. Arterial Catheter ... Specimen Collection: Neonatal Capillary Blood Gases. Specimen Collection: Sputum By Suction. Suctioning in the Home. Suctioning ... Pulmonary Artery Catheter: Blood Sampling. Pulmonary Function Testing: Spirometry. Pulmonary Function Testing: Spirometry ...
2006) Transcutaneous blood gas CO2 monitoring of induced ventilatory depression in mice. Anesth Analg 103:620-625. ... and blood gas parameters including pCO2, pO2, and pH were monitored over a period of 4 hours. pCO2 values are shown; pO2 and pH ... because the larger blood volume of rats makes serial arterial blood gas measurement more feasible than in mice (Sahbaie et al ... Rat Blood Gas Studies. Briefly, respiratory suppression was determined using male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) surgically ...
Monitoring of patients on NIV should include clinical assessment combined with pulse oximetry and arterial blood gas tensions. ... Oxygen saturation and arterial blood gas tensions. In published studies of NIV, data on oxygen saturation or transcutaneous CO2 ... Knowledge of arterial blood gas tensions is therefore critical to its application. Arterial blood gas tensions should be ... Knowledge of arterial blood gas tensions is therefore critical to its application. Arterial blood gas tensions should be ...
... arterial blood gases (ABG) were measured and compared with transcutaneous readings. In 10 patients who underwent continuous 8-h ... Is continuous transcutaneous monitoring of PCO2 (TcPCO2) over 8 h reliable in adults?. Janssens JP1, Perrin E, Bennani I, de ... such as transcutaneous CO2 monitoring (TcPCO2). However, changing the probe site after 4 h and recalibrating (as recommended) ... Monitoring of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in a non-intensive care unit (non-ICU) setting requires a method of evaluating ...
Here we used somatosensory stimulation in rats to determine age-related parameters of the blood oxygenation level-dependent ( ... Stout, R.W., Cho, D.Y., Gaunt, S.D., Taylor, H.W. & Baker, D.G. Transcutaneous blood gas monitoring in the rat. Comp. Med. 51, ... Ramos-Cabrer, P., Weber, R., Wiedermann, D. & Hoehn, M. Continuous noninvasive monitoring of transcutaneous blood gases for a ... effects upon local cerebral blood flow and glucose use in the rat. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 15, 766-773 (1995). ...
  • Transcutaneous (tc) blood gas measurement [1] can be considered the standard method in the field of neonatology worldwide [2, 3]. (
  • Steinacker, J. M., R.E.Wodick: Transcutaneous Measurement of Arterial PO 2 in Adults: Design of an Improved Electrode. (
  • AIM: Measurement of transcutaneous oxygen pressure (tcpO2) is of interest in critical limb ischemia at rest and also during exercise in patients suffering proximal claudication or claudication of questionable origin. (
  • In the transcutaneous measurement technique, the PO 2 is polarographically determined on the intact skin after hyperemia has been induced in the local skin-capillary region. (
  • A new way of monitoring mechanical ventilation by measurement of particle flow from the airways using Pexa method in vivo and during ex vivo lung perfusion in DCD lung transplantation. (
  • The ABL90 FLEX PLUS blood gas analyzer provides 17 critical parameters from a sample as small as 45 microliters when using the blood-conserving MicroMode measurement dedicated for the NICU. (
  • The TCM5 FLEX transcutaneous monitor is a compact, easy-to-use solution that delivers accurate and continuous measurement of oxygenation (t cp O 2 ) and ventilation (t cp CO 2 ) status in neonatal, pediatric and adult patients in the ICU. (
  • Tremper KK, Barker SJ (1987) Transcutaneous oxygen measurement: experimental studies and adult applications. (
  • We evaluated the accuracy of non-invasive and continuous hemoglobin monitoring (SpHb) obtained by a transcutaneous spectrophotometry-based technology (Masimo Corporation, Irvine, CA) compared with conventional laboratory Hb measurement (HbL) during LT. Additionally, we made subgroup analyses for distinct surgical phases that have special features and hemodynamic problems and thus may affect the accuracy of SpHb. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: SpHb was demonstrated to have a clinically acceptable accuracy of hemoglobin measurement in comparison with a standard laboratory device when used during LT. This technology can be useful as a trend monitor during all surgical phases of LT and can supplement HbL to optimize transfusion decisions or to detect occult bleeding. (
  • however, until recently, measurement of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO 2 ) has been limited to invasive arterial blood gas testing (PaCO2) or end-tidal CO2 (PetCO2) measurements. (
  • Thanks to recent technological advances, transcutaneous measurement of carbon dioxide (PtcCO 2 ) is emerging as the method of choice for assessing the adequacy of noninvasive ventilation. (
  • The laboratory LS2P dedicated to wearable devices for healthcare is developing an innovative wristband device based on optical infrared measurement to quantify the partial pressure of transcutaneous carbon dioxide (PtCO2). (
  • Monitor continuous ECG and arterial or transcutaneous measurement of systemic oxygen and CO 2 during admin, and arterial blood gases. (
  • 2. Do transcutaneous oximetry and end-tidal CO 2 measurement obviate the need for arterial blood gas analysis? (
  • Simultaneous Continuous Measurement of Arterial and Mixed Venous Partial O.sub.2 Saturation", The Oxygen Status of Arterial Blood, Zander, Mertzlufft (eds. (
  • Measurement of whole-blood potassium--is it clinically safe? (
  • Subsequently, transcutaneous EtOH imaging and measurement of sweat rate were performed at the palm, dorsum of hand, and wrist of participants who consumed alcohol. (
  • Shoemaker, W.C.: Tremper, K.K.: Transcutaneous PO2 and PCO2 Monitoring: Experimental, and Clinical Studies. (
  • Is continuous transcutaneous monitoring of PCO2 (TcPCO2) over 8 h reliable in adults? (
  • Background Transcutaneous carbon dioxide monitoring is rarely used in the acute hospital setting, where samples of arterial blood are used to measure pCO2. (
  • Babies receiving supplemental oxygen, or those likely to need it should be monitored by continuous pulse oximetry, (with the exception of babies close to being discharged on oxygen). (
  • These include transcutaneous monitoring, end-tidal gas monitoring and pulse oximetry. (
  • 4 In contrast, the assessment of home oxygen requirements for infants involves a combination of clinical assessment, oximetry and intermittent blood gas analyses 5 , 6 (levels of evidence, E3, E4 1 ). (
  • Various tests will be used to monitor the baby and diagnosis severity of RDS including a blood gases test, transcutaneous devices and pulse oximetry. (
  • the diagnostic value of fetal pulse oximetry in comparison with fetal scalp blood gas in predicting neonatal outcome was assessed and it was found that these two tests were favorably comparable. (
  • Can we replace arterial blood gas analysis by pulse oximetry in neonates with respiratory distress syndrome, who are treated according to INSURE protocol? (
  • 2 No similar study seems to have been attempted since it became commonplace to use pulse oximetry to monitor oxygen saturation. (
  • Pulse oximetry and transcutaneous oxygen monitoring are extraordinarily useful techniques of estimating and noninvasively monitoring the neonate's oxygenation, but each method has limitations. (
  • Results of combined oximetry and transcutaneous capnography, MG scores, and acetylcholine receptor antibody titers before and after DFPP treatment were compared. (
  • In all cases, patients will be monitored using continuous electrocardiography, pulse oximetry (on patients finger), and transcutaneous carbon dioxide and saturation (on patients earlobe), and automated noninvasive blood pressure recordings every 5 minutes. (
  • Aim: Tracheal and chest auscultation for wheeze and transcutaneous oximetry have both been suggested as outcome measures of bronchial provocation tests in young children. (
  • Measurements were carried out using laser Doppler flowmetry, transcutaneous oximetry and both macro- and micro-lightguide spectrophotometry to measure haemoglobin saturation (SO2). (
  • Bedside monitors designed to continuously measure the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (tcpCO2), oxygen (tcpO2), or both at the skin surface. (
  • Monitoring tcPO2 and tcPCO2 is useful to avoid hyperoxemia and hypoxemia, to assess surgical patients, and for continuous evaluation of the respiratory and metabolic status of patients. (
  • 21 days of computer-recorded transcutaneous oxygen (TcPO2) data were compared in 31 infants with stage 3 or greater ROP and 38 infants with no ROP or stage 1 or 2. (
  • The purpose of this study of a cohort of preterm infants was to correlate the incidence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity with the duration of exposure to different ranges of oxygen tension as measured by transcutaneous monitoring (tcPO2). (
  • One hundred one premature infants (birth weight, 500 to 1300 g) requiring supplemental oxygen had continuous monitoring of tcPO2. (
  • BACKGROUND: Few studies have compared sensitivities of ankle-to-brachial index (ABI) and transcutaneous oxygen tension (TcPO2) in a large group of patients with Leriche stage II intermittent claudication. (
  • Severinghaus, J. W., Stafford, M., Thunstrom, A.M.: Estimation of Skin Metabolism and Blood Flow with tcPO2 and tcPCO2 electrodes by cuff occlusion of the circulation. (
  • Transcutaneous oxygen tension (TcPO2) was evaluated using the Periflux System 5000 with TcPO2/CO2 unit 5040 before the injections and on days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 after the start of the injections. (
  • Continuous Transcutaneous Blood Gas Monitoring. (
  • Tremper KK, Waxman K, Bowman R, Shoernaker WC (1989) Continuous transcutaneous oxygen monitoring during respiratory failure, cardiac decompensation, cardiac arrest and CPR. (
  • This can only be measured with any meaningful accuracy using serial arterial blood gas analysis or continuous transcutaneous monitoring. (
  • In our current practice, we use continuous transcutaneous carbon dioxide monitoring during prolonged apnea, with predefined thresholds for instigating a period of ventilation. (
  • This study was to compare conventional intermittent venous blood gas monitoring with continuous transcutaneous oxygen and carbon dioxide monitoring in infant patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. (
  • The aim of this study was to compare conventional intermittent venous blood gas monitoring with the continuous transcutaneous oxygen (TcpO 2 ) and transcutaneous carbon dioxide pressure (TcpCO 2 ) monitoring in infant patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. (
  • article{c3821e25-4a8e-4783-8e23-4cc31c082d38, abstract = {During surfactant treatment of respiratory distress syndrome, 23 premature newborns were investigated with continuous amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (cerebral function monitors). (
  • abstract = "A variable model of venous hypertension was used to examine the immediate effect on skin oxygenation and blood flow. (
  • Comparative diagnostic value of ankle-to-brachial index and transcutaneous oxygen tension at rest and after exercise in patients with intermittent claudication. (
  • Blood gas tension refers to the partial pressure of gases in blood . (
  • P v O 2 - Oxygen tension in venous blood at sea level is between 30 mmHg and 40 mmHg. (
  • Arterial blood sampling on ambient air showed pH 7.36, arterial carbon dioxide tension 9.14 kPa, arterial oxygen tension 6.4 kPa, base excess 7.8, and bicarbonate 33 mmol/L. Her body mass index was within the normal range. (
  • The harmful effect of hypocapnia on the neonatal brain emphasizes the importance of monitoring arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2). (
  • Indwelling arterial lines and sensors have been widely used to monitor arterial oxygen tension, but no controlled trial has ever shown that any of these techniques reduce the risk of permanent retinal damage. (
  • 1 An important observational study using a transcutaneous technique for monitoring tension, undertaken in 1982-1984 but only published in 1992, showed that retinopathy occurred more often in babies with tensions that exceeded 80 mm Hg (10.7 kPa). (
  • Most had also been intermittently monitored with a transcutaneous oxygen tension monitor in the period immediately after birth, but transcutaneous monitoring was often discontinued after a few days, especially in the most immature babies with delicate, easily damaged skin. (
  • Saturation settings (which were always documented at least once an hour) have been used throughout in the analysis that follows because the transcutaneous monitors were less consistently used, especially after 1991, and often had their alarm limits muted, or adjusted so that the saturation alarm was triggered before the tension alarm. (
  • A similar phenomenon was noted for maximum transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension (PtcCO 2 ). (
  • Nawal A. Al Kassim ,Wijdan F. Al Siady ,Shahatha F. Al Saiadi , Clinical limitation of cutaneous oxygen tension monitoring during cardiopulmonary bypass, J. Fac. (
  • Blood gas analysis provides information on a critically ill neonate's respiratory and metabolic status, via insights to oxygen, carbon dioxide and the acid-base status, along with other vital information such as electrolytes, lactate, hemoglobin and bilirubin. (
  • New chapters cover transcutaneous bilirubin testing, auditory screening, relocation of a dislocated nasal septum, management of natal and neonatal teeth, and lingual frenotomy. (
  • Transcutaneus PO 2 (PtcO 2 ) is suggested to reflect tissue oxygenation in intensive care patients, whereas transcutaneous PCO 2 (PtcCO 2 ) is advocated as a noninvasive method for assessing PaCO 2 . (
  • Severinghaus JW, Stafford M, Thunstrom AM (1978) Estimation of skin metabolism and blood flow with PtcO 2 and PtcCO 2 electrodes by cuff occlusion of the circulation. (
  • PtcCO 2 monitoring is a standard assessment for pediatric patients in the sleep lab, and it is increasingly being utilized in adults to complement diagnostic and treatment purposes. (
  • In this setting, home PtcCO 2 monitoring potentially can be utilized in place of in-laboratory sleep studies for assessment of nocturnal hypoventilation and optimizing home mechanical ventilation. (
  • We investigated the change in transcutaneous PCO 2 (PtcCO 2 ) in cardiac arrest patients. (
  • PtcCO 2 monitoring with a V-Sign™ combined monitor (SenTec Inc., Therwil, Switzerland) was applied to patients at the start of CPR. (
  • PtcCO 2 monitoring provides non-invasive, continuous, and useful monitoring in cardiac arrest patients. (
  • Transcutaneous PCO 2 (PtcCO 2 ) monitoring was introduced about 30 years ago. (
  • We observed that PtcCO 2 monitoring is easily applied to and gives continuous information on gas changes in critically ill patients. (
  • We excluded cases for whom transcutaneous monitoring was not applied or that failed to provide sufficient quality of PtcCO 2 monitoring data. (
  • In patients suffering from brain injury, end-tidal PCO 2 (P ET CO 2 ) monitoring is controversial but transcutaneous PCO 2 (PtcCO 2 ), which is noninvasive and utilizes real-time display, may be an alternative method. (
  • We hypothesized that PtcCO 2 would be more accurate than P ET CO 2 for monitoring PaCO 2 in severe brain injury patients. (
  • When an arterial blood gas analysis was required, the P ET CO 2 and PtcCO 2 values were simultaneously recorded. (
  • The accuracy of PtcCO 2 was not superior to that of P ET CO 2 for assessing PCO 2 levels and should not be used to monitor these levels in severe brain injury subjects. (
  • The partial pressure of gas in blood is significant because it is directly related to ventilation and oxygenation. (
  • Monitoring of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in a non-intensive care unit (non-ICU) setting requires a method of evaluating nocturnal PaCO2, such as transcutaneous CO2 monitoring (TcPCO2). (
  • Transcutaneous monitoring in the NICU provides a real-time continuous overview of the patient's often fluctuating oxygenation (tc p O2) and ventilation (tc p CO2) status. (
  • In this video, Dr. Sijo Francis, Consultant Neonatologist, St. George's University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, talks about how the TCM5 FLEX monitor gives him a real-time view of changes in a neonate's physiology, lung status and ventilation. (
  • Another major advancement is the development of non-invasive monitoring of oxygenation and ventilation. (
  • The TCM5 FLEX monitor allows you to get a real-time view of changes in the child's physiology, changes in their lung status and ventilation. (
  • A primary objective of noninvasive home ventilation is normalization of arterial blood gas tensions, night and day. (
  • Assessment of PetCO2 has been limited by challenges in accessing true end-tidal exhaled gas under a face mask during noninvasive ventilation, particularly for patients with parenchymal lung diseases such as COPD. (
  • 1 The original description of the Transnasal Humidified Rapid-Insufflation Ventilatory Exchange (THRIVE) technique by Patel and Nouraei 2 based estimates of carbon dioxide rise predominantly on end-tidal values obtained with mechanical ventilation after apnea (20/24 patients), with only 4 having arterial blood gas data-an approach that has since been proven to underestimate the true rate of carbon dioxide accumulation by half. (
  • Home mechanical ventilation (HMV) is used to treat hypoventilation, and its efficiency is mostly assessed by daytime blood gases or nocturnal oxygen saturation monitoring (SpO 2 ). (
  • This suggests oxygen-induced hypercapnia might occur in a range of respiratory conditions with abnormal gas exchange and/or reduced ventilation with respiratory failure. (
  • Arterial blood gas determinations of pCO 2 provide the most accurate determinations of the adequacy of alveolar ventilation, but capillary, transcutaneous, and end-tidal techniques are also useful. (
  • 2 When It Comes to Life, There Is No Compromise Distributing worldwide ACUTRONIC is a privately held company that develops, manufactures, and distributes high-tech ventilation and monitoring solutions for neonatal, pediatric and adult ICUs and intensive care transportation in over 90 countries. (
  • Transcutaneous monitoring - or continuous, non-invasive monitoring - of t cp O 2 and t cp CO 2 can detect changes in the oxygenation and ventilation status of neonates. (
  • Oscillations in arterial blood pressure and PaCO2 induce CBF variability. (
  • Compared to blood gas Pco 2- , transcutaneous carbon dioxide monitoring yielded a bias of 0.3 ± 0.7 kPa, and end-tidal technique a bias of -1.9 ± 0.9 kPa. (
  • Radiometer develops, manufactures and markets solutions for blood sampling, blood gas analysis, transcutaneous monitoring, immunoassay testing and the related IT management systems. (
  • For reference on specific blood gas testing solutions, immunoassay testing, transcutaneous monitoring , samplers , POC data management systems, QC and services available in specific markets, please go to your local Radiometer country website using the dropdown below or find your local contact on . (
  • With substantial impairment of local blood flow, local venous oxygen saturation can approach zero, a result clearly of no value in determining ventilatory status. (
  • The update of this clinical practice guideline is the result of reviewing a total of 124 articles: 3 randomized controlled trials, 103 prospective trials, 1 retrospective study, 3 case studies, 11 review articles, 2 surveys and 1 consensus paper on transcutaneous monitoring (TCM) for oxygen (P tcO2 ) and carbon dioxide (P tcCO2 ). (
  • Reed RL, Maier RV, Landicho D, Kenny MA, Carrico CJ (1985) Correlation of hemodynamic variables with transcutaneous PO 2 measurements in critically ill adult patients. (
  • Based on these data, capillary blood gas comparisons showed less variation and a slightly lower correlation with P tcCO 2 than did ABG comparisons. (
  • It's concluded that transcutaneous monitoring and intermittent venous blood sampling had good correlation and transcutaneous monitoring may be used conveniently and safely clinically during CPB. (
  • Because low body weight infant patients have a higher energy demand than adult patients, blood flow adjustment according to temperature changes during CPB is of utmost importance to ensure enough tissue perfusion and avoid hypoxaemia [1-3]. (
  • You can reduce the number of blood samples and limit unnecessary handling of the infant, while ensuring careful control of your patient. (
  • This is a pilot observational study to assess the role of transcutaneous (p tc CO 2 ) versus arterial (p a CO 2 ) monitoring during acute NIV, both to calculate pH and to guide therapy. (
  • p tc CO 2 shows promise in replacing arterial blood gases, in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. (
  • Find out more about our ABL90 FLEX PLUS blood gas analyzer. (
  • Technavio's report, Global Blood Gas and Electrolyte Analyzer Market 2015-2019, has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry experts. (
  • The researchers concluded: "Analysis of absolute accuracy showed a smaller bias but slightly larger standard deviation for SpHb than the blood gas analyzer when compared to the hematology analyzer reference. (
  • All the determinations were performed using a RAPIDLab[R] 1200 Blood Gas Analyzer (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc. (
  • For 10 days, whole-blood potassium was measured with an AVL Omni 6 blood gas analyzer (Roche Diagnostics) in all arterial blood-gas specimens received by the laboratory. (
  • Tremper KK, Shoemaker WC (1981) Transcutaneous oxygen monitoring of critically ill adults, with and without low flow shock. (
  • Tremper KK, Waxman K, Shoemaker WC (1981) Use of transcutaneous oxygen sensors to titrate PEEP. (
  • Bhat R, Kim WD, Shukla A, Vidyasagar D (1981) Simultaneous tissue pH and transcutaneous carbone dioxide monitoring in critically ill neonates. (
  • Strasser, K., Goeckenjan, G.: The monitoring of adult intensive care patients by transcutaneous PO2 measurements. (
  • If based on transcutaneous data only, clinical decisions would have been unchanged in nine out of ten patients. (
  • Very few low birth weight patients had arterial lines, so we did a lot of capillary blood gases. (
  • Our data demonstrate that transcutaneous derived gas tensions result from complex interaction between hemodynamic, respiratory and local factors, which can hardly be defined in ICU-patients. (
  • Some patients have similar values when comparing transcutaneous carbon dioxide (P tcCO 2 ) values with blood gas analysis, whereas others show extreme variability. (
  • Patients who underwent prehospital arterial blood sampling had an arrival PaCO 2 of 4.7 (±0.2) kPa (35.1 mm Hg). (
  • The survival of patients in intensive care depends on the continued adequate perfusion of critical tissues by blood with appropriate gas partial pressures. (
  • Central Venous catheter has become an integral part in the management of critically ill patients being used for fluid administration, an important source of blood sample for chemical analysis and sampling, parenteral nutrition and central venous pressure determination and administration of drugs with high osmolality that cannot be given through peripheral veins and also provides a readily available and safe alternative to repetitive arterial blood gas analysis. (
  • Blood gas measurements are as important for ill newborns as for other critically ill patients, but rapidly changing physiology, difficult access to arterial and mixed venous sampling sites, and small blood volumes present unique challenges. (
  • In patients with chronic lung disease or mild-to-moderate acute cardiorespiratory problems, capillary blood gases are often utilized. (
  • The arterial blood pressure, pulse rate and rectal, oesophageal and skin temperature of these patients were continuously recorded. (
  • Phan CQ, Tremper KK, Lee SE, Barker SJ (1987) Noninvasive monitoring of carbone dioxide: a comparison of the partial pressure of transcutaneous and end-tidal carbone dioxide with the partial pressure of arterial carbone dioxide. (
  • To closely monitor the balance between oxygen demand and supply many approaches were developed including invasive and noninvasive measurements [4-6]. (
  • Blood gas measurements and complementary, noninvasive monitoring techniques provide the clinician with information essential to patient assessment, therapeutic decision making, and prognostication. (
  • Blood gas measurements and noninvasive estimations provide important information about oxygenation. (
  • Validation of a new device for transcutaneous oxygen pressure recordings in real and simulated exercise tests. (
  • San Diego Claudication Questionnaire before and during the treadmill test Treadmill test(s) through the Strandness procedure (2MPh 10% slope) Transcutaneous oxygen pressure recording before during and after exercise Ankle and brachial pressure measurements. (
  • P a O 2 - Partial pressure of oxygen at sea level (765 mmHg ) in arterial blood is between 75 mmHg and 100 mmHg. (
  • P a CO 2 - Partial pressure of carbon dioxide at sea level (765 mmHg) in arterial blood is between 35 mmHg and 45 mmHg. (
  • P v CO 2 - Partial pressure of carbon dioxide at sea level in venous blood is between 40 mmHg and 50 mmHg. (
  • P a CO - Partial pressure of CO at sea level (765 mmHg) in arterial blood is approximately 0.02. (
  • No. 11/350,089, entitled "Wound Irrigation Device Pressure Monitoring and Control System," filed Feb. 9, 2006 now U.S. Pat. (
  • Wound fluid blood detection systems and methods are described that are operable in conjunction with reduced pressure wound treatment (RPWT) systems, as well as ancillary therapy and monitoring systems applied concurrently with RPWT systems. (
  • Transcutaneous partial pressure of CO 2 (carbon dioxide) t cp CO 2 is measured through a sensor placed on the skin surface. (
  • Simultaneously, arterial blood pressure and transcutaneous blood gas values were recorded. (
  • In 21 of 23 neonates, a transient fall in mean arterial blood pressure of 9.3 mm Hg (mean) occurred coincidently with the cerebral reaction. (
  • Neonates in whom intraventricular hemorrhage developed tended to have lower presurfactant mean arterial blood pressure (P greater than .05), but they had a significantly lower mean arterial blood pressure after surfactant instillation (P less than .05). (
  • In some vulnerable neonates with arterial hypotension and severe pulmonary immaturity, the fall in mean arterial blood pressure may increase the risk of cerebral complications and could be related to an unchanged rate of intraventricular hemorrhage after surfactant treatment. (
  • In 1952, the only routinely used monitor in anesthesia was a blood pressure cuff. (
  • Blood pressure is 130-170/80-110 mmHg, pulse is 80-95 bpm, respirations are 16, temperature is 37.5 degrees centigrade, hemoglobin is 9%, and blood glucose is 150-250 mg/dl. (
  • The primary outcome was transcutaneous partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PtCO 2 ) at 30 min. (
  • Treatment of OSA has been shown to lower blood pressure in hypertensive individuals although it is not clear that the degree of improvement, while statistically significant, has clinical relevance. (
  • Next, optimal control of blood pressure is warranted. (
  • It is advisable to keep systolic blood pressure between 140 and 160 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure between 90 and 110 mmHg. (
  • The rationale for keeping maternal blood pressures at these levels is to avoid potential reduction in either uteroplacental blood flow or cerebral perfusion pressure. (
  • It was also noticed that the blood pressure had the greatest effect on cPO [2] measurements. (
  • Subjects' heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, and transcutaneous carbon dioxide level were continuously recorded. (
  • In the beginning stages, when commercial tcPO 2 monitors first came on to the market, various studies were carried out which were devoted, among other things, to establishing the ideal electrode temperature. (
  • After the initiation of CPB intermittent venous blood gas data and corresponding TcpO 2 and TcpCO 2 data were collected at specific three time-points: Before aortic-clamp, during cardiac arrestment and after resuscitation of the heart. (
  • The transcutaneous CO 2 sensors work by heating underlying skin to approximately 43° C, increasing blood flow through the underlying dermal capillary bed. (
  • Continuous (8-h) TcPCO2 monitoring at a lower electrode temperature (43 degrees C) in this setting has never been formally studied. (
  • After calibration and stabilization of TcPCO2 (Radiometer Tina TCM3 capnograph), arterial blood gases (ABG) were measured and compared with transcutaneous readings. (
  • Transcutaneous monitoring of carbon dioxide (tcPCO2) reduces the need for arterial blood sampling. (
  • METHODS: During LT, blood samples were obtained twice for each of the three phases of LT (pre-anhepatic, anhepatic, and neohepatic) and were analyzed by the central laboratory. (
  • Agreement of pairs of methods (ABG vs P tcCO 2 and capillary blood gas vs P tcCO 2 ) was assessed with the Bland-Altman approach with limits of agreement estimated with a mixed model to account for serial measurements per subject. (
  • The overall aim was to obtain new knowledge about thermal balance and care environment in extremely preterm infants during skin-to-skin care (SSC), evaluate different methods of intraoperative monitoring of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and to investigate how different levels of inhaled oxygen affect infants' oxygenation during anesthesia and surgery. (
  • Whilst large numbers of physical principles might be applied to the problem, the currently available solutions use either transcutaneous gas sampling or optical methods in a transilluminated appendage. (
  • Sampling methods should minimize blood loss and assure an undiluted arterial blood sample ( 4 ). (
  • The author sought other physiological problems that required blood gas analysis in anesthesia and cardiorespiratory physiology, particularly at high altitude. (
  • Study II formed part of a prospective study to assess the performance of non-invasive transcutaneous and end-tidal technique to continuously monitor CO 2 levels in the infants blood during anesthesia. (
  • These results suggest that during anesthesia would transcutaneous monitoring of carbon dioxide be beneficial, end-tidal monitoring correlated poorly to blood gas and induction of general anesthesia in newborn infants can be safely performed without the use of high levels of supplemental oxygen. (
  • Transcutaneous monitoring is a non-invasive method where a sensor is applied to the skin and continuously measures blood gases diffusing through the skin. (
  • Advances in biosensor technologies made it possible to continuously monitor physiological parameters using wearable biosensors with a variety of form factors. (
  • To explore the potential of using wearable biosensors to continuously monitor multidimensional physiological parameters for early detection of COVID-19 clinical progression. (
  • Skin gas that contains volatile metabolites (volatilome) is emanated continuously and is thus expected to be suitable for non-invasive monitoring. (
  • Abraham E, Smith M, Silver L (1984) Conjunctival and transcutaneous oxygen monitoring during cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (
  • Facilities should also ask manufacturers to provide references from clinical studies performed with their transcutaneous blood gas monitors. (
  • The part played by the lung in this process is the maintenance of the appropriate gas tensions, and if these are preserved, the lung may perhaps be disregarded. (
  • Fallenstein, F., W.Nef, A. Huch, R.Huch: Effect of Stripping on the Level and Variability of Transcutaneous PO 2 . (
  • Increased variability in cerebral blood flow (CBF) predisposes to adverse cerebrovascular events. (
  • 2. A method of claim 1, wherein the plurality of red blood cell constituents comprise all hemoglobins and cellular bodies. (
  • It has been proved, that, for example, the capillary blood in the ear lobe, the fingertip, or the ankle in both adults and newborns represents arterial blood gas conditions after hyperemia has been induced. (
  • A retrospective review of data was performed to determine how accurately P tcCO 2 correlated with CO 2 values obtained by arterial blood gas (ABG) or capillary blood gas. (
  • To determine whether P tcCO 2 values correlated with ABG or capillary blood gas values, subjects' records were retrospectively reviewed. (
  • Data collected included the P tcCO 2 value at the time of blood gas procurement and the ABG or capillary blood gas P CO 2 value. (
  • A total of 912 pairs of ABG/P tcCO 2 values on 54 subjects and 307 pairs of capillary blood gas/P tcCO 2 values on 34 subjects were analyzed. (
  • The P CO 2 range for capillary blood gas was 29-108 mm Hg, and P tcCO 2 values were 30-103 mm Hg. (
  • For capillary blood gas/P tcCO 2 , the estimated difference ± SD was −1.61 ± 7.64 mm Hg, and limits of agreement were −16.88 to 13.66. (
  • Loefgren, O., L. Jacobson: The Influence of Different Electrode Temperatures on the Recorded Transcutaneous PO2 Level. (
  • Due to the fragile nature of neonates, monitoring, diagnosing and treating them can be challenging. (
  • These neonates present a range of critical conditions that caregivers need to diagnose, treat and monitor. (
  • In caring for fragile neonates blood gas results and continuous monitoring of oxygen and carbon dioxide are valuable. (
  • However, it is not realistic to expect transcutaneous and arterial oxygen partial pressures to be identical. (
  • [3] Blood gas tests (such as arterial blood gas tests) measure these partial pressures. (
  • Non-invasive transcutaneous measure of CO 2 (TcCO 2 ) allows to directly assess nocturnal hypercapnia and to detect residual hypoventilation with a higher sensitivity than SpO 2 . (