Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Acid-Base Imbalance: Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Capnography: Continuous recording of the carbon dioxide content of expired air.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous: The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.Oximetry: The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.Respiratory Insufficiency: Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)Hepatopulmonary Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by the clinical triad of advanced chronic liver disease, pulmonary vascular dilatations, and reduced arterial oxygenation (HYPOXEMIA) in the absence of intrinsic cardiopulmonary disease. This syndrome is common in the patients with LIVER CIRRHOSIS or portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL).Respiratory Dead Space: That part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT or the air within the respiratory tract that does not exchange OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE with pulmonary capillary blood.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Hypoventilation: A reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Blood Specimen Collection: The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.Methemoglobinemia: The presence of methemoglobin in the blood, resulting in cyanosis. A small amount of methemoglobin is present in the blood normally, but injury or toxic agents convert a larger proportion of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, which does not function reversibly as an oxygen carrier. Methemoglobinemia may be due to a defect in the enzyme NADH methemoglobin reductase (an autosomal recessive trait) or to an abnormality in hemoglobin M (an autosomal dominant trait). (Dorland, 27th ed)Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio: The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Hypercapnia: A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Oxyhemoglobins: A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Oxygen Inhalation Therapy: Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Pulmonary Embolism: Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Positive-Pressure Respiration: A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome: HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.Syringes: Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Point-of-Care Systems: Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Noble Gases: Elements that constitute group 18 (formerly the zero group) of the periodic table. They are gases that generally do not react chemically.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Exercise Tolerance: The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Intensive Care: Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Dyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult: A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Gas Poisoning

Arterial blood gas tensions during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. (1/1825)

Arterial blood gas tensions were measured before and during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with (group I) and without (group 2) sedation with intravenous diazepam. There was a highly significant fall in the PaO2, which occurred in both groups and was therefore not attributable to diazepam. Measurement of FEV, and FVC before endoscopy had no predictive value for those patients whose PaO2 fell the most.  (+info)

Energy cost of propulsion in standard and ultralight wheelchairs in people with spinal cord injuries. (2/1825)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Wheelchair- and subject-related factors influence the efficiency of wheelchair propulsion. The purpose of this study was to compare wheelchair propulsion in ultralight and standard wheelchairs in people with different levels of spinal cord injury. SUBJECTS: Seventy-four subjects (mean age=26.2 years, SD=7.14, range=17-50) with spinal cord injury resulting in motor loss (30 with tetraplegia and 44 with paraplegia) were studied. METHOD: Each subject propelled standard and ultralight wheelchairs around an outdoor track at self-selected speeds, while data were collected at 4 predetermined intervals. Speed, distance traveled, and oxygen cost (VO2 mL/kg/m) were compared by wheelchair, group, and over time, using a Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: In the ultralight wheelchair, speed and distance traveled were greater for both subjects with paraplegia and subjects with tetraplegia, whereas VO2 was less only for subjects with paraplegia. Subjects with paraplegia propelled faster and farther than did subjects with tetraplegia. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: The ultralight wheelchair improved the efficiency of propulsion in the tested subjects. Subjects with tetraplegia, especially at the C6 level, are limited in their ability to propel a wheelchair.  (+info)

Pulmonary capillary perfusion: intra-alveolar fractal patterns and interalveolar independence. (3/1825)

Pulmonary capillary perfusion was analyzed from videomicroscopic recordings to determine flow switching characteristics among capillary segments in isolated, blood-perfused canine lungs. Within each alveolus, the rapid switching pattern was repetitive and was, therefore, nonrandom (fractal dimensions near 1.0). This self-similarity over time was unexpected in a network widely considered to be passive. Among adjacent alveoli, the relationship among the switching patterns was even more surprising, for there was virtually no relationship between the perfusion patterns (coefficients of determination approaching zero). These findings demonstrated that the perfusion patterns in individual alveolar walls were independent of their next-door neighbors. The lack of dependence among neighboring networks suggests an interesting characteristic: the failure of one alveolar-capillary bed would leave its neighbors relatively unaffected, a feature of a robust design.  (+info)

Lactate kinetics at rest and during exercise in lambs with aortopulmonary shunts. (4/1825)

In a previous study [G. C. M. Beaufort-Krol, J. Takens, M. C. Molenkamp, G. B. Smid, J. J. Meuzelaar, W. G. Zijlstra, and J. R. G. Kuipers. Am. J. Physiol. 275 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 44): H1503-H1512, 1998], a lower systemic O2 supply was found in lambs with aortopulmonary left-to-right shunts. To determine whether the lower systemic O2 supply results in increased anaerobic metabolism, we used [1-13C]lactate to investigate lactate kinetics in eight 7-wk-old lambs with shunts and eight control lambs, at rest and during moderate exercise [treadmill; 50% of peak O2 consumption (VO2)]. The mean left-to-right shunt fraction in the shunt lambs was 55 +/- 3% of pulmonary blood flow. Arterial lactate concentrations and the rate of appearance (Ra) and disappearance (Rd) of lactate were similar in shunt and control lambs, both at rest (lactate: 1, 201 +/- 76 vs. 1,214 +/- 151 micromol/l; Ra = Rd: 12.97 +/- 1.71 vs. 12.55 +/- 1.25 micromol. min-1. kg-1) and during a similar relative workload. We found a positive correlation between Ra and systemic blood flow, O2 supply, and VO2 in both groups of lambs. In conclusion, shunt lambs have similar lactate kinetics as do control lambs, both at rest and during moderate exercise at a similar fraction of their peak VO2, despite a lower systemic O2 supply.  (+info)

Evidence of O2 supply-dependent VO2 max in the exercise-trained human quadriceps. (5/1825)

Maximal O2 delivery and O2 uptake (VO2) per 100 g of active muscle mass are far greater during knee extensor (KE) than during cycle exercise: 73 and 60 ml. min-1. 100 g-1 (2.4 kg of muscle) (R. S. Richardson, D. R. Knight, D. C. Poole, S. S. Kurdak, M. C. Hogan, B. Grassi, and P. D. Wagner. Am. J. Physiol. 268 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 37): H1453-H1461, 1995) and 28 and 25 ml. min-1. 100 g-1 (7.5 kg of muscle) (D. R. Knight, W. Schaffartzik, H. J. Guy, R. Predilleto, M. C. Hogan, and P. D. Wagner. J. Appl. Physiol. 75: 2586-2593, 1993), respectively. Although this is evidence of muscle O2 supply dependence in itself, it raises the following question: With such high O2 delivery in KE, are the quadriceps still O2 supply dependent at maximal exercise? To answer this question, seven trained subjects performed maximum KE exercise in hypoxia [0.12 inspired O2 fraction (FIO2)], normoxia (0.21 FIO2), and hyperoxia (1.0 FIO2) in a balanced order. The protocol (after warm-up) was a square wave to a previously determined maximum work rate followed by incremental stages to ensure that a true maximum was achieved under each condition. Direct measures of arterial and venous blood O2 concentration in combination with a thermodilution blood flow technique allowed the determination of O2 delivery and muscle VO2. Maximal O2 delivery increased with inspired O2: 1.3 +/- 0.1, 1.6 +/- 0.2, and 1.9 +/- 0.2 l/min at 0.12, 0.21, and 1.0 FIO2, respectively (P < 0.05). Maximal work rate was affected by variations in inspired O2 (-25 and +14% at 0.12 and 1.0 FIO2, respectively, compared with normoxia, P < 0.05) as was maximal VO2 (VO2 max): 1.04 +/- 0.13, 1. 24 +/- 0.16, and 1.45 +/- 0.19 l/min at 0.12, 0.21, and 1.0 FIO2, respectively (P < 0.05). Calculated mean capillary PO2 also varied with FIO2 (28.3 +/- 1.0, 34.8 +/- 2.0, and 40.7 +/- 1.9 Torr at 0.12, 0.21, and 1.0 FIO2, respectively, P < 0.05) and was proportionally related to changes in VO2 max, supporting our previous finding that a decrease in O2 supply will proportionately decrease muscle VO2 max. As even in the isolated quadriceps (where normoxic O2 delivery is the highest recorded in humans) an increase in O2 supply by hyperoxia allows the achievement of a greater VO2 max, we conclude that, in normoxic conditions of isolated KE exercise, KE VO2 max in trained subjects is not limited by mitochondrial metabolic rate but, rather, by O2 supply.  (+info)

Analysis of blood flow in the long posterior ciliary artery of the cat. (6/1825)

PURPOSE: Experiments were undertaken to use a new technique for direct on-line measurement of blood flow in the long posterior ciliary artery (LPCA) in cats and to evaluate possible physiological mechanisms controlling blood flow in the vascular beds perfused by this artery. METHODS: Blood flow in the temporal LPCA was measured on a continuous basis using ultrasonic flowmetry in anesthetized cats. Effects of acute sectioning of the sympathetic nerve and changes in LPCA and cerebral blood flows in response to altered levels of inspired CO2 and O2 were tested in some animals. In others, the presence of vascular autoregulatory mechanisms in response to stepwise elevations of intraocular pressure was studied. RESULTS: Blood flow in the temporal LPCA averaged 0.58+/-0.03 ml/min in 45 cats anesthetized with pentobarbital. Basal LPCA blood flow was not altered by acute sectioning of the sympathetic nerve or by changes in low levels of inspired CO2 and O2, although 10% CO2 caused a modest increase. Stepwise elevations of intraocular pressure resulted in comparable stepwise decreases of LPCA blood flow, with perfusion pressure declining in a linear manner throughout the perfusion-pressure range. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonic flowmetry seems to be a useful tool for continuous on-line measurement of LPCA blood flow in the cat eye. Blood flow to vascular beds perfused by this artery does not seem to be under sympathetic neural control and is refractory to modest alterations of blood gas levels of CO2 and O2. Blood vessels perfused by the LPCA show no clear autoregulatory mechanisms.  (+info)

Metabolic acidosis-induced retinopathy in the neonatal rat. (7/1825)

PURPOSE: Carbon dioxide (CO2)-induced retinopathy (CDIR) in the neonatal rat, analogous to human retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), was previously described by our group. In this model, it is possible that CO2-associated acidosis provides a biochemical mechanism for CDIR. Therefore, the effect of pure metabolic acidosis on the developing retinal vasculature of the neonatal rat was investigated. METHODS: A preliminary study of arterial blood pH was performed to confirm acidosis in our model. In neonatal rats with preplaced left carotid artery catheters, acute blood gas samples were taken 1 to 24 hours after gavage with either NH4Cl 1 millimole/100 g body weight or saline. In the subsequent formal retinopathy study, 150 newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were raised in litters of 25 and randomly assigned to be gavaged twice daily with either NH4Cl 1 millimole/100 g body weight (n = 75) or saline (n = 75) from day 2 to day 7. After 5 days of recovery, rats were killed, and retinal vasculature was assessed using fluorescein perfusion and ADPase staining techniques. RESULTS: In the preliminary pH study, the minimum pH after NH4Cl gavage was 7.10+/-0.10 at 3 hours (versus 7.37+/-0.03 in controls, mean +/- SD, P < 0.01). In the formal retinopathy study, preretinal neovascularization occurred in 36% of acidotic rats versus 5% of controls (P < 0.001). Acidotic rats showed growth retardation (final weight 16.5+/-3.0 g versus 20.2+/-2.6 g, P < 0.001). The ratio of vascularized to total retinal area was smaller in acidotic rats (94%+/-4% versus 96%+/-2%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic acidosis alone induces neovascularization similar to ROP in the neonatal rat. This suggests a possible biochemical mechanism by which high levels of CO2 induce neovascularization and supports the suggestion that acidosis may be an independent risk factor for ROP.  (+info)

Continuous arterial P(O2) and P(CO2) measurements in swine during nitrous oxide and xenon elimination: prevention of diffusion hypoxia. (8/1825)

BACKGROUND: During nitrous oxide (N2O) elimination, arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) decreases because of the phenomenon commonly called diffusive hypoxia. The authors questioned whether similar effects occur during xenon elimination. METHODS: Nineteen anesthetized and paralyzed pigs were mechanically ventilated randomly for 30 min using inspiratory gas mixtures of 30% oxygen and either 70% N2O or xenon. The inspiratory gas was replaced by a mixture of 70% nitrogen and 30% oxygen. PaO2 and carbon dioxide tensions were recorded continuously using an indwelling arterial sensor. RESULTS: The PaO2 decreased from 119+/-10 mm Hg to 102+/-12 mm Hg (mean+/-SD) during N2O washout (P<0.01) and from 116+/-9 mm Hg to 110+/-8 mm Hg during xenon elimination (P<0.01), with a significant difference (P<0.01) between baseline and minimum PaO2 values (deltaPaO2, 17+/-6 mm Hg during N2O washout and 6+/-3 mm Hg during xenon washout). The PaCO2 value also decreased (from 39.3+/-6.3 mm Hg to 37.6+/-5.8 mm Hg) during N2O washout (P<0.01) and during xenon elimination (from 35.4+/-1.6 mm Hg to 34.9+/-1.6 mm Hg; P< 0.01). The deltaPaCO2 was 1.7+/-0.9 mm Hg in the N2O group and 0.5+/-0.3 mm Hg in the xenon group (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Diffusive hypoxia is unlikely to occur during recovery from xenon anesthesia, probably because of the low blood solubility of this gas.  (+info)

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Glucose control to prevent both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia is important in an intensive care unit [1]. Recent meta-analysis, including results of the NICE-SUGAR study [2], showed that intensive insulin therapy (target blood-glucose control, 80 to 110 mg/dl) was not beneficial and increased the risk of severe hypoglycemia in critically ill patients [3-5]. Thus, it is currently recommended that insulin should be used when the glucose concentration exceeds 180 mg/dl, and target glucose concentration should generally be between 144 and 180 mg/dl [6, 7]. Even though a more-modest target for blood-glucose concentration is now accepted, the importance of glucose monitoring and its accuracy has become clearer. Because the physiological activity of glucose is dependent on its plasma concentration, central laboratory blood-glucose measurement using plasma (Glu-lab) is recommended [8, 9]. However, arterial blood gas analyzers (ABGs) and/or glucose meters, not Glu-lab, are commonly used to measure ...
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This webcast includes printable course notes. This 60 minute online vet nurse CPD discusses how acid base and blood gas analyses are frequently used in the veterinary hospital to aid diagnosis, monitor therapy, and assess ventilation and oxygenation. This tutorial will cover the fundamentals of interpretation including the following aspects: What is acid base assessment? When is it used? How do we interpret the results? Common disturbances What are blood gases? When are they used? How do we interpret the results? Acid Base and Blood Gas Analysis.
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The present study was designed to examine the anatomical parameters of the cardiopulmonary system, the function of venous blood gas parameters and the development of ascites incidence in two genetic line chickens. Three hundred forty day-old chickens from two pure broiler breeder lines, which were different in their growth rate and susceptibility to ascites syndrome were obtained. The relative heart and lung weights, the volumes of the heart, lung and thorax cavity, the incidence of ascites, and the venous blood gas parameters in these two genetic line chickens were followed. In the present study, the incidence of ascites and right ventricular hypertrophy was markedly higher in the fast-growing broiler chickens compared to the slow-growing chickens, as two genetic line chickens exhibited significant differences in their growth performance traits. The volumes of the thorax cavity, before and after removing the heart and lung tissues, were lower in fast-growing broiler chickens compared to the slow
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Central and mixed venous blood gases offer us a glimpse of whole-body oxygen extraction. A mixed venous blood gas is a sample aspirated from the most distal port of the PA catheter, offering a mixture of inferior vena cava blood, superior vena cava blood, and the coronary sinuses. Thus, the result is an average of venous blood. But what if I dont have a PA catheter, you might ask? A central venous gas may be almost as good.
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8. TOXICOLOGICAL ANALYSES AND BIOMEDICAL INVESTIGATIONS 8.1 Material sampling plan 8.1.1 Sampling and specimen collection 8.1.1.1 Toxicological analyses 8.1.1.2 Biomedical analyses 8.1.1.3 Arterial blood gas analysis 8.1.1.4 Haematological analyses 8.1.1.5 Other (unspecified) analyses 8.1.2 Storage of laboratory samples and specimens 8.1.2.1 Toxicological analyses 8.1.2.2 Biomedical analyses 8.1.2.3 Arterial blood gas analysis 8.1.2.4 Haematological analyses 8.1.2.5 Other (unspecified) analyses 8.1.3 Transport of laboratory samples and specimens 8.1.3.1 Toxicological analyses 8.1.3.2 Biomedical analyses 8.1.3.3 Arterial blood gas analysis 8.1.3.4 Haematological analyses 8.1.3.5 Other (unspecified) analyses 8.2 Toxicological Analyses and Their Interpretation 8.2.1 Tests on toxic ingredient(s) of material 8.2.1.1 Simple Qualitative Test(s) 8.2.1.2 Advanced Qualitative Confirmation Test(s) 8.2.1.3 Simple Quantitative Method(s) 8.2.1.4 Advanced Quantitative Method(s) 8.2.2 Tests for biological ...
8. TOXICOLOGICAL ANALYSES AND BIOMEDICAL INVESTIGATIONS 8.1 Material sampling plan 8.1.1 Sampling and specimen collection 8.1.1.1 Toxicological analyses 8.1.1.2 Biomedical analyses 8.1.1.3 Arterial blood gas analysis 8.1.1.4 Haematological analyses 8.1.1.5 Other (unspecified) analyses 8.1.2 Storage of laboratory samples and specimens 8.1.2.1 Toxicological analyses 8.1.2.2 Biomedical analyses 8.1.2.3 Arterial blood gas analysis 8.1.2.4 Haematological analyses 8.1.2.5 Other (unspecified) analyses 8.1.3 Transport of laboratory samples and specimens 8.1.3.1 Toxicological analyses 8.1.3.2 Biomedical analyses 8.1.3.3 Arterial blood gas analysis 8.1.3.4 Haematological analyses 8.1.3.5 Other (unspecified) analyses 8.2 Toxicological analyses and their interpretation 8.2.1 Tests on toxic ingredient(s) of material 8.2.1.1 Simple qualitative test(s) 8.2.1.2 Advanced qualitative test(s) 8.2.1.3 Simple qualitative method(s) 8.2.1.4 Advanced quantitative Method(s) 8.2.2 Tests for biological specimens 8.2.2.1 ...
The perinatal period (labor, parturition, and the days following) is one of fundamental change in the cardiorespiratory status of the baby. Nutritional, excretory, and respiratory systems must rapidly assume new responsibilities as the organism changes from a dependent to a free-living individual. Respiratory gas exchange, formerly a placental function, must be established by the lungs within minutes after birth. The cardiovascular system undergoes changes just as dramatic, with conversion from two circulations in parallel to two circulations now in series. Therefore, frequent and serious difficulties in cardiorespiratory adaptation in the perinatal and neonatal periods are not surprising.. Blood gas measurements and complementary, noninvasive monitoring techniques provide the clinician with information essential to patient assessment, therapeutic decision making, and prognostication. Blood gas measurements are as important for ill newborn infants as for other critically ill patients, but unique ...
We recently received a venous blood sample for blood gas analysis from the operation room. We analyzed the specimen according to manufacturers instructions on the ABL800 FLEX blood gas instrument (Radiometer, Copenhagen, Denmark). Multiple error codes were present for the results of ctHb, sO2, FO2Hb, FCOHb, FHHb, and FMetHb. Text messages accompanying the report read,
An arterialblood gas analysis which is conducted in critical care areas contributes to the assessment of a patients ventilatory status and acid -base balance. The purpose of this research was to determine the relationship of time delays and temperature on the result of a blood gas analysis. The objective was to either accept or refute the null hypothesis, that there is no relationship between temperature and time delays and an arterial blood gas result Fifteen subjects were randomly selected. The researcher drew three samples of arterial blood from each subject. Ethical principles were observed. An inferential non-parametric statistic was used. The chi-squared test was used to test the hypothesis and the Friedman and the Wilcoxon signed ranks test were used to test the differences between the means. The results revealed that there was a relationship between time delays, temperature and the arterial blood gas result. The null hypothesis was rejected ...
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TechNavios analysts forecast the Online Gas Analyzer market in China to reach US$641.1 million by 2016. One of the key factors contributing to this market growth is the need to comply with the governments regulations and guidelines. The Online Gas Analyzer market in China has also been witnessing developing multi-function analyzers. However, the increasing threat from low-cost products could pose a challenge to the growth of this market. TechNavios report, the Online Gas Analyzer Market in ...
We had a long journey to get here! I cant tell how many times that I had argument with consultants regarding COPD or DKA patient that they ask for ABG and we had VBG! My old Post was focused mostly on DKA patient but Thanks to Throax that published a study among COPD patients.. Using venous blood gas analysis in the assessment of COPD exacerbation: a prospective cohort study: UK based study, 234 patients with COPD exacerbation. There is a great agreement between arterial and venous measures of pH and HCO3. The mean difference amazingly looks good in their analysis.. Link to article. ...
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In view of the plethora of published material available on this area, the author justifies yet another contribution by alluding to the excessive complexities and uneven literary quality of existing texts. Unfortunately, Dr. Tullers approach is excessively simplified, in this reviewers opinion.. He suggests that plasma [HCO3-] is never directly altered by changes in ventilation because the bicarbonate ion is not volatile. If this were indeed correct, then the PCO2 would inform us about alveolar ventilation, whereas the [HCO3-] would be a purely metabolic index. Unfortunately, in the presence of protein buffers in the blood, [HCO3-] is acutely altered by ...
Scheadler CM, Garver MJ, Hanson NJ.. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2017 Sep;49(9):1911-1916. INTRODUCTION: There is a plethora of gas sampling intervals available ...
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Design and gas sampling performance. Conversion of nicotine in tobacco smoke to its volatile and available free-base form through the action of gaseous ammonia
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LifeHealth, is located in Roseville, MN where we manufacture the Irma Point of Care Blood Analysis System. The only point of care Blood Gas system manufactured in the United States. The IRMA® System, is the worlds first POC Blood Gas Analyzer, clinically proven with over 24 years of exceptional analytical performance measuring blood gases, electrolytes and Hematocrit in all clinical settings. Please come by Booth 2186 to meet Irma, the dependable point of car analyzer.. ...
Radiometer invented the worlds first blood gas analyzer in 1954 in the fight against childhood polio epidemic and is the leading provider of blood gas testing today.
These advances went hand-in-hand with the establishment of pioneering national and international organ transplant programmes for heart, kidney and liver transplants in Cape Town. This necessitated improved anaesthetic skills to provide peri-operative care and anaesthesia for critically ill transplant recipients (adult and paediatric). The liver transplantation programme, regarded by many as inappropriate for the SA environment, proved to be extremely successful in both adult and paediatric patients. Further positive benefits included the acquisition of point-of-care equipment in theatre, such as thrombelastography and blood gas analysers.. In January 2008 one of the authors (PG) attended the World Health Organization (WHO) meeting to finalise the Surgical Safety Check List (SSCL). The check-list was implemented at GSH and across the Western Cape (WC) province, and was recently adopted as a national core standard for hospitals by the national Department of Health (DoH).. In 2006 the WC DoH ...
We carry and use a complete range of surgical instruments. We have the capability to undergo complicated and nearly a full range of surgery in our hospital. We have a designated special sterile surgical room for the complicated or difficult surgical procedures.. Our nurses are highly trained in surgical procedures and our veterinarians have extensive experience in a wide range of surgical procedures.. We use a full range of gowns, caps, masks and gloves for our surgery cases. Each patient is monitored using breathing monitors, heart monitors and blood gas analyzers. All instruments are autoclaved before use to minimize any contamination.. Patients are monitored during and after surgery for recovery as well as pain control. A nurse remains with the patient until the animal has fully recovered and is comfortable.. ...
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To date, studies using NAVA technology have been limited to short term evaluations (under 3 hours). No serious adverse events have been observed in patients enrolled in our 3-hour study of NAVA in patients with acute lung injury. All 15 patients successfully tolerated the period of ventilation (i.e. there were no dropouts) with NAVA and the stability of the blood gas parameters over time reveals the efficiency of this new mode of ventilation in regards to oxygenation.. A longer study may help to evaluate patient tolerance of NAVA and stability over time. A longer study will also demonstrate the feasibility of NAVA to adapt to changes in respiratory drive, changes in patient status, and the interventions of health care providers. A longer time frame should help us understand the parameters for titration of NAVA settings over time and establish some indications/limits for the future use of this promising technique. This intermediate study will generate the data necessary for the development of ...
A Learning Pack On Arterial Blood Gases For New Starters and ... ... www.resus.org.uk/pages/alsmBGap.pdf) ABGs are ... 35 HCO3 -18 mmols This is a response by the respiratory system ... A Learning Pack On Arterial Blood Gases For New .... ...
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30. Baker concluded that Barrett suffers a moderate impairment and lacks the respiratory capacity to perform the work of a coal miner or comparable work in a dust-free environment. J.A. at 120. The ALJ noted that Bakers opinion was based not only on the March 28, 2000 pulmonary function test, which was determined to be invalid, but also on a subsequent pulmonary function test that did produce qualifying results and on arterial blood gas studies which indicated that Barrett had "mild resting arterial hypoxemia." J.A. at 222. The ALJ concluded that, "[w]hile the weight of the valid and conforming pulmonary function tests alone constitutes probative evidence of total disability, when combined with the arterial blood gases, which provide no evidence of total disability, and the medical opinions, which weigh in favor of a finding of total disability, the weight of the evidence directs a finding of total disability." J.A. at 223. In rejecting Dr. Dahhans opinion to the contrary, the ALJ noted that ...
2018-9-9An arterial-blood gas (ABG) test measures the amounts of arterial gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide.An ABG test requires that a small volume of blood be drawn from the radial artery with a syringe and a thin needle, but sometimes the femoral artery in the groin or another site is used. The blood can also be drawn from an arterial catheter.An ABG test measures the blood-gas ...
Learn more about Arterial Blood Gases at Memorial Hospital DefinitionReasons for TestPossible ComplicationsWhat to ExpectCall Your Doctorrevision ....
Abstract Background: It has been suggested that oxidative stress is increased and antioxidant defenses are decreased in depression, and oxidative str..
Blood gas tests (arterial blood gases, ABGs) measure oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2) and pH to evaluate a persons lung function and the pH balance (acid and base) of their blood.
The company offers complete solutions to the complex process of blood gas analysis through the use of innovative instrumentation, sampling products and information technology, supported by world-class customer and technical support. Radiometers blood gas testing solutions meet the needs of both the traditional central laboratory and the increasing number of point of care sites in todays hospital environment ...
A gas analysis apparatus employing partitions with ionic conduction which, instead of using a capillary opening or a semi-permeable membrane to fill a measuring space by means of a continuous diffusion process, employs the partition (8, 8a) which is used for rapidly emptying a measurement space (7, 7a) also for filling the measurement space up to the concentration to be measured. For this purpose a pumping current (ip) is replaced by a filling current (iv) of opposite polarity.
The Blood gas Monovette is available in 1 and 2 ml options and has been designed for venous and arterial blood collection. The blood gas capillaries offer a nominal volume range of 100 - 175 µl ...
... Apparently, he has ingested some unknown medication in a suicide attempt. The patient is disoriented to time. His temperature is 39.3 C (103 F), blood pressure is 120/85 mm Hg, pulse is 100/min and irregular, and respirations are 22/min. The skin is flushed and dry. Dilated pupils and muscle twitching are also noted on physical examination. ECG reveals prolonged QRS complexes. Hepatic transaminases are normal, and blood gas analysis shows a normal pH. These findings are most likely due to intoxication by which of the following substances?
Ultra-trace measurements of UHP gases including hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and non-methane hydrocarbon compounds
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Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Agh!!! They just did rounds and while we think that Grace is doing awesome (compared to... herself), the first thing the attending says is "I wish she was doing better and not so up and down." I was taken back because, like I said, we think that shes doing great and all of the other feedback that weve gotten has been the same. As the fellow began presenting the case and the attending got to hear that her mixed venous blood gas was good (meaning that the coldness of her extremities was more environmental versus poor cardiac output) and other labs looked good, he asked the fellow if "he wanted to declare it a victory." The fellow was extremely hesitant, but they both agreed that she is doing great for Grace (certainly not "normal" or "perfect", but great for Grace and that is praiseworthy in our book :-). This is exactly what happen last time we were here... they kept talking about extubating (taking her breathing tube out) tomorrow and then tomorrow became the next day and then the next day, ...
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MINE GASES Measurement Basic formula. Co Gases are commonly measured in percentage (%) by volume and ppm. Since both of these units of measurement are volume relationships, they are easily converted to one another. Basic formula. % X = ppm, and conversely ppm ÷ = % Contamination limits are only quoted in milligrams per cubic metre (mg/m3). The following formula is used to convert concentrations from ppm at 20oC to mg/m3.
The SITRANS F C MASS 2100 DI 1.5 is today the preferred meter for research and development and mini-plant applications for liquid or gas measurement, where measuring very small quantities (e.g. drops per hour) is important ...
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Viewed posteriorly the right kidney has its upper edge opposite the 11th dorsal spine and the lower edge of the 11th rib. Its lower edge is ...
hi, just wondering if anyone has any tips as to how to interpret this. just when i think i understand i dont. :uhoh3: i have ordered some books but wanted to know if there are any hints to
Mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit (ICU) is usually guided by arterial blood gases, and the parameters used to maintain these blood gases are
Ideal for operation with gas analyzers, as fuel gas for flame tools, or as a source for pure hydrogen in plasma chambers and other isolated environments.
Cant get enough of ABG analysis? Try our next set of practice exam and master the art of interpreting ABGs. So heres another 10-question practice exam!
Severinghaus, JW; Astrup, PB (1986). "History of blood gas analysis. IV. Leland Clark's oxygen electrode". Journal of clinical ... Severinghaus J. The Invention and Development of Blood Gas Analysis Apparatus. Anesthesiology. 2002;97:253-6 Clark, L.; Lyons, ... However, when he came to publish his results, his article was refused by the editor since the oxygen tension in the blood ... A discrepancy between the measured partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) between blood samples and gaseous mixtures of identical pO2 ...
Severinghaus, John W.; Astrup, Poul B. (1986). History of blood gas analysis. VI. Oximetry. Journal of Clinical Monitoring and ... venous and capillary blood, of which only arterial blood was relevant to oxygen measurement. Millikan's own solution to these ... During his doctorate studies in Cambridge he built a dual-wavelength colorimeter for blood oxygen level measurements. The ... According to Millikan's early statements, light absorbance of green light was independent of blood oxygen level, absorbance of ...
Severinghaus JW, Astrup PB (1986). "History of blood gas analysis. VI. Oximetry". J Clin Monit. 2 (4): 270-88. PMID 3537215. ...
Severinghaus, John W.; Astrup, Poul B. (1986). "History of blood gas analysis. VI. Oximetry". Journal of Clinical Monitoring ...
"Blood gas analysis for bedside diagnosis". National Journal of Maxillofacial Surgery. 4 (2): 136-141. doi:10.4103/0975- ... Acidosis Alkalosis Arterial blood gas Chemical equilibrium Hypocalcemia Metabolic acidosis Metabolic alkalosis pCO2 pH pKa ... Alkalosis refers to the process due to which there is elevation of blood pH. Alkalemia refers to an arterial blood pH of ... The Davenport diagram allows clinicians or investigators to outline blood bicarbonate concentrations (and blood pH) after a ...
Intra-operative blood salvage setup, operating and monitoring. Arterial blood gas analysis, including maintenance of analysers ... collection and analysis of patient (blood) samples. acquiring and administering transfusion fluids and equipment. Anaesthetic ... This may include electrocardiography (ECG), blood pressure and oxygen saturation devices. The monitoring of other parameters ...
"The Analysis of Blood Gases." Handbook of Blood Gas/Acid-Base Interpretation. Springer London, 2013. pp. 253-266.. ... Japp, Alan.Arterial Blood Gases Made Easy. Churchill Livingstone 1 edition (18 Sep 2007). Hirakawa, M.; Hidaka, N.; Kido, S.; ... Alkalemia refers to a pH which is higher than normal, specifically in the blood. The causes of metabolic alkalosis can be ... In order to maintain electrical neutrality, hydrogen shifts into the cells, raising blood pH. Hyperaldosteronism - Loss of ...
Free hydrogen ions then diffuse into the blood, lowering the pH. Arterial blood gas analysis detects acidemia (pH lower than ... Bicarbonate is given at 50-100 mmol at a time under scrupulous monitoring of the arterial blood gas readings. This intervention ... Although blood gas sampling is not always essential for the diagnosis of acidosis, a low pH (in either a venous or arterial ... and diagnosis can be difficult unless the patient presents with clear indications for arterial blood gas sampling. Symptoms may ...
CLSI, C46-A2- Blood Gas and pH Analysis and Related Measurements; Approved Guideline-Second Edition, Wayne, PA, 2010 Zijlstra ... Comparison and assessment of blood gas related quantities including base excess, the gas exchange indices and temperature ... While these units still are in wide use, blood gas analyzers with integral CO-oximetry modules have also been developed and ... A CO-oximeter is a device that measures the oxygen carrying state of hemoglobin in a blood specimen, including oxygen-carrying ...
Higgins, C. (October 2007). "The use of heparin in preparing samples for blood-gas analysis" (PDF). Medical Laboratory Observer ... Heparin-coated blood oxygenators are available for use in heart-lung machines. Among other things, these specialized ... "Miracle Blood Lubricant: Connaught and the Story of Heparin, 1928-1937". Health Heritage Research Services. Archived from the ... Hansen R, Koster A, Kukucka M, Mertzlufft F, Kuppe H (2000). "A quick anti-Xa-activity-based whole blood coagulation assay for ...
Cord blood gas analysis is indicated for high-risk pregnancies, in cases where C-sections occurred due to fetal compromise, if ... Armstrong, L; Stenson, BJ (November 2007). "Use of umbilical cord blood gas analysis in the assessment of the newborn". ... Difficulty initiating and maintaining respiration Depression of tone and reflexes Cord blood gas analysis can be used to ... a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. 385: 117-71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. PMC ...
Blood gas analysis may also be carried out, although it is rarely required. In some cases, a bronchoalveolar lavage may be ... and mucus and cells are washed out of the lower airways for analysis. Typically, a BAL recovers an abnormally high percentage ...
Arterial blood gas analysis and other tests are required to separate the main causes. The rate of cellular metabolic activity ... healthy human-arterial blood pH varies between 7.35 and 7.45). Blood pH values compatible with life in mammals are limited to a ... it usually refers to acidity of the blood plasma. The term acidemia describes the state of low blood pH, while acidosis is used ... Acidosis is a process causing increased acidity in the blood and other body tissues (i.e., an increased hydrogen ion ...
Diagnosis may be supported by blood gas analysis of blood aspirated from the penis or ultrasound. Treatment depends on the type ... Blood gas testing the blood from the cavernosa of the penis can help in the diagnosis. If the low flow type of priapism is ... stagnant blood is held. This causes the blood to leave the penis and return to the circulation. This procedure can be performed ... Blood transfusions are not usually recommended as part of the initial treatment but if other treatments are not effective ...
... is a medical procedure performed to obtain a sample of arterial blood for gas analysis. Also it is ... Most commonly, femoral and radial artery puncture is performed to obtain arterial blood sampling for gas analysis. The partial ... These data indicate the status of gas exchange between lungs and blood. Cellulitis or other infections over the radial artery ... A Positive Allen Test indicates the blood supply to the hand is normal. Coagulation defects (relative) It is important to ...
Durbin, CG; Rostow, SK (2002). "More reliable oximetry reduces the frequency of arterial blood gas analysis and hastens oxygen ... SET identifies the venous blood signal (which has a lower oxygen saturation level than arterial blood), isolates it, and uses ... in newborns Reduce ventilator weaning time by titrating FiO2 faster and reduce arterial blood gas measurements in the Intensive ... Conventional pulse oximetry assumes that arterial blood is the only blood moving (pulsating) in the measurement site. However, ...
Higgins, C. The use of heparin in preparing samples for blood-gas analysis (PDF). Medical Laboratory Observer. October 2007.. ... Miracle Blood Lubricant: Connaught and the Story of Heparin, 1928-1937. Health Heritage Research Services. [2007-05-21]. (原始内容存 ... Effects of Heparin on Polymerase Chain Reaction for Blood White Cells. J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 1999, 13 (3): 133-140. PMID 10323479 ... New York Times, March 7, 2008 German Authorities Report Problems With Blood Thinner, retrieved 2008-03-07 ...
Free hydrogen ions then diffuse into the blood, lowering the pH. Arterial blood gas analysis detects acidemia (pH lower than ... Although blood gas sampling is not always essential for the diagnosis of acidosis, a low pH (in either a venous or arterial ... Bicarbonate is given at 50-100 mmol at a time under scrupulous monitoring of the arterial blood gas readings. This intervention ... PaCO2 is the pressure of CO2 in arterial blood). Adding the other normal values, we get. pH. =. 6.1. +. Log. [. 24. 0.03. ×. 40 ...
"Accuracy of Noninvasive Multiwave Pulse Oximetry Compared With Carboxyhemoglobin From Blood Gas Analysis in Unselected ... and small amounts of other gases produced by gasification was piped to a gas mixer. The gas mixture produced by this process is ... Carbon monoxide is absorbed through breathing and enters the blood stream through gas exchange in the lungs. It is also ... Laboratory testing requires a blood sample (arterial or venous) and laboratory analysis on a CO-Oximeter. Additionally, a ...
... arterial blood gas analysis and chest X-ray were required for formal diagnosis. Limitations of these definitions include lack ... Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) selectively widens the lung's arteries which allows for more blood flow to open alveoli for gas ... As the alveoli contain progressively less gas, the blood flowing through the alveolar capillaries is progressively less ... optimized arterial blood gas results, mechanical restoration of FRC (functional residual capacity), a positive effect on ...
... both children then had gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis sent on their blood and urine that were negative for ... Side effects include neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a movement disorder known as tardive dyskinesia, and high blood sugar in ... 105-6. ISBN 978-0-9626523-7-0. Skov L, Johansen SS, Linnet K (Jan 2015). "Postmortem Femoral Blood Reference Concentrations of ... Nelson JC, Papakostas GI (September 2009). "Atypical antipsychotic augmentation in major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis ...
This can be confirmed by blood tests and gas analysis using either direct or indirect calorimetry to show the effect of ... BMR may be measured by gas analysis through either direct or indirect calorimetry, though a rough estimation can be acquired ... All of it is contained in the body as important parts of tissues, blood hormones, and enzymes. The structural components of the ... The overall equation for this reaction is: C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O (38 ATP molecules) Because the gas exchange in this ...
This can be confirmed by blood tests and gas analysis using either direct or indirect calorimetry to show the effect of ... BMR may be measured by gas analysis through either direct or indirect calorimetry, though a rough estimation can be acquired ... Because the gas exchange in this reaction is equal, the respiratory quotient (R.Q.) for carbohydrate is unity or 1.0:. R.Q. = 6 ... All of it is contained in the body as important parts of tissues, blood hormones, and enzymes. The structural components of the ...
... blood) with gas chromatography. There is no agreed treatment protocol. In most reported cases of ORS the attempted treatment ... Depending upon the case, this might include neuroimaging, thyroid and adrenal hormone tests, and analysis of body fluids (e.g. ... That is to say, part of the brain was receiving insufficient blood flow. In another, functional magnetic resonance imaging was ...
Severinghaus JW, Honda Y (April 1987). "History of blood gas analysis. VII. Pulse oximetry". Journal of Clinical Monitoring. 3 ... Durbin CG, Rostow SK (August 2002). "More reliable oximetry reduces the frequency of arterial blood gas analyses and hastens ... In contrast, blood gas levels must otherwise be determined in a laboratory on a drawn blood sample. Pulse oximetry is useful in ... from arterial blood gas analysis, the two are correlated well enough that the safe, convenient, noninvasive, inexpensive pulse ...
Sedimentation Velocity Analysis of Heterogeneous Protein-Protein Interactions: Lamm Equation Modeling and Sedimentation ... Separation of urine components and blood components in forensic and research laboratories ... relying on the slight mass difference between atoms of U238 and U235 in uranium hexafluoride gas.[citation needed]. ... Molecular properties can be modeled through sedimentation velocity analysis or sedimentation equilibrium analysis. During the ...
Further in the Global Blood Gas Analyzers Market Industry Analysis report, the Global Blood Gas Analyzers Market is examined ... In this Global Blood Gas Analyzers Market report analysis, traders and distributors analysis is given along with contact ... Global Blood Gas Analyzers market analysis report contains all study material about Market Overview, Growth, Demand and ... New investment feasibility analysis and Global Blood Gas Analyzers Market Industry growth is included in the report. ...
Arterial blood gas analysis was performed by radial arterial puncture. Ventilatory response to progressive hypercapnia was ... A continuous record of CO2 concentration in the expired gas was obtained by a CO2 analyzer within the circuit. The ventilatory ... presented late-onset CCHS with an expansion mutation of the Phox2B gene that was confirmed by genetic analysis. Surprisingly, ... presented late-onset CCHS with an expansion mutation of the Phox2B gene that was confirmed by genetic analysis. ...
... blood gases, is a test done to measure how much oxygen, carbon dioxide, and bicarbonate is in the blood. ... Blood gas analysis is usually performed on blood from artery, although in rare cases blood from a vein may be used. The main ... Arterial blood gas analysis, also called simply "blood gases," is a test done to measure how much oxygen, carbon dioxide, and ... Before blood is drawn, the health care provider may test circulation to the hand (if the wrist is the site). After the blood is ...
... the measurement of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in either blood or tissue, depends on the Lambert-Beer relationship between ... Oxygen: saturation Measurement techniques: oximetry spectrophotometry photocells optodes Blood: gas analysis, history ... V. Technique for analysis of undiluted blood and concentrated hemoglobin solutions. J Biol Chem 1935;112:105-115Google Scholar ... The history of blood gases, acids and bases. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1986Google Scholar ...
Too much heparin: possible source of error in blood gas analysis. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1983; 287 :1131 ... Too much heparin: possible source of error in blood gas analysis.. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1983; 287 doi: https://doi.org/ ...
... in writing a history of acid base balance and blood gases, invited me to contribute a chapter about the modern period, from ... This first essay centers on electrochemistry, the basis of modern blood gas analysis, and accordingly examines its roots in ... The story of blood gas analysis since 1950 is vast: there are some 420 references to methodology and closely related physiology ... In 1982 Poul Astrup, in writing a history of acid base balance and blood gases, invited me to contribute a chapter about the ...
Oxygen: saturation Measurement techniques: oximetry Blood: gas analysis, history This is a preview of subscription content, log ... Severinghaus J, Astrup P. History of blood analysis. VI. Oximetry. J Clin Monit 1986;2:270-288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
... many nurses find acid-base balance confusing and view interpreting arterial blood gas (ABG) results as outside of the scope of ... Understand the different imbalances that the analysis can identify; - Be familiar with four-step arterial blood gas analysis. ... Why monitor arterial blood gas?. ABG analysis is a diagnostic tool that allows the objective evaluation of a patients ... Arterial blood gas analysis is valuable as a diagnostic tool as it enables objective evaluation of a patients oxygenation, ...
Blood Gas Analyses. Gas Analysis, Blood. Gas Analyses, Blood. Analyses, Blood Gas ... http://purl.bioontology.org/ontology/Blood_gas_analysis Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation LOOM ... for determ of oxygen & carbon dioxide in the blood; NIM; coord with disease /blood, not /physiopathol ...
... blood gas analysis, transcutaneous explanation free. What is blood gas analysis, transcutaneous? Meaning of blood gas analysis ... Looking for online definition of blood gas analysis, transcutaneous in the Medical Dictionary? ... Occult blood, Safe blood, Strawberry cream blood, Umbilical cord blood, Whole blood, Yellow blood. Cf Snake blood. blood (blŭd ... blood gas analysis, mixed venous blood gas analysis performed on a blood sample obtained from the pulmonary artery. ...
Blood gas studies. Patients underwent an arterial blood gas analysis while in the supine and seated position; the sample was ... In conclusion, we found that the position at which arterial blood gas analysis and blood gas criteria are used for the ... A decreased blood oxygenation is demonstrated by performing an arterial blood gas analysis, although pulse oximetry is also ... regardless of the blood gas criteria used and the position in which arterial blood gases were obtained. Figure 2 shows the ...
Blood-Gas Analysis You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or cited in the literature. You can ...
Blood Gas Analysis Carbon Dioxide - analysis - blood Comparative Study Humans Hypothermia - blood Oxygen - analysis - blood ... Blood Gas Analysis Carbon Dioxide - blood Cold Climate Female Fetal Blood - chemistry Humans Infant, Newborn - blood Male ... Acid-Base Imbalance - blood - mortality Adult Aged Alberta Analysis of Variance Biological Markers - analysis Blood Gas ... Acidosis - blood - etiology - metabolism Animals Anoxia - blood - etiology - metabolism Blood Gas Analysis Female Lead ...
What is blood gas analysis, mixed venous? Meaning of blood gas analysis, mixed venous as a legal term. What does blood gas ... Definition of blood gas analysis, mixed venous in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Associated concepts: blood heirs, blood issue, blood relatives, full blood, half blood, mixed blood. Foreign phrases: ... blood. (redirected from blood gas analysis, mixed venous). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. blood. ...
When an arterial blood gas analysis is required, blood is withdrawn from the patient directly into the Proxima Sensor and a ... When a blood gas analysis is required, blood is simply withdrawn from the patient directly into the Proxima Sensor and once ... All blood is returned to the patient avoiding any blood loss. The disposable sensor can be used for monitoring blood gases and ... access to frequent blood gas analysis are clear when there is the potential for rapid and life-threatening changes to blood gas ...
"Blood Gas Analysis" by people in this website by year, and whether "Blood Gas Analysis" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Blood Gas Analysis" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Blood Gas Analysis*Blood Gas Analysis. *Analysis, Blood Gas. *Analyses, Blood Gas ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Blood Gas Analysis" by people in Profiles. ...
Use of Arterial Blood Gas Analysis in Diagnosis and Therapy.. Ann Intern Med. 1971;75:486. doi: https://doi.org/10.7326/0003- ... Unfortunately, in the presence of protein buffers in the blood, [HCO3-] is acutely altered by ...
Umbilical cord blood gas analysis is now recommended in all high-risk deliveries by both the British and American Colleges of ... In 1958, James et al recognised that umbilical cord blood gas analysis can give an indication of preceding fetal hypoxic stress ... Use of umbilical cord blood gas analysis in the assessment of the newborn ... Use of umbilical cord blood gas analysis in the assessment of the newborn ...
... of arterial blood flowing through the umbilical cord provides valuable objective evidence of the metabolic condition... ... Blood is sampled into a preheparinized syringe by needle aspiration. As with any blood sample destined for blood gas analysis ... The applicability of cord blood gas analysis is an unresolved controversy that will be addressed: should cord blood gas ... SAMPLING OF CORD BLOOD. The standard technique of sampling cord blood for gas and acid-base analysis comprises three steps:. * ...
Arterial Punction for Blood Gas Analysis - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. journal ... sample for blood gas analysis. The chief indication for blood gas analysis is the ON M4N 3M5, Canada.. need to obtain values ... arterial blood gas analysis are the failure to obtain a blood sample because of vaso- sessment of hand circulation by means of ... Arterial Puncture for Blood Gas Analysis. Shelly P. Dev, M.D., Melinda D. Hillmer, M.D., BSc.Phm., and Mauricio Ferri, M.D. ...
... Product News Nov 11, 2015 ... Blood gas is a key parameter used to assess the status of a critical care patient, therefore, at the Congress Sphere Medical ... As an on-demand arterial blood gas analyser, the Proxima system is designed to address many of the errors that can occur in the ... Notably, up to 60% of all errors in blood gas testing occur in the pre-analytical phase which can ultimately result in patient ...
Find out information about blood gas analysis, transcutaneous. fluid pumped by the heart that circulates throughout the body ... via the arteries, veins, and capillaries . An adult male of average size normally has about 6... Explanation of blood gas ... blood. (redirected from blood gas analysis, transcutaneous). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal. blood,. ... Blood gas analysis, transcutaneous , Article about blood gas analysis, transcutaneous by The Free Dictionary https:// ...
... hs-CRP and blood gas analysis index in acute myocar.. ... Blood gas analysis index, urea nitrogen, creatinine and heart ... After CRRT, serum BNP, IL-34 and hs-CRP decreased (P,0.05), urea nitrogen, creatinine, heart rate and blood gas analysis index ... The effect of continuous renal replacement therapy on serum BNP, IL-34, hs-CRP and blood gas analysis index in acute myocardial ... It can not only stabilize internal environment, improve cardiac failure and blood gas analysis index in a short time, but also ...
Central venous blood gas analysis. by Chris Higgins. Blood gas analysis (BGA) is a laboratory and point-of-care test routinely ... Central venous blood gas analysis. by Chris Higgins. Blood gas analysis (BGA) is a laboratory and point-of-care test routinely ... Blood gas Preanalytics app. Get the Blood gas Preanalytics app for your smartphone. This smartphone app focuses on the ... Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis generates a number of parameters (listed in BOX 5) that together... ...
Using venous blood gas analysis in the assessment of COPD exacerbations: a prospective cohort study ... These agreements could allow the initial assessment of COPD exacerbations to be based on venous blood gas analysis and pulse ... We assessed whether blood gas values derived from venous blood could replace arterial at initial assessment.. Methods: Patients ... Using venous blood gas analysis in the assessment of COPD exacerbations: a prospective cohort study. Thorax, 71 (3). pp. 210- ...
  • The present study reports a unique familial case in which the father (proband) presented late-onset CCHS with an expansion mutation of the Phox2B gene that was confirmed by genetic analysis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • They enter the blood stream and are eventually metabolized or excreted via exhalation, skin emission, urine, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • These tests require only a single drop of whole blood, urine or saliva, and they can be performed and interpreted by any general physician within minutes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The method of diagnosis is the determination of 3,5-dimethoxyphenol, a product of the hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond in taxine, in the blood, the gastric contents, the urine and the tissues of the patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • All three approaches require the quantification of metabolites found in bodily fluids and tissue, such as blood or urine, and can be used in the assessment of pharmaceutical treatment options for numerous disease states. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early physicians employed a primitive form of metabolomic analysis by smelling, tasting and looking at urine to diagnose disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is accredited by National Accreditation Board for Testing & Calibration Laboratories, NABL (ISO/IEC 17025:2005) for human & horse dope testing and World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) for testing of urine & blood samples from human sports. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike the conventional dried blood spot test for newborn screening that involves a painful heel prick, Metascreen uses urine specimen, collected without harm or discomfort to the newborn, to detect as many as 110 metabolic disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • The urine specimen is collected on a filter paper, which is then air-dried and sent to the laboratory for analysis using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry instrument ("GC-MS"). GC-MS is a FDA approved method for urinary analyte detection, a gold standard for lipids, drug metabolites and environmental analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The same group hypothesised that this is because the kidneys do an extraordinary job of removing and/or concentrating certain metabolites from the blood, hence, compounds far below the limit of detection in blood (using today's instrumentation) are well above the detection limit in urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • A positive test was then complemented by sampling blood or urine for analysis at a forensic laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Urine organic acid analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) will show a pattern of dicarboxylic aciduria with low levels of ketones. (wikipedia.org)
  • These later models used a fuel cell alcohol sensor rather than crystals, providing a more reliable curbside test and removing the need for blood or urine samples to be taken at a police station. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common screening tests used in the last sixty years: Ferric chloride test (turned colors in reaction to various abnormal metabolites in urine) Ninhydrin paper chromatography (detected abnormal amino acid patterns) Guthrie bacterial inhibition assay (detected a few amino acids in excessive amounts in blood) The dried blood spot can be used for multianalyte testing using Tandem Mass Spectrometry (MS/MS). This given an indication for a disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • MDPV cannot be smelled by detection dogs and will not be found in typical urinalysis, although they can be detected in urine and hair analyses using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, LAESI has been used to analyze historic documents and untreated biofluids such as urine and blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two specific methods for measuring the urinary sugars and polyols are liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. (wikipedia.org)
  • This analysis can be done by gas or liquid chromatography and also by mass spectroscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, sample purification processes, such as liquid or gas chromatography, are coupled with either mass spectrometry (MS)-based or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based analytical methods to characterize the metabolite profiles of individual patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • She used a variety of techniques, including infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. (wikipedia.org)
  • made clear in very high TCDD or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin levels in human milk, adipose tissue, and blood as measured by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy) in the Vietnamese people living in Vietnam is substantially greater than that of other populations (Schechter et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a revolutionary Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based technology with an integrated analytics system, which has now made it possible to test a newborn for over 100 mm genetic metabolic disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a significant development since it ensures the seamless transfer of blood gas and electrolyte test results from Proxima™ directly into laboratory information systems and electronic patient records - a key requirement for the successful implementation of Point of Care (POC) testing. (healthmanagement.org)
  • For reference on specific blood gas testing solutions, immunoassay testing , transcutaneous monitoring , samplers , POC data management systems, QC and services available in specific markets, please go to Radiometer Medical's global corporate website www.radiometer.com . (radiometer.com.au)
  • Radiometer is a Danish multinational company which develops, manufactures and markets solutions for blood sampling, blood gas analysis, transcutaneous monitoring, immunoassay testing and the related IT management systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The company offers a range of products and solutions for: Blood Gas Testing Neonatal Monitoring Immunoassay Testing Transcutaneous Monitoring Point-of-Care Data Management Blood sampling Diabetes (via HemoCue) Hemoglobin Testing (via HemoCue) Quality Control Its products and solutions are covered by over 95 patents and patent applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was killed by breathing in cyanide gas through the compressor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans try to exterminate vampire bats by blowing up their caves with dynamite, gassing caves with cyanide gas, or coating caves with a toxic anticoagulant. (wikipedia.org)
  • To study the effect of Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT) on serum BNP, IL-34, hs-CRP and blood gas analysis index in acute myocardial infarction patients with cardiac insufficiency. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Blood gas analysis index, urea nitrogen, creatinine and heart rhythm index were recorded before and after CRRT and serum BNP, IL-34 and hs-CRP were measured after 12 h, 24 h and 48 h respectively. (alliedacademies.org)
  • It can not only stabilize internal environment, improve cardiac failure and blood gas analysis index in a short time, but also decrease serum BNP, IL-34, hs-CRP, so as to help patients pass dangerous period and improve the prognosis. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The complications are hepatic encephalopathy and impaired protein synthesis (as measured by the levels of serum albumin and the prothrombin time in the blood). (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood gas analysis is performed to measure levels of acid-base (pH) to find out when it is too acidic blood (acidosis) or alkaline (alkalosis), as well as to find out whether the pressure of the oxygen in the blood is too low (hypoxia), or carbon dioxide is too high (hypercarbia). (bangringo.com)
  • Sutoto S, Sunoto S, M. B, Sutejo S. Blood Gas Analysis (Astrup) in Children suffering from Gastroenteritis dehydration with Acidosis. (paediatricaindonesiana.org)
  • The term acidemia describes the state of low blood pH, while acidosis is used to describe the processes leading to these states. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electron ionization (EI, formerly known as electron impact ionization and electron bombardment ionization) is an ionization method in which energetic electrons interact with solid or gas phase atoms or molecules to produce ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • This happens because cationic analysis is based on the solubility products of the ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ions formed are directed to the mass spectrometer inlet by both the gas flow and a slight vacuum in the spectrometer inlet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ion mobility methods separate ions into different groups based on their ability to move through an electrically-charged buffer gas. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recent techniques enable researchers to track transitions in the conformations of macromolecular ions during the gas phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In August 22, 2000, Smith demonstrated and patented the electrodynamic ion funnel for highly efficient capture and focusing of ions in gases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arterial blood gas tensions and lung function during acute responses to hemp dust. (cdc.gov)
  • Results indicate that hemp exposure causes changes in both gas exchange and lung mechanics. (cdc.gov)
  • They are often used for patient diagnostics such as lung function testing or blood gas analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infants can acquire lung infections before birth by breathing infected amniotic fluid or through a blood-borne infection which crossed the placenta. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the presence of most forms of lung disease, and some forms of congenital heart disease (the cyanotic lesions) the difference between arterial blood and expired gas increases and can exceed 1 kPa. (wikipedia.org)
  • in general there are obstructive conditions such as bronchitis, emphysema and asthma, in which the mixing of gases within the lung is affected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conditions such as pulmonary embolism and congenital heart disease, which affect perfusion of the lung, do not, in themselves, affect the shape of the curve, but greatly affect the relationship between expired CO 2 and arterial blood CO 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are also conditions that complicate the nurse or doctor to take a blood sample from the arterial duct, for example when the patient is less cooperative, had a weak pulse, or tremor. (bangringo.com)
  • Your provider will monitor your vital signs (temperature, pulse, rate of breathing, and blood pressure). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Other vital signs such as pulse, heart rate, blood pressure, and movement are indirect indicators of consciousness, and when these are combined with expired gas analysis of inhalational anaesthetic agents, an experienced anaesthetist can be confident a patient is unconscious and not aware of their surroundings. (wikipedia.org)
  • the most common gas tensions measured are oxygen tension (PxO2), the carbon dioxide tension (PxCO2) and carbon monoxide tension (PxCO). (wikipedia.org)
  • Arterial carbon monoxide tension (normal) PaCO - Partial pressure of CO at sea level (765 mmHg) in arterial blood is approximately 0.02. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air. (wikipedia.org)
  • During World War II, a gas mixture including carbon monoxide was used to keep motor vehicles running in parts of the world where gasoline and diesel fuel were scarce. (wikipedia.org)
  • External (with a few exceptions) charcoal or wood gas generators were fitted, and the mixture of atmospheric nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and small amounts of other gases produced by gasification was piped to a gas mixer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbon monoxide was also used on a large scale during the Holocaust at some Nazi German extermination camps, the most notable by gas vans in Chełmno, and in the Action T4 "euthanasia" program. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coal gas, which was widely used before the 1960s for domestic lighting, cooking, and heating, had carbon monoxide as a significant fuel constituent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbon monoxide has a molar mass of 28.0, which, according to the ideal gas law, makes it slightly less dense than air, whose average molar mass is 28.8. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrogen dioxide poisoning is not harmful to all forms of life just like "chlorine gas poisoning" and carbon monoxide poisoning. (wikipedia.org)
  • The symptoms of acute nitrogen dioxide poisoning is non-specific and have a semblance with ammonia gas poisoning, chlorine gas poisoning, and carbon monoxide poisoning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods: Venous blood was collected from nine healthy volunteers in sodium heparin tubes and divided in two aliquots of 3 mL. (univr.it)
  • This course uses computer-based methods for the analysis of large-scale structural systems. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Breath gas analysis consists of the analysis of volatile organic compounds, for example in blood alcohol testing, and various analytical methods can be applied. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, several other thermally stable and volatile compounds in solid, liquid and gas states can be detected with the use of this technique when coupled with various separation methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Determination of Nitrogen In 1833, Dumas developed a method for estimating the amount of nitrogen in an organic compound, founding modern analysis methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clemmer develops scientific instruments and methods for the examination of biomolecular structure and complex biomolecular mixtures in the gas phase using ion-mobility spectrometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clemmer's work on gas-phase separation methods for ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) and their application to the structural analysis of intact proteins is considered a "particularly important milestone" in the application of IM-MS to the examination of biomolecular structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • These methods are often used indiscriminately because locals may not know how to distinguish vampire bats from other bats, or may mistakenly believe that all bats drink blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, from this moment onwards the umbilical cord blood, if it remains in continuity with placenta, will demonstrate progressive change in acid-base status due to ongoing placental metabolism and gas exchange. (bmj.com)
  • 6 These changes are not observed if the cord is doubly clamped at birth, isolating a segment of cord blood from both the placenta and the environment. (bmj.com)
  • Blood sampling may be achieved with more ease if the placenta is in the anterior position. (wikipedia.org)
  • Placental insufficiency or utero-placental insufficiency is the failure of the placenta to deliver sufficient nutrients to the fetus during pregnancy, and is often a result of insufficient blood flow to the placenta. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through three educational videos, you'll experience why blood gas analysis is important in three critical patient cases covering COPD, intoxication and sepsis. (radiometer.com.au)
  • ARDS may be seen in the setting of severe pulmonary (pneumonia) or systemic infection (sepsis), following trauma, multiple blood transfusions (TRALI), severe burns, severe inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), near-drowning or other aspiration events, drug reactions, or inhalation injuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Download the free guide on blood gases and other critical parameters in acute care testing. (radiometer.com.au)
  • Several conditions may evoke blood pressure elevation: acute nephritis, eclampsia, crises in chronic essential hypertension, sudden withdrawal of antihypertensive treatment. (wikipedia.org)